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Sample records for main sequence mass

  1. Main sequence mass loss and the ages of stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willson, L. A.

    1989-01-01

    The potentially observable consequences of the pulsation/rotation-induced mass loss from main-sequence A and F stars proposed by Willson et al. (1987) are discussed, reviewing the results of recent investigations. Particular attention is given to (1) evidence for a deficiency in A stars and an excess of F and G stars, as predicted by the theory, (2) cluster HR diagrams and age estimates, and (3) modifications to standard models of solar-system evolution. It is pointed out that the time scales and mass-loss rates required to explain the observed properties of clusters and field stars in this theory are the same as those needed to account for the early development of the solar system.

  2. Exploring The Wide Main Sequence of Low Mass Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pewett, Tiffany; Henry, T. J.; Hosey, A. D.; Jao, W.; Lepine, S.; Riedel, A. R.; Winters, J. G.; RECONS Team

    2014-01-01

    The RECONS (REsearch Consortium On Nearby Stars, www.recons.org) team has compiled photometric and astrometric data on over 3000 stars with trigonometric parallaxes placing them within 25 parsecs, allowing for an accurate representation of the H-R Diagram from A stars through M stars. We find that the main sequence is widest, by up to 2.5 full magnitudes in Mv, in the region of low mass K and M dwarf stars. This corresponds to a factor of almost 10 in luminosity among stars of the same temperature, but a detailed understanding of the causes of this range remains elusive. Given that temperature and radius determine the observed luminosity of a star, stars with identical temperatures must have radii differing by up to a factor of three to account for the width of the main sequence. In order to determine the underlying causes of the different radii, we have embarked on a project to measure the variability, rotation, ages, and metallicities of a large sample of the nearest low mass stars. We are comparing these stars to known young stars and cool subdwarfs in the same temperature slices to map the complex interplay of these many factors. Here we present our initial findings from the photometric variability data and first spectroscopic results. This effort is supported by the NSF through grants AST-0908402 and AST-1109445, and via observations made possible by the SMARTS Consortium.

  3. Mass loss in main-sequence A-type stars?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanz, T.; Catala, C.

    1992-04-01

    We present new observations of the H-alpha line profile for five main-sequence A-type stars, where very high SNRs were achieved. A search for weak asymmetries was carried out to detect a stellar wind, but the many telluric absorption lines in this range prevent us from taking the full benefit of the high SNRs. This situation was improved by modeling the telluric absorptions to remove them from the observed spectra, but the H-alpha profiles were nevertheless found to be quite symmetric. We calculated the profile of the H-alpha line for a grid of model atmospheres of an A-type star including a weak wind, in order to assess an upper limit on the mass loss rate. The asymmetry is found to be sensitive to the velocity law and to the turbulent velocity of the wind, but its first moment depends much less on them. The upper limits deduced on the mass loss rate are between 1 and 2 x 10 exp -10 solar mass/yr. An improvement up to a factor 10 could be anticipated if new observations could be secured from a much drier location, achieving similar SNRs.

  4. The circumstellar environments of intermediate mass main sequence stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grady, Carol A.

    1993-01-01

    Analysis of archival Infrared Astronomy Satellite (IRAS) and International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) data resulted in identification of accreting gas toward a 2.8 Myr post-Herbig Be star in the R CrA star formation region, and identification of accreting gas toward HD 93563, previously identified as a classical Be star. Accreting gas was also detected toward two B(e) stars of previously controversial evolutionary state, resulting in identification of these systems as pre-Main Sequence Herbig Be stars viewed edge-on to their circumstellar disks. In parallel with this effort, accreting gas was detected toward the Herbig Ae star HR 5999, resulting in development of identification criteria for edge-on PMS proto-planetary disk systems. The work on individual stars is described.

  5. Reevaluating the Mass-Radius Relation for Low-mass, Main-sequence Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feiden, Gregory A.; Chaboyer, Brian

    2012-09-01

    We examine the agreement between the observed and theoretical low-mass (<0.8 M ⊙) stellar main-sequence mass-radius relationship by comparing detached eclipsing binary (DEB) data with a new, large grid of stellar evolution models. The new grid allows for a realistic variation in the age and metallicity of the DEB population, characteristic of the local galactic neighborhood. Overall, our models do a reasonable job of reproducing the observational data. A large majority of the models match the observed stellar radii to within 4%, with a mean absolute error of 2.3%. These results represent a factor of two improvement compared to previous examinations of the low-mass mass-radius relationship. The improved agreement between models and observations brings the radius deviations within the limits imposed by potential starspot-related uncertainties for 92% of the stars in our DEB sample.

  6. Dust discs around low-mass main-sequence stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolstencroft, R. D.; Walker, Helen J.

    1988-01-01

    The current understanding of the formation of circumstellar disks as a natural accompaniment to the process of low-mass star formation is examined. Models of the thermal emission from the dust disks around the prototype stars Alpha Lyr, Alpha PsA, Beta Pic, and Epsilon Eri are discussed, which indicate that the central regions of three of these disks are almost devoid of dust within radii ranging between 17 and 26 AU, with the temperature of the hottest zone lying between about 115 and 210 K. One possible explanation of the dust-free zones is the presence of a planet at the inner boundary of each cloud which sweeps up grains crossing its orbit.

  7. Main-Sequence Effective Temperatures from a Revised Mass-Luminosity Relation Based on Accurate Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eker, Z.; Soydugan, F.; Soydugan, E.; Bilir, S.; Yaz Gökçe, E.; Steer, I.; Tüysüz, M.; Şenyüz, T.; Demircan, O.

    2015-04-01

    The mass-luminosity (M-L), mass-radius (M-R), and mass-effective temperature (M-{{T}eff}) diagrams for a subset of galactic nearby main-sequence stars with masses and radii accurate to ≤slant 3% and luminosities accurate to ≤slant 30% (268 stars) has led to a putative discovery. Four distinct mass domains have been identified, which we have tentatively associated with low, intermediate, high, and very high mass main-sequence stars, but which nevertheless are clearly separated by three distinct break points at 1.05, 2.4, and 7 {{M}⊙ } within the studied mass range of 0.38-32 {{M}⊙ }. Further, a revised mass-luminosity relation (MLR) is found based on linear fits for each of the mass domains identified. The revised, mass-domain based MLRs, which are classical (L\\propto {{M}α }), are shown to be preferable to a single linear, quadratic, or cubic equation representing an alternative MLR. Stellar radius evolution within the main sequence for stars with M\\gt 1 {{M}⊙ } is clearly evident on the M-R diagram, but it is not clear on the M-{{T}eff} diagram based on published temperatures. Effective temperatures can be calculated directly using the well known Stephan-Boltzmann law by employing the accurately known values of M and R with the newly defined MLRs. With the calculated temperatures, stellar temperature evolution within the main sequence for stars with M\\gt 1 {{M}⊙ } is clearly visible on the M-{{T}eff} diagram. Our study asserts that it is now possible to compute the effective temperature of a main-sequence star with an accuracy of ˜6%, as long as its observed radius error is adequately small (\\lt 1%) and its observed mass error is reasonably small (\\lt 6%).

  8. The Main Sequence Luminosity Function of Low-Mass Globular Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Graeme

    2009-07-01

    Theoretical work indicates that the dynamical evolution of globular clusters of low mass and low central concentration is strongly determined by mass-loss processes, such as stellar evaporation and tidal stripping, that can eventually lead to cluster dissolution. In fact, mass loss and cluster disruption is now considered to be a viable explanation for the form of the faint end of the Milky Way globular cluster luminosity function. A clear observational demonstration of the prevalence of cluster mass-loss would have ramifications not only for the dynamical evolution of individual globular clusters and their internal stellar mass distributions, but also for the relationships between halo field and cluster stars and the properties of globular cluster systems in galaxies. Our previous WFPC2 imaging of the low-mass diffuse halo cluster Palomar 5 revealed a main sequence deficient in stars compared to other low-concentration globular clusters of much higher mass, consistent with there having been a considerable loss of stars from this system. But is Pal 5 typical of low-mass, low-concentration halo clusters? We propose to place the mass-loss scenario on a firm observational footing {or otherwise} by using WFC3 imaging to measure the main-sequence stellar mass functions of two of the lowest-mass lowest-concentration globular clusters in the Milky Way, AM-4 and Palomar 13, in order to search for analogous evidence of stellar depletion.

  9. Masses of Pre-Main Sequence Binary Stars-Part 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, Michal

    1991-07-01

    There are still no pre-main sequence stars with reliably known masses. This represents a serious gap in our understanding of low-mass star formation. The goal of this long-term program is to measure the masses of pre-main sequence binaries selected from our survey (ref. 3) of the Taurus star forming region by IR lunar occultation and imaging. We propose to use the Fine Guide Sensors in the Transfer Function Mode to determine the apparent orbits of the binaries. Since the distance to the region is known, the apparent orbits will yield the total masses of the binaries. THIS PROPOSAL CONTAINS ONE FOLLOW-UP VISIT TO HV-TAU-C ONLY. THE REST OF THE EXPOSURES ARE IN 3842.

  10. The faintest stars - The luminosity and mass functions at the bottom of the main sequence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tinney, Christopher G.

    1993-01-01

    We present IR K-band photometry of complete samples of VLM candidates constructed from IIIaF and IVN plates in 10 fields taken as part of the POSSII and UKSRC surveys. Using the I-K colors constructed for these stars we estimate a bolometric luminosity function which extends to M(Bol) = 13.75. We find significant evidence for a luminosity function decreasing toward these luminosities. We also find that our results are consistent with those of studies based on the Nearby Star sample, when those data are presented as a bolometric luminosity function. We convert our observed luminosity function into a mass function, which extends with reasonable statistics to 0.08 solar masses - the H-burning minimum mass. We find significant evidence for features in the mass function at these masses. Specifically, the mass function 'turns over' at 0.25 solar mass, goes through a local minimum at about 0.15 solar mass, and may increase again below 0.1 solar mass - none of these features are predicted by any of the current theories of star formation. Lastly, the mass density we observe just above the H-burning minimum mass makes it difficult to envisage brown dwarfs contributing significant quantities of missing mass without invoking either a mass function in this region significantly steeper than that seen for main-sequence stars, or an extremely low cutoff mass to the mass function.

  11. Effects of main-sequence mass loss on the turnoff ages of population 1 clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Guzik, J.A.

    1989-01-01

    Willson, Bowen, and Struck-Marcell have proposed that stars of spectral types A through early-G lose a significant portion of their mass during the early main-sequence phase. The proposed mass loss is driven by pulsation, and facilitated by rapid rotation. One implication of this hypothesis is that the main-sequence turnoff is an invalid indicator of cluster age, as present turnoff stars may have had higher projenitor masses; hence clusters appear older than they actually are. This paper presents examples of cluster HR diagrams synthesized with mass-losing stars of solar metallicity, initial masses 1-2 M/sub /circ dot//, and exponentially-decreasing mass-loss rates with e-folding times 1-2 Gyr. The increases in apparent turnoff age of Pop. I clusters, and the potential of the hypothesis to account for blue stragglers as normal stars that have not lost mass (or lost mass more slowly) are discussed. 9 refs., 6 figs.

  12. Dynamical Estimate of Post-main-sequence Stellar Masses in 47 Tucanae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parada, Javiera; Richer, Harvey; Heyl, Jeremy; Kalirai, Jason; Goldsbury, Ryan

    2016-07-01

    We use the effects of mass segregation on the radial distribution of different stellar populations in the core of 47 Tucanae to find estimates for the masses of stars at different post-main-sequence evolutionary stages. We take samples of main-sequence (MS) stars from the core of 47 Tucanae, at different magnitudes (i.e., different masses), and use the effects of this dynamical process to develop a relation between the radial distance (RD) at which the cumulative distribution reaches the 20th and 50th percentile and stellar mass. From these relations we estimate the masses of different post-MS populations. We find that mass remains constant for stars going through the evolutionary stages from the upper MS up to the horizontal branch (HB). By comparing RDs of the HB stars with stars of lower masses, we can exclude a mass loss greater than 0.09 {M}ȯ during the red giant branch (RGB) stage at nearly the 3σ level. The slightly higher mass estimates for the asymptotic giant branch (AGB) are consistent with the AGB having evolved from somewhat more massive stars. The AGB also exhibits evidence of contamination by more massive stars, possibly blue straggler stars (BSSs), going through the RGB phase. We do not include the BSSs in this paper due to the complexity of these objects; instead, the complete analysis of this population is left for a companion paper. The process to estimate the masses described in this paper is exclusive to the core of 47 Tuc.

  13. The coronal temperatures of low-mass main-sequence stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnstone, C. P.; Güdel, M.

    2015-06-01

    Aims: We study the X-ray emission of low-mass main-sequence stars to derive a reliable general scaling law between coronal temperature and the level of X-ray activity. Methods: We collect ROSAT measurements of hardness ratios and X-ray luminosities for a large sample of stars to derive which stellar X-ray emission parameter is most closely correlated with coronal temperature. We calculate average coronal temperatures for a sample of 24 low-mass main-sequence stars with measured emission measure distributions (EMDs) collected from the literature. These EMDs are based on high-resolution X-ray spectra measured by XMM-Newton and Chandra. Results: We confirm that there is one universal scaling relation between coronal average temperature and surface X-ray flux, FX, that applies to all low-mass main-sequence stars. We find that coronal temperature is related to FX by T̅cor = 0.11 FX0.26, where T̅cor is in MK and FX is in erg s-1 cm-2.

  14. The effect of starspots on the radii of low-mass pre-main-sequence stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, R. J.; Jeffries, R. D.

    2014-07-01

    A polytropic model is used to investigate the effects of dark photospheric spots on the evolution and radii of magnetically active, low-mass (M < 0.5 M⊙), pre-main-sequence (PMS) stars. Spots slow the contraction along Hayashi tracks and inflate the radii of PMS stars by a factor of (1 - β)-N compared to unspotted stars of the same luminosity, where β is the equivalent covering fraction of dark starspots and N ≃ 0.45 ± 0.05. This is a much stronger inflation than predicted by Spruit & Weiss for main-sequence stars with the same β, where N ˜ 0.2-0.3. These models have been compared to radii determined for very magnetically active K- and M-dwarfs in the young Pleiades and NGC 2516 clusters, and the radii of tidally locked, low-mass eclipsing binary components. The binary components and zero-age main-sequence K-dwarfs have radii inflated by ˜10 per cent compared to an empirical radius-luminosity relation that is defined by magnetically inactive field dwarfs with interferometrically measured radii; low-mass M-type PMS stars, that are still on their Hayashi tracks, are inflated by up to ˜40 per cent. If this were attributable to starspots alone, we estimate that an effective spot coverage of 0.35 < β < 0.51 is required. Alternatively, global inhibition of convective flux transport by dynamo-generated fields may play a role. However, we find greater consistency with the starspot models when comparing the loci of active young stars and inactive field stars in colour-magnitude diagrams, particularly for the highly inflated PMS stars, where the large, uniform temperature reduction required in globally inhibited convection models would cause the stars to be much redder than observed.

  15. Angular momentum transport efficiency in post-main sequence low-mass stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spada, F.; Gellert, M.; Arlt, R.; Deheuvels, S.

    2016-05-01

    Context. Using asteroseismic techniques, it has recently become possible to probe the internal rotation profile of low-mass (≈1.1-1.5 M⊙) subgiant and red giant stars. Under the assumption of local angular momentum conservation, the core contraction and envelope expansion occurring at the end of the main sequence would result in a much larger internal differential rotation than observed. This suggests that angular momentum redistribution must be taking place in the interior of these stars. Aims: We investigate the physical nature of the angular momentum redistribution mechanisms operating in stellar interiors by constraining the efficiency of post-main sequence rotational coupling. Methods: We model the rotational evolution of a 1.25M⊙ star using the Yale Rotational stellar Evolution Code. Our models take into account the magnetic wind braking occurring at the surface of the star and the angular momentum transport in the interior, with an efficiency dependent on the degree of internal differential rotation. Results: We find that models including a dependence of the angular momentum transport efficiency on the radial rotational shear reproduce very well the observations. The best fit of the data is obtained with an angular momentum transport coefficient scaling with the ratio of the rotation rate of the radiative interior over that of the convective envelope of the star as a power law of exponent ≈3. This scaling is consistent with the predictions of recent numerical simulations of the Azimuthal Magneto-Rotational Instability. Conclusions: We show that an angular momentum transport process whose efficiency varies during the stellar evolution through a dependence on the level of internal differential rotation is required to explain the observed post-main sequence rotational evolution of low-mass stars.

  16. The Impact of Starspots on Mass and Age Estimates for Pre-main Sequence Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Somers, Garrett; Pinsonneault, Marc H.

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the impact of starspots on the evolution of late-type stars during the pre-main sequence (pre-MS). We find that heavy spot coverage increases the radii of stars by 4-10%, consistent with inflation factors in eclipsing binary systems, and suppresses the rate of pre-MS lithium depletion, leading to a dispersion in zero-age MS Li abundance (comparable to observed spreads) if a range of spot properties exist within clusters from 3-10 Myr. This concordance with data implies that spots induce a range of radii at fixed mass during the pre-MS. These spots decrease the luminosity and T eff of stars, leading to a displacement on the HR diagram. This displacement causes isochrone derived masses and ages to be systematically under-estimated, and can lead to the spurious appearance of an age spread in a co-eval population.

  17. Extended main sequence turn-offs in low mass intermediate-age clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piatti, Andrés E.; Bastian, Nate

    2016-05-01

    We present an imaging analysis of four low mass stellar clusters (≲5000 M⊙) in the outer regions of the LMC in order to shed light on the extended main sequence turn-off (eMSTO) phenomenon observed in high mass clusters. The four clusters have ages between 1-2 Gyr and two of them appear to host eMTSOs. The discovery of eMSTOs in such low mass clusters - more than 5 times less massive than the eMSTO clusters previously studied - suggests that mass is not the controlling factor in whether clusters host eMSTOs. Additionally, the narrow extent of the eMSTO in the two older clusters (~2 Gyr) is in agreement with predictions of the stellar rotation scenario, as lower mass stars are expected to be magnetically braked, meaning that their colour magnitude diagrams should be better reproduced by canonical simple stellar populations. We also performed a structural analysis on all the clusters and found that a large core radius is not a requisite for a cluster to exhibit an eMSTO. Full Table 2, and Tables 3-5 are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/590/A50

  18. Is main-sequence galaxy star formation controlled by halo mass accretion?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez-Puebla, Aldo; Primack, Joel R.; Behroozi, Peter; Faber, S. M.

    2016-01-01

    The galaxy stellar-to-halo mass relation (SHMR) is nearly time-independent for z < 4. We therefore construct a time-independent SHMR model for central galaxies, wherein the in situ star formation rate (SFR) is determined by the halo mass accretion rate (MAR), which we call stellar halo accretion rate coevolution (SHARC). We show that the ˜0.3 dex dispersion of the halo MAR matches the observed dispersion of the SFR on the star formation main sequence (MS). In the context of `bathtub'-type models of galaxy formation, SHARC leads to mass-dependent constraints on the relation between SFR and MAR. Despite its simplicity and the simplified treatment of mass growth from mergers, the SHARC model is likely to be a good approximation for central galaxies with M* = 109-1010.5 M⊙ that are on the MS, representing most of the star formation in the Universe. SHARC predictions agree with observed SFRs for galaxies on the MS at low redshifts, agree fairly well at z ˜ 4, but exceed observations at z ≳ 4. Assuming that the interstellar gas mass is constant for each galaxy (the `equilibrium condition' in bathtub models), the SHARC model allows calculation of net mass loading factors for inflowing and outflowing gas. With assumptions about preventive feedback based on simulations, SHARC allows calculation of galaxy metallicity evolution. If galaxy SFRs indeed track halo MARs, especially at low redshifts, that may help explain the success of models linking galaxy properties to haloes (including age-matching) and the similarities between two-halo galaxy conformity and halo mass accretion conformity.

  19. The star formation main sequence and stellar mass assembly of galaxies in the Illustris simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sparre, Martin; Hayward, Christopher C.; Springel, Volker; Vogelsberger, Mark; Genel, Shy; Torrey, Paul; Nelson, Dylan; Sijacki, Debora; Hernquist, Lars

    2015-03-01

    Understanding the physical processes that drive star formation is a key challenge for galaxy formation models. In this paper, we study the tight correlation between the star formation rate (SFR) and stellar mass of galaxies at a given redshift, how halo growth influences star formation, and star formation histories of individual galaxies. We study these topics using Illustris, a state-of-the-art cosmological hydrodynamical simulation of galaxy formation. Illustris reproduces the observed relation (the star formation main sequence, SFMS) between SFR and stellar mass at redshifts z = 0 and 4, but at intermediate redshifts of z ≃ 1-2, the simulated SFMS has a significantly lower normalization than reported by observations. The scatter in the relation is consistent with the observed scatter. However, the fraction of outliers above the SFR-stellar mass relation in Illustris is less than that observed. Galaxies with halo masses of ˜1012 M⊙ dominate the SFR density of the Universe, in agreement with the results of abundance matching. Furthermore, more-massive galaxies tend to form the bulk of their stars at high redshift, which indicates that `downsizing' occurs in Illustris. We also studied the star formation histories of individual galaxies, including the use of a principal component analysis decomposition. We find that for fixed stellar mass, galaxies that form earlier have more-massive black holes at z = 0, indicating that star formation and black hole growth are tightly linked processes in Illustris. While many of the properties of normal star-forming galaxies are well reproduced in the Illustris simulation, forming a realistic population of starbursts will likely require higher resolution and probably a more sophisticated treatment of star formation and feedback from stars and black holes.

  20. The discovery of low-mass pre-main-sequence stars in Cepheus OB3b

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pozzo, M.; Naylor, T.; Jeffries, R. D.; Drew, J. E.

    2003-05-01

    We report the discovery of a low-mass pre-main-sequence (PMS) stellar population in the younger subgroup of the Cepheus OB3 association, Cep OB3b, using UBVI CCD photometry and follow-up spectroscopy. The optical survey covers approximately 1300 arcmin2 on the sky and gives a global photometric and astrometric catalogue for more than 7000 objects. The location of a PMS population is well defined in a V versus (V-I) colour-magnitude diagram. Multifibre spectroscopic results for optically selected PMS candidates confirm the T Tauri nature for 10 objects, with equal numbers of classical TTS (CTTS) and weak-line TTS (WTTS). There are six other objects that we classify as possible PMS stars. The newly discovered TTS stars have masses in the range ~0.9-3.0 Msolar and ages from <1 to nearly 10 Myr, based on the Siess, Dufour & Forestini isochrones. Their location close to the O and B stars of the association (especially the O7n star) demonstrates that low-mass star formation is indeed possible in such an apparently hostile environment dominated by early-type stars and that the latter must have been less effective in eroding the circumstellar discs of their lower-mass siblings compared with other OB associations (e.g. λ-Ori). We attribute this to the nature of the local environment, speculating that the bulk of molecular material, which shielded low-mass stars from the ionizing radiation of their early-type siblings, has only recently been removed.

  1. Habitable Zones Around Main-Sequence Stars: Dependence on Planetary Mass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kopparapu, Ravi Kumar; Ramirez, Ramses M.; Kotte, James Schottel; Kasting, James F.; Domagal-Goldman, Shawn; Eymet, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    The ongoing discoveries of extra-solar planets are unveiling a wide range of terrestrial mass (size) planets around their host stars. In this Letter, we present estimates of habitable zones (HZs) around stars with stellar effective temperatures in the range 2600 K-7200 K, for planetary masses between 0.1M and 5M. Assuming H2O-(inner HZ) and CO2-(outer HZ) dominated atmospheres, and scaling the background N2 atmospheric pressure with the radius of the planet, our results indicate that larger planets have wider HZs than do smaller ones. Specifically, with the assumption that smaller planets will have less dense atmospheres, the inner edge of the HZ (runaway greenhouse limit) moves outward (approx.10% lower than Earth flux) for low mass planets due to larger greenhouse effect arising from the increased H2O column depth. For larger planets, the H2O column depth is smaller, and higher temperatures are needed before water vapor completely dominates the outgoing long-wave radiation. Hence the inner edge moves inward (approx.7% higher than Earth's flux). The outer HZ changes little due to the competing effects of the greenhouse effect and an increase in albedo. New, three-dimensional climate model results from other groups are also summarized, and we argue that further, independent studies are needed to verify their predictions. Combined with our previous work, the results presented here provide refined estimates of HZs around main-sequence stars and provide a step toward a more comprehensive analysis of HZs.

  2. HABITABLE ZONES AROUND MAIN-SEQUENCE STARS: DEPENDENCE ON PLANETARY MASS

    SciTech Connect

    Kopparapu, Ravi Kumar; Ramirez, Ramses M.; Kasting, James F.; SchottelKotte, James; Domagal-Goldman, Shawn; Eymet, Vincent

    2014-06-01

    The ongoing discoveries of extra-solar planets are unveiling a wide range of terrestrial mass (size) planets around their host stars. In this Letter, we present estimates of habitable zones (HZs) around stars with stellar effective temperatures in the range 2600 K-7200 K, for planetary masses between 0.1 M {sub ⊕} and 5 M {sub ⊕}. Assuming H{sub 2}O-(inner HZ) and CO{sub 2}-(outer HZ) dominated atmospheres, and scaling the background N{sub 2} atmospheric pressure with the radius of the planet, our results indicate that larger planets have wider HZs than do smaller ones. Specifically, with the assumption that smaller planets will have less dense atmospheres, the inner edge of the HZ (runaway greenhouse limit) moves outward (∼10% lower than Earth flux) for low mass planets due to larger greenhouse effect arising from the increased H{sub 2}O column depth. For larger planets, the H{sub 2}O column depth is smaller, and higher temperatures are needed before water vapor completely dominates the outgoing longwave radiation. Hence the inner edge moves inward (∼7% higher than Earth's flux). The outer HZ changes little due to the competing effects of the greenhouse effect and an increase in albedo. New, three-dimensional climate model results from other groups are also summarized, and we argue that further, independent studies are needed to verify their predictions. Combined with our previous work, the results presented here provide refined estimates of HZs around main-sequence stars and provide a step toward a more comprehensive analysis of HZs.

  3. Standard pre-main sequence models of low-mass stars

    SciTech Connect

    Prada Moroni, P. G.; Degl'Innocenti, S.; Tognelli, E.

    2014-05-09

    The main characteristics of standard pre-main sequence (PMS) models are described. A discussion of the uncer-tainties affecting the current generation of PMS evolutionary tracks and isochrones is also provided. In particular, the impact of the uncertainties in the adopted equation of state, radiative opacity, nuclear cross sections, and initial chemical abundances are analysed.

  4. A theoretical study of acoustic glitches in low-mass main-sequence stars

    SciTech Connect

    Verma, Kuldeep; Antia, H. M.; Basu, Sarbani; Mazumdar, Anwesh E-mail: antia@tifr.res.in E-mail: anwesh@tifr.res.in

    2014-10-20

    There are regions in stars, such as ionization zones and the interface between radiative and convective regions, that cause a localized sharp variation in the sound speed. These are known as 'acoustic glitches'. Acoustic glitches leave their signatures on the oscillation frequencies of stars, and hence these signatures can be used as diagnostics of these regions. In particular, the signatures of these glitches can be used as diagnostics for the position of the second helium ionization zone and that of the base of the envelope convection zone. With the help of stellar models, we study the properties of these acoustic glitches in main-sequence stars. We find that the acoustic glitch due to the helium ionization zone does not correspond to the dip in the adiabatic index Γ{sub 1} caused by the ionization of He II, but to the peak in Γ{sub 1} between the He I and He II ionization zones. We find that it is easiest to study the acoustic glitch that is due to the helium ionization zone in stars with masses in the range 0.9-1.2 M {sub ☉}.

  5. The naked T Tauri stars - The low-mass pre-main sequence unveiled

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walter, Frederick M.

    1987-01-01

    The search for low-mass premain-sequence (PMS) stars associated with X-ray sources in regions of star formation is discussed. The survey to date has revealed at least 30 low-mass PMS stars in the Tau-Aur region, and a comparable number in Oph. These stars are the naked T Tau stars, unveiled versions of the well-known classical T Tau stars. The properties of these newly discovered PMS stars and their relation to the classical T Tau stars are discussed, and it is concluded that the naked T Tau stars are the true low-mass PMS stars, and that the observable characteristics defining the classical T Tau stars are due to the interaction of an underlying, fairly normal star with a dominant circumstellar environment. The impact the naked T Tau stars are likely to have on models of the PMS evolution of low-mass stars is considered.

  6. A New Semi-Empirical Technique For Computing Effective Temperatures For Main Sequence Stars From Their Mass And Radii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aslan, Gürkan; Soydugan, Faruk; Eker, Zeki; Bilir, Selçuk; Bakış, Volkan

    2016-07-01

    A semi-empirical technique of improving effective temperature for main sequence stars from their observed mass and radius based on the Stefan-Boltzmann law, was introduced and applied to 450 main-sequence stars with accurate parameters. The method requires a mass-luminosity relation (MLR) and theoretical predictions of radius and effective temperature for stars at zero age main-sequence and at terminal age main-sequence. The MLRs, which act as if a catalyst, are necessary but have no effect on the final result. The present sample of main-sequence stars, which are members of the detached double-lined eclipsing binaries in the solar neighborhood chosen from Eker et al. (2014), have an error histogram for the observed effective temperatures with a peak at 2-3%. Errors of refined effective temperatures by the present method are the propagated errors of the observed masses and radii, that is, the refined temperatures and associated errors are independent of the observational temperatures and their associated errors. The histogram of the refined temperature errors shows a peak at less than 1%. A refined sample of stars (270 out of 450) with masses and radii accurate up to 3% and their refined effective temperatures has been used in this study to improve the classical MLRs. One may prefer, however, to use improved classical MLRs, which allows one to compute effective temperatures as accurate as 3.5%.

  7. Adiabatic Mass Loss in Binary Stars. II. From Zero-age Main Sequence to the Base of the Giant Branch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Hongwei; Webbink, Ronald F.; Chen, Xuefei; Han, Zhanwen

    2015-10-01

    In the limit of extremely rapid mass transfer, the response of a donor star in an interacting binary becomes asymptotically one of adiabatic expansion. We survey here adiabatic mass loss from Population I stars (Z = 0.02) of mass 0.10 M⊙-100 M⊙ from the zero-age main sequence to the base of the giant branch, or to central hydrogen exhaustion for lower main sequence stars. The logarithmic derivatives of radius with respect to mass along adiabatic mass-loss sequences translate into critical mass ratios for runaway (dynamical timescale) mass transfer, evaluated here under the assumption of conservative mass transfer. For intermediate- and high-mass stars, dynamical mass transfer is preceded by an extended phase of thermal timescale mass transfer as the star is stripped of most of its envelope mass. The critical mass ratio qad (throughout this paper, we follow the convention of defining the binary mass ratio as q ≡ Mdonor/Maccretor) above which this delayed dynamical instability occurs increases with advancing evolutionary age of the donor star, by ever-increasing factors for more massive donors. Most intermediate- or high-mass binaries with nondegenerate accretors probably evolve into contact before manifesting this instability. As they approach the base of the giant branch, however, and begin developing a convective envelope, qad plummets dramatically among intermediate-mass stars, to values of order unity, and a prompt dynamical instability occurs. Among low-mass stars, the prompt instability prevails throughout main sequence evolution, with qad declining with decreasing mass, and asymptotically approaching qad = 2/3, appropriate to a classical isentropic n = 3/2 polytrope. Our calculated qad values agree well with the behavior of time-dependent models by Chen & Han of intermediate-mass stars initiating mass transfer in the Hertzsprung gap. Application of our results to cataclysmic variables, as systems that must be stable against rapid mass transfer, nicely

  8. Mixing by internal waves. II. Li and Be depletion rate in low mass main sequence.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montalban, J.; Schatzman, E.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper we present the results of lithium and beryllium abundances as a function of spectral type provided by the internal wave diffusion coefficient presented by Montalban (1994). The (Li,T_eff_) curves for Hyades and Praesepe clusters obtained after adding the pre-main sequence burning (D'Antona & Mazzitelli 1994) fit satisfactorily the most recent observational data. The Be abundance is also in good agreement with observational estimations.

  9. Three micron spectroscopy of low-mass pre-main-sequence stars

    SciTech Connect

    Sato, Shuji; Nagata, Tetsuya; Tanaka, Masuo; Yamamoto, Tetsuo Kyoto Univ. Tokyo Univ. Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Sagamihara )

    1990-08-01

    Low-resolution spectra were obtained of 16 premain-sequence stars, and ice-band features are detected in young T Tauri stars (TTSs) and in low-mass protostars. The TTSs have an ice band optical depth tau(ice) of 0.1-0.4. The tau(ice) for objects in the Taurus dark cloud decreases progressively from protostars to TTSs. The apparent color temperatures of the continuum spectra are 800-1200 K for protostars and 1100-1500 K for TTSs. The color temperatures of the continuum increase to 1200-2000K after correcting the protostar spectra for foreground extinction. This common temperature range in both young TTSs and protostars suggests that the inner boundary of the circumstellar disk is determined by the sublimation of refractory grains. 39 refs.

  10. A Dynamical Mass Constraint for Pre-Main-Sequence Evolutionary Tracks: The Binary NTT 045251+3016

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steffen, Aaron T.; Mathieu, Robert D.; Lattanzi, Mario G.; Latham, David W.; Mazeh, Tsevi; Prato, L.; Simon, Michal; Zinnecker, Hans; Loreggia, Davide

    2001-08-01

    We present an astrometric-spectroscopic orbital solution for the pre-main-sequence binary NTT 045251+3016. Interferometric observations with the HST Fine Guidance Sensor No. 3 allowed stellar separations as small as 14 mas to be measured. Optical spectra provided 58 radial velocity measurements of the primary star, and near-infrared spectra provided two radial velocity measurements of both the primary and secondary, giving a mass ratio for the binary system. The combination of these data allows the dynamical masses and the distance of the stars to be derived. Our measurements for the primary and secondary masses are 1.45+/-0.19 and 0.81+/-0.09 Msolar, respectively, and 145+/-8 pc for the distance of the system, consistent with prior estimates for the Taurus-Auriga star-forming region. The evolutionary tracks of D'Antona & Mazzitelli, published in 1997, Baraffe et al., published in 1998, and Palla & Stahler, published in 1999, are tested against these dynamical mass measurements. Because of the intrinsic color-Teff variation within the K5 spectral class, each pre-main-sequence model provides a mass range for the primary. The theoretical mass range derived from the Baraffe et al. tracks that use a mixing-length parameter of α=1.0 is closest to our measured primary mass, deviating between 1.3 and 1.6 σ. The set of Baraffe et al. tracks that use α=1.9 deviates between 1.6 and 2.1 σ from our measured primary mass. The mass range given by the Palla & Stahler tracks for the primary star deviate between 1.6 and 2.9 σ. The D'Antona & Mazzitelli tracks give a mass range that deviates by at least 3.0 σ from our derived primary mass, strongly suggesting that these tracks are inconsistent with our observation. Observations of the secondary are less constraining than those of the primary, but the deviations between the dynamical mass of the secondary and the mass inferred for the secondary from the various pre-main-sequence tracks mirror the deviations of the primary star

  11. Probing Stellar Physics at the Bottom of the Main Sequence: Continuing the Pursuit of Dynamical Masses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dieterich, Sergio B.; Henry, Todd J.; Jao, Wei-Chun; Riedel, Adric R.; Tanner, Angelle M.

    2011-02-01

    We propose to continue our Gemini North NIRI/ALTAIR campaign to obtain dynamical masses for nearby binary systems with masses close to the hydrogen burning limit. As a continuation of Gemini program GN-2010B-Q-9 (NOAO 2010B-0341), we propose to obtain resolved JHKs photometry for eight suspected or confirmed Very Low Mass (VLM) binaries. All binaries will eventually yield model independent dynamical masses with both the total mass and the system's mass ratio well constrained by our unique method of combining high resolution imaging with astrometric orbits obtained through our parallax program. All systems are believed to have at least one component whose mass is close to the theoretical hydrogen burning limit of 0.075 Msol. One target has been previously resolved as a binary by this program, and we now request a second epoch to aid in orbital mapping. Four targets have unseen companions for which we have detected new astrometric perturbations. These targets very likely harbor VLM companions. The final three targets show excess flux in our new optical color-magnitude relation. This last group includes a target that is photometrically almost identical to the benchmark L2V binary Kelu 1 AB. This effort constitutes a major component of the PI's doctoral thesis.

  12. Theoretical models of low-mass, pre-main sequence rotating stars. I. The effects on lithium depletion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendes, L. T. S.; D'Antona, F.; Mazzitelli, I.

    1999-01-01

    Rotating stellar models of 1.2 {{Msun}} down to 0.6 {{Msun}} have been computed to investigate the effects of rotation on the lithium depletion of low-mass, pre-main sequence stars. The models were generated under three different rotation laws (rigid body rotation, local conservation of angular momentum over the whole star, and local conservation of angular momentum in radiative zones and rigid body rotation in convective ones), no angular momentum loss and redistribution, and under two prescriptions for convection, namely the mixing length theory [MLT] and the turbulent convection introduced by Canuto & Mazzitelli (1991) [CM]. The general features of the rotating models are compatible with previous results by other authors. As for the lithium depletion, our results show that rotation decreases lithium depletion while the star is fully convective but increases it as soon as the star develops a radiative core, a result which is expected from the theory since rotating stars behave as non-rotating stars of lower mass and so must experience greater lithium depletion. The results hold for all three rotation laws assumed, but are specifically presented here for the case of rigid body rotation. This result shows that other physical mechanisms must play a role on the lithium depletion in the pre-main sequence, in order to explain the observational data on low-mass, pre-main sequence stars such as those from the Pleiades (García López et al. \\cite{gar:94}) and the α-Persei clusters (Balachandran et al. \\cite{bal:88}, \\cite{bal:96}).

  13. Infrared studies of pre-main-sequence intermediate-mass stars - LkH-Alpha 198

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Natta, Antonella; Palla, Francesco; Butner, Harold M.; Evans, Neal J., II; Harvey, Paul M.

    1992-01-01

    The paper presents FIR scans of LkH-Alpha 198 at 50 and 100 microns along several directions; the observations reveal an extended, roughly spherical source diameter of 33 arcsec, or 20,000 AU, at 100 microns and not more than 10 arcsec, or 15,000 AU, at 50 microns. A luminosity of 250 solar luminosities at a distance of 600 pc is estimated on the basis of a comparison of the observed properties at optical, IR, and millimeter wavelengths with the predictions of radiation transfer models. The optical depth at 100 microns is 0.004-0.006, implying a mass of about 2 solar masses with a radius of 10,000 AU. It is argued that the inner radius of the dusty envelope is rather small, less than about 300 AU (0.5 arcsec), and it may be as small as the dust destruction front: in LkH-Alpha 198 there is no evidence of a large region devoid of grains.

  14. Coronal Activity in Low-Mass Pre-Main Sequence Stars: NGC 2264

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tebbe, H. J.; Patten, B. M.

    2000-01-01

    We present the preliminary results of an analysis of ROSAT images in the region of the populous young (age approx. 3 Myr) star-forming region NGC 2264. The cluster was imaged with the ROSAT HRI in two sets of pointings -- one set near the central region of the cluster, centered on the star LW Mon, and the other set in the southern part of the cluster, centered near the star V428 Mon, just south of the Cone Nebula. In total 113 unique X-ray sources have been identified in the ROSAT images with signal-to-noise ratios greater than 3. The limiting luminosities (log Lx(ergs/sec)) for 3-sigma detections are estimated to be 30.18, 30.23, and 30.08 for the northern field, southern field, and overlap region between the two fields respectively. Extensive optical photometry, classification spectroscopy, and proper motions, obtained from recent ground-based surveys of this region, were used to identify the most likely optical counterpart to each X-ray source. Although most of our X-ray selected sample appears to be associated with NGC 2264 members, we find that the vast majority of the cluster membership was undetected in the ROSAT HRI survey. The X-ray cumulative luminosity function for solar-mass stars in NGC 2264 shows that most of the low-mass members probably have X-ray luminosities similar to those seen for the X-ray brightest members of older clusters such as IC 2391/IC 2602 (age approx. 50 Myr) and the Pleiades (age approx. 100 Myr). This research was funded in part by the SAO Summer Intern Program and NASA grant NAG5-8120.

  15. EVOLUTION OF VERY MASSIVE POPULATION III STARS WITH MASS ACCRETION FROM PRE-MAIN SEQUENCE TO COLLAPSE

    SciTech Connect

    Ohkubo, Takuya; Nomoto, Ken'ichi; Umeda, Hideyuki; Yoshida, Naoki; Tsuruta, Sachiko E-mail: umeda@astron.s.u-tokyo.ac.j E-mail: naoki.yoshida@ipmu.j

    2009-12-01

    We calculate the evolution of zero-metallicity Population III (Pop III) stars whose mass grows from the initial mass of approx1 M{sub sun} by accreting the surrounding gases. Our calculations cover whole evolutionary stages from the pre-main sequence, via various nuclear burning stages, through the final core-collapse or pair-creation instability phases. We adopt two different sets of stellar mass accretion rates as our fiducial models. One is derived from a cosmological simulation of the first generation (PopIII.1) stars, and the other is derived from a simulation of the second generation stars that are affected by radiation from PopIII.1 stars. The latter represents one case of PopIII.2 stars. We also adopt additional models that include radiative feedback effects. We show that the final mass of Pop III.1 stars can be as large as approx1000 M {sub sun}, beyond the mass range (140-300 M{sub sun}) for the pair-instability supernovae. Such massive stars undergo core-collapse to form intermediate-mass black holes, which may be the seeds for merger trees to supermassive black holes. On the other hand, Pop III.2 stars become less massive (approx<40-60 M{sub sun}), being in the mass range of ordinary iron core-collapse stars. Such stars explode and eject heavy elements to contribute to chemical enrichment of the early universe as observed in the abundance patterns of extremely metal-poor stars in the Galactic halo. In view of the large range of possible accretion rates, further studies are important to see if these fiducial models are actually the cases.

  16. Measuring the mass of a pre-main sequence binary star through the orbit of TWA5A

    SciTech Connect

    Konopacky, Q; Ghez, A; Duchene, G; McCabe, C; Macintosh, B

    2007-01-18

    We present the results of a five year monitoring campaign of the close binary TWA 5Aab in the TW Hydrae association, using speckle and adaptive optics on the W.M. Keck 10 m telescopes. These measurements were taken as part of our ongoing monitoring of pre-main sequence (PMS) binaries in an effort to increase the number of dynamically determined PMS masses and thereby calibrate the theoretical PMS evolutionary tracks. Our observations have allowed us to obtain the first determination of this system's astrometric orbit. We find an orbital period of 5.94 {+-} 0.09 years and a semi-major axis of 0.''066 {+-} 0.''005. Combining these results with a kinematic distance, we calculate a total mass of 0.71 {+-} 0.14 M{sub {circle_dot}} (D/44 pc){sup 3}. for this system. This mass measurement, as well as the estimated age of this system, are consistent to within 2{sigma} of all theoretical models considered. In this analysis, we properly account for correlated uncertainties, and show that while these correlations are generally ignored, they increase the formal uncertainties by up to a factor of five and therefore are important to incorporate. With only a few more years of observation, this type of measurement will allow the theoretical models to be distinguished.

  17. PHOTOMETRIC DETERMINATION OF THE MASS ACCRETION RATES OF PRE-MAIN-SEQUENCE STARS. IV. RECENT STAR FORMATION IN NGC 602

    SciTech Connect

    De Marchi, Guido; Beccari, Giacomo; Panagia, Nino E-mail: gbeccari@eso.org

    2013-09-20

    We have studied the young stellar populations in NGC 602, in the Small Magellanic Cloud, using a novel method that we have developed to combine Hubble Space Telescope photometry in the V, I, and Hα bands. We have identified about 300 pre-main-sequence (PMS) stars, all of which are still undergoing active mass accretion, and have determined their physical parameters (effective temperature, luminosity, age, mass, and mass accretion rate). Our analysis shows that star formation has been present in this field over the last 60 Myr. In addition, we can recognize at least two clear, distinct, and prominent episodes in the recent past: one about 2 Myr ago, but still ongoing in regions of higher nebulosity, and one (or more) older than 30 Myr, encompassing both stars dispersed in the field and two smaller clusters located about 100'' north of the center of NGC 602. The relative locations of younger and older PMS stars do not imply a causal effect or triggering of one generation on the other. The strength of the two episodes appears to be comparable, but the episodes occurring more than 30 Myr ago might have been even stronger than the current one. We have investigated the evolution of the mass accretion rate, M-dot{sub acc}, as a function of the stellar parameters finding that log M-dot{sub acc}≅-0.6 log t + log m + c, where t is the age of the star, m is its mass, and c is a decreasing function of the metallicity.

  18. Older and colder: The impact of starspots on stellar masses, ages, and lithium during the pre-main sequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Somers, Garrett

    2016-01-01

    Starspots are ubiquitously found on young, active stars on the pre-main sequence (pre-MS), and may cover up to ~50% of their surfaces, but their effects on early stellar evolution have never been fully explored. I study the impact of such extreme spot coverage on pre-MS stellar evolution by modifying an existing stellar evolution code to account for spot effects on both the surface boundary conditions and the transport of energy in the interior. I show that heavy spot coverage systematically increases the radii of young stars, while reducing their luminosity and average surface temperature. Such increased radii may underlie the well-known radius inflation of some young, active stars, while the decreased luminosity and effective temperature displace stars on the HR diagram, leading to systematic under-estimation of stellar masses by up to 2x, and of stellar ages by up to 10x, if spotted stars are interpreted with un-spotted isochrones. The inhomogeneous surfaces of spotted stars also distort the emission spectrum, and can thus explain the anomalous colors of the rapidly rotating K dwarfs of the Pleiades, a young open cluster. I further find that spots reduce the central temperature of stars, leading to a suppression of lithium burning during the pre-MS. As a result, pre-MS stars of equal mass but differing spot properties reach the zero-age main sequence with different surface lithium abundances. I show that this effect can account for the previously unexplained lithium abundance dispersions observed at fixed Teff in the Pleiades, and other young clusters.Synthesizing these results, I argue that the inclusion of spots, a prominent phenomenon on the pre-MS, can explain several outstanding mysteries associated with young stars: inflated radii, age spreads in young clusters, the anomalous colors of rapid rotators, and the lithium abundance dispersions in young star clusters. I discuss implications of under-estimated masses and ages for measuring age spreads in young

  19. The Double-Lined Spectroscopic Binary θ?1 Ori E: An Intermedite-Mass, Pre-Main Sequence System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costero, R.; Poveda, A.; Echevarría, J.

    2007-08-01

    Theta 1 Ori E = ADS 4186 E = NSV 2291 , the fifth brightest star in the Orion Trapezium, was reported to be a double-lined spectroscopic binary by Costero et al. 2006 (IAUC 8669). In this paper we present the derived orbital elements of the binary system and physical parameters of its members. The velocity curve of each component was derived from 61 Echelle spectra in which the absorption systems are not blended. The radial velocities were obtained by cross-correlating these spectra with those of two reference stars with well-measured radial velocities, in the 5120 -"5515 Å spectral range. The binary components are nearly identical, their composite spectral type being around G0IV. The Li I 6708 Å absorption line is strong and the Ca II K line is in emission inboth stars, indicative of their pre-main sequence evolutionary stage. The orbit is circular (e <10^-3). The orbital period and systemic velocity are 9.896 ± 0.001 d and 32.4 ± 1.0 km/s.The semi-amplitude of both components is 85.7±3.0 km/s. From the published K magnitude for the object and a suitable pre-main sequence stellar evolution model, we find the bolometric luminosity, radius and mass of each component to be, respectively, 89, 8.4 and 4.0 (in solar units), if the stars are identical to each other. Based on the latter values, the orbital inclination is about 59°, while the minimum Inclination for grazing eclipses to occur is 65°. Hence, no observable eclipses in this binary are expected.

  20. The Connection Between Rotation, Circumstellar Disks, and Accretion Among Low-Mass Pre-Main-Sequence Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stassun, Keivan Guadalupe

    2000-07-01

    Circumstellar disks have come to be seen as dominant players in the rotational evolution of low-mass stars during the pre-main-sequence (PMS) phase. In fact, most rotational evolution models today rely chiefly on magnetic disk-locking to successfully connect the rotational properties of T Tauri stars (TTS) to those of zero-age main sequence (ZAMS) stars. The principal aim of this dissertation is to summarize recent observations (Stassun et al. 1999; Stassun et al. 2000) that challenge this picture of disk-regulated PMS rotational evolution. We present photometrically derived rotation periods for 254 stars in an area 40 × 80 arcmin centered on the Orion Nebula. We show that these stars are likely members of the young (~106 yr) Orion OBIc/d association. The rotation period distribution we determine, sensitive to periods 0.1 < Prot < 8 days, shows a sharp cutoff for periods Prot < 0.5 days, corresponding to breakup velocity for these stars; a population of stars rotating near breakup is already present at 1 Myr. Above 0.5 days the distribution is consistent with a uniform distribution; we do not find evidence for a ``gap" of periods at 4--5 days. We find signatures of active accretion among stars at all periods; active accretion does not occur preferentially among slow rotators in our sample. We find no correlation between rotation period and the presence of near-infrared signatures of circumstellar disks. We do not find compelling agreement between our observations and the requirements of the disk-locking hypothesis. We use near-IR photometry to argue that inner cavities in TTS disks are typically much smaller than allowed by theory for the regulation of stellar angular momentum. We further use mid-IR (primarily 10 microns) photometry to confirm that TTS lacking near-IR excesses do not harbor disks with large inner truncation radii. With a few exceptions, stars in our sample lacking near-IR excesses do not possess disks, truncated or otherwise. Evidently, many young

  1. A Dynamical Mass Measurement for the Pre-Main-Sequence Secondary of the Eclipsing Binary TY CrA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathieu, R. D.; Casey, B.; Vaz, L. P.; Andersen, J.; Suntzeff, N.; Walter, F.

    1994-05-01

    Using the Danish 50cm telescope at La Silla we have obtained simultaneous uvby light curves of the eclipsing binary TY CrA, located in the Corona Australis star-forming region. We have securely detected the secondary eclipse (2% depth in y). We have also obtained high-resolution (R=15000) echelle spectra in the red. Along with the primary spectrum, absorption lines of the secondary and a previously unknown tertiary component have been found. In particular, both the secondary and tertiary are detected at the Lithium 6708 Angstroms line. Based on temperature insensitive lines the tertiary/secondary luminosity ratio at ~ 6400 Angstroms is ~ 1.5. When combined with our previous single-lined orbital solution for the primary (Casey, B.W., Mathieu, R.D., Suntzeff, N.B., Lee, C.W., and Cardelli, J.A. 1993, Astron. Journal, 105, 2276) the secondary radial-velocity measurements provide a mass ratio of 0.521+/-0.007. Using a modified form of the Wilson-Devinney formalism, our light curve solution gives an inclination angle of 81°, masses and radii of (3.2 M_sun, 1.8 R_sun) and (1.7 M_sun, 2.3 R_sun) for the primary and secondary respectively. Based on both spectral classification and uvby colors we adopt a primary effective temperature of 12,000 +/- 500 K. Using Kurucz atmosphere models for both stars in the WD solution, we derive a temperature of 5,000 K for the secondary, thus fully specifying the system. The primary lies on the ZAMS, while the secondary lies at the base of the Hayashi tracks. The secondary provides the first dynamical mass calibration with which to test theoretical calculations of Hayashi tracks. We will evaluate several modern theoretical pre-main sequence evolutionary models with respect to TY CrA. The vsin i of the secondary spectrum is 40 km/sec, making the secondary rotation synchronous with the orbital motion. Given that the primary is remarkably subsynchronous (Casey et al. 1993 and new spectra), we conclude that the orbit was tidally circularized

  2. Calibrating convective-core overshooting with eclipsing binary systems. The case of low-mass main-sequence stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valle, G.; Dell'Omodarme, M.; Prada Moroni, P. G.; Degl'Innocenti, S.

    2016-03-01

    Context. Double-lined eclipsing binaries have often been adopted in literature to calibrate the extension of the convective-core overshooting beyond the border defined by the Schwarzschild criterion. Aims: In a robust statistical way, we quantify the magnitude of the uncertainty that affects the calibration of the overshooting efficiency parameter β that is owing to the uncertainty on the observational data. We also quantify the biases on the β determination that is caused by the lack of constraints on the initial helium content and on the efficiencies of the superadiabatic convection and microscopic diffusion. Methods: We adopted a modified grid-based SCEPtER pipeline to recover the β parameter from synthetic stellar data. Our grid spans the mass range [1.1; 1.6] M⊙ and evolutionary stages from the zero-age main sequence (MS) to the central hydrogen depletion. The β estimates were obtained by generalising the maximum likelihood technique described in our previous works. As observational constraint, we adopted the effective temperatures, [Fe/H], masses, and radii of the two stars. Results: By means of Monte Carlo simulations, adopting a reference scenario of mild overshooting β = 0.2 for the synthetic data, and taking typical observational errors into account, we found both large statistical uncertainties and biases on the estimated values of β. For the first 80% of the MS evolution, β is biased by about -0.04, with the 1σ error practically unconstrained in the whole explored range [0.0; 0.4]. In the last 5% of the evolution the bias vanishes and the 1σ error is about 0.05. The 1σ errors are similar when adopting different reference values of β. Interestingly, for synthetic data computed without convective-core overshooting, the estimated β is biased by about 0.12 in the first 80% of the MS evolution, and by 0.05 afterwards. Assuming an uncertainty of ±1 in the helium-to-metal enrichment ratio ΔY/ ΔZ, we found a large systematic uncertainty in the

  3. Magnetic inhibition of convection and the fundamental properties of low-mass stars. II. Fully convective main-sequence stars

    SciTech Connect

    Feiden, Gregory A.; Chaboyer, Brian E-mail: brian.chaboyer@dartmouth.edu

    2014-07-01

    We examine the hypothesis that magnetic fields are inflating the radii of fully convective main-sequence stars in detached eclipsing binaries (DEBs). The magnetic Dartmouth stellar evolution code is used to analyze two systems in particular: Kepler-16 and CM Draconis. Magneto-convection is treated assuming stabilization of convection and also by assuming reductions in convective efficiency due to a turbulent dynamo. We find that magnetic stellar models are unable to reproduce the properties of inflated fully convective main-sequence stars, unless strong interior magnetic fields in excess of 10 MG are present. Validation of the magnetic field hypothesis given the current generation of magnetic stellar evolution models therefore depends critically on whether the generation and maintenance of strong interior magnetic fields is physically possible. An examination of this requirement is provided. Additionally, an analysis of previous studies invoking the influence of star spots is presented to assess the suggestion that star spots are inflating stars and biasing light curve analyses toward larger radii. From our analysis, we find that there is not yet sufficient evidence to definitively support the hypothesis that magnetic fields are responsible for the observed inflation among fully convective main-sequence stars in DEBs.

  4. A Study of the Wide Main Sequence: The Long-Term Photometric Variability of Low Mass Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pewett, Tiffany; Henry, Todd J.; Hosey, Altonio D.; Dieterich, Sergio; Jao, Wei-Chun; Winters, Jennifer G.; Riedel, Adric R.; RECONS Team

    2016-01-01

    The RECONS (REsearch Consortium On Nearby Stars, www.recons.org) team has carried out a long-term photometric variability study using the SMARTS 0.9m telescope at the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO). The program has obtained up to 15 years of observations in the V band for hundreds of M dwarf stars. This unique study has provided insight into how the ubiquitous M dwarfs change over decadal timescales, revealing their long-term magnetic cycles and how the presence or lack of such activity may affect their sizes and consequent luminosities, and thus their positions on the H-R Diagram.Using carefully vetted parallaxes and photometric colors, many measured by the RECONS team, we have created a highly accurate H-R Diagram of the nearest (within 25pc) stars using their V-K colors to represent temperatures and absolute V magnitudes as proxies for luminosities. We find that for M dwarfs, the main sequence widens significantly, by up to four magnitudes in MV, corresponding to a factor of almost 40 in optical flux. This spread implies a wide range of stellar radii for M dwarfs of the same temperature. Our study of long-term photometric variability indicates that there is a trend in cyclic activity that is highest for the most luminous red dwarfs and lowest for the rare, cool red subdwarfs. This provides valuable insight into the complex interplay of age, metallicity, and magnetic fields that molds the character of the red dwarfs.This effort has been supported by the NSF through grants AST-0908402, AST-1109445, and AST-1412026, STScI grant HST-GO-13724.001-A, and via observations made possible by the SMARTS Consortium.

  5. Testing the companion hypothesis for the origin of the X-ray emission from intermediate-mass main-sequence stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stelzer, B.; Huélamo, N.; Micela, G.; Hubrig, S.

    2006-06-01

    Context: .The X-ray emission from B-type main-sequence stars is a longstanding mystery in stellar coronal research. Since there is no theory at hand that explains intrinsic X-ray emission from intermediate-mass main-sequence stars, the observations have often been interpreted in terms of (unknown) late-type magnetically active companion stars. Aims: .Resolving the hypothesized companions requires high spatial resolution observations in the infrared and in X-rays. We use Chandra imaging observations to spatially resolve a sample of main-sequence B-type stars with recently discovered companions at arcsecond separation. Methods: .Our strategy is to search for X-ray emission at the position of both the B-type primary and the faint companion. Results: .We find that all spatially resolved companions are X-ray emitters, but seven out of eleven intermediate-mass stars are also X-ray sources. If this emission is interpreted in terms of additional sub-arcsecond or spectroscopic companions, this implies a high multiplicity of B-type stars. Firm results on B star multiplicity pending, the alternative, that B stars produce intrinsic X-rays, cannot be discarded. An appropriate scenario would be a magnetically confined wind, as suggested for the X-ray emission of the magnetic Ap star IQ Aur. However, the only Ap star in the Chandra sample is not detected in X-rays, and therefore does not support this picture.

  6. Hot Evolved Companions to Intermediate-Mass Main-Sequence Stars: Solving the Mystery of KOI-81

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gies, Douglas

    2010-09-01

    The NASA Kepler Science Team recently announced the discovery of twotransiting binaries that have "planets" hotter than their host stars.These systems probably represent the first known examples of white dwarfsformed through mass loss and transfer among intermediate mass, closebinary stars. Here we propose to obtain COS FUV spectroscopy of one ofthese systems, KOI-81, in order to detect the hot companion in a part of the spectrum where it is relatively bright. The spectral flux and Doppler shift measurements will yield the temperatures, masses, radii, and compositions of both components. These observations will provide our first opportunity to explore this previously hidden stage of close binary evolution.

  7. Migration and Growth of Protoplanetary Embryos. III. Mass and Metallicity Dependence for FGKM Main-sequence Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Beibei; Zhang, Xiaojia; Lin, Douglas N. C.

    2016-06-01

    Radial velocity and transit surveys have found that the fraction of FGKM stars with close-in super-Earth(s) (η ⊕) is around 30%–50%, independent of the stellar mass M * and metallicity Z *. In contrast, the fraction of solar-type stars harboring one or more gas giants (η J) with masses M p > 100 M ⊕ is nearly 10%–15%, and it appears to increase with both M * and Z *. Regardless of the properties of their host stars, the total mass of some multiple super-Earths systems exceeds the core mass of Jupiter and Saturn. We suggest that both super-Earths and supercritical cores of gas giants were assembled from a population of embryos that underwent convergent type I migration from their birthplaces to a transition location between viscously heated and irradiation-heated disk regions. We attribute the cause for the η ⊕–η J dichotomy to conditions required for embryos to merge and to acquire supercritical core mass ({M}{{c}}˜ 10 {M}\\oplus ) for the onset of efficient gaseous envelope accretion. We translate this condition into a critical disk accretion rate, and our analysis and simulation results show that it weakly depends on M * and decreases with metallicity of disk gas Z d. We find that embryos are more likely to merge into supercritical cores around relatively massive and metal-rich stars. This dependence accounts for the observed η J–M *. We also consider the {Z}{{d}}{--}{Z}* dispersed relationship and reproduce the observed η J–Z * correlation.

  8. IRAS observations of Delta Scuti variables - Implications for main-sequence mass loss and an IR period-luminosity relation

    SciTech Connect

    King, J.R. )

    1990-06-01

    The far-infrared detections of Delta Scuti variables in The Bright Star Catalog by the IRAS satellite are investigated; 52 percent of the sample was detected at 12 microns. The 12 micron luminosity is correlated with L(Bol) and ranges from about 3 x 10 to the 31st to about 6 x 10 to the 32nd erg/s. Comparable numbers of Delta Sct variables and A-F nonvariables show infrared excesses in at least one IRAS passband. Further considerations show that contributions to these excesses due to mass loss are minimal. This investigation suggests that the pulsating variables are not losing mass at higher rates than nonvariable A and F stars which themselves do not appear to be losing mass at a rate above an expected level. The existence of a Period-12 micron luminosity relation of small dispersion, quite surprising in light of the uncertainties in these data is reported. It is demonstrated that such relations also exist at the J, H, and K bands. The possibility of using such relations for distance determinations is discussed in light of good distance estimates to three clusters using the P-L relation. 20 refs.

  9. New pre-main-sequence tracks for M less than or equal to 2.5 solar mass as tests of opacities and convection model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Antona, Francesca; Mazzitelli, Italo

    1994-01-01

    We present tabular and graphic results on the computation of pre-main-sequence evolutionary tracks of Population I stellar structures from 2.5 to approximately 0.015 solar mass. Deuterium and lithium burning are followed in detail. The chosen input physics gives M approximately 0.018 solar mass as minimum mass for deuterium burning and M approximately 0.065 solar mass as minimum mass for lithium burning. While we adopt the approximations of hydrostatic equilibrium, no mass accretion and no mass loss, we have taken care to include several updates in the input physics, among them two different sets of the more recent available low-temperature opacities, and we test two different models of overdiabatic convection (the mixing-available low-temperature opacities, and we test two different models of overdiabatic convection (the mixing-length theory (MLT) with the mixing-length scale calibrated on the solar model, and the recent Canuto & Mazzitelli (CM) model). The Hertzsprung-Russell diagram location of tracks turns out to be largely model-dependent, especially for M less than or equal to 0.6 solar mass, and we are able to relate the cause of the large differences (up to 0.04 dex in Teff at 0.3 solar mass) with opacity and with the details of the convection model adopted. Since we are not able to provide 'first principle' physical reasons to choose among models, we consider these tracks as 'tests', in the hope that significant comparisons with observations can exclude some models or provide hints toward a better understanding of convection. Nevertheless, we feel obliged to call the reader's attention to the fact that theoretical Teff's, especially in the red, are intrinsically ill-determined, and no sound observational interpretation critically depending on the Teff's can be presently performed, contrary to the current habit due to an exceedingly 'faithful' use of the MLT.

  10. PHOTOMETRIC DETERMINATION OF THE MASS ACCRETION RATES OF PRE-MAIN-SEQUENCE STARS. II. NGC 346 IN THE SMALL MAGELLANIC CLOUD

    SciTech Connect

    De Marchi, Guido; Sirianni, Marco; Panagia, Nino; Sabbi, Elena; Romaniello, Martino; Prada Moroni, Pier Giorgio; Degl'Innocenti, Scilla E-mail: panagia@stsci.edu

    2011-10-10

    We have studied the properties of the stellar populations in the field of the NGC 346 cluster in the Small Magellanic Cloud, using a novel self-consistent method that allows us to reliably identify pre-main-sequence (PMS) objects actively undergoing mass accretion, regardless of their age. The method does not require spectroscopy and combines broadband V and I photometry with narrowband H{alpha} imaging to identify all stars with excess H{alpha} emission and derive the accretion luminosity L{sub acc} and mass accretion rate M-dot{sub acc} for all of them. The application of this method to existing Hubble Space Telescope (HST)/Advanced Camera for Surveys photometry of the NGC 346 field has allowed us to identify and study 680 bona fide PMS stars with masses from {approx}0.4 M{sub sun} to {approx}4 M{sub sun} and ages in the range from {approx}1 Myr to {approx}30 Myr. Previous investigations of this region, based on the same data, had identified young ({approx}3 Myr old) candidate PMS stars on the basis of their broadband colors. In this study, we show that there are at least two, almost equally numerous, young populations with distinct ages of, respectively, {approx}1 and {approx}20 Myr. We provide accurate physical parameters for all of them. We take advantage of the unprecedented size of our PMS sample and of its spread in mass and age to study the evolution of the mass accretion rate as a function of stellar parameters. We find that, regardless of stellar mass, the mass accretion rate decreases with roughly the square root of the age, or about three times slower than predicted by current models of viscous disk evolution, and that more massive stars systematically have a higher mass accretion rate in proportion to their mass. A multivariate linear regression fit reveals that log M-dot{sub acc}{approx_equal}-0.6 log t + log m + c, where t is the age of the star, m is its mass, and c is a quantity that is higher at lower metallicity. This result is consistent with

  11. X-Ray Properties of Low-mass Pre-main Sequence Stars in the Orion Trapezium Cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulz, Norbert S.; Huenemoerder, David P.; Günther, Moritz; Testa, Paola; Canizares, Claude R.

    2015-09-01

    The Chandra HETG Orion Legacy Project (HOLP) is the first comprehensive set of observations of a very young massive stellar cluster that provides high-resolution X-ray spectra of very young stars over a wide mass range (0.7–2.3 {M}ȯ ). In this paper, we focus on the six brightest X-ray sources with T Tauri stellar counterparts that are well-characterized at optical and infrared wavelengths. All stars show column densities which are substantially smaller than expected from optical extinction, indicating that the sources are located on the near side of the cluster with respect to the observer as well as that these stars are embedded in more dusty environments. Stellar X-ray luminosities are well above 1031 erg s‑1, in some cases exceeding 1032 erg s‑1 for a substantial amount of time. The stars during these observations show no flares but are persistently bright. The spectra can be well fit with two temperature plasma components of 10 MK and 40 MK, of which the latter dominates the flux by a ratio 6:1 on average. The total emission measures range between 3–8 × 1054 cm‑3 and are comparable to active coronal sources. The fits to the Ne ix He-Like K-shell lines indicate forbidden to inter-combination line ratios consistent with the low-density limit. Observed abundances compare well with active coronal sources underlying the coronal nature of these sources. The surface flux in this sample of 0.6–2.3 {M}ȯ classical T Tauri stars shows that coronal activity increases significantly between ages 0.1 and 10 Myr. The results demonstrate the power of X-ray line diagnostics to study coronal properties of T Tauri stars in young stellar clusters.

  12. Theoretical studies of massive stars. I - Evolution of a 15-solar-mass star from the zero-age main sequence to neon ignition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Endal, A. S.

    1975-01-01

    The evolution of a star with mass 15 times that of the sun from the zero-age main sequence to neon ignition has been computed by the Henyey method. The hydrogen-rich envelope and all shell sources were explicitly included in the models. An algorithm has been developed for approximating the results of carbon burning, including the branching ratio for the C-12 + C-12 reaction and taking some secondary reactions into account. Penetration of the convective envelope into the core is found to be unimportant during the stages covered by the models. Energy transfer from the carbon-burning shell to the core by degenerate electron conduction becomes important after the core carbon-burning stage. Neon ignition will occur in a semidegenerate core and will lead to a mild 'flash.' Detailed numerical results are given in an appendix. Continuation of the calculations into later stages and variations with the total mass of the star will be discussed in later papers.

  13. The Pisa pre-main sequence tracks and isochrones. A database covering a wide range of Z, Y, mass, and age values

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tognelli, E.; Prada Moroni, P. G.; Degl'Innocenti, S.

    2011-09-01

    Context. In recent years new observations of pre-main sequence stars (pre-MS) with Z ≤ Z⊙ have been made available. To take full advantage of the continuously growing amount of data of pre-MS stars in different environments, we need to develop updated pre-MS models for a wide range of metallicity to assign reliable ages and masses to the observed stars. Aims: We present updated evolutionary pre-MS models and isochrones for a fine grid of mass, age, metallicity, and helium values. Methods: We use a standard and well-tested stellar evolutionary code (i.e. FRANEC), that adopts outer boundary conditions from detailed and realistic atmosphere models. In this code, we incorporate additional improvements to the physical inputs related to the equation of state and the low temperature radiative opacities essential to computing low-mass stellar models. Results: We make available via internet a large database of pre-MS tracks and isochrones for a wide range of chemical compositions (Z = 0.0002-0.03), masses (M = 0.2-7.0 M⊙), and ages (1-100 Myr) for a solar-calibrated mixing length parameter α (i.e. 1.68). For each chemical composition, additional models were computed with two different mixing length values, namely α = 1.2 and 1.9. Moreover, for Z ≥ 0.008, we also provided models with two different initial deuterium abundances. The characteristics of the models have been discussed in detail and compared with other work in the literature. The main uncertainties affecting theoretical predictions have been critically discussed. Comparisons with selected data indicate that there is close agreement between theory and observation. Tracks and isochrones are available on the web at the http://astro.df.unipi.it/stellar-models/Tracks and isochrones are also available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/533/A109

  14. PHOTOMETRIC DETERMINATION OF THE MASS ACCRETION RATES OF PRE-MAIN-SEQUENCE STARS. I. METHOD AND APPLICATION TO THE SN 1987A FIELD

    SciTech Connect

    De Marchi, Guido; Panagia, Nino; Romaniello, Martino E-mail: panagia@stsci.ed

    2010-05-20

    We have developed and successfully tested a new self-consistent method to reliably identify pre-main-sequence (PMS) objects actively undergoing mass accretion in a resolved stellar population, regardless of their age. The method does not require spectroscopy and combines broadband V and I photometry with narrowband H{alpha} imaging to (1) identify all stars with excess H{alpha} emission, (2) convert the excess H{alpha} magnitude into H{alpha} luminosity L(H{alpha}), (3) estimate the H{alpha} emission equivalent width, (4) derive the accretion luminosity L{sub acc} from L(H{alpha}), and finally (5) obtain the mass accretion rate M-dot{sub acc} from L{sub acc} and the stellar parameters (mass and radius). By selecting stars with an accuracy of 15% or better in the H{alpha} photometry, the statistical uncertainty on the derived M-dot{sub acc} is typically {approx_lt}17% and is dictated by the precision of the H{alpha} photometry. Systematic uncertainties, of up to a factor of 3 on the value of M-dot{sub acc}, are caused by our incomplete understanding of the physics of the accretion process and affect all determinations of the mass accretion rate, including those based on a spectroscopic H{alpha} line analysis. As an application of our method, we study the accretion process in a field of 9.16 arcmin{sup 2} around SN 1987A, using existing Hubble Space Telescope photometry. We identify as bona fide PMS stars a total of 133 objects with a H{alpha} excess above the 4{sigma} level and a median age of 13.5 Myr. Their median mass accretion rate of 2.6 x 10{sup -8} M{sub sun} yr{sup -1} is in excellent agreement with previous determinations based on the U-band excess of the stars in the same field, as well as with the value measured for G-type PMS stars in the Milky Way. The accretion luminosity of these PMS objects shows a strong dependence on their distance from a group of hot massive stars in the field and suggests that the ultraviolet radiation of the latter is rapidly

  15. STAR FORMATION HISTORY OF A YOUNG SUPER-STAR CLUSTER IN NGC 4038/39: DIRECT DETECTION OF LOW-MASS PRE-MAIN SEQUENCE STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Greissl, Julia; Meyer, Michael R.; Christopher, Micol H.; Scoville, Nick Z.

    2010-02-20

    We present an analysis of the near-infrared spectrum of a young massive star cluster in the overlap region of the interacting galaxies NGC 4038/39 using population synthesis models. Our goal is to model the cluster population as well as provide rough constraints on its initial mass function (IMF). The cluster shows signs of youth, such as thermal radio emission and strong hydrogen emission lines in the near-infrared. Late-type absorption lines are also present which are indicative of late-type stars in the cluster. The strength and ratio of these absorption lines cannot be reproduced through either late-type pre-main sequence (PMS) stars or red supergiants alone. Thus, we interpret the spectrum as a superposition of two star clusters of different ages, which is feasible since the 1'' spectrum encompasses a physical region of {approx}90 pc and radii of super-star clusters (SSCs) are generally measured to be a few parsecs. One cluster is young (<= 3 Myr) and is responsible for part of the late-type absorption features, which are due to PMS stars in the cluster, and the hydrogen emission lines. The second cluster is older (6 Myr-18 Myr) and is needed to reproduce the overall depth of the late-type absorption features in the spectrum. Both are required to accurately reproduce the near-infrared spectrum of the object. Thus, we have directly detected PMS objects in an unresolved SSC for the first time using a combination of population synthesis models and PMS tracks. This analysis serves as a testbed of our technique to constrain the low-mass IMF in young SSCs as well as an exploration of the star formation history of young UC H II regions.

  16. Magnetic main sequence stars as progenitors of blue supergiants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petermann, I.; Castro, N.; Langer, N.

    2015-01-01

    Blue supergiants (BSGs) to the right the main sequence band in the HR diagram can not be reproduced by standard stellar evolution calculations. We investigate whether a reduced convective core mass due to strong internal magnetic fields during the main sequence might be able to recover this population of stars. We perform calculations with a reduced mass of the hydrogen burning convective core of stars in the mass range 3-30 M ⊙ in a parametric way, which indeed lead to BSGs. It is expected that these BSGs would still show large scale magnetic fields in the order of 10 G.

  17. Distributions of Quasar Hosts on the Galaxy Main Sequence Plane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhoujian; Shi, Yong; Rieke, George H.; Xia, Xiaoyang; Wang, Yikang; Sun, Bingqing; Wan, Linfeng

    2016-03-01

    The relation between star formation rates (SFRs) and stellar masses, i.e., the galaxy main sequence, is a useful diagnostic of galaxy evolution. We present the distributions relative to the main sequence of 55 optically selected PG and 12 near-IR-selected Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS) quasars at z ≤ 0.5. We estimate the quasar host stellar masses from Hubble Space Telescope or ground-based AO photometry, and the SFRs through the mid-infrared aromatic features and far-IR photometry. We find that PG quasar hosts more or less follow the main sequence defined by normal star-forming galaxies while 2MASS quasar hosts lie systematically above the main sequence. PG and 2MASS quasars with higher nuclear luminosities seem to have higher specific SFRs (sSFRs), although there is a large scatter. No trends are seen between sSFRs and SMBH masses, Eddington ratios, or even morphology types (ellipticals, spirals, and mergers). Our results could be placed in an evolutionary scenario with quasars emerging during the transition from ULIRGs/mergers to ellipticals. However, combined with results at higher redshift, they suggest that quasars can be widely triggered in normal galaxies as long as they contain abundant gas and have ongoing star formation.

  18. Main Sequence Evolution with Layered Semiconvection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Kevin; Garaud, Pascale

    2016-01-01

    Semiconvection is a form of mixing in thermally unstable regions that are partially stabilized by composition gradients. It has the greatest potential impact on the evolution of the cores of main sequence stars in the mass range 1.2 {M}⊙ -1.7 {M}⊙ . We present the first stellar evolution calculations using the new prescription for semiconvective mixing proposed by Wood et al. Semiconvection in stars is predominately layered semiconvection. In our model, the layer height is an adjustable parameter analogous to the mixing length in convection. The rate of mixing inside semiconvective regions is sensitively dependent on the layer height. We find a critical layer height that separates weak semiconvective mixing (where stellar evolution is well-approximated by ignoring semiconvection entirely and using the Ledoux criterion for convection) from strong semiconvective mixing (where all composition gradients are rapidly mixed, so stellar evolution is well-approximated by ignoring them altogether and using the Schwarzschild criterion for convection instead). This critical layer height is much smaller than the minimum layer height derived from simulations so we predict that stellar evolution is nearly the same as in models ran with the Schwarzschild criterion. We also investigate the effects of composition gradient smoothing, finding that it causes convective cores to artificially shrink in the absence of additional mixing beyond the convective boundary. Layered semiconvection with realistic layer heights provides enough such mixing to avoid this problem. Finally, we discuss the potential of detecting layered semiconvection and its implication on convective core sizes in solar-like oscillators.

  19. The ultracool dwarf DENIS-P J104814.7-395606. Chromospheres and coronae at the low-mass end of the main-sequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stelzer, B.; Alcalá, J.; Biazzo, K.; Ercolano, B.; Crespo-Chacón, I.; López-Santiago, J.; Martínez-Arnáiz, R.; Schmitt, J. H. M. M.; Rigliaco, E.; Leone, F.; Cupani, G.

    2012-01-01

    Context. Several diagnostics ranging from the radio to the X-ray band are suitable for investigating the magnetic activity of late-type stars. Empirical connections between the emission at different wavelengths place constraints on the nature and efficiency of the emission mechanism and the physical conditions in different atmospheric layers. The activity of ultracool dwarfs, at the low-mass end of the main-sequence, is poorly understood. Aims: We perform a multi-wavelength study of one of the nearest M9 dwarfs, DENIS-P J104814.7-395606 (4 pc), to examine its position within the group of magnetically active ultracool dwarfs, and, in general, advance our understanding of these objects by comparing them to early-M type dwarf stars and the Sun. Methods: We obtained an XMM-Newton observation of DENIS-P J104814.7-395606 and a broad-band spectrum from the ultraviolet to the near-infrared with X-Shooter. From this dataset, we derive the X-ray properties, stellar parameters, kinematics, and the emission-line spectrum tracing chromospheric activity. We integrate these data by compiling the activity parameters of ultracool dwarfs from the literature. Results: Our deep XMM-Newton observation provides the first X-ray detection of DENIS-P J104814.7-395606 (log Lx = 25.1), as well as the first measurement of its V band brightness (V = 17.35 mag). The flux-flux relations between X-ray and chromospheric activity indicators are here for the first time extended into the regime of the ultracool dwarfs. The approximate agreement of DENIS-P J104814.7-395606 and other ultracool dwarfs with flux-flux relations for early-M dwarfs suggests that the same heating mechanisms work in the atmospheres of ultracool dwarfs, albeit weaker as judged from their lower fluxes. The observed Balmer decrements of DENIS 1048-3956 are compatible with optically thick plasma in local thermal equilibrium (LTE) at low, nearly photospheric temperature or optically thin LTE plasma at 20 000 K. Describing the

  20. Quenching star formation: insights from the local main sequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leslie, S. K.; Kewley, L. J.; Sanders, D. B.; Lee, N.

    2016-01-01

    The so-called star-forming main sequence of galaxies is the apparent tight relationship between the star formation rate and stellar mass of a galaxy. Many studies exclude galaxies which are not strictly `star forming' from the main sequence, because they do not lie on the same tight relation. Using local galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, we have classified galaxies according to their emission line ratios, and studied their location on the star formation rate-stellar mass plane. We find that galaxies form a sequence from the `blue cloud' galaxies which are actively forming stars, through a combination of composite, Seyfert, and low-ionization nuclear emission-line region galaxies, ending as `red-and-dead' galaxies. The sequence supports an evolutionary pathway for galaxies in which star formation quenching by active galactic nuclei plays a key role.

  1. Post-main-sequence planetary system evolution

    PubMed Central

    Veras, Dimitri

    2016-01-01

    The fates of planetary systems provide unassailable insights into their formation and represent rich cross-disciplinary dynamical laboratories. Mounting observations of post-main-sequence planetary systems necessitate a complementary level of theoretical scrutiny. Here, I review the diverse dynamical processes which affect planets, asteroids, comets and pebbles as their parent stars evolve into giant branch, white dwarf and neutron stars. This reference provides a foundation for the interpretation and modelling of currently known systems and upcoming discoveries. PMID:26998326

  2. Post-main-sequence planetary system evolution.

    PubMed

    Veras, Dimitri

    2016-02-01

    The fates of planetary systems provide unassailable insights into their formation and represent rich cross-disciplinary dynamical laboratories. Mounting observations of post-main-sequence planetary systems necessitate a complementary level of theoretical scrutiny. Here, I review the diverse dynamical processes which affect planets, asteroids, comets and pebbles as their parent stars evolve into giant branch, white dwarf and neutron stars. This reference provides a foundation for the interpretation and modelling of currently known systems and upcoming discoveries. PMID:26998326

  3. Post-main-sequence planetary system evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veras, Dimitri

    2016-02-01

    The fates of planetary systems provide unassailable insights into their formation and represent rich cross-disciplinary dynamical laboratories. Mounting observations of post-main-sequence planetary systems necessitate a complementary level of theoretical scrutiny. Here, I review the diverse dynamical processes which affect planets, asteroids, comets and pebbles as their parent stars evolve into giant branch, white dwarf and neutron stars. This reference provides a foundation for the interpretation and modelling of currently known systems and upcoming discoveries.

  4. Dust around main sequence and evolved stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, H. J.; Heinrichsen, I.; Richards, P. J.

    Data for several main sequence and evolved stars, from the photopolarimeter on ISO (ISOPHOT), are presented. Dust shells are resolved for Y CVn and RS Lib at 60mum. Low resolution spectra from ISOPHOT are shown for several evolved stars, and compared to the spectrum of Vega (a stellar photosphere) and HD 169142 (showing emission features from Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons). W Lyr shows the signature of oxygen-rich circumstellar material around 3mum, V Aql and Y CVn the signature of carbon-rich material.

  5. Binary interactions with high accretion rates onto main sequence stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiber, Sagiv; Schreier, Ron; Soker, Noam

    2016-07-01

    Energetic outflows from main sequence stars accreting mass at very high rates might account for the powering of some eruptive objects, such as merging main sequence stars, major eruptions of luminous blue variables, e.g., the Great Eruption of Eta Carinae, and other intermediate luminosity optical transients (ILOTs; red novae; red transients). These powerful outflows could potentially also supply the extra energy required in the common envelope process and in the grazing envelope evolution of binary systems. We propose that a massive outflow/jets mediated by magnetic fields might remove energy and angular momentum from the accretion disk to allow such high accretion rate flows. By examining the possible activity of the magnetic fields of accretion disks, we conclude that indeed main sequence stars might accrete mass at very high rates, up to ≈ 10‑2 M ⊙ yr‑1 for solar type stars, and up to ≈ 1 M ⊙ yr‑1 for very massive stars. We speculate that magnetic fields amplified in such extreme conditions might lead to the formation of massive bipolar outflows that can remove most of the disk's energy and angular momentum. It is this energy and angular momentum removal that allows the very high mass accretion rate onto main sequence stars.

  6. THE INFRARED EYE OF THE WIDE-FIELD CAMERA 3 ON THE HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE REVEALS MULTIPLE MAIN SEQUENCES OF VERY LOW MASS STARS IN NGC 2808

    SciTech Connect

    Milone, A. P.; Aparicio, A.; Monelli, M. E-mail: aparicio@iac.es; and others

    2012-08-01

    We use images taken with the infrared channel of the Wide Field Camera 3 on the Hubble Space Telescope to study the multiple main sequences (MSs) of NGC 2808. Below the turnoff, the red, the middle, and the blue MS, previously detected from visual-band photometry, are visible over an interval of about 3.5 F160W magnitudes. The three MSs merge together at the level of the MS bend. At fainter magnitudes, the MS again splits into two components containing {approx}65% and {approx}35% of stars, with the most-populated MS being the bluest one. Theoretical isochrones suggest that the latter is connected to the red MS discovered in the optical color-magnitude diagram (CMD) and hence corresponds to the first stellar generation, having primordial helium and enhanced carbon and oxygen abundances. The less-populated MS in the faint part of the near-IR CMD is helium-rich and poor in carbon and oxygen, and it can be associated with the middle and the blue MS of the optical CMD. The finding that the photometric signature of abundance anti-correlation is also present in fully convective MS stars reinforces the inference that they have a primordial origin.

  7. Mass genotyping by sequencing technology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Large scale genotyping of a moderate number of loci is cost prohibitive with current chip-based technologies. We demonstrate the ability to use next generation sequencing technologies to genotype many DNA samples for a moderate number of loci – a mass genotyping by sequencing technology (MGST). Ou...

  8. Main sequence models for massive zero-metal stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cary, N.

    1974-01-01

    Zero-age main-sequence models for stars of 20, 10, 5, and 2 solar masses with no heavy elements are constructed for three different possible primordial helium abundances: Y=0.00, Y=0.23, and Y=0.30. The latter two values of Y bracket the range of primordial helium abundances cited by Wagoner. With the exceptions of the two 20 solar mass models that contain helium, these models are found to be self-consistent in the sense that the formation of carbon through the triple-alpha process during premain sequence contraction is not sufficient to bring the CN cycle into competition with the proton-proton chain on the ZAMS. The zero-metal models of the present study have higher surface and central temperatures, higher central densities, smaller radii, and smaller convective cores than do the population I models with the same masses.

  9. Rapid Rotation of Low-mass Red Giants Using APOKASC: A Measure of Interaction Rates on the Post-main-sequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tayar, Jamie; Ceillier, Tugdual; García-Hernández, D. A.; Troup, Nicholas W.; Mathur, Savita; García, Rafael A.; Zamora, O.; Johnson, Jennifer A.; Pinsonneault, Marc H.; Mészáros, Szabolcs; Allende Prieto, Carlos; Chaplin, William J.; Elsworth, Yvonne; Hekker, Saskia; Nidever, David L.; Salabert, David; Schneider, Donald P.; Serenelli, Aldo; Shetrone, Matthew; Stello, Dennis

    2015-07-01

    We investigate the occurrence rate of rapidly rotating (v{sin}i >10 km s-1), low-mass giant stars in the Apache Point Observatory Galaxy Evolution Experiment-Kepler (APOKASC) fields with asteroseismic mass and surface gravity measurements. Such stars are likely merger products and their frequency places interesting constraints on stellar population models. We also identify anomalous rotators, i.e., stars with 5 km s-1 < v{sin}i < 10 km s-1 that are rotating significantly faster than both angular momentum evolution predictions and the measured rates of similar stars. Our data set contains fewer rapid rotators than one would expect given measurements of the Galactic field star population, which likely indicates that asteroseismic detections are less common in rapidly rotating red giants. The number of low-mass moderate (5-10 km s-1) rotators in our sample gives a lower limit of 7% for the rate at which low-mass stars interact on the upper red giant branch because single stars in this mass range are expected to rotate slowly. Finally, we classify the likely origin of the rapid or anomalous rotation where possible. KIC 10293335 is identified as a merger product and KIC 6501237 is a possible binary system of two oscillating red giants.

  10. Stellar evolution from the zero-age main sequence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mengel, J. G.; Demarque, P.; Sweigart, A. V.; Gross, P. G.

    1979-01-01

    A consistent set of 247 evolutionary sequences extending from the ZAMS to the red-giant branch is presented for Y from 0.10 to 0.40, Z from 0.00001 to 0.10, and masses of 0.55 to 6.90 solar masses. Each sequence is started from a homogeneous ZAMS model, and almost all are evolved to the base of the red-giant branch. It is shown that: (1) the relative position of the main sequence can be determined as a function of composition; (2) theoretical luminosity functions can be derived from the relative evolutionary time scales; (3) a dip in luminosity sometimes occurs at the base of the red-giant branch and is most pronounced at larger Z values; (4) metal-poor stars evolve farther up along the main sequence before turning off toward the red-giant branch; and (5) the onset of helium burning halts the evolution across the Hertzsprung gap for the most massive and most metal-poor models, so that the star remains blue during its phase of core-helium burning.

  11. Dusty debris clouds around main sequence and post-main sequence stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zuckerman, B.

    1993-01-01

    During the past decade, infrared observations by IRAS and from the ground have revealed that many stars are orbited by dusty debris disks. Somewhat more indirect arguments indicate that many of these systems also contain asteroids, comets, and/or planets, thereby suggesting that planetary systems may be quite common in the Milky Way. Dust clouds at the main sequence K5 star HD 98800 and the white dwarf Giclas 29-38 are particularly noteworthy and mysterious.

  12. A Coronagraphic Survey for Circumstellar Disks Around Main Sequence and Pre-Main Sequence Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalas, Paul George

    1996-12-01

    We search for optical reflection nebulosity around ~100 main sequence and pre-main sequence stars to test the hypothesis that Vega-like stars possess replenished dust disks. A Lyot coronagraph is used to suppress light from the central star and to observe the circumstellar environment closer to planet-forming regions than is possible through direct imaging. A model of scattered light from axisymmetric circumstellar disks is developed to establish the sensitivity limits of our observations. Circumstellar nebulosities are detected around four main sequence stars: β Pic, BD +31o 643, HR 241, and HR 1307. No circumstellar disks are found around ~100 other main sequence stars, including Vega, Fomalhaut, HD 98800, HR 4796, and 51 Oph. Non-detections of disks in the main sequence sample, combined with the sensitivity limits, suggest that the optical scattering cross-section of dust at 102 - 103 AU radii is not strongly correlated to the thermal cross-section at 1-10 AU radii. We show that the prominence of the β Pic disk is primarily a result of its large scattering cross-section, rather than its edge-on inclination or close proximity to the Sun (Kalas & Jewitt 1996). Five types of asymmetry are identified and measured in the disk morphology (Kalas & Jewitt 1995). The observed tilt of the midplane may result from a small inclination (<= 5o) of the disk to our line of sight, combined with a non-isotropic scattering phase function. The remaining four asymmetries indicate a non-axisymmetric distribution of orbiting dust particles between 150 and 800 AU projected radius. The disk may have been gravitationally perturbed in the past 102 to 103 years, though a perturbing agent is not detected. A nebulosity imaged near the B5V double star BD +31o 643 is identified as a circumstellar disk candidate based on its morphological similarity to β Pic and our model disks (Kalas & Jewitt 1997). The disk has a position angle 131o, a projected radius of ~2000 AU, an inclination of i

  13. High-precision Radio and Infrared Astrometry of LSPM J1314+1320AB. II. Testing Pre-main-sequence Models at the Lithium Depletion Boundary with Dynamical Masses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dupuy, Trent J.; Forbrich, Jan; Rizzuto, Aaron; Mann, Andrew W.; Aller, Kimberly; Liu, Michael C.; Kraus, Adam L.; Berger, Edo

    2016-08-01

    We present novel tests of pre-main-sequence models based on individual dynamical masses for the M7 binary LSPM J1314+1320AB. Joint analysis of Keck adaptive optics astrometric monitoring along with Very Long Baseline Array radio data from a companion paper yield component masses of 92.8 ± 0.6 M Jup (0.0885 ± 0.0006 M ⊙) and 91.7 ± 1.0 M Jup (0.0875 ± 0.0010 M ⊙) and a parallactic distance of 17.249 ± 0.013 pc. We find component luminosities consistent with the system being coeval at 80.8 ± 2.5 Myr, according to BHAC15 evolutionary models. The presence of lithium is consistent with model predictions, marking the first test of the theoretical lithium depletion boundary using ultracool dwarfs of known mass. However, we find that the evolutionary model-derived average effective temperature (2950 ± 5 K) is 180 K hotter than that given by a spectral type–{T}{eff} relation based on BT-Settl models (2770 ± 100 K). We suggest that the dominant source of this discrepancy is model radii being too small by ≈13%. In a test mimicking the typical application of models by observers, we derive masses on the H-R diagram using luminosity and BT-Settl temperature. The estimated masses are lower by {46}-19+16 % (2.0σ) than we measure dynamically and would imply that this is a system of ≈50 M Jup brown dwarfs, highlighting the large systematic errors possible in H-R diagram properties. This is the first time masses have been measured for ultracool (≥M6) dwarfs displaying spectral signatures of low gravity. Based on features in the infrared, LSPM J1314+1320AB appears to have higher gravity than typical Pleiades and AB Dor members, opposite the expectation given its younger age. The components of LSPM J1314+1320AB are now the nearest, lowest mass pre-main-sequence stars with direct mass measurements. Data presented herein were obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the

  14. Condition for Convective Cores in Main Sequence Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monteiro, M. J. P. F. G.

    1990-09-01

    The aim of this work is to find the condition for the existence of convective cores in homogenous main sequence stars where the opacity per unit mass is $k=k_0ρα T-β and the energy generation rate per unit mass is ɛ=ɛ0ρ Tη (ρ and T being the density and the temperature, respectively). Numerical models of stars with different values of α, β and η are constructed and the condition for the existence of a convective core in terms of the relation between α, β and η determined. Forty points η=η(α,β) are determined for αin[0,2] and βin[0,4] and the condition is found to be η = - 3.3294; α + 2.0243; β + 1.8393

  15. Orbital motion in pre-main sequence binaries

    SciTech Connect

    Schaefer, G. H.; Prato, L.; Simon, M.; Patience, J.

    2014-06-01

    We present results from our ongoing program to map the visual orbits of pre-main sequence (PMS) binaries in the Taurus star forming region using adaptive optics imaging at the Keck Observatory. We combine our results with measurements reported in the literature to analyze the orbital motion for each binary. We present preliminary orbits for DF Tau, T Tau S, ZZ Tau, and the Pleiades binary HBC 351. Seven additional binaries show curvature in their relative motion. Currently, we can place lower limits on the orbital periods for these systems; full solutions will be possible with more orbital coverage. Five other binaries show motion that is indistinguishable from linear motion. We suspect that these systems are bound and might show curvature with additional measurements in the future. The observations reported herein lay critical groundwork toward the goal of measuring precise masses for low-mass PMS stars.

  16. Spatially Resolved Star Formation Main Sequence of Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cano-Díaz, M.; Sánchez, S. F.; Zibetti, S.; Ascaribar, Y.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Ziegler, B.; González-Delgado, R. M.; Walcher, C. J.; García-Benito, R.; Mast, D.; Mendoza-Pérez, M. A.; Falcón-Barroso, J.; Galbany, L.; Husemann, B.; Kehring, C.; Marino, R. A.; Sánchez-Blázquez, P.; López-Cobá, C.; López-Sánchez, A. R.; Vilchez, J. M.

    2016-06-01

    The relation known as Star Formation Main Sequence (SFMS) of galaxies is defined in terms of stellar mass and star formation rate. This approximately linear relation has been proven to be tight and holds for several star formation indicators at local and at high redshifts. In this talk I will show recent results about our first attempts to study the Spatially Resolved SFMS, using integral field spectroscopic data, coming primarily from the CALIFA survey. I will present as a main result that a local SFMS is found with a slope and zero point of 0.72 +/ 0.04, and -7.95 +/ 0.29 respectively. I will also discuss the influence of characteristics such as environment and morphology in the relation. Finally I will present some extensions of these results for data com in from the MaNGA survey.

  17. Detecting Mass Loss in Main Belt Asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandberg, Erik; Rajagopal, Jayadev; Ridgway, Susan E.; Kotulla, Ralf C.; Valdes, Francisco; Allen, Lori

    2016-01-01

    Sandberg, E., Rajagopal, J., Ridgway, S.E, Kotulla, R., Valdes, F., Allen, L.The Dark Energy Camera (DECam) on the 4m Blanco telescope at the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO) is being used for a survey of Near Earth Objects (NEOs). Here we attempt to identify mass loss in main belt asteroids (MBAs) from these data. A primary motivation is to understand the role that asteroids may play in supplying dust and gas for debris disks. This work focuses on finding methods to automatically pick out asteroids that have qualities indicating possible mass loss. Two methods were chosen: looking for flux above a certain threshold in the asteroid's radial profile, and comparing its PSF to that of a point source. After sifting through 490 asteroids, several have passed these tests and should be followed up with a more rigorous analysis.Sandberg was supported by the NOAO/KPNO Research Experience for Undergraduates (REU) Program which is funded by the National Science Foundation Research Experiences for Undergraduates Program (AST-1262829)

  18. Atomic masses from (mainly) experimental data

    SciTech Connect

    Wapstra, A.H.; Audi, G.; Hoekstra, R.

    1988-07-01

    The present list of atomic masses is an update from the 1983 Atomic Mass Table. Two categories of mass values are represented in the tabulation: those derived purely from experimental data, and those calculated with the help of systematic trends also. In order to improve the reliability of the mass values of the latter category, a novel method of extrapolation has been added capitalizing on new formulas for neutron and proton pairing energies. copyright 1988 Academic Press, Inc.

  19. Impact of initial models and variable accretion rates on the pre-main-sequence evolution of massive and intermediate-mass stars and the early evolution of H II regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haemmerlé, Lionel; Peters, Thomas

    2016-05-01

    Massive star formation requires the accretion of gas at high rate while the star is already bright. Its actual luminosity depends sensitively on the stellar structure. We compute pre-main-sequence tracks for massive and intermediate-mass stars with variable accretion rates and study the evolution of stellar radius, effective temperature and ionizing luminosity, starting at 2 M⊙ with convective or radiative structures. The radiative case shows a much stronger swelling of the protostar for high accretion rates than the convective case. For radiative structures, the star is very sensitive to the accretion rate and reacts quickly to accretion bursts, leading to considerable changes in photospheric properties on time-scales as short as 100-1000 yr. The evolution for convective structures is much less influenced by the instantaneous accretion rate, and produces a monotonically increasing ionizing flux that can be many orders of magnitude smaller than in the radiative case. For massive stars, it results in a delay of the H II region expansion by up to 10 000 yr. In the radiative case, the H II region can potentially be engulfed by the star during the swelling, which never happens in the convective case. We conclude that the early stellar structure has a large impact on the radiative feedback during the pre-main-sequence evolution of massive protostars and introduces an important uncertainty that should be taken into account. Because of their lower effective temperatures, our convective models may hint at a solution to an observed discrepancy between the luminosity distribution functions of massive young stellar objects and compact H II regions.

  20. Three eclipsing white dwarf plus main sequence binaries from SDSS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pyrzas, S.; Gänsicke, B. T.; Marsh, T. R.; Aungwerojwit, A.; Rebassa-Mansergas, A.; Southworth, J.; Rodríguez-Gil, P.; Schreiber, M. R.; Koester, D.

    2009-06-01

    We identify SDSS 0110+1326, SDSS 0303+0054 and SDSS 1435+3733 as three eclipsing white dwarf plus main sequence binaries from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, and report on their follow-up observations. Orbital periods for the three systems are established through multi-season photometry. Time-resolved spectroscopic observations lead to the determination of the radial velocities of the secondary stars. A decomposition technique of the SDSS spectra is used to estimate the surface gravities and effective temperatures of the white dwarfs, as well as the spectral types of the secondaries. By combining the constraints from the spectral decomposition, the radial velocity data and the modeling of the systems' light curves, we determine the physical parameters of the stellar components. Two of the white dwarfs are of low mass (Mwd ~ 0.4 Modot), while the third white dwarf is unusually massive (MWD ~ 0.8-0.9 Modot) for a post-common envelope system.

  1. Stellar winds on the main-sequence. I. Wind model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnstone, C. P.; Güdel, M.; Lüftinger, T.; Toth, G.; Brott, I.

    2015-05-01

    Aims: We develop a method for estimating the properties of stellar winds for low-mass main-sequence stars between masses of 0.4 M⊙ and 1.1 M⊙ at a range of distances from the star. Methods: We use 1D thermal pressure driven hydrodynamic wind models run using the Versatile Advection Code. Using in situ measurements of the solar wind, we produce models for the slow and fast components of the solar wind. We consider two radically different methods for scaling the base temperature of the wind to other stars: in Model A, we assume that wind temperatures are fundamentally linked to coronal temperatures, and in Model B, we assume that the sound speed at the base of the wind is a fixed fraction of the escape velocity. In Paper II of this series, we use observationally constrained rotational evolution models to derive wind mass loss rates. Results: Our model for the solar wind provides an excellent description of the real solar wind far from the solar surface, but is unrealistic within the solar corona. We run a grid of 1200 wind models to derive relations for the wind properties as a function of stellar mass, radius, and wind temperature. Using these results, we explore how wind properties depend on stellar mass and rotation. Conclusions: Based on our two assumptions about the scaling of the wind temperature, we argue that there is still significant uncertainty in how these properties should be determined. Resolution of this uncertainty will probably require both the application of solar wind physics to other stars and detailed observational constraints on the properties of stellar winds. In the final section of this paper, we give step by step instructions for how to apply our results to calculate the stellar wind conditions far from the stellar surface.

  2. Observations of Disks Around Pre--Main-Sequence Binary Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jensen, Eric L. N.

    1996-08-01

    This work is an observational study of disks around low-mass, pre--main-sequence binary stars. Its purpose is to study the extent of binary-disk interactions and to determine whether binaries modify the structure of their associated disks. We present 800 micron continuum photometry of pre--main-sequence binary stars with projected separations ap < 150 AU in the Scorpius-Ophiuchus and Taurus-Auriga star-forming regions. Combining our observations with published 1300 micron continuum photometry, we find that binaries with 1 < ap < 50--100 AU have lower submillimeter continuum fluxes than wider binaries or single stars with a confidence level of greater than 99%, implying reduced disk masses. Thus, binary companions with separations less than 50--100 AU significantly influence the nature of associated disks. A simple model suggests that large gaps in disks with surface densities typical of wide-binary or single-star disks can reduce submillimeter fluxes to levels consistent with the observed limits. This model shows that the present submillimeter flux upper limits do not necessarily imply a large reduction in disk surface densities outside of cleared gaps. IRAS 60 micron fluxes show that most binaries have at least one circumstellar disk, with typical lower limits of Mdisk = 10-5 Modot. Thus, circumstellar disk surface densities are no more than two orders of magnitude smaller than those of typical disks around single stars. Our upper limits on submillimeter fluxes place upper limits of 0.005 Modot on circumbinary disk masses among binaries with 1 < ap < 50--100 AU; however, circumbinary disks are found around some binaries with separations less than a few AU null. We then present λ = 1.3 and 3 mm aperture synthesis imaging of the multiple T Tauri system UZ Tauri. UZ Tau is a hierarchical quadruple composed of a sub-AU spectroscopic binary, UZ Tau E, 530 AU distant from a 50 AU binary, UZ Tau W null. Both dust and gas emission from the 50 AU binary are at least a

  3. Infalling Planetesimals in Pre-Main Sequence Stellar Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grady, Carol A.; Sitko, Michael L.; Russell, Ray W.; Lynch, David K.; Hanner, Martha S.; Perez, Mario R.; Bjorkman, Karen S.; DeWinter, Dolf

    1999-01-01

    These are exciting times in the study of planetary system formation with a steadily expanding inventory of exo-planet detections, and imaging of dust disks around nearby young and main sequence stars. While these discoveries imply that our Solar System is far from unique, linking the data for the protoplanetary and debris disks to mature planetary systems requires a demonstration that disk evolution proceeds via planetesimal production and growth to the formation of planets. Theoretical studies of planet formation indicate that planetesimals grow, via runaway accretion, to lunar-sized (approx. = 2000 km) embryos in 10(exp 5) years. Recent gas giant planet formation studies have suggested that most of the action in planet formation occurs over 1-16 Myr, with formation of planets similar to Jupiter in t less than 10 Myr, within the time interval that infrared (IR) and optical emission line studies have demonstrated that circumstellar material remains detectable around both solar mass and intermediate mass stars. Direct imaging of exo-planetesimals is not feasible with current and foreseeable technology, since such bodies have substantially less surface area than micron-sized grains distributed in a disk, and thus are inefficient IR emitters. However, such bodies may be indirectly detectable.

  4. Infrared Mapping of the Dust Around Main Sequence Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heinrichsen, I.; Walker, H.; Klaas, U.; Sylvester, R.

    1998-01-01

    The photopolarimeter on ISO (ISOPHOT) has been used to investigate the dust discs around the four prototype Vega-like stars and several main sequence stars with excess infrared emission from IRAS data.

  5. Habitable Zones of Post-Main Sequence Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramirez, Ramses M.; Kaltenegger, Lisa

    2016-05-01

    Once a star leaves the main sequence and becomes a red giant, its Habitable Zone (HZ) moves outward, promoting detectable habitable conditions at larger orbital distances. We use a one-dimensional radiative-convective climate and stellar evolutionary models to calculate post-MS HZ distances for a grid of stars from 3700 to 10,000 K (˜M1 to A5 stellar types) for different stellar metallicities. The post-MS HZ limits are comparable to the distances of known directly imaged planets. We model the stellar as well as planetary atmospheric mass loss during the Red Giant Branch (RGB) and Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) phases for super-Moons to super-Earths. A planet can stay between 200 million years up to 9 Gyr in the post-MS HZ for our hottest and coldest grid stars, respectively, assuming solar metallicity. These numbers increase for increased stellar metallicity. Total atmospheric erosion only occurs for planets in close-in orbits. The post-MS HZ orbital distances are within detection capabilities of direct imaging techniques.

  6. THE HABITABLE ZONES OF PRE-MAIN-SEQUENCE STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Ramirez, Ramses M.; Kaltenegger, Lisa

    2014-12-20

    We calculate the pre-main-sequence habitable zone (HZ) for stars of spectral classes F-M. The spatial distribution of liquid water and its change during the pre-main-sequence phase of protoplanetary systems is important for understanding how planets become habitable. Such worlds are interesting targets for future missions because the coolest stars could provide habitable conditions for up to 2.5 billion years post-accretion. Moreover, for a given star type, planetary systems are more easily resolved because of higher pre-main-sequence stellar luminosities, resulting in larger planet-star separation for cool stars than is the case for the traditional main-sequence (MS) HZ. We use one-dimensional radiative-convective climate and stellar evolutionary models to calculate pre-main-sequence HZ distances for F1-M8 stellar types. We also show that accreting planets that are later located in the traditional MS HZ orbiting stars cooler than a K5 (including the full range of M stars) receive stellar fluxes that exceed the runaway greenhouse threshold, and thus may lose substantial amounts of water initially delivered to them. We predict that M-star planets need to initially accrete more water than Earth did, or, alternatively, have additional water delivered later during the long pre-MS phase to remain habitable. Our findings are also consistent with recent claims that Venus lost its water during accretion.

  7. Prof. Hayashi's work on the pre-main sequence evolution and brown dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakano, Takenori

    2012-09-01

    Prof. Hayashi's work on the evolution of stars in the pre-main sequence stage is reviewed. The historical background and the process of finding the Hayashi phase are mentioned. The work on the evolution of low-mass stars is also reviewed including the determination of the bottom of the main sequence and evolution of brown dwarfs, and comparison is made with the other works in the same period.

  8. Submillimeter Imaging of Dust Around Main Sequence Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jewitt, David

    1998-01-01

    This grant was to image circumstellar dust disks surrounding main-sequence stars. The delivery of the SCUBA detector we had planned to use for this work was delayed repeatedly, leading us to undertake a majority of the observations with the UKT14 submillimeter detector at the JCMT (James Clerk Maxwell Telescope) and optical imagers and a coronagraph at the University of Hawaii 2.2-m telescope. Major findings under this grant include: (1) We discovered 5 asymmetries in the beta Pictoris regenerated dust disk. The discovery of these asymmetries was a surprise, since smearing due to Keplerian shear should eliminate most such features on timescales of a few thousand years. One exception is the "wing tilt" asymmetry, which we interpret as due to the scattering phase function of dust disk particles. From the wing tilt and a model of the phase function, we find a disk plane inclination to the line of sight of < 5 degrees. Other asymmetries (e.g. the butterfly asymmetry) suggest a disk that has been recently disturbed. We searched for possible nearby perturbers but found no clear candidates. Low mass stars (M dwarfs) and brown dwarfs would have fallen beneath the sensitivity threshhold of our survey, however. (2) We calculated a set of disk models to assess the detectability of dust disks around stars as a function of (a) distance, (b) disk, inclination (c) dust optical depth/mass, and (d) imaging resolution. These models guided our observational strategy on Mauna Kea. (3) We performed a coronagraphic survey of approx. 100 main-sequence stars in search of additional examples of circumstellar disks. The best new candidate disk, around the 5 M(sun) star BD+31deg.643, is distinguished by its large extent (few x 10( exp 3) AU). This disk, if real, cannot be rotationally supported. We suggest that the dust particles are ejected from a smaller, unseen disk (Kuiper Belt?) by strong radiation pressure forces due to the high luminosity central star. (4) SCUBA images of

  9. The Main-Sequence Stars of the Sagittarius Dwarf Galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fahlman, G. G.; Mandushev, G.; Richer, H. B.; Thompson, I. B.; Sivaramakrishnan, A.

    1996-03-01

    The Sagittarius dwarf galaxy (SDG) is visible in the background field of the globular cluster M55. We present a deep VI color-magnitude diagram (CMD) of M55, which shows a prominent sequence of stars some 3.5 mag below the cluster main sequence. Through a comparison with a similar CMD for the globular cluster M4, we show that the M55 background field is not the Galactic bulge or spheroid. The SDG main sequence is almost as blue as that of M55 and thus, if it is metal rich, it must be younger than M55, a typical old Galactic globular cluster. The results from isochrone fitting indicate that the age of the SDG is 10--14 Gyr, similar to the ages inferred for the two associated globular clusters Ter 7 and Arp 2.

  10. A DOUBLE MAIN SEQUENCE IN THE GLOBULAR CLUSTER NGC 6397

    SciTech Connect

    Milone, A. P.; Aparicio, A.; Marino, A. F.; Piotto, G.; Bedin, L. R.; Anderson, J.; Cassisi, S.; Rich, R. M. E-mail: aparicio@iac.es E-mail: giampaolo.piotto@unipd.it E-mail: bedin@stsci.edu E-mail: rmr@astro.ucla.edu

    2012-01-20

    High-precision multi-band Hubble Space Telescope (HST) photometry reveals that the main sequence of the globular cluster NGC 6397 splits into two components, containing {approx}30% and {approx}70% of the stars. This double sequence is consistent with the idea that the cluster hosts two stellar populations: (1) a primordial population that has a composition similar to field stars, containing {approx}30% of the stars, and (2) a second generation with enhanced sodium and nitrogen, depleted carbon and oxygen, and a slightly enhanced helium abundance ({Delta}Y {approx} 0.01). We examine the color difference between the two sequences across a variety of color baselines and find that the second sequence is anomalously faint in m{sub F336W}. Theoretical isochrones indicate that this could be due to NH depletion.

  11. PRE-MAIN-SEQUENCE STARS IN THE CEPHEUS FLARE REGION

    SciTech Connect

    Kun, Maria; Balog, Zoltan; Kenyon, Scott J.; Mamajek, Eric E.; Gutermuth, Robert A.

    2009-12-01

    We present results of optical spectroscopic and BVR {sub C} I {sub C} photometric observations of 77 pre-main-sequence (PMS) stars in the Cepheus flare region. A total of 64 of these are newly confirmed PMS stars, originally selected from various published candidate lists. We estimate effective temperatures and luminosities for the PMS stars, and comparing the results with PMS evolutionary models, we estimate stellar masses of 0.2-2.4 M {sub sun} and stellar ages of 0.1-15 Myr. Among the PMS stars, we identify 15 visual binaries with separations of 2-10 arcsec. From archival IRAS, Two Micron All Sky Survey, and Spitzer data, we construct their spectral energy distributions (SEDs) and classify 5% of the stars as Class I, 10% as Flat SED, 60% as Class II, and 3% as Class III young stellar objects. We identify 12 classical T Tauri stars and two weak-line T Tauri stars as members of NGC 7023, with a mean age of 1.6 Myr. The 13 PMS stars associated with L1228 belong to three small aggregates: RNO 129, L1228A, and L1228S. The age distribution of the 17 PMS stars associated with L1251 suggests that star formation has propagated with the expansion of the Cepheus flare shell. We detect sparse aggregates of {approx}6-7 Myr old PMS stars around the dark clouds L1177 and L1219, at a distance of {approx}400 pc. Three T Tauri stars appear to be associated with the Herbig Ae star SV Cep at a distance of 600 pc. Our results confirm that the molecular complex in the Cepheus flare region contains clouds of various distances and star-forming histories.

  12. Finding the Onset of Convection in Main Sequence Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, Theodore

    2003-01-01

    The primary goal of the work performed under this grant was to locate, if possible, the onset of subphotospheric convection zones in normal main sequence stars by using the presence of emission in high temperature lines in far ultraviolet spectra from the FUSE spacecraft as a proxy for convection. The change in stellar structure represented by this boundary between radiative and convective stars has always been difficult to find by other empirical means. A search was conducted through observations of a sample of A-type stars, which were somewhat hotter and more massive than the Sun, and which were carefully chosen to bridge the theoretically expected radiative/convective boundary line along the main sequence.

  13. Dust in beta PIC / VEGA Main Sequence Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Backman, D. E.

    1996-09-01

    The beta Pictoris disk is an especially dense and fortuitously edge-on arrangement of solid material around a nearby A5 main sequence star, a prime example of a new class of objects discovered by IRAS. Three similar systems (alpha Lyrae = Vega, A0; alpha Piscis Austrinus = Fomalhaut, A3; and epsilon Eridani, K2) have been resolved in the IR or sub-mm. The grain temperatures in the prototype systems are 50-150 K, implying disk scales of a few x 100 AU. Each has a central zone of relatively low density with size similar to our solar system's planetary zone. Lifetime arguments imply that the dust is not primordial but must be replenished from larger bodies. The dust in the resolved systems appears to lie in disks in the stellar equatorial planes based on a comparison between the shapes of the emitting regions and values of stellar rotational v sin(i). As many as 100 other nearby main sequence stars have far-IR excesses in IRAS and ISO data. Circumstellar dust appears to be common among main sequence stars and may persist well beyond the protoplanetary stage. At the same time, some nearby systems with especially dense disks may be very young stars with disks still clearing. Spectra of the material close to beta Pic and 51 Oph show 10 mu m silicate emission mineralogically resembling the grains in comet comae. Silicate and organic hydrocarbon emission has been observed from other systems. The best solar system analog in scale and morphology to the main sequence disks is the Kuiper Belt. Ground-based and HST observations have revealed a population of planetesimals in the Kuiper Belt, allowing the equilibrium dust population and evolutionary status of the extrasolar systems to be compared with the KB. The IR emission from the zodiacal and KB dust components of our solar system would be much easier to detect externally than radiation from the planets themselves.

  14. Primordial stellar evolution - The pre-main-sequence phase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahler, S. W.; Palla, F.; Salpeter, E. E.

    1986-01-01

    The quasi-static contraction of primordial stars composed of pure hydrogen and helium gas is studied by following numerically the evolution of a star of five solar masses from the end of protostellar accretion to the onset of hydrogen burning. Although the protostellar core of this mass is radiatively stable and undergoing nonhomologous contraction, its large surface area and luminosity force the star to a partially convective, homologously contracting state within only 100 yr. Deuterium later ignites at an off-center temperature maximum but fails to produce interior convection. The star follows a conventional premain sequence track in the HR diagram, reaching the ZAMS after 1.2 million yr, with a luminosity of 880 solar luminosities and a radius of 1.2 solar radii.

  15. 21. General oblique view of main central building mass looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. General oblique view of main central building mass looking to southeast, showing meeting of north and central building elements. - Fort Ord, Soldiers' Club, California State Highway 1 near Eighth Street, Seaside, Monterey County, CA

  16. Ultraviolet emission from main-sequence companions of AGB stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortiz, Roberto; Guerrero, Martín A.

    2016-09-01

    Although the majority of known binary asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars are symbiotic systems (i.e. with a white dwarf as a secondary star), main-sequence companions of AGB stars can be more numerous, even though they are more difficult to find because the primary high luminosity hampers the detection of the companion at visual wavelengths. However, in the ultraviolet the flux emitted by a secondary with Teff > 5500 ˜ 6000 K may prevail over that of the primary, and then it can be used to search for candidates to binary AGB stars. In this work, theoretical atmosphere models are used to calculate the UV excess in the GALEX near- and far-UV bands due to a main-sequence companion. After analysing a sample of confirmed binary AGB stars, we propose as a criterium for binarity: (1) the detection of the AGB star in the GALEX far-UV band and/or (2) a GALEX near-UV observed-to-predicted flux ratio >20. These criteria have been applied to a volume-limited sample of AGB stars within 500 pc of the Sun; 34 out of the sample of 58 AGB stars (˜60 per cent) fulfill them, implying to have a main-sequence companion of spectral type earlier than K0. The excess in the GALEX near- and far-UV bands cannot be attributed to a single temperature companion star, thus suggesting that the UV emission of the secondary might be absorbed by the extended atmosphere and circumstellar envelope of the primary or that UV emission is produced in accretion flows.

  17. Evolution of Pre-Main Sequence Accretion Disks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartmann, Lee W.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this project is to develop a comprehensive global picture of the physical conditions in, and evolutionary timescales of, pre-main sequence accretion disks. The results of this work will help constrain the initial conditions for planet formation. To this end we are developing much larger samples of 3-10 Myr-old stars to provide better empirical constraints on protoplanetary disk evolution; measuring disk accretion rates in these systems; and constructing detailed model disk structures consistent with observations to infer physical conditions such as grain growth in protoplanetary disks.

  18. Evolution of Pre-Main Sequence Accretion Disks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartmann, Lee W.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this project is to develop a comprehensive global picture of the physical conditions in, and evolutionary timescales of, pre-main sequence accretion disks. The results of this work will help constrain the initial conditions for planet formation. To this end we are developing much larger samples of 3-10 Myr-old stars to provide better empirical constraints on protoplanetary disk evolution; measuring disk accretion rates in these systems; and constructing detailed model disk structures consistent with observations to infer physical conditions such as grain growth in protoplanetary disks.

  19. Cool circumstellar matter around nearby main-sequence stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, H. J.; Wolstencroft, R. D.

    1988-01-01

    Stars are presented which have characteristics similar to Vega and other main-sequence stars with cool dust disks, based on the IRAS Point Source Catalog fluxes. The objects are selected to have a 60-micron/100-micron ratio similar to Vega, Beta Pic, Alpha PsA, and Epsilon Eri, and they are also required to show evidence of extension in the IRAS Working Survey Database. The fluxes are modeled using a blackbody energy distribution. The temperatures derived range from 50 to 650 K. The diameters of the dust disks observed by IRAS are estimated.

  20. Environmental impact analysis for the main accidental sequences of ignitor

    SciTech Connect

    Carpignano, A.; Francabandiera, S.; Vella, R.; Zucchetti, M.

    1996-12-31

    A safety analysis study has been applied to the Ignitor machine using Probabilistic Safety Assessment. The main initiating events have been identified, and accident sequences have been studied by means of traditional methods such as Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA), Fault Trees (FT) and Event Trees (ET). The consequences of the radioactive environmental releases have been assessed in terms of Effective Dose Equivalent (EDEs) to the Most Exposed Individuals (MEI) of the chosen site, by means of a population dose code. Results point out the low enviromental impact of the machine. 13 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  1. MAIN-SEQUENCE STAR POPULATIONS IN THE VIRGO OVERDENSITY REGION

    SciTech Connect

    Jerjen, H.; Da Costa, G. S.; Tisserand, P.; Willman, B.; Arimoto, N.; Okamoto, S.; Mateo, M.; Saviane, I.; Walsh, S.; Geha, M.; Jordan, A.; Zoccali, M.; Olszewski, E.; Walker, M.; Kroupa, P.

    2013-05-20

    We present deep color-magnitude diagrams (CMDs) for two Subaru Suprime-Cam fields in the Virgo Stellar Stream (VSS)/Virgo Overdensity (VOD) and compare them to a field centered on the highest concentration of Sagittarius (Sgr) Tidal Stream stars in the leading arm, Branch A of the bifurcation. A prominent population of main-sequence stars is detected in all three fields and can be traced as faint as g Almost-Equal-To 24 mag. Using theoretical isochrone fitting, we derive an age of 9.1{sup +1.0}{sub -1.1} Gyr, a median abundance of [Fe/H] = -0.70{sup +0.15}{sub -0.20} dex, and a heliocentric distance of 30.9 {+-} 3.0 kpc for the main sequence of the Sgr Stream Branch A. The dominant main-sequence populations in the two VSS/VOD fields ({Lambda}{sub Sun} Almost-Equal-To 265 Degree-Sign , B{sub Sun} Almost-Equal-To 13 Degree-Sign ) are located at a mean distance of 23.3 {+-} 1.6 kpc and have an age of {approx}8.2 Gyr, and an abundance of [Fe/H] = -0.67{sup +0.16}{sub -0.12} dex, similar to the Sgr Stream stars. These statistically robust parameters, derived from the photometry of 260 main-sequence stars, are also in good agreement with the age of the main population in the Sgr dwarf galaxy (8.0 {+-} 1.5 Gyr). They also agree with the peak in the metallicity distribution of 2-3 Gyr old M giants, [Fe/H] Almost-Equal-To -0.6 dex, in the Sgr north leading arm. We then compare the results from the VSS/VOD fields with the Sgr Tidal Stream model by Law and Majewski based on a triaxial Galactic halo shape that is empirically calibrated with Sloan Digital Sky Survey Sgr A-branch and Two Micron All Sky Survey M-giant stars. We find that the most prominent feature in the CMDs, the main-sequence population at 23 kpc, is not explained by the model. Instead the model predicts in these directions a low-density filamentary structure of Sgr debris stars at {approx}9 kpc and a slightly higher concentration of Sgr stars spread over a heliocentric distance range of 42-53 kpc. At best

  2. Pre-Main-Sequence Star Candidates in the Bar of the Large Magellanic Cloud

    PubMed

    Beaulieu; Lamers; Grison; Julien; Lanciaux; Ferlet; Vidal-Madjar; Bertin; Maurice; Prevot; Gry; Guibert; Moreau; Tajhmady; Aubourg; Bareyre; de Kat J; Gros; Laurent; Lachieze-Rey; Lesquoy; Magneville; Milsztajn; Moscoso; Queinnec; Renault; Rich; Spiro; Vigroux; Zylberajch; Ansari; Cavalier; Moniez

    1996-05-17

    Candidate pre-main-sequence stars were observed in the bar of the Large Magellanic Cloud during the search for dark matter in the galactic halo. Seven blue stars of apparent visual magnitude 15 to 17 had irregular photometric variations and hydrogen emission lines in their optical spectra, which suggested that these stars are pre-main-sequence stars of about 10 solar masses. These stars are slightly more massive and definitely more luminous than are Herbig AeBe pre-main-sequence stars in our own galaxy. Continued observations of these very young stars from another galaxy, which are probably at the pre-hydrogen-burning stage, should provide important clues about early stages of star formation. PMID:8662586

  3. Granulation in a main-sequence F-type star

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, G. D.

    1980-01-01

    The modal approach developed by Nelson and Musman (1977) is used to investigate convection in an F-type main-sequence star (effective temperature of 7300 K, g = 10,000 cm per sec per sec). The convective velocities and intensity contrasts are found to be larger than in the sun. Even though the convective flux is less than 1% of the total flux at a mean optical depth of unity, the spectral-energy distribution is strongly reddened as a result of the fluctuating opacity. This has important implications in the conversion scale from observed colors to effective temperature. The scale of the surface granulation is expected to be in the range 1000-5000 km. Calculations of the combined H-He I and He II convection zones support the prediction of Toomre et al. (1976) that the stable region between the zones is well mixed

  4. Evolution of Pre-Main Sequence Accretion Disks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartmann, Lee W.

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this project was to develop a comprehensive global picture of the physical conditions in, and evolutionary timescales of, pre-main sequence accretion disks. The results of this work will help constrain the initial conditions for planet formation. To this end we: (1) Developed detailed calculations of disk structure to study physical conditions and investigate the observational effects of grain growth in T Tauri disks; (2) Studied the dusty emission and accretion rates in older disk systems, with ages closer to the expected epoch of (giant) planet formation at 3-10 Myr, and (3) Began a project to develop much larger samples of 3-10 Myr-old stars to provide better empirical constraints on protoplanetary disk evolution.

  5. Evolution of Pre-Main Sequence Accretion Disks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartmann, Lee W.

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this project is to develop a comprehensive global picture of the physical conditions in, and evolutionary timescales of, pre-main sequence accretion disks. The results of this work will help constrain the initial conditions for planet formation. To this end we plan to: (1) Develop much larger samples of 3-10 Myr-old stars to provide better empirical constraints on protoplanetary disk evolution; (2) Study the dusty emission and accretion rates in these systems, with ages closer to the expected epoch of (giant) planet formation at 3-10 Myr; and (3) Develop detailed model disk structures consistent with observations to infer physical conditions in protoplanetary disks and to constrain possible grain growth as the first stage of planetesimal formation.

  6. Protein Sequencing with Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziady, Assem G.; Kinter, Michael

    The recent introduction of electrospray ionization techniques that are suitable for peptides and whole proteins has allowed for the design of mass spectrometric protocols that provide accurate sequence information for proteins. The advantages gained by these approaches over traditional Edman Degradation sequencing include faster analysis and femtomole, sometimes attomole, sensitivity. The ability to efficiently identify proteins has allowed investigators to conduct studies on their differential expression or modification in response to various treatments or disease states. In this chapter, we discuss the use of electrospray tandem mass spectrometry, a technique whereby protein-derived peptides are subjected to fragmentation in the gas phase, revealing sequence information for the protein. This powerful technique has been instrumental for the study of proteins and markers associated with various disorders, including heart disease, cancer, and cystic fibrosis. We use the study of protein expression in cystic fibrosis as an example.

  7. Pre- and main-sequence evolution of solar activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walter, Frederick M.; Barry, Don C.

    1991-01-01

    The magnetic activity on single solarlike stars declines with stellar age. This has important consequences for the influence of the sun on the early solar system. What is meant by stellar activity, and how it is measured, is reviewed. Stellar activity on the premain-sequence phase of evolution is discussed; the classical T Tauri stars do not exhibit solarlike activity, while the naked T Tauri stars do. The emission surface fluxes of the naked T Tauri stars are similar to those of the youngest main-sequence G stars. The best representation for solarlike stars is a decay proportional to exp(A x t exp 0.5), where A is a function of line excitation temperature. From these decay laws, one can determine the interdependences of the activity, age, and rotation periods. The fluxes of ionizing photons at the earth early in its history are discussed; there was sufficient fluence to account for the observed isotopic ratios of the noble gases.

  8. W134: A new pre-main-sequence double-lined spectroscopic binary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Padgett, Deborah L.; Stapelfeldt, Karl R.

    1994-01-01

    We report the discovery that the pre-main-sequence star Walker 134 in the young cluster NGC 2264 is a double-lined spectroscopic binary. Both components are G stars with strong Li I 6708 A absorption lines. Twenty radial velocity measurements have been used to determined the orbital elements of this system. The orbit has a period of 6.3532 +/- 0.0012 days and is circular within the limits of our velocity resolution; e less than 0.01. The total system mass is stellar mass sin(exp 3) i = 3.16 solar mass with a mass ratio of 1.04. Estimates for the orbit inclination angle and stellar radii place the system near the threshold for eclipse observability; howerver, no decrease in brightness was seen during two attempts at photometric monitoring. The circular orbit of W 134 fills an important gap in the period distribution of pre-main-sequence binaries and thereby constrains the effectiveness of tidal orbital circularization during the pre-main sequence.

  9. Possible evidence for metal accretion onto the surfaces of metal-poor main-sequence stars

    SciTech Connect

    Hattori, Kohei; Yoshii, Yuzuru; Beers, Timothy C.; Carollo, Daniela; Lee, Young Sun

    2014-04-01

    The entire evolution of the Milky Way, including its mass-assembly and star-formation history, is imprinted onto the chemo-dynamical distribution function of its member stars, f(x, v, [X/H]), in the multi-dimensional phase space spanned by position, velocity, and elemental abundance ratios. In particular, the chemo-dynamical distribution functions for low-mass stars (e.g., G- or K-type dwarfs) are precious tracers of the earliest stages of the Milky Way's formation, since their main-sequence lifetimes approach or exceed the age of the universe. A basic tenet of essentially all previous analyses is that the stellar metallicity, usually parameterized as [Fe/H], is conserved over time for main-sequence stars (at least those that have not been polluted due to mass transfer from binary companions). If this holds true, any correlations between metallicity and kinematics for long-lived main-sequence stars of different masses, effective temperatures, or spectral types must strictly be the same, since they reflect the same mass-assembly and star-formation histories. By analyzing a sample of nearby metal-poor halo and thick-disk stars on the main sequence, taken from Data Release 8 of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, we find that the median metallicity of G-type dwarfs is systematically higher (by about 0.2 dex) than that of K-type dwarfs having the same median rotational velocity about the Galactic center. If it can be confirmed, this finding may invalidate the long-accepted assumption that the atmospheric metallicities of long-lived stars are conserved over time.

  10. Multiple main sequence of globular clusters as a result of inhomogeneous big bang nucleosynthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Moriya, Takashi; Shigeyama, Toshikazu

    2010-02-15

    A new mechanism for enhancing the helium abundance in the blue main sequence stars of {omega} Centauri and NGC 2808 is investigated. We suggest that helium enhancement was caused by the inhomogeneous big bang nucleosynthesis. Regions with extremely high baryon-to-photon ratios are assumed to be caused by the baryogenesis. Its mass scale is also assumed to be 10{sup 6}M{sub {center_dot}.} An example of the mechanisms to realize these two things was already proposed as the Affleck-Dine baryogenesis. As the baryon-to-photon ratio becomes larger, the primordial helium abundance is enhanced. We calculated the big bang nucleosynthesis and found that there exists a parameter region yielding enough helium to account for the split of the main sequence in the aforementioned globular clusters while keeping the abundance of other elements compatible with observations. Our mechanism predicts that heavy elements with the mass number of around 100 is enhanced in the blue main sequence stars. We estimate the time scales of diffusion of the enhanced helium and mass accretion in several stages after the nucleosynthesis to investigate whether these processes diminish the enhancement of helium. We found that the diffusion does not influence the helium content. A cloud with a sufficiently large baryon-to-photon ratio to account for the multiple main sequence collapsed immediately after the recombination. Subsequently, the cloud accreted the ambient matter with the normal helium content. If the star formation occurred both in the collapsed core and the accreted envelope, then the resultant star cluster has a double main sequence.

  11. Lithium evolution in metal-poor stars: from Pre-Main Sequence to the Spite Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Xiaoting; Bressan, Alessandro; Molaro, Paolo; Marigo, Paola

    2015-08-01

    Lithium abundance derived in metal-poor main sequence stars is about three times lower than the value of primordial Li predicts by the standard Big Bang nucleosynthesis when the baryon density is taken from the CMB or the deuterium measurements. This disagreement is generally referred as the Li problem. We here reconsider the stellar Li evolution from the pre-main sequence to the end of the main sequence phase by introducing the effects of convective overshooting and residual mass accretion. We show that 7Li could be significantly depleted by convective overshooting in the PMS phase and then partially restored in the stellar atmosphere by a tail of matter accretion which follows the Li depletion phase and that could be regulated by EUV photo-evaporation. By considering the conventional nuclear burning and microscopic diffusion along the main sequence we can reproduce the Spite plateau for stars with m0 = 0.62 - 0.80 M⊙ and the Li decline branch for lower mass dwarfs e.g, m0 = 0.57 - 0.60 M⊙ for a wide range of metallicities (Z=0.00001 to Z=0.0005) starting from an initial 7Li abundance A(Li) = 2.72. This environmental Li evolution model offers the possibility to interpret the decreasing of Li abundance in extremely metal-poor stars, the Li disparities in spectroscopic binaries and low Li abundance in planet hosting stars.

  12. Light-Element Depletion in Contracting Brown Dwarfs and Pre-Main-Sequence Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ushomirsky, Greg; Matzner, Christopher D.; Brown, Edward F.; Bildsten, Lars; Hilliard, Vadim G.; Schroeder, Peter C.

    1998-04-01

    We present an analytic calculation of the thermonuclear depletion of the light elements lithium, beryllium, and boron in fully convective, low-mass stars. Under the presumption that the pre-main-sequence star is always fully mixed during contraction, we find that the burning of these rare light elements can be computed analytically, even when the star is degenerate. Using the effective temperature as a free parameter, we constrain the properties of low-mass stars from observational data, independently of the uncertainties associated with modeling their atmospheres and convection. Our results are in excellent agreement with the detailed calculations of D'Antona & Mazzitelli and Chabrier, Baraffe, & Plez. Our analytic solution explains the dependence of the age at a given level of elemental depletion on the stellar effective temperature, nuclear cross sections, and chemical composition. These results are also useful as benchmarks to those constructing full stellar models. Most importantly, our results allow observers to translate lithium nondetections in young cluster members into a model-independent minimum age for that cluster. Using this procedure, we have found lower limits to the ages of the Pleiades (100 Myr) and Alpha Persei (60 Myr) clusters. Dating an open cluster using low-mass stars is also independent of techniques that fit upper main-sequence evolution. Comparison of these methods provides crucial information on the amount of convective overshooting (or rotationally induced mixing) that occurs during core hydrogen burning in the 5-10 M⊙ stars typically at the main-sequence turnoff for these clusters. We also discuss beryllium depletion in pre-main-sequence stars. Recent experimental work on the low-energy resonance in the 10B(p, α)7Be reaction has greatly enhanced estimates of the destruction rate of 10B, making it possible for stars with M >~ 0.1 M⊙ to deplete both 10B and 11B before reaching the main sequence. Moreover, there is an interesting

  13. The Star Forming Main Sequence and its Scatter as Conequences of the Central Limit Theorem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelson, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Star formation rates of disk galaxies strongly correlate with stellar mass, with a small dispersion in specific star formation rate at fixed mass. With such small scattter this main sequence of star formation has been interpreted as deterministic and fundamental. Here it is demonstrated that it is a simple consequence off he central limit theorem. Treating the star formation histories of galaxies as integrable, non-differentiable functions, where stochastic changes in star formation rate in a galaxy's history are not fully independent of each other, we derive the median specific star formation rate for the flat part of the main sequence from 0

  14. Discovery of the Pre-Main Sequence Progenitors of the Magnetic Ap/Bp Stars?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drouin, Dominic; Wade, Gregg; Bagnulo, S.; Landstreet, J. D.; Mason, E.; Monin, D.; Silvester, J.; Alecian, E.; Catala, C.; Bohm, T.; Bouret, J.-C.; Donati, J.-F.

    2005-08-01

    The magnetic Ap/Bp stars represent about 5% of all intermediatemass main sequence stars, and are characterised by strong, globallyordered surface magnetic fields. The physical impact of the presence of these fields is clear: atmospheric structure, photospheric chemical abundances, mass loss, rotation, and ultimately stellar evolution are all modified, to various extents, due to the interaction of the magnetic field with the stellar plasma. Remarkably, the origin of these magnetic fields remains a total mystery. In order to trace the presence of these fields back to the premain sequence (PMS), we have undertaken an extensive search for magnetic fields in the Herbig Ae/Be (HAeBe) stars, the PMS progenitors of the main sequence intermediate-mass stars. Using both the FORS1 spectropolarimeter at the ESO-VLT and the brand-new ESPaDOnS spectropolarimeter at the CFHT, we have surveyed over 50 HAeBe stars for the presence of longitudinal magnetic fields. Here we review the details of our investigation, and announce the detection of magnetic fields and chemical peculiarities in the HAeBe stars HD 72106 and HD 101412. These detections may well represent the identification of the pre-main sequence progenitors of the magnetic Ap/Bp stars. At the same time, we fail to confirm claims by Hubrig et al. (2004) of the presence of magnetic fields in the Herbig Ae star HD 139614.

  15. Constraints on pre-main-sequence evolution from stellar pulsations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casey, M. P.; Zwintz, K.; Guenther, D. B.

    2014-02-01

    Pulsating pre-main-sequence (PMS) stars afford the earliest opportunity in the lifetime of a star to which the concepts of asteroseismology can be applied. PMS stars should be structurally simpler than their evolved counterparts, thus (hopefully!) making any asteroseismic analysis relatively easier. Unfortunately, this isn't necessarily the case. The majority of these stars (around 80) are δ Scuti pulsators, with a couple of γ Doradus, γ Doradus - δ Scuti hybrids, and slowly pulsating B stars thrown into the mix. The majority of these stars have only been discovered within the last ten years, with the community still uncovering the richness of phenomena associated with these stars, many of which defy traditional asteroseismic analysis. A systematic asteroseismic analysis of all of the δ Scuti PMS stars was performed in order to get a better handle on the properties of these stars as a group. Some strange results have been found, including one star pulsating up to the theoretical acoustic cut-off frequency of the star, and a number of stars in which the most basic asteroseismic analysis suggests problems with the stars' positions in the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram. From this we get an idea of the\\break constraints - or lack thereof - that these results can put on PMS stellar evolution.

  16. Common Warm Dust Temperatures Around Main Sequence Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morales, Farisa; Rieke, George; Werner, Michael; Stapelfeldt, Karl; Bryden, Geoffrey; Su, Kate

    2011-01-01

    We compare the properties of warm dust emission from a sample of main-sequence A-type stars (B8-A7) to those of dust around solar-type stars (F5-KO) with similar Spitzer Space Telescope Infrared Spectrograph/MIPS data and similar ages. Both samples include stars with sources with infrared spectral energy distributions that show evidence of multiple components. Over the range of stellar types considered, we obtain nearly the same characteristic dust temperatures (∼ 190 K and ∼60 K for the inner and outer dust components, respectively)-slightly above the ice evaporation temperature for the inner belts. The warm inner dust temperature is readily explained if populations of small grains are being released by sublimation of ice from icy planetesimals. Evaporation of low-eccentricity icy bodies at ∼ 150 K can deposit particles into an inner/warm belt, where the small grains are heated to dust Temperatures of -190 K. Alternatively, enhanced collisional processing of an asteroid belt-like system of parent planetesimals just interior to the snow line may account for the observed uniformity in dust temperature. The similarity in temperature of the warmer dust across our B8-KO stellar sample strongly suggests that dust-producing planetesimals are not found at similar radial locations around all stars, but that dust production is favored at a characteristic temperature horizon.

  17. Planetary Systems Associated with Main-Sequence Stars.

    PubMed

    Brown, H

    1964-09-11

    The luminosity function is used to estimate the number of invisible planet-like objects in the neighborhood of the sun, taking into account the likely chemical composition of planets in relation to the composition of main-sequence stars. There may be about 60 objects more massive than Mars for every visible star. An attempt is made to estimate the distribution of these planet-like cold bodies in relation to stars. It is suggested that stars, together with cold objects, were formed in clusters of bodies of random size distribution. Clusters averaging about 50 bodies each account for the observed distribution of frequencies of double and triple star systems relative to single stars. On this basis, virtually every star should have a planetary system associated with it. As a corollary, systems of cold bodies in which there are no luminous stars should be abundant. The possible distribution of planets around such stars has been studied, making use of the observed orbital characteristics of double star systems. It is concluded that favorable conditions for life processes may be far more abundant than has generally been thought possible. PMID:17743661

  18. Determination of Precise Pre-Main-Sequence Stellar Properties through Stellar and Disk Orbital Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stassun, Keivan

    2016-05-01

    We summarize the current state-of-the-art in the measurement of direct, precise stellar masses at pre-main-sequence ages through the analysis of eclipsing binary orbits and circumstellar disk dynamics. We highlight two key issues: (1) The masses determined from disk dynamics require more precise distance determinations that should become available from Gaia soon, and (2) many eclipsing binaries appear disturbed by the presence of tertiary companions that inject heat into and puff up one or both of the inner binary stars, however the dynamical mechanism by which orbital energy is injected as heat remains unknown.

  19. Evidence of magnetic field decay in massive main-sequence stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fossati, L.; Schneider, F. R. N.; Castro, N.; Langer, N.; Simón-Díaz, S.; Müller, A.; de Koter, A.; Morel, T.; Petit, V.; Sana, H.; Wade, G. A.

    2016-08-01

    A significant fraction of massive main-sequence stars show strong, large-scale magnetic fields. The origin of these fields, their lifetimes, and their role in shaping the characteristics and evolution of massive stars are currently not well understood. We compile a catalogue of 389 massive main-sequence stars, 61 of which are magnetic, and derive their fundamental parameters and ages. The two samples contain stars brighter than magnitude 9 in the V-band and range in mass between 5 and 100 M⊙. We find that the fractional main-sequence age distribution of all considered stars follows what is expected for a magnitude limited sample, while that of magnetic stars shows a clear decrease towards the end of the main sequence. This dearth of old magnetic stars is independent of the choice of adopted stellar evolution tracks, and appears to become more prominent when considering only the most massive stars. We show that the decreasing trend in the distribution is significantly stronger than expected from magnetic flux conservation. We also find that binary rejuvenation and magnetic suppression of core convection are unlikely to be responsible for the observed lack of older magnetic massive stars, and conclude that its most probable cause is the decay of the magnetic field, over a time span longer than the stellar lifetime for the lowest considered masses, and shorter for the highest masses. We then investigate the spin-down ages of the slowly rotating magnetic massive stars and find them to exceed the stellar ages by far in many cases. The high fraction of very slowly rotating magnetic stars thus provides an independent argument for a decay of the magnetic fields.

  20. Pre-main-sequence population in NGC 1893 region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, A. K.; Samal, M. R.; Chauhan, N.; Eswaraiah, C.; Pandey, J. C.; Chen, W. P.; Ojha, D. K.

    2013-02-01

    In this paper we continued our efforts to understand the star formation scenario in and around the young cluster NGC 1893. We used a sample of the young stellar sources (YSOs) identified on the basis of multiwavelength data (optical, near-infrared (NIR), mid-infrared (MIR) and X-ray) to study the nature of YSOs associated with the region. The identified YSOs show an age spread of ~ 5 Myr. The YSOs located near the nebulae at the periphery of the cluster are relatively younger in comparison to those located within the cluster region. The present results are in accordance with those obtained by us in previous studies. Other main results from the present study are: 1) the fraction of disk bearing stars increases towards the periphery of the cluster; 2) there is an evidence supporting the notion that the mechanisms for disk dispersal operate less efficiently for low-mass stars; 3) the sample of Class II sources is found to be relatively older in comparison to that of Class III sources. A comparison of various properties of YSOs in the NGC 1893 region with those in the Tr 37/ IC 1396 region is also discussed.

  1. Habitable zone lifetimes of exoplanets around main sequence stars.

    PubMed

    Rushby, Andrew J; Claire, Mark W; Osborn, Hugh; Watson, Andrew J

    2013-09-01

    The potential habitability of newly discovered exoplanets is initially assessed by determining whether their orbits fall within the circumstellar habitable zone of their star. However, the habitable zone (HZ) is not static in time or space, and its boundaries migrate outward at a rate proportional to the increase in luminosity of a star undergoing stellar evolution, possibly including or excluding planets over the course of the star's main sequence lifetime. We describe the time that a planet spends within the HZ as its "habitable zone lifetime." The HZ lifetime of a planet has strong astrobiological implications and is especially important when considering the evolution of complex life, which is likely to require a longer residence time within the HZ. Here, we present results from a simple model built to investigate the evolution of the "classic" HZ over time, while also providing estimates for the evolution of stellar luminosity over time in order to develop a "hybrid" HZ model. These models return estimates for the HZ lifetimes of Earth and 7 confirmed HZ exoplanets and 27 unconfirmed Kepler candidates. The HZ lifetime for Earth ranges between 6.29 and 7.79×10⁹ years (Gyr). The 7 exoplanets fall in a range between ∼1 and 54.72 Gyr, while the 27 Kepler candidate planets' HZ lifetimes range between 0.43 and 18.8 Gyr. Our results show that exoplanet HD 85512b is no longer within the HZ, assuming it has an Earth analog atmosphere. The HZ lifetime should be considered in future models of planetary habitability as setting an upper limit on the lifetime of any potential exoplanetary biosphere, and also for identifying planets of high astrobiological potential for continued observational or modeling campaigns. PMID:24047111

  2. Tandem mass spectrometry for sequencing proanthocyanidins.

    PubMed

    Li, Hui-Jing; Deinzer, Max L

    2007-02-15

    Proanthocyanidins (PAs) are a group of bioflavonoids consisting of oligomers based on catechin monomeric units. These polyphenolic compounds are widely distributed in higher plants and are an integral part of the human diet. A sensitive LC-tandem mass spectrometric (LC/ESI-MS(n)) method in the positive ion mode for sequencing these ubiquitous and highly beneficial antioxidants is described. The hydroxylation patterns and interflavanoid linkage for A- and B-type PAs were determined by fragment ions derived from a retro-Diels-Alder (RDA) fission, heterocyclic ring fission (HRF), a novel benzofuran-forming (BFF) fission described here for the first time, and a quinone methide (QM) fission. The subunit sequence of the PAs was determined by diagnostic ions derived from HRF/RDA fission, HRF/BFF fission, and RDA/HRF fission together with QM fission. A total of 26 PAs were reliably sequenced by the newly established tandem mass spectrometric protocol. It is shown that the protocol based on a combination of these different fragmentation patterns allows for uniquely identifying PA oligomers. PMID:17297981

  3. THE 'MAIN SEQUENCE' OF EXPLOSIVE SOLAR ACTIVE REGIONS: DISCOVERY AND INTERPRETATION

    SciTech Connect

    Falconer, David A.; Moore, Ronald L.; Adams, Mitzi; Gary, G. Allen

    2009-08-01

    We examine the location and distribution of the production of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) and major flares by sunspot active regions in the phase space of two whole-active-region magnetic quantities measured from 1897 SOHO/MDI magnetograms. These magnetograms track the evolution of 44 active regions across the central disk of radius 0.5 R {sub Sun}. The two quantities are {sup L}WL{sub SG}, a gauge of the total free energy in an active region's magnetic field, and {sup L}{phi}, a measure of the active region's total magnetic flux. From these data and each active region's history of production of CMEs, X flares, and M flares, we find (1) that CME/flare-productive active regions are concentrated in a straight-line 'main sequence' in (log {sup L}WL{sub SG}, log {sup L}{phi}) space, (2) that main-sequence active regions have nearly their maximum attainable free magnetic energy, and (3) evidence that this arrangement plausibly results from equilibrium between input of free energy to an explosive active region's magnetic field in the chromosphere and corona by contortion of the field via convection in and below the photosphere and loss of free energy via CMEs, flares, and coronal heating, an equilibrium between energy gain and loss that is analogous to that of the main sequence of hydrogen-burning stars in (mass, luminosity) space.

  4. Lithium evolution in metal-poor stars: from pre-main sequence to the Spite plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Xiaoting; Bressan, Alessandro; Molaro, Paolo; Marigo, Paola

    2015-09-01

    Lithium abundance derived in metal-poor main-sequence (MS) stars is about three times lower than the value of primordial Li predicted by the standard big bang nucleosynthesis when the baryon density is taken from the cosmic microwave background or the deuterium measurements. This disagreement is generally referred as the lithium problem. We here reconsider the stellar Li evolution from the pre-main sequence (PMS) to the end of the MS phase by introducing the effects of convective overshooting (OV) and residual mass accretion. We show that 7Li could be significantly depleted by convective OV in the PMS phase and then partially restored in the stellar atmosphere by a tail of matter accretion which follows the Li-depletion phase and that could be regulated by EUV photoevaporation. By considering the conventional nuclear burning and microscopic diffusion along the MS, we can reproduce the Spite plateau for stars with initial mass m0 = 0.62-0.80 M⊙, and the Li declining branch for lower mass dwarfs, e.g. m0 = 0.57-0.60 M⊙, for a wide range of metallicities (Z = 0.00001 to Z = 0.0005), starting from an initial Li abundance A(Li) = 2.72. This environmental Li evolution model also offers the possibility to interpret the decrease of Li abundance in extremely metal-poor stars, the Li disparities in spectroscopic binaries and the low Li abundance in planet hosting stars.

  5. A Pre-Main Sequence Spectroscopic Binary Revealed through Infrared Spectroscopy with Phoenix on Gemini.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doppmann, G.; White, R.; Charbonneau, D.

    2005-12-01

    Empirical measurements of basic stellar and substellar properties in pre-main sequence (PMS) objects are critical to our understanding of how and when these objects evolve toward the main sequence. Dynamical measurements of PMS binary systems are beginning to provide these fundamental data, if they can be accurately placed on an H-R diagram for comparison with PMS evolutionary models. A recent high-precision near-IR radial velocity survey with Phoenix at Gemini South has lead to the new discovery of one double-line spectroscopic binary in Chamaeleon. With the high spectral resolution (R=50,000) provided by Phoenix we have successfully measured the orbital period and determined the dynamical mass ratio (from the relative velocity amplitudes) with our spectra taken over nine epochs (29 April - 23 June, 2005). In two epochs where we have near maximum velocity separation at the 2-0 CO bandhead, we use spectral synthesis templates to fit the primary and secondary bandheads (both evident in the spectrum) to accurately determine the component spectral types. Our multicomponent spectral fits also set constraints on gravity, assumed to be equal for both components in this low mass ( M2) co-evol PMS binary system. With the placement of this system in the H-R diagram by the properties we determine from spectroscopy, we will test the accuracy of theoretical model tracks using the independent mass information obtained from the orbital motion.

  6. Absolute Properties of the Pre-main-sequence Eclipsing Binary Star NP Persei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacy, Claud H. Sandberg; Fekel, Francis C.; Pavlovski, Krešimir; Torres, Guillermo; Muterspaugh, Matthew W.

    2016-07-01

    NP Per is a well-detached, 2.2 day eclipsing binary whose components are both pre-main-sequence stars that are still contracting toward the main-sequence phase of evolution. We report extensive photometric and spectroscopic observations with which we have determined their properties accurately. Their surface temperatures are quite different: 6420 ± 90 K for the larger F5 primary star and 4540 ± 160 K for the smaller K5e star. Their masses and radii are 1.3207 ± 0.0087 solar masses and 1.372 ± 0.013 solar radii for the primary, and 1.0456 ± 0.0046 solar masses and 1.229 ± 0.013 solar radii for the secondary. The orbital period is variable over long periods of time. A comparison of the observations with current stellar evolution models from MESA indicates that the stars cannot be fit at a single age: the secondary appears significantly younger than the primary. If the stars are assumed to be coeval and to have the age of the primary (17 Myr), then the secondary is larger and cooler than predicted by current models. The Hα spectral line of the secondary component is completely filled by, presumably, chromospheric emission due to a magnetic activity cycle.

  7. Pre-main sequence variable stars in young open cluster NGC 1893

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lata, Sneh; Pandey, A. K.; Chen, W. P.; Maheswar, G.; Chauhan, Neelam

    We present results of multi-epoch (14 nights during 2007-2010) V-band photometry of the cluster NGC 1893 region to identify photometric variable stars in the cluster. The study identified a total of 53 stars showing photometric variability. The members associated with the region are identified on the basis of spectral energy distribution, J-H/H-K two colour diagram and V/V-I colour-magnitude diagram. The ages and masses of the majority of pre-main-sequence sources are found to be ≲5 Myr and in the range 0.5 ≲ M/M_{⊙} ≲4, respectively. These pre-main-sequence sources hence could be T Tauri stars. We also determined the physical parameters like disk mass and accretion rate from the spectral energy distribution of these T Tauri stars. The periods of majority of the T Tauri stars range from 0.1 to 20 day. We found that the brightness of Classical T Tauri stars is varying with larger amplitude in comparison to weak line T Tauri stars. The amplitude is found to decrease with increase in mass, which could be due to the dispersal of disks of massive stars.

  8. Pre-main-sequence variable stars in young open cluster NGC 1893

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lata, Sneh; Pandey, A. K.; Chen, W. P.; Maheswar, G.; Chauhan, Neelam

    2012-12-01

    We present results of multi-epoch (14 nights during 2007-2010) V-band photometry of the cluster NGC 1893 region to identify photometric variable stars in the cluster. The study identified a total of 53 stars showing photometric variability. The members associated with the region are identified on the basis of spectral energy distribution, J - H/H - K two-colour diagram and V/V - I colour-magnitude diagram. The ages and masses of the majority of pre-main-sequence sources are found to be ≲5 Myr and in the range 0.5≲M/M≲4, respectively. These pre-main-sequence sources hence could be T Tauri stars. We also determined the physical parameters like disc mass and accretion rate from the spectral energy distribution of these T Tauri stars. The periods of majority of the T Tauri stars range from 0.1 to 20 d. The brightness of Classical T Tauri stars is found to vary with larger amplitude in comparison to weak line T Tauri stars. It is found that the amplitude decreases with increase in mass, which could be due to the dispersal of discs of massive stars.

  9. Theory of winds in late-type evolved and pre-main-sequence stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macgregor, K. B.

    1983-01-01

    Recent observational results confirm that many of the physical processes which are known to occur in the Sun also occur among late-type stars in general. One such process is the continuous loss of mass from a star in the form of a wind. There now exists an abundance of either direct or circumstantial evidence which suggests that most (if not all) stars in the cool portion of the HR diagram possess winds. An attempt is made to assess the current state of theoretical understanding of mass loss from two distinctly different classes of late-type stars: the post-main-sequence giant/supergiant stars and the pre-main-sequence T Tauri stars. Toward this end, the observationally inferred properties of the wind associated with each of the two stellar classes under consideration are summarized and compared against the predictions of existing theoretical models. Although considerable progress has been made in attempting to identify the mechanisms responsible for mass loss from cool stars, many fundamental problems remain to be solved.

  10. Discovery of three X-ray luminous pre-main-sequence stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feigelson, E. D.; Kriss, G. A.

    1981-01-01

    Three X-ray sources found serendipitously in Einstein images of the Taurus-Auriga cloud complex were observed at the McGraw-Hill Observatory and are found to be associated with stars of approximately 12 mag with weak H-alpha emission. The stars lie on the edges of dark clouds and are spectroscopically similar to the least active emission-line pre-main-sequence stars. Although they lie well above the ZAMS in the H-R diagram, they do not exhibit ultraviolet excess, strong optical variability, or evidence for mass outflow/inflow characteristics of the more active T Tauri stars. Their only unusual property is high X-ray luminosity (approximately 10 to the 30th ergs/s). It is suggested that the X-ray emission from pre-main-sequence stars is not closely linked to the conditions giving rise to their unusual spectroscopic properties. The emission may instead represent an enhanced form of the coronal activity producing X-rays observed in late-type main-sequence stars.

  11. Accreting pre-main-sequence models and abundance anomalies in globular clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tognelli, E.; Prada Moroni, P. G.; Degl'Innocenti, S.

    2015-12-01

    We investigated the possibility of producing helium-enhanced stars in globular clusters by accreting polluted matter during the pre-main-sequence phase. We followed the evolution of two different classes of pre-main-sequence accreting models, one which neglects and the other that takes into account the protostellar evolution. We analysed the dependence of the final central helium abundance, of the tracks position in the HR diagram and of the surface lithium abundance evolution on the age at which the accretion of polluted material begins and on the main physical parameters that govern the protostellar evolution. The later is the beginning of the late accretion and the lower are both the central helium and the surface lithium abundances at the end of the accretion phase and in Zero Age Main Sequence (ZAMS). In order to produce a relevant increase of the central helium content the accretion of polluted matter should start at ages lower than 1 Myr. The inclusion of the protostellar evolution has a strong impact on the ZAMS models too. The adoption of a very low seed mass (i.e. 0.001 M⊙) results in models with the lowest central helium and surface lithium abundances. The higher is the accretion rate and the lower is the final helium content in the core and the residual surface lithium. In the worst case - i.e. seed mass 0.001 M⊙ and accretion rate ≥10-5 M⊙ yr-1 - the central helium is not increased at all and the surface lithium is fully depleted in the first few million years.

  12. Infalling Envelopes and Pre-Main Sequence Disks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartmann, Lee W.

    1997-01-01

    The goal of this project is to understand the observed infrared emission of young stellar objects, and explore the implications of this emission for the evolution of dusty envelopes and circumstellar disks. We are using sophisticated radiative transfer methods to compare models with observations, thereby making critical tests of the standard picture of low-mass star formation.

  13. Confronting uncertainties in stellar physics. II. Exploring differences in main-sequence stellar evolution tracks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stancliffe, R. J.; Fossati, L.; Passy, J.-C.; Schneider, F. R. N.

    2016-02-01

    We assess the systematic uncertainties in stellar evolutionary calculations for low- to intermediate-mass, main-sequence stars. We compare published stellar tracks from several different evolution codes with our own tracks computed using the stellar codes stars and mesa. In particular, we focus on tracks of 1 and 3 M⊙ at solar metallicity. We find that the spread in the available 1 M⊙ tracks (computed before the recent solar composition revision) can be covered by tracks between 0.97-1.01 M⊙ computed with the stars code. We assess some possible causes of the origin of this uncertainty, including how the choice of input physics and the solar constraints used to perform the solar calibration affect the tracks. We find that for a 1 M⊙ track, uncertainties of around 10% in the initial hydrogen abundance and initial metallicity produce around a 2% error in mass. For the 3 M⊙ tracks, there is very little difference between the tracks from the various different stellar codes. The main difference comes in the extent of the main sequence, which we believe results from the different choices of the implementation of convective overshooting in the core. Uncertainties in the initial abundances lead to a 1-2% error in the mass determination. These uncertainties cover only part of the total error budget, which should also include uncertainties in the input physics (e.g., reaction rates, opacities, convective models) and any missing physics (e.g., radiative levitation, rotation, magnetic fields). Uncertainties in stellar surface properties such as luminosity and effective temperature will further reduce the accuracy of any potential mass determinations.

  14. Evolution of Pre-Main Sequence Accretion Disks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartmann, Lee W.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this project was to develop a comprehensive global picture of the physical conditions in, and evolutionary timescales of, premain sequence accretion disks. The results of this work will help constrain the initial conditions for planet formation. To this end we developed much larger samples of 3-10 Myr-old stars to provide better empirical constraints on protoplanetary disk evolution; measured disk accretion rates in these systems; and constructed detailed model disk structures consistent with observations to infer physical conditions such as grain growth in protoplanetary disks.

  15. Searching for δ Scuti-type pulsation and characterising northern pre-main-sequence field stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Díaz-Fraile, D.; Rodríguez, E.; Amado, P. J.

    2014-08-01

    Context. Pre-main-sequence (PMS) stars are objects evolving from the birthline to the zero-age main sequence (ZAMS). Given a mass range near the ZAMS, the temperatures and luminosities of PMS and main-sequence stars are very similar. Moreover, their evolutionary tracks intersect one another causing some ambiguity in the determination of their evolutionary status. In this context, the detection and study of pulsations in PMS stars is crucial for differentiating between both types of stars by obtaining information of their interiors via asteroseismic techniques. Aims: A photometric variability study of a sample of northern field stars, which previously classified as either PMS or Herbig Ae/Be objects, has been undertaken with the purpose of detecting δ Scuti-type pulsations. Determination of physical parameters for these stars has also been carried out to locate them on the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram and check the instability strip for this type of pulsators. Methods: Multichannel photomultiplier and CCD time series photometry in the uvby Strömgren and BVI Johnson bands were obtained during four consecutive years from 2007 to 2010. The light curves have been analysed, and a variability criterion has been established. Among the objects classified as variable stars, we have selected those which present periodicities above 4 d-1, which was established as the lowest limit for δ Scuti-type pulsations in this investigation. Finally, these variable stars have been placed in a colour-magnitude diagram using the physical parameters derived with the collected uvbyβ Strömgren-Crawford photometry. Results: Five PMS δ Scuti- and three probable β Cephei-type stars have been detected. Two additional PMS δ Scuti stars are also confirmed in this work. Moreover, three new δ Scuti- and two γ Doradus-type stars have been detected among the main-sequence objects used as comparison or check stars.

  16. The Main Sequence of Explosive Solar Active Regions: Comparison of Emerging and Mature Active Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Falconer, David; Moore, Ron

    2011-01-01

    For mature active regions, an active region s magnetic flux content determines the maximum free energy the active region can have. Most Large flares and CMEs occur in active regions that are near their free-energy limit. Active-region flare power radiated in the GOES 1-8 band increases steeply as the free-energy limit is approached. We infer that the free-energy limit is set by the rate of release of an active region s free magnetic energy by flares, CMEs and coronal heating balancing the maximum rate the Sun can put free energy into the active region s magnetic field. This balance of maximum power results in explosive active regions residing in a "mainsequence" in active-region (flux content, free energy content) phase space, which sequence is analogous to the main sequence of hydrogen-burning stars in (mass, luminosity) phase space.

  17. ORBITS, MASSES, AND EVOLUTION OF MAIN BELT TRIPLE (87) SYLVIA

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, Julia; Margot, Jean-Luc; Rojo, Patricio

    2012-08-15

    Sylvia is a triple asteroid system located in the main belt. We report new adaptive optics observations of this system that extend the baseline of existing astrometric observations to a decade. We present the first fully dynamical three-body model for this system by fitting to all available astrometric measurements. This model simultaneously fits for individual masses, orbits, and primary oblateness. We find that Sylvia is composed of a dominant central mass surrounded by two satellites orbiting at 706.5 {+-} 2.5 km and 1357 {+-} 4.0 km, i.e., about 5 and nearly 10 primary radii. We derive individual masses of 1.484{sup +0.016}{sub -0.014} Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 19} kg for the primary (corresponding to a density of 1.29 {+-} 0.39 g cm{sup -3}), 7.33{sup +4.7}{sub -2.3} Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 14} kg for the inner satellite, and 9.32{sup +20.7}{sub -8.3} Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 14} kg for the outer satellite. The oblateness of the primary induces substantial precession and the J{sub 2} value can be constrained to the range of 0.0985-0.1. The orbits of the satellites are relatively circular with eccentricities less than 0.04. The spin axis of the primary body and the orbital poles of both satellites are all aligned within about 2 deg of each other, indicating a nearly coplanar configuration and suggestive of satellite formation in or near the equatorial plane of the primary. We also investigate the past orbital evolution of the system by simulating the effects of a recent passage through 3:1 mean-motion eccentricity-type resonances. In some scenarios this allow us to place constraints on interior structure and past eccentricities.

  18. Lithium evolution from Pre-Main Sequence to the Spite plateau: an environmental solution to the cosmological lithium problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Xiaoting; Bressan, Alessandro; Molaro, Paolo; Marigo, Paola

    2016-08-01

    Lithium abundance derived in metal-poor main sequence stars is about three times lower than the primordial value of the standard Big Bang nucleosynthesis prediction. This disagreement is referred to as the lithium problem. We reconsider the stellar Li evolution from the pre-main sequence to the end of main sequence phase by introducing the effects of overshooting and residual mass accretion. We show that 7Li could be significantly depleted by convective overshooting in the pre-main sequence phase and then partially restored in the stellar atmosphere by residual accretion which follows the Li depletion phase and could be regulated by EUV photo-evaporation. By considering the conventional nuclear burning and diffusion along the main sequence we can reproduce the Spite plateau for stars with initial mass m 0=0.62-0.80 M ⊙, and the Li declining branch for lower mass dwarfs, e.g, m 0=0.57-0.60 M ⊙, for a wide range of metallicities (Z=0.00001 to Z=0.0005), starting from an initial Li abundance A(Li) = 2.72.

  19. NEW X-RAY-SELECTED PRE-MAIN-SEQUENCE MEMBERS OF THE SERPENS MOLECULAR CLOUD

    SciTech Connect

    Oliveira, Isa; Van der Laan, Margriet; Brown, Joanna M.

    2013-11-01

    The study of young stars no longer surrounded by disks can greatly add to our understanding of how protoplanetary disks evolve and planets form. We have used VLT/FLAMES optical spectroscopy to confirm the youth and membership of 19 new young diskless stars in the Serpens Molecular Cloud, identified at X-ray wavelengths. Spectral types, effective temperatures, and stellar luminosities were determined using optical spectra and optical/near-infrared photometry. Stellar masses and ages were derived based on pre-main-sequence evolutionary tracks. The results yield remarkable similarities for age and mass distribution between the diskless and disk-bearing stellar populations in Serpens. We discuss the important implications these similarities may have on the standard picture of disk evolution.

  20. Dark companions of stars - Astrometric commentary on the lower end of the Main Sequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van de Kamp, P.

    1986-04-01

    The smaller the mass of a star, the lower its central temperature and the lower its luminosity. The zero-age Main Sequence is thus explained down to its lower, red dwarf section; there is, however, a critical mass value below which the central temperature is too low to permit conventional nuclear energy production, and the resulting objects are designated substellar, black, brown, or even 'dark red' stars. The present consideration of the dark companions of stars gives attention to visible and invisible dark dwarfs, as well as to the stars Sirius and Procyon, the planets Neptune and Pluto, spectroscopic, photometric, and eclipsing companion stars, the serendipitously discovered cases of Ross 614 and VW Cephei C, and astrometric study results for Barnard's star.

  1. ACCRETION RATES ON PRE-MAIN-SEQUENCE STARS IN THE YOUNG OPEN CLUSTER NGC 6530

    SciTech Connect

    Gallardo, Jose; Del Valle, Luciano; Ruiz, Maria Teresa E-mail: ldelvall@das.uchile.cl

    2012-01-15

    It is well accepted that during the star formation process, material from a protoplanetary disk is accreted onto the central object during the first {approx}1-5 Myr. Different authors have published measurements of accretion rates for young low- and intermediate-mass stars in several nearby star-forming regions (SFRs). Due to its somewhat larger distance, the SFR M8 (the Lagoon Nebula) has not been studied to the same extent, despite its abundant population of young stellar objects. We have obtained optical band low-resolution spectra of a sample of pre-main-sequence stars in the open cluster NGC 6530 located in the aforementioned nebulae using the Gemini Multi Object Spectrograph at Gemini-South in multi-object mode. Spectra cover the H{sub {alpha}} emission line used to measure the accretion rate, following the method presented by Natta et al. The observed spectral characteristics are fully consistent with pre-main-sequence stars, showing lithium absorption lines, which are very common in young stellar objects, as well as prominent and broad H{sub {alpha}} emission lines, indicating a T Tauri evolutionary stage. This work presents the first determinations of mass accretion rates of young stellar objects in the open cluster NGC 6530, confirming that they are classical T Tauri stars going through the accretion phase. These observations contribute to a better understanding of the stellar content and evolutionary phase of the very active Lagoon Nebula SFR.

  2. Winds in hot main-sequence stars near the static limit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, Nancy D.

    1995-01-01

    This project began with the acquisition of short-wavelength, high-dispersion IUE spectra of selected late O- and early B-type stars that are near the main sequence in open clusters and associations. The profiles of the resonance lines of N(V), Si(IV), and C(IV) were studied, and we found that the C(IV) lines are the most sensitive indicators of mass loss (stellar winds) in stars of this type. The mass loss manifests itself as an extension of the short-wavelength absorption wing of the doublet, while there is no P Cygni-type emission on the long-wavelength side of the line profile. We investigated whether the short-wavelength extension could be caused by blended lines of other ionic species formed in the photosphere. Although blending is present and introduces uncertainty into the estimation of the precise location on the main sequence of the onset of the mass-loss signature, it is a crucial issue only in a few marginal cases. Mass loss certainly overwhelms blending in its influence on the spectrum between spectral types B0 and B1 (effective temperatures in the range 25,000-27,000 K). We defined a parameter called P(sub w), to describe the degree of asymmetry of the C(IV) resonance-line profile, and we studied the dependence of this parameter on the fundamental stellar parameters. For this purpose, we derived new estimates of the stellar T(eff) and log g from a non-LTE, line-blanketed model-atmosphere analysis of these stars (Grigsby, Morrison, and Anderson 1992). In order to estimate the stellar luminosities, we performed an exhaustive search of the literature for the most reliable available estimates of the distances of the clusters and associations to which the program stars belong. The dependence of P(sub w) on stellar temperature and luminosity is also studied.

  3. Jets and outflows from pre main sequence stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wassell, Edward Joseph, III

    2009-09-01

    Extensive research has been done on the evolution of young low mass T Tauri stars (TTS), and a paradigm has been developed that successfully explains how the star grows by the accretion of matter from a circumstellar disk. It is currently a matter of debate whether or not the same paradigm can be applied to the higher mass counterpart Herbig Ae stars. In this dissertation, I propose to address this issue. By investigating a wide range of phenomena using ground- based and satellite observing platforms, I will construct detailed observational pictures of the two prototypical Herbig Ae stars, HD163296 and AB Aur. Then, I will test whether or not this model can explain all the phenomena associated with these two stars. First, my research characterized the bipolar collimated outflow from HD163296. Using narrowband coronagraphic imagery with the Goddard Fabry-Perot, I discovered a chain of six previously unreported Herbig-Haro (HH) knots along the redshifted counterjet spanning greater than 27 arcseconds, and three HH knots along the blueshifted jet. Combining Hubble Space Telescope imagery and spectroscopy, I found a striking asymmetry in velocity, momentum and ionization between the two lobes of the outflow. Such asymmetries have been found in TTS, and can readily be explained through the same paradigm of magnetospheric accretion successfully applied to TTS. Next, by piecing together a wide range of data for AB Aur, I found evidence for magnetospheric accretion with the detection of excess continuum emission and semi-forbidden line emission in the ultraviolet. Reviewing archival spectra from the International Ultraviolet Explorer for AB Aur and five other Herbig Ae stars known to be powering microjets, I found a correlation between the Magnesium II wind absorption profile and inclination, which correlation strongly suggests that AB Aur is also powering a microjet, although currently, high resolution imagers have failed to detect jet signatures.

  4. Observational Studies of Pre-Main Sequence Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutchinson, M. G.

    1988-12-01

    This work investigates selected young stars paying particular attention to their photometric and polarimetric characteristics. The stars observed represent particular sub-classes of the Orion Population of young stars: T Tauri stars of about one solar mass (RY Lup, RU Lup, CoD -33o10685 and AK Sco); Herbig Ae/Be stars of a few solar masses (TY CrA, R CrA, T CrA and V856 Sco); a YY Ori star which is thought to be still accreting matter (S CrA); and an 'isolated' T Tauri star which lies away from a star-forming cloud (V4046 Sgr). Data was acquired at ultraviolet, optical and infrared wavelengths, along with optical polarimetric data. The subsequent analysis of data for the well-studied stars can be summarised as follows: the spectroscopic characteristics of the star are defined; possible mechanisms for the photometric variability are discussed; and given the spectral type of the star, the intrinsic flux distribution is determined and the parameters of the optical and infrared emission are thereby determined. The implications of any photometric variability found are also discussed. A possible model of polarisation is discussed and the wavelength dependence of polarisation in eleven young stars is analysed. It is found that the circumstellar environment plays a role in many of the observed characteristics of the stars studied. Several of the stellar spectra show lines which form in a stellar envelope. Each star is found to be affected by circumstellar extinction and to exhibit infrared emission from circumstellar dust. In most cases the circumstellar dust also gives rise to the optical polarisation. The photometric and/or polarimetric variability exhibited by some of the stars is ascribable to changes in the circumstellar dust shell opacity

  5. Angular Momentum Evolution of Pre-Main Sequence Stars in the Nearest OB Association

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oberst, Thomas E.; Mellon, Samuel N.; Pecaut, Mark J.; Mamajek, Eric E.

    2015-08-01

    We present an analysis of the angular momentum evolution of pre-main sequence stars in the Scorpius-Centaurus (Sco-Cen) OB association, the nearest to the Sun. Our parent sample consists of 1692 Sco-Cen members, 157 of which are previously unpublished. Using archival SuperWASP photometry, we detect starspot modulation over multiple seasons for 183 of these stars and estimate their rotation periods. Spectral types have been measured for 24 of these stars using low-resolution spectra from the SMARTS 1.5 m telescope, with the remainder adopted from the literature. Our stellar sample spans spectral types from late-A to mid-M dwarfs with periods from ~ 0.2 - 8 days and isochronal ages from ~ 11 - 17 Myr. We examine the relationship between mass, period, and age to constrain models of angular momentum evolution, furthering our understanding of stars which have completed their main accretion phase (~ 1 - 10 Myr) but have not yet reached the zero-age main sequence (~ 40 Myr for 1 M⊙).

  6. Masses of asteroids and the total mass of the main asteroid belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vladimirovna Pitjeva, Elena; Petrovich Pitjev, Nikolay

    2015-08-01

    The renovated database of observations of planets and spacecraft, as well as asteroid data have been used for estimation of masses of asteroids and the total mass of main asteroid belt from their perturbations on motion of solar system bodies. The direct dynamical mass estimations were obtained for about 30 largest asteroids by their gravitation impacts on other bodies. The masses of other large asteroids were estimated by their diameters and evaluated densities. The total contribution of all remaining small asteroids is modeled as a gravitational force from uniform two-dimensional ring with the constant mass distribution in the ecliptic plane. The work was based on the new version of the EPM2014 ephemerides of IAA RAS using more than 800000 positional observations (mostly radar ones) of planets and spacecraft obtained in 1913-2014. For the first time, the two-dimensional asteroid annulus with dimensions corresponding to its observable width has been used instead of one-dimensional ring which applied for modeling perturbation of small asteroids in our previous versions of EPM ephemerides. As a result, the accuracy of the mass of the two-dimensional asteroid annulus has increased by 6 times; orbits of all planets have improved distinctly, in particular, the formal uncertainties of the semi-major axes of the planets decreased by two times. The total mass of the main asteroid belt has been found: Mbelt = (12.25 ± 0.19)×10-10MSun. ≈ 2.5 MCeres.Moreover, the estimation of the total mass of Trans-Neptunian Objects (TNO) including the known masses of 30 largest TNO, Pluto and the evaluated mass of the TNO ring (with a radius of 43 au) was obtained:592×10-10 MSun (or 125 MCeres).

  7. Main-Sequence CMEs as Magnetic Explosions: Compatibility with Observed Kinematics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Ron; Falconer, David; Sterling, Alphonse

    2004-01-01

    We examine the kinematics of 26 CMEs of the morphological main sequence of CMEs, those having the classic three-part bubble structure of (1) a bright front eveloping (2) a dark cavity within which rides (3) a bright blob/filamentary feature. Each CME is observed in Yohkoh/SXT images to originate from near the limb (> or equal to 0.7 R(sub Sun) from disk center). The basic data (from the SOHO LASCO CME Catalog) for the kinematics of each CME are the sequence of LASCO images of the CME, the time of each image, the measured radial distance of the front edge of the CME in each image, and the measured angular extent of the CME. About half of our CMEs (12) occur with a flare, and the rest (14) occur without a flare. While the average linear-fit speed of the flare CMEs (1000 km/s) is twice that of the non-flare CMEs (510 km/s), the flare CMEs and the non-flare CMEs are similar in that some have nearly flat velocity-height (radial extent) profiles (little acceleration), some have noticeably falling velocity profiles (noticeable deceleration), and the rest have velocity profiles that rise considerably through the outer corona (blatant acceleration). This suggests that in addition to sharing similar morphology, main-sequence CMEs all have basically the same driving mechanism. The observed radial progression of each of our 26 CMEs is fit by a simple model magnetic plasmoid that is in pressure balance with the radial magnetic field in the outer corona and that propels itself outward by magnetic expansion, doing no net work on its surroundings. On average over the 26 CMEs, this model fits the observations as well as the assumption of constant acceleration. This is compatible with main-sequence CMEs being magnetically driven, basically magnetic explosions, with the velocity profile in the outer corona being largely dictated by the initial Alfien speed in the CME (when the front is at approx. 3 (sub Sun), analogous to the mass of a main-sequence star dictating the luminosity.

  8. A multiwavelength consensus on the main sequence of star-forming galaxies at z ˜ 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodighiero, G.; Renzini, A.; Daddi, E.; Baronchelli, I.; Berta, S.; Cresci, G.; Franceschini, A.; Gruppioni, C.; Lutz, D.; Mancini, C.; Santini, P.; Zamorani, G.; Silverman, J.; Kashino, D.; Andreani, P.; Cimatti, A.; Sánchez, H. Domínguez; Le Floch, E.; Magnelli, B.; Popesso, P.; Pozzi, F.

    2014-09-01

    We compare various star formation rate (SFR) indicators for star-forming galaxies at 1.4 < z < 2.5 in the COSMOS field. The main focus is on the SFRs from the far-IR (PACS-Herschel data) with those from the ultraviolet, for galaxies selected according to the BzK criterion. FIR-selected samples lead to a vastly different slope of the SFR-stellar mass (M*) relation, compared to that of the dominant main-sequence population as measured from the UV, since the FIR selection picks predominantly only a minority of outliers. However, there is overall agreement between the main sequences derived with the two SFR indicators, when stacking on the PACS maps the BzK-selected galaxies. The resulting logarithmic slope of the SFR-M* relation is ˜0.8-0.9, in agreement with that derived from the dust-corrected UV luminosity. Exploiting deeper 24 μm Spitzer data, we have characterized a subsample of galaxies with reddening and SFRs poorly constrained, as they are very faint in the B band. The combination of Herschel with Spitzer data has allowed us to largely break the age/reddening degeneracy for these intriguing sources, by distinguishing whether a galaxy is very red in B-z because of being heavily dust reddened, or whether because star formation has been (or is being) quenched. Finally, we have compared our SFR(UV) to the SFRs derived by stacking the radio data and to those derived from the Hα luminosity of a sample of star-forming galaxies at 1.4 < z < 1.7. The two sets of SFRs are broadly consistent as they are with the SFRs derived from the UV and by stacking the corresponding PACS data in various mass bins.

  9. Non-linearity and environmental dependence of the star-forming galaxies main sequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erfanianfar, G.; Popesso, P.; Finoguenov, A.; Wilman, D.; Wuyts, S.; Biviano, A.; Salvato, M.; Mirkazemi, M.; Morselli, L.; Ziparo, F.; Nandra, K.; Lutz, D.; Elbaz, D.; Dickinson, M.; Tanaka, M.; Altieri, M. B.; Aussel, H.; Bauer, F.; Berta, S.; Bielby, R. M.; Brandt, N.; Cappelluti, N.; Cimatti, A.; Cooper, M. C.; Fadda, D.; Ilbert, O.; Le Floch, E.; Magnelli, B.; Mulchaey, J. S.; Nordon, R.; Newman, J. A.; Poglitsch, A.; Pozzi, F.

    2016-01-01

    Using data from four deep fields (COSMOS, AEGIS, ECDFS, and CDFN), we study the correlation between the position of galaxies in the star formation rate (SFR) versus stellar mass plane and local environment at z < 1.1. To accurately estimate the galaxy SFR, we use the deepest available Spitzer/MIPS 24 and Herschel/PACS data sets. We distinguish group environments (Mhalo ˜ 1012.5-14.2 M⊙) based on the available deep X-ray data and lower halo mass environments based on the local galaxy density. We confirm that the main sequence (MS) of star-forming galaxies is not a linear relation and there is a flattening towards higher stellar masses (M* > 1010.4-10.6 M⊙), across all environments. At high redshift (0.5 < z < 1.1), the MS varies little with environment. At low redshift (0.15 < z < 0.5), group galaxies tend to deviate from the mean MS towards the region of quiescence with respect to isolated galaxies and less-dense environments. We find that the flattening of the MS towards low SFR is due to an increased fraction of bulge-dominated galaxies at high masses. Instead, the deviation of group galaxies from the MS at low redshift is caused by a large fraction of red disc-dominated galaxies which are not present in the lower density environments. Our results suggest that above a mass threshold (˜1010.4-1010.6 M⊙) stellar mass, morphology and environment act together in driving the evolution of the star formation activity towards lower level. The presence of a dominating bulge and the associated quenching processes are already in place beyond z ˜1. The environmental effects appear, instead, at lower redshifts and have a long time-scale.

  10. A Search for Planets and Brown Dwarfs around Post Main Sequence Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otani, Tomomi; Oswalt, Terry D.

    2016-06-01

    The most promising current theory for the origin of subdwarf B (sdB) stars is that they were formed during binary star evolution. This project was conducted to test this hypothesis by searching for companions around six sdB pulsators using the Observed-minus-Calculated (O-C) method. A star’s position in space will wobble due to the gravitational forces of any companion. If it is emitting a periodic signal, the orbital motion of the star around the system’s center of mass causes periodic changes in the light pulse arrival times. O-C diagrams for six sdB pulsators were constructed from several years’ observations, providing useful limits on suspected companions’ minimum masses and semimajor axes. The results were constrained by “period vs. amplitude” and “mass vs. semimajor axis” models to quantify companion masses and semimajor axes that are consistent with the observational data, if any. Two of our targets, V391 Peg and HS0702+6043, are noted in previous publications to have substellar companions. These were used to validate the method used in this research. The results of this study yielded the same masses and semimajor axes for these two stars as the published values, within the uncertainties. Another of the targets, EC20117-4014, is noted in the literature as a binary system containing an sdB and F5V star, however the orbital period and separation were unknown. The new data obtained in this study contain the signal of a companion candidate with a period of 158.01 days. Several possible mass and semimajor axis combinations for the companion are consistent with the observations. One of the other targets in this study displayed preliminary evidence for a companion that will require further observation. Though still a small sample, these results suggest that planets often survive the post-main-sequence evolution of their parent stars.

  11. Age-rotation relationship for late-type main-sequence stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rengarajan, T. N.

    1984-01-01

    With advancing spectral type and increasing age, late main-sequence stars exhibit monotonic decrease in rotational velocity. It is of great interest to extend the rotation-age relationship to stars of later spectral type. In recent times it has become possible to measure directly the rotational periods from the photometric modulation by Ca II H and K line emission. There have also been successful attempts to relate the chromospheric activity as manifested through Ca II H and K lines to the rotation period, and it was shown that the fraction of total stellar luminosity in Ca II H and K lines, corrected for photospheric contribution, is a function of a single parameter related to P and B-V. In the present investigation, this rotation-activity relation is utilized to infer the rotation periods as a function of spectral type. The period versus B-V plot is employed as a basis to infer that the rotational period of main-sequence stars is a single-valued function of mass (B-V color) and age.

  12. Mapping the magnetospheric structure at outburst of the pre-main sequence close binary AK Sco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez De Castro, Ana

    2013-10-01

    Pre-main sequence {PMS} binaries are surrounded by circumbinary disks from which matter falls onto both components. The material dragged from the circumbinary disk flows onto each star through independent streams channelled by the variable gravitational field. The action of the bar-like potential is most prominent in high eccentricity systems made of two equal mass stars. AK Sco is a unique PMS system composed of two F5 stars that get as close as 11.3 stellar radii at periastron {e=0.47}. AK Sco is an ideal laboratory to study matter infall in binaries and its role in orbit circularization. Our team has reported recently, the discovery of an unexpected 1.3mHz ultra low frequency {ULF} oscillation in the ultraviolet light curve at periastron passage. The oscillation lasted 0.6% of the orbital period. According to our numerical simulations, the cirscumstellar structures get in contact at periastron producing an accretion outburst that triggered of the oscillation. If confirmed, this would unveil a new mechanism for angular momentum loss during pre-main sequence evolution and a new type of interacting binary. The objective of this project is to identify the source of the oscillation and the physical structure of the accretion flow before, during and after the oscillation is triggered. Since the accretion flow radiates in the ultraviolet range, this study requires an ultraviolet {UV} spectroscopic monitoring.

  13. Main-sequence of star-formation, between universality and tension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elbaz, David

    2015-08-01

    We will present a new method to push the deepest Herschel surveys even deeper in sensitivity and redshift range. A comparison to UV techniques such as the Lyman break technique will be given showing that a population of M*>5x10^10 Msun galaxies is systematically missed by this standard approach at high z. We will discuss how SFR estimates of starbursting galaxies can be wrongly estimated when using the UV corrected for extinction. A discussion of the relative growth of disks and bulges will be presented.We will show that at least 2/3 of the star-formation history of galaxies took place in a main-sequence mode, i.e. with a characteristic specific SFR +/- 0.3 dex, suggesting that star-formation at the scale of galaxies over the Hubble time is a relatively universal process. This result matches surprisingly well the cold flow paradigm which states that at least 2/3 of the mass growth of galaxies came from smooth accretion of intergalactic matter suggesting that the main-sequence is a direct result of smooth gas accretion. However we will also show that both paradigms lead to a major tension in their relative growth rates as a function of cosmic time showing that either a major regulatory process of star-formation is still missing or that we misunderstand the behavior of baryons at large scales.

  14. Galaxy Zoo: spiral galaxy morphologies and their relation to the star-forming main sequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willett, Kyle; Schawinski, Kevin; Masters, Karen; Melvin, Tom; Skibba, Ramin A.; Nichol, Robert; Cheung, Edmond; Lintott, Chris; Simmons, Brooke D.; Kaviraj, Sugata; Keel, William C.; Fortson, Lucy; Galaxy Zoo volunteers

    2015-01-01

    We examine the relationship between stellar mass and star formation rate in disk galaxies at z<0.085, measuring different populations of spirals as classified by their kiloparsec-scale structure. The morphologies of disk galaxies are obtained from the Galaxy Zoo 2 project, which includes the number of spiral arms, the arm pitch angle, and the presence of strong galactic bars. We show that both the slope and dispersion of the star-forming main sequence (SFMS) is constant no matter what the morphology of the spiral disk. We also show that mergers (both major and minor), which represent the strongest conditions for increases in star formation at a constant mass, only boost the SFR above the main relation by 0.3 dex; this is a significant reduction over the increase seen in merging systems at higher redshifts (z > 1). Of the galaxies that do lie significantly above the SFMS in the local Universe, more than 50% are mergers, with a large contribution from the compact green pea galaxies. We interpret our results as evidence that the number and pitch angle of spiral arms, which are imperfect reflections of the galaxy's current gravitational potential, are either fully independent of the various quenching mechanisms for star formation or are completely overwhelmed by the combination of outflows and feedback.

  15. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Pre-main sequence evolutionary tracks (Landin+, 2010)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landin, N. R.; Mendes, L. T. S.; Vaz, L. P. R.

    2009-11-01

    These data present pre-main sequence evolutionary tracks, including local and global convective turnover times and Rossby numbers, for 0.6, 0.7, 0.8, 0.9, 1.0, 1.1 and 1.2 solar masses. The tracks were generated with a modified version of D'Antona & Mazzitelli's code (the ATON code, Ventura et al., 1998A&A...334..953V) which take into account stellar rotation (Mendes et al., 1999A&A...341..174M). All models were computed with solar metallicity (Z=0.0175, Y=0.27) and alpha=1.5 (mixing length theory parameter). (1 data file).

  16. Properties of Turbulent Dynamics and Oscillations of Main-Sequence Stars Deduced From Numerical Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitiashvili, Irina N.; Mansour, Nagi N.; Kosovichev, Alexander; Wray, Alan A.

    2015-08-01

    Unique observational data from the Kepler mission open new perspectives for detail investigation of dynamical and internal properties of numerous stars. However, the new observational results require better understand links between the stellar turbulent convection and oscillations. We perform 3D numerical radiative hydrodynamics simulations of convective and oscillation properties of main-sequence stars from the solar-type stars to more massive F- and A-type stars. As the stellar mass increases the convection zone shrinks making it possible to include the whole convection zone in the computational domain. Also in more massive stars the scale and intensity of the turbulent motions dramatically increases, providing more energy for excitation of acoustic and gravity modes. In this talk I will discuss properties of the turbulent dynamics of the stars, interaction between the radiative and convection zones, and excitation of acoustic and gravity modes.

  17. On blue straggler information by direct collisions of main sequence stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lombardi, James, C. jr.; Rasio, Frederic A.; Shapiro, Stuart L.

    1995-01-01

    We report the results of new smoothed particle hydrodynamics calculations of parabolic collisions between main-sequence (MS) stars. The stars are assumed to be close the MS turnoff point in a globular cluster and are therefore modeled as n = 3, Gamma = 5/3 polytropes. We find that the high degree of central mass concentration in these stars has a profound effect on the hydrodynamics. In particular, very little hydrodynamic mixing occurs between the dense, helium-rich inner cores and the outer envelopes. As a result, and in contrast to what has been assumed in previous studies, blue stragglers formed by direct stellar collisions are not necessarily expected to have anomalously high helium abundances in their envelopes or to have their cores replenished with fresh hydrogen fuel.

  18. A Population Study of Wide-Separation Brown Dwarf Companions to Main Sequence Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Jeffrey J.

    2005-01-01

    Increased interest in infrared astronomy has opened the frontier to study cooler objects that shed significant light on the formation of planetary systems. Brown dwarf research provides a wealth of information useful for sorting through a myriad of proposed formation theories. Our study combines observational data from 2MASS with rigorous computer simulations to estimate the true population of long-range (greater than 1000 AU) brown dwarf companions in the solar neighborhood (less than 25 pc from Earth). Expanding on Gizis et al. (2001), we have found the margin of error in previous estimates to be significantly underestimated after we included orbit eccentricity, longitude of pericenter, angle of inclination, field star density, and primary and secondary luminosities as parameters influencing the companion systems in observational studies. We apply our simulation results to current L- and T-dwarf catalogs to provide updated estimates on the frequency of wide-separation brown dwarf companions to main sequence stars.

  19. V4046 Sgr: Touchstone to Investigate Spectral Type Discrepancies for Pre-main Sequence Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kastner, Joel H.; Rapson, Valerie; Sargent, Benjamin; Smith, C. T.; Rayner, John

    2015-01-01

    Determinations of the fundamental properties (e.g., masses and ages) of late-type, pre-main sequence (pre-MS) stars are complicated by the potential for significant discrepancies between the spectral types of such stars as ascertained via optical vs. near-infrared observations. To address this problem, we have obtained near-IR spectroscopy of the nearby, close binary T Tauri system V4046 Sgr AB with the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF) SPEX spectrometer. The V4046 Sgr close binary (and circumbinary disk) system provides an important test case for spectral type determination thanks to the stringent observational constraints on its component stellar masses (i.e., ˜0.9 M_⊙ each) as well as on its age (12--21 Myr) and distance (73 pc). Analysis of the IRTF data indicates that the composite near-IR spectral type for V4046 Sgr AB lies in the range M0--M1, i.e., significantly later than the K5+K7 composite type previously determined from optical spectroscopy. However, the K5+K7 composite type is in better agreement with theoretical pre-MS evolutionary tracks, given the well-determined properties of V4046 Sgr AB. These results serve as a cautionary tale for studies that rely on near-infrared spectroscopy as a primary means to infer the ages and masses of pre-MS stars.

  20. Accretion Rates on Pre-main-sequence Stars in the Young Open Cluster NGC 6530

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallardo, José; del Valle, Luciano; Ruiz, María Teresa

    2012-01-01

    It is well accepted that during the star formation process, material from a protoplanetary disk is accreted onto the central object during the first ~1-5 Myr. Different authors have published measurements of accretion rates for young low- and intermediate-mass stars in several nearby star-forming regions (SFRs). Due to its somewhat larger distance, the SFR M8 (the Lagoon Nebula) has not been studied to the same extent, despite its abundant population of young stellar objects. We have obtained optical band low-resolution spectra of a sample of pre-main-sequence stars in the open cluster NGC 6530 located in the aforementioned nebulae using the Gemini Multi Object Spectrograph at Gemini-South in multi-object mode. Spectra cover the Hα emission line used to measure the accretion rate, following the method presented by Natta et al. The observed spectral characteristics are fully consistent with pre-main-sequence stars, showing lithium absorption lines, which are very common in young stellar objects, as well as prominent and broad Hα emission lines, indicating a T Tauri evolutionary stage. This work presents the first determinations of mass accretion rates of young stellar objects in the open cluster NGC 6530, confirming that they are classical T Tauri stars going through the accretion phase. These observations contribute to a better understanding of the stellar content and evolutionary phase of the very active Lagoon Nebula SFR. Based on observations obtained at the Gemini Observatory, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under a cooperative agreement with the NSF on behalf of the Gemini partnership: the National Science Foundation (United States), the Science and Technology Facilities Council (United Kingdom), the National Research Council (Canada), CONICYT (Chile), the Australian Research Council (Australia), Ministério da Ciencia e Tecnologia (Brazil), and Ministerio de Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación Productiva

  1. Characterizing Pre-Main Sequence Populations in Stellar Associations of the Large Magellanic Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gouliermis, Dimitrios

    2007-07-01

    The Large Magellanic Cloud {LMC} offers an extremely rich sample of resolved low-mass stars {below 1 Solar Mass} in the act of formation that has not been explored sufficiently yet. These pre-main sequence {PMS} stars provide a unique snapshot of the star formation process, as it is being recorded for the last 20 Myr, and they give important information on the low-mass Initial Mass Function {IMF} of their host stellar systems. Studies of young, rich LMC clusters like 30 Doradus are crowding limited, even at the angular resolution facilitated by HST in the optical. To learn more about low-mass PMS stars in the LMC, one has to study less crowded regions like young stellar assocations. We propose to employ WFPC2 to obtain deep photometry {V 25.5 mag} of four selected LMC stellar associations in order to perform an original optical analysis of their red PMS and blue bright MS stellar populations. With these observations we aim at a comprehensive study, which will add substantial information on the most recent star formation and the IMF in the LMC. The data reduction and analysis will be performed with a 2D photometry software package especially developped by us for WFPC2 imaging of extended stellar associations with variable background. Our targets have been selected optimizing a combination of criteria, namely spatial resolution, crowding, low extinction, nebular contamination, and background confusion in comparison to other regions in the Local Group. Parallel NICMOS imaging will provide additional information on near-infrared properties of the stellar population in the regions surrounding these systems.

  2. The Star-Forming Main Sequence as a Natural Consequence of the Central Limit Theorem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelson, Daniel David

    2015-08-01

    Star-formation rates (SFR) of disk galaxies correlate with stellar mass, with a small dispersion in SSFR at fixed mass, sigma~0.3 dex. With such scatter this star-formation main sequence (SFMS) has been interpreted as deterministic and fundamental. Here I demonstrate that such a correlation arises naturally from the central limit theorem. The derivation begins by approximating in situ stellar mass growth as a stochastic process, much like a random walk, where the expectation of SFR at any time is equal to the SFR at the previous time. The SFRs of real galaxies, however, do not experience wholly random stochastic changes over time, but change in a highly correlated fashion due to the long reach of gravity and the correlation of structure in the universe. We therefore generalize the results for star-formation as a stochastic process that has random correlations over random and potentially infinite timescales. For unbiased samples of (disk) galaxies we derive expectation values for SSFR and its scatter, such that =2/T, and Sig[SFR/M]=. Note that this relative scatter is independent of mass and time. This derived correlation between SFR and stellar mass, and its evolution, matches published data to z=10 with sufficient accuracy to constrain cosmological parameters from the data. This statistical approach to the diversity of star-formation histories reproduces several important observables, including: the scatter in SSFR at fixed mass; the forms of SFHs of nearby dwarf galaxies and the Milky Way. At least one additional process beyond a single one responsible for in situ stellar mass growth will be required to match the evolution of the stellar mass function, and we discuss ways to generalize the framework. The implied dispersion in SFHs, and the SFMS's insensitivity to timescales of stochasticity, thus substantially limits the ability to connect massive galaxies to their progenitors over long cosmic baselines. Such analytical work shows promise for

  3. Variations of the ISM Compactness Across the Main Sequence of Star Forming Galaxies: Observations and Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-Galarza, J. R.; Smith, H. A.; Lanz, L.; Hayward, Christopher C.; Zezas, A.; Rosenthal, L.; Weiner, A.; Hung, C.; Ashby, M. L. N.; Groves, B.

    2016-01-01

    The majority of star-forming galaxies follow a simple empirical correlation in the star formation rate (SFR) versus stellar mass (M*) plane, of the form {{SFR}}\\propto {M}*α , usually referred to as the star formation main sequence (MS). The physics that sets the properties of the MS is currently a subject of debate, and no consensus has been reached regarding the fundamental difference between members of the sequence and its outliers. Here we combine a set of hydro-dynamical simulations of interacting galactic disks with state-of-the-art radiative transfer codes to analyze how the evolution of mergers is reflected upon the properties of the MS. We present Chiburst, a Markov Chain Monte Carlo spectral energy distribution (SED) code that fits the multi-wavelength, broad-band photometry of galaxies and derives stellar masses, SFRs, and geometrical properties of the dust distribution. We apply this tool to the SEDs of simulated mergers and compare the derived results with the reference output from the simulations. Our results indicate that changes in the SEDs of mergers as they approach coalescence and depart from the MS are related to an evolution of dust geometry in scales larger than a few hundred parsecs. This is reflected in a correlation between the specific star formation rate, and the compactness parameter { C }, that parametrizes this geometry and hence the evolution of dust temperature ({T}{{dust}}) with time. As mergers approach coalescence, they depart from the MS and increase their compactness, which implies that moderate outliers of the MS are consistent with late-type mergers. By further applying our method to real observations of luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs), we show that the merger scenario is unable to explain these extreme outliers of the MS. Only by significantly increasing the gas fraction in the simulations are we able to reproduce the SEDs of LIRGs.

  4. ASTEROSEISMIC ANALYSIS OF THE PRE-MAIN-SEQUENCE STARS IN NGC 2264

    SciTech Connect

    Guenther, D. B.; Casey, M. P.; Kallinger, T.; Zwintz, K.; Weiss, W. W.; Kuschnig, R.; Matthews, J. M.; Walker, G. A. H.; Moffat, A. F. J.; Rucinski, S. M.; Sasselov, D.

    2009-10-20

    NGC 2264 is a young open cluster lying above the Galactic plane in which six variable stars have previously been identified as possible pre-main-sequence (PMS) pulsators. Their oscillation spectra are relatively sparse with each star having from 2 to 12 unambiguous frequency identifications based on Microvariability and Oscillations of Stars satellite and multi-site ground-based photometry. We describe our efforts to find classical PMS stellar models (i.e., models evolved from the Hayashi track) whose oscillation spectra match the observed frequencies. We find model eigenspectra that match the observed frequencies and are consistent with the stars' locations in the HR diagram for the three faintest of the six stars. Not all the frequencies found in spectra of the three brightest stars can be matched to classical PMS model spectra possibly because of effects not included in our PMS models such as chemical and angular momentum stratification in the outer layers of the star. All the oscillation spectra contain both radial and nonradial p-modes. We argue that the PMS pulsating stars divide into two groups depending on whether or not they have undergone complete mixing (i.e., have gone through a Hayashi phase). Lower mass stars that do evolve through a Hayashi phase have oscillation spectra predicted by classical PMS models, whereas more massive stars that do not, retain mass infall effects in their surface layers and are not well modeled by classical PMS models.

  5. Gas Content and Star Formation Efficiency of Massive Main Sequence Galaxies at z~3-4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schinnerer, Eva; Groves, Brent; Karim, Alexander; Sargent, Mark T.; Oesch, Pascal; Le Fevre, Olivier; Tasca, Lidia; Magnelli, Benjamin; Cassata, Paolo; Smolcic, Vernesa

    2016-01-01

    Recent observations have shown that the neutral gas content and star formation efficiency of massive (with log(stellar masses) > 10), normal star forming galaxies, i.e. they reside on the main sequence of star forming galaxies, are steadily decreasing from the peak of star formation activity (at redshifts of z~2) till today. This decrease is coincident with the observed decline in the cosmic star formation rate density over this time range. However, only few observations have probed the evolution of the gas content and star formation efficiency beyond this peak epoch when the cosmic star formation rate density has been increasing, i.e. at redshifts of z~3-4.We will present new ALMA rest-frame 250um continuum detections of 45 massive, normal star forming galaxies in this critical redshift interval selected in the COSMOS deep field. Using the sub-mm continnum as proxy for the cold neutral gas content, we find gas mass fractions and depletions similar to those reported during the peak epoch of star formation. We will discuss our findings in the context of results from lower redshift observations and model expectations.

  6. An M Dwarf Companion to an F-type Star in a Young Main-sequence Binary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eigmüller, Ph.; Eislöffel, J.; Csizmadia, Sz.; Lehmann, H.; Erikson, A.; Fridlund, M.; Hartmann, M.; Hatzes, A.; Pasternacki, Th.; Rauer, H.; Tkachenko, A.; Voss, H.

    2016-03-01

    Only a few well characterized very low-mass M dwarfs are known today. Our understanding of M dwarfs is vital as these are the most common stars in our solar neighborhood. We aim to characterize the properties of a rare F+dM stellar system for a better understanding of the low-mass end of the Hertzsprung-Russel diagram. We used photometric light curves and radial velocity follow-up measurements to study the binary. Spectroscopic analysis was used in combination with isochrone fitting to characterize the primary star. The primary star is an early F-type main-sequence star with a mass of (1.493 ± 0.073) M⊙ and a radius of (1.474 ± 0.040) R⊙. The companion is an M dwarf with a mass of (0.188 ± 0.014) M⊙ and a radius of (0.234 ± 0.009) R⊙. The orbital period is (1.35121 ± 0.00001) days. The secondary star is among the lowest-mass M dwarfs known to date. The binary has not reached a 1:1 spin-orbit synchronization. This indicates a young main-sequence binary with an age below ˜250 Myr. The mass-radius relation of both components are in agreement with this finding.

  7. PRE-MAIN-SEQUENCE STELLAR POPULATIONS ACROSS SHAPLEY CONSTELLATION III. I. PHOTOMETRIC ANALYSIS AND IDENTIFICATION ,

    SciTech Connect

    Gouliermis, Dimitrios A.; Gennaro, Mario; Henning, Thomas; Da Rio, Nicola; Brandner, Wolfgang; Dolphin, Andrew E.; Robberto, Massimo; Panagia, Nino; Gruendl, Robert A.; Chu, You-Hua; Rosa, Michael; Romaniello, Martino; De Marchi, Guido; Zinnecker, Hans

    2011-09-10

    We present our investigation of pre-main-sequence (PMS) stellar populations in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) from imaging with Hubble Space Telescope Wide-Field Planetary Camera 2. Our targets of interest are four star-forming regions located at the periphery of the super-giant shell LMC 4 (Shapley Constellation III). The PMS stellar content of the regions is revealed through the differential Hess diagrams and the observed color-magnitude diagrams (CMDs). Further statistical analysis of stellar distributions along cross sections of the faint part of the CMDs allowed the quantitative assessment of the PMS stars census, and the isolation of faint PMS stars as the true low-mass stellar members of the regions. These distributions are found to be well represented by a double-Gaussian function, the first component of which represents the main-sequence field stars and the second the native PMS stars of each region. Based on this result, a cluster membership probability was assigned to each PMS star according to its CMD position. The higher extinction in the region LH 88 did not allow the unambiguous identification of its native stellar population. The CMD distributions of the PMS stars with the highest membership probability in the regions LH 60, LH 63, and LH 72 exhibit an extraordinary similarity among the regions, suggesting that these stars share common characteristics, as well as common recent star formation history. Considering that the regions are located at different areas of the edge of LMC 4, this finding suggests that star formation along the super-giant shell may have occurred almost simultaneously.

  8. ROTATION PERIODS OF 34,030 KEPLER MAIN-SEQUENCE STARS: THE FULL AUTOCORRELATION SAMPLE

    SciTech Connect

    McQuillan, A.; Mazeh, T.; Aigrain, S.

    2014-04-01

    We analyzed three years of data from the Kepler space mission to derive rotation periods of main-sequence stars below 6500 K. Our automated autocorrelation-based method detected rotation periods between 0.2 and 70 days for 34,030 (25.6%) of the 133,030 main-sequence Kepler targets (excluding known eclipsing binaries and Kepler Objects of Interest), making this the largest sample of stellar rotation periods to date. In this paper we consider the detailed features of the now well-populated period-temperature distribution and demonstrate that the period bimodality, first seen by McQuillan et al. in the M-dwarf sample, persists to higher masses, becoming less visible above 0.6 M {sub ☉}. We show that these results are globally consistent with the existing ground-based rotation-period data and find that the upper envelope of the period distribution is broadly consistent with a gyrochronological age of 4.5 Gyr, based on the isochrones of Barnes, Mamajek, and Hillenbrand and Meibom et al. We also performed a detailed comparison of our results to those of Reinhold et al. and Nielsen et al., who measured rotation periods of field stars observed by Kepler. We examined the amplitude of periodic variability for the stars with detection rotation periods, and found a typical range between ∼950 ppm (5th percentile) and ∼22,700 ppm (95th percentile), with a median of ∼5600 ppm. We found typically higher amplitudes for shorter periods and lower effective temperatures, with an excess of low-amplitude stars above ∼5400 K.

  9. Population Synthesis of Rapidly Rotating Main-Sequence Stars with Companions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raguzova, N. V.

    2003-05-01

    Usingthe “Scenario Machine” (a specialized numerical code formodeling the evolution of large ensembles of binary systems), we have studied the physical properties of rapidly rotating main-sequence binary stars (Be stars) with white-dwarf companions and their abundance in the Galaxy. The calculations are the first to take into account the cooling of the compact object and the effect of synchronization of the rotation on the evolution of Be stars in close binaries. The synchronization time scale can be shorter than the main-sequence lifetime of a Be star formed during the first mass transfer. This strongly influences the distribution of orbital periods for binary Be stars. In particular, it can explain the observed deficit of short-period Be binaries. According to our computations, the number of binary systems in the Galaxy containing a Be star and white dwarf is large: 70 80% of all Be stars in binaries should have degenerate dwarf companions. Based on our calculations, we conclude that the compact components in these systems have high surface temperatures. Despite their high surface temperatures, the detection of white dwarfs in such systems is hampered by the fact that the entire orbit of the white dwarf is embedded in the dense circumstellar envelope of the primary, and all the extreme-UV and soft X-ray emission of the compact object is absorbed by the Be star’s envelope. It may be possible to detect the white dwarfs via observations of helium emission lines of Be stars of not very early spectral types. The ultraviolet continuum energies of these stars are not sufficient to produce helium line emission. We also discuss numerical results for Be stars with other evolved companions, such as helium stars and neutron stars, and suggest an explanation for the absence of Be-black-hole binaries.

  10. Absolute properties of the main-sequence eclipsing binary FM Leo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratajczak, M.; Kwiatkowski, T.; Schwarzenberg-Czerny, A.; Dimitrov, W.; Konacki, M.; Hełminiak, K. G.; Bartczak, P.; Fagas, M.; Kamiński, K.; Kankiewicz, P.; Borczyk, W.; Rożek, A.

    2010-03-01

    First spectroscopic and new photometric observations of the eclipsing binary FM Leo are presented. The main aims were to determine the orbital and stellar parameters of the two components and their evolutionary stage. First spectroscopic observations of the system were obtained with the David Dunlap Observatory and Poznań Spectroscopic Telescope spectrographs. The results of the orbital solution from radial velocity curves are combined with those derived from the light-curve analysis (V-band photometry from the All Sky Automated Survey and supplementary observations of eclipses with the 1 and 0.35m telescopes) to derive orbital and stellar parameters. JKTEBOP, Wilson-Devinney binary modelling codes and a two-dimensional cross-correlation method were applied for the analysis. We find the masses to be M1 = 1.318 +/- 0.007 and M2 = 1.287 +/- 0.007Msolar and the radii to be R1 = 1.648 +/- 0.043 and R2 = 1.511 +/- 0.049 Rsolar for primary and secondary stars, respectively. The evolutionary stage of the system is briefly discussed by comparing physical parameters with current stellar evolution models. We find that the components are located at the main sequence, with an age of about 3Gyr.

  11. THE HIGHLY ECCENTRIC PRE-MAIN-SEQUENCE SPECTROSCOPIC BINARY RX J0529.3+1210

    SciTech Connect

    Mace, G. N.; Prato, L.; Wasserman, L. H.; Franz, O. G.; Schaefer, G. H.; Simon, M.

    2009-03-15

    The young system RX J0529.3+1210 was initially identified as a single-lined spectroscopic binary. Using high-resolution infrared spectra, acquired with NIRSPEC on Keck II, we measured radial velocities for the secondary. The method of using the infrared regime to convert single-lined spectra into double-lined spectra, and derive the mass ratio for the binary system, has been successfully used for a number of young, low-mass binaries. For RX J0529.3+1210, a long-period (462 days) and highly eccentric (0.88) binary system, we determine the mass ratio to be 0.78 {+-} 0.05 using the infrared double-lined velocity data alone, and 0.73 {+-} 0.23 combining visible light and infrared data in a full orbital solution. The large uncertainty in the latter is the result of the sparse sampling in the infrared and the high eccentricity: the stars do not have a large velocity separation during most of their {approx}1.3 yr orbit. A mass ratio close to unity, consistent with the high end of the 1{sigma} uncertainty for this mass ratio value, is inconsistent with the lack of a visible light detection of the secondary component. We outline several scenarios for a color difference in the two stars, such as one heavily spotted component, higher-order multiplicity, or a unique evolutionary stage, favoring detection of only the primary star in visible light, even in a mass ratio {approx}1 system. However, the evidence points to a lower ratio. Although RX J0529.3+1210 exhibits no excess at near-infrared wavelengths, a small 24 {mu}m excess is detected, consistent with circumbinary dust. The properties of this binary and its membership in {lambda} Ori versus a new nearby stellar moving group at {approx}90 pc are discussed. We speculate on the origin of this unusual system and on the impact of such high eccentricity, the largest observed in a pre-main-sequence double-lined system to date, on the potential for planet formation.

  12. Sensitivity studies for the main r process: nuclear masses

    SciTech Connect

    Aprahamian, A.; Mumpower, M.; Bentley, I.; Surman, R.

    2014-04-15

    The site of the rapid neutron capture process (r process) is one of the open challenges in all of physics today. The r process is thought to be responsible for the creation of more than half of all elements beyond iron. The scientific challenges to understanding the origin of the heavy elements beyond iron lie in both the uncertainties associated with astrophysical conditions that are needed to allow an r process to occur and a vast lack of knowledge about the properties of nuclei far from stability. One way is to disentangle the nuclear and astrophysical components of the question. On the nuclear physics side, there is great global competition to access and measure the most exotic nuclei that existing facilities can reach, while simultaneously building new, more powerful accelerators to make even more exotic nuclei. On the astrophysics side, various astrophysical scenarios for the production of the heaviest elements have been proposed but open questions remain. This paper reports on a sensitivity study of the r process to determine the most crucial nuclear masses to measure using an r-process simulation code, several mass models (FRDM, Duflo-Zuker, and HFB-21), and three potential astrophysical scenarios.

  13. Laser mass spectrometry for DNA sequencing, disease diagnosis, and fingerprinting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, C. H. Winston; Taranenko, N. I.; Zhu, Y. F.; Chung, C. N.; Allman, S. L.

    1997-05-01

    Since laser mass spectrometry has the potential for achieving very fast DNA analysis, we recently applied it to DNA sequencing, DNA typing for fingerprinting, and DNA screening for disease diagnosis. Two different approaches for sequencing DNA have been successfully demonstrated. One is to sequence DNA with DNA ladders produced from Sanger's enzymatic method. The other is to do direct sequencing without DNA ladders. The need for quick DNA typing for identification purposes is critical for forensic application. Our preliminary results indicate laser mass spectrometry can possible be used for rapid DNA fingerprinting applications at a much lower cost than gel electrophoresis. Population screening for certain genetic disease can be a very efficient step to reducing medical costs through prevention. Since laser mass spectrometry can provide very fast DNA analysis, we applied laser mass spectrometry to disease diagnosis. Clinical samples with both base deletion and point mutation have been tested with complete success.

  14. Laser mass spectrometry for DNA sequencing, disease diagnosis, and fingerprinting

    SciTech Connect

    Winston Chen, C.H.; Taranenko, N.I.; Zhu, Y.F.; Chung, C.N.; Allman, S.L.

    1997-03-01

    Since laser mass spectrometry has the potential for achieving very fast DNA analysis, the authors recently applied it to DNA sequencing, DNA typing for fingerprinting, and DNA screening for disease diagnosis. Two different approaches for sequencing DNA have been successfully demonstrated. One is to sequence DNA with DNA ladders produced from Snager`s enzymatic method. The other is to do direct sequencing without DNA ladders. The need for quick DNA typing for identification purposes is critical for forensic application. The preliminary results indicate laser mass spectrometry can possibly be used for rapid DNA fingerprinting applications at a much lower cost than gel electrophoresis. Population screening for certain genetic disease can be a very efficient step to reducing medical costs through prevention. Since laser mass spectrometry can provide very fast DNA analysis, the authors applied laser mass spectrometry to disease diagnosis. Clinical samples with both base deletion and point mutation have been tested with complete success.

  15. Fast algorithm for peptide sequencing by mass spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Bartels, C

    1990-01-01

    An automatic algorithm for sequencing polypeptides from fast atom bombardment tandem mass spectra is presented.Based on graph theory considerations it finds the most probable sequences, even if the amino acid composition is unknown, by scoring mass differences. The algorithm is fast as the computing time increases by less than the square of the number of amino acids. Pairs of two or three amino acids are proposed to explain the gap if peaks are missing. PMID:24730078

  16. Pre-main sequence stars in open clusters. I. The DAY-I catalogue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delgado, A. J.; Alfaro, E. J.; Yun, J. L.

    2007-06-01

    Context: We present the basic ideas and first results from the project we are carrying out at present, the search for and characterisation of pre-main sequence (PMS) stars among the members of Galactic young clusters. The observations of 10 southern clusters, nine of them located in the Carina-Sagittarius spiral arm of the Milky Way are presented. Aims: We aim at listing candidate PMS member stars in young clusters. The catalogued stars will serve as a basis for future spectroscopic studies of individual objects to determine the properties of stellar formation in the last phases before the main sequence stage. Properties such as the presence of residual envelopes or disks, age spread among PMS members, and the possible presence of several episodes of star formation in the clusters, are to be addressed. Methods: Multicolour photometry in the UBVR_CIC system has been obtained for 10 southern young clusters in the fourth Galactic quadrant, located between Galactic longitudes l = 238° and l = 310°. For six clusters in the sample, the observations presented here provide the first published study based on CCD photometry. A quantitative comparison is performed with post-MS isochrones, and PMS isochrones from three different evolutionary models are used in the photometric membership analysis for possible PMS stars. Results: The observations produce photometric indices in the Johnson-Cousins photometric systems for a total of 26 962 stars. The matching of our pixel coordinates with corresponding fields in the 2MASS data base provides astrometric calibration for all cataloged stars and JHK 2MASS photometric indices for 60% of them. Post-MS cluster ages range from 4 to 60 Myr, whereas the photometric membership analysis assigns PMS membership to a total of 842 stars, covering an age range between 1 and 10 Myr. This information on the PMS candidate members has been collected into a catalogue, named DAY-I, which contains 16 entries for 842 stars in the field of 10 southern

  17. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Pre-main sequence evolutionary tracks (Landin+, 2009)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landin, N. R.; Mendes, L. T. S.; Vaz, L. P. R.

    2008-11-01

    These data present new pre-main sequence evolutionary tracks (including apsidal motion constants and gyration radii) for 0.09, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5, 0.6, 0.7, 0.8, 0.9, 1.0, 1.2, 1.4, 1.6, 1.8, 2.0, 2.3, 2.5, 2.8, 3.0, 3.3, 3.5 and 3.8 solar masses. The track was generated with a modified version of D'Antona & Mazzitelli's code (the ATON code) described in Ventura et al. (1998A&A...334..953V). We include the combined distortions effects of tidal and rotational forces in the ATON code and the results are presented in four tables for four sets of tracks: standard models (including no distortion effect), binary models (including only tidal distortions), rotating models (including only rotational distortions) and rotating binary models (including both tidal and rotational distortions). All models were computed with solar metallicity (Z=0.0175, Y=0.27) and alpha=1.5 (mixing length theory parameter). (4 data files).

  18. WHITE-DWARF-MAIN-SEQUENCE BINARIES IDENTIFIED FROM THE LAMOST PILOT SURVEY

    SciTech Connect

    Ren Juanjuan; Luo Ali; Li Yinbi; Wei Peng; Zhao Jingkun; Zhao Yongheng; Song Yihan; Zhao Gang E-mail: lal@nao.cas.cn

    2013-10-01

    We present a set of white-dwarf-main-sequence (WDMS) binaries identified spectroscopically from the Large sky Area Multi-Object fiber Spectroscopic Telescope (LAMOST, also called the Guo Shou Jing Telescope) pilot survey. We develop a color selection criteria based on what is so far the largest and most complete Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) DR7 WDMS binary catalog and identify 28 WDMS binaries within the LAMOST pilot survey. The primaries in our binary sample are mostly DA white dwarfs except for one DB white dwarf. We derive the stellar atmospheric parameters, masses, and radii for the two components of 10 of our binaries. We also provide cooling ages for the white dwarf primaries as well as the spectral types for the companion stars of these 10 WDMS binaries. These binaries tend to contain hot white dwarfs and early-type companions. Through cross-identification, we note that nine binaries in our sample have been published in the SDSS DR7 WDMS binary catalog. Nineteen spectroscopic WDMS binaries identified by the LAMOST pilot survey are new. Using the 3{sigma} radial velocity variation as a criterion, we find two post-common-envelope binary candidates from our WDMS binary sample.

  19. Post-main-sequence debris from rotation-induced YORP break-up of small bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veras, Dimitri; Jacobson, Seth A.; Gänsicke, Boris T.

    2014-12-01

    Although discs of dust and gas have been observed orbiting white dwarfs, the origin of this circumstellar matter is uncertain. We hypothesize that the in situ break-up of small bodies such as asteroids spun to fission during the giant branch phases of stellar evolution provides an important contribution to this debris. The YORP (Yarkovsky-O'Keefe-Radviesvki-Paddock) effect, which arises from radiation pressure, accelerates the spin rate of asymmetric asteroids, which can eventually shear themselves apart. This pressure is maintained and enhanced around dying stars because the outward push of an asteroid due to stellar mass loss is insignificant compared to the resulting stellar luminosity increase. Consequently, giant star radiation will destroy nearly all bodies with radii in the range 100 m-10 km that survive their parent star's main-sequence lifetime within a distance of about 7 au; smaller bodies are spun apart to their strongest, competent components. This estimate is conservative and would increase for highly asymmetric shapes or incorporation of the inward drag due to giant star stellar wind. The resulting debris field, which could extend to thousands of au, may be perturbed by remnant planetary systems to reproduce the observed dusty and gaseous discs which accompany polluted white dwarfs.

  20. V1647 Orionis: The X-Ray Evolution of a Pre-Main-Sequence Accretion Burst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kastner, Joel H.; Richmond, Michael; Grosso, Nicolas; Weintraub, David A.; Simon, Theodore; Henden, Arne; Hamaguchi, Kenji; Frank, Adam; Ozawa, Hideki

    2006-09-01

    We present Chandra X-Ray Observatory monitoring observations of the recent accretion outburst displayed by the pre-main-sequence (pre-MS) star V1647 Ori. The X-ray observations were obtained over a period beginning prior to outburst onset in late 2003 and continuing through its apparent cessation in late 2005, and demonstrate that the mean flux of the spatially coincident X-ray source closely tracked the near-infrared luminosity of V1647 Ori throughout its eruption. We find negligible likelihood that the correspondence between X-ray and infrared light curves over this period was the result of multiple X-ray flares unrelated to the accretion burst. The recent Chandra data confirm that the X-ray spectrum of V1647 Ori hardened during outburst, relative both to its preoutburst state and to the X-ray spectra of nearby pre-MS stars in the L1630 cloud. We conclude that the observed changes in the X-ray emission from V1647 Ori over the course of its 2003-2005 eruption were generated by a sudden increase and subsequent decline in its accretion rate. These results for V1647 Ori indicate that the flux of hard X-ray emission from erupting low-mass, pre-MS stars, and the duration and intensity of such eruptions, reflect the degree to which star-disk magnetic fields are reorganized before and during major accretion events.

  1. Coronagraphic imaging of pre-main-sequence stars: Remnant evvelopes of star formation seen in reflection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nakajima, Tadashi; Golimowski, David A.

    1995-01-01

    We have obtained R- and I-band coronagraphic images of the vicinities of 11 pre-main sequence (PMS) stars to search for faint, small-scale reflection nebulae. The inner radius of the search and the field of view are 1.9 arcsec and 1x1 arcmin, respectively. Reflection nebulae were imaged around RY Tau, T Tau,DG Tau, SU Aur, AB Aur, FU Ori, and Z CMa. No nebulae were detected around HBC 347, GG Tau, V773 Tau, and V830 Tau. Categorically speaking, most of the classical T Tauri program stars and all the FU Orionis-type program stars are associated with the reflection nebulae, while none of the weak-line T Tauri program stars are associated with nebulae. The detected nebulae range in size from 250 to 37 000 AU. From the brightness ratios of the stars and nebulae, we obtain a lower limit to the visual extinction of PMS star light through the nebulae of (A(sub V))(sub neb) = 0.1. The lower limits of masses and volume densities of the nebulae associated with the classical T Tauri stars are 10(exp-6) Solar mass and N(sub H) = 10(exp 5)/cu cm, respectively. Lower limits for the nebulae around FU Orionis stars are 10(exp -5) Solar mass and n(sub H) = 10 (exp 5)/cu cm, respectively. Some reflection nebulae may trace the illuminated surfaces of the optically thick dust nebulae, so these mass estimates are not stringent. All the PMS stars with associated nebulae are strong far-infrared emitters. Both the far-infrared emission and the reflection nebulae appear to originate from the remnant envelopes of star formation. The 100 micrometers emitting regions of SU Aur and FU Ori are likely to be cospatial with the reflection nebulae. A spatial discontinuity between FU Ori and its reflection nebula may explain the dip in the far-infrared spectral energy distribution at 60 micrometers. The warped, disk-like nebulae around T Tau and Z CMa are aligned with and embrace the inner star/circumstellar disk systems. The arc-shaped nebula around DG Tau may be in contact with the coaligned inner

  2. YSOVAR: SIX PRE-MAIN-SEQUENCE ECLIPSING BINARIES IN THE ORION NEBULA CLUSTER

    SciTech Connect

    Morales-Calderon, M.; Stauffer, J. R.; Rebull, L. M.; Stassun, K. G.; Vrba, F. J.; Prato, L.; Hillenbrand, L. A.; Carpenter, J. M.; Terebey, S.; Angione, J.; Covey, K. R.; Terndrup, D. M.; Gutermuth, R.; Song, I.; Plavchan, P.; Marchis, F.; Garcia, E. V.; Margheim, S.; Luhman, K. L.; Irwin, J. M.

    2012-07-10

    Eclipsing binaries (EBs) provide critical laboratories for empirically testing predictions of theoretical models of stellar structure and evolution. Pre-main-sequence (PMS) EBs are particularly valuable, both due to their rarity and the highly dynamic nature of PMS evolution, such that a dense grid of PMS EBs is required to properly calibrate theoretical PMS models. Analyzing multi-epoch, multi-color light curves for {approx}2400 candidate Orion Nebula Cluster (ONC) members from our Warm Spitzer Exploration Science Program YSOVAR, we have identified 12 stars whose light curves show eclipse features. Four of these 12 EBs are previously known. Supplementing our light curves with follow-up optical and near-infrared spectroscopy, we establish two of the candidates as likely field EBs lying behind the ONC. We confirm the remaining six candidate systems, however, as newly identified ONC PMS EBs. These systems increase the number of known PMS EBs by over 50% and include the highest mass ({theta}{sup 1} Ori E, for which we provide a complete set of well-determined parameters including component masses of 2.807 and 2.797 M{sub Sun }) and longest-period (ISOY J053505.71-052354.1, P {approx} 20 days) PMS EBs currently known. In two cases ({theta}{sup 1} Ori E and ISOY J053526.88-044730.7), enough photometric and spectroscopic data exist to attempt an orbit solution and derive the system parameters. For the remaining systems, we combine our data with literature information to provide a preliminary characterization sufficient to guide follow-up investigations of these rare, benchmark systems.

  3. Laser desorption mass spectrometry for DNA analysis and sequencing

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, C.H.; Taranenko, N.I.; Tang, K.; Allman, S.L.

    1995-03-01

    Laser desorption mass spectrometry has been considered as a potential new method for fast DNA sequencing. Our approach is to use matrix-assisted laser desorption to produce parent ions of DNA segments and a time-of-flight mass spectrometer to identify the sizes of DNA segments. Thus, the approach is similar to gel electrophoresis sequencing using Sanger`s enzymatic method. However, gel, radioactive tagging, and dye labeling are not required. In addition, the sequencing process can possibly be finished within a few hundred microseconds instead of hours and days. In order to use mass spectrometry for fast DNA sequencing, the following three criteria need to be satisfied. They are (1) detection of large DNA segments, (2) sensitivity reaching the femtomole region, and (3) mass resolution good enough to separate DNA segments of a single nucleotide difference. It has been very difficult to detect large DNA segments by mass spectrometry before due to the fragile chemical properties of DNA and low detection sensitivity of DNA ions. We discovered several new matrices to increase the production of DNA ions. By innovative design of a mass spectrometer, we can increase the ion energy up to 45 KeV to enhance the detection sensitivity. Recently, we succeeded in detecting a DNA segment with 500 nucleotides. The sensitivity was 100 femtomole. Thus, we have fulfilled two key criteria for using mass spectrometry for fast DNA sequencing. The major effort in the near future is to improve the resolution. Different approaches are being pursued. When high resolution of mass spectrometry can be achieved and automation of sample preparation is developed, the sequencing speed to reach 500 megabases per year can be feasible.

  4. Intrinsic Colors, Temperatures, and Bolometric Corrections of Pre-main-sequence Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pecaut, Mark J.; Mamajek, Eric E.

    2013-09-01

    We present an analysis of the intrinsic colors and temperatures of 5-30 Myr old pre-main-sequence (pre-MS) stars using the F0- through M9-type members of nearby, negligibly reddened groups: the η Cha cluster, the TW Hydra Association, the β Pic Moving Group, and the Tucana-Horologium Association. To check the consistency of spectral types from the literature, we estimate new spectral types for 52 nearby pre-MS stars with spectral types F3 through M4 using optical spectra taken with the SMARTS 1.5 m telescope. Combining these new types with published spectral types and photometry from the literature (Johnson-Cousins BVIC , 2MASS JHKS and WISE W1, W2, W3, and W4), we derive a new empirical spectral type-color sequence for 5-30 Myr old pre-MS stars. Colors for pre-MS stars match dwarf colors for some spectral types and colors, but for other spectral types and colors, deviations can exceed 0.3 mag. We estimate effective temperatures (T eff) and bolometric corrections (BCs) for our pre-MS star sample through comparing their photometry to synthetic photometry generated using the BT-Settl grid of model atmosphere spectra. We derive a new T eff and BC scale for pre-MS stars, which should be a more appropriate match for T Tauri stars than often-adopted dwarf star scales. While our new T eff scale for pre-MS stars is within sime100 K of dwarfs at a given spectral type for stars sequence for O9V-M9V MS stars based on an extensive literature survey, (2) a revised Q-method relation for dereddening UBV photometry of OB-type stars, and (3) introduce two candidate spectral standard stars as representatives of spectral types K8V and K9V.

  5. INTRINSIC COLORS, TEMPERATURES, AND BOLOMETRIC CORRECTIONS OF PRE-MAIN-SEQUENCE STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Pecaut, Mark J.; Mamajek, Eric E.

    2013-09-01

    We present an analysis of the intrinsic colors and temperatures of 5-30 Myr old pre-main-sequence (pre-MS) stars using the F0- through M9-type members of nearby, negligibly reddened groups: the η Cha cluster, the TW Hydra Association, the β Pic Moving Group, and the Tucana-Horologium Association. To check the consistency of spectral types from the literature, we estimate new spectral types for 52 nearby pre-MS stars with spectral types F3 through M4 using optical spectra taken with the SMARTS 1.5 m telescope. Combining these new types with published spectral types and photometry from the literature (Johnson-Cousins BVI{sub C} , 2MASS JHK{sub S} and WISE W1, W2, W3, and W4), we derive a new empirical spectral type-color sequence for 5-30 Myr old pre-MS stars. Colors for pre-MS stars match dwarf colors for some spectral types and colors, but for other spectral types and colors, deviations can exceed 0.3 mag. We estimate effective temperatures (T {sub eff}) and bolometric corrections (BCs) for our pre-MS star sample through comparing their photometry to synthetic photometry generated using the BT-Settl grid of model atmosphere spectra. We derive a new T {sub eff} and BC scale for pre-MS stars, which should be a more appropriate match for T Tauri stars than often-adopted dwarf star scales. While our new T {sub eff} scale for pre-MS stars is within ≅100 K of dwarfs at a given spectral type for stars sequence for O9V-M9V MS stars based on an extensive literature survey, (2) a revised Q-method relation for dereddening UBV photometry of OB-type stars, and (3) introduce two candidate spectral standard stars as representatives of spectral types K8V and K9V.

  6. STELLAR DIAMETERS AND TEMPERATURES. II. MAIN-SEQUENCE K- AND M-STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Boyajian, Tabetha S.; McAlister, Harold A.; Jones, Jeremy; White, Russel; Henry, Todd; Gies, Douglas; Jao, Wei-Chun; Parks, J. Robert; Von Braun, Kaspar; Kane, Stephen R.; Ciardi, David; Van Belle, Gerard; Ten Brummelaar, Theo A.; Schaefer, Gail; Sturmann, Laszlo; Sturmann, Judit; Muirhead, Philip S.; Lopez-Morales, Mercedes; Ridgway, Stephen; Rojas-Ayala, Barbara; and others

    2012-10-01

    We present interferometric angular diameter measurements of 21 low-mass, K- and M-dwarfs made with the CHARA Array. This sample is enhanced by adding a collection of radius measurements published in the literature to form a total data set of 33 K-M-dwarfs with diameters measured to better than 5%. We use these data in combination with the Hipparcos parallax and new measurements of the star's bolometric flux to compute absolute luminosities, linear radii, and effective temperatures for the stars. We develop empirical relations for {approx}K0 to M4 main-sequence stars that link the stellar temperature, radius, and luminosity to the observed (B - V), (V - R), (V - I), (V - J), (V - H), and (V - K) broadband color index and stellar metallicity [Fe/H]. These relations are valid for metallicities ranging from [Fe/H] = -0.5 to +0.1 dex and are accurate to {approx}2%, {approx}5%, and {approx}4% for temperature, radius, and luminosity, respectively. Our results show that it is necessary to use metallicity-dependent transformations in order to properly convert colors into stellar temperatures, radii, and luminosities. Alternatively, we find no sensitivity to metallicity on relations we construct to the global properties of a star omitting color information, e.g., temperature-radius and temperature-luminosity. Thus, we are able to empirically quantify to what order the star's observed color index is impacted by the stellar iron abundance. In addition to the empirical relations, we also provide a representative look-up table via stellar spectral classifications using this collection of data. Robust examinations of single star temperatures and radii compared to evolutionary model predictions on the luminosity-temperature and luminosity-radius planes reveal that models overestimate the temperatures of stars with surface temperatures <5000 K by {approx}3%, and underestimate the radii of stars with radii <0.7 R{sub Sun} by {approx}5%. These conclusions additionally suggest that

  7. Empirical tests of pre-main-sequence stellar evolution models with eclipsing binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stassun, Keivan G.; Feiden, Gregory A.; Torres, Guillermo

    2014-06-01

    We examine the performance of standard pre-main-sequence (PMS) stellar evolution models against the accurately measured properties of a benchmark sample of 26 PMS stars in 13 eclipsing binary (EB) systems having masses 0.04-4.0 M⊙ and nominal ages ≈1-20 Myr. We provide a definitive compilation of all fundamental properties for the EBs, with a careful and consistent reassessment of observational uncertainties. We also provide a definitive compilation of the various PMS model sets, including physical ingredients and limits of applicability. No set of model isochrones is able to successfully reproduce all of the measured properties of all of the EBs. In the H-R diagram, the masses inferred for the individual stars by the models are accurate to better than 10% at ≳1 M⊙, but below 1 M⊙ they are discrepant by 50-100%. Adjusting the observed radii and temperatures using empirical relations for the effects of magnetic activity helps to resolve the discrepancies in a few cases, but fails as a general solution. We find evidence that the failure of the models to match the data is linked to the triples in the EB sample; at least half of the EBs possess tertiary companions. Excluding the triples, the models reproduce the stellar masses to better than ∼10% in the H-R diagram, down to 0.5 M⊙, below which the current sample is fully contaminated by tertiaries. We consider several mechanisms by which a tertiary might cause changes in the EB properties and thus corrupt the agreement with stellar model predictions. We show that the energies of the tertiary orbits are comparable to that needed to potentially explain the scatter in the EB properties through injection of heat, perhaps involving tidal interaction. It seems from the evidence at hand that this mechanism, however it operates in detail, has more influence on the surface properties of the stars than on their internal structure, as the lithium abundances are broadly in good agreement with model predictions. The

  8. MAIN-SEQUENCE STARS MASQUERADING AS YOUNG STELLAR OBJECTS IN THE CENTRAL MOLECULAR ZONE

    SciTech Connect

    Koepferl, Christine M.; Robitaille, Thomas P.; Morales, Esteban F. E.; Johnston, Katharine G.

    2015-01-20

    In contrast to most other galaxies, star formation rates in the Milky Way can be estimated directly from young stellar objects (YSOs). In the central molecular zone the star formation rate calculated from the number of YSOs with 24 μm emission is up to an order of magnitude higher than the value estimated from methods based on diffuse emission (such as free-free emission). Whether this effect is real or whether it indicates problems with either or both star formation rate measures is not currently known. In this paper, we investigate whether estimates based on YSOs could be heavily contaminated by more evolved objects such as main-sequence stars. We present radiative transfer models of YSOs and of main-sequence stars in a constant ambient medium which show that the main-sequence objects can indeed mimic YSOs at 24 μm. However, we show that in some cases the main-sequence models can be marginally resolved at 24 μm, whereas the YSO models are always unresolved. Based on the fraction of resolved MIPS 24 μm sources in the sample of YSOs previously used to compute the star formation rate, we estimate the fraction of misclassified ''YSOs'' to be at least 63%, which suggests that the star formation rate previously determined from YSOs is likely to be at least a factor of three too high.

  9. Laser Desorption Mass Spectrometry for DNA Sequencing and Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, C. H. Winston; Taranenko, N. I.; Golovlev, V. V.; Isola, N. R.; Allman, S. L.

    1998-03-01

    Rapid DNA sequencing and/or analysis is critically important for biomedical research. In the past, gel electrophoresis has been the primary tool to achieve DNA analysis and sequencing. However, gel electrophoresis is a time-consuming and labor-extensive process. Recently, we have developed and used laser desorption mass spectrometry (LDMS) to achieve sequencing of ss-DNA longer than 100 nucleotides. With LDMS, we succeeded in sequencing DNA in seconds instead of hours or days required by gel electrophoresis. In addition to sequencing, we also applied LDMS for the detection of DNA probes for hybridization LDMS was also used to detect short tandem repeats for forensic applications. Clinical applications for disease diagnosis such as cystic fibrosis caused by base deletion and point mutation have also been demonstrated. Experimental details will be presented in the meeting. abstract.

  10. X-ray Emission from Pre-Main-Sequence Stars - Testing the Solar Analogy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skinner, Stephen L.

    2000-01-01

    This LTSA award funded my research on the origin of stellar X-ray emission and the validity of the solar-stellar analogy. This research broadly addresses the relevance of our current understanding of solar X-ray physics to the interpretation of X-ray emission from stars in general. During the past five years the emphasis has been on space-based X-ray observations of very young stars in star-forming regions (T Tauri stars and protostars), cool solar-like G stars, and evolved high-mass Wolf-Rayet (WR) stars. These observations were carried out primarily with the ASCA and ROSAT space-based observatories (and most recently with Chandra), supplemented by ground-based observations. This research has focused on the identification of physical processes that are responsible for the high levels of X-ray emission seen in pre-main-sequence (PMS) stars, active cool stars, and WR stars. A related issue is how the X-ray emission of such stars changes over time, both on short timescales of days to years and on evolutionary timescales of millions of years. In the case of the Sun it is known that magnetic fields play a key role in the production of X-rays by confining the coronal plasma in loop-like structures where it is heated to temperatures of several million K. The extent to which the magnetically-confined corona interpretation can be applied to other X-ray emitting stars is the key issue that drives the research summarized here.

  11. Do C/O > 1 main-sequence stars build carbon planets?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergfors, Carolina; Farihi, Jay

    2015-12-01

    The existence of rocky yet carbon-dominated planets is predicated on a C-dominated (rather than O-dominated) nebular birthplace. Planet-forming stars with unusually high C/O > 0.8 could provide such a favourable environment. Therefore the highest C/O ratios in potential host stars is of interest, as it has a direct impact on the frequency of C-dominated planetary systems.Interestingly, C/O > 1 main-sequence stars are relatively common, and have distinctive optical spectra dominated by strong molecular carbon features. These dwarf carbon (dC) stars are even more numerous than carbon giants, but their origins may be fundamentally tied to binarity -- where the C/O ratio is increased by C-rich material accreted from an AGB star (now a white dwarf). We are undertaking a survey of dC stars to measure their binary fraction, and to ascertain if any C/O > 1 stars are single and thus favourable to C-rich planet formation.We present first results from our ongoing search for radial velocity companions to dC stars. Multi-epoch observations of 22 systems show clear RV variability for > 70% of targets, suggesting that most, if not all, dC stars are in binary systems. The presence of a formerly more massive companion suggests their C/O > 1 is an enhancement via mass transfer, and not primordial. If correct, C/O > 1 stars may host oxygen-dominated (possibly circumbinary) planets, significantly reducing the Galactic real estate available for carbon planets.

  12. Pre-main-sequence population in NGC 1893 region: X-ray properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, A. K.; Samal, M. R.; Yadav, Ram Kesh; Richichi, Andrea; Lata, Sneh; Pandey, J. C.; Ojha, D. K.; Chen, W. P.

    2014-05-01

    Continuing the attempt to understand the properties of the stellar content in the young cluster NGC 1893 we have carried out a comprehensive multi-wavelength study of the region. The present study focuses on the X-ray properties of T-Tauri Stars (TTSs) in the NGC 1893 region. We found a correlation between the X-ray luminosity, LX, and the stellar mass (in the range 0.2-2.0 M) of TTSs in the NGC 1893 region, similar to those reported in some other young clusters, however the value of the power-law slope obtained in the present study (∼0.9) for NGC 1893 is smaller than those (∼1.4-3.6) reported in the case of TMC, ONC, IC 348 and Chameleon star forming regions. However, the slope in the case of Class III sources (Weak line TTSs) is found to be comparable to that reported in the case of NGC 6611 (∼1.1). It is found that the presence of circumstellar disks has no influence on the X-ray emission. The X-ray luminosity for both CTTSs and WTTSs is found to decrease systematically with age (in the range ∼0.4-5 Myr). The decrease of the X-ray luminosity of TTSs (slope ∼-0.6) in the case of NGC 1893 seems to be faster than observed in the case of other star-forming regions (slope -0.2 to -0.5). There is indication that the sources having relatively large NIR excess have relatively lower LX values. TTSs in NGC 1893 do not follow the well established X-ray activity - rotation relation as in the case of main-sequence stars.

  13. Analysis of flares in the chromosphere and corona of main- and pre-main-sequence M-type stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crespo-Chacón, I.

    2015-11-01

    This Ph.D. Thesis revolves around flares on main- and pre-main-sequence M-type stars. We use observations in different wavelength ranges with the aim of analysing the effects of flares at different layers of stellar atmospheres. In particular, optical and X-ray observations are used so that we can study how flares affect, respectively, the chromosphere and the corona of stars. In the optical range we carry out a high temporal resolution spectroscopic monitoring of UV Ceti-type stars aimed at detecting non-white-light flares (the most typical kind of solar flares) in stars other than the Sun. With these data we confirm that non-white-light flares are a frequent phenomenon in UV Ceti-type stars, as observed in the Sun. We study and interpret the behaviour of different chromospheric lines during the flares detected on AD Leo. By using a simplified slab model of flares (Jevremović et al. 1998), we are able to determine the physical parameters of the chromospheric flaring plasma (electron density and electron temperature), the temperature of the underlying source, and the surface area covered by the flaring plasma. We also search for possible relationships between the physical parameters of the flaring plasma and other properties such as the flare duration, area, maximum flux and released energy. This work considerably extends the existing sample of stellar flares analysed with good quality spectroscopy in the optical range. In X-rays we take advantage of the great sensitivity, wide energy range, high energy resolution, and continuous time coverage of the EPIC detectors - on-board the XMMNewton satellite - in order to perform time-resolved spectral analysis of coronal flares. In particular, in the UV Ceti-type star CC Eri we study two flares that are weaker than those typically reported in the literature (allowing us to speculate about the role of flares as heating agents of stellar atmospheres); while in the pre-main-sequence M-type star TWA 11B (with no signatures of

  14. STELLAR AGES AND CONVECTIVE CORES IN FIELD MAIN-SEQUENCE STARS: FIRST ASTEROSEISMIC APPLICATION TO TWO KEPLER TARGETS

    SciTech Connect

    Silva Aguirre, V.; Christensen-Dalsgaard, J.; Chaplin, W. J.; Basu, S.; Deheuvels, S.; Brandao, I. M.; Cunha, M. S.; Sousa, S. G.; Dogan, G.; Metcalfe, T. S.; Serenelli, A. M.; Garcia, R. A.; Ballot, J.; Weiss, A.; Appourchaux, T.; Casagrande, L.; Cassisi, S.; Creevey, O. L.; Lebreton, Y.; Noels, A.; and others

    2013-06-01

    Using asteroseismic data and stellar evolution models we obtain the first detection of a convective core in a Kepler field main-sequence star, putting a stringent constraint on the total size of the mixed zone and showing that extra mixing beyond the formal convective boundary exists. In a slightly less massive target the presence of a convective core cannot be conclusively discarded, and thus its remaining main-sequence lifetime is uncertain. Our results reveal that best-fit models found solely by matching individual frequencies of oscillations corrected for surface effects do not always properly reproduce frequency combinations. Moreover, slightly different criteria to define what the best-fit model is can lead to solutions with similar global properties but very different interior structures. We argue that the use of frequency ratios is a more reliable way to obtain accurate stellar parameters, and show that our analysis in field main-sequence stars can yield an overall precision of 1.5%, 4%, and 10% in radius, mass, and age, respectively. We compare our results with those obtained from global oscillation properties, and discuss the possible sources of uncertainties in asteroseismic stellar modeling where further studies are still needed.

  15. The Young Open Clusters King 12, NGC 7788, and NGC 7790: Pre-main-sequence Stars and Extended Stellar Halos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidge, T. J.

    2012-12-01

    The stellar contents of the open clusters King 12, NGC 7788, and NGC 7790 are investigated using MegaCam images. Comparisons with isochrones yield an age <20 Myr for King 12, 20-40 Myr for NGC 7788, and 60-80 Myr for NGC 7790 based on the properties of stars near the main-sequence turnoff (MSTO) in each cluster. The reddening of NGC 7788 is much larger than previously estimated. The luminosity functions (LFs) of King 12 and NGC 7788 show breaks that are attributed to the onset of pre-main-sequence (PMS) objects, and comparisons with models of PMS evolution yield ages that are consistent with those measured from stars near the MSTO. In contrast, the r' LF of main-sequence stars in NGC 7790 is matched to r' = 20 by a model that is based on the solar neighborhood mass function. The structural properties of all three clusters are investigated by examining the two-point angular correlation function of blue main-sequence stars. King 12 and NGC 7788 are each surrounded by a stellar halo that extends out to a radius of 5 arcmin (~3.4 pc). It is suggested that these halos form in response to large-scale mass ejection early in the evolution of the clusters, as predicted by models. In contrast, blue main-sequence stars in NGC 7790 are traced out to a radius of ~7.5 arcmin (~5.5 pc), with no evidence of a halo. It is suggested that all three clusters may have originated in the same star-forming complex, but not in the same giant molecular cloud. Based on observations obtained with MegaPrime/MegaCam, a joint project of CFHT and CEA/DAPNIA, at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) which is operated by the National Research Council (NRC) of Canada, the Institut National des Sciences de l'Univers of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) of France, and the University of Hawaii.

  16. Sequencing of Oligourea Foldamers by Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bathany, Katell; Owens, Neil W.; Guichard, Gilles; Schmitter, Jean-Marie

    2013-03-01

    This study is focused on sequence analysis of peptidomimetic helical oligoureas by means of tandem mass spectrometry, to build a basis for de novo sequencing for future high-throughput combinatorial library screening of oligourea foldamers. After the evaluation of MS/MS spectra obtained for model compounds with either MALDI or ESI sources, we found that the MALDI-TOF-TOF instrument gave more satisfactory results. MS/MS spectra of oligoureas generated by decay of singly charged precursor ions show major ion series corresponding to fragmentation across both CO-NH and N'H-CO urea bonds. Oligourea backbones fragment to produce a pattern of a, x, b, and y type fragment ions. De novo decoding of spectral information is facilitated by the occurrence of low mass reporter ions, representative of constitutive monomers, in an analogous manner to the use of immonium ions for peptide sequencing.

  17. Stellar models of multiple populations in globular clusters - I. The main sequence of NGC 6752

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dotter, Aaron; Ferguson, Jason W.; Conroy, Charlie; Milone, A. P.; Marino, A. F.; Yong, David

    2015-01-01

    We present stellar atmosphere and evolution models of main-sequence stars in two stellar populations of the Galactic globular cluster NGC 6752. These populations represent the two extremes of light-element abundance variations in the cluster. NGC 6752 is a benchmark cluster in the study of multiple stellar populations because of the rich array of spectroscopic abundances and panchromatic Hubble Space Telescope photometry. The spectroscopic abundances are used to compute stellar atmosphere and evolution models. The synthetic spectra for the two populations show significant differences in the ultraviolet and, for the coolest temperatures, in the near-infrared. The stellar evolution models exhibit insignificant differences in the Hertzsprung-Russell (H-R) diagram except on the lower main sequence. The appearance of multiple sequences in the colour-magnitude diagrams (CMDs) of NGC 6752 is almost exclusively due to spectral effects caused by the abundance variations. The models reproduce the observed splitting and/or broadening of sequences in a range of CMDs. The ultraviolet CMDs are sensitive to variations in carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen but the models are not reliable enough to directly estimate abundance variations from photometry. On the other hand, the widening of the lower main sequence in the near-infrared CMD, driven by oxygen variation via the water molecule, is well described by the models and can be used to estimate the range of oxygen present in a cluster from photometry. We confirm that it is possible to use multiband photometry to estimate helium variations among the different populations, with the caveat that the estimated amount of helium enhancement is model dependent.

  18. The determination of the helium abundance in main-sequence B stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolff, S. C.; Heasley, J. N.

    1985-01-01

    It is pointed out that the abundances of deuterium, helium, and lithium provide fundamental constraints on cosmological models. The central question is related to the compatibility of the observed abundances with big bang models of primordial nucleosynthesis, taking into account a modification by subsequent nuclear processing in stars or a modification of standard models. The present paper has the objective to assess critically the feasibility of deriving accurate helium abundances from measurements of the photospheric lines in main-sequence B-type stars. A method is established for assigning atmospheric parameters to main-sequence stars with spectral types in the range (approximately) B1-B5. It is found that an analysis of stars in distant anticenter H II regions and clusters offer an alternative method which seems capable of determining relative abundances with more than the requisite accuracy.

  19. BVI CCD photometry of the broad main-sequence globular cluster NGC 1851

    SciTech Connect

    Alcaino, G.; Liller, W.; Alvarado, F.; Wenderoth, E. )

    1990-03-01

    Three-color CCD C-M diagrams are presented for the globular cluster NGC 1851, showing an extreme breadth of the main-sequence, similar to that of Omega Centauri. It is found that the main-sequence turnoff points are located at V(TO) = 19.44 + or - 0.10, with colors at B-V = 0.54 + or - 0.02, V-I = 0.61 + or - 0.02, and B-I = 1.15 + or - 0.03. The best fit to the VandenBerg and Bell (1985) isochrones is shown to be all C-M diagrams with Y = 0.20, Fe/H abundance ratio = -1.27, and (m-M)v = 15.45. It is concluded that NGC 1851 has a Delta V(TO - HB) = 3.34 + or - 0.10 and an age of 16 + or - 2 Gyr. 29 refs.

  20. Evolution and detectability of comet clouds during post-main-sequence stellar evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stern, S. Alan; Brandt, John C.; Shull, J. Michael

    1990-01-01

    The destruction of volatile-rich comet disks and Oort-type clouds around luminous post-main-sequence stars is modeled. The models are in agreement with several aspects of existing observations of water and complex molecules in the envelopes of giant and supergiant stars. If confirmed, these results would establish the common existence of Oort-type clouds around other stars and would constitute indirect evidence for sites of past planetary formation.

  1. TESTING SCALING RELATIONS FOR SOLAR-LIKE OSCILLATIONS FROM THE MAIN SEQUENCE TO RED GIANTS USING KEPLER DATA

    SciTech Connect

    Huber, D.; Bedding, T. R.; Stello, D.; Hekker, S.; Mathur, S.; Mosser, B.; Verner, G. A.; Elsworth, Y. P.; Hale, S. J.; Chaplin, W. J.; Bonanno, A.; Buzasi, D. L.; Campante, T. L.; Kallinger, T.; Silva Aguirre, V.; De Ridder, J.; Garcia, R. A.; Frandsen, S.; Houdek, G.; and others

    2011-12-20

    We have analyzed solar-like oscillations in {approx}1700 stars observed by the Kepler Mission, spanning from the main sequence to the red clump. Using evolutionary models, we test asteroseismic scaling relations for the frequency of maximum power ({nu}{sub max}), the large frequency separation ({Delta}{nu}), and oscillation amplitudes. We show that the difference of the {Delta}{nu}-{nu}{sub max} relation for unevolved and evolved stars can be explained by different distributions in effective temperature and stellar mass, in agreement with what is expected from scaling relations. For oscillation amplitudes, we show that neither (L/M){sup s} scaling nor the revised scaling relation by Kjeldsen and Bedding is accurate for red-giant stars, and demonstrate that a revised scaling relation with a separate luminosity-mass dependence can be used to calculate amplitudes from the main sequence to red giants to a precision of {approx}25%. The residuals show an offset particularly for unevolved stars, suggesting that an additional physical dependency is necessary to fully reproduce the observed amplitudes. We investigate correlations between amplitudes and stellar activity, and find evidence that the effect of amplitude suppression is most pronounced for subgiant stars. Finally, we test the location of the cool edge of the instability strip in the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram using solar-like oscillations and find the detections in the hottest stars compatible with a domain of hybrid stochastically excited and opacity driven pulsation.

  2. JUPITER WILL BECOME A HOT JUPITER: CONSEQUENCES OF POST-MAIN-SEQUENCE STELLAR EVOLUTION ON GAS GIANT PLANETS

    SciTech Connect

    Spiegel, David S.; Madhusudhan, Nikku E-mail: Nikku.Madhusudhan@yale.edu

    2012-09-10

    When the Sun ascends the red giant branch (RGB), its luminosity will increase and all the planets will receive much greater irradiation than they do now. Jupiter, in particular, might end up more highly irradiated than the hot Neptune GJ 436b and, hence, could appropriately be termed a 'hot Jupiter'. When their stars go through the RGB or asymptotic giant branch stages, many of the currently known Jupiter-mass planets in several-AU orbits will receive levels of irradiation comparable to the hot Jupiters, which will transiently increase their atmospheric temperatures to {approx}1000 K or more. Furthermore, massive planets around post-main-sequence stars could accrete a non-negligible amount of material from the enhanced stellar winds, thereby significantly altering their atmospheric chemistry as well as causing a significant accretion luminosity during the epochs of most intense stellar mass loss. Future generations of infrared observatories might be able to probe the thermal and chemical structure of such hot Jupiters' atmospheres. Finally, we argue that, unlike their main-sequence analogs (whose zonal winds are thought to be organized in only a few broad, planetary-scale jets), red-giant hot Jupiters should have multiple, narrow jets of zonal winds and efficient day-night redistribution.

  3. Exo-Planetary Phoenix: Rebirth of Planetary Systems Beyond the Main Sequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marengo, M.

    2014-04-01

    Mounting evidence suggests that planetary systems may be a common feature of stars that have evolved beyond the main sequence. Warm debris disks around white dwarfs and "pulsar" planets orbiting a neutron star are a strong indication that planetary systems may, at least in same cases, survive the dramatic phenomena leading to stellar death. A close look at these late evolutionary stages, however, suggests that these systems may be more than mere survivors of doomed pre-existing exo-planetary systems. The circumstellar environment of post-main sequence stars bears surprising similarities to the conditions leading to pre-main sequence planetary formation: a metal-rich environment often characterized by the presence of circumstellar or circumbinary disks. Are these conditions conducive to the birth of a second-generation planetary system, like a phoenix rising from the ashes of ancient worlds? In this talk we will discuss how the physical conditions in the winds of dusty giant stars may be favorable for renewed planetary formation, with particular emphasis on the effects of enhanced metallicity, binarity and the timescales available for the formation of a new generation of planets.

  4. Main-sequence stars with circumstellar solid material - The Vega phenomenon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Backman, Dana E.; Paresce, Francesco

    1993-01-01

    The detection of solid grains with temperatures of 50 to 125 K and fractional bolometric luminosities in the range 10 exp -5 to 10 exp -3 early in the IRAS mission around three nearby A main-sequence stars, Alpha Lyrae (Vega), Alpha Piscis Austrinus (Fomalhaut), and Beta Pictoris, is discussed. Spatial resolution of the emission indicates that: the grains are larger than interstellar grains, the material probably lies in disks in the stellar equatorial planes, the disks extend to distances of 100 to 1000 AU from the stars, and zones a few tens of AU in radius around the central stars are relatively empty. Subsequent surveys of IRAS data reveal more than 100 main-sequence stars of all spectral classes having unresolved excesses with similar temperatures and fractional luminosities to the three prototypes. Some stars with excesses have estimated ages of 1 to 5 Gyr. Thus, main-sequence FIR excesses appear to be widespread and are present in systems old enough to be probably past the stage of active planet formation.

  5. Stellar Activity at the End of the Main Sequence: GHRS Observations of the M8 Ve Star VB 10

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linsky, Jeffrey L.; Wood, Brian E.; Brown, Alexander; Giampapa, Mark S.; Ambruster, Carol

    1995-01-01

    We present Goddard High Resolution Spectrograph observations of the M8 Ve star VB 10 (equal to G1 752B), located very near the end of the stellar main sequence, and its dM3.5 binary companion G1 752A. These coeval stars provide a test bed for studying whether the outer atmospheres of stars respond to changes in internal structure as stars become fully convective near mass 0.3 solar mass (about spectral type M5), where the nature of the stellar magnetic dynamo presumably changes, and near the transition from red to brown dwarfs near mass 0.08 solar mass (about spectral type M9), when hydrogen burning ceases at the end of the main sequence. We obtain upper limits for the quiescent emission of VB 10 but observe a transition region spectrum during a large flare, which indicates that some type of magnetic dynamo must be present. Two indirect lines of evidence-scaling from the observed X-ray emission and scaling from a time-resolved flare on AD Leo suggest that the fraction of the stellar bolometric luminosity that heats the transition region of VB 10 outside of obvious flares is comparable to, or larger than, that for G1 752A. This suggests an increase in the magnetic heating rates, as measured by L(sub line)/L(sub bol) ratios, across the radiative/convective core boundary and as stars approach the red/brown dwarf boundary. These results provide new constraints for dynamo models and models of coronal and transition-region heating in late-type stars.

  6. The influence of radiative core growth on coronal X-ray emission from pre-main-sequence stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregory, Scott G.; Adams, Fred C.; Davies, Claire L.

    2016-04-01

    Pre-main-sequence (PMS) stars of mass ≳0.35 M⊙ transition from hosting fully convective interiors to configurations with a radiative core and outer convective envelope during their gravitational contraction. This stellar structure change influences the external magnetic field topology and, as we demonstrate herein, affects the coronal X-ray emission as a stellar analogue of the solar tachocline develops. We have combined archival X-ray, spectroscopic, and photometric data for ˜1000 PMS stars from five of the best studied star-forming regions: the Orion Nebula Cluster, NGC 2264, IC 348, NGC 2362, and NGC 6530. Using a modern, PMS calibrated, spectral type-to-effective temperature and intrinsic colour scale, we de-redden the photometry using colours appropriate for each spectral type, and determine the stellar mass, age, and internal structure consistently for the entire sample. We find that PMS stars on Henyey tracks have, on average, lower fractional X-ray luminosities (LX/L*) than those on Hayashi tracks, where this effect is driven by changes in LX. X-ray emission decays faster with age for higher mass PMS stars. There is a strong correlation between L* and LX for Hayashi track stars but no correlation for Henyey track stars. There is no correlation between LX and radiative core mass or radius. However, the longer stars have spent with radiative cores, the less X-ray luminous they become. The decay of coronal X-ray emission from young early K to late G-type PMS stars, the progenitors of main-sequence A-type stars, is consistent with the dearth of X-ray detections of the latter.

  7. Applications of mass spectrometry to DNA fingerprinting and DNA sequencing

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobson, K.B.; Buchanan, M.V.; Chen, C.H.; Doktycz, M.J.; McLuckey, S.A. ); Arlinghaus, H.F. )

    1993-01-01

    DNA fingerprinting and sequencing rely on polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis to determine the sizes of the DNA fragments. Innovative altematives to polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis are under investigation for characterization of such fingerprinting and sequencing. One method uses stable isotopes of tin and other elements to label the DNAwhereas other procedures do not require labels. The detectors in each case are mass spectrometers that detect either the stable isotopes or the DNA fragments themselves. If successful, these methods will speed up the rate of DNA analysis by one or two orders of magnitude.

  8. Applications of mass spectrometry to DNA fingerprinting and DNA sequencing

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobson, K.B.; Buchanan, M.V.; Chen, C.H.; Doktycz, M.J.; McLuckey, S.A.; Arlinghaus, H.F.

    1993-06-01

    DNA fingerprinting and sequencing rely on polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis to determine the sizes of the DNA fragments. Innovative altematives to polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis are under investigation for characterization of such fingerprinting and sequencing. One method uses stable isotopes of tin and other elements to label the DNAwhereas other procedures do not require labels. The detectors in each case are mass spectrometers that detect either the stable isotopes or the DNA fragments themselves. If successful, these methods will speed up the rate of DNA analysis by one or two orders of magnitude.

  9. A new Böhm-Vitense gap in the temperature range 5560 to 5610 K in the main sequence hm-Vitense gap in the main sequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovtyukh, V. V.; Soubiran, C.; Belik, S. I.

    2004-12-01

    Highly precise temperatures (σ = 10-15 K) have been determined from line depth ratios for a set of 248 F-K field dwarfs of about solar metallicity (-0.5 < [Fe/H] < +0.4), based on high resolution (R=42 000), high S/N echelle spectra. A new gap has been discovered in the distribution of stars on the Main Sequence in the temperature range 5560 to 5610 K. This gap coincides with a jump in the microturbulent velocity Vt and the well-known Li depression near 5600 K in field dwarfs and open clusters. As the principal cause of the observed discontinuities in stellar properties we propose the penetration of the convective zone into the inner layers of stars slightly less massive than the Sun and related to it, a change in the temperature gradient. Based on spectra collected with the ELODIE spectrograph at the 1.93-m telescope of the Observatoire de Haute-Provence (France). Full Table 1 is only available in electronic form at http://www.edpsciences.org

  10. A buried marine depositional sequence (Presumpscot FM. ) N. of the marine limit, Waterboro, Maine

    SciTech Connect

    Morency, R.E. )

    1993-03-01

    Subsurface investigations conducted in Waterboro, ME (York Co.) in connection with studies of two hazardous waste sites and a municipal water supply exploration project, have demonstrated that a laterally extensive sequence of marine deposits underlies surficial sediments mapped as non-esker ice contact glacio-fluvial deposits. The marine deposits consist of a fining-downwards sequence of grey, micaceous sands (fine to medium, grading down to a silty-fine sand), which grade downward into a thick ([plus minus] 30 feet) grey silt/clay unit, which itself shows a fining-downward trend. The stratigraphy is likely correlative to the Presumpscot Formation, as described by Bloom (1963). The bottom of the regressive marine sequence is marked at several locations by a thin layer of sand-sized biotite mica. Lodgement till was encountered only at scattered localities (in boreholes) at each site. The bedrock surface is of considerable relief, with changes of 200--300 feet over short distances detected. The sequence appears to be the record of a rapidly transgressing sea which inundated a valley where outwash had been deposited by meltwater ahead of retreating ice. As the sea retreated, up to 70 feet of sediment was deposited in a continuous, coarsening-upwards sequence. Subsequent to the marine regression, the sediments were reworked in a subaerial (braided stream) environment. The Surficial Geologic Map of Maine shows that the inland limit of late-glacial marine submergence is located approximately 8 miles southwest of Waterboro, in Alfred, Maine. The marine limit in Alfred takes the form of a NNE trending, blunt-ended embayment. The results of this study suggest that the marine embayment once extended northward from Alfred, and is now a buried feature, possibly representing a preglacial valley, which hosted an estuary in late Wisconsonian time.

  11. 76 FR 55161 - Boston and Maine Corporation-Abandonment Exemption-Middlesex County, Mass.; Springfield Terminal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Boston and Maine Corporation--Abandonment Exemption--Middlesex County, Mass... Middlesex County, Mass. The line traverses United States Postal Service Zip Codes 02471 and...

  12. The mass balance of earthquakes and earthquake sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marc, O.; Hovius, N.; Meunier, P.

    2016-04-01

    Large, compressional earthquakes cause surface uplift as well as widespread mass wasting. Knowledge of their trade-off is fragmentary. Combining a seismologically consistent model of earthquake-triggered landsliding and an analytical solution of coseismic surface displacement, we assess how the mass balance of single earthquakes and earthquake sequences depends on fault size and other geophysical parameters. We find that intermediate size earthquakes (Mw 6-7.3) may cause more erosion than uplift, controlled primarily by seismic source depth and landscape steepness, and less so by fault dip and rake. Such earthquakes can limit topographic growth, but our model indicates that both smaller and larger earthquakes (Mw < 6, Mw > 7.3) systematically cause mountain building. Earthquake sequences with a Gutenberg-Richter distribution have a greater tendency to lead to predominant erosion, than repeating earthquakes of the same magnitude, unless a fault can produce earthquakes with Mw > 8 or more.

  13. Main-sequence magnetic CP stars III. Results of magnetic field measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romanyuk, I. I.

    2010-10-01

    We present the third part of the survey of magnetic parameters of main-sequence magnetic CP stars. We analyze the main definitions and terminology, basic data on the magnetic fields of CP stars (catalogs, the history of the stellar magnetism research, the main observational results obtained over 60 years of studies). We describe the modern views on the properties of magnetic CP stars, i.e. their geometric structure, distribution of field strengths, magnetic field and rotation, magnetic field and energy distribution anomalies, and the evolutionary status of magnetic CP stars. We conclude that the observational data mostly support the theory of the relict origin and evolution of magnetic fields of CP stars.

  14. The mosaic multiple stellar populations in ω Centauri: the horizontal branch and the main sequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tailo, M.; Di Criscienzo, M.; D'Antona, F.; Caloi, V.; Ventura, P.

    2016-04-01

    We interpret the stellar population of ω Centauri by means of a population synthesis analysis, following the most recent observational guidelines for input metallicities, helium and [(C+N+O)/Fe] contents. We deal at the same time with the main sequences, sub-giant and horizontal branch (HB) data. The reproduction of the observed colour-magnitude features is very satisfying and bears interesting hints concerning the evolutionary history of this peculiar stellar ensemble. Our main results are: (1) no significant spread in age is required to fit the colour-magnitude diagram. Indeed, we can use coeval isochrones for the synthetic populations, and we estimate that the ages fall within a ˜0.5 Gyr time interval; in particular the most metal-rich population can be coeval (in the above meaning) with the others, if its stars are very helium-rich (Y ˜ 0.37) and with the observed CNO enhancement ([(C+N+O)/Fe] = +0.7); (2) a satisfactory fit of the whole HB is obtained, consistent with the choice of the populations providing a good reproduction of the main sequence and sub-giant data; (3) the split in magnitude observed in the red HB is well reproduced assuming the presence of two stellar populations in the two different sequences observed: a metal-poor population made of stars evolving from the blue side (luminous branch) and a metal richer one whose stars are in a stage closer to the zero age HB (dimmer branch). This modelization also fits satisfactorily the period and the [Fe/H] distribution of the RR Lyrae stars.

  15. BVRI main-sequence photometry of the globular cluster M4

    SciTech Connect

    Alcaino, G.; Liller, W.

    1984-09-01

    We present BV and RI photographic photometry of 1421 and 189 stars, respectively, in the intermediate metallicity globular cluster M4 (NGC 6121). This investigation includes the first results of RI main-sequence photometry of a globular cluster. The use of longer wavelengths and longer color baselines provides the potential of improved isochrone fittings and underscores the urgent need for calculations of RI synthetic isochrones to be compared with observations. The Pickering-Racine wedge was used with the ESO 3.6 m telescope, the Las Campanas 2.5 m du Pont telescope, and the CTIO 1 m Yale telescope to extend the photoelectric limit from Vroughly-equal16.1 to Vroughly-equal19.1. We have determined the position of the main-sequence turnoff to lie at V = 16.6 +- 0.2 (m.e.) and B-V = 0.80 +- 0.03 (m.e.). A comparison of our BV observations with the CCD data of Richer and Fahlman shows excellent agreement: the two fifucial main sequences agree at all points to within 0.025 mag and, on average, to 0.013 mag. For the cluster we derive a distance modulus (m-M)/sub V/ = 12.52 +- 0.2 and reddening E(B-V) = 0.44 +- 0.03, results which confirm that at a distance of 2 kpc, M4 is the closest globular clusters to the Sun. Using the isochrones of VandenBerg, we deduce an age 13 +- 2 Gyr. As noted in several other investigations, there is a striking deficiency of stars in certain parts of the color-magnitude diagram; in M4 we find a pronounced gap over approx.0.6 mag at the base of the subgiant branch.

  16. Can rotation explain the multiple main-sequence turn-offs of Magellanic Cloud star clusters?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girardi, Léo; Eggenberger, Patrick; Miglio, Andrea

    2011-03-01

    Many intermediate-age star clusters in the Magellanic Clouds present multiple main-sequence turn-offs (MMSTOs), which challenge the classical idea that star formation in such objects took place over short time-scales. It has been recently suggested that the presence of fast rotators among main-sequence stars could be the cause of such features, hence relaxing the need for extended periods of star formation. In this Letter, we compute evolutionary tracks and isochrones of models with and without rotation. We find that, for the same age and input physics, both kinds of models present turn-offs with an almost identical position in the colour-magnitude diagrams (CMDs). As a consequence, a dispersion of rotational velocities in coeval ensembles of stars could not explain the presence of MMSTOs. We construct several synthetic CMDs for the different kinds of tracks and combinations of them. The models that best reproduce the morphology of observed MMSTOs are clearly those assuming a significant spread in the stellar ages - as long as ˜400 Myr - added to a moderate amount of convective core overshooting. Only these models produce the detailed ‘golf club’ shape of observed MMSTOs. A spread in rotational velocities alone cannot do anything similar. We also discuss models involving a mixture of stars with and without overshooting, as an additional scenario to producing MMSTOs with coeval populations. We find that they produce turn-offs with a varying extension in the CMD direction perpendicular to the lower main sequence, which are clearly not present in observed MMSTOs.

  17. Detecting magnetic fields of upper-main-sequence stars with FORS1 at ANTU.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagnulo, S.; Szeifert, T.; Wade, G. A.; Landstreet, J. D.; Mathys, G.

    2001-06-01

    During the night between 22 and 23 March 2001, the VLT unit telescope ANTU was pointed to a 6th-magnitude A-type star to obtain several low-resolution spectra in circular polarisation with FORS1. Two nights later, the same exercise was repeated selecting a second A-type star of similar magnitude. The outcome of this experiment was the firm detection of a magnetic field in an upper-main-sequence star, HD 94660. It is the first time that a VLT unit telescope was (successfully) used to detect magnetic fields in non degenerate stars.

  18. Kinematic Distances of Pre-main Sequence Stars in the Lupus Star-Forming Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galli, P. A. B.; Teixeira, R.; Ducourant, C.; Bertout, C.

    2014-06-01

    The problem of the determination of distances has always played a central role in astronomy. However, little recent progress has been made in the distance determination of faint young stellar objects such as pre-main sequence (PMS) stars. Many of the PMS stars were neither observed by the Hipparcos satellite due to their magnitude nor have any trigonometric parallax measured from the ground due to their distance. Here we investigate the kinematic properties of the Lupus moving group with the primary objective of deriving individual parallaxes for each group member of this star-forming region.

  19. X-rays from Pre-Main Sequence Stars: Recent Results and Future Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skinner, S.

    2016-08-01

    I will summarize recent results of X-ray observations of pre-main sequence (PMS) stars, focusing on XMM-Newton RGS and Chandra HETG observations of RY Tau. These observations provide the best grating spectra obtained so far of a jet-driving T Tauri star. I will also identify key questions regarding the origin and nature of X-ray emission from PMS stars that have emerged from 16 years of XMM-Newton and Chandra observations and which present challenges for the next decade.

  20. Analysis of C II resonance lines in some main sequence early-type stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cugier, H.; Hardorp, J.

    1988-01-01

    IUE data are used to investigate C II resonance lines at 1335 A in eight main-sequence stars of spectral types from A0 to B3, and both LTE and non-LTE line profiles have been computed. In stars with low rotational velocities (such as Vega, Pi Cet, and Tau Her), logarithmic carbon abundances log N(C/H) of -3.55 to -3.45 are obtained for the non-LTE case. The LTE analysis reveals lower carbon abundances by about 0.1 dex. Significant differences among the fast rotating stars are pointed out.

  1. Upper limits on extreme ultraviolet radiation from nearby main sequence and subgiant stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ayres, T. R.; Linsky, J. L.; Margon, B.; Bowyer, S.

    1978-01-01

    Flux upper limits for 44-800 A radiation were measured in a sample of nearby main sequence stars and one subgiant star with the aid of the Apollo-Soyuz grazing incidence telescope. Comparisons of emission measure upper limits with three different methods for predicting coronal properties cannot yet determine which, if any, are valid. Data for Alpha Centauri A and B are consistent with recent HEAO-1 soft X-ray measurements which suggest that the surface flux of coronal emission from the Alpha Cen system is comparable to that of the 'normal' sun.

  2. Sequence analysis of styrenic copolymers by tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Yol, Aleer M; Janoski, Jonathan; Quirk, Roderic P; Wesdemiotis, Chrys

    2014-10-01

    Styrene and smaller molar amounts of either m-dimethylsilylstyrene (m-DMSS) or p-dimethylsilylstyrene (p-DMSS) were copolymerized under living anionic polymerization conditions, and the compositions, architectures, and sequences of the resulting copolymers were characterized by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) and tandem mass spectrometry (MS(2)). MS analysis revealed that linear copolymer chains containing phenyl-Si(CH3)2H pendants were the major product for both DMSS comonomers. In addition, two-armed architectures with phenyl-Si(CH3)2-benzyl branches were detected as minor products. The comonomer sequence in the linear chains was established by MS(2) experiments on lithiated oligomers, based on the DMSS content of fragments generated by backbone C-C bond scissions and with the help of reference MS(2) spectra obtained from a polystyrene homopolymer and polystyrene end-capped with a p-DMSS block. The MS(2) data provided conclusive evidence that copolymerization of styrene/DMSS mixtures leads to chains with a rather random distribution of the silylated comonomer when m-DMSS is used, but to chains with tapered block structures, with the silylated units near the initiator, when p-DMSS is used. Hence, MS(2) fragmentation patterns permit not only differentiation of the sequences generated in the synthesis, but also the determination of specific comonomer locations along the polymer chain. PMID:25181590

  3. Archival Studies of Main Sequence Binaries in 47 Tucanae {NGC104}

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailyn, Charles

    2003-07-01

    We plan to analyze 636 F555W and 653 F814W images of 47 Tuc taken during observation run GO-8267. We will construct an accurate main sequence CMD using all the data in an optimal way. By analyzing the results with extensive artificial star tests, we will: {1} calculate the binary frequency in the cluster, {2} calibrate the binary period distribution by comparing with the known population of short-period eclipsing binaries, {3} determine the unevolved single-star main sequence luminosity function, and {4} identify the BY Dra candidates classified by X-ray spectra and temporal characteristics {X-ray and/or optical} . The results are essential in the studies of stellar dynamics, stellar population, and origins of dynamically interesting objects. We have developed robust data reduction techniques and applied them successfully in similar HST/WFPC2 studies. If this proposal is accepted, the results obtained will form a major component of graduate student Bing Zhao's Ph.D. thesis.

  4. Asteroseismic measurement of surface-to-core rotation in a main-sequence star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurtz, Donald W.; Saio, Hideyuki; Takata, Masao; Shibahashi, Hiromoto; Murphy, Simon J.; Sekii, Takashi

    2015-09-01

    We have discovered rotationally split core g-mode triplets and surface p-mode triplets and quintuplets in a terminal age main-sequence A star, KIC 11145123, that shows both δ Sct p-mode pulsations and γ Dor g-mode pulsations. This gives the first robust determination of the rotation of the deep core and surface of a main-sequence star, essentially model-independently. We find its rotation to be nearly uniform with a period near 100 d, but we show with high confidence that the surface rotates slightly faster than the core. A strong angular momentum transfer mechanism must be operating to produce the nearly rigid rotation, and a mechanism other than viscosity must be operating to produce a more rapidly rotating surface than core. Our asteroseismic result, along with previous asteroseismic constraints on internal rotation in some B stars, and measurements of internal rotation in some subgiant, giant and white dwarf stars, has made angular momentum transport in stars throughout their lifetimes an observational science.

  5. Main-sequence variable stars in young open cluster NGC 1893

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lata, Sneh; Yadav, Ram Kesh; Pandey, A. K.; Richichi, Andrea; Eswaraiah, C.; Kumar, Brajesh; Kappelmann, Norbert; Sharma, Saurabh

    2014-07-01

    In this paper, we present time series photometry of 104 variable stars in the cluster region NGC 1893. The association of the present variable candidates to the cluster NGC 1893 has been determined by using (U - B)/(B - V) and (J - H)/(H - K) two colour diagrams, and V/(V - I) colour-magnitude diagram. 45 stars are found to be main-sequence variables and these could be B-type variable stars associated with the cluster. We classified these objects as β Cep, slowly pulsating B stars and new class variables as discussed by Mowlavi et al. These variable candidates show ˜0.005 to ˜0.02 mag brightness variations with periods of <1.0 d. 17 new class variables are located in the H - R diagram between the slowly pulsating B stars and δ Scuti variables. Pulsation could be one of the causes for periodic brightness variations in these stars. The X-ray emission of present main-sequence variables associated with the cluster lies in the saturated region of X-ray luminosity versus period diagram and follows the general trend by Pizzolato et al.

  6. Automated mass spectrometric sequence determination of cyclic peptide library members.

    PubMed

    Redman, James E; Wilcoxen, Keith M; Ghadiri, M Reza

    2003-01-01

    Cyclic peptides have come under scrutiny as potential antimicrobial therapeutic agents. Combinatorial split-and-pool synthesis of cyclic peptides can afford single compound per well libraries for antimicrobial screening, new lead identification, and construction of quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSAR). Here, we report a new sequencing protocol for rapid identification of the members of a cyclic peptide library based on automated computer analysis of mass spectra, obviating the need for library encoding/decoding strategies. Furthermore, the software readily integrates with common spreadsheet and database packages to facilitate data visualization and archiving. The utility of the new MS-sequencing approach is demonstrated using sonic spray ionization ion trap MS and MS/MS spectrometry on a single compound per bead cyclic peptide library and validated with individually synthesized pure cyclic D,L-alpha-peptides. PMID:12523832

  7. X-ray sources in regions of star formation. II - The pre-main-sequence G star HDE 283572

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walter, F. M.; Brown, A.; Linsky, J. L.; Rydgren, A. E.; Vrba, F.

    1987-01-01

    This paper reports the detection of HDE 283572, a ninth-magnitude G star 8 arcmin south of RY Tau, as a bright X-ray source. The observations reveal this object to be a fairly massive (about 2 solar masses) pre-main-sequence star associated with the Taurus-Auriga star formation complex. It exhibits few of the characteristics of the classical T Tauri stars and is a good example of a 'naked' T Tauri star. The star is a mid-G subgiant, of about three solar radii and rotates with a period of 1.5 d. The coronal and chromospheric surface fluxes are similar to those of the most active late type stars (excluding T Tauri stars). The X-ray and UV lines most likely arise in different atmospheric structures. Radiative losses are some 1000 times the quiet solar value and compare favorably with those of T Tauri stars.

  8. X-ray sources in regions of star formation. II. The pre-main-sequence G star HDE 283572

    SciTech Connect

    Walter, F.M.; Brown, A.; Linsky, J.L.; Rydgren, A.E.; Vrba, F.

    1987-03-01

    This paper reports the detection of HDE 283572, a ninth-magnitude G star 8 arcmin south of RY Tau, as a bright X-ray source. The observations reveal this object to be a fairly massive (about 2 solar masses) pre-main-sequence star associated with the Taurus-Auriga star formation complex. It exhibits few of the characteristics of the classical T Tauri stars and is a good example of a naked T Tauri star. The star is a mid-G subgiant, of about three solar radii and rotates with a period of 1.5 d. The coronal and chromospheric surface fluxes are similar to those of the most active late type stars (excluding T Tauri stars). The X-ray and UV lines most likely arise in different atmospheric structures. Radiative losses are some 1000 times the quiet solar value and compare favorably with those of T Tauri stars. 49 references.

  9. The Pre-Main-Sequence Eclipsing Binary TY Coronae Australis: Precise Stellar Dimensions and Tests of Evolutionary Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casey, Brian W.; Mathieu, Robert D.; Vaz, Luiz Paulo R.; Andersen, Johannes; Suntzeff, Nicholas B.

    1998-04-01

    We analyze new photometric data for the Herbig Be eclipsing binary TY CrA, which securely reveal the secondary eclipse, ~0.03 mag deep in y. From the light-curve solution and our previous spectroscopic data, absolute dimensions of the primary and secondary stars are derived. The masses are found to be M_1 = 3.16 +/- 0.02 M_⊙ and M_2 = 1.64 +/- 0.01 M_⊙, the radii are R_1 = 1.80 +/- 0.10 R_⊙ and R_2 = 2.08 +/- 0.14 R_⊙, the luminosities are L_1 = 67 +/- 12 L_⊙ and L_2 = 2.4 +/- 0.8 L_⊙, and the effective temperatures are T_1 = 12,000 +/- 500 K and T_2 = 4900 +/- 400 K. Here the uncertainties represent high-confidence limits, not standard deviations. The secondary star is a pre-main-sequence star located at the base of the Hayashi tracks. As such, it is the least evolved star with a dynamically measured mass. Given higher effective temperatures for the primary (e.g., 12,500 K), the solar-composition 1.64 M_⊙ evolutionary tracks of Swenson et al., Claret, and D'Antona & Mazzitelli are all consistent with the properties of the TY CrA secondary and suggest an age of order 3 Myr. The radius and projected rotational velocity of the secondary star are consistent with synchronous rotation. The primary star is located near the zero-age main sequence, which, for solar compositions, is consistent with an age of 3 Myr. However, the primary star is not well represented by any of the 3.16 M_⊙ evolutionary models, which predict somewhat higher effective temperatures than observed.

  10. Main pulmonary artery stenosis caused by fibrocalcified mass in a young infant.

    PubMed Central

    Han, Heon-Seok; Park, Jeong-Hyun; Kim, Deok Soo; Lee, Seog-Jae; Hong, Jang-Soo; Lee, Geon Kook

    2002-01-01

    We present a rare case of main pulmonary artery stenosis secondary to protruding fibrous material in the main pulmonary artery associated with patent ductus arteriosus. A 1-month-old baby boy manifested cardiac murmur. Echocardiogram showed circumferential high echogenic mass inside the main pulmonary artery with pressure gradient of 49 mmHg and patent ductus arteriosus. The mass did not regress during 3 months' follow-up period. Angiographic images showed that the circular filling defect was located at the main pulmonary artery distal to pulmonary valve, and pulmonary valve and both pulmonary arteries were normal. After surgical removal of the circumferential material and ductus ligation, the pressure gradient became negligible. The material was consisted of scarcely cellular fibrous tissue, abundant coagulum of fibrinous material and dense calcification. PMID:12172057

  11. Time sequence and time scale of intermediate mass fragment emission

    SciTech Connect

    De Filippo, E.; Pagano, A.; Cardella, G.; Lanzano, G.; Papa, M.; Pirrone, S.; Politi, G.; Wilczynski, J.

    2005-04-01

    Semiperipheral collisions in the {sup 124}Sn+{sup 64}Ni reaction at 35 MeV/nucleon were studied using the forward part of the Charged Heavy Ion Mass and Energy Resolving Array. Nearly completely determined ternary events involving projectilelike fragments (PLF), targetlike fragments (TLF), and intermediate mass fragments (IMF) were selected. A new method of studying the reaction mechanism, focusing on the analysis of the correlations between relative velocities in the IMF+PLF and IMF+TLF subsystems, is proposed. The relative velocity correlations provide information on the time sequence and time scale of the neck fragmentation processes leading to production of IMFs. It is shown that the majority of light IMFs are produced within 40-80 fm/c after the system starts to reseparate. Heavy IMFs are formed at times of about 120 fm/c or later and can be viewed as resulting from two-step (sequential) neck rupture processes.

  12. Pre-main-sequence variability across the radiative-convective gap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saunders, Eric S.; Naylor, Tim; Mayne, Nathan; Littlefair, S. P.

    2009-07-01

    We use I-band imaging to perform a variability survey of the 13-Myr-old cluster h Per. We find a significant fraction of the cluster members to be variable. Most importantly, we find that variable members lie almost entirely on the convective side of the gap in the cluster sequence between fully convective stars and those which have a radiative core. This result is consistent with a scenario in which the magnetic field changes topology when the star changes from being fully convective to one containing a radiative core. When the star is convective, the magnetic field appears dominated by large-scale structures, resulting in global-size spots that drive the observed variability. For those stars with radiative cores, we observe a marked absence of variability due to spots, which suggests a switch to a magnetic field dominated by smaller-scale structures, resulting in many smaller spots and thus less apparent variability. This implies that wide field variability surveys may only be sensitive to fully convective stars. On the one hand, this reduces the chances of picking out young groups (since the convective stars are the lower mass and therefore fainter objects), but conversely the absolute magnitude of the head of the convective sequence provides a straightforward measure of age for those groups which are discovered.

  13. ASCA X-ray observations of pre-main-sequence stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skinner, S. L.; Walter, F. M.; Yamauchi, S.

    1996-01-01

    The results of recent Advanced Satellite for Cosmology and Astrophysics (ASCA) X-ray observations of two pre-main sequence stars are presented: the weak emission line T Tauri star HD 142361, and the Herbig Ae star HD 104237. The solid state imaging spectrometer spectra for HD 142361 shows a clear emission line from H-like Mg 7, and spectral fits reveal a multiple temperature plasma with a hot component of at least 16 MK. The spectra of HD 104237 show a complex temperature structure with the hottest plasma at temperatures of greater than 30 MK. It is concluded that mechanisms that predict only soft X-ray emission can be dismissed for Herbig Ae stars.

  14. ON THE MULTIPLICITY OF THE ZERO-AGE MAIN-SEQUENCE O STAR HERSCHEL 36

    SciTech Connect

    Arias, Julia I.; Barba, Rodolfo H.; Gamen, Roberto C.; Apellaniz, Jesus MaIz; Alfaro, Emilio J.; Sota, Alfredo; Bidin, Christian Moni

    2010-02-10

    We present the analysis of high-resolution optical spectroscopic observations of the zero-age main-sequence O star Herschel 36 spanning six years. This star is definitely a multiple system, with at least three components detected in its spectrum. Based on our radial-velocity (RV) study, we propose a picture of a close massive binary and a more distant companion, most probably in wide orbit about each other. The orbital solution for the binary, whose components we identify as O9 V and B0.5 V, is characterized by a period of 1.5415 {+-} 0.0006 days. With a spectral type O7.5 V, the third body is the most luminous component of the system and also presents RV variations with a period close to 498 days. Some possible hypotheses to explain the variability are briefly addressed and further observations are suggested.

  15. Far-infrared observations of main sequence stars surrounded by dust shells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harvey, Paul M.; Smith, Beverly J.; Difrancesco, J.

    1995-01-01

    We have used a 20-channel bolometer array on NASA's Kuiper Airborne Observatory to obtain photometry and size information for several main sequence stars surrounded by dust shells. The observations were made at 50 and/or 100 micrometers on flights based in Christchurch, New Zealand, in 1992, 1993. The stars include the 'Vega-like' star, Beta Pic, as well as two stars, HD 135344 and HD 139614, suggested by subsequent studies to belong possibly to the same class. The results of our observations are best interpreted as upper limits to the far-infrared sizes of the dust clouds around these stars. In addition to the basic size and flux measurements, we have fit simple, optically thin models to the Beta Pic data to explore the range of shell parameters consistent with our limits and with previous observations.

  16. New radio detections of early-type pre-main-sequence stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skinner, Stephen L.; Brown, Alexander; Linsky, Jeffrey L.

    1990-01-01

    Results of VLA radio continuum observations of 13 early-type pre-main-sequence stars selected from the 1984 catalog of Finkenzeller and Mundt are presented. The stars HD 259431 and MWC 1080 were detected at 3.6 cm, while HD 200775 and TY CrA were detected at both 3.6 and 6 cm. The flux density of HD 200775 has a frequency dependence consistent with the behavior expected for free-free emission originating in a fully ionized wind. However, an observation in A configuration suggests that the source geometry may not be spherically symmetric. In contrast, the spectral index of TY CrA is negative with a flux behavior implying nonthermal emission. The physical mechanism responsible for the nonthermal emission has not yet been identified, although gyrosynchrotron and synchrotron processes cannot be ruled out.

  17. Post Main Sequence Orbital Circularization of Binary Stars in the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds.

    SciTech Connect

    Faccioli, L; Alcock, C; Cook, K

    2007-11-20

    We present results from a study of the orbits of eclipsing binary stars (EBs) in the Magellanic Clouds. The samples comprise 4510 EBs found in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) by the MACHO project, 2474 LMC EBs found by the OGLE-II project (of which 1182 are also in the MACHO sample), 1380 in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) found by the MACHO project, and 1317 SMC EBs found by the OGLE-II project (of which 677 are also in the MACHO sample); we also consider the EROS sample of 79 EBs in the bar of the LMC. Statistics of the phase differences between primary and secondary minima allow us to infer the statistics of orbital eccentricities within these samples. We confirm the well-known absence of eccentric orbit in close binary stars. We also find evidence for rapid circularization in longer period systems when one member evolves beyond the main sequence, as also found by previous studies.

  18. Observations of exoplanets in time-evolving habitable zones of pre-main-sequence M dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Feng

    2015-09-01

    It is recently proposed that planets in the habitable zones (HZ) of pre-main-sequence (PMS) M dwarfs are good targets for the detection of habitable environments. In this note we show that future ground-based telescopes will be able to observe planets in time-evolving HZ of PMS M dwarfs with duration 10-100 Myrs. Based on X-ray measurements, there are >18 M0-M4 PMS stars within 10 pc, the characterization of potentially habitable exoplanets around which could provide highly valuable information regarding the evolution of habitable environments. There are tens of M dwarfs within 10 pc with X-ray to total luminosity ratios similar to that of the young Sun, the observations of potential planets around which could significantly improve our understanding of the physical states of early Solar System rocky planets.

  19. Pre-main-sequence isochrones - III. The Cluster Collaboration isochrone server

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Cameron P. M.; Rees, Jon M.; Naylor, Tim; Mayne, N. J.; Jeffries, R. D.; Mamajek, Eric E.; Rowe, John

    2014-12-01

    We present an isochrone server for semi-empirical pre-main-sequence model isochrones in the following systems: Johnson-Cousins, Sloan Digital Sky Survey, Two-Micron All-Sky Survey, Isaac Newton Telescope (INT) Wide-Field Camera and INT Photometric Hα Survey (IPHAS)/UV-Excess Survey (UVEX). The server can be accessed via the Cluster Collaboration webpage http://www.astro.ex.ac.uk/people/timn/isochrones/. To achieve this, we have used the observed colours of member stars in young clusters with well-established age, distance and reddening to create fiducial loci in the colour-magnitude diagram. These empirical sequences have been used to quantify the discrepancy between the models and data arising from uncertainties in both the interior and atmospheric models, resulting in tables of semi-empirical bolometric corrections (BCs) in the various photometric systems. The model isochrones made available through the server are based on existing stellar interior models coupled with our newly derived semi-empirical BCs. As part of this analysis, we also present new cluster parameters for both the Pleiades and Praesepe, yielding ages of 135^{+20}_{-11} and 665^{+14}_{-7} {Myr} as well as distances of 132 ± 2 and 184 ± 2 pc, respectively (statistical uncertainty only).

  20. Global multilocus sequence typing analysis of Mycoplasma bovis isolates reveals two main population clusters.

    PubMed

    Rosales, R S; Churchward, C P; Schnee, C; Sachse, K; Lysnyansky, I; Catania, S; Iob, L; Ayling, R D; Nicholas, R A J

    2015-03-01

    Mycoplasma bovis is a major bovine pathogen associated with bovine respiratory disease complex and is responsible for substantial economic losses worldwide. M. bovis is also associated with other clinical presentations in cattle, including mastitis, otitis, arthritis, and reproductive disorders. To gain a better understanding of the genetic diversity of this pathogen, a multilocus sequence typing (MLST) scheme was developed and applied to the characterization of 137 M. bovis isolates from diverse geographical origins, obtained from healthy or clinically infected cattle. After in silico analysis, a final set of 7 housekeeping genes was selected (dnaA, metS, recA, tufA, atpA, rpoD, and tkt). MLST analysis demonstrated the presence of 35 different sequence types (STs) distributed in two main clonal complexes (CCs), defined at the double-locus variant level, namely, CC1, which included most of the British and German isolates, and CC2, which was a more heterogeneous and geographically distant group of isolates, including European, Asian, and Australian samples. Index of association analysis confirmed the clonal nature of the investigated M. bovis population, based on MLST data. This scheme has demonstrated high discriminatory power, with the analysis showing the presence of genetically distant and divergent clusters of isolates predominantly associated with geographical origins. PMID:25540400

  1. LESSONS IN DE NOVO PEPTIDE SEQUENCING BY TANDEM MASS SPECTROMETRY

    PubMed Central

    Medzihradszky, Katalin F.; Chalkley, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    Mass spectrometry has become the method of choice for the qualitative and quantitative characterization of protein mixtures isolated from all kinds of living organisms. The raw data in these studies are MS/MS spectra, usually of peptides produced by proteolytic digestion of a protein. These spectra are “translated” into peptide sequences, normally with the help of various search engines. Data acquisition and interpretation have both been automated, and most researchers look only at the summary of the identifications without ever viewing the underlying raw data used for assignments. Automated analysis of data is essential due to the volume produced. However, being familiar with the finer intricacies of peptide fragmentation processes, and experiencing the difficulties of manual data interpretation allow a researcher to be able to more critically evaluate key results, particularly because there are many known rules of peptide fragmentation that are not incorporated into search engine scoring. Since the most commonly used MS/MS activation method is collision-induced dissociation (CID), in this article we present a brief review of the history of peptide CID analysis. Next, we provide a detailed tutorial on how to determine peptide sequences from CID data. Although the focus of the tutorial is de novo sequencing, the lessons learned and resources supplied are useful for data interpretation in general. PMID:25667941

  2. The evolution of angular momentum among zero-age main-sequence solar-type stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soderblom, David R.; Stauffer, John R.; Macgregor, Keith B.; Jones, Burton F.

    1993-01-01

    We consider a survey of rotation among F, G, and K dwarfs of the Pleiades in the context of other young clusters (Alpha Persei and the Hyades) and pre-main-sequence (PMS) stars (in Taurus-Auriga and Orion) in order to examine how the angular momentum of a star like the sun evolves during its early life on the main sequence. The rotation of PMS stars can be evolved into distributions like those seen in the young clusters if there is only modest, rotation-independent angular momentum loss prior to the ZAMS. Even then, the ultrafast rotators (UFRs, or ZAMS G and K dwarfs with v sin i equal to or greater than 30 km/s) must owe their extra angular momentum to their conditions of formation and to different angular momentum loss rates above a threshold velocity, for it is unlikely that these stars had angular momentum added as they neared the ZAMS, nor can a spread in ages within a cluster account for the range of rotation seen. Only a fraction of solar-type stars are thus capable of becoming UFRs, and it is not a phase that all stars experience. Simple scaling relations (like the Skumanich relation) applied to the observed surface rotation rates of young solar-type stars cannot reproduce the way in which the Pleiades evolve into the Hyades. We argue that invoking internal differential rotation in these ZAMS stars can explain several aspects of the observations and thus can provide a consistent picture of ZAMS angular momentum evolution.

  3. EXOZODIACAL DUST LEVELS FOR NEARBY MAIN-SEQUENCE STARS: A SURVEY WITH THE KECK INTERFEROMETER NULLER

    SciTech Connect

    Millan-Gabet, R.; Serabyn, E.; Mennesson, B.; Traub, W. A.; Stapelfeldt, K.; Bryden, G.; Colavita, M. M.; Booth, A. J.; Barry, R. K.; Danchi, W. C.; Kuchner, M.; Stark, C. C.; Ragland, S.; Hrynevych, M.; Woillez, J.

    2011-06-10

    The Keck Interferometer Nuller (KIN) was used to survey 25 nearby main-sequence stars in the mid-infrared, in order to assess the prevalence of warm circumstellar (exozodiacal) dust around nearby solar-type stars. The KIN measures circumstellar emission by spatially blocking the star but transmitting the circumstellar flux in a region typically 0.1-4 AU from the star. We find one significant detection ({eta} Crv), two marginal detections ({gamma} Oph and {alpha} Aql), and 22 clear non-detections. Using a model of our own solar system's zodiacal cloud, scaled to the luminosity of each target star, we estimate the equivalent number of target zodis needed to match our observations. Our three zodi detections are {eta} Crv (1250 {+-} 260), {gamma} Oph (200 {+-} 80), and {alpha} Aql (600 {+-} 200), where the uncertainties are 1{sigma}. The 22 non-detected targets have an ensemble weighted average consistent with zero, with an average individual uncertainty of 160 zodis (1{sigma}). These measurements represent the best limits to date on exozodi levels for a sample of nearby main-sequence stars. A statistical analysis of the population of 23 stars not previously known to contain circumstellar dust (excluding {eta} Crv and {gamma} Oph) suggests that, if the measurement errors are uncorrelated (for which we provide evidence) and if these 23 stars are representative of a single class with respect to the level of exozodi brightness, the mean exozodi level for the class is <150 zodis (3{sigma} upper limit, corresponding to 99% confidence under the additional assumption that the measurement errors are Gaussian). We also demonstrate that this conclusion is largely independent of the shape and mean level of the (unknown) true underlying exozodi distribution.

  4. VizieR Online Data Catalog: White dwarf main-sequence binaries (Rebassa-Mansergas+, 2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rebassa-Mansergas, A.; Agurto-Gangas, C.; Schreiber, M. R.; Gansicke, B. T.; Koester, D.

    2014-07-01

    The spectroscopic catalogue of white dwarf main-sequence (WDMS) binaries from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) is the largest and most homogeneous sample of compact binary stars currently known. However, because of selection effects, the current sample is strongly biased against systems containing cool white dwarfs and/or early-type companions, which are predicted to dominate the intrinsic population. In this study, we present colour selection criteria that combines optical (ugriz DR8 SDSS) plus infrared (yjhk DR9 UKIRT Infrared Sky Survey, JHK Two Micron All Sky Survey and/or W1W2 Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer) magnitudes to select 3419 photometric candidates of harbouring cool white dwarfs and/or dominant (M dwarf) companions. We demonstrate that 84 percent of our selected candidates are very likely genuine WDMS binaries, and that the white dwarf effective temperatures and secondary star spectral types of 71 percent of our selected sources are expected to be below <~10000-15000K, and concentrated at ~M2-3, respectively. We also present an updated version of the spectroscopic SDSS WDMS binary catalogue, which incorporates 47 new systems from SDSS DR8. The bulk of the DR8 spectroscopy is made up of main-sequence stars and red giants that were targeted as part of the Sloan Extension for Galactic Understanding and Exploration (SEGUE) Survey, therefore the number of new spectroscopic WDMS binaries in DR 8 is very small compared to previous SDSS data releases. Despite their low number, DR8 WDMS binaries are found to be dominated by systems containing cool white dwarfs and therefore represent an important addition to the spectroscopic sample. The updated SDSS DR8 spectroscopic catalogue of WDMS binaries consists of 2316 systems. We compare our updated catalogue with recently published lists of WDMS binaries and conclude that it currently represents the largest, most homogeneous and cleanest sample of spectroscopic WDMS binaries from SDSS. (5 data files).

  5. White dwarf main-sequence binaries from SDSS DR 8: unveiling the cool white dwarf population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rebassa-Mansergas, A.; Agurto-Gangas, C.; Schreiber, M. R.; Gänsicke, B. T.; Koester, D.

    2013-08-01

    The spectroscopic catalogue of white dwarf main-sequence (WDMS) binaries from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) is the largest and most homogeneous sample of compact binary stars currently known. However, because of selection effects, the current sample is strongly biased against systems containing cool white dwarfs and/or early-type companions, which are predicted to dominate the intrinsic population. In this study, we present colour selection criteria that combines optical (ugriz DR 8 SDSS) plus infrared (yjhk DR 9 UKIRT Infrared Sky Survey, JHK Two Micron All Sky Survey and/or w1w2 Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer) magnitudes to select 3419 photometric candidates of harbouring cool white dwarfs and/or dominant (M dwarf) companions. We demonstrate that 84 per cent of our selected candidates are very likely genuine WDMS binaries, and that the white dwarf effective temperatures and secondary star spectral types of 71 per cent of our selected sources are expected to be below ≲ 10 000-15 000 K, and concentrated at ˜M2-3, respectively. We also present an updated version of the spectroscopic SDSS WDMS binary catalogue, which incorporates 47 new systems from SDSS DR 8. The bulk of the DR 8 spectroscopy is made up of main-sequence stars and red giants that were targeted as part of the Sloan Extension for Galactic Understanding and Exploration (SEGUE) Survey, therefore the number of new spectroscopic WDMS binaries in DR 8 is very small compared to previous SDSS data releases. Despite their low number, DR 8 WDMS binaries are found to be dominated by systems containing cool white dwarfs and therefore represent an important addition to the spectroscopic sample. The updated SDSS DR 8 spectroscopic catalogue of WDMS binaries consists of 2316 systems. We compare our updated catalogue with recently published lists of WDMS binaries and conclude that it currently represents the largest, most homogeneous and cleanest sample of spectroscopic WDMS binaries from SDSS.

  6. The slowly pulsating B-star 18 Pegasi: A testbed for upper main sequence stellar evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irrgang, A.; Desphande, A.; Moehler, S.; Mugrauer, M.; Janousch, D.

    2016-06-01

    The predicted width of the upper main sequence in stellar evolution models depends on the empirical calibration of the convective overshooting parameter. Despite decades of discussions, its precise value is still unknown and further observational constraints are required to gauge it. Based on a photometric and preliminary asteroseismic analysis, we show that the mid B-type giant 18 Peg is one of the most evolved members of the rare class of slowly pulsating B-stars and, thus, bears tremendous potential to derive a tight lower limit for the width of the upper main sequence. In addition, 18 Peg turns out to be part of a single-lined spectroscopic binary system with an eccentric orbit that is greater than 6 years. Further spectroscopic and photometric monitoring and a sophisticated asteroseismic investigation are required to exploit the full potential of this star as a benchmark object for stellar evolution theory. Based on observations collected at the European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere under ESO programmes 265.C-5038(A), 069.C-0263(A), and 073.D-0024(A). Based on observations collected at the Centro Astronómico Hispano Alemán (CAHA) at Calar Alto, operated jointly by the Max-Planck Institut für Astronomie and the Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (CSIC), proposals H2005-2.2-016 and H2015-3.5-008. Based on observations made with the William Herschel Telescope operated on the island of La Palma by the Isaac Newton Group in the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, proposal W15BN015. Based on observations obtained with telescopes of the University Observatory Jena, which is operated by the Astrophysical Institute of the Friedrich-Schiller-University.

  7. Main airborne Ascomycota spores: characterization by culture, spore morphology, ribosomal DNA sequences and enzymatic analysis.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Manuela; Amorim, M Isabel; Ferreira, Elsa; Delgado, Luís; Abreu, Ilda

    2010-04-01

    The aim of this work was to identify the main allergy-related Ascomycetes fungal spores present in the atmosphere of Porto, using different and complementary techniques. The atmospheric sampling, performed in the atmosphere of Porto (Portugal) from August 2006 to July 2008, indicated Cladosporium, Penicillium, Aspergillus and Alternaria as the main fungal spore taxa. Alternaria and Cladosporium peaks were registered during summer. Aspergillus and Penicillium highest values were registered from late winter to early spring. Additionally, the Andersen sampler allowed the culture and isolation of the collected viable spores subsequently used for different identification approaches. The internal-transcribed spacer region of the nuclear ribosomal repeat unit sequences of airborne Ascomycetes fungi isolates revealed 11 taxonomically related fungal species. Among the identified taxa, Penicillum and Aspergillus presented the highest diversity, while only one species of Cladosporium and Alternaria, respectively, were identified. All selected fungal spore taxa possessed phosphatase, esterase, leucine arylamidase and beta-glucosidase enzymatic activity, while none had lipase, cystine arylamidase, trypsin or beta-glucuronidase activity. The association between the spore cell wall morphology, DNA-based techniques and enzymatic activity approaches allowed a more reliable identification procedure of the airborne Ascomycota fungal spores. PMID:20143229

  8. Extended main sequence turnoffs in intermediate-age star clusters: a correlation between turnoff width and early escape velocity

    SciTech Connect

    Goudfrooij, Paul; Kozhurina-Platais, Vera; Kalirai, Jason S.; Correnti, Matteo E-mail: verap@stsci.edu E-mail: correnti@stsci.edu; and others

    2014-12-10

    We present a color-magnitude diagram analysis of deep Hubble Space Telescope imaging of a mass-limited sample of 18 intermediate-age (1-2 Gyr old) star clusters in the Magellanic Clouds, including eight clusters for which new data were obtained. We find that all star clusters in our sample feature extended main-sequence turnoff (eMSTO) regions that are wider than can be accounted for by a simple stellar population (including unresolved binary stars). FWHM widths of the MSTOs indicate age spreads of 200-550 Myr. We evaluate the dynamical evolution of clusters with and without initial mass segregation. Our main results are (1) the fraction of red clump (RC) stars in secondary RCs in eMSTO clusters scales with the fraction of MSTO stars having pseudo-ages of ≲1.35 Gyr; (2) the width of the pseudo-age distributions of eMSTO clusters is correlated with their central escape velocity v {sub esc}, both currently and at an age of 10 Myr. We find that these two results are unlikely to be reproduced by the effects of interactive binary stars or a range of stellar rotation velocities. We therefore argue that the eMSTO phenomenon is mainly caused by extended star formation within the clusters; and (3) we find that v {sub esc} ≥ 15 km s{sup –1} out to ages of at least 100 Myr for all clusters featuring eMSTOs, and v {sub esc} ≤ 12 km s{sup –1} at all ages for two lower-mass clusters in the same age range that do not show eMSTOs. We argue that eMSTOs only occur for clusters whose early escape velocities are higher than the wind velocities of stars that provide material from which second-generation stars can form. The threshold of 12-15 km s{sup –1} is consistent with wind velocities of intermediate-mass asymptotic giant branch stars and massive binary stars in the literature.

  9. Molecules and dust in the Large Magellanic Cloud: new colour classifications for post-Main-Sequence stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markwick-Kemper, Ciska; Leisenring, Jarron; Meixner, Margaret; van Dyk, Schuyler; Szczerba, Ryszard

    In the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), as in the Milky Way, dust formation predominantly occurs in the circumstellar environments of evolved stars. The process of dust condensation is not fully understood, and investigating the dust condensation sequence in the low metallicity environment of the LMC (about half of the solar metallicity), may yield additional insights in the dust condensation process. Topics to be studied include the final condensation products, the correlation of the condensation sequence with evolutionary status of the star, degree of crystallinity of the silicates and ratio of carbon-rich dust producing stars. The composition and properties of dust are most easily studied using infrared spectroscopy, and using the high sensitivity of the Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) on board of Spitzer, we were able to observe the thermal emission from circumstellar dust of these stars individually. A sample of 63 post-Main-Sequence stars were selected, using their 2MASS/MSX colours (Egan et al. 2001). We aimed to cover all post-Main-Sequence evolutionary stages, to make an inventory of the dust condensation products, while we placed a certain emphasis on oxygen-rich AGB stars with a intermediate mass-loss rate, to study the existence of a threshold mass-loss rate above which crystalline silicates are observed (Kemper et al. 2001). Here we will present the observed spectra, along with their spectral classification. We find that a large fraction of the stars we observed exhibit spectral features of carbon-rich dust and molecules, such as SiC, C2H2 and MgS. In fact we find that many of these stars are previously classified as oxygen-rich AGB stars, or as OH/IR stars based on their NIR/MIR colours (Egan et al. 2001). These colours are determined for Galactic samples, while in the LMC sample, stars with a carbon-rich chemistry in their outflows occupy a much larger region of the various colour-colour diagrams. In addition, a large fraction of the sample show amorphous

  10. Three-dimensional simulations of the interaction between Type Ia supernova ejecta and their main sequence companions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Z. W.; Pakmor, R.; Röpke, F. K.; Edelmann, P.; Wang, B.; Kromer, M.; Hillebrandt, W.; Han, Z. W.

    2012-12-01

    Context. The identity of the progenitor systems of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) is still uncertain. In the single-degenerate scenario, the interaction between the supernova blast wave and the outer layers of a main sequence companion star strips off hydrogen-rich material which is then mixed into the ejecta. Strong contamination of the supernova ejecta with stripped material could lead to a conflict with observations of SNe Ia. This constrains the single-degenerate progenitor model. Aims: In this work, our previous simulations based on simplified progenitor donor stars have been updated by adopting more realistic progenitor-system models that result from fully detailed, state-of-the-art binary evolution calculations. Methods: We use Eggleton's stellar evolution code including the optically thick accretion wind model and taking into account the possibility of the effects of accretion disk instabilities to obtain realistic models of companion stars for different progenitor systems. The impact of the supernova blast wave on these companion stars is followed in three-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations employing the smoothed particle hydrodynamics code GADGET3. Results: For a suite of main sequence companions, we find that the mass of the material stripped from the companions range from 0.11 M⊙ to 0.18 M⊙. The kick velocity delivered by the impact is between 51 km s-1 and 105 km s-1. We find that the stripped mass and kick velocity depend on the ratio of the orbital separation to the radius of a companion, af/R. They can be fitted in good approximation by a power law for a given companion model. However, we do not find a single power law relation holding for different companion models. This implies that the structure of the companion star is also important for the amount of stripped material. Conclusions: With more realistic companion star models than those employed in previous studies, our simulations show that the hydrogen masses stripped from companions are

  11. An Analysis of the Population of Extended Main Sequence Turn-off Clusters in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piatti, Andrés E.; Bastian, Nate

    2016-08-01

    We combine a number of recent studies of the extended main sequence turn-off (eMSTO) phenomenon in intermediate age stellar (1 - 2 Gyr) clusters in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) in order to investigate its origin. By employing the largest sample of eMSTO LMC clusters so far used, we show that cluster core radii, masses, and dynamical state are not related to the genesis of eMSTOs. Indeed, clusters in our sample have core radii, masses and age-relaxation time ratios in the range ≈ 2-6 pc, 3.35- 5.50 (log(Mcls/M⊙) and 0.2-8.0, respectively. These results imply that the eMSTO phenomenon is not caused by actual age spreads within the clusters. Furthermore, we confirm from a larger cluster sample recent results including young eMSTO LMC clusters, that the FWHM at the MSTOs correlates most strongly with cluster age, suggesting that a stellar evolutionary effect is the underlying cause.

  12. Delayed Gratification Habitable Zones: When Deep Outer Solar System Regions Become Balmy During Post-Main Sequence Stellar Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stern, S. Alan

    2003-06-01

    Like all low- and moderate-mass stars, the Sun will burn as a red giant during its later evolution, generating of solar luminosities for some tens of millions of years. During this post-main sequence phase, the habitable (i.e., liquid water) thermal zone of our Solar System will lie in the region where Triton, Pluto-Charon, and Kuiper Belt objects orbit. Compared with the 1 AU habitable zone where Earth resides, this "delayed gratification habitable zone" (DGHZ) will enjoy a far less biologically hazardous environment - with lower harmful radiation levels from the Sun, and a far less destructive collisional environment. Objects like Triton, Pluto-Charon, and Kuiper Belt objects, which are known to be rich in both water and organics, will then become possible sites for biochemical and perhaps even biological evolution. The Kuiper Belt, with >105 objects >=50 km in radius and more than three times the combined surface area of the four terrestrial planets, provides numerous sites for possible evolution once the Sun's DGHZ reaches it. The Sun's DGHZ might be thought to only be of academic interest owing to its great separation from us in time. However, ~109 Milky Way stars burn as luminous red giants today. Thus, if icy-organic objects are common in the 20-50 AU zones of these stars, as they are in our Solar System (and as inferred in numerous main sequence stellar disk systems), then DGHZs may form a niche type of habitable zone that is likely to be numerically common in the Galaxy.

  13. Delayed gratification habitable zones: when deep outer solar system regions become balmy during post-main sequence stellar evolution.

    PubMed

    Stern, S Alan

    2003-01-01

    Like all low- and moderate-mass stars, the Sun will burn as a red giant during its later evolution, generating of solar luminosities for some tens of millions of years. During this post-main sequence phase, the habitable (i.e., liquid water) thermal zone of our Solar System will lie in the region where Triton, Pluto-Charon, and Kuiper Belt objects orbit. Compared with the 1 AU habitable zone where Earth resides, this "delayed gratification habitable zone" (DGHZ) will enjoy a far less biologically hazardous environment - with lower harmful radiation levels from the Sun, and a far less destructive collisional environment. Objects like Triton, Pluto-Charon, and Kuiper Belt objects, which are known to be rich in both water and organics, will then become possible sites for biochemical and perhaps even biological evolution. The Kuiper Belt, with >10(5) objects > or =50 km in radius and more than three times the combined surface area of the four terrestrial planets, provides numerous sites for possible evolution once the Sun's DGHZ reaches it. The Sun's DGHZ might be thought to only be of academic interest owing to its great separation from us in time. However, approximately 10(9) Milky Way stars burn as luminous red giants today. Thus, if icy-organic objects are common in the 20-50 AU zones of these stars, as they are in our Solar System (and as inferred in numerous main sequence stellar disk systems), then DGHZs may form a niche type of habitable zone that is likely to be numerically common in the Galaxy. PMID:14577880

  14. A search for pre-main sequence stars in the high-latitude molecular clouds. II - A survey of the Einstein database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caillault, Jean-Pierre; Magnani, Loris

    1990-01-01

    The preliminary results are reported of a survey of every EINSTEIN image which overlaps any high-latitude molecular cloud in a search for X-ray emitting pre-main sequence stars. This survey, together with complementary KPNO and IRAS data, will allow the determination of how prevalent low mass star formation is in these clouds in general and, particularly, in the translucent molecular clouds.

  15. Phosphodiesterase inhibitors, pentoxifylline and rolipram, increase bone mass mainly by promoting bone formation in normal mice.

    PubMed

    Kinoshita, T; Kobayashi, S; Ebara, S; Yoshimura, Y; Horiuchi, H; Tsutsumimoto, T; Wakabayashi, S; Takaoka, K

    2000-12-01

    The administration of either Pentoxifylline (PTX), a methylxanthine derivative and an inhibitor of cyclic AMP (c-AMP) phosphodiesterases (PDEs), or Rolipram, an inhibitor specific to type-4 PDE (PDE4) in normal mice, significantly increased both cortical and cancellous bone mass. Vertebrae and tibiae from mice treated with PTX or Rolipram were analyzed by means of bone densitometry and histomorphometry. The results revealed that both PTX and Rolipram increased bone mass in normal mice mainly through the acceleration of bone formation. These findings suggest that both PTX and Rolipram can enhance physiological bone formation and thereby increase bone mass in normal mice. The possibility that these agents may be of value for the treatment of osteoporosis is discussed. PMID:11113392

  16. A HIGHLY CONSISTENT FRAMEWORK FOR THE EVOLUTION OF THE STAR-FORMING ''MAIN SEQUENCE'' FROM z ∼ 0-6

    SciTech Connect

    Speagle, J. S.; Steinhardt, C. L.; Silverman, J. D.; Capak, P. L.

    2014-10-01

    Using a compilation of 25 studies from the literature, we investigate the evolution of the star-forming galaxy (SFG) main sequence (MS) in stellar mass and star formation rate (SFR) out to z ∼ 6. After converting all observations to a common set of calibrations, we find a remarkable consensus among MS observations (∼0.1 dex 1σ interpublication scatter). By fitting for time evolution of the MS in bins of constant mass, we deconvolve the observed scatter about the MS within each observed redshift bin. After accounting for observed scatter between different SFR indicators, we find the width of the MS distribution is ∼0.2 dex and remains constant over cosmic time. Our best fits indicate the slope of the MS is likely time-dependent, with our best-fit log SFR(M {sub *}, t) = (0.84 ± 0.02 – 0.026 ± 0.003 × t)log M {sub *} – (6.51 ± 0.24 – 0.11 ± 0.03 × t), where t is the age of the universe in Gyr. We use our fits to create empirical evolutionary tracks in order to constrain MS galaxy star formation histories (SFHs), finding that (1) the most accurate representations of MS SFHs are given by delayed-τ models, (2) the decline in fractional stellar mass growth for a ''typical'' MS galaxy today is approximately linear for most of its lifetime, and (3) scatter about the MS can be generated by galaxies evolving along identical evolutionary tracks assuming an initial 1σ spread in formation times of ∼1.4 Gyr.

  17. A Highly Consistent Framework for the Evolution of the Star-Forming "Main Sequence" from z ~ 0-6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Speagle, J. S.; Steinhardt, C. L.; Capak, P. L.; Silverman, J. D.

    2014-10-01

    Using a compilation of 25 studies from the literature, we investigate the evolution of the star-forming galaxy (SFG) main sequence (MS) in stellar mass and star formation rate (SFR) out to z ~ 6. After converting all observations to a common set of calibrations, we find a remarkable consensus among MS observations (~0.1 dex 1σ interpublication scatter). By fitting for time evolution of the MS in bins of constant mass, we deconvolve the observed scatter about the MS within each observed redshift bin. After accounting for observed scatter between different SFR indicators, we find the width of the MS distribution is ~0.2 dex and remains constant over cosmic time. Our best fits indicate the slope of the MS is likely time-dependent, with our best-fit log SFR(M *, t) = (0.84 ± 0.02 - 0.026 ± 0.003 × t)log M * - (6.51 ± 0.24 - 0.11 ± 0.03 × t), where t is the age of the universe in Gyr. We use our fits to create empirical evolutionary tracks in order to constrain MS galaxy star formation histories (SFHs), finding that (1) the most accurate representations of MS SFHs are given by delayed-τ models, (2) the decline in fractional stellar mass growth for a "typical" MS galaxy today is approximately linear for most of its lifetime, and (3) scatter about the MS can be generated by galaxies evolving along identical evolutionary tracks assuming an initial 1σ spread in formation times of ~1.4 Gyr.

  18. New pre-main-sequence stars in the Upper Scorpius subgroup of Sco-Cen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rizzuto, A. C.; Ireland, M. J.; Kraus, A. L.

    2015-04-01

    We present 237 new spectroscopically confirmed pre-main-sequence K- and M-type stars in the young Upper Scorpius subgroup of the Sco-Cen association, the nearest region of recent massive star formation. Using the Wide-Field Spectrograph at the Australian National University 2.3 m telescope at Siding Spring, we observed 397 kinematically and photometrically selected candidate members of Upper Scorpius, and identified new members by the presence of lithium absorption. The HR-diagram of the new members shows a spread of ages, ranging from ˜3 to 20 Myr, which broadly agrees with the current age estimates of ˜5-10 Myr. We find a significant range of Li 6708 equivalent widths among the members, and a minor dependence of HR-diagram position on the measured equivalent width of the Li 6708 Å line, with members that appear younger having more lithium. This could indicate the presence of either populations of different age, or a spread of ages in Upper Scorpius. We also use Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer data to infer circumstellar disc presence in 25 of the members on the basis of infrared excesses, including two candidate transition discs. We find that 11.2 ± 3.4 per cent of the M0-M2 spectral type (0.4-0.8 M⊙) Upper Sco stars display an excess that indicates the presence of a gaseous disc.

  19. THE MULTIPLE PRE-MAIN-SEQUENCE SYSTEM HBC 515 IN L1622

    SciTech Connect

    Reipurth, Bo; Aspin, Colin; Herbig, George

    2010-04-15

    The bright pre-main-sequence star HBC 515 (HD 288313) located in the L1622 cometary cloud in Orion has been studied extensively with optical/infrared imaging and ultraviolet/optical/infrared spectroscopy. The spectra indicate that HBC 515 is a weakline T Tauri star (TTS) of spectral type K2V. Adaptive optics imaging in the K band reveals that HBC 515 is a binary with two equally bright components separated by 0.''5. A very faint third component is found 5'' to the northwest. Spitzer IRAC and MIPS observations show that at mid-infrared wavelengths this third source dominates the system, suggesting that it is a protostar still embedded in the nascent cloud of HBC 515. The close association of a weakline TTS with a newborn protostar in a multiple system is noteworthy. Two nearby TTSs are likely associated with the HBC 515 multiple system, and the dynamical evolution of the complex that would lead to such a configuration is considered.

  20. A DETAILED FAR-ULTRAVIOLET SPECTRAL ATLAS OF MAIN-SEQUENCE B STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Myron A.

    2010-02-01

    We have constructed a detailed spectral atlas covering the wavelength region 930-1225 A for 10 sharp-lined B0-B9 stars near the main sequence. Most of the spectra we assembled are from the archives of the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer satellite, but for nine stars, wavelength coverage above 1188 A was taken from high-resolution International Ultraviolet Explorer or echelle Hubble Space Telescope/Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph spectra. To represent the tenth star at type B0.2 V, we used the Copernicus atlas of {tau} Sco. We made extensive line identifications in the region 949-1225 A of all atomic features having published oscillator strengths at types B0, B2, and B8. These are provided as a supplementary data product-hence the term detailed atlas. Our list of found features totals 2288, 1612, and 2469 lines, respectively. We were able to identify 92%, 98%, and 98% of these features with known atomic transitions with varying degrees of certainty in these spectra. The remaining lines do not have published oscillator strengths. Photospheric lines account for 94%, 87%, and 91%, respectively, of all our identifications, with the remainder being due to interstellar (usually molecular H{sub 2}) lines. We also discuss the numbers of lines with respect to the distributions of various ions for these three most studied spectral subtypes. A table is also given of 162 least blended lines that can be used as possible diagnostics of physical conditions in B star atmospheres.

  1. Near-uniform internal rotation of the main-sequence γ Doradus pulsator KIC 7661054

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, Simon J.; Fossati, Luca; Bedding, Timothy R.; Saio, Hideyuki; Kurtz, Donald W.; Grassitelli, Luca; Wang, Edric S.

    2016-06-01

    We used Kepler photometry to determine the internal rotation rate of KIC 7661054, a chemically normal γ Dor star on the main sequence at spectral type F2.5 V. The core rotation period of 27.25 ± 0.06 d is obtained from the rotational splittings of a series of dipole g modes. The surface rotation period is calculated from a spectroscopic projected rotation velocity and a stellar radius computed from models. Literature data, obtained without inclusion of macroturbulence as a line-broadening mechanism, imply that the surface rotates much more quickly than the core, while our detailed analysis suggests that the surface may rotate slightly more quickly than the core and that the rotation profile is uniform within the 1σ uncertainties. We discuss the pitfalls associated with the determination of surface rotation rates of slow rotators from spectroscopy in the absence of asteroseismic constraints. A broad signal is observed at low frequency, which we show cannot be attributed to rotation, contrary to previous suggestions concerning the origin of such signals.

  2. ROSAT PSPC observations of the Orion Trapezium area. I. Pre-main sequence and O stars.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geier, S.; Wendker, H. J.; Wisotzki, L.

    1995-07-01

    A deep ROSAT PSPC image centred on the Orion Trapezium has revealed that most of the X-ray emission originates from discrete sources, in contrast to previous EINSTEIN data which suggested a diffuse emission component. We present a list of 171 X-ray sources all situated in the so-called inner ring of the field of view (20' radius). The field is crowded with sources. A special procedure had to be developed to cope with the severe blending of sources. The present list is not complete for L_X_<3.5*10^29^erg/s due to this reason and many more sources can still be expected by a next step in the reduction. Nearly all of the sources could be identified with pre-main sequence stars of the Ori OB1 association in its subgroups Ic and Id. The statistics of this ensemble are discussed. It seems that members of the above subgroups can be distinguished on the basis of an additional amount of X-ray extinction seen in their spectra or hardness ratios. The O stars in the area (θ_1_ Ori C, θ_2_ Ori A and ι Ori) are briefly discussed. Six B stars are identified with X-ray sources.

  3. Main sequence of the metal-poor globular cluster M30 (NGC 7099)

    SciTech Connect

    Alcaino, G.; Liller, W.

    1980-10-01

    We present photographic photometry for 673 stars in the metal-poor globular cluster M30 (NGC 7099). The Racine wedge was used with the CTIO 1-m Yale telescope (..delta..m=3/sup m/.60), the CTIO 4-m telescope (..delta..m=6/sup m/.83), and the ESO 3.6-m telescope (..delta..m=4/sup m/.12) to extend the photoelectric limit from Vapprox. =16.3 to Vapprox. =20.4. For the main-sequence turn-off, we have determined its position to lie at V=18.4 +- 0.1 (m.e.) and B-V=0.49 +- 0.03 (m.e.). From these values, we calculate the intrinsic values M/sub v/ =3.87 and (B-V)/sub 0/=0.47. For the cluster as a whole, we derive a distance modulus (m-M)/sub V/=14.53 +- 0.15 and reddening E(B-V)=0.02 +- 0.02. Using the models of Iben and Rood (Astrophys. J. 159, 605 (1970)) and the isochrones of Demarque and McClure ((1977), in Evolution of Galaxies and Stellar Populations, edited by B. Tinsley and R. B. Larson (Yale University Observatory, New Haven), p. 199), we deduce the cluster's age to be 14.5( +- 4.0) x 10/sup 9/ yr. The large uncertainty in this value emphasizes the dire need for more work on cluster evolution.

  4. Iron-group Abundances in the Metal-poor Main-Sequence Turnoff Star HD~84937

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sneden, Christopher; Cowan, John J.; Kobayashi, Chiaki; Pignatari, Marco; Lawler, James E.; Den Hartog, Elizabeth A.; Wood, Michael P.

    2016-01-01

    We have derived new, very accurate abundances of the Fe-group elements Sc through Zn (Z = 21-30) in the bright main-sequence turnoff star HD 84937 based on high-resolution spectra covering the visible and ultraviolet spectral regions. New or recent laboratory transition data for 14 species of seven elements have been used. Abundances from more than 600 lines of non-Fe species have been combined with about 550 Fe lines in HD 84937 to yield abundance ratios of high precision. The abundances have been determined from both neutral and ionized transitions, which generally are in agreement with each other. We find no substantial departures from the standard LTE Saha ionization balance in this [Fe/H] = -2.32 star. Noteworthy among the abundances are [Co/Fe] = +0.14 and [Cu/Fe] = -0.83, in agreement with past studies of abundance trends in this and other low-metallicity stars, and < [{{Sc,Ti,V/Fe}}]> = +0.31, which has not been noted previously. A detailed examination of scandium, titanium, and vanadium abundances in large-sample spectroscopic surveys reveals that they are positively correlated in stars with [Fe/H] < -2 HD 84937 lies at the high end of this correlation. These trends constrain the synthesis mechanisms of Fe-group elements. We also examine the Galactic chemical evolution abundance trends of the Fe-group elements, including a new nucleosynthesis model with jet-like explosion effects.

  5. The Evolved Main-sequence Channel: HST and LBT Observations of CSS120422:111127+571239

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennedy, M.; Garnavich, P.; Callanan, P.; Szkody, P.; Littlefield, C.; Pogge, R.

    2015-12-01

    The “evolved main-sequence (EMS)” channel is thought to contribute significantly to the population of AM CVn-type systems in the Galaxy, and also to the number of cataclysmic variables (CVs) detected below the period minimum for hydrogen rich systems. CSS 120422:J111127+571239 was discovered by the Catalina Sky Survey in 2012 April. Its period was found to be 56 minutes, well below the minimum, and the optical spectrum is clearly depleted in hydrogen relative to helium, but still has two orders of magnitude more hydrogen than AM CVn stars. Doppler tomography of the Hα line hinted at a spiral structure existing in the disk. Here we present spectroscopy of CSS 120422:J111127+571239 using the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph FUV instrument on the Hubble Space Telescope and using the MODS spectrograph on the Large Binocular Telescope. The UV spectrum shows Si iv, N v, and He ii, but no detectable C iv. The anomalous nitrogen/carbon ratio is seen in a small number of other CVs and confirms a unique binary evolution. We also present and compare the optical spectrum of V418 Ser and advocate that it is also an EMS system.

  6. Magnetospherically driven optical and radio aurorae at the end of the stellar main sequence.

    PubMed

    Hallinan, G; Littlefair, S P; Cotter, G; Bourke, S; Harding, L K; Pineda, J S; Butler, R P; Golden, A; Basri, G; Doyle, J G; Kao, M M; Berdyugina, S V; Kuznetsov, A; Rupen, M P; Antonova, A

    2015-07-30

    Aurorae are detected from all the magnetized planets in our Solar System, including Earth. They are powered by magnetospheric current systems that lead to the precipitation of energetic electrons into the high-latitude regions of the upper atmosphere. In the case of the gas-giant planets, these aurorae include highly polarized radio emission at kilohertz and megahertz frequencies produced by the precipitating electrons, as well as continuum and line emission in the infrared, optical, ultraviolet and X-ray parts of the spectrum, associated with the collisional excitation and heating of the hydrogen-dominated atmosphere. Here we report simultaneous radio and optical spectroscopic observations of an object at the end of the stellar main sequence, located right at the boundary between stars and brown dwarfs, from which we have detected radio and optical auroral emissions both powered by magnetospheric currents. Whereas the magnetic activity of stars like our Sun is powered by processes that occur in their lower atmospheres, these aurorae are powered by processes originating much further out in the magnetosphere of the dwarf star that couple energy into the lower atmosphere. The dissipated power is at least four orders of magnitude larger than what is produced in the Jovian magnetosphere, revealing aurorae to be a potentially ubiquitous signature of large-scale magnetospheres that can scale to luminosities far greater than those observed in our Solar System. These magnetospheric current systems may also play a part in powering some of the weather phenomena reported on brown dwarfs. PMID:26223623

  7. Phylogenetic reconstruction of Bantu kinship challenges Main Sequence Theory of human social evolution

    PubMed Central

    Opie, Christopher; Shultz, Susanne; Atkinson, Quentin D.; Currie, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Kinship provides the fundamental structure of human society: descent determines the inheritance pattern between generations, whereas residence rules govern the location a couple moves to after they marry. In turn, descent and residence patterns determine other key relationships such as alliance, trade, and marriage partners. Hunter-gatherer kinship patterns are viewed as flexible, whereas agricultural societies are thought to have developed much more stable kinship patterns as they expanded during the Holocene. Among the Bantu farmers of sub-Saharan Africa, the ancestral kinship patterns present at the beginning of the expansion are hotly contested, with some arguing for matrilineal and matrilocal patterns, whereas others maintain that any kind of lineality or sex-biased dispersal only emerged much later. Here, we use Bayesian phylogenetic methods to uncover the history of Bantu kinship patterns and trace the interplay between descent and residence systems. The results suggest a number of switches in both descent and residence patterns as Bantu farming spread, but that the first Bantu populations were patrilocal with patrilineal descent. Across the phylogeny, a change in descent triggered a switch away from patrifocal kinship, whereas a change in residence triggered a switch back from matrifocal kinship. These results challenge “Main Sequence Theory,” which maintains that changes in residence rules precede change in other social structures. We also indicate the trajectory of kinship change, shedding new light on how this fundamental structure of society developed as farming spread across the globe during the Neolithic. PMID:25422461

  8. Phylogenetic reconstruction of Bantu kinship challenges Main Sequence Theory of human social evolution.

    PubMed

    Opie, Christopher; Shultz, Susanne; Atkinson, Quentin D; Currie, Thomas; Mace, Ruth

    2014-12-01

    Kinship provides the fundamental structure of human society: descent determines the inheritance pattern between generations, whereas residence rules govern the location a couple moves to after they marry. In turn, descent and residence patterns determine other key relationships such as alliance, trade, and marriage partners. Hunter-gatherer kinship patterns are viewed as flexible, whereas agricultural societies are thought to have developed much more stable kinship patterns as they expanded during the Holocene. Among the Bantu farmers of sub-Saharan Africa, the ancestral kinship patterns present at the beginning of the expansion are hotly contested, with some arguing for matrilineal and matrilocal patterns, whereas others maintain that any kind of lineality or sex-biased dispersal only emerged much later. Here, we use Bayesian phylogenetic methods to uncover the history of Bantu kinship patterns and trace the interplay between descent and residence systems. The results suggest a number of switches in both descent and residence patterns as Bantu farming spread, but that the first Bantu populations were patrilocal with patrilineal descent. Across the phylogeny, a change in descent triggered a switch away from patrifocal kinship, whereas a change in residence triggered a switch back from matrifocal kinship. These results challenge "Main Sequence Theory," which maintains that changes in residence rules precede change in other social structures. We also indicate the trajectory of kinship change, shedding new light on how this fundamental structure of society developed as farming spread across the globe during the Neolithic. PMID:25422461

  9. Soft X-ray observations of pre-main sequence stars in the chamaeleon dark cloud

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feigelson, Eric D.; Kriss, Gerard A.

    1987-01-01

    Einstein IPC observations of the nearby Chamaeleon I star forming cloud show 22 well-resolved soft X-ray sources in a 1x2 deg region. Twelve are associated with H-alpha emission line pre-main sequence (PMS) stars, and four with optically selected PMS stars. Several X-ray sources have two or more PMS stars in their error circles. Optical spectra were obtained at CTIO of possible stellar counterparts of the remaining X-ray sources. They reveal 5 probable new cloud members, K7-MO stars with weak or absent emission lines. These naked X-ray selected PMS stars are similar to those found in the Taurus-Auriga cloud. The spatial distributions and H-R diagrams of the X-ray and optically selected PMS stars in the cloud are very similar. Luminosity functions indicate the Chamaeleon stars are on average approximately 5 times more X-ray luminous than Pleiad dwarfs. A significant correlation between L sub x and optical magnitude suggests this trend may continue within the PMS phase of stellar evolution. The relation of increasing X-ray luminosity with decreasing stellar ages is thus extended to stellar ages as young as 1 million years.

  10. LINEAR RELATION FOR WIND-BLOWN BUBBLE SIZES OF MAIN-SEQUENCE OB STARS IN A MOLECULAR ENVIRONMENT AND IMPLICATION FOR SUPERNOVA PROGENITORS

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Yang; Zhou Ping; Chu Youhua

    2013-05-20

    We find a linear relationship between the size of a massive star's main-sequence bubble in a molecular environment and the star's initial mass: R{sub b} Almost-Equal-To 1.22 M/M{sub Sun} - 9.16 pc, assuming a constant interclump pressure. Since stars in the mass range of 8 to 25-30 M{sub Sun} will end their evolution in the red supergiant phase without launching a Wolf-Rayet wind, the main-sequence wind-blown bubbles are mainly responsible for the extent of molecular gas cavities, while the effect of the photoionization is comparatively small. This linear relation can thus be used to infer the masses of the massive star progenitors of supernova remnants (SNRs) that are discovered to evolve in molecular cavities, while few other means are available for inferring the properties of SNR progenitors. We have used this method to estimate the initial masses of the progenitors of eight SNRs: Kes 69, Kes 75, Kes 78, 3C 396, 3C 397, HC 40, Vela, and RX J1713-3946.

  11. The environmental impacts on the star formation main sequence: An Hα study of the newly discovered rich cluster at z = 1.52

    SciTech Connect

    Koyama, Yusei; Kodama, Tadayuki; Tadaki, Ken-ichi; Hayashi, Masao; Tanaka, Ichi; Shimakawa, Rhythm

    2014-07-01

    We report the discovery of a strong over-density of galaxies in the field of a radio galaxy at z = 1.52 (4C 65.22) based on our broadband and narrow-band (Hα) photometry with the Subaru Telescope. We find that Hα emitters are located in the outskirts of the density peak (cluster core) dominated by passive red-sequence galaxies. This resembles the situation in lower-redshift clusters, suggesting that the newly discovered structure is a well-evolved rich galaxy cluster at z = 1.5. Our data suggest that the color-density and stellar mass-density relations are already in place at z ∼ 1.5, mostly driven by the passive red massive galaxies residing within r{sub c} ≲ 200 kpc from the cluster core. These environmental trends almost disappear when we consider only star-forming (SF) galaxies. We do not find SFR-density or SSFR-density relations amongst SF galaxies, and the location of the SF main sequence does not significantly change with environment. Nevertheless, we find a tentative hint that star-bursting galaxies (up-scattered objects from the main sequence) are preferentially located in a small group at ∼1 Mpc away from the main body of the cluster. We also argue that the scatter of the SF main sequence could be dependent on the distance to the nearest neighboring galaxy.

  12. Gaia-ESO Survey: Analysis of pre-main sequence stellar spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanzafame, A. C.; Frasca, A.; Damiani, F.; Franciosini, E.; Cottaar, M.; Sousa, S. G.; Tabernero, H. M.; Klutsch, A.; Spina, L.; Biazzo, K.; Prisinzano, L.; Sacco, G. G.; Randich, S.; Brugaletta, E.; Delgado Mena, E.; Adibekyan, V.; Montes, D.; Bonito, R.; Gameiro, J. F.; Alcalá, J. M.; González Hernández, J. I.; Jeffries, R.; Messina, S.; Meyer, M.; Gilmore, G.; Asplund, M.; Binney, J.; Bonifacio, P.; Drew, J. E.; Feltzing, S.; Ferguson, A. M. N.; Micela, G.; Negueruela, I.; Prusti, T.; Rix, H.-W.; Vallenari, A.; Alfaro, E. J.; Allende Prieto, C.; Babusiaux, C.; Bensby, T.; Blomme, R.; Bragaglia, A.; Flaccomio, E.; Francois, P.; Hambly, N.; Irwin, M.; Koposov, S. E.; Korn, A. J.; Smiljanic, R.; Van Eck, S.; Walton, N.; Bayo, A.; Bergemann, M.; Carraro, G.; Costado, M. T.; Edvardsson, B.; Heiter, U.; Hill, V.; Hourihane, A.; Jackson, R. J.; Jofré, P.; Lardo, C.; Lewis, J.; Lind, K.; Magrini, L.; Marconi, G.; Martayan, C.; Masseron, T.; Monaco, L.; Morbidelli, L.; Sbordone, L.; Worley, C. C.; Zaggia, S.

    2015-04-01

    Context. The Gaia-ESO Public Spectroscopic Survey is obtaining high-quality spectroscopy of some 100 000 Milky Way stars using the FLAMES spectrograph at the VLT, down to V = 19 mag, systematically covering all the main components of the Milky Way and providing the first homogeneous overview of the distributions of kinematics and chemical element abundances in the Galaxy. Observations of young open clusters, in particular, are giving new insights into their initial structure, kinematics, and their subsequent evolution. Aims: This paper describes the analysis of UVES and GIRAFFE spectra acquired in the fields of young clusters whose population includes pre-main sequence (PMS) stars. The analysis is applied to all stars in such fields, regardless of any prior information on membership, and provides fundamental stellar atmospheric parameters, elemental abundances, and PMS-specific parameters such as veiling, accretion, and chromospheric activity. Methods: When feasible, different methods were used to derive raw parameters (e.g. line equivalent widths) fundamental atmospheric parameters and derived parameters (e.g. abundances). To derive some of these parameters, we used methods that have been extensively used in the past and new ones developed in the context of the Gaia-ESO survey enterprise. The internal precision of these quantities was estimated by inter-comparing the results obtained by these different methods, while the accuracy was estimated by comparison with independent external data, such as effective temperature and surface gravity derived from angular diameter measurements, on a sample of benchmarks stars. A validation procedure based on these comparisons was applied to discard spurious or doubtful results and produce recommended parameters. Specific strategies were implemented to resolve problems of fast rotation, accretion signatures, chromospheric activity, and veiling. Results: The analysis carried out on spectra acquired in young cluster fields during

  13. VLT/X-shooter spectroscopy of massive pre-main-sequence stars in M17

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramirez-Tannus, Maria Claudia; Kaper, Lex

    2015-08-01

    The formation process of massive stars is still poorly understood. Formation timescales are short, the corresponding accretion rates very high, and the forming stars are hidden from view due to vast amounts of interstellar extinction. On top of that, massive stars are rare, are located at relatively large distances, and play a major role in shaping the interstellar medium due to their strong UV radiation fields and stellar winds. Although massive stars show most spectral features in the UV and optical range, so far only for a handful of massive Young Stellar Objects (mYSOs) optical and near-infrared spectra have been obtained. For some of these their pre-main-sequence (PMS) nature has now been firmly established (e.g. Ochsendorf et al. 2011, Ellerbroek et al. 2013). The objective of our project is to determine the physical properties of mYSOs, to search for signatures remnant of their formation process and to better understand the feedback on their environment.To this aim the optical to near-infrared (300-2500 nm) spectra of six candidate mYSOs (Hanson et al. 1997), deeply embedded in the massive star forming region M17, have been obtained with X-Shooter on the ESO Very Large Telescope. These mYSO candidates have been identified based on their infrared excess and spectral features (double-peaked emission lines, CO band-head emission) indicating the presence of a disk. In most cases, we detect a photospheric spectrum allowing us to measure the physical properties of the mYSO and to confirm its PMS nature. We also uncover many emission features, including forbidden lines, providing information on the (active) formation process of these young (massive) stars.

  14. THE QUADRUPLE PRE-MAIN-SEQUENCE SYSTEM LkCa 3: IMPLICATIONS FOR STELLAR EVOLUTION MODELS

    SciTech Connect

    Torres, Guillermo; Latham, David W.; Ruiz-Rodriguez, Dary; Prato, L.; Wasserman, Lawrence H.; Badenas, Mariona; Schaefer, G. H.; Mathieu, Robert D.

    2013-08-10

    We report the discovery that the pre-main-sequence (PMS) object LkCa 3 in the Taurus-Auriga star-forming region is a hierarchical quadruple system of M stars. It was previously known to be a close ({approx}0.''5) visual pair, with one component being a moderately eccentric 12.94 day single-lined spectroscopic binary. A re-analysis of archival optical spectra complemented by new near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy shows both visual components to be double lined; the second one has a period of 4.06 days and a circular orbit. In addition to the orbital elements, we determine optical and NIR flux ratios, effective temperatures, and projected rotational velocities for all four stars. Using existing photometric monitoring observations of the system that had previously revealed the rotational period of the primary in the longer-period binary, we also detect the rotational signal of the primary in the 4.06 day binary, which is synchronized with the orbital motion. With only the assumption of coevality, a comparison of all of these constraints with current stellar evolution models from the Dartmouth series points to an age of 1.4 Myr and a distance of 133 pc, consistent with previous estimates for the region and suggesting that the system is on the near side of the Taurus complex. Similar comparisons of the properties of LkCa 3 and the well-known quadruple PMS system GG Tau with the widely used models from the Lyon series for a mixing length parameter of {alpha}{sub ML} = 1.0 strongly favor the Dartmouth models.

  15. Mid-IR observations of circumstellar disks. I. Pre-main sequence objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schütz, O.; Meeus, G.; Sterzik, M. F.

    2005-02-01

    We present new N-band photometry and spectroscopy for a sample of eight pre-main sequence stars including T Tauri, Herbig Ae/Be stars and FU Ori objects using the ESO TIMMI2 camera at the La Silla observatory (Chile). For some objects this is their first N-band spectroscopic observation ever. The FU Ori stars V 346 Nor, V 883 Ori and Z CMa show a broad absorption band which we attribute to silicates, while for BBW 76 we find silicate emission. A comparison with ISO-SWS spectra of V 346 Nor and Z CMa taken in 1996/1997 reveals no differences in spectral shape. All T Tauri and Herbig Ae/Be stars possess N-band emission features. We model the emission spectra with a mixture of silicates consisting of different grain sizes and composition. The Herbig Ae star HD 34282 shows strong features of PAHs but none of silicate, while the emission spectrum of the Herbig Ae star HD 72106 resembles those of solar-system comets and known Herbig sources of evolved dust. We demonstrate that HD 72106 is host to highly processed silicates and find evidence for enstatite, which is not common in young objects. Evolved dust is also seen in the T Tauri stars HD 98800 and MP Mus. We further detected MP Mus at 1200 μm with the bolometer array SIMBA at the SEST in La Silla. The findings of our analysis are given in the context of previous dust studies of young stellar objects. Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, La Silla, Chile (69.C-0073, 70.C-0468, 71.C-0001, 73.C-0372).

  16. Evidence for prolonged main sequence stellar evolution of F stars in close binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suchkov, A. A.

    2001-04-01

    Binary F stars exhibit large brightness anomaly, which is defined here as the difference between the absolute magnitude from the \\mboxuvby photometry and the actual absolute magnitude of the star. We have found that the anomaly inversely correlates with the binary components separation. There is evidence that the correlation reflects actual population differences between close and wide binary pairs, in which case it indicates that the anomaly is somehow associated with the interaction of binary's components. The anomaly has also been found to correlate with both kinematics and metallicity. The sense of the correlations implies that the anomaly increases as the star evolves, suggesting a peculiar evolution of a primary F star in a tight binary pair. This conclusion has further been supported by the study of the age-velocity relation (AVR) of F stars that are cataloged in the HIPPARCOS as single. Among these stars, those with brightness anomaly were previously shown to be most likely unidentified close binaries. We have found that the AVR of these binary candidates is different from that of the ``truly single'' F stars. The discrepancy between the two AVRs indicates that the putative binaries are, on average, older than similar normal single F stars at the same effective temperature and luminosity, which is consistent with the inferred peculiar evolution in close binaries. It appears that this peculiarity is caused by the impact of the components interaction in a tight pair on stellar evolution, which results in the prolonged main sequence lifetime of the primary F star. Based on the data from the Hipparcos astrometry satellite (European Space Agency).

  17. EXTENDED MAGNETOSPHERES IN PRE-MAIN-SEQUENCE EVOLUTION: FROM T TAURI STARS TO THE BROWN DWARF LIMIT

    SciTech Connect

    Gomez de Castro, Ana I.; Marcos-Arenal, Pablo

    2012-04-20

    Low-mass pre-main-sequence stars, i.e., T Tauri stars (TTSs), strongly radiate at high energies, from X-rays to the ultraviolet (UV). This excess radiation with respect to main-sequence cool stars (MSCSs) is associated with the accretion process, i.e., it is produced in the extended magnetospheres, in the accretion shocks on the stellar surface, and in the outflows. Although evidence of accretion shocks and outflow contribution to the high-energy excess have been recently addressed, there is not an updated revision of the magnetospheric contribution. This article addresses this issue. The UV observations of the TTSs in the well-known Taurus region have been analyzed together with the XMM-Newton observations compiled in the XEST survey. For the first time the high sensitivity of the Hubble Space Telescope UV instrumentation has allowed measurement of the UV line fluxes of TTSs to M8 type. UV- and X-ray-normalized fluxes have been determined to study the extent and properties of the TTS magnetospheres as a class. They have been compared with the atmospheres of the MSCSs. The main results from this analysis are (1) the normalized fluxes of all the tracers are correlated; this correlation is independent of the broad mass range and the hardness of the X-ray radiation field; (2) the TTS correlations are different than the MSCS correlations; (3) there is a very significant excess emission in O I in the TTSs compared with MSCSs that seems to be caused by recombination radiation from the disk atmosphere after photoionization by extreme UV radiation; the Fe II/Mg II recombination continuum has also been detected in several TTSs and most prominently in AA Tau; and (4) the normalized flux of the UV tracers anticorrelates with the strength of the X-ray flux, i.e., the stronger the X-ray surface flux is, the weaker the observed UV flux. This last behavior is counterintuitive within the framework of stellar dynamo theory and suggests that UV emission can be produced in the

  18. Evidence for a Significant Intermediate-Age Population in the M31 Halo from Main Sequence Photometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Thomas M.; Ferguson, Henry C.; Smith, Ed; Kimble, Randy A.; Sweigart, Allen V.; Renzini, Alvio; Rich, R. Michael; Vandenberg, Don A.

    2003-01-01

    We present a color-magnitude diagram (CMD) for a minor-axis field in the halo of the Andromeda galaxy (M3l), 51 arcmin (11 kpc) from the nucleus. These observations, taken with the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) on the Hubble Space Telescope, are the deepest optical images yet obtained, attaining 50% completeness at m(sub v) = 30.7 mag. The CMD, constructed from approx. 3 x 10(exp 5) stars, reaches more than 1.5 mag fainter than the old main-sequence turnoff. Our analysis is based on direct comparisons to ACS observations of four globular clusters through the same filters, as well as chi square fitting to a finely-spaced grid of calibrated stellar-population models. We find that the M31 halo contains a major (approx. 30% by mass) intermediate-age (6-8 Gyr) metal-rich ([Fe/H] greater than -0.5) population, as well as a significant globular-cluster age (11-13.5 Gyr) metal-poor population. These findings support the idea that galaxy mergers played an important role in the formation of the M31 halo.

  19. White-dwarf + main-sequence binaries identified from the ninth data release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Lifang; Zhang, Fenghui; Han, Quanwang; Kong, Xiaoyang; Gong, Xiaobo

    2014-12-01

    We have identified 227 new spectroscopic white-dwarf + main-sequence (WDMS) binaries from the ninth data release (DR9) of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). The SDSS spectra of the newly found WDMS binaries with a DA white dwarf and an M-dwarf are analysed based on a spectral decomposition/fitting method. We obtain the effective temperatures, surface gravities and masses of the white dwarf, together with the spectral types and metallicities of the secondary star. Two independent distance estimates are derived from the flux-scaling factors between the WDMS SDSS spectra and the white dwarf and M-dwarf model spectra. We find that about 25 per cent of the newly found WDMS binaries show a significant discrepancy between the two distance estimates. This might be caused by the effects of M-dwarf stellar activity or irradiation of the M-dwarf companions by the white dwarf. The stellar parameter distributions are used to investigate the global properties of the newly found WDMS binaries. We find that the WDMS binaries with a low signal-to-noise ratio (S/N ≤ 4.0) usually have a massive DA white dwarf component with a higher surface gravity, and the metallicity is usually significantly different from solar. This suggests that the observational selection effects and the spectral S/N of the WDMS binaries have a significant influence on the determinations of these physical parameters of WDMS binaries.

  20. The SDSS spectroscopic catalogue of white dwarf-main-sequence binaries: new identifications from DR 9-12

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rebassa-Mansergas, A.; Ren, J. J.; Parsons, S. G.; Gänsicke, B. T.; Schreiber, M. R.; García-Berro, E.; Liu, X.-W.; Koester, D.

    2016-06-01

    We present an updated version of the spectroscopic catalogue of white dwarf-main-sequence (WDMS) binaries from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). We identify 938 WDMS binaries within the data releases (DR) 9-12 of SDSS plus 40 objects from DR 1-8 that we missed in our previous works, 646 of which are new. The total number of spectroscopic SDSS WDMS binaries increases to 3294. This is by far the largest and most homogeneous sample of compact binaries currently available. We use a decomposition/fitting routine to derive the stellar parameters of all systems identified here (white dwarf effective temperatures, surface gravities and masses, and secondary star spectral types). The analysis of the corresponding stellar parameter distributions shows that the SDSS WDMS binary population is seriously affected by selection effects. We also measure the Na I λλ 8183.27, 8194.81 absorption doublet and H α emission radial velocities (RV) from all SDSS WDMS binary spectra identified in this work. 98 objects are found to display RV variations, 62 of which are new. The RV data are sufficient enough to estimate the orbital periods of three close binaries.

  1. A Wide Angle Survey of Young Stellar Associations for Hot Jupiters and Pre-Main Sequence Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oelkers, Ryan J.; Macri, Lucas M.; Marshall, Jennifer L.; Depoy, Darren L.; Garcia Lambas, Diego

    2016-01-01

    The past two decades have seen a significant advancement in the detection, classification and understanding of exoplanets and binary star systems. The vast majority of these systems consist of objects on the main sequence or the giant branch, leading to a dearth of knowledge of properties at early times (<50 Myr). Only a dozen binaries and 1 possible transiting Hot Jupiter are known among pre-main sequence objects, yet these are the systems that can provide the best constraints on stellar formation and planetary migration models. The deficiency in the number of well characterized systems is driven by the inherent and aperiodic variability found in pre-main sequence objects which can mask and mimic eclipse signals. Nevertheless a dramatic increase in the total number of systems at early times is required to alleviate the conflict between theory and observation. I have recently completed a photometric survey of 3 nearby (<150 pc) and young (<50 Myr) moving groups with a small aperture telescope. I have discovered over 300 likely pre-main sequence binaries and have ruled out 7 possible transiting Hot Jupiters using techniques developed by reducing crowded, defocused images from an analogous system. I will present the photometric detection and follow-up for these systems, the spectroscopic measurements of pre-main sequence binary candidates and my lower bound on the Hot Jupiter migration timescale.

  2. Long-term evolution of three-planet systems to the post-main sequence and beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mustill, Alexander J.; Veras, Dimitri; Villaver, Eva

    2014-01-01

    We study the stability of systems of three giant planets orbiting 3-8 M⊙ stars at orbital distances of >10 au as the host star ages through the main sequence (MS) and well into the white dwarf (WD) stage. Systems are stable on the MS if the planets are separated by more than ˜9 Hill radii. Most systems surviving the MS will remain stable until the WD phase, although planets scattered on to small pericentres in unstable systems can be swallowed by the expanding stellar envelope when the star ascends the giant branches. Mass-loss at the end of the asymptotic giant branch triggers delayed instability in many systems, leading to instabilities typically occurring at WD cooling ages of a few 100 Myr. This instability occurs both in systems that survived the star's previous evolution unscathed, and in systems that previously underwent scattering instabilities. The outcome of such instability around WDs is overwhelmingly the ejection of one of the planets from the system, with several times more ejections occurring during the WD phase than during the MS. Furthermore, few planets are scattered close to the WD, just outside the Roche limit, where they can be tidally circularized. Hence, we predict that planets in WD systems rarely dynamically evolve to become `hot Jupiters'. Nor does it appear that the observed frequency of metal pollution in WD atmospheres can be entirely explained by planetesimals being destabilized following instability in systems of multiple giant planets, although further work incorporating low-mass planets and planetesimals is needed.

  3. Time-series Photometry of the Pre-Main Sequence Binary V4046 Sgr: Testing the Accretion Stream Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tofflemire, Benjamin M.; Mathieu, Robert D.; Ardila, David R.; Ciardi, David R.

    2015-01-01

    Most stars are born in binaries, and the evolution of protostellar disks in pre-main sequence (PMS) binary stars is a current frontier of star formation research. PMS binary stars can have up to three accretion disks: two circumstellar disks and a circumbinary disk separated by a dynamically cleared gap. Theory suggests that mass may periodically flow in an accretion stream from a circumbinary disk across the gap onto circumstellar disks or stellar surfaces. Thus, accretion in PMS binaries is controlled by not only radiation, disk viscosity, and magnetic fields, but also by orbital dynamics.As part of a larger, ongoing effort to characterize mass accretion in young binary systems, we test the predictions of the binary accretion stream theory through continuous, multi-orbit, multi-color optical and near-infrared (NIR) time-series photometry. Observations such as these are capable of detecting and characterizing these modulated accretion streams, if they are generally present. Broad-band blue and ultraviolet photometry trace the accretion luminosity and photospheric temperature while NIR photometry provide a measurement of warm circumstellar material, all as a function of orbital phase. The predicted phase and magnitude of enhanced accretion are highly dependent on the binary orbital parameters and as such, our campaign focuses on 10 PMS binaries of varying periods and eccentricities. Here we present multi-color optical (U, B,V, R), narrowband (Hα), and multi-color NIR (J, H) lightcurves of the PMS binary V4046 Sgr (P=2.42 days) obtained with the SMARTS 1.3m telescope and LCOGT 1m telescope network. These results act to showcase the quality and breadth of data we have, or are currently obtaining, for each of the PMS binaries in our sample. With the full characterization of our sample, these observations will guide an extension of the accretion paradigm from single young stars to multiple systems.

  4. Circularization and synchronization times in the main sequence of detached eclipsing binaries.I. Using the formalism by Tassoul.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Claret, A.; Gimenez, A.; Cunha, N. C. S.

    1995-07-01

    We have studied a sample of selected eclipsing binaries with eccentric orbits and accurate absolute dimensions in order to analyse the validity of available theories of tidal evolution concerning synchronization and circularization time scales. In the present investigation we pay special attention to stars with radiative envelopes though some stars with outer layers in convective equilibrium have been included to show different aspects of tidal evolution. In the present paper, we have adopted for the comparison with observational parameters, the tidal theory by Tasssoul (1987, 1988). The formalism introduced by Zahn (1977, 1989) will be the subject of a separate paper. The critical values of the age, log g and R for circularization and synchronization have been computed using a set of stellar models which include recent opacity libraries, core overshooting and mass loss. These values can be computed as a function of the orbital period for different masses. In this way, it is relatively simple to compare them with observational values and, therefore, to analyse the behaviour of parameters which indicate the actual situation, namely, the eccentricity and the rotational velocities. The comparison of observed rotational velocities with expected values for each binary system configuration has shown that nearly all systems in our sample are actually pseudo-synchronized with their orbital periods (i.e. with the fastest orbital velocity in eccentric systems) in good agreement with theoretical predictions. These results, however, should be taken with some caution since the rotation of the stellar interior may be decoupled from that of the surface layers. With respect to circularization, a cutoff value around log t=log t_cri_(or log g_obs_=log g_cri_) shows a satisfactory agreement for observational values of the eccentricity. Furthermore, we concluded that the circularization process is still active during the main sequence stage for early-type binaries.

  5. KEPLER-4b: A HOT NEPTUNE-LIKE PLANET OF A G0 STAR NEAR MAIN-SEQUENCE TURNOFF

    SciTech Connect

    Borucki, William J.; Koch, David G.; Caldwell, Douglas A.; Jenkins, Jon M.; Lissauer, Jack J.; Rowe, Jason F.; Basri, Gibor; Marcy, Geoffrey W.; Batalha, Natalie M.; Cochran, William D.; Dunham, Edward W.; Gautier, Thomas N.; Gilliland, Ronald L.; Howell, Steve B.; Monet, David

    2010-04-20

    Early time-series photometry from NASA's Kepler spacecraft has revealed a planet transiting the star we term Kepler-4, at R.A. = 19{sup h}02{sup m}27.{sup s}68, {delta} = +50{sup 0}08'08.''7. The planet has an orbital period of 3.213 days and shows transits with a relative depth of 0.87 x 10{sup -3} and a duration of about 3.95 hr. Radial velocity (RV) measurements from the Keck High Resolution Echelle Spectrometer show a reflex Doppler signal of 9.3{sup +1.1} {sub -1.9} m s{sup -1}, consistent with a low-eccentricity orbit with the phase expected from the transits. Various tests show no evidence for any companion star near enough to affect the light curve or the RVs for this system. From a transit-based estimate of the host star's mean density, combined with analysis of high-resolution spectra, we infer that the host star is near turnoff from the main sequence, with estimated mass and radius of 1.223{sup +0.053} {sub -0.091} M {sub sun} and 1.487{sup +0.071} {sub -0.084} R {sub sun}. We estimate the planet mass and radius to be {l_brace}M {sub P}, R {sub P}{r_brace} = {l_brace}24.5 {+-} 3.8 M {sub +}, 3.99 {+-} 0.21 R {sub +}{r_brace}. The planet's density is near 1.9 g cm{sup -3}; it is thus slightly denser and more massive than Neptune, but about the same size.

  6. A Wide Angle Search for Hot Jupiters and Pre-Main Sequence Binaries in Young Stellar Associations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oelkers, Ryan J.; Macri, Lucas M.; Marshall, Jennifer L.; Depoy, Darren L.; Colazo, Carlos; Guzzo, Pablo; Lambas, Diego G.; Quiñones, Ceci; Stringer, Katelyn; Tapia, Luis; Wisdom, Colin

    2016-01-01

    The past two decades have seen a significant advancement in the detection, classification and understanding of exoplanets and binary star systems. The vast majority of these systems consist of stars on the main sequence or on the giant branch, leading to a dearth of knowledge of properties at early times (<50 Myr). Only one transiting planet candidate and a dozen eclipsing binaries are known among pre-main sequence objects, yet these are the systems that can provide the best constraints on stellar and planetary formation models. We have recently completed a photometric survey of 3 young (<50 Myr), nearby (D<150 pc) moving groups with a small-aperture instrument, nicknamed ``AggieCam''. We detected 7 candidate Hot Jupiters and over 200 likely pre-main sequence binaries, which are now being followed up photometrically and spectroscopically.

  7. A Planet in an 840 Day Orbit around a Kepler Main-sequence A Star Found from Phase Modulation of Its Pulsations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, Simon J.; Bedding, Timothy R.; Shibahashi, Hiromoto

    2016-08-01

    We have detected a 12 M {}{Jup} planet orbiting in or near the habitable zone of a main-sequence A star via the pulsational phase shifts induced by orbital motion. The planet has an orbital period of 840 ± 20 days and an eccentricity of 0.15. All known planets orbiting main-sequence A stars have been found via the transit method or by direct imaging. The absence of astrometric or radial velocity detections of planets around these hosts makes ours the first discovery using the orbital motion. It is also the first A star known to host a planet within 1σ of the habitable zone. We find evidence for planets in a large fraction of the parameter space where we are able to detect them. This supports the idea that A stars harbor high-mass planets in wide orbits.

  8. Convection in the atmospheres and envelopes of Pre-Main Sequence stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montalbán, J.; D'Antona, F.; Kupka, F.; Heiter, U.

    2004-03-01

    The Teff location of Pre-Main Sequence (PMS) evolutionary tracks depends on the treatment of over-adiabaticity (D'Antona & Mazzitelli \\cite{Antona1994}, \\cite{Antona1998}). Since the convection penetrates into the stellar atmosphere, also the treatment of convection in the modeling of stellar atmospheres will affect the location of the Hayashi tracks. In this paper we present new non-grey PMS tracks for Teff,>4000 K. We compute several grids of evolutionary tracks varying: i) the treatment of convection: either the Mixing Length Theory (MLT) or Canuto et al. (\\cite{Canuto1996e}, CGM) formulation of a Full Spectrum of Turbulence; ii) the atmospheric boundary conditions: we use the new Vienna grids of ATLAS9 atmospheres (Heiter et al. \\cite{Heiter2002a}), which were computed using either MLT (with α=Λ/Hp=0.5) or CGM treatments. For comparison, we also compute grids of models with the NextGen (Allard & Hauschildt \\cite{Allard1997}, AH97) atmosphere models, and a 1 {M⊙} grey MLT evolutionary track using the α calibration based on 2D-hydrodynamical models (Ludwig et al. \\cite{Ludwig1999}). These different grids of models allow us to analyze the effects of convection modeling on the non-grey PMS evolutionary tracks. We disentangle the effect of the wavelength dependent opacity on a self-consistent treatment of convection in the atmosphere from the role of the convection model itself in the atmosphere and in the interior. While for some parts of the HR diagram (e.g., A stars) a low efficiency of atmospheric convection is clearly indicated by the data, for others the evidence is conflicting, showing the weaknesses of all the presently adopted local convection models. Nevertheless, the assumption of a low photospheric efficiency permits us to reproduce a larger amount of data and we have hence restricted our study to this case and draw the following conclusions for it: i) in spite of the solar calibration, if MLT convection is adopted a large uncertainty results

  9. Monte Carlo Simulations of the Post-Common-Envelope White-Dwarf Main-Sequence Binary Population

    SciTech Connect

    Camacho, Judit; Torres, Santiago; Garcia-Berro, Enrique; Schreiber, Matthias R.

    2010-12-22

    We present a detailed Monte Carlo simulator of the population of binary systems within the solar neighborhood. We have used the most up-to-date stellar evolutionary models, a complete treatment of the Roche lobe overflow episode, as well as a full implementation of the orbital evolution of the binary system. Preliminary results are presented for the population of white-dwarf main-sequence binaries, resulting from a common envelope episode. We also study the role played by the binding energy parameter, {lambda}, and by the common envelope efficiency, {alpha}{sub CE}. Finally, results are compared with the population of identified white-dwarf main-sequence binaries.

  10. Does the upper main sequence extend across the whole H-R diagram. [radiative opacities of stellar evolution models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stothers, R.; Chin, C.-W.

    1977-01-01

    The effect of using Carson's (1976) radiative opacities in evolutionary sequences of stellar models has been studied over the mass range from 7 to 60 solar masses. The opacities are very large in the outer part of the envelope and induce such enormous radii for masses greater than about 30 solar masses for a heavy-element fraction of 0.02 or about 20 solar masses for a heavy-element fraction of 0.04 that the evolutionary tracks during the phase of core hydrogen burning extend across the whole H-R diagram. The choice of the Schwarschild or Ledoux criterion for convection makes very little difference for the behavior of the tracks. Evolution through the effective-temperature range (in logarithms) of 3.6 to 4.0 occurs in all cases on a rapid (secular) time scale. Core helium burning takes place exclusively in the red-supergiant configuration for stellar masses exceeding 8 solar masses (heavy-element fraction of 0.02) or 6 solar masses (heavy-element fraction of 0.04). These stellar models seem to be in significantly better agreement with the observed distribution of bright stars on the H-R diagram than are the older models based on the Cox-Stewart opacities. It can be inferred that a large envelope opacity (e.g., Carson's) exists and that substantial mass loss takes place in very massive late-type supergiants.

  11. Full validation of therapeutic antibody sequences by middle-up mass measurements and middle-down protein sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Resemann, Anja; Jabs, Wolfgang; Wiechmann, Anja; Wagner, Elsa; Colas, Olivier; Evers, Waltraud; Belau, Eckhard; Vorwerg, Lars; Evans, Catherine; Beck, Alain; Suckau, Detlev

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The regulatory bodies request full sequence data assessment both for innovator and biosimilar monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). Full sequence coverage is typically used to verify the integrity of the analytical data obtained following the combination of multiple LC-MS/MS datasets from orthogonal protease digests (so called “bottom-up” approaches). Top-down or middle-down mass spectrometric approaches have the potential to minimize artifacts, reduce overall analysis time and provide orthogonality to this traditional approach. In this work we report a new combined approach involving middle-up LC-QTOF and middle-down LC-MALDI in-source decay (ISD) mass spectrometry. This was applied to cetuximab, panitumumab and natalizumab, selected as representative US Food and Drug Administration- and European Medicines Agency-approved mAbs. The goal was to unambiguously confirm their reference sequences and examine the general applicability of this approach. Furthermore, a new measure for assessing the integrity and validity of results from middle-down approaches is introduced – the “Sequence Validation Percentage.” Full sequence data assessment of the 3 antibodies was achieved enabling all 3 sequences to be fully validated by a combination of middle-up molecular weight determination and middle-down protein sequencing. Three errors in the reference amino acid sequence of natalizumab, causing a cumulative mass shift of only −2 Da in the natalizumab Fd domain, were corrected as a result of this work. PMID:26760197

  12. Full validation of therapeutic antibody sequences by middle-up mass measurements and middle-down protein sequencing.

    PubMed

    Resemann, Anja; Jabs, Wolfgang; Wiechmann, Anja; Wagner, Elsa; Colas, Olivier; Evers, Waltraud; Belau, Eckhard; Vorwerg, Lars; Evans, Catherine; Beck, Alain; Suckau, Detlev

    2016-01-01

    The regulatory bodies request full sequence data assessment both for innovator and biosimilar monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). Full sequence coverage is typically used to verify the integrity of the analytical data obtained following the combination of multiple LC-MS/MS datasets from orthogonal protease digests (so called "bottom-up" approaches). Top-down or middle-down mass spectrometric approaches have the potential to minimize artifacts, reduce overall analysis time and provide orthogonality to this traditional approach. In this work we report a new combined approach involving middle-up LC-QTOF and middle-down LC-MALDI in-source decay (ISD) mass spectrometry. This was applied to cetuximab, panitumumab and natalizumab, selected as representative US Food and Drug Administration- and European Medicines Agency-approved mAbs. The goal was to unambiguously confirm their reference sequences and examine the general applicability of this approach. Furthermore, a new measure for assessing the integrity and validity of results from middle-down approaches is introduced - the "Sequence Validation Percentage." Full sequence data assessment of the 3 antibodies was achieved enabling all 3 sequences to be fully validated by a combination of middle-up molecular weight determination and middle-down protein sequencing. Three errors in the reference amino acid sequence of natalizumab, causing a cumulative mass shift of only -2 Da in the natalizumab Fd domain, were corrected as a result of this work. PMID:26760197

  13. A detailed study of the main sequence of the globular cluster NGC 6397: can we derive constraints on the existence of multiple populations?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Criscienzo, M.; D'Antona, F.; Ventura, P.

    2010-02-01

    Context. Globular clusters can no longer be regarded as examples of “simple stellar populations” as all those so far examined contain an important fraction of “second generation” stars, in which the light elements are processed through the hot CNO cycle, and helium variations may be present. Clusters apparently “simple” contain a majority of second generation stars. Aims: If NGC 6397 contains a large fraction of “second generation” stars (>70% according to recent analysis), the helium abundance of its stars might also be affected, show some star-to-star variation, and be larger than the standard Big Bang abundance Y ˜ 0.24. Can we derive constraints on this issue from the analysis of the main sequence width and from its luminosity function? Methods: We build up new models for the turnoff masses and the main sequence down to the hydrogen burning minimum mass, adopting two versions of an updated equation of state (EOS) including the OPAL EOS. Models consider different initial helium and CNO abundances to cover the range of possible variations between the first and second generation stars. We compare the models with the observational main sequence. We also make simulations of the theoretical luminosity function, for different choices of the mass function and of the mixture of first and second generation stars and compare them with the observed luminosity function by means of the Kolmogorov Smirnov - KS-test. Results: The new models for very low mass stars compare well with previous models and show that the OPAL EOS is a good description in all the region of temperature and densities of very low mass stars for which it is computable. The analysis of the main sequence width shows that any helium variation must be confined within Δ Y ~ 0.02 in the case of a CNO increase as suggested by literature, and we discuss the consequent implications for the model of self-enrichment. We also show that the KS test on the luminosity functions allows us to derive a

  14. Chandra Spectroscopy of the Hot Star Beta Cru and the Discovery of a Pre-Main Sequence Companion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhn, Michael A.; Cohen, D. H.; Jensen, E. L.; Gagne, M.

    2006-12-01

    Using a 75 ks Chandra grating observation, we have studied x-ray emission from the B0.5 III star beta Cru one of the four bright stars in the Southern Cross and a newly discovered companion. The companion is separated from beta Cru by 4" and it has about 3 times fewer x-ray counts. The flux contrast must be much greater in the optical, though, or the companion would have been discovered earlier. The system is a member of the Sco-Cen association, and is estimated to be 8 to 11 million years old; old enough for the B star primary to have evolved off the main sequence, but young enough that a coeval, late-type companion would still be descending to the main sequence. We marginally resolved individual line profiles of the primary in the grating spectra. The lines show slight broadening, suggesting an origin in a slow stellar wind rather than a corona. The secondary has a harder spectral energy distribution (temperatures > 20 million K) than the primary (< 4 million K), making it a probable pre-main-sequence star. The secondary is also more variable than the primary, consistent with the x-ray flaring seen in pre-main-sequence stars. We acknowledge grants GO2-3030A and AR5-6003X to Swarthmore College from the Chandra X-ray Center at the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, and also support from Swarthmore College via a Eugene M. Lang Summer Research Fellowship.

  15. A Wide-field Survey for Transiting Hot Jupiters and Eclipsing Pre-main-sequence Binaries in Young Stellar Associations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oelkers, Ryan J.; Macri, Lucas M.; Marshall, Jennifer L.; DePoy, Darren L.; Lambas, Diego G.; Colazo, Carlos; Stringer, Katelyn

    2016-09-01

    The past two decades have seen a significant advancement in the detection, classification, and understanding of exoplanets and binaries. This is due, in large part, to the increase in use of small-aperture telescopes (<20 cm) to survey large areas of the sky to milli-mag precision with rapid cadence. The vast majority of the planetary and binary systems studied to date consists of main-sequence or evolved objects, leading to a dearth of knowledge of properties at early times (<50 Myr). Only a dozen binaries and one candidate transiting Hot Jupiter are known among pre-main-sequence objects, yet these are the systems that can provide the best constraints on stellar formation and planetary migration models. The deficiency in the number of well characterized systems is driven by the inherent and aperiodic variability found in pre-main-sequence objects, which can mask and mimic eclipse signals. Hence, a dramatic increase in the number of young systems with high-quality observations is highly desirable to guide further theoretical developments. We have recently completed a photometric survey of three nearby (<150 pc) and young (<50 Myr) moving groups with a small-aperture telescope. While our survey reached the requisite photometric precision, the temporal coverage was insufficient to detect Hot Jupiters. Nevertheless, we discovered 346 pre-main-sequence binary candidates, including 74 high-priority objects for further study. This paper includes data taken at The McDonald Observatory of The University of Texas at Austin.

  16. The dot{M}-M_* relation of pre-main-sequence stars: a consequence of X-ray driven disc evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ercolano, B.; Mayr, D.; Owen, J. E.; Rosotti, G.; Manara, C. F.

    2014-03-01

    We analyse current measurements of accretion rates on to pre-main-sequence stars as a function of stellar mass, and conclude that the steep dependence of accretion rates on stellar mass is real and not driven by selection/detection threshold, as has been previously feared. These conclusions are reached by means of statistical tests including a survival analysis which can account for upper limits. The power-law slope of the dot{M}-M_* relation is found to be in the range of 1.6-1.9 for young stars with masses lower than 1 M⊙. The measured slopes and distributions can be easily reproduced by means of a simple disc model which includes viscous accretion and X-ray photoevaporation. We conclude that the dot{M}-M_* relation in pre-main-sequence stars bears the signature of disc dispersal by X-ray photoevaporation, suggesting that the relation is a straightforward consequence of disc physics rather than an imprint of initial conditions.

  17. The confinement of star-forming galaxies into a main sequence through episodes of gas compaction, depletion and replenishment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tacchella, Sandro; Dekel, Avishai; Carollo, C. Marcella; Ceverino, Daniel; DeGraf, Colin; Lapiner, Sharon; Mandelker, Nir; Primack Joel, R.

    2016-04-01

    Using cosmological simulations, we address the properties of high-redshift star-forming galaxies (SFGs) across their main sequence (MS) in the plane of star formation rate (SFR) versus stellar mass. We relate them to the evolution of galaxies through phases of gas compaction, depletion, possible replenishment, and eventual quenching. We find that the high-SFR galaxies in the upper envelope of the MS are compact, with high gas fractions and short depletion times (`blue nuggets'), while the lower SFR galaxies in the lower envelope have lower central gas densities, lower gas fractions, and longer depletion times, consistent with observed gradients across the MS. Stellar-structure gradients are negligible. The SFGs oscillate about the MS ridge on time-scales ˜0.4tHubble (˜1 Gyr at z ˜ 3). The propagation upwards is due to gas compaction, triggered, e.g. by mergers, counter-rotating streams, and/or violent disc instabilities. The downturn at the upper envelope is due to central gas depletion by peak star formation and outflows while inflow from the shrunken gas disc is suppressed. An upturn at the lower envelope can occur once the extended disc has been replenished by fresh gas and a new compaction can be triggered, namely as long as the replenishment time is shorter than the depletion time. The mechanisms of gas compaction, depletion, and replenishment confine the SFGs to the narrow (±0.3 dex) MS. Full quenching occurs in massive haloes (Mvir > 1011.5 M⊙) and/or at low redshifts (z < 3), where the replenishment time is long compared to the depletion time, explaining the observed bending down of the MS at the massive end.

  18. On the interpretation of sub-giant branch morphologies of intermediate-age star clusters with extended main sequence turnoffs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goudfrooij, Paul; Girardi, Léo; Rosenfield, Philip; Bressan, Alessandro; Marigo, Paola; Correnti, Matteo; Puzia, Thomas H.

    2015-06-01

    High-quality photometry of many star clusters in the Magellanic Clouds with ages of 1-2 Gyr revealed main sequence turnoffs (MSTOs) that are significantly wider than can be accounted for by a simple stellar population (SSP). Such extended MSTOs (eMSTOs) are often interpreted in terms of an age spread of several 108 yr, challenging the traditional view of star clusters as being formed in a single star formation episode. Li et al. and Bastian & Niederhofer recently investigated the sub-giant branches (SGBs) of NGC 1651, NGC 1806, and NGC 1846, three star clusters in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) that exhibit an eMSTO. They argued that the SGB of these star clusters can be explained only by an SSP. We study these and two other similar star clusters in the LMC, using extensive simulations of SSPs including unresolved binaries. We find that the shapes of the cross-SGB profiles of all star clusters in our sample are in fact consistent with their cross-MSTO profiles when the latter are interpreted as age distributions. Conversely, SGB morphologies of star clusters with eMSTOs are found to be inconsistent with those of simulated SSPs. Finally, we create PARSEC isochrones from tracks featuring a grid of convective overshoot levels and a very fine grid of stellar masses. A comparison of the observed photometry with these isochrones shows that the morphology of the red clump (RC) of such star clusters is also consistent with that implied by their MSTO in the age spread scenario. We conclude that the SGB and RC morphologies of star clusters featuring eMSTOs are consistent with the scenario in which the eMSTOs are caused by a distribution of stellar ages.

  19. Persistent Sub-Yearly Chromospheric Variations in Lower Main-Sequence Stars: Tau Booe and alpha Com

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maulik, Davesh; Donahue, Robert A.; Baliunas, Sallie L.

    1997-01-01

    The recent discoveries of extrasolar planetary systems around lower main-sequence stars such as tau Booe (HD 120136) has prompted further investigation into their stellar activity. A cursory analysis of tau Booe for cyclic chromospheric activity, based on its 30-yr record of Ca 2 H and K fluxes obtained as part of the HK Project from Mount Wilson Observatory, finds an intermediate, sub-yearly period (approximately 117 d) in chromospheric activity in addition to, and separate from, both its rotation (3.3 d) and long-term variability. As a persistent subyearly period in surface magnetic activity is unprecedented, we investigate this apparent anomaly further by examining chromospheric activity levels of other stars with similar mass, searching for variability in chromospheric activity with periods of less than one year, but longer than measured or predicted rotation. An examination of the time series of 40 mid-to-late F dwarfs yielded one other star for further analysis: alpha Com (HD 114378, P approximately 132 d). The variations for these two stars were checked for persistence and coherence. Based on these determinations, we eliminate the possibilities of rotation, long-term activity cycle, and the evolution of active regions as the cause of this variation in both stars. In particular, for tau Booe we infer that the phenomenon may be chromospheric in origin; however, beyond this, it is difficult to identify anything further regarding the cause of the activity variations, or even whether the observed modulation in the two stars have the same origin.

  20. Protein sequences from mastodon and Tyrannosaurus rex revealed by mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Asara, John M; Schweitzer, Mary H; Freimark, Lisa M; Phillips, Matthew; Cantley, Lewis C

    2007-04-13

    Fossilized bones from extinct taxa harbor the potential for obtaining protein or DNA sequences that could reveal evolutionary links to extant species. We used mass spectrometry to obtain protein sequences from bones of a 160,000- to 600,000-year-old extinct mastodon (Mammut americanum) and a 68-million-year-old dinosaur (Tyrannosaurus rex). The presence of T. rex sequences indicates that their peptide bonds were remarkably stable. Mass spectrometry can thus be used to determine unique sequences from ancient organisms from peptide fragmentation patterns, a valuable tool to study the evolution and adaptation of ancient taxa from which genomic sequences are unlikely to be obtained. PMID:17431180

  1. A Semiconductor Chip-Based Next Generation Sequencing Procedure for the Main Pulmonary Hypertension Genes.

    PubMed

    Gómez, Juan; Reguero, Julian R; Alvarez, Celso; Junquera, Manuel R; Arango, Ana; Morís, César; Coto, Eliecer

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the mutational spectrum of pulmonary hypertension (PH) patients through a next generation sequencing platform. In a total of 22 patients, the BMPR2, SMAD9, CAV1, KCNK3, and EIF2AK4 genes were sequenced with semiconductor chips and the ion torrent personal genome machine. We found six putative mutations in SMAD (p.R263Q), BMPR2 (p.S301P, p.T493I), CAV1 (p.V155I), and EIF2AK4 (p.L489P, p.P1115L) in five patients. One patient was compound heterozygous for BMPR2 + SMAD mutations, and one patient was homozygous for EIF2AK4 p.P1115L. The reported procedure would facilitate the rapid mutational screening of large cohorts of PH patients. PMID:25917481

  2. Pre-main sequence candidates in the very young open cluster NGC 6611

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Winter, D.; Koulis, C.; The, P. S.; van den Ancker, M. E.; Perez, M. R.; Bibo, E. A.

    1997-02-01

    For the search of Herbig Ae/Be objects in the extremely young open cluster NGC 6611 we have selected a sample of 52 pre-main sequence candidates, discovered by Walker (1961), Sagar & Joshi (1979), Chini & Wargau (1990) and The et al. (1990). We continue the approach of the last paper by studying each star individually with new and unpublished Walraven WULBV, Johnson/Cousins UBV(RI)_C and Johnson JHKLM photometric data as well as low resolution spectroscopy. Each object is shown to have its own extinction law, which is investigated using their spectral energy distribution (SED). There does not seem to be a clear relationship between the location of a star and the extinction law. This means that the extinction is generated locally and its correction must be taken individually. For each object accurate astrophysical parameters are then derived. Plotting the objects in an HR-diagram, together with the values for the E(B-V), the probability of membership value P and the extinction characteristics, helps to discriminate between cluster members and non-cluster members. Most foreground stars are of late spectral type and are labeled as Group III objects. Group I, to which most members of this cluster belong, contains objects of early spectral type. Part of them seem to be in their post-ZAMS phase and the other part in their pre-ZAMS stage. By comparing the evolutionary tracks of Palla & Stahler (1993) for pre-MS objects and of Maeder & Meyenet (1988) for post-MS stars we have concluded that the cluster contains objects of a few 0.1 Myr as well as objects of about 6 Myr. As most of the Group I objects do not show well-known Herbig Ae/Be characteristics, the time scale of clearing the disk material must be typically less than about 0.1 Myr for the more massive objects. Objects that show an IR-excess are found among the less luminous ones. They could still be in their pre-ZAMS phase, having an age of about 1 Myr. Such an age is appropriate for the Group II objects, which are

  3. A spectral atlas of post-main-sequence stars in ωCentauri: kinematics, evolution, enrichment and interstellar medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Loon, Jacco Th.; van Leeuwen, Floor; Smalley, Barry; Smith, Andrew W.; Lyons, Nicola A.; McDonald, Iain; Boyer, Martha L.

    2007-12-01

    We present a spectral atlas of the post-main-sequence population of the most massive Galactic globular cluster, ωCentauri. Spectra were obtained of more than 1500 stars selected as uniformly as possible from across the (B, B - V) colour-magnitude diagram of the proper motion cluster member candidates of van Leeuwen et al. The spectra were obtained with the 2dF multifibre spectrograph at the Anglo-Australian Telescope, and cover the approximate range λ ~ 3840-4940 Å at a resolving power of λ/Δλ ~= 2000. This constitutes the most comprehensible spectroscopic survey of a globular cluster. We measure the radial velocities, effective temperatures, metallicities and surface gravities by fitting ATLAS9 stellar atmosphere models. We analyse the cluster membership and stellar kinematics, interstellar absorption in the CaII K line at 3933 Å, the RR Lyrae instability strip and the extreme horizontal branch, the metallicity spread and bimodal CN abundance distribution of red giants, nitrogen and s-process enrichment, carbon stars, pulsation-induced Balmer line emission on the asymptotic giant branch (AGB), and the nature of the post-AGB and UV-bright stars. Membership is confirmed for the vast majority of stars, and the radial velocities clearly show the rotation of the cluster core. We identify long-period RRLyrae-type variables with low gravity, and low-amplitude variables coinciding with warm RRLyrae stars. A barium enhancement in the coolest red giants indicates that third dredge-up operates in AGB stars in ωCen. This is distinguished from the pre-enrichment by more massive AGB stars, which is also seen in our data. The properties of the AGB, post-AGB and UV-bright stars suggest that red giant branch (RGB) mass loss may be less efficient at very low metallicity, [Fe/H] << -1, increasing the importance of mass loss on the AGB. The catalogue and spectra are made available via Centre Données de Strasbourg (CDS).

  4. V 3903 Sagittarii: a massive main-sequence (O7V+O9V) detached eclipsing binary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaz, L. P. R.; Cunha, N. C. S.; Vieira, E. F.; Myrrha, M. L. M.

    1997-11-01

    We present for the first time an analysis based on uvby light curves, Hβ indices and on new spectroscopic data of the massive detached double-lined O-type eclipsing binary V 3903Sgr. The uvby light curves are analysed with the WINK (initial solutions) and the Wilson-Devinney (WD, final solution) programs. Both codes were used in their extended versions, with stellar atmospheres and taking into account the geometric distortions and photometric effects caused by proximity of the components. The spectroscopic CCD observations were analysed with the harmonic ``Wilsing-Russell'' and the ``Lehman-Filhes'' methods. We conclude that V 3903Sgr is one of the rare O-type detached systems where both components are still on the initial phases of the main sequence, with an age of either 1.6x10(6) yrs or 2.5x10(6) yrs (depending on the evolutionary model adopted) at a distance of ~1500pc, the same as for the Lagoon Nebula (Messier8) complex, of which the system is probably a member. We determine the absolute dimensions: M_A=27.27+/-0.55, R_A=8.088+/-% 0.086, M_B=19.01+/-0.44 and R_B=6.125+/-0.060 (solar units). There is no evidence of mass transfer and the system is detached. The orbit is circular, and both components show synchronous rotation, despite their early evolutionary stage. The absolute dimensions determined should be representative for normal single stars. Amongst the massive systems (M>17Msun) with precise absolute dimensions (errors <2%), V 3903Sgr is that with the most massive primary, with the largest mass difference between the components, and it is the youngest one. Based on data collected with the 60$\\,$cm and 1.6$\\,$m telescopes at the Pico dos Dias Observatory, Na\\-tional Laboratory of Astrophysics, LNA-CNPq, Bra\\-só\\-polis, MG, Brazil and with the Danish 50$\\,$cm telescope (SAT) at the European Southern Observatory (ESO), La Silla, Chile

  5. Deccan Volcanism: a main trigger of environmental changes leading to the KTB mass extinction?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adatte, Thierry; Fantasia, Alicia; Samant, Bandana; Mohabey, Dhananjay; Keller, Gerta; Gertsch, Brian

    2014-05-01

    The nature and causes of mass extinctions in the geological past have remained topics of intense scientific debate for the past three decades. Central to this debate is the question of whether the eruption of large igneous provinces (LIP) was the primary mechanism driving the environmental changes that are commonly regarded as the proximate causes for four of the five major Phanerozoic extinction events. Model results predict that Deccan Traps emplacement was responsible for a strong increase in atmospheric pCO2 accompanied by rapid warming of 4°C that was followed by global cooling. During the warming phase, increased continental weathering of silicates associated with consumption of atmospheric CO2 likely resulted in the drawdown of greenhouse gases that reversed the warming trend leading to global cooling at the end of the Maastrichtian. Massive CO2 input together with massive release of SO2 may thus have triggered the mass extinctions in the marine realm as a result of ocean acidification leading to a carbon crisis and in the terrestrial realms due to acid rains. Global stress conditions related to these climatic changes are well known and documented in planktic foraminifera by a diversity decrease, species dwarfing, dominance of opportunistic species and near disappearance of specialized species. Deccan Traps erupted in three main phases with 6% total Deccan volume in phase-1 (base C30n), 80% in phase-2 (C29r) and 14% in phase-3 (C29n). Recent studies indicate that the bulk (80%) of Deccan trap eruptions (Phase-2) occurred over a relatively short time interval in magnetic polarity C29r, whereas multiproxy studies from central and southeastern India place the Cretaceous-Tertiary (KT) mass extinction near the end of this main phase of Deccan volcanism suggesting a cause-and-effect relationship. In India a strong floral response is observed as a direct response to Deccan volcanic phase-2. In Lameta (infratrappean) sediments preceding the volcanic eruptions

  6. A Tale of Two Anomalies: Depletion, Dispersion, and the Connection between the Stellar Lithium Spread and Inflated Radii on the Pre-main Sequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Somers, Garrett; Pinsonneault, Marc H.

    2014-07-01

    We investigate lithium depletion in standard stellar models (SSMs) and main sequence (MS) open clusters, and explore the origin of the Li dispersion in young, cool stars of equal mass, age, and composition. We first demonstrate that SSMs accurately predict the Li abundances of solar analogs at the zero-age main sequence (ZAMS) within theoretical uncertainties. We then measure the rate of MS Li depletion by removing the [Fe/H]-dependent ZAMS Li pattern from three well-studied clusters, and comparing the detrended data. MS depletion is found to be mass-dependent, in the sense of more depletion at low mass. A dispersion in Li abundance at fixed T eff is nearly universal, and sets in by ~200 Myr. We discuss mass and age dispersion trends, and the pattern is mixed. We argue that metallicity impacts the ZAMS Li pattern, in agreement with theoretical expectations but contrary to the findings of some previous studies, and suggest Li as a test of cluster metallicity. Finally, we argue that a radius dispersion in stars of fixed mass and age, during the epoch of pre-MS Li destruction, is responsible for the spread in Li abundances and the correlation between rotation and Li in young cool stars, most well known in the Pleiades. We calculate stellar models, inflated to match observed radius anomalies in magnetically active systems, and the resulting range of Li abundances reproduces the observed patterns of young clusters. We discuss ramifications for pre-MS evolutionary tracks and age measurements of young clusters, and suggest an observational test.

  7. A tale of two anomalies: Depletion, dispersion, and the connection between the stellar lithium spread and inflated radii on the pre-main sequence

    SciTech Connect

    Somers, Garrett; Pinsonneault, Marc H. E-mail: pinsono@astronomy.ohio-state.edu

    2014-07-20

    We investigate lithium depletion in standard stellar models (SSMs) and main sequence (MS) open clusters, and explore the origin of the Li dispersion in young, cool stars of equal mass, age, and composition. We first demonstrate that SSMs accurately predict the Li abundances of solar analogs at the zero-age main sequence (ZAMS) within theoretical uncertainties. We then measure the rate of MS Li depletion by removing the [Fe/H]-dependent ZAMS Li pattern from three well-studied clusters, and comparing the detrended data. MS depletion is found to be mass-dependent, in the sense of more depletion at low mass. A dispersion in Li abundance at fixed T{sub eff} is nearly universal, and sets in by ∼200 Myr. We discuss mass and age dispersion trends, and the pattern is mixed. We argue that metallicity impacts the ZAMS Li pattern, in agreement with theoretical expectations but contrary to the findings of some previous studies, and suggest Li as a test of cluster metallicity. Finally, we argue that a radius dispersion in stars of fixed mass and age, during the epoch of pre-MS Li destruction, is responsible for the spread in Li abundances and the correlation between rotation and Li in young cool stars, most well known in the Pleiades. We calculate stellar models, inflated to match observed radius anomalies in magnetically active systems, and the resulting range of Li abundances reproduces the observed patterns of young clusters. We discuss ramifications for pre-MS evolutionary tracks and age measurements of young clusters, and suggest an observational test.

  8. Genome sequence of the necrotrophic fungus Penicillium digitatum, the main postharvest pathogen of citrus

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Penicillium digitatum is a fungal necrotroph causing a common citrus postharvest disease known as green mold. In order to gain insight into the genetic bases of its virulence mechanisms and its high degree of host-specificity, the genomes of two P. digitatum strains that differ in their antifungal resistance traits have been sequenced and compared with those of 28 other Pezizomycotina. Results The two sequenced genomes are highly similar, but important differences between them include the presence of a unique gene cluster in the resistant strain, and mutations previously shown to confer fungicide resistance. The two strains, which were isolated in Spain, and another isolated in China have identical mitochondrial genome sequences suggesting a recent worldwide expansion of the species. Comparison with the closely-related but non-phytopathogenic P. chrysogenum reveals a much smaller gene content in P. digitatum, consistent with a more specialized lifestyle. We show that large regions of the P. chrysogenum genome, including entire supercontigs, are absent from P. digitatum, and that this is the result of large gene family expansions rather than acquisition through horizontal gene transfer. Our analysis of the P. digitatum genome is indicative of heterothallic sexual reproduction and reveals the molecular basis for the inability of this species to assimilate nitrate or produce the metabolites patulin and penicillin. Finally, we identify the predicted secretome, which provides a first approximation to the protein repertoire used during invasive growth. Conclusions The complete genome of P. digitatum, the first of a phytopathogenic Penicillium species, is a valuable tool for understanding the virulence mechanisms and host-specificity of this economically important pest. PMID:23171342

  9. Prospects for detecting decreasing exoplanet frequency with main-sequence age using PLATO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veras, Dimitri; Brown, David J. A.; Mustill, Alexander J.; Pollacco, Don

    2015-10-01

    The space mission PLATO will usher in a new era of exoplanetary science by expanding our current inventory of transiting systems and constraining host star ages, which are currently highly uncertain. This capability might allow PLATO to detect changes in planetary system architecture with time, particularly because planetary scattering due to Lagrange instability may be triggered long after the system was formed. Here, we utilize previously published instability time-scale prescriptions to determine PLATO's capability to detect a trend of decreasing planet frequency with age for systems with equal-mass planets. For two-planet systems, our results demonstrate that PLATO may detect a trend for planet masses which are at least as massive as super-Earths. For systems with three or more planets, we link their initial compactness to potentially detectable frequency trends in order to aid future investigations when these populations will be better characterized.

  10. Stars of type MS with evidence of white dwarf companions. [IUE, Main Sequence (MS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peery, Benjamin F., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    A search for white dwarf companions of MS-type stars was conducted, using IUE. The overendowments of these stars in typical S-process nuclides suggest that they, like the Ba II stars, may owe their peculiar compositions to earlier mass transfer. Short-wavelength IUE spectra show striking emission line variability in HD35155, HD61913, and 4 Ori; HD35155 and 4 Ori show evidence of white dwarf companions.

  11. A frozen super-Earth orbiting a star at the bottom of the main sequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubas, D.; Beaulieu, J. P.; Bennett, D. P.; Cassan, A.; Cole, A.; Lunine, J.; Marquette, J. B.; Dong, S.; Gould, A.; Sumi, T.; Batista, V.; Fouqué, P.; Brillant, S.; Dieters, S.; Coutures, C.; Greenhill, J.; Bond, I.; Nagayama, T.; Udalski, A.; Pompei, E.; Nürnberger, D. E. A.; Le Bouquin, J. B.

    2012-04-01

    Context. Microlensing is a unique method to probe low mass exoplanets beyond the snow line. However, the scientific potential of the new microlensing planet discovery is often unfulfilled due to lack of knowledge of the properties of the lens and source stars. The discovery light curve of the super Earth MOA-2007-BLG-192Lb suffers from significant degeneracies that limit what can be inferred about its physical properties. Aims: High resolution adaptive optics images allow us to solve this problem by resolving the microlensing target from all unrelated background stars, yielding the unique determination of magnified source and lens fluxes. This estimation permits the solution of our microlens model for the mass of the planet and its host and their physical projected separation. Methods: We observed the microlensing event MOA-2007-BLG-192 at high angular resolution in JHKs with the NACO adaptive optics system on the VLT while the object was still amplified by a factor 1.23 and then at baseline 18 months later. We analyzed and calibrated the NACO photometry in the standard 2MASS system in order to accurately constrain the source and the lens star fluxes. Results: We detect light from the host star of MOA-2007-BLG-192Lb, which significantly reduces the uncertainties in its characteristics as compared to earlier analyses. We find that MOA-2007-BLG-192L is most likely a very low mass late type M-dwarf (0.084-0.012+0.015 M⊙) at a distance of 660-70+100 pc orbited by a 3.2-1.8+5.2 M⊕ super-Earth at 0.66-0.22+0.51 AU. We then discuss the properties of this cold planetary system. Based on observations under ESO Prog.IDs: 279.C-5044(A) and 383-C.0495(A).

  12. The Dustiest Post-Main Sequence Stars in the Magellanic Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Olivia C.; Meixner, Margaret; Sargent, Benjamin A.; Boyer, Martha L.; Sewiło, Marta; Hony, Sacha; Roman-Duval, Julia

    2015-10-01

    Using observations from the Herschel Inventory of The Agents of Galaxy Evolution (HERITAGE) survey of the Magellanic Clouds (MC), we have found 35 evolved stars and stellar end products that are bright in the far-infrared. These 28 (LMC) and 7 (SMC) sources were selected from the 529 evolved star candidates in the HERITAGE far-infrared point source catalogs. Our source identification method is based on spectral confirmation, spectral energy distribution characteristics, careful examination of the multiwavelength images and includes constraints on the luminosity, resulting in a thoroughly vetted list of evolved stars. These sources span a wide range in luminosity and hence initial mass. We found 13 low- to intermediate-mass evolved stars, including asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars, post-AGB stars, planetary nebulae, and a symbiotic star. We also identify 10 high mass stars, including 4 of the 15 known B[e] stars in the MC, 3 extreme red supergiants that are highly enshrouded by dust, a Luminous Blue Variable, a Wolf-Rayet star, and two supernova remnants. Further, we report the detection of 9 probable evolved objects which were previously undescribed in the literature. These sources are likely to be among the dustiest evolved objects in the MC. The Herschel emission may either be due to dust produced by the evolved star or it may arise from swept-up interstellar medium material.

  13. Soft X-ray observations of pre-main-sequence stars in the Chamaeleon dark cloud

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feigelson, Eric D.; Kriss, Gerard A.

    1989-01-01

    X-ray observations of the Chamaeleon I cloud, a star-forming region, are reported. A total of 22 distinct X-ray sources, most associated with previously identified premain sequence stars, are found. The spatial distributions and HR diagrams of the stars are very similar, suggesting that they are coeval. Luminosity functions suggest that the stars have an average X-ray luminosity (Lx) several times that of the Pleiades dwarfs. The value of Lx is significantly correlated with optical magnitude, though no relation between X-ray emission and any photometric or emission line characteristic is present. It is suggested that a Skumanich-type power-law relation may be present over the entire range of stellar ages between 10 to the 6th and 10 to the 10th yr.

  14. The main challenges that remain in applying high-throughput sequencing to clinical diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Loeffelholz, Michael; Fofanov, Yuriy

    2015-01-01

    Over the last 10 years, the quality, price and availability of high-throughput sequencing instruments have improved to the point that this technology may be close to becoming a routine tool in the diagnostic microbiology laboratory. Two groups of challenges, however, have to be resolved in order to move this powerful research technology into routine use in the clinical microbiology laboratory. The computational/bioinformatics challenges include data storage cost and privacy concerns, requiring analysis to be performed without access to cloud storage or expensive computational infrastructure. The logistical challenges include interpretation of complex results and acceptance and understanding of the advantages and limitations of this technology by the medical community. This article focuses on the approaches to address these challenges, such as file formats, algorithms, data collection, reporting and good laboratory practices. PMID:26394651

  15. From clouds to stars. Protostellar collapse and the evolution to the pre-main sequence I. Equations and evolution in the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wuchterl, G.; Tscharnuter, W. M.

    2003-02-01

    We present the first study of early stellar evolution with ``cloud'' initial conditions utilizing a system of equations that comprises a solar model solution. All previous studies of protostellar collapse either make numerous assumptions specifically tailored for different parts of the flow and different parts of the evolution or they do not reach the pre-main sequence phase. We calculate the pre-main sequence properties of marginally gravitationally unstable, isothermal, equilibrium ``Bonnor-Ebert'' spheres with an initial temperature of 10 K and masses of 0.05 to 10 Msun. The mass accretion rate is determined by the solution of the flow equations rather than being prescribed or neglected. In our study we determine the protostar's radii and the thermal structure together with the mass and mass accretion rate, luminosity and effective temperature during its evolution to a stellar pre-main sequence object. We calculate the time needed to accrete the final stellar masses, the corresponding mean mass accretion rates and median luminosities, and the corresponding evolutionary tracks in the theoretical Hertzsprung-Russell diagram. We derive these quantities from the gas flow resulting from cloud collapse. We do not assume a value for an ``initial'' stellar radius and an ``initial'' stellar thermal structure at the ``top of the track'', the Hayashi-line or any other instant of the evolution. Instead we solve the flow equations for a cloud fragment with spherical symmetry. The system of equations we use contains the equations of stellar structure and evolution as a limiting case and has been tested by a standard solar model and by classical stellar pulsations (Wuchterl & Feuchtinger \\cite{Wuchterl1998}; Feuchtinger \\cite{Feuchtinger1999a}; Dorfi & Feuchtinger \\cite{Dorfi1999}). When dynamical accretion effects have become sufficiently small so that a comparison to existing hydrostatic stellar evolution calculations for corresponding masses can be made, young stars of 2

  16. CCD photometry in the globular cluster NGC 288. I - Blue stragglers and main-sequence binary stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bolte, Michael

    1992-01-01

    Photometry based on a mosaic of CCD images in B and V is presented for the globular cluster NGC 288. The spatial coverage ranges from the cluster core to about 6 core radii, and stars have been measured over the absolute visual magnitude range -1.2 to 8.4. The cluster is shown to contain a significant number of blue straggler stars in the central regions, and there is an excess of objects brighter and redder than the single-star main-sequence in the color-magnitude plane. These objects are interpreted as a population of main-sequence binary stars. With this interpretation, the explicity measured fraction of binary stars is 10 percent, which sets a lower limit for the total binary population.

  17. Detection of methamphetamine and its main metabolite in fingermarks by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ting; Chen, Xueguo; Yang, Ruiqin; Xu, Yingjian

    2015-03-01

    A sensitive and efficient method applying liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry for the analysis of methamphetamine and its main metabolite in fingermark deposits was described. Using this method, good linear relationship of methamphetamine was obtained in the range of 0.005μg to 0.5μg per cotton swab, the limit of detection was 1.5ng per cotton swab, the limit of quantitation was 5.0ng per cotton swab and the average values of recovery ratios were above 70.1%. Moreover, the influence factors for the detection of methamphetamine in fingermarks, such as kinds of substrates, development methods and extraction methods, were all discussed in details. The results showed that good recovery ratios could be obtained on painted wood and smooth substrates surfaces. Development methods in commercial powder could not influence the quality of examination of exogenous drug in latent fingermark. Furthermore, the results indicated that the method mentioned here could be applied in the analysis of forensic trace evidences and samples obtained in clinically addicted cases. PMID:25576675

  18. A SIMPLE NONLINEAR MODEL FOR THE ROTATION OF MAIN-SEQUENCE COOL STARS. I. INTRODUCTION, IMPLICATIONS FOR GYROCHRONOLOGY, AND COLOR-PERIOD DIAGRAMS

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, Sydney A.

    2010-10-10

    We here introduce a simple nonlinear model to describe the rotational evolution of cool stars on the main sequence. It is formulated only in terms of the Rossby number (Ro = P/{tau}), its inverse, and two dimensionless constants which we specify using solar and open-cluster data. The model has two limiting cases of stellar rotation, previously called C and I, that correspond to two observed sequences of fast and slowly rotating stars in young open clusters. The model describes the evolution of stars from C-type, with particular mass and age dependencies, to I-type, with different mass and age dependencies, through the rotational gap, g, separating them. The proposed model explains various aspects of stellar rotation, and provides an exact expression for the age of a rotating cool star in terms of P and {tau}, thereby generalizing gyrochronology. Using it, we calculate the time interval required for stars to reach the rotational gap-a monotonically increasing, mildly nonlinear function of {tau}. Beginning with the range of initial periods indicated by observations, we show that the (mass-dependent) dispersion in rotation period initially increases, and then decreases rapidly with the passage of time. The initial dispersion in period contributes up to 128 Myr to the gyro-age errors of solar-mass field stars. Finally, we transform to color-period space, calculate appropriate isochrones, and show that this model explains some detailed features in the observed color-period diagrams of open clusters, including the positions and shapes of the sequences, and the observed density of stars across these diagrams.

  19. The age-metallicity relation in the solar neighbourhood from a pilot sample of white dwarf-main sequence binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rebassa-Mansergas, A.; Anguiano, B.; García-Berro, E.; Freeman, K. C.; Cojocaru, R.; Manser, C. J.; Pala, A. F.; Gänsicke, B. T.; Liu, X.-W.

    2016-08-01

    The age-metallicity relation (AMR) is a fundamental observational constraint for understanding how the Galactic disc formed and evolved chemically in time. However, there is not yet an agreement on the observational properties of the AMR for the solar neighborhood, primarily due to the difficulty in obtaining accurate stellar ages for individual field stars. We have started an observational campaign for providing the much needed observational input by using wide white dwarf-main sequence (WDMS) binaries. White dwarfs are "natural" clocks and can be used to derive accurate ages. Metallicities can be obtained from the main sequence companions. Since the progenitors of white dwarfs and the main sequence stars were born at the same time, WDMS binaries provide a unique opportunity to observationally constrain in a robust way the properties of the AMR. In this work we present the AMR derived from analysing a pilot sample of 23 WDMS binaries and provide clear observational evidence for the lack of correlation between age and metallicity at young and intermediate ages (0-7 Gyrs).

  20. Rotating Stellar Models Can Account for the Extended Main-sequence Turnoffs in Intermediate-age Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandt, Timothy D.; Huang, Chelsea X.

    2015-07-01

    We show that the extended main-sequence turnoffs seen in intermediate-age Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) clusters, often attributed to age spreads of several 100 Myr, may be easily accounted for by variable stellar rotation in a coeval population. We compute synthetic photometry for grids of rotating stellar evolution models and interpolate them to produce isochrones at a variety of rotation rates and orientations. An extended main-sequence turnoff naturally appears in color-magnitude diagrams at ages just under 1 Gyr, peaks in extent between ˜1 and 1.5 Gyr, and gradually disappears by around 2 Gyr in age. We then fit our interpolated isochrones by eye to four LMC clusters with very extended main-sequence turnoffs: NGC 1783, 1806, 1846, and 1987. In each case, stellar populations with a single age and metallicity can comfortably account for the observed extent of the turnoff region. The new stellar models predict almost no correlation of turnoff color with rotational v{sin}i. The red part of the turnoff is populated by a combination of slow rotators and edge-on rapid rotators, while the blue part contains rapid rotators at lower inclinations.

  1. Searching for gas giant planets on Solar system scales - a NACO/APP L'-band survey of A- and F-type main-sequence stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meshkat, T.; Kenworthy, M. A.; Reggiani, M.; Quanz, S. P.; Mamajek, E. E.; Meyer, M. R.

    2015-11-01

    We report the results of a direct imaging survey of A- and F-type main-sequence stars searching for giant planets. A/F stars are often the targets of surveys, as they are thought to have more massive giant planets relative to solar-type stars. However, most imaging is only sensitive to orbital separations >30 au, where it has been demonstrated that giant planets are rare. In this survey, we take advantage of the high-contrast capabilities of the Apodizing Phase Plate coronagraph on NACO at the Very Large Telescope. Combined with optimized principal component analysis post-processing, we are sensitive to planetary-mass companions (2-12 MJup) at Solar system scales (≤30 au). We obtained data on 13 stars in the L' band and detected one new companion as part of this survey: an M6.0 ± 0.5 dwarf companion around HD 984. We re-detect low-mass companions around HD 12894 and HD 20385, both reported shortly after the completion of this survey. We use Monte Carlo simulations to determine new constraints on the low-mass (<80 MJup) companion frequency, as a function of mass and separation. Assuming solar-type planet mass and separation distributions, normalized to the planet frequency appropriate for A-stars, and the observed companion mass-ratio distribution for stellar companions extrapolated to planetary masses, we derive a truncation radius for the planetary mass companion surface density of <135 au at 95 per cent confidence.

  2. RECONCILING THE OBSERVED STAR-FORMING SEQUENCE WITH THE OBSERVED STELLAR MASS FUNCTION

    SciTech Connect

    Leja, Joel; Van Dokkum, Pieter G.; Franx, Marijn; Whitaker, Katherine E.

    2015-01-10

    We examine the connection between the observed star-forming sequence (SFR ∝ M {sup α}) and the observed evolution of the stellar mass function in the range 0.2 < z < 2.5. We find that the star-forming sequence cannot have a slope α ≲ 0.9 at all masses and redshifts because this would result in a much higher number density at 10 < log (M/M {sub ☉}) < 11 by z = 1 than is observed. We show that a transition in the slope of the star-forming sequence, such that α = 1 at log (M/M {sub ☉}) < 10.5 and α = 0.7-0.13z (Whitaker et al.) at log (M/M {sub ☉}) > 10.5, greatly improves agreement with the evolution of the stellar mass function. We then derive a star-forming sequence that reproduces the evolution of the mass function by design. This star-forming sequence is also well described by a broken power law, with a shallow slope at high masses and a steep slope at low masses. At z = 2, it is offset by ∼0.3 dex from the observed star-forming sequence, consistent with the mild disagreement between the cosmic star formation rate (SFR) and recent observations of the growth of the stellar mass density. It is unclear whether this problem stems from errors in stellar mass estimates, errors in SFRs, or other effects. We show that a mass-dependent slope is also seen in other self-consistent models of galaxy evolution, including semianalytical, hydrodynamical, and abundance-matching models. As part of the analysis, we demonstrate that neither mergers nor hidden low-mass quiescent galaxies are likely to reconcile the evolution of the mass function and the star-forming sequence. These results are supported by observations from Whitaker et al.

  3. Gas and dust in the pre-main-sequence multiple system GG Tauri

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koerner, D. W.; Sargent, A. I.; Beckwith, S. V. W.

    1993-01-01

    We present 1.4 and 2.7 mm aperture synthesis maps of the gas and dust continuum emission around GG Tauri, a very young component of a premain-sequence multiple star system; both GG Tau and its apparent companion, GG Tau/c, at 1500 AU separation, are themselves binaries. At 1.4 mm, dust continuum emission of about 750 AU in extent is associated with GG Tau, and a secondary peak is near GG Tau/c. Spectral line images reveal gaseous structure around GG Tau, elongated along the GG Tau-GG Tau/c axis. There is some suggestion that the gas associated with GG Tau/c alone is extended in a different direction. Marked changes in the morphology and velocity structure of the molecular emission near GG Tau/c also indicate that this system is differently oriented. Clumps between the two systems may be vestiges of a connecting bar. GG Tau and GG Tau/c appear to have originated in a common cloud; their different systemic orientations suggest that they formed from an initially prolate cloud rather than from an extensive and highly flattened disk.

  4. Chemically peculiar upper main-sequence stars in the Milky Way and beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Netopil, M.; Paunzen, E.; Maitzen, H. M.; Pintado, O. I.; Iliev, I. Kh.

    2014-11-01

    Δ a photometry is a valuable and economical tool for detecting magnetic chemically peculiar stars, owing to their characteristic flux depression at 5200 Å. Our main focus of attention is to survey galactic open clusters in order to identify chemically peculiar cluster stars. Since open clusters offer the big advantage that parameters like age or distance can be determined rather accurately, one can thence trace relationships between such parameters and other properties. On the basis of about 80 open clusters covered so far with Δ a photometry, we present a preliminary analysis that shows the evolution of magnetic chemically peculiar stars. Apart from the galactic representatives, Δ a photometry has also been able to discover mCP stars in another environment: the Large Magellanic Cloud. This nearby galaxy exhibits properties that are different from those of the Milky Way, a factor which can also be invoked to investigate the conditions that favour the formation of chemically peculiar stars.

  5. ANS spectrophotometry - Delta Pictoris as an upper-main-sequence algol system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eaton, J. A.; Wu, C.-C.

    1983-01-01

    The early-type eclipsing binary Delta Pictoris has been studied with 260 observations in each of five UV bands. These are the most accurate observations to date, and no strong evidence for light-curve complications produced by circumstellar material has been found. Combined light curves from four epochs separated by intervals of six months do not show any strong dips or shoulders as seen in earlier investigations. The strength of th C IV wavelength 1550 line is independent of phase to better than 0.01 m. The root-mean-square scatterer shown by the light curves ranges from 0.006 m to 0.014 and may be evidence that either or both of the components are intrinsically variable. The integrated colors of the system are consistent with a B1 V spectral type and very little interstellar extinction. A detached solution of the light curves for a Roche model well with the spectroscopic mass ratio, but a semidetached solution cannot be ruled out.

  6. The threshold for stellar winds in hot main-sequence stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grigsby, James A.; Morrison, Nancy D.

    1995-01-01

    The profiles of ultraviolet resonance lines of C IV were surveyed in a sample of 29 cluster and association members in the spectral type range O9-B2 III-V, together with a few field stars of interest. The temperatures and gravities of the stars were taken from the model atmosphere analysis by Grigsby, Morrison, & Anderson (1992), and the luminosities were estimated on the basis of cluster and association distances from the recent literature. A parameter P(sub w) was defined in order to describe the degree and assymetry of the C IV profile. This parameter, together with total C IV equivalent width, was found to be well correlated with stellar luminosity and temperature. A few anomalous stars were noted: tau Sco, HD 66665, HD 13621, and the ON stars HD12323 and HD 201345. The results suggest a sudden onset of observable mass loss at T(effective) = 27,500 +/- 500 K, log (L/solar luminosity) = 4.4 +/- 0.12, in agreement with the previous study by Prinja (1989). At T(effective) = 28,000 K and log g = 4, our non-LTE model atmospheres show an enhancement in the ground-state population of C(+3) in their topmost layer, which could be responsible for initiation of the winds via radiation pressure on the C(+3) ions, or for the onset of visibility of C(+3) ions in the wind because of an increase in the optical depth in the C IV lines in the outermost layers.

  7. Duration of inverted metamorphic sequence formation across the Himalayan Main Central Thrust (MCT), Sikkim

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cioldi, Stefania; Moulas, Evangelos; Tajcmanová, Lucie; Burg, Jean-Pierre

    2016-04-01

    Collision between the Indian and Eurasian plates since the Eocene (50 Ma) caused the closure of the Neo-Tethys and the underthrusting of India beneath the Tibetan Plateau, generating the 2500 km extended Himalayan belt. The Main Central Thrust (MCT) marks the boundary of the underlying Midland Lower Himalaya metasediments zone (LH) in the south from the overlying high grade metamorphic Higher Himalaya (HH) in the north. Several models considering petrochronology, geothermobarometry and structural geology have been discussed to explain the inverted metamorphic gradient in the LH metasediments without reaching a common agreement. This study investigates the tectonic setting and the timescale of inverted isograds related to crustal-scale thrusting at the MCT in the Sikkim region, northeast India. The aim is to contribute to the understanding of the link between mechanical and thermal evolution of major thrust zones and to clarify the nature and the origin of orogenic heat applying garnet geospeedometry. Garnets provide a sensitive record of metamorphic conditions and are potential chronometer. Their compositional zoning is used as a gauge for rate estimates of element diffusion within the mineral and allows estimating the absolute time of the thermal evolution. Inverse-fitting numerical model considering FRactIonation and Diffusion in GarnEt (FRIDGE) calculates garnet composition profiles by introducing P-T-t paths and bulk-rock composition of a specific sample. P-T conditions were estimated by convectional geothermobarometry supported by phase equilibria modelling and measured garnet chemical compositions. Simulation were compared with measured garnet profiles. Simple step function and FRIDGE preliminary results of Fe-Mg - Ca - Mn garnet fractionation-diffusion modelling indicate very short timescale (between 3 and 6 Ma) for peak metamorphic conditions in the northeast Himalayan collisional system. This duration does not allow thermal re-equilibration. It is an

  8. Effects of Massed, Distributed, and Spaced Trial Sequencing on Severely Handicapped Students' Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulligan, Marilyn; And Others

    1982-01-01

    During training of cognitive and motor skills, the effects of massed, distributed, and spaced trial sequencing were evaluated relative to performance of 11 severely handicapped students (5-19 years old). Results supported the addition of distributed trial sequencing to the technology of instruction for severely handicapped learners. (Author/CL)

  9. A new method to disentangle the rotational velocities of stars: Application to main-sequence field Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curé, M.; Rial, D. F.; Cassetti, J.; Christen, A.

    2014-10-01

    The projected rotational velocity v sin i is a fundamental observable quantity. In order to obtain the rotational velocity distribution of a sample of v sin i, Chandrasekhar & Münch (1950) developed a formalism to obtain this distribution under the assumption that rotational axes are uniformly distributed, but this method is not usually applied due to an intrinsic numerical problem associated to the derivative of an Abel's integral. An alternative iterative method was developed by Lucy (1974) to disentangle the distribution function of this kind of inverse problem, but this method has no convergence criteria. Here we present a new method to disentangle the distribution of rotational velocities, based on Chandrasekhar & Münch (1950) formalism. We obtain the cumulative distribution function (CDF) of the rotational velocities from projected velocities (v sin i) under the standard assumption of uniform distributed rotational axes. Through simulations the method is tested using a) theoretical Maxwellian distribution functions for the rotational velocity distribution and b) with a sample of about 12.500 main-sequence field stars. Our main results are: The method is robust and in just one step gives the cumulative distribution function of rotational velocities. When applied to theoretical distributions it recovers the CDF with very high confidence. When applied to real data, we recover the results from Carvalho et al. (2009) proving that the velocity distribution function of main-sequence field stars is non-Maxwellian and are better described by Tsallis or Kaniadakis distribution functions.

  10. The luminosity function at the end of the main sequence: Results of a deep, large-area, CCD survey for cool dwarfs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirkpatrick, J. Davy; Mcgraw, John T.; Hess, Thomas R.; Liebert, James; Mccarthy, Donald W., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    late-type M dwarfs are substellar. The luminosity function data together with an empirical derivation of the mass-luminosity relation (from Henry & McCarthy) are used to compute a mass function independent of theory. This mass function increases toward the end of the main sequence, but the observed density of M dwarfs is still insufficient to account for the missing mass. If the increases seen in the luminosity and mass functions are indicative of a large, unseen, substellar population, brown dwarfs may yet add significantly to the mass of the Galaxy.

  11. Medical Sequencing at the extremes of Human Body Mass

    SciTech Connect

    Ahituv, Nadav; Kavaslar, Nihan; Schackwitz, Wendy; Ustaszewski,Anna; Martin, Joes; Hebert, Sybil; Doelle, Heather; Ersoy, Baran; Kryukov, Gregory; Schmidt, Steffen; Yosef, Nir; Ruppin, Eytan; Sharan,Roded; Vaisse, Christian; Sunyaev, Shamil; Dent, Robert; Cohen, Jonathan; McPherson, Ruth; Pennacchio, Len A.

    2006-09-01

    Body weight is a quantitative trait with significantheritability in humans. To identify potential genetic contributors tothis phenotype, we resequenced the coding exons and splice junctions of58 genes in 379 obese and 378 lean individuals. Our 96Mb survey included21 genes associated with monogenic forms of obesity in humans or mice, aswell as 37 genes that function in body weight-related pathways. We foundthat the monogenic obesity-associated gene group was enriched for rarenonsynonymous variants unique to the obese (n=46) versus lean (n=26)populations. Computational analysis further predicted a significantlygreater fraction of deleterious variants within the obese cohort.Consistent with the complex inheritance of body weight, we did notobserve obvious familial segregation in the majority of the 28 availablekindreds. Taken together, these data suggest that multiple rare alleleswith variable penetrance contribute to obesity in the population andprovide a deep medical sequencing based approach to detectthem.

  12. Medical Sequencing at the Extremes of Human Body Mass

    PubMed Central

    Ahituv, Nadav ; Kavaslar, Nihan ; Schackwitz, Wendy ; Ustaszewska, Anna ; Martin, Joel ; Hébert, Sybil ; Doelle, Heather ; Ersoy, Baran ; Kryukov, Gregory ; Schmidt, Steffen ; Yosef, Nir ; Ruppin, Eytan ; Sharan, Roded ; Vaisse, Christian ; Sunyaev, Shamil ; Dent, Robert ; Cohen, Jonathan ; McPherson, Ruth ; Pennacchio, Len A. 

    2007-01-01

    Body weight is a quantitative trait with significant heritability in humans. To identify potential genetic contributors to this phenotype, we resequenced the coding exons and splice junctions of 58 genes in 379 obese and 378 lean individuals. Our 96-Mb survey included 21 genes associated with monogenic forms of obesity in humans or mice, as well as 37 genes that function in body weight–related pathways. We found that the monogenic obesity–associated gene group was enriched for rare nonsynonymous variants unique to the obese population compared with the lean population. In addition, computational analysis predicted a greater fraction of deleterious variants within the obese cohort. Together, these data suggest that multiple rare alleles contribute to obesity in the population and provide a medical sequencing-based approach to detect them. PMID:17357083

  13. Binary-binary collisions involving main-sequence stars, white dwarfs and neutron stars in globular clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Leonard, P.J.T.; Davies, M.B.

    1993-12-31

    We consider collisions between dynamically-evolved primordial binaries consisting of main-sequence stars, white dwarfs and neutron stars in globular clusters. In our four-body binary-binary scattering experiments, we allow stars to ``stick`` if they pass close enough to each other, which leads to the formation of a wide variety of exotic objects. Most of these objects have binary companions. Also, relatively clean exchange interactions can produce binaries containing neutron stars that eventually receive material from their companions. Such systems will be observable as X-ray binaries.

  14. Solar Mass Ejection Imager 3-D reconstruction of the 27-28 May 2003 coronal mass ejection sequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, B. V.; Bisi, M. M.; Hick, P. P.; Buffington, A.; Clover, J. M.; Sun, W.

    2008-03-01

    The Solar Mass Ejection Imager (SMEI) has recorded the inner-heliospheric response in white-light Thomson scattering for many hundreds of interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs). Some of these have been observed by the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) Large-Angle Spectroscopic Coronagraph (LASCO) instruments and also in situ by near-Earth spacecraft. This article presents a low-resolution three-dimensional (3-D) reconstruction of the 27-28 May 2003 halo CME event sequence observed by LASCO and later using SMEI observations; this sequence was also observed by all in situ monitors near Earth. The reconstruction derives its perspective views from outward flowing solar wind. Analysis results reveal the shape, extent, and mass of this ICME sequence as it reaches the vicinity of Earth. The extended shape has considerable detail that is compared with LASCO images and masses for this event. The 3-D reconstructed density, derived from the remote-sensed Thomson scattered brightness, is also compared with the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) and Wind spacecraft in situ plasma measurements. These agree well in peak and integrated total value for this ICME event sequence when an appropriately enhanced (˜20%) electron number density is assumed to account for elements heavier than hydrogen in the ionized plasma.

  15. Kepler observations of A-F pre-main-sequence stars in Upper Scorpius: discovery of six new δ Scuti and one γ Doradus stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ripepi, V.; Balona, L.; Catanzaro, G.; Marconi, M.; Palla, F.; Giarrusso, M.

    2015-12-01

    We present light curves and periodograms for 27 stars in the young Upper Scorpius association (age = 11 ± 1 Myr) obtained with the Kepler spacecraft. This association is only the second stellar grouping to host several pulsating pre-main-sequence (PMS) stars which have been observed from space. From an analysis of the periodograms, we identify six δ Scuti variables and one γ Doradus star. These are most likely PMS stars or else very close to the zero-age main sequence. Four of the δ Scuti variables were observed in short-cadence mode, which allows us to resolve the entire frequency spectrum. For these four stars, we are able to infer some qualitative information concerning their ages. For the remaining two δ Scuti stars, only long-cadence data are available, which means that some of the frequencies are likely to be aliases. One of the stars appears to be a rotational variable in a hierarchical triple system. This is a particularly important object, as it allows the possibility of an accurate mass determination when radial velocity observations become available. We also report on new high-resolution echelle spectra obtained for some of the stars of our sample.

  16. Where stars form: inside-out growth and coherent star formation across the main sequence from HST Hα maps at z~1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Erica; Van Dokkum, Pieter G.; Franx, Marijn; Forster Schreiber, Natascha; Momcheva, Ivelina G.; Brammer, Gabriel; 3D-HST Collaboration

    2016-01-01

    Imaging surveys with HST have demonstrated that many galaxies attained their current forms at z~1. Key to understanding this process is a direct measurement of the distribution of star formation within galaxies at this crucial epoch. This is now possible with the WFC3 grism capability on HST, as it provides Hα maps of all galaxies at 0.7< z <1.5 in its field of view. Using Hα maps for 2727 galaxies, we show where star formation is distributed in galaxies across the star formation - mass plane (the "main sequence"). We find that the disk scale length of Hα is larger than that of the stellar continuum emission, consistent with inside-out assembly of galactic disks. Across the main sequence, we find evidence for 'coherent star formation': in galaxies with higher than average star formation rates, Hα is enhanced throughout the disk; similarly, in galaxies with low star formation rates Hα is depressed throughout the disk. I discuss these results in the context of several proposed mechanisms for enhancing and quenching star formation. I also show first results of the spatial distribution of star formation at z~2-3.

  17. Polarimetric Variations of Binary Stars. VI. Orbit-Induced Variations in the Pre-Main-Sequence Binary AK Scorpii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manset, N.; Bastien, P.; Bertout, C.

    2005-01-01

    We present simultaneous UBV polarimetric and photometric observations of the pre-main-sequence binary AK Sco, obtained over 12 nights, slightly less than the orbital period of 13.6 days. The polarization is a sum of interstellar and intrinsic polarization, with a significant intrinsic polarization of 1% at 5250 Å, indicating the presence of circumstellar matter distributed in an asymmetric geometry. The polarization and its position angle are clearly variable on timescales of hours and nights in all three wavelengths, with a behavior related to the orbital motion. The variations have the highest amplitudes seen so far for pre-main-sequence binaries (~1% and ~30°) and are sinusoidal with periods similar to the orbital period and half of it. The polarization variations are generally correlated with the photometric ones: when the star gets fainter, it also gets redder, and its polarization increases. The (B-V, V) color-magnitude diagram exhibits a ratio of total to selective absorption R=4.3, higher than in normal interstellar clouds (R=3.1). The interpretation of the simultaneous photometric and polarimetric observations is that a cloud of circumstellar matter passes in front of the star, decreasing the amount of direct, unpolarized light and hence increasing the contribution of scattered (blue) light. We show that the large amplitude of the polarization variations cannot be reproduced with a single-scattering model and axially symmetric circumbinary or circumstellar disks. Based on observations made with the ESO telescopes at the La Silla Observatory.

  18. A young cluster with an extended main-sequence turnoff: confirmation of a prediction of the stellar rotation scenario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bastian, N.; Niederhofer, F.; Kozhurina-Platais, V.; Salaris, M.; Larsen, S.; Cabrera-Ziri, I.; Cordero, M.; Ekström, S.; Geisler, D.; Georgy, C.; Hilker, M.; Kacharov, N.; Li, C.; Mackey, D.; Mucciarelli, A.; Platais, I.

    2016-07-01

    We present Hubble Space Telescope photometry of NGC 1850, a ˜100 Myr, ˜105 M⊙ cluster in the Large Magellanic Cloud. The colour-magnitude diagram clearly shows the presence of an extended main-sequence turnoff (eMSTO). The use of non-rotating stellar isochrones leads to an age spread of ˜40 Myr. This is in good agreement with the age range expected when the effects of rotation in the main-sequence turnoff (MSTO) stars are wrongly interpreted in terms of age spread. We also do not find evidence for multiple, isolated episodes of star formation bursts within the cluster, in contradiction to scenarios that invoke actual age spreads to explain the eMSTO phenomenon. NGC 1850 therefore continues the trend of eMSTO clusters, where the inferred age spread is proportional to the age of the cluster. While our results confirm a key prediction of the scenario where stellar rotation causes the eMSTO feature, direct measurements of the rotational rate of MSTO stars is required to definitively confirm or refute whether stellar rotation is the origin of the eMSTO phenomenon or if it is due to an as yet undiscovered effect.

  19. Copious amounts of hot and cold dust orbiting the main sequence a-type stars HD 131488 and HD 121191

    SciTech Connect

    Melis, Carl; Zuckerman, B.; Rhee, Joseph H.; Song, Inseok; Murphy, Simon J.; Bessell, Michael S.

    2013-11-20

    We report two new dramatically dusty main sequence stars: HD 131488 (A1 V) and HD 121191 (A8 V). HD 131488 is found to have substantial amounts of dust in its terrestrial planet zone (L {sub IR}/L {sub bol} ≈ 4 × 10{sup –3}), cooler dust farther out in its planetary system, and an unusual mid-infrared spectral feature. HD 121191 shows terrestrial planet zone dust (L {sub IR}/L {sub bol} ≈ 2.3 × 10{sup –3}), hints of cooler dust, and shares the unusual mid-infrared spectral shape identified in HD 131488. These two stars belong to sub-groups of the Scorpius-Centaurus OB association and have ages of ∼10 Myr. HD 131488 and HD 121191 are the dustiest main sequence A-type stars currently known. Early-type stars that host substantial inner planetary system dust are thus far found only within the age range of 5-20 Myr.

  20. Core-Halo Structure of a Chemically Homogeneous Massive Star and Bending of the Zero-Age Main Sequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishii, Mie; Ueno, Munetaka; Kato, Mariko

    1999-08-01

    We have recalculated the interior structure of very massive stars of uniform chemical composition with the OPAL opacity. Very massive stars are found to develop a core-halo structure with an extended radiative-envelope. With the core-halo structure, because a more massive star has a more extended envelope, the track of the upper zero-age main-sequence (ZAMS) curves redward in the H-R diagram at > 100 MO (Z=0.02), >70 MO (Z=0.05), and > 15 MO for helium ZAMS (X=0, Z=0.02). Therefore, the effective temperatures of very massive ZAMS stars are rather low: e.g., for a 200 MO star, log T_eff=4.75 (Z=0.004), 4.60 (Z=0.02), 4.46 (Z=0.05), and 4.32 (Z=0.10). The effective temperatures of very luminous stars (> 120 MO ) found in the LMC, the SMC, and the Galaxy are discussed in relation to this metal dependence of a curving upper main-sequence.

  1. How Dusty Is Alpha Centauri? Excess or Non-excess over the Infrared Photospheres of Main-sequence Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiegert, J.; Liseau, R.; Thebault, P.; Olofsson, G.; Mora, A.; Bryden, G.; Marshall, J. P.; Eiroa, C.; Montesinos, B.; Ardila, D.; Augereau, J. C.; Aran, A. Bayo; Danchi, W. C.; del Burgo, C.; Ertel, S.; Fridlund, M. C. W.; Hajigholi, M.; Krivov, A. V.; Pilbratt, G. L.; Roberge, A.; White, G. J.; Wolf, S.

    2014-01-01

    Context. Debris discs around main-sequence stars indicate the presence of larger rocky bodies. The components of the nearby, solar-type binary Centauri have metallicities that are higher than solar, which is thought to promote giant planet formation. Aims. We aim to determine the level of emission from debris around the stars in the Cen system. This requires knowledge of their photospheres.Having already detected the temperature minimum, Tmin, of CenA at far-infrared wavelengths, we here attempt to do the same for the moreactive companion Cen B. Using the Cen stars as templates, we study the possible eects that Tmin may have on the detectability of unresolveddust discs around other stars. Methods.We used Herschel-PACS, Herschel-SPIRE, and APEX-LABOCA photometry to determine the stellar spectral energy distributions in thefar infrared and submillimetre. In addition, we used APEX-SHeFI observations for spectral line mapping to study the complex background around Cen seen in the photometric images. Models of stellar atmospheres and of particulate discs, based on particle simulations and in conjunctionwith radiative transfer calculations, were used to estimate the amount of debris around these stars. Results. For solar-type stars more distant than Cen, a fractional dust luminosity fd LdustLstar 2 107 could account for SEDs that do not exhibit the Tmin eect. This is comparable to estimates of fd for the Edgeworth-Kuiper belt of the solar system. In contrast to the far infrared,slight excesses at the 2:5 level are observed at 24 m for both CenA and B, which, if interpreted as due to zodiacal-type dust emission, wouldcorrespond to fd (13) 105, i.e. some 102 times that of the local zodiacal cloud. Assuming simple power-law size distributions of the dustgrains, dynamical disc modelling leads to rough mass estimates of the putative Zodi belts around the Cen stars, viz.4106 M$ of 4 to 1000 msize grains, distributed according to n(a) a3:5. Similarly, for filled-in Tmin

  2. The VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey. XVII. Physical and wind properties of massive stars at the top of the main sequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bestenlehner, J. M.; Gräfener, G.; Vink, J. S.; Najarro, F.; de Koter, A.; Sana, H.; Evans, C. J.; Crowther, P. A.; Hénault-Brunet, V.; Herrero, A.; Langer, N.; Schneider, F. R. N.; Simón-Díaz, S.; Taylor, W. D.; Walborn, N. R.

    2014-10-01

    The evolution and fate of very massive stars (VMS) is tightly connected to their mass-loss properties. Their initial and final masses differ significantly as a result of mass loss. VMS have strong stellar winds and extremely high ionising fluxes, which are thought to be critical sources of both mechanical and radiative feedback in giant H ii regions. However, how VMS mass-loss properties change during stellar evolution is poorly understood. In the framework of the VLT-Flames Tarantula Survey (VFTS), we explore the mass-loss transition region from optically thin O star winds to denser WNh Wolf-Rayet star winds, thereby testing theoretical predictions. To this purpose we select 62 O, Of, Of/WN, and WNh stars, an unprecedented sample of stars with the highest masses and luminosities known. We perform a spectral analysis of optical VFTS as well as near-infrared VLT/SINFONI data using the non-LTE radiative transfer code CMFGEN to obtain both stellar and wind parameters. For the first time, we observationally resolve the transition between optically thin O star winds and optically thick hydrogen-rich WNh Wolf-Rayet winds. Our results suggest the existence of a "kink" between both mass-loss regimes, in agreement with recent Monte Carlo simulations. For the optically thick regime, we confirm the steep dependence on the classical Eddington factor Γe from previous theoretical and observational studies. The transition occurs on the main sequence near a luminosity of 106.1L⊙, or a mass of 80 ... 90 M⊙. Above this limit, we find that - even when accounting for moderate wind clumping (with fv = 0.1) - wind mass-loss rates are enhanced with respect to standard prescriptions currently adopted in stellar evolution calculations. We also show that this results in substantial helium surface enrichment. Finally, based on our spectroscopic analyses, we are able to provide the most accurate ionising fluxes for VMS known to date, confirming the pivotal role of VMS in ionising and

  3. PHIBSS: MOLECULAR GAS CONTENT AND SCALING RELATIONS IN z {approx} 1-3 MASSIVE, MAIN-SEQUENCE STAR-FORMING GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Tacconi, L. J.; Genzel, R.; Wuyts, S.; Foerster Schreiber, N. M.; Gracia-Carpio, J.; Lutz, D.; Saintonge, A.; Neri, R.; Cox, P.; Combes, F.; Bolatto, A.; Cooper, M. C.; Bournaud, F.; Comerford, J.; Davis, M.; Newman, S.; Garcia-Burillo, S.; Naab, T.; Omont, A. E-mail: genzel@mpe.mpg.de; and others

    2013-05-01

    We present PHIBSS, the IRAM Plateau de Bure high-z blue sequence CO 3-2 survey of the molecular gas properties in massive, main-sequence star-forming galaxies (SFGs) near the cosmic star formation peak. PHIBSS provides 52 CO detections in two redshift slices at z {approx} 1.2 and 2.2, with log(M{sub *}(M{sub Sun })) {>=} 10.4 and log(SFR(M{sub Sun }/yr)) {>=} 1.5. Including a correction for the incomplete coverage of the M{sub *} -SFR plane, and adopting a ''Galactic'' value for the CO-H{sub 2} conversion factor, we infer average gas fractions of {approx}0.33 at z {approx} 1.2 and {approx}0.47 at z {approx} 2.2. Gas fractions drop with stellar mass, in agreement with cosmological simulations including strong star formation feedback. Most of the z {approx} 1-3 SFGs are rotationally supported turbulent disks. The sizes of CO and UV/optical emission are comparable. The molecular-gas-star-formation relation for the z = 1-3 SFGs is near-linear, with a {approx}0.7 Gyr gas depletion timescale; changes in depletion time are only a secondary effect. Since this timescale is much less than the Hubble time in all SFGs between z {approx} 0 and 2, fresh gas must be supplied with a fairly high duty cycle over several billion years. At given z and M{sub *}, gas fractions correlate strongly with the specific star formation rate (sSFR). The variation of sSFR between z {approx} 0 and 3 is mainly controlled by the fraction of baryonic mass that resides in cold gas.

  4. Late Diagenesis and Mass Transfer in Sandstone Shale Sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milliken, K. L.

    2003-12-01

    , involving only compaction and dewatering of sedimentary materials. Detrital phases that survived weathering were seen as essentially inert to subsequent reaction during burial and prior to the onset of metamorphism. Metamorphism itself was viewed as isochemical and accomplished principally through solid-state reactions (see a brief summary in Ague, 1991). Notable exceptions to these views constitute the foundations of existing theory regarding the nature of late diagenesis. "Intrastratal solution" of chemically unstable detrital minerals (e.g., Pettijohn, 1941), apparent potassium metasomatism of shales (e.g., Weaver and Beck, 1971), and massive mineralogical changes during progressive burial (e.g., Coombs et al., 1959) are observations that established the directions of modern research in late diagenesis. Advances in petrographic imaging techniques (e.g., backscattered electron- and cathodoluminescence-imaging) and integration of petrographic observations with both bulk and spatially resolved chemical analyses have greatly accelerated the evolution of concepts about late diagenesis and early metamorphism.Today, basin-scale mass transfer of some materials (e.g., helium, water, and petroleum) is unquestioned (e.g., Hunt, 1996). Other materials (e.g., titanium and the REEs) are sufficiently mobile to appear within authigenic precipitates, but are likely to be "immobile" on the scale of a hand specimen. Mobilities of the major elements that make up sandstones and shales (silicon, aluminum, calcium, sodium, potassium) remain controversial. Conflicting notions about processes in rock suites across the wide range of burial conditions and alteration show that fundamental questions remain unanswered about the nature of the volumetrically significant processes within a major segment of the rock cycle. It is very likely that something is wrong, or at least inadequate, with the present concepts and/or data pertaining to the evolution of permeability, transport mechanisms, and timing

  5. Proteogenomics: Integrating Next-Generation Sequencing and Mass Spectrometry to Characterize Human Proteomic Variation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheynkman, Gloria M.; Shortreed, Michael R.; Cesnik, Anthony J.; Smith, Lloyd M.

    2016-06-01

    Mass spectrometry–based proteomics has emerged as the leading method for detection, quantification, and characterization of proteins. Nearly all proteomic workflows rely on proteomic databases to identify peptides and proteins, but these databases typically contain a generic set of proteins that lack variations unique to a given sample, precluding their detection. Fortunately, proteogenomics enables the detection of such proteomic variations and can be defined, broadly, as the use of nucleotide sequences to generate candidate protein sequences for mass spectrometry database searching. Proteogenomics is experiencing heightened significance due to two developments: (a) advances in DNA sequencing technologies that have made complete sequencing of human genomes and transcriptomes routine, and (b) the unveiling of the tremendous complexity of the human proteome as expressed at the levels of genes, cells, tissues, individuals, and populations. We review here the field of human proteogenomics, with an emphasis on its history, current implementations, the types of proteomic variations it reveals, and several important applications.

  6. Proteogenomics: Integrating Next-Generation Sequencing and Mass Spectrometry to Characterize Human Proteomic Variation.

    PubMed

    Sheynkman, Gloria M; Shortreed, Michael R; Cesnik, Anthony J; Smith, Lloyd M

    2016-06-12

    Mass spectrometry-based proteomics has emerged as the leading method for detection, quantification, and characterization of proteins. Nearly all proteomic workflows rely on proteomic databases to identify peptides and proteins, but these databases typically contain a generic set of proteins that lack variations unique to a given sample, precluding their detection. Fortunately, proteogenomics enables the detection of such proteomic variations and can be defined, broadly, as the use of nucleotide sequences to generate candidate protein sequences for mass spectrometry database searching. Proteogenomics is experiencing heightened significance due to two developments: (a) advances in DNA sequencing technologies that have made complete sequencing of human genomes and transcriptomes routine, and (b) the unveiling of the tremendous complexity of the human proteome as expressed at the levels of genes, cells, tissues, individuals, and populations. We review here the field of human proteogenomics, with an emphasis on its history, current implementations, the types of proteomic variations it reveals, and several important applications. PMID:27049631

  7. Proteogenomics: Integrating Next-Generation Sequencing and Mass Spectrometry to Characterize Human Proteomic Variation

    PubMed Central

    Sheynkman, Gloria M.; Shortreed, Michael R.; Cesnik, Anthony J.; Smith, Lloyd M.

    2016-01-01

    Mass spectrometry–based proteomics has emerged as the leading method for detection, quantification, and characterization of proteins. Nearly all proteomic workflows rely on proteomic databases to identify peptides and proteins, but these databases typically contain a generic set of proteins that lack variations unique to a given sample, precluding their detection. Fortunately, proteogenomics enables the detection of such proteomic variations and can be defined, broadly, as the use of nucleotide sequences to generate candidate protein sequences for mass spectrometry database searching. Proteogenomics is experiencing heightened significance due to two developments: (a) advances in DNA sequencing technologies that have made complete sequencing of human genomes and transcriptomes routine, and (b) the unveiling of the tremendous complexity of the human proteome as expressed at the levels of genes, cells, tissues, individuals, and populations. We review here the field of human proteogenomics, with an emphasis on its history, current implementations, the types of proteomic variations it reveals, and several important applications. PMID:27049631

  8. [Time of flight mass spectrometry of DNA for rapid sequence determination

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The objective of this project is to develop a time-of-flight mass spectrometric approach to ordering Sanger sequence fragments, replacing electrophoresis and removing the electrophoresis bottleneck to rapid DNA sequencing, When the project was funded, we had demonstrated that massive DNA molecules could be volatilized, substantially intact, by a process involving pulsed laser ablation of a frozen film of a DNA solution. Using a crude time-of-flight mass spectrometer, we had demonstrated that ions of the ablated DNA could be formed, and that mass spectra were obtainable which appeared to contain only the parent molecular ion. The laser used was a dye laser which we tuned to match sodium atom resonances to increase the ionization efficiency. By pulsed laser ablation of frozen aqueous DNA solution films we have produced mass spectra of DNA mixtures which largely fulfil the simple requirement for DNA mixture analysis: one peak per DNA segment The peaks are clean and free of the fragment or adduct tails which characteristically degrade mass spectra obtained by UV laser ablation using UV chromophore matrices. To date, our approach has been characterized by extremely poor reproducibility; however the high quality of the mass spectra suggest that when better control of the ionization process is achieved, the use of an aqueous matrix offers an extremely promising approach to time-of-flight mass spectrometric sorting of DNA sequence mixtures.

  9. On the effective temperatures and surface gravities of superficially normal main sequence band B and A stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adelman, Saul J.; Pintado, O. I.; Nieva, M. F.; Rayle, K. E.; Sanders, S. E., Jr.

    2002-09-01

    Effective temperatures and surface gravities for 48 main sequence band B and A stars were found by matching optical region spectrophotometry and Hγ profiles with the predictions of ATLAS9 solar composition model atmospheres. When these values were compared with those found using Strömgren uvbybeta photometry based on ATLAS6 model atmospheres, we found a difference (photometry-spectrophotometry) of 25+/- 118 K for 29 stars with 8000 K le Teff <= 10 050 K compared to 76 +/- 105 K for 14 stars with 10 050 K <= Teff <= 17 000 K. The surface gravity scales are in agreement. These stars are sufficiently hot that their effective temperatures and surface gravity determinations are unaffected by discrepancies due to the choice of Mixing-Length or Canuto-Mazzitelli convection theories.

  10. X-ray emission from the pre-main sequence star ZCMa during a FUOri-type outburst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stelzer, Beate

    2007-09-01

    We propose for the first X-ray spectrum of an FUOri object during outburst. The FUOR phenomenon is associated with a sudden increase of the accretion rate in some pre-main sequence (PMS) stars, possibly due to changes in the magnetic field. In the first X-ray survey of FUORs Skinner et al. (2007) have detected two of four targets. None of them was in outburst at the time. The typical two-temperature spectrum of a PMS star requires in the case of FUOri different absorptions for the soft and hard components (Skinner et al. 2006). Our target ZCMa is a young F-type FUOR. In Feb 2008 ZCMa started its so far largest outburst, with a further enhancement ~2 weeks ago. In May 2008 we have detected its magnetic field. Now we aim at an X-ray detection of ZCMa in its `super-outburst'.

  11. Detection of a dozen X-ray-emitting main-sequence B6-A3 stars in Orion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caillault, Jean-Pierre; Zoonematkermani, Saeid

    1989-01-01

    The detection of 12 X-ray-emitting main-sequence B6-A3 stars in the Orion Nebula is reported. The luminosity of these stars in the 0.2-3.5 keV band is considerably in excess of field stars of the same spectral type. Consideration is given to the possibilities that these stars may not actually be the source of the X-rays, but that the emission may be attributable to T Tauri or 'naked' T Tauri star companions, or that these hot stars are indeed the sources of emission and that current theories of X-ray emission from early-type stars must be amended.

  12. Spectropolarimetry of the post-main-sequence bipolar nebulae GL 618, M2-56, and M1-92

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trammell, Susan R.; Dinerstein, Harriet L.; Goodrich, Robert W.

    1993-01-01

    New high-quality spectropolarimetry of the post-main-sequence bipolar nebulae GL 618, M2-56, and M1-92 is presented which permits accurate separation of the scattered and unscattered components. Shock emission dominates the optical line spectrum of the three nebulae and probably plays a significant role in their dynamical evolution. The central H II region spectrum for GL 6189 is isolated and T(stellar) of 36,000-40,000 and log (N/O) = 0.0 +/- 0.2 are derived. GL 618 and M2-56 have shock velocities of 40-60 km/s; that of M1-92 is 60-100 km/s. Log (N/O) is derived for different regions of the three nebulae. There is an apparent correlation of outflow velocity with chemical abundance.

  13. Evidence for chemical processing of precometary icy grains in circumstellar environments of pre-main-sequence stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tegler, Stephen C.; Weintraub, David A.; Rettig, Terrence W.; Pendleton, Yvonne J.; Whittet, Douglas C. B.; Kulesa, Craig A.

    1995-01-01

    We report the detection of a broad absorption feature near 2166/cm in the spectrum of the Taurus cloud cource Elias 18. This pre-main-sequence source is the second in Taurus, the third in our survey, and the fifth known in the sky to show the broad 2166/cm absorption feature. Of equal importance, this feature is not seen toward several other embedded sources in our survey, nor is it seen toward the source Elias 16, located behind the Taurus cloud. Laboratory experiments with interstellar ice analogs show that such a feature is associated with a complex C triple bonded to N containing compound (called X(C triple bonded to N)) that results from high-energy processing (ultraviolet irradiation or ion bombardment) of simple ice components into more complex, organic components. We find a nonlinear anticorrelation between the abundance of X(C triple bonded to N) and frozen CO components in nonpolar lattices. We find no correlation between the abundance of X(C triple bonded to N) and frozen CO in polar lattices. Because the abundances of frozen CO and H2O are strongly correlated with each other and with visual extinction toward sources embedded in and located behind the Taurus molecular cloud, these ice components usually are associated with intracloud material. Our results indicate that X(C triple bonded to N) molecules result from chemical processing of dust grains dominated by nonpolar icy mantles in the local environments of pre-main-sequence stars. Such processing of icy grains in the early solar system may be an important source of organic compounds observed in minor solar system bodies. The delivery of these organic compounds to the surface of the primitive Earth through comet impacts may have provided the raw materials for prebiotic chemistry.

  14. THE EFFECTS OF ROTATION ON THE MAIN-SEQUENCE TURNOFF OF INTERMEDIATE-AGE MASSIVE STAR CLUSTERS

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Wuming; Bi, Shaolan; Liu, Zhie; Meng, Xiangcun E-mail: yangwuming@ynao.ac.cn

    2013-10-20

    The double or extended main-sequence turnoffs (MSTOs) in the color-magnitude diagram (CMD) of intermediate-age massive star clusters in the Large Magellanic Cloud are generally interpreted as age spreads of a few hundred Myr. However, such age spreads do not exist in younger clusters (i.e., 40-300 Myr), which challenges this interpretation. The effects of rotation on the MSTOs of star clusters have been studied in previous works, but the results obtained are conflicting. Compared with previous works, we consider the effects of rotation on the main-sequence lifetime of stars. Our calculations show that rotating models have a fainter and redder MSTO with respect to non-rotating counterparts with ages between about 0.8 and 2.2 Gyr, but have a brighter and bluer MSTO when age is larger than 2.4 Gyr. The spread of the MSTO caused by a typical rotation rate is equivalent to the effect of an age spread of about 200 Myr. Rotation could lead to the double or extended MSTOs in the CMD of the star clusters with ages between about 0.8 and 2.2 Gyr. However, the extension is not significant, and it does not even exist in younger clusters. If the efficiency of the mixing were high enough, the effects of the mixing would counteract the effect of the centrifugal support in the late stage of evolution, and the rotationally induced extension would disappear in the old intermediate-age star clusters, but younger clusters would have an extended MSTO. Moreover, the effects of rotation might aid in understanding the formation of some 'multiple populations' in globular clusters.

  15. Evidence for Chemical Processing of Precometary Icy Grains In Circumstellar Environments of Pre-Main-Sequence Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teglier, Stephen C.; Weintraub, David A.; Rettig, Terrence W.; Pendleton, Yvonne J.; Whittet, Douglas C.; Kulesa, Craig A.

    1995-01-01

    We report the detection of a broad absorption feature near 2166 cm-1 in the spectrum of the Taurus cloud source Elias 18. This pre-main-sequence source is the second in Taurus, the third in our survey, and the fifth known in the sky to show the broad 2166 cm-1 absorption feature. Of equal importance, this feature is not seen toward several other embedded sources in our survey, nor is it seen toward the source Elias 16, located behind the Taurus cloud. Laboratory experiments with interstellar ice analogs show that such a feature is associated with a complex C=-N containing compound [called X(C=-N)] that results from high-energy processing (ultraviolet irradiation or ion bombardment) of simple ice components into more complex, organic components, We find a nonlinear anticorrelation between the abundance of X(C=-N) and frozen CO in non- polar lattices. We find no correlation between the abundance of X(C=-N) and frozen CO in polar lattices. Because the abundances of frozen CO and H20 are strongly correlated with each other and with visual extinction toward sources embedded in and located behind the Taurus molecular cloud, these ice components usually are associated with intracloud material. Our results indicate that X(C=-N) molecules result from chemical processing of dust grains dominated by nonpolar icy mantles in the local environments of pre-main- sequence stars. Such processing of icy grains in the early solar system may be an important source of organic compounds observed in minor solar system bodies. The delivery of these organic compounds to the surface of the primitive Earth through comet impacts may have provided the raw materials for prebiotic chemistry.

  16. The main properties and peculiarities of the Earth's motion relative to the center of mass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimov, D. M.; Akulenko, L. D.; Kumakshev, S. A.

    2014-10-01

    The methods of theoretical and celestial mechanics and mathematical statistics have been used to prove that the Earth's motion relative to the center of mass, the polar wobble, in the principal approximation is a combination of two circumferences with a slow trend in the mean position corresponding to the annual and Chandler components. It has been established that the parameters (amplitude and phase shift) of the annual wobble are stable, while those of the Chandler component are less stable and undergo significant variations over the observed time intervals. It has been proven that the behavior of these polar motion parameters is attributable to the gravitational-tidal mechanisms of their excitation.

  17. Tandem mass spectrometry and ion mobility mass spectrometry for the analysis of molecular sequence and architecture of hyperbranched glycopolymers

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiumin; Cool, Lydia R.; Lin, Kenneth; Kasko, Andrea M.; Wesdemiotis, Chrys

    2015-01-01

    Multidimensional mass spectrometry techniques, combining matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) or electrospray ionization (ESI) with tandem mass spectrometry (MS2), multistage mass spectrometry (MSn) or ion mobility mass spectrometry (IM-MS), have been employed to gain precise structural insight on the compositions, sequences and architectures of small oligomers of a hyperbranched glycopolymer, prepared by atom transfer radical copolymerization of an acrylate monomer (A) and an acrylate inimer (B), both carrying mannose ester pendants. The MS data confirmed the incorporation of multiple inimer repeat units, which ultimately lead to the hyperbranched material. The various possible structures of n-mers with the same composition were subsequently elucidated based on MS2 and MSn studies. The characteristic elimination of bromomethane molecule provided definitive information about the comonomer connectivity in the copolymeric AB2 trimer and A2B2 tetramer, identifying as present only one of the three possible trimeric isomers (viz. sequence BBA) and only two of the six possible tetrameric isomers (viz. sequences BBA2 and BABA). Complementary IM-MS studies confirmed that only one of the tetrameric structures is formed. Comparison of the experimentally determined collision cross-section of the detected isomer with those predicted by molecular simulations for the two possible sequences ascertained BBA2 as the predominant tetrameric architecture. The multidimensional MS approaches presented provide connectivity information at the atomic level without requiring high product purity (due to the dispersive nature of MS) and, hence, should be particularly useful for the microstructure characterization of novel glycopolymers and other types of complex copolymers. PMID:25519163

  18. Main-Chain and Side-Chain Sequence-Regulated Vinyl Copolymers by Iterative Atom Transfer Radical Additions and 1:1 or 2:1 Alternating Radical Copolymerization.

    PubMed

    Soejima, Takamasa; Satoh, Kotaro; Kamigaito, Masami

    2016-01-27

    Main- and side-chain sequence-regulated vinyl copolymers were prepared by a combination of iterative atom transfer radical additions (ATRAs) of vinyl monomers for side-chain control and 1:1 or 2:1 alternating radical copolymerization of the obtained side-chain sequenced "oligomonomers" and vinyl comonomers for main-chain control. A complete set of sequence-regulated trimeric vinyl oligomers of styrene (S) and/or methyl acrylate (A) were first synthesized via iterative ATRAs of these monomers to a halide of monomeric S or A unit (X-S or X-A) under optimized conditions with appropriate ruthenium or copper catalysts, which were selected depending on the monomers and halides. The obtained halogen-capped oligomers were then converted into a series of maleimide (M)-ended oligomonomers with different monomer compositions and sequences (M-SSS, M-ASS, M-SAS, M-AAS, M-SSA, M-ASA, M-SAA, M-AAA) by a substitution reaction of the halide with furan-protected maleimide anion followed by deprotection of the furan units. These maleimide-ended oligomonomers were then radically copolymerized with styrene or limonene to enable the 1:1 or 2:1 monomer-sequence regulation in the main chain and finally result in the main- and side-chain sequence-regulated vinyl copolymers with high molecular weights in high yield. The properties of the sequence-regulated vinyl copolymers depended on not only the monomer compositions but also the monomer sequences. The solubility was highly affected by the outer monomer units in the side chains whereas the glass transition temperatures were primarily affected by the two successive monomer sequences. PMID:26761148

  19. Identification of main-sequence stars with mid-infrared excesses: Frequency of beta Pictoris analogs and transition disk systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uzpen, Brian Robert

    There is solid evidence of life on only one planet in the Universe: Earth. Since current technologies are not capable of directly observing planets, we must rely on secondary indicators, such as circumstellar disks to detect them. Circumstellar disks are commonplace around pre-main-sequence stars; it is believed these disks are a natural byproduct of star formation where planets can form. The general theoretical evolutionary sequence from the optically thick pre-main-sequence stars (T-Tauri and Herbig AeBe) to optically thin "debris disks", is as follows: After particles grow through condensation, they reach a critical value and form planetary cores; these cores accrete the gas around them and form planets. As the available circumstellar material decreases, the inner disk will develop a hole. Circumstellar material dissipates in the outer disk, while particles collide creating a population of grains that re-radiate stellar energy in the far-IR, a characteristic of debris disks. These debris disks represent a final stage of planet formation. Given that most stars originally have circumstellar disks, it is likely that planetary systems are common. Material similar in temperature to Earth emits primarily at ~10 mm (mid-IR wavelengths). By identifying stars with circumstellar material that emits in the mid-IR, it may be possible to locate Earth-like planetary systems; mid-IR excesses may also be an indicator of disks undergoing clearing processes with inner disk holes of a few AU. The purpose of this work is to identify and characterize a large sample of stellar sources with circumstellar disks that re-radiate energy at mid-IR wavelengths and place them in the greater context of disk evolution and planet formation. To achieve this goal, a large number of stellar sources with mid-IR excesses are identified through wide-area Galactic surveys. Far-IR photometry is utilized to confirm the mid-IR excess in a majority of the newly identified sources. Follow-up optical

  20. New clues to the cause of extended main-sequence turnoffs in intermediate-age star clusters in the Magellanic Clouds

    SciTech Connect

    Correnti, Matteo; Goudfrooij, Paul; Kalirai, Jason S.; Girardi, Leo; Puzia, Thomas H.; Kerber, Leandro E-mail: goudfroo@stsci.edu E-mail: leo.girardi@oapd.inaf.it E-mail: lkerber@gmail.com

    2014-10-01

    We use the Wide Field Camera 3 on board the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) to obtain deep, high-resolution images of two intermediate-age star clusters in the Large Magellanic Cloud of relatively low mass (≈10{sup 4} M {sub ☉}) and significantly different core radii, namely NGC 2209 and NGC 2249. For comparison purposes, we also reanalyzed archival HST images of NGC 1795 and IC 2146, two other relatively low-mass star clusters. From the comparison of the observed color-magnitude diagrams with Monte Carlo simulations, we find that the main-sequence turnoff (MSTO) regions in NGC 2209 and NGC 2249 are significantly wider than that derived from simulations of simple stellar populations, while those in NGC 1795 and IC 2146 are not. We determine the evolution of the clusters' masses and escape velocities from an age of 10 Myr to the present age. We find that differences among these clusters can be explained by dynamical evolution arguments if the currently extended clusters (NGC 2209 and IC 2146) experienced stronger levels of initial mass segregation than the currently compact ones (NGC 2249 and NGC 1795). Under this assumption, we find that NGC 2209 and NGC 2249 have estimated escape velocities, V {sub esc} ≳ 15 km s{sup –1} at an age of 10 Myr, large enough to retain material ejected by slow winds of first-generation stars, while the two clusters that do not feature extended MSTOs have V {sub esc} ≲ 12 km s{sup –1} at that age. These results suggest that the extended MSTO phenomenon can be better explained by a range of stellar ages rather than a range of stellar rotation velocities or interacting binaries.

  1. Mid-IR spectra of pre-main sequence Herbig stars: An explanation for the non-detections of water lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonellini, S.; Kamp, I.; Lahuis, F.; Woitke, P.; Thi, W.-F.; Meijerink, R.; Aresu, G.; Spaans, M.; Güdel, M.; Liebhart, A.

    2016-01-01

    Context. The mid-IR detection rate of water lines in disks around Herbig stars disks is about 5%, while it is around 50% for disks around T Tauri stars. The reason for this is still unclear. Aims: In this study, we want to find an explanation for the different detection rates between low mass and high mass pre-main-sequence stars in the mid-IR regime. Methods: We ran disk models with stellar parameters adjusted to spectral types B9 through M2, using the radiation thermo-chemical disk modelling code ProDiMo. We explored also a small parameter space around a standard disk model, considering dust-to-gas mass ratio, disk gas mass, mixing coefficient for dust settling, flaring index, dust maximum size, and size power law distribution index. We produced convolved spectra at the resolution of Spitzer, IRS, JWST MIRI, and VLT VISIR spectrographs. We applied random noise derived from typical Spitzer spectra for a direct comparison with observations. Results: The strength of the mid-IR water lines correlates directly with the luminosity of the central star. The models show that it is possible to suppress the water emission; however, current observations are not sensitive enough to detect mid-IR lines in disks for most of the explored parameters. The presence of noise in the spectra, combined with the high continuum flux (noise level is proportional to the continuum flux), is the most likely explanation for the non-detections towards Herbig stars. Conclusions: Mid-IR spectra with resolution higher than 20 000 are needed to investigate water in protoplanetary disks. Intrinsic differences in disk structure, such as inner gaps, gas-to-dust ratio, dust size and distribution, and inner disk scale height, between Herbig and T Tauri star disks are able to explain a lower water detection rate in disks around Herbig stars.

  2. The SCUBA-2 Cosmology Legacy Survey: galaxies in the deep 850 μm survey, and the star-forming `main sequence'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koprowski, M. P.; Dunlop, J. S.; Michałowski, M. J.; Roseboom, I.; Geach, J. E.; Cirasuolo, M.; Aretxaga, I.; Bowler, R. A. A.; Banerji, M.; Bourne, N.; Coppin, K. E. K.; Chapman, S.; Hughes, D. H.; Jenness, T.; McLure, R. J.; Symeonidis, M.; Werf, P. van der

    2016-06-01

    We investigate the properties of the galaxies selected from the deepest 850-μm survey undertaken to date with (Submillimetre Common-User Bolometer Array 2) SCUBA-2 on the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope as part of the SCUBA-2 Cosmology Legacy Survey. A total of 106 sources (>5σ) were uncovered at 850 μm from an area of ≃150 arcmin2 in the centre of the COSMOS/UltraVISTA/Cosmic Assembly Near-infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey (CANDELS) field, imaged to a typical depth of σ850 ≃ 0.25 mJy. We utilize the available multifrequency data to identify galaxy counterparts for 80 of these sources (75 per cent), and to establish the complete redshift distribution for this sample, yielding bar{z} = 2.38± 0.09. We have also been able to determine the stellar masses of the majority of the galaxy identifications, enabling us to explore their location on the star formation rate:stellar mass (SFR:M*) plane. Crucially, our new deep 850-μm-selected sample reaches flux densities equivalent to SFR ≃ 100 M⊙ yr-1, enabling us to confirm that sub-mm galaxies form the high-mass end of the `main sequence' (MS) of star-forming galaxies at z > 1.5 (with a mean specific SFR of sSFR = 2.25 ± 0.19 Gyr-1 at z ≃ 2.5). Our results are consistent with no significant flattening of the MS towards high masses at these redshifts. However, our results add to the growing evidence that average sSFR rises only slowly at high redshift, resulting in log10sSFR being an apparently simple linear function of the age of the Universe.

  3. Rapid identification of an antibody DNA construct rearrangement sequence variant by mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Scott, Rebecca A; Rogers, Rich; Balland, Alain; Brady, Lowell J

    2014-01-01

    During cell line development for an IgG1 antibody candidate (mAb1), a C-terminal extension was identified in 2 product candidate clones expressed in CHO-K1 cell line. The extension was initially observed as the presence of anomalous new peaks in these clones after analysis by cation exchange chromatography (CEX-HPLC) and reduced capillary electrophoresis (rCE-SDS). Reduced mass analysis of these CHO-K1 clones revealed that a larger than expected mass was present on a sub-population of the heavy chain species, which could not be explained by any known chemical or post-translational modifications. It was suspected that this additional mass on the heavy chain was due to the presence of an additional amino acid sequence. To identify the suspected additional sequence, de novo sequencing in combination with proteomic searching was performed against translated DNA vectors for the heavy chain and light chain. Peptides unique to the clones containing the extension were identified matching short sequences (corresponding to 9 and 35 amino acids, respectively) from 2 non-coding sections of the light chain vector construct. After investigation, this extension was observed to be due to the re-arrangement of the DNA construct, with the addition of amino acids derived from the light chain vector non-translated sequence to the C-terminus of the heavy chain. This observation showed the power of proteomic mass spectrometric techniques to identify an unexpected antibody sequence variant using de novo sequencing combined with database searching, and allowed for rapid identification of the root cause for new peaks in the cation exchange and rCE-SDS assays. PMID:25484040

  4. CAN WE PREDICT THE GLOBAL MAGNETIC TOPOLOGY OF A PRE-MAIN-SEQUENCE STAR FROM ITS POSITION IN THE HERTZSPRUNG-RUSSELL DIAGRAM?

    SciTech Connect

    Gregory, S. G.; Hillenbrand, L. A.; Donati, J.-F.; Morin, J.; Hussain, G. A. J.; Mayne, N. J.; Jardine, M.

    2012-08-20

    Zeeman-Doppler imaging studies have shown that the magnetic fields of T Tauri stars can be significantly more complex than a simple dipole and can vary markedly between sources. We collect and summarize the magnetic field topology information obtained to date and present Hertzsprung-Russell (H-R) diagrams for the stars in the sample. Intriguingly, the large-scale field topology of a given pre-main-sequence (PMS) star is strongly dependent upon the stellar internal structure, with the strength of the dipole component of its multipolar magnetic field decaying rapidly with the development of a radiative core. Using the observational data as a basis, we argue that the general characteristics of the global magnetic field of a PMS star can be determined from its position in the H-R diagram. Moving from hotter and more luminous to cooler and less luminous stars across the PMS of the H-R diagram, we present evidence for four distinct magnetic topology regimes. Stars with large radiative cores, empirically estimated to be those with a core mass in excess of {approx}40% of the stellar mass, host highly complex and dominantly non-axisymmetric magnetic fields, while those with smaller radiative cores host axisymmetric fields with field modes of higher order than the dipole dominant (typically, but not always, the octupole). Fully convective stars above {approx}> 0.5 M{sub Sun} appear to host dominantly axisymmetric fields with strong (kilo-Gauss) dipole components. Based on similarities between the magnetic properties of PMS stars and main-sequence M-dwarfs with similar internal structures, we speculate that a bistable dynamo process operates for lower mass stars ({approx}< 0.5 M{sub Sun} at an age of a few Myr) and that they will be found to host a variety of magnetic field topologies. If the magnetic topology trends across the H-R diagram are confirmed, they may provide a new method of constraining PMS stellar evolution models.

  5. Optimizing sequence coverage for a moderate mass protein in nano-electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Ryan; Kolli, Venkata; Woods, Megan; Dodds, Eric D; Hage, David S

    2016-09-15

    Sample pretreatment was optimized to obtain high sequence coverage for human serum albumin (HSA, 66.5 kDa) when using nano-electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (nESI-Q-TOF-MS). Use of the final method with trypsin, Lys-C, and Glu-C digests gave a combined coverage of 98.8%. The addition of peptide fractionation resulted in 99.7% coverage. These results were comparable to those obtained previously with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). The sample pretreatment/nESI-Q-TOF-MS method was also used with collision-induced dissociation to analyze HSA digests and to identify peptides that could be employed as internal mass calibrants in future studies of modifications to HSA. PMID:27320213

  6. THE MOLECULAR GAS CONTENT OF z = 3 LYMAN BREAK GALAXIES: EVIDENCE OF A NON-EVOLVING GAS FRACTION IN MAIN-SEQUENCE GALAXIES AT z > 2

    SciTech Connect

    Magdis, Georgios E.; Rigopoulou, D.; Daddi, E.; Sargent, M.; Elbaz, D.; Gobat, R.; Tan, Q.; Aussel, H.; Feruglio, C.; Charmandaris, V.; Dickinson, M.; Reddy, N.

    2012-10-10

    We present observations of the CO[J = 3 {yields} 2] emission toward two massive and infrared luminous Lyman break galaxies (LBGs) at z = 3.21 and z = 2.92, using the IRAM Plateau de Bure Interferometer, placing first constraints on the molecular gas masses (M{sub gas}) of non-lensed LBGs. Their overall properties are consistent with those of typical (main-sequence) galaxies at their redshifts, with specific star formation rates {approx}1.6 and {approx}2.2 Gyr{sup -1}, despite their large infrared luminosities (L{sub IR} Almost-Equal-To (2-3) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 12} L{sub Sun }) derived from Herschel. With one plausible CO detection (spurious detection probability of 10{sup -3}) and one upper limit, we investigate the evolution of the molecular gas-to-stellar mass ratio (M{sub gas}/M{sub *}) with redshift. Our data suggest that the steep evolution of M{sub gas}/M{sub *} of normal galaxies up to z {approx} 2 is followed by a flattening at higher redshifts, providing supporting evidence for the existence of a plateau in the evolution of the specific star formation rate at z > 2.5.

  7. Preliminary Results of Aerosol Chemical Composition Measurements in the Gulf of Maine with an Aerosol Mass Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Middlebrook, A. M.; Canagaratna, M. R.; Worsnop, D. R.

    2002-12-01

    The New England Air Quality Study is a multi-institutional research project to improve understanding of the atmospheric processes that control the production and distribution of air pollutants in the New England region. During July-August, 2002 a large, collaborative, intensive period of atmospheric measurement and model comparisons took place. As part of this study, an Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS) was deployed aboard the NOAA ship RONALD H. BROWN in the Gulf of Maine. The AMS measures semi-volatile components of aerosol particles with aerodynamic diameters between roughly 40 and 1500 nm. During this study, the AMS collected 2-minute averaged particle mass spectra as well as speciated organic, sulfate, and nitrate size distributions. Sodium chloride, sodium sulfate, and sodium nitrate components of the aerosol, which are relatively non-volatile at the AMS heater temperature, were not detected with the AMS. A wide variety of air masses were sampled during the intensive period, including clean marine, clean continental, and polluted continental air masses. In general, the volatile particle composition was mostly organic and sulfate with lesser amounts of nitrate. Furthermore, particle mass loadings typically peaked around 400-600 nm in aerodynamic diameter. Several events with high aerosol organic, sulfate, and/or nitrate mass loadings were observed and the atmospheric processes that cause them will be discussed.

  8. Evaluation of a Primary Care Intervention on Body Mass Index: The Maine Youth Overweight Collaborative

    PubMed Central

    Gortmaker, Steven L; Letourneau, Lisa; Rogers, Victoria W.; Holmberg, Robert; Lombard, Kenneth A.; Fanburg, Jonathan; Ware, James; Orr, Joan

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: We evaluated the impact of a brief primary-care–based intervention, The Maine Youth Overweight Collaborative (MYOC), on BMI (kg/m2) z-score change among participants with obesity (BMI ≥95th percentile for age and sex), overweight (BMI ≥85th and <95th percentile), and healthy weight (≥50th and <85th percentile). Methods: A quasi-experimental field trial with nine intervention and nine control sites in urban and rural areas of Maine, MYOC focused on improvements in clinical decision support, charting BMI percentile, identifying patients with obesity, appropriate lab tests, and counseling families/patients. Retrospective longitudinal record reviews assessed BMI z-scores preintervention (from 1999 through October 2004) and one postintervention time point (between December 2006 and March 2008). Participants were youth ages 5–18 having two visits before the intervention with weight percentile greater than or equal to 95% (N=265). Secondary analyses focused on youths who are overweight (N=215) and healthy weight youth (N=506). Results: Although the MYOC intervention demonstrated significant provider and office system improvements, we found no significant changes in BMI z-scores in intervention versus control youth pre- to postintervention and significant flattening of upward trends among both intervention and control sites (p<0.001). Conclusions: This brief office-based intervention was associated with no significant improvement in BMI z-scores, compared to control sites. An important avenue for obesity prevention and treatment as part of a multisector approach in communities, this type of primary care intervention alone may be unlikely to impact BMI improvement given the limited dosage—an estimated 4–6 minutes for one patient contact. PMID:25719624

  9. Modeling of Camembert-type cheese mass loss in a ripening chamber: main biological and physical phenomena.

    PubMed

    Hélias, A; Mirade, P-S; Corrieu, G

    2007-11-01

    A model of the mass loss of Camembert-type cheese was established with data obtained from 2 experimental ripening trials carried out in 2 pilot ripening chambers. During these experiments, a cheese was continuously weighed and the relative humidity, temperature, oxygen, and carbon dioxide concentrations in the ripening chamber were recorded online. The aim was to establish a simple but accurate model that would predict cheese mass changes according to available online measurements. The main hypotheses were that 1) the cheese water activity was constant during ripening, 2) the respiratory activity of the microflora played a major role by inducing heat production, combined with important water evaporation, 3) the temperature gradient existing inside the cheese was negligible, and the limiting phenomenon was the convective transfer. The water activity and the specific heat of the cheeses were assessed by offline measurements. The others parameters in the model were obtained from the literature. This dynamic model was built with 2 state variables: the cheese mass and the surface temperature of the cheese. In this way, only the heat transfer coefficient had to be fitted, and it was strongly determined by the airflow characteristics close to the cheeses. Model efficiency was illustrated by comparing the estimated and measured mass and the mass loss rate for the 2 studied runs; the relative errors were less than 1.9 and 3.2% for the mass loss and the mass loss rate, respectively. The dynamic effects of special events, such as room defrosting or changes in chamber relative humidity, were well described by the model, especially in terms of kinetics (mass loss rates). PMID:17954773

  10. The properties and environment of primitive solar nebulae as deduced from observations of solar-type pre-main sequence stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strom, Stephen E.; Edwards, Suzan; Strom, Karen M.

    1991-01-01

    The following topics were discussed: (1) current observation evidence for the presence of circumstellar disks associated with solar type pre-main sequence (PMS) stars; (2) the properties of such disks; and (3) the disk environment.

  11. Dusty OB Stars in the Small Magellanic Cloud. I. Optical Spectroscopy Reveals Predominantly Main-sequence OB Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheets, Holly A.; Bolatto, Alberto D.; van Loon, Jacco Th.; Sandstrom, Karin; Simon, Joshua D.; Oliveira, Joana M.; Barbá, Rodolfo H.

    2013-07-01

    We present the results of optical spectroscopic follow-up of 125 candidate main sequence OB stars in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) that were originally identified in the S3MC infrared imaging survey as showing an excess of emission at 24 μm indicative of warm dust, such as that associated with a transitional or debris disks. We use these long-slit spectra to investigate the origin of the 24 μm emission and the nature of these stars. A possible explanation for the observed 24 μm excess, that these are emission line stars with dusty excretion disks, is disproven for the majority of our sources. We find that 88 of these objects are normal stars without line emission, with spectral types mostly ranging from late-O to early-B; luminosity classes from the literature for a sub-set of our sample indicate that most are main-sequence stars. We further identify 17 emission-line stars, 7 possible emission-line stars, and 5 other objects with forbidden-line emission in our sample. We discover a new O6 Iaf star; it exhibits strong He II 4686 Å emission but relatively weak N III 4640 Å emission which we attribute to the lower nitrogen abundance in the SMC. Two other objects are identified with planetary nebulae, one with a young stellar object, and two with X-ray binaries. To shed additional light on the nature of the observed 24 μm excess we use optical and infrared photometry to estimate the dust properties of the objects with normal O and B star spectra and compare these properties to those of a sample of hot spots in the Galactic interstellar medium (ISM). We find that the dust properties of the dusty OB star sample resemble the properties of the Galactic sample of hot spots. Some may be runaway systems with bow-shocks resulting from a large velocity difference between star and ISM. We further investigate the nature of these dusty OB stars in a companion paper presenting mid-infrared spectroscopy and additional imaging.

  12. DUSTY OB STARS IN THE SMALL MAGELLANIC CLOUD. I. OPTICAL SPECTROSCOPY REVEALS PREDOMINANTLY MAIN-SEQUENCE OB STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Sheets, Holly A.; Bolatto, Alberto D.; Van Loon, Jacco Th.; Oliveira, Joana M.; Sandstrom, Karin; Simon, Joshua D.; Barba, Rodolfo H.

    2013-07-10

    We present the results of optical spectroscopic follow-up of 125 candidate main sequence OB stars in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) that were originally identified in the S{sup 3}MC infrared imaging survey as showing an excess of emission at 24 {mu}m indicative of warm dust, such as that associated with a transitional or debris disks. We use these long-slit spectra to investigate the origin of the 24 {mu}m emission and the nature of these stars. A possible explanation for the observed 24 {mu}m excess, that these are emission line stars with dusty excretion disks, is disproven for the majority of our sources. We find that 88 of these objects are normal stars without line emission, with spectral types mostly ranging from late-O to early-B; luminosity classes from the literature for a sub-set of our sample indicate that most are main-sequence stars. We further identify 17 emission-line stars, 7 possible emission-line stars, and 5 other objects with forbidden-line emission in our sample. We discover a new O6 Iaf star; it exhibits strong He II 4686 A emission but relatively weak N III 4640 A emission which we attribute to the lower nitrogen abundance in the SMC. Two other objects are identified with planetary nebulae, one with a young stellar object, and two with X-ray binaries. To shed additional light on the nature of the observed 24 {mu}m excess we use optical and infrared photometry to estimate the dust properties of the objects with normal O and B star spectra and compare these properties to those of a sample of hot spots in the Galactic interstellar medium (ISM). We find that the dust properties of the dusty OB star sample resemble the properties of the Galactic sample of hot spots. Some may be runaway systems with bow-shocks resulting from a large velocity difference between star and ISM. We further investigate the nature of these dusty OB stars in a companion paper presenting mid-infrared spectroscopy and additional imaging.

  13. Asteroseismology of the Hyades with K2: first detection of main-sequence solar-like oscillations in an open cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lund, Mikkel N.; Basu, Sarbani; Silva Aguirre, Víctor; Chaplin, William J.; Serenelli, Aldo M.; García, Rafael A.; Latham, David W.; Casagrande, Luca; Bieryla, Allyson; Davies, Guy R.; Viani, Lucas S.; Buchhave, Lars A.; Miglio, Andrea; Soderblom, David R.; Valenti, Jeff A.; Stefanik, Robert P.; Handberg, Rasmus

    2016-08-01

    The Hyades open cluster was targeted during Campaign 4 (C4) of the NASA K2 mission, and short-cadence data were collected on a number of cool main-sequence stars. Here, we report results on two F-type stars that show detectable oscillations of a quality that allows asteroseismic analyses to be performed. These are the first ever detections of solar-like oscillations in main-sequence stars in an open cluster.

  14. DNA sequencing with capillary electrophoresis and single cell analysis with mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Fung, N.

    1998-03-27

    Since the first demonstration of the laser in the 1960`s, lasers have found numerous applications in analytical chemistry. In this work, two different applications are described, namely, DNA sequencing with capillary gel electrophoresis and single cell analysis with mass spectrometry. Two projects are described in which high-speed DNA separations with capillary gel electrophoresis were demonstrated. In the third project, flow cytometry and mass spectrometry were coupled via a laser vaporization/ionization interface and individual mammalian cells were analyzed. First, DNA Sanger fragments were separated by capillary gel electrophoresis. A separation speed of 20 basepairs per minute was demonstrated with a mixed poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) sieving solution. In addition, a new capillary wall treatment protocol was developed in which bare (or uncoated) capillaries can be used in DNA sequencing. Second, a temperature programming scheme was used to separate DNA Sanger fragments. Third, flow cytometry and mass spectrometry were coupled with a laser vaporization/ionization interface.

  15. Multiple stellar populations in Magellanic Cloud clusters - IV. The double main sequence of the young cluster NGC 1755

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milone, A. P.; Marino, A. F.; D'Antona, F.; Bedin, L. R.; Da Costa, G. S.; Jerjen, H.; Mackey, A. D.

    2016-06-01

    Nearly all the star clusters with ages of ˜1-2 Gyr in both Magellanic Clouds exhibit an extended main-sequence turn-off (eMSTO) whose origin is under debate. The main scenarios suggest that the eMSTO could be either due to multiple generations of stars with different ages or to coeval stellar populations with different rotation rates. In this paper we use Hubble Space Telescope images to investigate the ˜80-Myr old cluster NGC 1755 in the LMC. We find that the MS is split with the blue and the red MS hosting about the 25 per cent and the 75 per cent of the total number of MS stars, respectively. Moreover, the MSTO of NGC 1755 is broadened in close analogy with what is observed in the ˜300-Myr-old NGC 1856 and in most intermediate-age Magellanic-Cloud clusters. We demonstrate that both the split MS and the eMSTO are not due to photometric errors, field-stars contamination, differential reddening, or non-interacting binaries. These findings make NGC 1755 the youngest cluster with an eMSTO. We compare the observed CMD with isochrones and conclude that observations are not consistent with stellar populations with difference in age, helium, or metallicity only. On the contrary, the split MS is well reproduced by two stellar populations with different rotation, although the fit between the observed eMSTO and models with different rotation is not fully satisfactory. We speculate whether all stars in NGC 1755 were born rapidly rotating, and a fraction has slowed down on a rapid time-scale, or the dichotomy in rotation rate was present already at star formation. We discuss the implication of these findings on the interpretation of eMSTO in young and intermediate-age clusters.

  16. Evaluating gyrochronology on the zero-age-main-sequence: rotation periods in the southern open cluster Blanco 1 from the Kelt-South survey

    SciTech Connect

    Cargile, P. A.; Pepper, J.; Siverd, R.; Stassun, K. G.; James, D. J.; Kuhn, R. B.

    2014-02-10

    We report periods for 33 members of Blanco 1 as measured from Kilodegree Extremely Little Telescope-South light curves, the first reported rotation periods for this benchmark zero-age-main-sequence open cluster. The distribution of these stars spans from late-A or early-F dwarfs to mid-K with periods ranging from less than a day to ∼8 days. The rotation period distribution has a morphology similar to the coeval Pleiades cluster, suggesting the universal nature of stellar rotation distributions. Employing two different gyrochronology methods, we find an age of 146{sub −14}{sup +13} Myr for the cluster. Using the same techniques, we infer an age of 134{sub −10}{sup +9} Myr for the Pleiades measured from existing literature rotation periods. These rotation-derived ages agree with independently determined cluster ages based on the lithium depletion boundary technique. Additionally, we evaluate different gyrochronology models and quantify levels of agreement between the models and the Blanco 1/Pleiades rotation period distributions, including incorporating the rotation distributions of clusters at ages up to 1.1 Gyr. We find the Skumanich-like spin-down rate sufficiently describes the rotation evolution of stars hotter than the Sun; however, we find cooler stars rotating faster than predicted by a Skumanich law, suggesting a mass dependence in the efficiency of stellar angular momentum loss rate. Finally, we compare the Blanco 1 and Pleiades rotation period distributions to available nonlinear angular momentum evolution models. We find they require a significant mass dependence on the initial rotation rate of solar-type stars to reproduce the observed range of rotation periods at a given stellar mass and are furthermore unable to predict the observed over-density of stars along the upper envelope of the clusters' rotation distributions.

  17. SEARCHING FOR YOUNG JUPITER ANALOGS AROUND AP COL: L-BAND HIGH-CONTRAST IMAGING OF THE CLOSEST PRE-MAIN-SEQUENCE STAR

    SciTech Connect

    Quanz, Sascha P.; Avenhaus, Henning; Meyer, Michael R.; Crepp, Justin R.; Hillenbrand, Lynne A.; Janson, Markus

    2012-08-01

    The nearby M-dwarf AP Col was recently identified by Riedel et al. as a pre-main-sequence star (age 12-50 Myr) situated only 8.4 pc from the Sun. The combination of its youth, distance, and intrinsically low luminosity make it an ideal target to search for extrasolar planets using direct imaging. We report deep adaptive optics observations of AP Col taken with VLT/NACO and Keck/NIRC2 in the L band. Using aggressive speckle suppression and background subtraction techniques, we are able to rule out companions with mass m {>=} 0.5-1 M{sub Jup} for projected separations a > 4.5 AU, and m {>=} 2 M{sub Jup} for projected separations as small as 3 AU, assuming an age of 40 Myr using the COND theoretical evolutionary models. Using a different set of models, the mass limits increase by a factor of {approx}>2. The observations presented here are the deepest mass-sensitivity limits yet achieved within 20 AU on a star with direct imaging. While Doppler radial velocity surveys have shown that Jovian bodies with close-in orbits are rare around M-dwarfs, gravitational microlensing studies predict that 17{sup +6}{sub -9}% of these stars host massive planets with orbital separations of 1-10 AU. Sensitive high-contrast imaging observations, like those presented here, will help to validate results from complementary detection techniques by determining the frequency of gas giant planets on wide orbits around M-dwarfs.

  18. GOODS-Herschel: Star Formation, Dust Attenuation, and the FIR-radio Correlation on the Main Sequence of Star-forming Galaxies up to z ≃4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pannella, M.; Elbaz, D.; Daddi, E.; Dickinson, M.; Hwang, H. S.; Schreiber, C.; Strazzullo, V.; Aussel, H.; Bethermin, M.; Buat, V.; Charmandaris, V.; Cibinel, A.; Juneau, S.; Ivison, R. J.; Le Borgne, D.; Le Floc'h, E.; Leiton, R.; Lin, L.; Magdis, G.; Morrison, G. E.; Mullaney, J.; Onodera, M.; Renzini, A.; Salim, S.; Sargent, M. T.; Scott, D.; Shu, X.; Wang, T.

    2015-07-01

    We use deep panchromatic data sets in the GOODS-N field, from GALEX to the deepest Herschel far-infrared (FIR) and VLA radio continuum imaging, to explore the evolution of star-formation activity and dust attenuation properties of star-forming galaxies to z ≃ 4, using mass-complete samples. Our main results can be summarized as follows: (i) the slope of the star-formation rate-M* correlation is consistent with being constant ≃0.8 up to z ≃ 1.5, while its normalization keeps increasing with redshift; (ii) for the first time we are able to explore the FIR-radio correlation for a mass-selected sample of star-forming galaxies: the correlation does not evolve up to z ≃ 4; (iii) we confirm that galaxy stellar mass is a robust proxy for UV dust attenuation in star-forming galaxies, with more massive galaxies being more dust attenuated. Strikingly, we find that this attenuation relation evolves very weakly with redshift, with the amount of dust attenuation increasing by less than 0.3 mag over the redshift range [0.5-4] for a fixed stellar mass; (iv) the correlation between dust attenuation and the UV spectral slope evolves with redshift, with the median UV slope becoming bluer with redshift. By z ≃ 3, typical UV slopes are inconsistent, given the measured dust attenuations, with the predictions of commonly used empirical laws. (v) Finally, building on existing results, we show that gas reddening is marginally larger (by a factor of around 1.3) than the stellar reddening at all redshifts probed. Our results support a scenario where the ISM conditions of typical star-forming galaxies evolve with redshift, such that at z ≥ 1.5 Main Sequence galaxies have ISM conditions moving closer to those of local starbursts. Based on observations collected at the Herschel, Spitzer, Keck, NRAO-VLA, Subaru, KPNO, and CFHT observatories. Herschel is an European Space Agency Cornerstone Mission with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and

  19. From CoRoT 102899501 to the Sun. A time evolution model of chromospheric activity on the main sequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gondoin, P.; Gandolfi, D.; Fridlund, M.; Frasca, A.; Guenther, E. W.; Hatzes, A.; Deeg, H. J.; Parviainen, H.; Eigmüller, P.; Deleuil, M.

    2012-12-01

    Aims: The present study reports measurements of the rotation period of a young solar analogue, estimates of its surface coverage by photospheric starspots and of its chromospheric activity level, and derivations of its evolutionary status. Detailed observations of many young solar-type stars, such as the one reported in the present paper, provide insight into rotation and magnetic properties that may have prevailed on the Sun in its early evolution. Methods: Using a model based on the rotational modulation of the visibility of active regions, we analysed the high-accuracy CoRoT lightcurve of the active star CoRoT 102899501. Spectroscopic follow-up observations were used to derive its fundamental parameters. We compared the chromospheric activity level of Corot 102899501 with the R'HK index distribution vs age established on a large sample of solar-type dwarfs in open clusters. We also compared the chromospheric activity level of this young star with a model of chromospheric activity evolution established by combining relationships between the R'HK index and the Rossby number with a recent model of stellar rotation evolution on the main sequence. Results: We measure the spot coverage of the stellar surface as a function of time and find evidence for a tentative increase from 5 - 14% at the beginning of the observing run to 13-29% 35 days later. A high level of magnetic activity on Corot 102899501 is corroborated by a strong emission in the Balmer and Ca ii H and K lines (R'HK ~ -4). The starspots used as tracers of the star rotation constrain the rotation period to 1.625 ± 0.002 days and do not show evidence for differential rotation. The effective temperature (Teff = 5180 ± 80 K), surface gravity (log g = 4.35 ± 0.1), and metallicity ([M/H] = 0.05 ± 0.07 dex) indicate that the object is located near the evolutionary track of a 1.09 ± 0.12 M⊙ pre-main sequence star at an age of 23 ± 10 Myr. This value is consistent with the "gyro-age" of about 8-25 Myr

  20. Preparation of a Far-UV Spectral and Line Atlas for B stars near the Main Sequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Myron A.

    2009-05-01

    B type stars are major contributors to the total far-UV (949-1225 Å) flux produced in the Milky Way and external galaxies. The final reprocessing of the FUSE satellite dataset, together with the existing archives of the HST/STIS, IUE, and the Copernicus Atlas of τ Sco, permit the construction of a high dispersion atlas of 10 sharp-lined B stars near the main sequence (mostly class III-V). Our atlas segregates the H I and molecular H2 and photospheric lines and, thanks to the synspec synthesis program, lists essentially all noticeable absorption features with known oscillator strengths for specta of types B0, B2, and B8-B9. The atlas will allow the identification of anomalous features in other B-type spectra and the selection of line proxies to compute Teff, anomalous abundance patterns, and possible departures of atmospheric T(τ)'s from nonstandard gradients. We discuss the input constituents for this atlas, show examples of atlas panels, and we display line identifications for the three spectral types noted above. The ~4300 lines we have identified comprise over 12% of the features in our line library. We have been unable to identify fewer than 5% of the visible features in the τ Sco spectrum, and fewer still in the B8 spectrum. Comparable numbers of lines are overpredicted in our syntheses.

  1. On Be star candidates and possible blue pre-main sequence objects in the Small Magellanic Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mennickent, R. E.; Pietrzyński, G.; Gieren, W.; Szewczyk, O.

    2002-10-01

    Recently the OGLE experiment has provided accurate light curves and colours for about 2 millions stars in the Small Magellanic Cloud. We have examined this database for its content of Be stars, applying some selection criteria, and we have found a sample of ~ 1000 candidates. Some of these stars show beautiful light curves with amazing variations never observed in any Galactic variable. We find outbursts in 13% of the sample (type-1 stars), high and low states in 15%, periodic variations in 7%, and the usual variations seen in Galactic Be stars in 65% of the cases. The Galactic counterparts of type-1 objects could be the outbursting Be stars found by Hubert & Floquet (\\cite{Hubert}) after the analysis of Hipparcos photometry. We discuss the possibility that type-1 stars could correspond to Be stars with accreting white dwarf companions or alternatively, blue pre-main sequence stars surrounded by thermally unstable accretion disks. We provide coordinates and basic photometric information for these stars and some examples of light curves. The complete Tables 1, 3, 5 and 6 are available in electronic form at http://www.edpsciences.org

  2. First discovery of a magnetic field in a main-sequence δ Scuti star: the Kepler star HD 188774

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neiner, C.; Lampens, P.

    2015-11-01

    The Kepler space mission provided a wealth of δ Sct-γ Dor hybrid candidates. While some may be genuine hybrids, others might be misclassified due to the presence of a binary companion or to rotational modulation caused by magnetism and related surface inhomogeneities. In particular, the Kepler δ Sct-γ Dor hybrid candidate HD 188774 shows a few low frequencies in its light and radial velocity curves, whose origin is unclear. In this work, we check for the presence of a magnetic field in HD 188774. We obtained two spectropolarimetric measurements with an Echelle SpectroPolarimetric Device for the Observation of Stars (ESPaDOnS) at Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope. The data were analysed with the least-squares deconvolution (LSD) method. We detected a clear magnetic signature in the Stokes V LSD profiles. The origin of the low frequencies detected in HD 188774 is therefore most probably the rotational modulation of surface spots possibly related to the presence of a magnetic field. Consequently, HD 188774 is not a genuine hybrid δ Sct-γ Dor star, but the first known magnetic main-sequence δ Sct star. This makes it a prime target for future asteroseismic and spot modelling. This result casts new light on the interpretation of the Kepler results for other δ Sct-γ Dor hybrid candidates.

  3. A Radial Velocity Survey of Hot Subdwarfs with Main Sequence Companions using the Hobby-Eberly Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wade, R.; Barlow, B.; Liss, S.; Stark, M.

    2014-04-01

    Binary population synthesis models are generally successful at reproducing the observed periods of hot subdwarf binaries with M dwarf or white dwarf companions; the story for sdB+F/G/K binaries, however, is still being written. Relatively few observational constraints have been published for these composite-spectra systems. We have been monitoring the radial velocities (RVs) of 15 hot subdwarf binaries with late F - K dwarf companions since 2005 using the Medium and High Resolution Spectrographs on the Hobby-Eberly Telescope. Here we present RV measurements and orbital parameter estimates for selected systems in our sample. We also present an up-to-date period histogram for all known hot subdwarf binaries, including both short- and long-period systems. Our initial results suggest that those with late F - K main sequence companions have orbital periods on the order of 1.5 to 3 years. Several of the long-period binaries show strong evidence for non-circular orbits, challenging the conventional Roche Lobe overflow formation channel for hot subdwarfs.

  4. A Young Cluster With an Extended Main Sequence Turnoff: Confirmation of a Prediction of the Stellar Rotation Scenario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bastian, N.; Niederhofer, F.; Kozhurina-Platais, V.; Salaris, M.; Larsen, S.; Cabrera-Ziri, I.; Cordero, M.; Ekström, S.; Geisler, D.; Georgy, C.; Hilker, M.; Kacharov, N.; Li, C.; Mackey, D.; Mucciarelli, A.; Platais, I.

    2016-04-01

    We present Hubble Space Telescope photometry of NGC 1850, a ˜100 Myr, ˜105 M⊙ cluster in the Large Magellanic Cloud. The colour magnitude diagram clearly shows the presence of an extended main sequence turnoff (eMSTO). The use of non-rotating stellar isochrones leads to an age spread of ˜40 Myr. This is in good agreement with the age range expected when the effects of rotation in MSTO stars are wrongly interpreted in terms of age spread. We also do not find evidence for multiple, isolated episodes of star-formation bursts within the cluster, in contradiction to scenarios that invoke actual age spreads to explain the eMSTO phenomenon. NGC 1850 therefore continues the trend of eMSTO clusters where the inferred age spread is proportional to the age of the cluster. While our results confirm a key prediction of the scenario where stellar rotation causes the eMSTO feature, direct measurements of the rotational rate of MSTO stars is required to definitively confirm or refute whether stellar rotation is the origin of the eMSTO phenomenon or if it is due to an as yet undiscovered effect.

  5. THE SOLAR NEIGHBORHOOD. XXVI. AP Col: THE CLOSEST (8.4 pc) PRE-MAIN-SEQUENCE STAR

    SciTech Connect

    Riedel, Adric R.; Henry, Todd J.; Jao, Wei-Chun; Murphy, Simon J.; Melis, Carl; Subasavage, John P. E-mail: thenry@chara.gsu.edu E-mail: murphysj@mso.anu.edu.au E-mail: jsubasavage@ctio.noao.edu

    2011-10-15

    We present the results of a multi-technique investigation of the M4.5Ve flare star AP Col, which we discover to be the nearest pre-main-sequence star. These include astrometric data from the CTIO 0.9 m, from which we derive a proper motion of 342.0 {+-} 0.5 mas yr{sup -1}, a trigonometric parallax of 119.21 {+-} 0.98 mas (8.39 {+-} 0.07 pc), and photometry and photometric variability at optical wavelengths. We also provide spectroscopic data, including radial velocity (22.4 {+-} 0.3 km s{sup -1}), lithium equivalent width (EW) (0.28 {+-} 0.02 A), H{alpha} EW (-6.0 to -35 A), vsin i (11 {+-} 1 km s{sup -1}), and gravity indicators from the Siding Spring 2.3 m WiFeS, Lick 3 m Hamilton echelle, and Keck-I HIRES echelle spectrographs. The combined observations demonstrate that AP Col is the closer of only two known systems within 10 pc of the Sun younger than 100 Myr. Given its space motion and apparent age of 12-50 Myr, AP Col is likely a member of the recently proposed {approx}40 Myr old Argus/IC 2391 Association.

  6. Using A New Model for Main Sequence Turnoff Absolute Magnitudes to Measure Stellar Streams in the Milky Way Halo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiss, Jake; Newberg, Heidi Jo; Arsenault, Matthew; Bechtel, Torrin; Desell, Travis; Newby, Matthew; Thompson, Jeffery M.

    2016-01-01

    Statistical photometric parallax is a method for using the distribution of absolute magnitudes of stellar tracers to statistically recover the underlying density distribution of these tracers. In previous work, statistical photometric parallax was used to trace the Sagittarius Dwarf tidal stream, the so-called bifurcated piece of the Sagittaritus stream, and the Virgo Overdensity through the Milky Way. We use an improved knowledge of this distribution in a new algorithm that accounts for the changes in the stellar population of color-selected stars near the photometric limit of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). Although we select bluer main sequence turnoff stars (MSTO) as tracers, large color errors near the survey limit cause many stars to be scattered out of our selection box and many fainter, redder stars to be scattered into our selection box. We show that we are able to recover parameters for analogues of these streams in simulated data using a maximum likelihood optimization on MilkyWay@home. We also present the preliminary results of fitting the density distribution of major Milky Way tidal streams in SDSS data. This research is supported by generous gifts from the Marvin Clan, Babette Josephs, Manit Limlamai, and the MilkyWay@home volunteers.

  7. THE EXTENDED MAIN-SEQUENCE TURNOFF CLUSTERS OF THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD-MISSING LINKS IN GLOBULAR CLUSTER EVOLUTION

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, Stefan C.; Mackey, A. Dougal; Da Costa, Gary S.

    2011-04-10

    Recent observations of intermediate-age (1-3 Gyr) massive star clusters in the Large Magellanic Cloud have revealed that the majority possess bifurcated or extended main-sequence turnoff (EMSTO) morphologies. This effect can be understood to arise from subsequent star formation among the stellar population with age differences between constituent stars amounting to 50-300 Myr. Age spreads of this order are similarly invoked to explain the light-element abundance variations witnessed in ancient globular clusters (GCs). In this paper, we explore the proposition that the clusters exhibiting the EMSTO phenomenon are a general phase in the evolution of massive clusters, one that naturally leads to the particular chemical properties of the ancient GC population. We show that the isolation of EMSTO clusters to intermediate ages is the consequence of observational selection effects. In our proposed scenario, the EMSTO phenomenon is identical to that which establishes the light-element abundance variations that are ubiquitous in the ancient GC population. Our scenario makes a strong prediction: EMSTO clusters will exhibit abundance variations in the light-elements characteristic of the ancient GC population.

  8. Peptides derivatized with bicyclic quaternary ammonium ionization tags. Sequencing via tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Setner, Bartosz; Rudowska, Magdalena; Klem, Ewelina; Cebrat, Marek; Szewczuk, Zbigniew

    2014-10-01

    Improving the sensitivity of detection and fragmentation of peptides to provide reliable sequencing of peptides is an important goal of mass spectrometric analysis. Peptides derivatized by bicyclic quaternary ammonium ionization tags: 1-azabicyclo[2.2.2]octane (ABCO) or 1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane (DABCO), are characterized by an increased detection sensitivity in electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) and longer retention times on the reverse-phase (RP) chromatography columns. The improvement of the detection limit was observed even for peptides dissolved in 10 mM NaCl. Collision-induced dissociation tandem mass spectrometry of quaternary ammonium salts derivatives of peptides showed dominant a- and b-type ions, allowing facile sequencing of peptides. The bicyclic ionization tags are stable in collision-induced dissociation experiments, and the resulted fragmentation pattern is not significantly influenced by either acidic or basic amino acid residues in the peptide sequence. Obtained results indicate the general usefulness of the bicyclic quaternary ammonium ionization tags for ESI-MS/MS sequencing of peptides. PMID:25303389

  9. Improved Sequence Tag Generation Method for Peptide Identification in Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Xia; Nesvizhskii, Alexey I.

    2013-01-01

    The sequence tag-based peptide identification methods are a promising alternative to the traditional database search approach. However, a more comprehensive analysis, optimization, and comparison with established methods are necessary before these methods can gain widespread use in the proteomics community. Using the InsPecT open source code base (Tanner et al., Anal Chem. 2005, 77:4626–39), we present an improved sequence tag generation method that directly incorporates multi-charged fragment ion peaks present in many tandem mass spectra of higher charge states. We also investigate the performance of sequence tagging under different settings using control datasets generated on five different types of mass spectrometers, as well as using a complex phosphopeptide-enriched sample. We also demonstrate that additional modeling of InsPecT search scores using a semi-parametric approach incorporating the accuracy of the precursor ion mass measurement provides additional improvement in the ability to discriminate between correct and incorrect peptide identifications. The overall superior performance of the sequence tag-based peptide identification method is demonstrated by comparison with a commonly used SEQUEST/PeptideProphet approach. PMID:18785767

  10. The Problem of Hipparcos Distances to Open Clusters. Report 1; Constraints from Multicolor a Main-Sequence Fitting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinsonneault, Marc H.; Stauffer, John; Soderblom, David R.; King, Jeremy R.; Hanson, Robert B.

    1998-01-01

    Parallax data from the Hipparcos mission allow the direct distance to open clusters to be compared with the distance inferred from main-sequence (MS) fitting. There are surprising differences between the two distance measurements. indicating either the need for changes in the cluster compositions or reddening, underlying problems with the technique of MS fitting, or systematic errors in the Hipparcos parallaxes at the 1 mas level. We examine the different possibilities, focusing on MS fitting in both metallicity-sensitive B-V and metallicity-insensitive V-I for five well-studied systems (the Hyades, Pleiades, alpha Per, Praesepe, and Coma Ber). The Hipparcos distances to the Hyades and alpha Per are within 1 sigma of the MS-fitting distance in B-V and V-I, while the Hipparcos distances to Coma Ber and the Pleiades are in disagreement with the MS-fitting distance at more than the 3 sigma level. There are two Hipparcos measurements of the distance to Praesepe; one is in good agreement with the MS-fitting distance and the other disagrees at the 2 sigma level. The distance estimates from the different colors are in conflict with one another for Coma but in agreement for the Pleiades. Changes in the relative cluster metal abundances, age related effects, helium, and reddening are shown to be unlikely to explain the puzzling behavior of the Pleiades. We present evidence for spatially dependent systematic errors at the 1 mas level in the parallaxes of Pleiades stars. The implications of this result are discussed.

  11. The Distances to Open Clusters from Main-Sequence Fitting. IV. Galactic Cepheids, the LMC, and the Local Distance Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Deokkeun; Terndrup, Donald M.; Pinsonneault, Marc H.

    2007-12-01

    We derive the basic properties of seven Galactic open clusters containing Cepheids and construct their period-luminosity (P-L) relations. For our cluster main-sequence fitting we extend previous Hyades-based empirical color-temperature corrections to hotter stars using the Pleiades as a template. We use BVICJHKs data to test the reddening law and include metallicity effects to perform a more comprehensive study for our clusters than prior efforts. The ratio of total to selective extinction RV that we derive is consistent with expectations. Assuming the LMC P-L slopes, we find =-3.93+/-0.07 (statistical)+/-0.14 (systematic) for 10 day period Cepheids, which is generally fainter than those in previous studies. Our results are consistent with recent HST and Hipparcos parallax studies when using the Wesenheit magnitudes W(VI). Uncertainties in reddening and metallicity are the major remaining sources of error in the V-band P-L relation, but a higher precision could be obtained with deeper optical and near-infrared cluster photometry. We derive distances to NGC 4258, the LMC, and M33 of (m-M)0=29.28+/-0.10, 18.34+/-0.06, and 24.55+/-0.28, respectively, with an additional systematic error of 0.16 mag in the P-L relations. The distance to NGC 4258 is in good agreement with the geometric distance derived from water masers [Δ(m-M)0=0.01+/-0.24], our value for M33 is less consistent with the distance from an eclipsing binary [Δ(m-M)0=0.37+/-0.34], and our LMC distance is moderately shorter than the adopted distance in the HST Key Project, which formally implies an increase in the Hubble constant of 7%+/-8%.

  12. RoboOligo: software for mass spectrometry data to support manual and de novo sequencing of post-transcriptionally modified ribonucleic acids

    PubMed Central

    Sample, Paul J.; Gaston, Kirk W.; Alfonzo, Juan D.; Limbach, Patrick A.

    2015-01-01

    Ribosomal ribonucleic acid (RNA), transfer RNA and other biological or synthetic RNA polymers can contain nucleotides that have been modified by the addition of chemical groups. Traditional Sanger sequencing methods cannot establish the chemical nature and sequence of these modified-nucleotide containing oligomers. Mass spectrometry (MS) has become the conventional approach for determining the nucleotide composition, modification status and sequence of modified RNAs. Modified RNAs are analyzed by MS using collision-induced dissociation tandem mass spectrometry (CID MS/MS), which produces a complex dataset of oligomeric fragments that must be interpreted to identify and place modified nucleosides within the RNA sequence. Here we report the development of RoboOligo, an interactive software program for the robust analysis of data generated by CID MS/MS of RNA oligomers. There are three main functions of RoboOligo: (i) automated de novo sequencing via the local search paradigm. (ii) Manual sequencing with real-time spectrum labeling and cumulative intensity scoring. (iii) A hybrid approach, coined ‘variable sequencing’, which combines the user intuition of manual sequencing with the high-throughput sampling of automated de novo sequencing. PMID:25820423

  13. Synchronized and intermittent oscillations observed in a sub Belousov Zhabotinsky reactor under continuous mass flow from a main reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyazaki, J.; Yoshioka, S.; Kinoshita, S.

    2004-04-01

    We have constructed a small ferroin-catalyzed Belousov-Zhabotinsky reactor connected with a main reactor through continuous mass flow. When each reactor is in an independent oscillating state, the activation energy of the oscillation frequency differs considerably from each other, which enables us to investigate the oscillating state of the former under precise control of the latter through coupling strength and frequency difference. With increasing flow rate, both synchronized and intermittent oscillations appear according to the sign of the frequency difference. A precursor exists near the synchronization, while the transition from resting to oscillating state takes place in a timely manner for the intermittent oscillation.

  14. Method and apparatus for enhanced sequencing of complex molecules using surface-induced dissociation in conjunction with mass spectrometric analysis

    DOEpatents

    Laskin, Julia [Richland, WA; Futrell, Jean H [Richland, WA

    2008-04-29

    The invention relates to a method and apparatus for enhanced sequencing of complex molecules using surface-induced dissociation (SID) in conjunction with mass spectrometric analysis. Results demonstrate formation of a wide distribution of structure-specific fragments having wide sequence coverage useful for sequencing and identifying the complex molecules.

  15. Helium-abundance and other composition effects on the properties of stellar surface convection in solar-like main-sequence stars

    SciTech Connect

    Tanner, Joel D.; Basu, Sarbani; Demarque, Pierre

    2013-12-01

    We investigate the effect of helium abundance and α-element enhancement on the properties of convection in envelopes of solar-like main-sequence stars using a grid of three-dimensional radiation hydrodynamic simulations. Helium abundance increases the mean molecular weight of the gas and alters opacity by displacing hydrogen. Since the scale of the effect of helium may depend on the metallicity, the grid consists of simulations with three helium abundances (Y = 0.1, 0.2, 0.3), each with two metallicities (Z = 0.001, 0.020). We find that changing the helium mass fraction generally affects structure and convective dynamics in a way opposite to that of metallicity. Furthermore, the effect is considerably smaller than that of metallicity. The signature of helium differs from that of metallicity in the manner in which the photospheric velocity distribution is affected. We also find that helium abundance and surface gravity behave largely in similar ways, but differ in the way they affect the mean molecular weight. A simple model for spectral line formation suggests that the bisectors and absolute Doppler shifts of spectral lines depend on the helium abundance. We look at the effect of α-element enhancement and find that it has a considerably smaller effect on the convective dynamics in the superadiabatic layer compared to that of helium abundance.

  16. Accretion and Magnetic Reconnection in the Pre-Main Sequence Binary DQ Tau as Revealed through High-Cadence Optical Photometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tofflemire, Benjamin M.; Mathieu, Robert D.; Ardila, David R.; Akeson, Rachel L.; Ciardi, David R.; Herczeg, Gregory; Johns-Krull, Christopher M.; Vodniza, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Protostellar disks are integral to the formation and evolution of low-mass stars and planets. A paradigm for the star-disk interaction has been extensively developed through theory and observation in the case of single stars. Most stars, however, form in binaries or higher order systems where the distribution of disk material and mass flows are more complex. Pre-main sequence (PMS) binary stars can have up to three accretion disks: two circumstellar disks and a circumbinary disk separated by a dynamically cleared gap. Theory suggests that mass may periodically flow in an accretion stream from a circumbinary disk across the gap onto circumstellar disks or stellar surfaces.The archetype for this theory is the eccentric, PMS binary DQ Tau. Moderate-cadence broadband photometry (~10 observations per orbital period) has shown pulsed brightening events near most periastron passages, just as numerical simulations would predict for a binary of similar orbital parameters. While this observed behavior supports the accretion stream theory, it is not exclusive to variable accretion rates. Magnetic reconnection events (flares) during the collision of stellar magnetospheres at periastron (when separated by 8 stellar radii) could produce the same periodic, broadband behavior when observed at a one-day cadence. Further evidence for magnetic activity comes from gyrosynchrotron, radio flares (typical of stellar flares) observed near multiple periastron passages. To reveal the physical mechanism seen in DQ Tau's moderate-cadence observations, we have obtained continuous, moderate-cadence, multi-band photometry over 10 orbital periods (LCOGT 1m network), supplemented with 32 nights of minute-cadence photometry centered on 4 separate periastron passages (WIYN 0.9m; APO ARCSAT). With detailed lightcurve morphologies we distinguish between the gradual rise and fall on multi-day time-scales predicted by the accretion stream theory and the hour time-scale, rapid-rise and exponential

  17. Zodiacal Exoplanets in Time (ZEIT). III. A Short-period Planet Orbiting a Pre-main-sequence Star in the Upper Scorpius OB Association

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mann, Andrew W.; Newton, Elisabeth R.; Rizzuto, Aaron C.; Irwin, Jonathan; Feiden, Gregory A.; Gaidos, Eric; Mace, Gregory N.; Kraus, Adam L.; James, David J.; Ansdell, Megan; Charbonneau, David; Covey, Kevin R.; Ireland, Michael J.; Jaffe, Daniel T.; Johnson, Marshall C.; Kidder, Benjamin; Vanderburg, Andrew

    2016-09-01

    We confirm and characterize a close-in ({P}{{orb}} = 5.425 days), super-Neptune sized ({5.04}-0.37+0.34 {R}\\oplus ) planet transiting K2-33 (2MASS J16101473-1919095), a late-type (M3) pre-main-sequence (11 Myr old) star in the Upper Scorpius subgroup of the Scorpius–Centaurus OB association. The host star has the kinematics of a member of the Upper Scorpius OB association, and its spectrum contains lithium absorption, an unambiguous sign of youth (\\lt 20 Myr) in late-type dwarfs. We combine photometry from K2 and the ground-based MEarth project to refine the planet’s properties and constrain the host star’s density. We determine K2-33’s bolometric flux and effective temperature from moderate-resolution spectra. By utilizing isochrones that include the effects of magnetic fields, we derive a precise radius (6%–7%) and mass (16%) for the host star, and a stellar age consistent with the established value for Upper Scorpius. Follow-up high-resolution imaging and Doppler spectroscopy confirm that the transiting object is not a stellar companion or a background eclipsing binary blended with the target. The shape of the transit, the constancy of the transit depth and periodicity over 1.5 yr, and the independence with wavelength rule out stellar variability or a dust cloud or debris disk partially occulting the star as the source of the signal; we conclude that it must instead be planetary in origin. The existence of K2-33b suggests that close-in planets can form in situ or migrate within ∼10 Myr, e.g., via interactions with a disk, and that long-timescale dynamical migration such as by Lidov–Kozai or planet–planet scattering is not responsible for all short-period planets.

  18. Zodiacal Exoplanets in Time (ZEIT). III. A Short-period Planet Orbiting a Pre-main-sequence Star in the Upper Scorpius OB Association

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mann, Andrew W.; Newton, Elisabeth R.; Rizzuto, Aaron C.; Irwin, Jonathan; Feiden, Gregory A.; Gaidos, Eric; Mace, Gregory N.; Kraus, Adam L.; James, David J.; Ansdell, Megan; Charbonneau, David; Covey, Kevin R.; Ireland, Michael J.; Jaffe, Daniel T.; Johnson, Marshall C.; Kidder, Benjamin; Vanderburg, Andrew

    2016-09-01

    We confirm and characterize a close-in ({P}{{orb}} = 5.425 days), super-Neptune sized ({5.04}-0.37+0.34 {R}\\oplus ) planet transiting K2-33 (2MASS J16101473-1919095), a late-type (M3) pre-main-sequence (11 Myr old) star in the Upper Scorpius subgroup of the Scorpius–Centaurus OB association. The host star has the kinematics of a member of the Upper Scorpius OB association, and its spectrum contains lithium absorption, an unambiguous sign of youth (\\lt 20 Myr) in late-type dwarfs. We combine photometry from K2 and the ground-based MEarth project to refine the planet’s properties and constrain the host star’s density. We determine K2-33’s bolometric flux and effective temperature from moderate-resolution spectra. By utilizing isochrones that include the effects of magnetic fields, we derive a precise radius (6%–7%) and mass (16%) for the host star, and a stellar age consistent with the established value for Upper Scorpius. Follow-up high-resolution imaging and Doppler spectroscopy confirm that the transiting object is not a stellar companion or a background eclipsing binary blended with the target. The shape of the transit, the constancy of the transit depth and periodicity over 1.5 yr, and the independence with wavelength rule out stellar variability or a dust cloud or debris disk partially occulting the star as the source of the signal; we conclude that it must instead be planetary in origin. The existence of K2-33b suggests that close-in planets can form in situ or migrate within ˜10 Myr, e.g., via interactions with a disk, and that long-timescale dynamical migration such as by Lidov–Kozai or planet–planet scattering is not responsible for all short-period planets.

  19. Delayed Gratification Habitable Zones (DG-HZs): When Deep Outer Solar System Regions Become Balmy During Post-Main Sequence Stellar Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stern, S. A.

    2002-09-01

    Late in the Sun's evolution it, like all low and moderate mass stars, it will burn as a red giant, generating 1000s of solar luminosities for a few tens of millions of years. A dozen years ago this stage of stellar evolution was predicted to create observable sublimation signatures in systems where Kuiper Belts (KBs) are extant (Stern et al. 1990, Nature, 345, 305); recently, the SWAS spacecraft detected such systems (Melnick et al. 2001, 412, 160). During the red giant phase, the habitable zone of our solar system will lie in the region where Triton, Pluto-Charon, and KBOs orbit. Compared to the 1 AU habitable zone where Earth resided early in the solar system's history, this "delayed gratification habitable zone (DG-HZ)" will enjoy a far less biologically hazardous environment-- with far lower harmful UV radiation levels from the Sun, and a far quieter collisional environment. Objects like Triton, Pluto-Charon, and KBOs, which are known to be rich in both water and organics, will then become possible sites for biochemical and perhaps even biological evolution. The Sun's DG-HZ may only be of academic interest owing to its great separation from us in time. However, several 108 approximately solar-type Milky Way stars burn as luminous red giants today. Thus, if icy-organic objects are common in the 20-50 AU zones of these stars, as they are in our solar system (and as inferred in numerous main sequence stellar disk systems), then DG-HZs form a kind of niche habitable zone that is likely to be numerically common in the galaxy. I will show the calculated temporal evolution of DG-HZs around various stellar types using modern stellar evolution luminosity tracks, and then discuss various aspects of DG-HZs, including the effects of stellar pulsations and mass loss winds. This work was supported by NASA's Origins of Solar Systems Program.

  20. Design of CID-Cleavable Protein Cross-linkers: Identical Mass Modifications for Simpler Sequence Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kandur, Wynne V.; Kao, Athit; Vellucci, Danielle; Huang, Lan; Rychnovsky, Scott D.

    2015-01-01

    The cross-linking Mass Spectrometry (XL-MS) technique has enormous potential for studying the interactions between proteins, and it can provide detailed structural information about the interaction interfaces in large protein complexes. Such information has been difficult to obtain by conventional structural methods. One of the primary impediments to the wider use of the XL-MS technique is the extreme challenge in sequencing cross-linked peptides because of their complex fragmentation patterns in MS. A recent innovation is the development of MS-cleavable cross-linkers, which allows direct sequencing of component peptides for facile identification. Sulfoxides are an intriguing class of thermally-cleavable compounds that have been shown to fragment selectively during low-energy collisional induced dissociation (CID) analysis. Current CID-cleavable cross-linkers create fragmentation patterns in MS2 of multiple peaks for each cross-linked peptide. Reducing the complexity of the fragmentation pattern in MS2 facilitates subsequent MS3 sequencing of the cross-linked peptides. The first authentic identical mass linker (IML) has now been designed, prepared, and evaluated. Multistage tandem mass spectrometry (MSn) analysis has demonstrated that the IML cross-linked peptides indeed yield one peak per peptide constituent in MS2 as predicted, thus allowing effective and sensitive MS3 analysis for unambiguous identification. Selective fragmentation for IML cross-linked peptides from the 19S proteasome complex was observed, providing a proof-of-concept demonstration for XL-MS studies on protein complexes. PMID:26269432

  1. Emissions of NOx, particle mass and particle numbers from aircraft main engines, APU's and handling equipment at Copenhagen Airport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winther, Morten; Kousgaard, Uffe; Ellermann, Thomas; Massling, Andreas; Nøjgaard, Jacob Klenø; Ketzel, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a detailed emission inventory for NOx, particle mass (PM) and particle numbers (PN) for aircraft main engines, APU's and handling equipment at Copenhagen Airport (CPH) based on time specific activity data and representative emission factors for the airport. The inventory has a high spatial resolution of 5 m × 5 m in order to be suited for further air quality dispersion calculations. Results are shown for the entire airport and for a section of the airport apron area ("inner apron") in focus. The methodology presented in this paper can be used to quantify the emissions from aircraft main engines, APU and handling equipment in other airports. For the entire airport, aircraft main engines is the largest source of fuel consumption (93%), NOx, (87%), PM (61%) and PN (95%). The calculated fuel consumption [NOx, PM, PN] shares for APU's and handling equipment are 5% [4%, 8%, 5%] and 2% [9%, 31%, 0%], respectively. At the inner apron area for handling equipment the share of fuel consumption [NOx, PM, PN] are 24% [63%, 75%, 2%], whereas APU and main engines shares are 43% [25%, 19%, 54%], and 33% [11%, 6%, 43%], respectively. The inner apron NOx and PM emission levels are high for handling equipment due to high emission factors for the diesel fuelled handling equipment and small for aircraft main engines due to small idle-power emission factors. Handling equipment is however a small PN source due to the low number based emission factors. Jet fuel sulphur-PM sensitivity calculations made in this study with the ICAO FOA3.0 method suggest that more than half of the PM emissions from aircraft main engines at CPH originate from the sulphur content of the fuel used at the airport. Aircraft main engine PN emissions are very sensitive to the underlying assumptions. Replacing this study's literature based average emission factors with "high" and "low" emission factors from the literature, the aircraft main engine PN emissions were estimated to change with a

  2. CONSTRAINING THE EXOZODIACAL LUMINOSITY FUNCTION OF MAIN-SEQUENCE STARS: COMPLETE RESULTS FROM THE KECK NULLER MID-INFRARED SURVEYS

    SciTech Connect

    Mennesson, B.; Serabyn, E.; Colavita, M. M.; Bryden, G.; Doré, O.; Traub, W.; Millan-Gabet, R.; Absil, O.; Wyatt, M.; Danchi, W.; Kuchner, M.; Stapelfeldt, K.; Defrère, D.; Hinz, P.; Ragland, S.; Scott, N.; Woillez, J.

    2014-12-20

    Forty-seven nearby main-sequence stars were surveyed with the Keck Interferometer mid-infrared Nulling instrument (KIN) between 2008 and 2011, searching for faint resolved emission from exozodiacal dust. Observations of a subset of the sample have already been reported, focusing essentially on stars with no previously known dust. Here we extend this previous analysis to the whole KIN sample, including 22 more stars with known near- and/or far-infrared excesses. In addition to an analysis similar to that of the first paper of this series, which was restricted to the 8-9 μm spectral region, we present measurements obtained in all 10 spectral channels covering the 8-13 μm instrumental bandwidth. Based on the 8-9 μm data alone, which provide the highest signal-to-noise measurements, only one star shows a large excess imputable to dust emission (η Crv), while four more show a significant (>3σ) excess: β Leo, β UMa, ζ Lep, and γ Oph. Overall, excesses detected by KIN are more frequent around A-type stars than later spectral types. A statistical analysis of the measurements further indicates that stars with known far-infrared (λ ≥ 70 μm) excesses have higher exozodiacal emission levels than stars with no previous indication of a cold outer disk. This statistical trend is observed regardless of spectral type and points to a dynamical connection between the inner (zodi-like) and outer (Kuiper-Belt-like) dust populations. The measured levels for such stars are clustering close to the KIN detection limit of a few hundred zodis and are indeed consistent with those expected from a population of dust that migrated in from the outer belt by Poynting-Robertson drag. Conversely, no significant mid-infrared excess is found around sources with previously reported near-infrared resolved excesses, which typically have levels of the order of 1% over the photospheric flux. If dust emission is really at play in these near-infrared detections, the absence of a strong mid

  3. Constraining the Exozodiacal Luminosity Function of Main-sequence Stars: Complete Results from the Keck Nuller Mid-infrared Surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mennesson, B.; Millan-Gabet, R.; Serabyn, E.; Colavita, M. M.; Absil, O.; Bryden, G.; Wyatt, M.; Danchi, W.; Defrère, D.; Doré, O.; Hinz, P.; Kuchner, M.; Ragland, S.; Scott, N.; Stapelfeldt, K.; Traub, W.; Woillez, J.

    2014-12-01

    Forty-seven nearby main-sequence stars were surveyed with the Keck Interferometer mid-infrared Nulling instrument (KIN) between 2008 and 2011, searching for faint resolved emission from exozodiacal dust. Observations of a subset of the sample have already been reported, focusing essentially on stars with no previously known dust. Here we extend this previous analysis to the whole KIN sample, including 22 more stars with known near- and/or far-infrared excesses. In addition to an analysis similar to that of the first paper of this series, which was restricted to the 8-9 μm spectral region, we present measurements obtained in all 10 spectral channels covering the 8-13 μm instrumental bandwidth. Based on the 8-9 μm data alone, which provide the highest signal-to-noise measurements, only one star shows a large excess imputable to dust emission (η Crv), while four more show a significant (>3σ) excess: β Leo, β UMa, ζ Lep, and γ Oph. Overall, excesses detected by KIN are more frequent around A-type stars than later spectral types. A statistical analysis of the measurements further indicates that stars with known far-infrared (λ >= 70 μm) excesses have higher exozodiacal emission levels than stars with no previous indication of a cold outer disk. This statistical trend is observed regardless of spectral type and points to a dynamical connection between the inner (zodi-like) and outer (Kuiper-Belt-like) dust populations. The measured levels for such stars are clustering close to the KIN detection limit of a few hundred zodis and are indeed consistent with those expected from a population of dust that migrated in from the outer belt by Poynting-Robertson drag. Conversely, no significant mid-infrared excess is found around sources with previously reported near-infrared resolved excesses, which typically have levels of the order of 1% over the photospheric flux. If dust emission is really at play in these near-infrared detections, the absence of a strong mid

  4. The intrinsic scatter along the main sequence of star-forming galaxies at z ∼ 0.7

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Kexin; Zhong Zheng, Xian; Fu, Hai E-mail: xzzheng@pmo.ac.cn

    2013-11-20

    A sample of 12,614 star-forming galaxies (SFGs) with stellar mass >10{sup 9.5} M {sub ☉} between 0.6 < z < 0.8 from COSMOS is selected to study the intrinsic scatter of the correlation between star formation rate (SFR) and stellar mass. We derive SFR from ultraviolet (UV) and infrared (IR) luminosities. A stacking technique is adopted to measure IR emission for galaxies undetected at 24 μm. We confirm that the slope of the mass-SFR relation is close to unity. We examine the distributions of specific SFRs (SSFRs) in four equally spaced mass bins from 10{sup 9.5} M {sub ☉} to 10{sup 11.5} M {sub ☉}. Different models are used to constrain the scatter of SSFR for lower mass galaxies that are mostly undetected at 24 μm. The SFR scatter is dominated by the scatter of UV luminosity and gradually that of IR luminosity at increasing stellar mass. We derive SSFR dispersions of 0.18, 0.21, 0.26, and 0.31 dex with a typical measurement uncertainty of ≲ 0.01 dex for the four mass bins. Interestingly, the scatter of the mass-SFR relation seems not constant in the sense that the scatter in SSFR is smaller for SFGs of stellar mass <10{sup 10.5} M {sub ☉}. If confirmed, this suggests that the physical processes governing star formation become systematically less violent for less massive galaxies. The SSFR distribution for SFGs with intermediate mass 10{sup 10}-10{sup 10.5} M {sub ☉} is characterized by a prominent excess of intense starbursts in comparison with other mass bins. We argue that this feature reflects that both violent (e.g., major/minor mergers) and quiescent processes are important in regulating star formation in this intermediate-mass regime.

  5. Modeling of water masses exchange between Brepolen and the main fjord in the Western Svalbard fjord - Hornsund

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakacki, Jaromir; Przyborska, Anna; Sunfjord, Arild; Albertsen, Jon; Białoskórski, Michał; Pliszka, Bartosz

    2016-04-01

    Hornsund is the southernmost fjord of the Svalbard archipelago island - Spitsbergen. It is under the influence of two main currents - the coastal Sørkapp Current (SC) carrying fresher and colder water masses from the Barents Sea and the West Spitsbergen Current (WSC), which is the branch of the Norwegian Atlantic Current (NwAC) and carries warm and salty waters from the North Atlantic. The main local forcing, which is tidal motion, brings shelf waters into the central fjord basin and then the transformed masses are carried into the easternmost part of the fjord, Brepolen. For the purpose of studying circulation and water exchange in this area a three-dimensional hydrodynamic model has been implemented and validated. The model is based on MIKE by DHI product and covers the Hornsund fjord with the shelf area, which is the fjord foreground. It is sigma a coordinate model (in our case 35 vertical levels) with variable horizontal resolution (mesh grid). The smallest cell has a horizontal dimension less than one hundred meters and the largest cells about 5 km. In spite of model limitations, the model reproduces the main circulation and water pathways in the Brepolen area. Seasonal and annual volume, heat and salt exchanges have been also estimated. The influence of freshwater discharge on shelf-fjord exchange will be also analyzed. The model results allow to study full horizontal and vertical fields of physical parameters (temperature, salinity, sea level variations and currents). The model integration covers only years 2005-2010 and the presented results will be based on this simulation. The project has been financed from the funds of the Leading National Research Centre (KNOW) received by the Centre for Polar Studies for the period 2014-2018

  6. THE CLUSTERED NATURE OF STAR FORMATION. PRE-MAIN-SEQUENCE CLUSTERS IN THE STAR-FORMING REGION NGC 602/N90 IN THE SMALL MAGELLANIC CLOUD

    SciTech Connect

    Gouliermis, Dimitrios A.; Gennaro, Mario; Schmeja, Stefan; Dolphin, Andrew E.; Tognelli, Emanuele; Prada Moroni, Pier Giorgio

    2012-03-20

    Located at the tip of the wing of the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC), the star-forming region NGC 602/N90 is characterized by the H II nebular ring N90 and the young cluster of pre-main-sequence (PMS) and early-type main-sequence stars NGC 602, located in the central area of the ring. We present a thorough cluster analysis of the stellar sample identified with Hubble Space Telescope/Advanced Camera for Surveys in the region. We show that apart from the central cluster low-mass PMS stars are congregated in 13 additional small, compact sub-clusters at the periphery of NGC 602, identified in terms of their higher stellar density with respect to the average background density derived from star counts. We find that the spatial distribution of the PMS stars is bimodal, with an unusually large fraction ({approx}60%) of the total population being clustered, while the remaining is diffusely distributed in the intercluster area, covering the whole central part of the region. From the corresponding color-magnitude diagrams we disentangle an age difference of {approx}2.5 Myr between NGC 602 and the compact sub-clusters, which appear younger, on the basis of comparison of the brighter PMS stars with evolutionary models, which we accurately calculated for the metal abundance of the SMC. The diffuse PMS population appears to host stars as old as those in NGC 602. Almost all detected PMS sub-clusters appear to be centrally concentrated. When the complete PMS stellar sample, including both clustered and diffused stars, is considered in our cluster analysis, it appears as a single centrally concentrated stellar agglomeration, covering the whole central area of the region. Considering also the hot massive stars of the system, we find evidence that this agglomeration is hierarchically structured. Based on our findings, we propose a scenario according to which the region NGC 602/N90 experiences an active clustered star formation for the last {approx}5 Myr. The central cluster NGC 602 was

  7. Estimation of submarine mass failure probability from a sequence of deposits with age dates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Geist, Eric L.; Chaytor, Jason D.; Parsons, Thomas E.; ten Brink, Uri S.

    2013-01-01

    The empirical probability of submarine mass failure is quantified from a sequence of dated mass-transport deposits. Several different techniques are described to estimate the parameters for a suite of candidate probability models. The techniques, previously developed for analyzing paleoseismic data, include maximum likelihood and Type II (Bayesian) maximum likelihood methods derived from renewal process theory and Monte Carlo methods. The estimated mean return time from these methods, unlike estimates from a simple arithmetic mean of the center age dates and standard likelihood methods, includes the effects of age-dating uncertainty and of open time intervals before the first and after the last event. The likelihood techniques are evaluated using Akaike’s Information Criterion (AIC) and Akaike’s Bayesian Information Criterion (ABIC) to select the optimal model. The techniques are applied to mass transport deposits recorded in two Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) drill sites located in the Ursa Basin, northern Gulf of Mexico. Dates of the deposits were constrained by regional bio- and magnetostratigraphy from a previous study. Results of the analysis indicate that submarine mass failures in this location occur primarily according to a Poisson process in which failures are independent and return times follow an exponential distribution. However, some of the model results suggest that submarine mass failures may occur quasiperiodically at one of the sites (U1324). The suite of techniques described in this study provides quantitative probability estimates of submarine mass failure occurrence, for any number of deposits and age uncertainty distributions.

  8. "Polymeromics": Mass spectrometry based strategies in polymer science toward complete sequencing approaches: a review.

    PubMed

    Altuntaş, Esra; Schubert, Ulrich S

    2014-01-15

    Mass spectrometry (MS) is the most versatile and comprehensive method in "OMICS" sciences (i.e. in proteomics, genomics, metabolomics and lipidomics). The applications of MS and tandem MS (MS/MS or MS(n)) provide sequence information of the full complement of biological samples in order to understand the importance of the sequences on their precise and specific functions. Nowadays, the control of polymer sequences and their accurate characterization is one of the significant challenges of current polymer science. Therefore, a similar approach can be very beneficial for characterizing and understanding the complex structures of synthetic macromolecules. MS-based strategies allow a relatively precise examination of polymeric structures (e.g. their molar mass distributions, monomer units, side chain substituents, end-group functionalities, and copolymer compositions). Moreover, tandem MS offer accurate structural information from intricate macromolecular structures; however, it produces vast amount of data to interpret. In "OMICS" sciences, the software application to interpret the obtained data has developed satisfyingly (e.g. in proteomics), because it is not possible to handle the amount of data acquired via (tandem) MS studies on the biological samples manually. It can be expected that special software tools will improve the interpretation of (tandem) MS output from the investigations of synthetic polymers as well. Eventually, the MS/MS field will also open up for polymer scientists who are not MS-specialists. In this review, we dissect the overall framework of the MS and MS/MS analysis of synthetic polymers into its key components. We discuss the fundamentals of polymer analyses as well as recent advances in the areas of tandem mass spectrometry, software developments, and the overall future perspectives on the way to polymer sequencing, one of the last Holy Grail in polymer science. PMID:24370093

  9. Observation and modelling of main-sequence star chromospheres - XII. Two-component model chromospheres for five active dM1e stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houdebine, E. R.

    2009-08-01

    We aim to constrain the Hα, CaII H and CaII K profiles from quiescent and active regions on active dM1e stars. A preliminary analysis of all the data available for dM1e stars shows that the Hα/CaII equivalent width (EW) ratio varies by up to a factor of 7 for different stars in our sample. We find that spectroscopic binaries have a significantly smaller ratio than single dM1e stars. We also find that the pre-main-sequence stars Gl 616.2, GJ 1264 and Gl 803 have a ratio lower than main-sequence single dM1e stars. These differences imply that different chromospheric structures are present on different stars, notably the temperature minimum must decrease with an increasing Hα/CaII EW ratio. For these reasons, it is impossible to reproduce all observations with only one grid of model chromospheres. We show that the grid of model chromospheres of Paper VI is adequate to describe the physical conditions that prevail in the chromospheres of spectroscopic binaries and pre-main-sequence M1e stars, but not for the conditions in single dM1e stars. One or more additional grids of model chromospheres will be necessary to reproduce all observations. We use the method developed in Paper XI in this series, in order to build two-component model chromospheres for five M1e field stars: FF And A, FF And B, GJ 1264, AU Mic and Gl 815A. Our solutions provide an exact match of the Hα and the mean CaII H & K EWs within measurement uncertainties. We compare the theoretical profiles and the observed profiles of Hα and the CaII H & K resonance lines. On the one hand, our fits to the CaII lines are reasonably good. On the other hand, our models tend to produce Hα profiles with a central absorption that is too deep. This suggests that the column mass at the transition region for plages is underestimated, but this would imply that the contrast factor between quiescent and active regions in the CaII lines is larger than 5. We find that, except in the cases of FF And A and AU Mic, the total

  10. Analysis of the Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization–Time of Flight Mass Spectrum of Staphylococcus aureus Identifies Mutations That Allow Differentiation of the Main Clonal Lineages

    PubMed Central

    Josten, Michaele; Reif, Marion; Szekat, Christiane; Al-Sabti, Nahed; Roemer, Terry; Sparbier, Katrin; Kostrzewa, Markus; Rohde, Holger; Sahl, Hans-Georg

    2013-01-01

    Nosocomial infections involving epidemic methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains are a serious problem in many countries. In order to analyze outbreaks, the infectious isolates have to be typed; however, most molecular methods are expensive or labor-intensive. Here, we evaluated matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) of cell extracts for the molecular characterization of S. aureus strains. The peak patterns of 401 MRSA and methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) strains, including clinical and laboratory strains, were analyzed. Database searches indicated the peptides that were represented by the corresponding peaks in the spectra. The identities of the peptides were confirmed by the sequencing of mutants, the expression of antisense RNA fragments that resulted in the knockdown of the peptide of interest and the concomitant loss of the signal, or tandem MALDI-TOF MS (MALDI-TOF/TOF MS). It was shown that the signals derive mainly from stress proteins and ribosomal proteins. Peak shifts that differentiate the main S. aureus clonal complexes CC5, CC22, CC8, CC45, CC30, and CC1 correlate to point mutations in the respective genes. Retrospective typing of an MRSA outbreak showed that it is possible to differentiate unrelated MSSA, MRSA, and borderline resistant S. aureus (BORSA) strains isolated from health care workers. In conclusion, this method allows for the detection of the epidemic lineages of S. aureus during species identification by MALDI-TOF MS analysis. PMID:23554199

  11. De novo sequencing of peptides from top-down tandem mass spectra

    SciTech Connect

    Vyatkina, Kira; Wu, Si; Dekker, Leendert J.; vanDuijn, Martijn M.; Liu, Xiaowen; Tolic, Nikola; Dvorkin, Mikhail; Alexandrova, Sonya; Luider, Theo N.; Pasa-Tolic, Ljiljana; Pevzner, Pavel A.

    2015-09-28

    De novo sequencing of proteins and peptides is one of the most important problems in mass spectrometry-driven proteomics. A variety of methods have been developed to accomplish this task from a set of bottom-up tandem (MS/MS) mass spectra. However, a more recently emerged top-down technology, now gaining more and more popularity, opens new perspectives for protein analysis and characterization, implying a need in efficient algorithms for processing this kind of MS/MS data. Here we describe a method that allows to retrieve from a set of top-down MS/MS spectra long and accurate sequence fragments of the proteins contained in a sample. To this end, we outline a strategy for generating high-quality sequence tags from top-down spectra, and introduce the concept of a T-Bruijn graph by adapting to the case of tags the notion of an A-Bruijn graph widely used in genomics. The output of the proposed approach represents the set of amino acid strings spelled out by optimal paths in the connected components of a T-Bruijn graph. We illustrate its performance on top-down datasets acquired from carbonic anhydrase 2 (CAH2) and the Fab region of alemtuzumab.

  12. Concurrent automated sequencing of the glycan and peptide portions of O-linked glycopeptide anions by ultraviolet photodissociation mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Madsen, James A; Ko, Byoung Joon; Xu, Hua; Iwashkiw, Jeremy A; Robotham, Scott A; Shaw, Jared B; Feldman, Mario F; Brodbelt, Jennifer S

    2013-10-01

    O-Glycopeptides are often acidic owing to the frequent occurrence of acidic saccharides in the glycan, rendering traditional proteomic workflows that rely on positive mode tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) less effective. In this report, we demonstrate the utility of negative mode ultraviolet photodissociation (UVPD) MS for the characterization of acidic O-linked glycopeptide anions. This method was evaluated for a series of singly and multiply deprotonated glycopeptides from the model glycoprotein kappa casein, resulting in production of both peptide and glycan product ions that afforded 100% sequence coverage of the peptide and glycan moieties from a single MS/MS event. The most abundant and frequent peptide sequence ions were a/x-type products which, importantly, were found to retain the labile glycan modifications. The glycan-specific ions mainly arose from glycosidic bond cleavages (B, Y, C, and Z ions) in addition to some less common cross-ring cleavages. On the basis of the UVPD fragmentation patterns, an automated database searching strategy (based on the MassMatrix algorithm) was designed that is specific for the analysis of glycopeptide anions by UVPD. This algorithm was used to identify glycopeptides from mixtures of glycosylated and nonglycosylated peptides, sequence both glycan and peptide moieties simultaneously, and pinpoint the correct site(s) of glycosylation. This methodology was applied to uncover novel site-specificity of the O-linked glycosylated OmpA/MotB from the "superbug" A. baumannii to help aid in the elucidation of the functional role that protein glycosylation plays in pathogenesis. PMID:24006841

  13. Subset of Kappa and Lambda Germline Sequences Result in Light Chains with a Higher Molecular Mass Phenotype.

    PubMed

    Barnidge, David R; Lundström, Susanna L; Zhang, Bo; Dasari, Surendra; Murray, David L; Zubarev, Roman A

    2015-12-01

    In our previous work, we showed that electrospray ionization of intact polyclonal kappa and lambda light chains isolated from normal serum generates two distinct, Gaussian-shaped, molecular mass distributions representing the light-chain repertoire. During the analysis of a large (>100) patient sample set, we noticed a low-intensity molecular mass distribution with a mean of approximately 24 250 Da, roughly 800 Da higher than the mean of the typical kappa molecular-mass distribution mean of 23 450 Da. We also observed distinct clones in this region that did not appear to contain any typical post-translational modifications that would account for such a large mass shift. To determine the origin of the high molecular mass clones, we performed de novo bottom-up mass spectrometry on a purified IgM monoclonal light chain that had a calculated molecular mass of 24 275.03 Da. The entire sequence of the monoclonal light chain was determined using multienzyme digestion and de novo sequence-alignment software and was found to belong to the germline allele IGKV2-30. The alignment of kappa germline sequences revealed ten IGKV2 and one IGKV4 sequences that contained additional amino acids in their CDR1 region, creating the high-molecular-mass phenotype. We also performed an alignment of lambda germline sequences, which showed additional amino acids in the CDR2 region, and the FR3 region of functional germline sequences that result in a high-molecular-mass phenotype. The work presented here illustrates the ability of mass spectrometry to provide information on the diversity of light-chain molecular mass phenotypes in circulation, which reflects the germline sequences selected by the immunoglobulin-secreting B-cell population. PMID:26598961

  14. Sequencing Lys-N proteolytic peptides by ESI and MALDI tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Dupré, Mathieu; Cantel, Sonia; Verdié, Pascal; Martinez, Jean; Enjalbal, Christine

    2011-02-01

    In this study, we explored the MS/MS behavior of various synthetic peptides that possess a lysine residue at the N-terminal position. These peptides were designed to mimic peptides produced upon proteolysis by the Lys-N enzyme, a metalloendopeptidase issued from a Japanese fungus Grifola frondosa that was recently investigated in proteomic studies as an alternative to trypsin digestion, as a specific cleavage at the amide X-Lys chain is obtained that provides N-terminal lysine peptide fragments. In contrast to tryptic peptides exhibiting a lysine or arginine residue solely at the C-terminal position, and are thus devoid of such basic amino acids within the sequence, these Lys-N proteolytic peptides can contain the highly basic arginine residue anywhere within the peptide chain. The fragmentation patterns of such sequences with the ESI-QqTOF and MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometers commonly used in proteomic bottom-up experiments were investigated. PMID:21472586

  15. Sequencing Lys-N Proteolytic Peptides by ESI and MALDI Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dupré, Mathieu; Cantel, Sonia; Verdié, Pascal; Martinez, Jean; Enjalbal, Christine

    2011-02-01

    In this study, we explored the MS/MS behavior of various synthetic peptides that possess a lysine residue at the N-terminal position. These peptides were designed to mimic peptides produced upon proteolysis by the Lys-N enzyme, a metalloendopeptidase issued from a Japanese fungus Grifola frondosa that was recently investigated in proteomic studies as an alternative to trypsin digestion, as a specific cleavage at the amide X-Lys chain is obtained that provides N-terminal lysine peptide fragments. In contrast to tryptic peptides exhibiting a lysine or arginine residue solely at the C-terminal position, and are thus devoid of such basic amino acids within the sequence, these Lys-N proteolytic peptides can contain the highly basic arginine residue anywhere within the peptide chain. The fragmentation patterns of such sequences with the ESI-QqTOF and MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometers commonly used in proteomic bottom-up experiments were investigated.

  16. False sugar sequence ions in electrospray tandem mass spectrometry of underivatized sialyl-Lewis-type oligosaccharides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ernst, Beat; Müller, Dieter R.; Richter, Wilhelm J.

    1997-01-01

    Formation of "false" sugar sequence ions from branched tetrasaccharides of the sialyl-Lewis-type by migration of fucose towards sialic acid residues is shown to occur in [M + H]+ and [M + NH4]+ ions produced by electrospray ionization and subjected to low energy collision induced dissociation (CID). For the verification of their composition and sequence, such irregular ions were produced in the orifice region of the ion source, mass selected in Q1, and subjected to a second CID step in Q2 of a triple quadrupole analyser. When produced and analysed in the same "double CID" fashion, the branched B3 ions still containing all four sugar subunits show such migration to only a minor extent. The analysis of Bn fragment ions with high numbers for n may thus have advantages over the analysis of M-like species

  17. A high-throughput de novo sequencing approach for shotgun proteomics using high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, Chongle; Park, Byung H; McDonald, W Hayes; Carey, Patricia A; Banfield, Jillian F.; Verberkmoes, Nathan C; Hettich, Robert {Bob} L; Samatova, Nagiza F

    2010-01-01

    Background High-resolution tandem mass spectra can now be readily acquired with hybrid instruments, such as LTQ-Orbitrap and LTQ-FT, in high-throughput shotgun proteomics workflows. The improved spectral quality enables more accurate de novo sequencing for identification of post-translational modifications and amino acid polymorphisms. Results In this study, a new de novo sequencing algorithm, called Vonode, has been developed specifically for analysis of such high-resolution tandem mass spectra. To fully exploit the high mass accuracy of these spectra, a unique scoring system is proposed to evaluate sequence tags based primarily on mass accuracy information of fragment ions. Consensus sequence tags were inferred for 11,422 spectra with an average peptide length of 5.5 residues from a total of 40,297 input spectra acquired in a 24-hour proteomics measurement of Rhodopseudomonas palustris. The accuracy of inferred consensus sequence tags was 84%. According to our comparison, the performance of Vonode was shown to be superior to the PepNovo v2.0 algorithm, in terms of the number of de novo sequenced spectra and the sequencing accuracy. Conclusions Here, we improved de novo sequencing performance by developing a new algorithm specifically for high-resolution tandem mass spectral data. The Vonode algorithm is freely available for download at http://compbio.ornl.gov/Vonode.

  18. A Machine Learning Based Approach to de novo Sequencing of Glycans from Tandem Mass Spectrometry Spectrum.

    PubMed

    Kumozaki, Shotaro; Sato, Kengo; Sakakibara, Yasubumi

    2015-01-01

    Recently, glycomics has been actively studied and various technologies for glycomics have been rapidly developed. Currently, tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) is one of the key experimental tools for identification of structures of oligosaccharides. MS/MS can observe MS/MS peaks of fragmented glycan ions including cross-ring ions resulting from internal cleavages, which provide valuable information to infer glycan structures. Thus, the aim of de novo sequencing of glycans is to find the most probable assignments of observed MS/MS peaks to glycan substructures without databases. However, there are few satisfiable algorithms for glycan de novo sequencing from MS/MS spectra. We present a machine learning based approach to de novo sequencing of glycans from MS/MS spectrum. First, we build a suitable model for the fragmentation of glycans including cross-ring ions, and implement a solver that employs Lagrangian relaxation with a dynamic programming technique. Then, to optimize scores for the algorithm, we introduce a machine learning technique called structured support vector machines that enable us to learn parameters including scores for cross-ring ions from training data, i.e., known glycan mass spectra. Furthermore, we implement additional constraints for core structures of well-known glycan types including N-linked glycans and O-linked glycans. This enables us to predict more accurate glycan structures if the glycan type of given spectra is known. Computational experiments show that our algorithm performs accurate de novo sequencing of glycans. The implementation of our algorithm and the datasets are available at http://glyfon.dna.bio.keio.ac.jp/. PMID:26671799

  19. Design of CID-cleavable protein cross-linkers: identical mass modifications for simpler sequence analysis.

    PubMed

    Kandur, Wynne V; Kao, Athit; Vellucci, Danielle; Huang, Lan; Rychnovsky, Scott D

    2015-10-14

    The cross-linking Mass Spectrometry (XL-MS) technique has enormous potential for studying the interactions between proteins, and it can provide detailed structural information about the interaction interfaces in large protein complexes. Such information has been difficult to obtain by conventional structural methods. One of the primary impediments to the wider use of the XL-MS technique is the extreme challenge in sequencing cross-linked peptides because of their complex fragmentation patterns in MS. A recent innovation is the development of MS-cleavable cross-linkers, which allows direct sequencing of component peptides for facile identification. Sulfoxides are an intriguing class of thermally-cleavable compounds that have been shown to fragment selectively during low-energy collisional induced dissociation (CID) analysis. Current CID-cleavable cross-linkers create fragmentation patterns in MS(2) of multiple peaks for each cross-linked peptide. Reducing the complexity of the fragmentation pattern in MS(2) facilitates subsequent MS(3) sequencing of the cross-linked peptides. The first authentic identical mass linker (IML) has now been designed, prepared, and evaluated. Multistage tandem mass spectrometry (MS(n)) analysis has demonstrated that the IML cross-linked peptides indeed yield one peak per peptide constituent in MS(2) as predicted, thus allowing effective and sensitive MS(3) analysis for unambiguous identification. Selective fragmentation for IML cross-linked peptides from the 19S proteasome complex was observed, providing a proof-of-concept demonstration for XL-MS studies on protein complexes. PMID:26269432

  20. Proceedings of the relevance of mass spectrometry to DNA sequence determination: Research needs for the Human Genome Program

    SciTech Connect

    Edmonds, C.G.; Smith, R.D. ); Smith, L.M. )

    1990-11-01

    A workshop was sponsored for the US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Health and Environmental Research by Pacific Northwest Laboratory, April 4--5, 1990, in Seattle, Washington, to examine the potential role of mass spectrometry in the joint DOE/National Institutes of Health (NIH) Human Genome Program. The workshop was occasioned by recent developments in mass spectrometry that are providing new levels for selectivity, sensitivity, and, in particular, new methods of ionization appropriate for large biopolymers such as DNA. During discussions, three general mass spectrometric approaches to the determination of DNA sequence were considered: (1) the mass spectrometric detection of isotopic labels from DNA sequencing mixtures separated using gel electrophoresis, (2) the direct mass spectrometric analysis from direct ionization of unfractionated sequencing mixtures where the measured mass of the constituents functions to identify and order the base sequence (replacing separation by gel electrophoresis), and (3) an approach in which a single highly charged molecular ion of a large DNA segment produced is rapidly sequenced in an ion cyclotron resonance ion trap. The consensus of the workshop was that, on the basis of the new developments, mass spectrometry has the potential to provide the substantial increases in sequencing speed required for the Human Genome Program. 66 refs., 3 tabs.

  1. On the nature of Hα emitters at z ˜ 2 from the HiZELS survey: physical properties, Lyα escape fraction and main sequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oteo, I.; Sobral, D.; Ivison, R. J.; Smail, I.; Best, P. N.; Cepa, J.; Pérez-García, A. M.

    2015-09-01

    We present a detailed multiwavelength study (from rest-frame ultraviolet to far-infrared) of narrow-band selected, star-forming (SF) Hα emitters (HAEs) at z ˜ 2.23 taken from the High-Redshift(Z) Emission Line Survey (HiZELS). We find that HAEs have similar properties and colours derived from spectral energy distributions as sBzK galaxies, and probe a well-defined portion of the SF population at z ˜ 2. This is not true for Lyα emitters (LAEs), which are strongly biased towards blue, less massive galaxies (missing a significant percentage of the SF population). Combining our Hα observations with matched, existing Lyα data, we determine that the Lyα escape fraction (fesc) is low (only ˜4.5 per cent of HAEs show Lyα emission) and decreases with increasing dust attenuation, ultraviolet continuum slope, stellar mass and star formation rate (SFR). This suggests that Lyα preferentially escapes from blue galaxies with low dust attenuation. However, a small population of red and massive LAEs is also present, in agreement with previous works and indicating that dust and Lyα are not mutually exclusive. Using different and completely independent measures of the total SFR, we show that the Hα emission is an excellent tracer of star formation at z ˜ 2 with deviations typically lower than 0.3 dex for individual galaxies. We find that the slope and zero-point of the HAE main sequence at z ˜ 2 strongly depend on the dust-correction method used to recover the SFR, although they are consistent with previous works when similar assumptions are made.

  2. EFFECT OF METALLICITY ON THE EVOLUTION OF THE HABITABLE ZONE FROM THE PRE-MAIN SEQUENCE TO THE ASYMPTOTIC GIANT BRANCH AND THE SEARCH FOR LIFE

    SciTech Connect

    Danchi, William C.; Lopez, Bruno E-mail: bruno.lopez@oca.eu

    2013-05-20

    During the course of stellar evolution, the location and width of the habitable zone changes as the luminosity and radius of the star evolves. The duration of habitability for a planet located at a given distance from a star is greatly affected by the characteristics of the host star. A quantification of these effects can be used observationally in the search for life around nearby stars. The longer the duration of habitability, the more likely it is that life has evolved. The preparation of observational techniques aimed at detecting life would benefit from the scientific requirements deduced from the evolution of the habitable zone. We present a study of the evolution of the habitable zone around stars of 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 M{sub Sun} for metallicities ranging from Z = 0.0001 to Z = 0.070. We also consider the evolution of the habitable zone from the pre-main sequence until the asymptotic giant branch is reached. We find that metallicity strongly affects the duration of the habitable zone for a planet as well as the distance from the host star where the duration is maximized. For a 1.0 M{sub Sun} star with near solar metallicity, Z = 0.017, the duration of the habitable zone is >10 Gyr at distances 1.2-2.0 AU from the star, whereas the duration is >20 Gyr for high-metallicity stars (Z = 0.070) at distances of 0.7-1.8 AU, and {approx}4 Gyr at distances of 1.8-3.3 AU for low-metallicity stars (Z = 0.0001). Corresponding results have been obtained for stars of 1.5 and 2.0 solar masses.

  3. Reaction sequence and molecular mass of a Cl(-)-translocating P-type ATPase.

    PubMed Central

    Gerencser, G A; Zelezna, B

    1993-01-01

    The basolateral membranes of Aplysia californica foregut absorptive cells contain both Cl(-)-stimulated ATPase and ATP-dependent Cl- transport activities, and each was inhibited by orthovanadate. Both of these orthovanadate-sensitive activities were reconstituted into proteoliposomes. The reaction sequence kinetics were determined by [gamma-32P]ATP-induced phosphorylation of the reconstituted Cl- pump. Rapid phosphorylation and dephosphorylation kinetics of acyl phosphate bonding were confirmed by destabilization of the phosphoprotein by either hydroxylamine or high pH. Mg2+ caused phosphorylation of the enzyme; Cl- caused dephosphorylation. Orthovanadate almost completely inhibited the Mg(2+)-driven phosphorylation reaction. The molecular mass of the catalytic unit (subunit) of the enzyme appeared to be 110 kDa, which is in agreement with molecular masses of all other catalytic units (subunits) of P-type ATPases. Images Fig. 4 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 PMID:8367450

  4. Automated Glycan Sequencing from Tandem Mass Spectra of N-Linked Glycopeptides.

    PubMed

    Yu, Chuan-Yih; Mayampurath, Anoop; Zhu, Rui; Zacharias, Lauren; Song, Ehwang; Wang, Lei; Mechref, Yehia; Tang, Haixu

    2016-06-01

    Mass spectrometry has become a routine experimental tool for proteomic biomarker analysis of human blood samples, partly due to the large availability of informatics tools. As one of the most common protein post-translational modifications (PTMs) in mammals, protein glycosylation has been observed to alter in multiple human diseases and thus may potentially be candidate markers of disease progression. While mass spectrometry instrumentation has seen advancements in capabilities, discovering glycosylation-related markers using existing software is currently not straightforward. Complete characterization of protein glycosylation requires the identification of intact glycopeptides in samples, including identification of the modification site as well as the structure of the attached glycans. In this paper, we present GlycoSeq, an open-source software tool that implements a heuristic iterated glycan sequencing algorithm coupled with prior knowledge for automated elucidation of the glycan structure within a glycopeptide from its collision-induced dissociation tandem mass spectrum. GlycoSeq employs rules of glycosidic linkage as defined by glycan synthetic pathways to eliminate improbable glycan structures and build reasonable glycan trees. We tested the tool on two sets of tandem mass spectra of N-linked glycopeptides cell lines acquired from breast cancer patients. After employing enzymatic specificity within the N-linked glycan synthetic pathway, the sequencing results of GlycoSeq were highly consistent with the manually curated glycan structures. Hence, GlycoSeq is ready to be used for the characterization of glycan structures in glycopeptides from MS/MS analysis. GlycoSeq is released as open source software at https://github.com/chpaul/GlycoSeq/ . PMID:27111718

  5. Slip rate estimation along the western segment of the Main Marmara Fault over the last 405-490 ka by correlating mass transport deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grall, C.; Henry, P.; Thomas, Y.; Westbrook, G. K.; ćaǧatay, M. N.; Marsset, B.; Saritas, H.; ćifçi, G.; Géli, L.

    2013-12-01

    3-D seismic data acquired in the Sea of Marmara on the Western High, along the northwestern branch of the North Anatolian Fault (also known as the Main Marmara Fault), shed new light on the evolution of the deformation over the last 500-600 ka. Sedimentary sequences in ponded basins are correlated with glacioeustatic cycles and transitions between marine and low sea/lake environments in the Sea of Marmara. In the 3 × 11 km2 of the 3-D seismic survey, deformation over the last 405-490 ka is localized along the main fault branch and north of it, where N130°-N140° trending normal faults and N40°-N50° folding accommodated strike-slip deformation associated with active argillokinesis. There is some evidence that deformation was more distributed further back in the past, at least over the depth range (<600 m below seafloor) of our survey. A N110° basin and buried ridge system were eventually cut by the presently active fault. The southern part of the basin was then uplifted, while the northern part was folded but continued to subside along the fault. A mass transport deposits complex dated between 405-490 ka shows a lateral displacement of 7.7 ± 0.3 km, corresponding to an estimated slip rate of 15.1-19.7 mm/a. We conclude that this strand of the Main Marmara Fault on the Western High has taken up most of the strike slip motion between the Anatolian and Eurasian plates over the last 405 ka at least.

  6. Microbial respiration in the Levantine Sea: evolution of the oxidative processes in relation to the main Mediterranean water masses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La Ferla, Rosabruna; Azzaro, Maurizio

    2001-10-01

    First data on microbial respiration in the Levantine Sea are reported with the aim of assessing the distribution of oxidative processes in association with the main Mediterranean water masses and the changing physical structure determined by the Eastern Mediterranean Transient. Respiratory rates, in terms of metabolic carbon dioxide production, were estimated from measured electron transport system activities in the polygonal area of the Levantine Sea (32.5-36.5 N Latitude, 26.0-30.25 E Longitude) and at Station Geo'95, in the Ionian Sea (35°34.88 N; 17°14.99 E). At the Levantine Sea, the mean carbon dioxide production rate decreased from the upper to the deeper layers and varied from 22.0±12.4 μg C h -1 m -3 in the euphotic layer to 1.30±0.5 μg C h -1 m -3 in the depth range between 1600 and 3000 m. Significant differences were found among upper, intermediate and bottom layers. The euphotic zone supported a daily carbon dioxide production of 96.6 mg C d -1 m -2 while the aphotic zone (between 200 and 3000 m) sustained a 177.1 mg C d -1 m -2 carbon dioxide production. In Station Geo'95, the carbon dioxide production rates amounted to 170.4 and 102.2 mg C d -1 m -2 in the euphotic and aphotic zones, respectively. The rates determined in the identified water masses showed a tight coupling of respiratory processes and Mediterranean circulation patterns. The increasing respiratory rates in the deep layers of the Levantine Sea are explained by the introduction of younger waters recently formed in the Aegean Sea.

  7. CycloBranch: De Novo Sequencing of Nonribosomal Peptides from Accurate Product Ion Mass Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novák, Jiří; Lemr, Karel; Schug, Kevin A.; Havlíček, Vladimír

    2015-07-01

    Nonribosomal peptides have a wide range of biological and medical applications. Their identification by tandem mass spectrometry remains a challenging task. A new open-source de novo peptide identification engine CycloBranch was developed and successfully applied in identification or detailed characterization of 11 linear, cyclic, branched, and branch-cyclic peptides. CycloBranch is based on annotated building block databases the size of which is defined by the user according to ribosomal or nonribosomal peptide origin. The current number of involved nonisobaric and isobaric building blocks is 287 and 521, respectively. Contrary to all other peptide sequencing tools utilizing either peptide libraries or peptide fragment libraries, CycloBranch represents a true de novo sequencing engine developed for accurate mass spectrometric data. It is a stand-alone and cross-platform application with a graphical and user-friendly interface; it supports mzML, mzXML, mgf, txt, and baf file formats and can be run in parallel on multiple threads. It can be downloaded for free from http://ms.biomed.cas.cz/cyclobranch/, where the User's manual and video tutorials can be found.

  8. Sequence analysis of chitooligosaccharides by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization postsource decay mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Bahrke, Sven; Einarsson, Jon M; Gislason, Johannes; Haebel, Sophie; Letzel, Matthias C; Peter-Katalinić, Jasna; Peter, Martin G

    2002-01-01

    Chitin/chitosan oligosaccharides composed of 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-D-glucopyranose (GlcNAc) and/or 2-amino-2-deoxy-D-glucopyranose (GlcN) were prepared by chemical degradation of chitin or chitosan and separated by gel permeation chromatography. Oligosaccharides obtained after enzymatic hydrolysis of chitosan [F(A) 0.19] with a fungal chitinase were derivatized by reductive amination with 2-aminoacridone and sequenced by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight postsource decay (PSD) mass spectrometry (MS). The sequence of a trimer, D1A2, was established as D-A-A. The composition of a hexamer D3A3 was ca. 65% D-A-D-D-A-A and 35% D-D-A-D-A-A. The PSD MS of a nonamer D5A4-amac revealed four isobaric species D-X-Y-D-X-Y-D-A-A, where A is GlcNAc, D is GlcN, and X and Y (X not equal Y) are mutually either D or A. This structure motif was also observed in a dodecamer D7A5 which was composed of eight isobaric sequences of the general formula (D-X-Y)(3)-D-A-A. PMID:12099813

  9. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Physical parameters of pre-main sequence stars in open clusters.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delgado, A. J.; Alfaro, E. J.; Yun, J. L.

    Photometric colors in the UBVRI system for 27040 stars, in the fields of 11 Young Open Clusters. The membership and physical parameters are listed. For MS and post MS candidate members, only the mass value is listed. It is calculated from comparison to ZAMS and isochrones by Girardi et al. (2002A&A...391..195G). For PMS candidate members, the age, mass, luminosity, and effective temperature are listed as obtained from comparison to four PMS model isochrones: D'Antona and Mazzitelli (1997MmSAI..68..807D), Palla and Stahler (1999ApJ...525..772P), Siess et al. (2000A&A...358..593S), and Yi et al. (2001ApJS..136..417Y). (2 data files).

  10. Hydrodynamic simulations of the interaction between an AGB star and a main-sequence companion in eccentric orbits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staff, Jan E.; De Marco, Orsola; Macdonald, Daniel; Galaviz, Pablo; Passy, Jean-Claude; Iaconi, Roberto; Low, Mordecai-Mark Mac

    2016-02-01

    The Rotten Egg Nebula has at its core a binary composed of a Mira star and an A-type companion at a separation >10 au. It has been hypothesized to have formed by strong binary interactions between the Mira and a companion in an eccentric orbit during periastron passage ˜800 yr ago. We have performed hydrodynamic simulations of an asymptotic giant branch (AGB) star interacting with companions with a range of masses in orbits with a range of initial eccentricities and periastron separations. For reasonable values of the eccentricity, we find that Roche lobe overflow can take place only if the periods are ≪100 yr. Moreover, mass transfer causes the system to enter a common envelope phase within several orbits. Since the central star of the Rotten Egg nebula is an AGB star, we conclude that such a common envelope phase must have lead to a merger, so the observed companion must have been a tertiary companion of a binary that merged at the time of nebula ejection. Based on the mass and time-scale of the simulated disc formed around the companion before the common envelope phase, we analytically estimate the properties of jets that could be launched. Allowing for super-Eddington accretion rates, we find that jets similar to those observed are plausible, provided that the putative lost companion was relatively massive.

  11. Sequence and phosphorylation level determination of two donkey beta-caseins by mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Cunsolo, Vincenzo; Cairone, Elisa; Saletti, Rosaria; Muccilli, Vera; Foti, Salvatore

    2009-07-01

    Two coeluting components, with experimentally measured M(r) values of 25529 and 24606 Da, were identified by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) and mass spectrometric analysis in the dephosphorylated casein fraction of a milk sample collected from an individual donkey belonging to the Ragusano breed of the east of Sicily. By coupling enzymatic digestions, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) and RP-HPLC/nano-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (nESI-MS/MS) analysis, the two proteins were identified as donkey beta-CNs and their sequences characterized completely, using the two known beta-CNs from mare as references. The two donkey beta-CNs, showing a mass difference of 923 Da, differ by the presence of the domain E(27)SITHINK(34) in the full-length component (M(r) 25529 Da). In comparison with the mare's beta-CNs used as reference, they present nine amino acid substitutions: L-->S(37), R-->H(52), S-->N(81), P-->V(84), L-->V(91), R-->Q(203), P-->L/I(206), L-->F(210) and A-->P(219). Together, these substitutions account for the increase of 18 Da in the M(r) of the donkey beta-CNs with respect to the counterparts from the mare. The molecular mass determination by ESI-MS for the phosphorylated proteins showed that the full-length component was composed of highly multi-phosphorylated isoforms with five to seven phosphate groups. By analogy with the homologous mare's beta-CNs, the full-length (226 amino acids) beta-CN was termed variant A, whereas the shorter (218 amino acids) beta-CN was termed variant A(Delta5). PMID:19462407

  12. A search for pre-main-sequence stars in high-latitude molecular clouds. 3: A survey of the Einstein database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caillault, Jean-Pierre; Magnani, Loris; Fryer, Chris

    1995-01-01

    In order to discern whether the high-latitude molecular clouds are regions of ongoing star formation, we have used X-ray emission as a tracer of youthful stars. The entire Einstein database yields 18 images which overlap 10 of the clouds mapped partially or completely in the CO (1-0) transition, providing a total of approximately 6 deg squared of overlap. Five previously unidentified X-ray sources were detected: one has an optical counterpart which is a pre-main-sequence (PMS) star, and two have normal main-sequence stellar counterparts, while the other two are probably extragalactic sources. The PMS star is located in a high Galactic latitude Lynds dark cloud, so this result is not too suprising. The translucent clouds, though, have yet to reveal any evidence of star formation.

  13. Hubble Space Telescope WFPC2 Photometry of the Globular Clusters M3 and M13: Binaries and Intrinsic Broadening on the Main Sequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Bing; Bailyn, Charles D.

    2005-04-01

    We study the color-magnitude diagram (CMD) morphologies of M3 and M13 using high-precision Hubble Space Telescope photometry. Asymmetric broadening above and to the red of the main sequence is apparent. We use extensive artificial star experiments to synthetically reproduce chance superposition and photometric error and examine whether a main-sequence binary population is required to account for the observed asymmetric broadening. We find that the most probable binary fraction fb in the center of M3 lies between 6% and 22%. For those stars of M3 with distances from the cluster center between 1 and 2 core radii, the most probable value of fb lies between 1% and 3%. The similar radial distributions of binaries and blue stragglers (BSs) support the model that the BSs in the center of M3 are of collisional origin. A similar comparison between the color distributions of real stars and artificial stars in the CMD of M13 suggests that the real star distributions are consistently broader than the artificial ones. After corrections of real and artificial differences in color uncertainties, we find evidence for an intrinsic color dispersion among main-sequence stars of about 0.013-0.014 mag in both the center and outer regions of M13. This is larger than the expected value resulting from the spectroscopically observed [Fe/H] dispersion and might reflect differences in [C/Fe] and [N/Fe] that have been noted spectroscopically among upper main-sequence stars in M13. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555. These observations are associated with programs GO-6805 and GO-8278.

  14. THE CONTRIBUTIONS OF INTERACTIVE BINARY STARS TO DOUBLE MAIN-SEQUENCE TURNOFFS AND DUAL RED CLUMP OF INTERMEDIATE-AGE STAR CLUSTERS

    SciTech Connect

    Yang Wuming; Bi Shaolan; Tian Zhijia; Li Tanda; Liu Kang; Meng Xiangcun E-mail: woomyang@gmail.com

    2011-04-20

    Double or extended main-sequence turnoffs (DMSTOs) and dual red clump (RC) were observed in intermediate-age clusters, such as in NGC 1846 and 419. The DMSTOs are interpreted as that the cluster has two distinct stellar populations with differences in age of about 200-300 Myr but with the same metallicity. The dual RC is interpreted as a result of a prolonged star formation. Using a stellar population-synthesis method, we calculated the evolution of a binary-star stellar population. We found that binary interactions and merging can reproduce the dual RC in the color-magnitude diagrams of an intermediate-age cluster, whereas in actuality only a single population exists. Moreover, the binary interactions can lead to an extended main-sequence turnoff (MSTO) rather than DMSTOs. However, the rest of the main sequence, subgiant branch, and first giant branch are hardly spread by the binary interactions. Part of the observed dual RC and extended MSTO may be the results of binary interactions and mergers.

  15. Water mass-specificity of bacterial communities in the North Atlantic revealed by massively parallel sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Agogué, Hélène; Lamy, Dominique; Neal, Phillip R.; Sogin, Mitchell L.; Herndl, Gerhard J.

    2011-01-01

    Bacterial assemblages from subsurface (100 m depth), meso- (200–1000 m depth) and bathy-pelagic (below 1000 m depth) zones at 10 stations along a North Atlantic Ocean transect from 60°N to 5°S were characterized using massively parallel pyrotag sequencing of the V6 region of the 16S rRNA gene (V6 pyrotags). In a dataset of more than 830,000 pyrotags we identified 10,780 OTUs of which 52% were singletons. The singletons accounted for less than 2% of the OTU abundance, while the 100 and 1,000 most abundant OTUs represented 80% and 96%, respectively, of all recovered OTUs. Non-metric Multi-Dimensional Scaling and Canonical Correspondence Analysis of all the OTUs excluding the singletons revealed a clear clustering of the bacterial communities according to the water masses. More than 80% of the 1,000 most abundant OTUs corresponded to Proteobacteria of which 55% were Alphaproteobacteria, mostly composed of the SAR11 cluster. Gammaproteobacteria increased with depth and included a relatively large number of OTUs belonging to Alteromonadales and Oceanospirillales. The bathypelagic zone showed higher taxonomic evenness than the overlying waters, albeit bacterial diversity was remarkably variable. Both abundant and low-abundance OTUs were responsible for the distinct bacterial communities characterizing the major deep-water masses. Taken together, our results reveal that deep-water masses act as bio-oceanographic islands for bacterioplankton leading to water mass-specific bacterial communities in the deep waters of the Atlantic. PMID:21143328

  16. Analysis of the ultraviolet spectrum of RWT 152 - A subluminous O star with a main-sequence visual spectrum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ebbets, D. C.; Savage, B. D.

    1982-01-01

    Observations of luminous early-type stars provide one of the most sensitive ways to detect the low density gas of the interstellar medium. As part of an ongoing program studying the gas in the galactic halo, stars believed to be outside the plane of the Milky Way have been observed. In the interest of studying the halo gas in additional directions, a search has been conducted for candidate stars which are bright enough to be observable with the International Ultraviolet Explorer Satellite (IUE) high dispersion mode and far enough from the galactic plane to provide a long line of sight through the halo gas. One such star is star 152 in the catalog of Rubin, Westpfahl, and Tuve (1974), which is called RWT 152 in the investigation. The IUE spectra of RWT 152 were obtained and analyzed. It appears that RWT 152 is not a young massive star, but rather a low mass object in an advanced stage of evolution.

  17. Proteomics of Soil and Sediment: Protein Identification by De Novo Sequencing of Mass Spectra Complements Traditional Database Searching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, S.; Rizzo, A. I.; Waldbauer, J.

    2014-12-01

    Proteomics has the potential to elucidate the metabolic pathways and taxa responsible for in situ biogeochemical transformations. However, low rates of protein identification from high resolution mass spectra have been a barrier to the development of proteomics in complex environmental samples. Much of the difficulty lies in the computational challenge of linking mass spectra to their corresponding proteins. Traditional database search methods for matching peptide sequences to mass spectra are often inadequate due to the complexity of environmental proteomes and the large database search space, as we demonstrate with soil and sediment proteomes generated via a range of extraction methods. One alternative to traditional database searching is de novo sequencing, which identifies peptide sequences without the need for a database. BLAST can then be used to match de novo sequences to similar genetic sequences. Assigning confidence to putative identifications has been one hurdle for the implementation of de novo sequencing. We found that accurate de novo sequences can be screened by quality score and length. Screening criteria are verified by comparing the results of de novo sequencing and traditional database searching for well-characterized proteomes from simple biological systems. The BLAST hits of screened sequences are interrogated for taxonomic and functional information. We applied de novo sequencing to organic topsoil and marine sediment proteomes. Peak-rich proteomes, which can result from various extraction techniques, yield thousands of high-confidence protein identifications, an improvement over previous proteomic studies of soil and sediment. User-friendly software tools for de novo metaproteomics analysis have been developed. This "De Novo Analysis" Pipeline is also a faster method of data analysis than constructing a tailored sequence database for traditional database searching.

  18. Proteomics of Soil and Sediment: Protein Identification by De Novo Sequencing of Mass Spectra Complements Traditional Database Searching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, S.; Rizzo, A. I.; Waldbauer, J.

    2015-12-01

    Proteomics has the potential to elucidate the metabolic pathways and taxa responsible for in situ biogeochemical transformations. However, low rates of protein identification from high resolution mass spectra have been a barrier to the development of proteomics in complex environmental samples. Much of the difficulty lies in the computational challenge of linking mass spectra to their corresponding proteins. Traditional database search methods for matching peptide sequences to mass spectra are often inadequate due to the complexity of environmental proteomes and the large database search space, as we demonstrate with soil and sediment proteomes generated via a range of extraction methods. One alternative to traditional database searching is de novo sequencing, which identifies peptide sequences without the need for a database. BLAST can then be used to match de novo sequences to similar genetic sequences. Assigning confidence to putative identifications has been one hurdle for the implementation of de novo sequencing. We found that accurate de novo sequences can be screened by quality score and length. Screening criteria are verified by comparing the results of de novo sequencing and traditional database searching for well-characterized proteomes from simple biological systems. The BLAST hits of screened sequences are interrogated for taxonomic and functional information. We applied de novo sequencing to organic topsoil and marine sediment proteomes. Peak-rich proteomes, which can result from various extraction techniques, yield thousands of high-confidence protein identifications, an improvement over previous proteomic studies of soil and sediment. User-friendly software tools for de novo metaproteomics analysis have been developed. This "De Novo Analysis" Pipeline is also a faster method of data analysis than constructing a tailored sequence database for traditional database searching.

  19. The Pietra Grande thrust (Brenta Dolomites, Italy): looking for co-seismic indicators along a main fault in carbonate sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viganò, Alfio; Tumiati, Simone; Martin, Silvana; Rigo, Manuel

    2013-04-01

    At present, pseudotachylytes (i.e. solidified frictional melts) are the only unambiguous geological record of seismic faulting. Even if pseudotachylytes are frequently observed along faults within crystalline rocks they are discovered along carbonate faults in very few cases only, suggesting that other chemico-physical processes than melting could occur (e.g. thermal decomposition). In order to investigate possible co-seismic indicators we study the Pietra Grande thrust, a carbonate fault in the Brenta Dolomites (Trentino, NE Italy), to analyse field structure, microtextures and composition of rocks from the principal slip plane, the fault core and the damage zone. The Pietra Grande thrust is developed within limestones and dolomitic limestones of Late Triassic-Early Jurassic age (Calcari di Zu and Monte Zugna Formations). The thrust, interpreted as a north-vergent décollement deeply connected with the major Cima Tosa thrust, is a sub-horizontal fault plane gently dipping to the North that mainly separates the massive Monte Zugna Fm. limestones (upper side) from the stratified Calcari di Zu Fm. limestones with intercalated marls (lower side). On the western face of the Pietra Grande klippe the thrust is continuously well-exposed for about 1 km. The main fault plane shows reddish infillings, which form veins with thicknesses between few millimetres to several decimetres. These red veins lie parallel to the thrust plane or in same cases inject lateral fractures and minor high-angle faults departing from the main fault plane. Veins have carbonate composition and show textures characterized by fine-grained reddish matrix with embedded carbonate clasts of different size (from few millimetres to centimetres). In some portions carbonate boulders (dimension of some decimetres) are embedded in the red matrix, while clast content generally significantly decreases at the vein borders (chilled margins). Red veins are typically associated with cohesive cataclasites and

  20. SImulator of GAlaxy Millimetre/submillimetre Emission (SÍGAME): CO emission from massive z = 2 main-sequence galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olsen, Karen P.; Greve, Thomas R.; Brinch, Christian; Sommer-Larsen, Jesper; Rasmussen, Jesper; Toft, Sune; Zirm, Andrew

    2016-04-01

    We present SÍGAME (SImulator of GAlaxy Millimetre/submillimetre Emission), a new numerical code designed to simulate the 12CO rotational line spectrum of galaxies. Using sub-grid physics recipes to post-process the outputs of smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) simulations, a molecular gas phase is condensed out of the hot and partly ionized SPH gas. The gas is subjected to far-UV radiation fields and cosmic ray ionization rates which are set to scale with the local star formation rate volume density. Level populations and radiative transport of the CO lines are solved with the 3D radiative transfer code LIME. We have applied SÍGAME to cosmological SPH simulations of three disc galaxies at z = 2 with stellar masses in the range ˜0.5-2 × 1011 M⊙ and star formation rates ˜40-140 M⊙ yr-1. Global CO luminosities and line ratios are in agreement with observations of disc galaxies at z ˜ 2 up to and including J = 3-2 but falling short of the few existing J=5-4 observations. The central 5 kpc regions of our galaxies have CO 3 - 2/1 - 0 and 7 - 6/1 - 0 brightness temperature ratios of ˜0.55-0.65 and ˜0.02-0.08, respectively, while further out in the disc the ratios drop to more quiescent values of ˜0.5 and <0.01. Global CO-to-H2 conversion (αCO) factors are {˜eq } 1.5 {{M_{⊙}} pc^{-2} (K km s^{-1})^{-1}}, i.e. ˜2-3 times below the typically adopted values for disc galaxies, and αCO increases with radius, in agreement with observations of nearby galaxies. Adopting a top-heavy Giant Molecular Cloud (GMC) mass spectrum does not significantly change the results. Steepening the GMC density profiles leads to higher global line ratios for Jup ≥ 3 and CO-to-H2 conversion factors [{˜eq } 3.6 {{M_{⊙}} pc^{-2} (K km s^{-1})^{-1}}].

  1. XMM-NEWTON MONITORING OF THE CLOSE PRE-MAIN-SEQUENCE BINARY AK SCO. EVIDENCE OF TIDE-DRIVEN FILLING OF THE INNER GAP IN THE CIRCUMBINARY DISK

    SciTech Connect

    Gomez de Castro, Ana Ines; Lopez-Santiago, Javier; Talavera, Antonio; Sytov, A. Yu.; Bisikalo, D.

    2013-03-20

    AK Sco stands out among pre-main-sequence binaries because of its prominent ultraviolet excess, the high eccentricity of its orbit, and the strong tides driven by it. AK Sco consists of two F5-type stars that get as close as 11 R{sub *} at periastron passage. The presence of a dense (n{sub e} {approx} 10{sup 11} cm{sup -3}) extended envelope has been unveiled recently. In this article, we report the results from an XMM-Newton-based monitoring of the system. We show that at periastron, X-ray and UV fluxes are enhanced by a factor of {approx}3 with respect to the apastron values. The X-ray radiation is produced in an optically thin plasma with T {approx} 6.4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 6} K and it is found that the N{sub H} column density rises from 0.35 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 21} cm{sup -2} at periastron to 1.11 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 21} cm{sup -2} at apastron, in good agreement with previous polarimetric observations. The UV emission detected in the Optical Monitor band seems to be caused by the reprocessing of the high-energy magnetospheric radiation on the circumstellar material. Further evidence of the strong magnetospheric disturbances is provided by the detection of line broadening of 278.7 km s{sup -1} in the N V line with Hubble Space Telescope/Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph. Numerical simulations of the mass flow from the circumbinary disk to the components have been carried out. They provide a consistent scenario with which to interpret AK Sco observations. We show that the eccentric orbit acts like a gravitational piston. At apastron, matter is dragged efficiently from the inner disk border, filling the inner gap and producing accretion streams that end as ring-like structures around each component of the system. At periastron, the ring-like structures come into contact, leading to angular momentum loss, and thus producing an accretion outburst.

  2. THE EVOLUTIONARY STATE OF THE PRE-MAIN SEQUENCE POPULATION IN OPHIUCHUS: A LARGE INFRARED SPECTROGRAPH SURVEY

    SciTech Connect

    McClure, M. K.; Espaillat, C.; Calvet, N.; Tobin, J. J. E-mail: ccespa@umich.ed E-mail: jjtobin@umich.ed

    2010-05-15

    Variations in molecular cloud environments have the potential to affect the composition and structure of the circumstellar disks therein. To this end, comparative analyses of nearby star-forming regions are essential to informing theoretical work. In particular, the Ophiuchus molecular clouds are ideal for comparison as they are more compact with much higher extinction than Taurus, the low-mass exemplar, and experience a moderate amount of external radiation. We have carried out a study of a collection of 136 young stellar objects in the <1 Myr old Ophiuchus star-forming region, featuring Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph spectra from 5 to 36 {mu}m, supplemented with photometry from 0.3 {mu}m to 1.3 mm. By classifying these objects using the McClure new molecular cloud extinction law to establish an extinction-independent index, we arrive at a {approx}10% embedded objects fraction, producing an embedded lifetime of 0.2 Myr, similar to that in Taurus. We analyze the degree of dust sedimentation and dust grain processing in the disks, finding that the disks are highly settled with signs of significant dust processing even at {approx}0.3 Myr. Finally, we discuss the wealth of evidence for radial gap structures which could be evidence for disk-planet interactions and explore the effects of stellar multiplicity on the degree of settling and radial structure.

  3. Toward a Chemical Evolutionary Sequence in High-Mass Star Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerner, Thomas; Beuther, Henrik; Semenov, Dmitry; Linz, Hendrik; Vasyunina, Tatiana; Henning, Thomas

    Understanding the chemical evolution of young (high-mass) star-forming regions is a central topic in star formation research. The chemistry plays two main roles here: to study the evolution from simple to complex molecules, and to investigate the underlying physical processes. With these aims in mind, we observed a diverse sample of 60 high-mass star-forming regions in different evolutionary stages. In the early phase, quiescent Infrared Dark Clouds (IRDCs), consisting of cold and dense gas and dust, and emitting mainly at (sub-)millimeter wavelength, are formed. In the next phase, the so called High Mass Protostellar Objects (HMPOs) form, which host a central, likely still accreting protostar and already show emission at mid-infrared wavelengths. In the Hot Molecular Core phase (HMC) the central source heats up the surrounding environment, evaporating molecular-rich ices, which gives rise to a rich chemistry leading to complex molecules such as long carbon chains. Finally the UV-radiation from the embedded protostars ionizes the gas around and forms an Ultra Compact HII (UCHII) region. In these objects many of the previously formed complex molecules are not longer detected as they got destroyed by the ionizing radiation. For our observations, we used the IRAM 30m telescope with the total bandpass of 16 GHz and good spectral resolution (˜0.3/0.7 km/s at 1/3 mm). We derived their large-scale chemical abundances, assuming LTE and optically thin emission. To set these results into context, we model the chemical evolution in such environments with a state-of-the-art chemical model. This enables us to put constraints on the chemical evolution, the age and parameters such as the temperature and the density of the molecular clouds.

  4. CONSTRUCTING A ONE-SOLAR-MASS EVOLUTIONARY SEQUENCE USING ASTEROSEISMIC DATA FROM KEPLER

    SciTech Connect

    Silva Aguirre, V.; Weiss, A.; Casagrande, L.; Chaplin, W. J.; Verner, G. A.; Miglio, A.; Broomhall, A. M.; Elsworth, Y.; Ballot, J.; Basu, S.; Bedding, T. R.; Serenelli, A. M.; Monteiro, M. J. P. F. G.; Campante, T. L.; Appourchaux, T.; Gaulme, P.; Bonanno, A.; Corsaro, E.; Bruntt, H.; GarcIa, R. A.

    2011-10-10

    Asteroseismology of solar-type stars has entered a new era of large surveys with the success of the NASA Kepler mission, which is providing exquisite data on oscillations of stars across the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram. From the time-series photometry, the two seismic parameters that can be most readily extracted are the large frequency separation ({Delta}{nu}) and the frequency of maximum oscillation power ({nu}{sub max}). After the survey phase, these quantities are available for hundreds of solar-type stars. By scaling from solar values, we use these two asteroseismic observables to identify for the first time an evolutionary sequence of 1 M{sub sun} field stars, without the need for further information from stellar models. Comparison of our determinations with the few available spectroscopic results shows an excellent level of agreement. We discuss the potential of the method for differential analysis throughout the main-sequence evolution and the possibility of detecting twins of very well-known stars.

  5. [Time of flight mass spectrometry of DNA for rapid sequence determination]. Technical progress report, July 31, 1991--July 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-31

    The objective of this project is to develop a time-of-flight mass spectrometric approach to ordering Sanger sequence fragments, replacing electrophoresis and removing the electrophoresis bottleneck to rapid DNA sequencing, When the project was funded, we had demonstrated that massive DNA molecules could be volatilized, substantially intact, by a process involving pulsed laser ablation of a frozen film of a DNA solution. Using a crude time-of-flight mass spectrometer, we had demonstrated that ions of the ablated DNA could be formed, and that mass spectra were obtainable which appeared to contain only the parent molecular ion. The laser used was a dye laser which we tuned to match sodium atom resonances to increase the ionization efficiency. By pulsed laser ablation of frozen aqueous DNA solution films we have produced mass spectra of DNA mixtures which largely fulfil the simple requirement for DNA mixture analysis: one peak per DNA segment The peaks are clean and free of the fragment or adduct tails which characteristically degrade mass spectra obtained by UV laser ablation using UV chromophore matrices. To date, our approach has been characterized by extremely poor reproducibility; however the high quality of the mass spectra suggest that when better control of the ionization process is achieved, the use of an aqueous matrix offers an extremely promising approach to time-of-flight mass spectrometric sorting of DNA sequence mixtures.

  6. Observation and modelling of main-sequence star chromospheres - XIV. Rotation of dM1 stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houdebine, E. R.

    2010-09-01

    We have measured v sin i for a selected sample of dM1-type stars. We give 114 measurements of v sin i for 88 different stars, and six upper detection limits. These are the first measurements of v sin i for most of the stars studied here. This represents the largest sample of v sin i measurements for M dwarfs at a given spectral type. For these measurements, we used four different spectrographs: HARPS (ESO), SOPHIE (OHP), ÉLODIE (OHP) and UVES (ESO). Two of these spectrographs (HARPS and SOPHIE) are particularly stable in wavelength since they were designed for exoplanet searches. We measured v sin i down to an accuracy of 0.3kms-1 for the highest resolution spectrographs and a detection limit of about 1kms-1. We show that this unprecedented accuracy for M dwarfs in our data set is possible because all the targets have the same spectral type. This is an advantage and it facilitates the determination of the narrowest line profiles for v sin i ~ 0. Although it is possible to derive the zero-point profiles using several spectral types at a time. These values were combined with other measurements taken from the literature. The total sample represents detected rotation for 100 stars (10 dM1e and 90 dM1 stars). We confirm our finding of Paper VII that the distribution of the projected rotation period is bimodal for dM1 stars with a much larger sample, i.e. there are two groups of stars: the fast rotators with P/sin i ~ 4.5d and the slow rotators with P/sin i ~ 14.4d. There is a gap between these two groups. We find that the distribution of stars as a function of P/sin i has two very abrupt cuts, below 10d and above 18d. There are very few stars observed out of this range 10-18d. We also observe that the distribution increases slightly from 18 to 10d. We find that the M1 subdwarfs (very low metallicity dwarfs) rotate with an average period of P/sin i ~ 7.2d, which is about twice faster as the main group of normal M1 dwarfs. We also find a correlation for P/sin i to

  7. Mapping stellar content to dark matter haloes - II. Halo mass is the main driver of galaxy quenching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zu, Ying; Mandelbaum, Rachel

    2016-04-01

    We develop a simple yet comprehensive method to distinguish the underlying drivers of galaxy quenching, using the clustering and galaxy-galaxy lensing of red and blue galaxies in Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Building on the iHOD framework developed by Zu & Mandelbaum, we consider two quenching scenarios: (1) a `halo' quenching model in which halo mass is the sole driver for turning off star formation in both centrals and satellites; and (2) a `hybrid' quenching model in which the quenched fraction of galaxies depends on their stellar mass, while the satellite quenching has an extra dependence on halo mass. The two best-fitting models describe the red galaxy clustering and lensing equally well, but halo quenching provides significantly better fits to the blue galaxies above 1011 h-2 M⊙. The halo quenching model also correctly predicts the average halo mass of the red and blue centrals, showing excellent agreement with the direct weak lensing measurements of locally brightest galaxies. Models in which quenching is not tied to halo mass, including an age-matching model in which galaxy colour depends on halo age at fixed M*, fail to reproduce the observed halo mass for massive blue centrals. We find similar critical halo masses responsible for the quenching of centrals and satellites (˜1.5 × 1012 h-1 M⊙), hinting at a uniform quenching mechanism for both, e.g. the virial shock heating of infalling gas. The success of the iHOD halo quenching model provides strong evidence that the physical mechanism that quenches star formation in galaxies is tied principally to the masses of their dark matter haloes rather than the properties of their stellar components.

  8. The Miller Range Nakhlites: A Summary of the Curatorial Subdivision of the Main Mass in Light of Newly Found Paired Masses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Righter, Kevin; McBridge, K. M.

    2011-01-01

    The 2003-2004 ANSMET team re-covered a 715.2 g nakhlite from the Miller Range (MIL) region of the Transantarctic Mountains (MIL 03346). This was the first nakhlite for the US Antarctic meteorite program, and after the announcement in 2004 [1], JSC received over 50 requests for this sample for the Fall 2004 Meteorite Working Group meeting. Since then it has been subdivided into >200 splits, and distributed to approx.70 scientists around the world for study. The 2009-2010 ANSMET team recovered three additional masses of this nakhlite [2], making the total amount of mass 1.871 kg (Table 1). Given that the original find (MIL 03346) has been heavily studied and these new masses are available, we will present a comprehensive overview of the subdivision of the original mass as well as the scientific findings to date.

  9. Mass spectrometric detection of the amino acid sequence polymorphism of the hepatitis C virus antigen.

    PubMed

    Kaysheva, A L; Ivanov, Yu D; Frantsuzov, P A; Krohin, N V; Pavlova, T I; Uchaikin, V F; Konev, V А; Kovalev, O B; Ziborov, V S; Archakov, A I

    2016-03-01

    A method for detection and identification of the hepatitis C virus antigen (HCVcoreAg) in human serum with consideration for possible amino acid substitutions is proposed. The method is based on a combination of biospecific capturing and concentrating of the target protein on the surface of the chip for atomic force microscope (AFM chip) with subsequent protein identification by tandem mass spectrometric (MS/MS) analysis. Biospecific AFM-capturing of viral particles containing HCVcoreAg from serum samples was performed by use of AFM chips with monoclonal antibodies (anti-HCVcore) covalently immobilized on the surface. Biospecific complexes were registered and counted by AFM. Further MS/MS analysis allowed to reliably identify the HCVcoreAg in the complexes formed on the AFM chip surface. Analysis of MS/MS spectra, with the account taken of the possible polymorphisms in the amino acid sequence of the HCVcoreAg, enabled us to increase the number of identified peptides. PMID:26773170

  10. Genotyping-by-sequencing approach indicates geographic distance as the main factor affecting genetic structure and gene flow in Brazilian populations of Grapholita molesta (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae).

    PubMed

    Silva-Brandão, Karina Lucas; Silva, Oscar Arnaldo Batista Neto E; Brandão, Marcelo Mendes; Omoto, Celso; Sperling, Felix A H

    2015-06-01

    The oriental fruit moth Grapholita molesta is one of the major pests of stone and pome fruit species in Brazil. Here, we applied 1226 SNPs obtained by genotyping-by-sequencing to test whether host species associations or other factors such as geographic distance structured populations of this pest. Populations from the main areas of occurrence of G. molesta were sampled principally from peach and apple orchards. Three main clusters were recovered by neighbor-joining analysis, all defined by geographic proximity between sampling localities. Overall genetic structure inferred by a nonhierarchical amova resulted in a significant ΦST value = 0.19109. Here, we demonstrate for the first time that SNPs gathered by genotyping-by-sequencing can be used to infer genetic structure of a pest insect in Brazil; moreover, our results indicate that those markers are very informative even over a restricted geographic scale. We also demonstrate that host plant association has little effect on genetic structure among Brazilian populations of G. molesta; on the other hand, reduced gene flow promoted by geographic isolation has a stronger impact on population differentiation. PMID:26029261

  11. EXTREME ENHANCEMENTS OF r-PROCESS ELEMENTS IN THE COOL METAL-POOR MAIN-SEQUENCE STAR SDSS J2357-0052

    SciTech Connect

    Aoki, Wako; Beers, Timothy C.; Honda, Satoshi; Carollo, Daniela E-mail: beers@pa.msu.ed E-mail: carollo@mso.anu.edu.a

    2010-11-10

    We report the discovery of a cool metal-poor, main-sequence star exhibiting large excesses of r-process elements. This star is one of the two newly discovered cool subdwarfs (effective temperatures of 5000 K) with extremely low metallicity ([Fe/H] < -3) identified from follow-up high-resolution spectroscopy of metal-poor candidates from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. SDSS J2357-0052 has [Fe/H] = -3.4 and [Eu/Fe] = +1.9, and exhibits a scaled solar r-process abundance pattern of heavy neutron-capture elements. This is the first example of an extremely metal-poor, main-sequence star showing large excesses of r-process elements; all previous examples of the large r-process-enhancement phenomena have been associated with metal-poor giants. The metallicity of this object is the lowest, and the excess of Eu ([Eu/Fe]) is the highest, among the r-process-enhanced stars found so far. We consider possible scenarios to account for the detection of such a star and discuss techniques to enable searches for similar stars in the future.

  12. Genotyping-by-sequencing approach indicates geographic distance as the main factor affecting genetic structure and gene flow in Brazilian populations of Grapholita molesta (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae)

    PubMed Central

    Silva-Brandão, Karina Lucas; Silva, Oscar Arnaldo Batista Neto e; Brandão, Marcelo Mendes; Omoto, Celso; Sperling, Felix A H

    2015-01-01

    The oriental fruit moth Grapholita molesta is one of the major pests of stone and pome fruit species in Brazil. Here, we applied 1226 SNPs obtained by genotyping-by-sequencing to test whether host species associations or other factors such as geographic distance structured populations of this pest. Populations from the main areas of occurrence of G. molesta were sampled principally from peach and apple orchards. Three main clusters were recovered by neighbor-joining analysis, all defined by geographic proximity between sampling localities. Overall genetic structure inferred by a nonhierarchical amova resulted in a significant ΦST value = 0.19109. Here, we demonstrate for the first time that SNPs gathered by genotyping-by-sequencing can be used to infer genetic structure of a pest insect in Brazil; moreover, our results indicate that those markers are very informative even over a restricted geographic scale. We also demonstrate that host plant association has little effect on genetic structure among Brazilian populations of G. molesta; on the other hand, reduced gene flow promoted by geographic isolation has a stronger impact on population differentiation. PMID:26029261

  13. Impact of Saturn Main Ring Mass on interpretation of Pioneer 11 and Cassini SOI Radiation Measurements Across the Rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, John F.; Sturner, Steven J.; Sittler, Edward C., Jr.; Kollmann, Peter; Roussos, Elias; Johnson, Robert E.

    2015-11-01

    The Pioneer 11 (1979) and Cassini Orbiter (2004) missions measured the energetic particle and gamma ray flux environments across the A, B, and outer C rings of Saturn. This radiation originates as secondary proton, neutron, electron, and gamma ray emissions from the interaction of high-energy (> 20 GeV) galactic cosmic ray protons and other ions with bulk ice material in the rings and is sensitive to the surface mass density of the rings. The Pioneer 11 analysis from the University of Chicago High Energy Telescope, published in 1985, was consistent with a average surface density of about 50 g/cm2, assuming pure water ice, and a total ring mass of 2.7x10-8 Saturn masses (MS). This independently-derived value confirmed the post-Voyager result of 3x10-8 MS from radio and stellar occultations, and from observed damping of density waves in the rings. Although some later ring models in the Cassini mission era (2004 - present) allow for a greater mass by an order of magnitude, the latest density wave analysis from Cassini indicates that the Pioneer-Voyager value may be correct. GEANT radiation transport simulations have been performed to update the ring radiation model and enable ongoing assessments of the Pioneer 11 HET and Cassini MIMI/LEMMS responses to this radiation. The O2 gas production by radiation chemistry within the ring material is also estimated as a function of ring mass for comparison to Cassini and earlier measurements of the ring atmosphere and ionosphere. More massive rings would produce more O2.

  14. Probability-Based Pattern Recognition and Statistical Framework for Randomization: Modeling Tandem Mass Spectrum/Peptide Sequence False Match Frequencies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Estimating and controlling the frequency of false matches between a peptide tandem mass spectrum and candidate peptide sequences is an issue pervading proteomics research. To solve this problem, we designed an unsupervised pattern recognition algorithm for detecting patterns with various lengths fr...

  15. Variable lipoprotein haemagglutinin (vlhA) gene sequence typing of mainly Dutch Mycoplasma synoviae isolates: comparison with vlhA sequences from Genbank and with amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis.

    PubMed

    Dijkman, R; Feberwee, A; Landman, W J M

    2014-01-01

    Molecular typing techniques with sufficient discriminatory power are required to better understand the transmission of Mycoplasma synoviae, a poultry pathogen with increasing clinical and economic relevance. A promising molecular technique is polymerase chain reaction and subsequent sequencing based on the conserved 5' region of the M. synoviae variable lipoprotein and haemagglutinin (vlhA) gene. This technique was used for genotyping 27 mainly Dutch M. synoviae isolates from different organs of various categories of poultry housed on different farms and collected during a period of 10 years. The obtained vlhA sequences were compared with those of M. synoviae strains from Genbank and data obtained by amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP). Grouping based on 100% similarity revealed nine genotypes. Some isolates had identical vlhA gene sequences although they originated from different geographical areas, different years and organs. AFLP analysis results largely confirmed the results obtained by vlhA sequence typing. Our findings raise concern regarding the discriminatory power of these techniques for its use in molecular epidemiology of Dutch M. synoviae isolates and for the differentiation between M. synoviae vaccine strains and field isolates, and indicate that molecular typing based on additional markers should be considered. PMID:25189763

  16. A Quantitative Tool to Distinguish Isobaric Leucine and Isoleucine Residues for Mass Spectrometry-Based De Novo Monoclonal Antibody Sequencing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poston, Chloe N.; Higgs, Richard E.; You, Jinsam; Gelfanova, Valentina; Hale, John E.; Knierman, Michael D.; Siegel, Robert; Gutierrez, Jesus A.

    2014-07-01

    De novo sequencing by mass spectrometry (MS) allows for the determination of the complete amino acid (AA) sequence of a given protein based on the mass difference of detected ions from MS/MS fragmentation spectra. The technique relies on obtaining specific masses that can be attributed to characteristic theoretical masses of AAs. A major limitation of de novo sequencing by MS is the inability to distinguish between the isobaric residues leucine (Leu) and isoleucine (Ile). Incorrect identification of Ile as Leu or vice versa often results in loss of activity in recombinant antibodies. This functional ambiguity is commonly resolved with costly and time-consuming AA mutation and peptide sequencing experiments. Here, we describe a set of orthogonal biochemical protocols, which experimentally determine the identity of Ile or Leu residues in monoclonal antibodies (mAb) based on the selectivity that leucine aminopeptidase shows for n-terminal Leu residues and the cleavage preference for Leu by chymotrypsin. The resulting observations are combined with germline frequencies and incorporated into a logistic regression model, called Predictor for Xle Sites (PXleS) to provide a statistical likelihood for the identity of Leu at an ambiguous site. We demonstrate that PXleS can generate a probability for an Xle site in mAbs with 96% accuracy. The implementation of PXleS precludes the expression of several possible sequences and, therefore, reduces the overall time and resources required to go from spectra generation to a biologically active sequence for a mAb when an Ile or Leu residue is in question.

  17. Application of combined mass spectrometry and partial amino acid sequence to the identification of gel-separated proteins.

    PubMed

    Patterson, S D; Thomas, D; Bradshaw, R A

    1996-05-01

    The combined use of peptide mass information with amino acid sequence information derived by chemical sequencing or mass spectrometry (MS)-based approaches provides a powerful means of protein identification. We have used a two-part strategy to identify proteins from nerve growth factor (NGF)-stimulated rat adrenal pheochromocytoma cell line PC-12 cell lysates that associate with the adaptor protein Shc (Shc homologous and collagen protein). Initial experiments with metabolically radiolabeled cell extracts separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) revealed a number of proteins that coimmunoprecipitated with anti-Shc antibody compared with control (unstimulated) cell extracts. The experiment was scaled up and cell lysate from NGF-stimulated PC-12 cells was applied to a glutathione-S-transferase (GST)-Shc affinity column, eluted, separated by SDS-PAGE and blotted to Immobilon-CD. The blotted proteins were proteolytically digested in situ, and the masses obtained from the extracted peptides were used in a peptide-mass search program in an attempt to identify the protein. Even if a strong candidate was found using this search, an additional step was performed to confirm the identification. The mixtures were fractionated by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) and subjected to chemical sequencing to obtain (partial) sequence information, or post-source decay (PSD-) matrix-assisted laser-desorption ionization (MALDI)-MS to obtain sequence-specific fragment ions. This data was used in a peptide-sequence tag search to confirm the identity of the proteins. This combined approach allowed identification of four proteins of M(r) 43,000 to 200,000. In one case the identified protein clearly did not correspond to the radiolabeled band, but to a protein contaminant from the column. The advantages and pitfalls of the approach are discussed. PMID:8783013

  18. Viridans Group Streptococci Clinical Isolates: MALDI-TOF Mass Spectrometry versus Gene Sequence-Based Identification

    PubMed Central

    Angeletti, Silvia; Dicuonzo, Giordano; Avola, Alessandra; Crea, Francesca; Dedej, Etleva; Vailati, Francesca; Farina, Claudio; De Florio, Lucia

    2015-01-01

    Viridans Group Streptococci (VGS) species-level identification is fundamental for patients management. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization—time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has been used for VGS identification but discrimination within the Mitis group resulted difficult. In this study, VGS identifications with two MALDI-TOF instruments, the Biotyper (Bruker) and the VITEK MS (bioMérieux) have been compared to those derived from tuf, soda and rpoB genes sequencing. VGS isolates were clustered and a dendrogram constructed using the Biotyper 3.0 software (Bruker). RpoB gene sequencing resulted the most sensitive and specific molecular method for S. pneumonia identification and was used as reference method. The sensitivity and the specificity of the VITEK MS in S. pneumonia identification were 100%, while the Biotyper resulted less specific (92.4%). In non pneumococcal VGS strains, the group-level correlation between rpoB and the Biotyper was 100%, while the species-level correlation was 61% after database upgrading (than 37% before upgrading). The group-level correlation between rpoB and the VITEK MS was 100%, while the species-level correlation was 36% and increases at 69% if isolates identified as S. mitis/S. oralis are included. The less accurate performance of the VITEK MS in VGS identification within the Mitis group was due to the inability to discriminate between S. mitis and S. oralis. Conversely, the Biotyper, after the release of the upgraded database, was able to discriminate between the two species. In the dendrogram, VGS strains from the same group were grouped into the same cluster and had a good correspondence with the gene-based clustering reported by other authors, thus confirming the validity of the upgraded version of the database. Data from this study demonstrated that MALDI-TOF technique can represent a rapid and cost saving method for VGS identification even within the Mitis group but improvements of spectra database are

  19. 16S rRNA Gene Sequencing, Multilocus Sequence Analysis, and Mass Spectrometry Identification of the Proposed New Species “Clostridium neonatale”

    PubMed Central

    Bouvet, Philippe; Ferraris, Laurent; Dauphin, Brunhilde; Popoff, Michel-Robert; Butel, Marie Jose

    2014-01-01

    In 2002, an outbreak of necrotizing enterocolitis in a Canadian neonatal intensive care unit was associated with a proposed novel species of Clostridium, “Clostridium neonatale.” To date, there are no data about the isolation, identification, or clinical significance of this species. Additionally, C. neonatale has not been formally classified as a new species, rendering its identification challenging. Indeed, the C. neonatale 16S rRNA gene sequence shows high similarity to another Clostridium species involved in neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis, Clostridium butyricum. By performing a polyphasic study combining phylogenetic analysis (16S rRNA gene sequencing and multilocus sequence analysis) and phenotypic characterization with mass spectrometry, we demonstrated that C. neonatale is a new species within the Clostridium genus sensu stricto, for which we propose the name Clostridium neonatale sp. nov. Now that the status of C. neonatale has been clarified, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) can be used for better differential identification of C. neonatale and C. butyricum clinical isolates. This is necessary to precisely define the role and clinical significance of C. neonatale, a species that may have been misidentified and underrepresented during previous neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis studies. PMID:25232167

  20. Controversial age spreads from the main sequence turn-off and red clump in intermediate-age clusters in the LMC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niederhofer, F.; Bastian, N.; Kozhurina-Platais, V.; Hilker, M.; de Mink, S. E.; Cabrera-Ziri, I.; Li, C.; Ercolano, B.

    2016-02-01

    Most star clusters at an intermediate age (1-2 Gyr) in the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds show a puzzling feature in their color-magnitude diagrams (CMD) that is not in agreement with a simple stellar population. The main sequence turn-off of these clusters is much broader than expected from photometric uncertainties. One interpretation of this feature is that age spreads of the order of 200-500 Myr exist within individual clusters, although this interpretation is highly debated. Such large age spreads should affect other parts of the CMD, which are sensitive to age, as well. In this study, we analyze the CMDs of a sample of 12 intermediate-age clusters in the Large Magellanic Cloud that all show an extended turn-off using archival optical data taken with the Hubble Space Telescope. We fit the star formation history of the turn-off region and the red clump region independently. We find that in most cases, the age spreads inferred from the red clumps are smaller than those that result from the turn-off region. However, the age ranges that result from the red clump region are broader than expected for a single age. Only two out of 12 clusters in our sample show a red clump which seems to be consistent with a single age. As our results are ambiguous, by fitting the star formation histories to the red clump regions, we cannot ultimately tell if the extended main sequence turn-off feature is the result of an age spread or not. However, we do find that the width of the extended main sequence turn-off feature is correlated with the age of the clusters in a way which would be unexplained in the so-called age spread interpretation, but which may be expected if stellar rotation is the cause of the spread at the turn-off. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, and obtained from the Hubble Legacy Archive, which is a collaboration between the Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI/NASA), the Space Telescope European Coordinating Facility (ST

  1. Fluid mass and thermal loading effects on the modal characteristics of space shuttle main engine liquid oxygen inlet splitter vanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Panossian, H. V.; Boehnlein, J. J.

    1987-01-01

    An analysis and evaluation of experimental modal survey test data on the variations of modal characteristics induced by pressure and thermal loading events are presented. Extensive modal survey tests were carried out on a Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) test article using liquid nitrogen under cryogenic temperatures and high pressures. The results suggest that an increase of pressure under constant cryogenic temperature or a decrease of temperature under high pressure induces an upward shift of frequencies of various modes of the structures.

  2. Study of the main geochemical characteristics of Phobos' regolith using laser time-of-flight mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Managadze, G. G.; Wurz, P.; Sagdeev, R. Z.; Chumikov, A. E.; Tuley, M.; Yakovleva, M.; Managadze, N. G.; Bondarenko, A. L.

    2010-10-01

    The peculiarities of the airborne LAZMA instrument applied for the measurement of the isotopic and elemental composition of Phobos’ regolith by the method of laser time-of-flight mass spectrometry are discussed. These measurements may confirm the assumptions that the material of Phobos is an initial substance with a composition close to carbonaceous chondrites, from which the Earth was formed. The results of the measurements may also confirm the original mechanism of the formation of the anomalous absorption of Phobos’ regolith suggested in this study. The obtained results regarding the elemental composition of the regolith may contain information about the conditions of the formation of Phobos, as well as provide information about it age. The scientific tasks of individual experiments and ways for their realization are considered in the paper. A detailed description of the airborne instrument and the principle of its operation is presented. The analytical and technical characteristics of the instrument and the peculiarities of constructive decisions are given. Data on the most important functional assemblies of the instrument, the development and transmission of scientific information to the Earth, are considered. The mass spectra presented in the paper were obtained by airborne instruments during the course of their laboratory test and the selection of the operating regime. It is demonstrated that the LAZMA instrument is the first version of the original next-generation airborne instrument constructed at the Space Research Institute and patented in Russia.

  3. Uncertainty in the Extinction-to-Reddening Ratio Due to Uncertainty in the Main-Sequence Spectral Type of a Background Star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larson, Kristen A.

    2014-01-01

    Accurate and precise knowledge of extinction by foreground dust is necessary in many fields of astronomy. This study uses photometric models of main-sequence background stars to investigate the uncertainty in the measured extinction-to-reddening ratio, RV. When RV is calculated from reddening ratios, the uncertainty in RV due to possible error in the assumed background spectral type is not symmetric and depends strongly on spectral type itself. The true uncertainty in RV calculated from reddening ratios must include the effect of uncertainty in the background star spectral type, but this study also shows that in all but the lowest extinction lines of sight and lines of sight to very late-type stars, values of RV that deviate significantly from the Galactic average are likely real, not caused by uncertainty in background spectral type.

  4. Observations of the He I 10830 A line in main-sequence O9-B6 stars and comparison with non-LTE predictions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lennon, D. J.; Dufton, P. L.

    1989-11-01

    New high resolution CCD observations of the He I 10830 A line in O9-B6 main-sequence stars are presented and compared with previous non-LTE model atmosphere calculations. While good qualitative agreement with the results of Auer and Mihalas (1973) is found, the theoretical results tend to overestimate the line strength. This is particularly serious at the earliest spectral types where the observations imply that the line is either very weak in absorption or (for Tau Sco) very weak in emission. This line provides a stringent test of the validity of the model atmosphere calculations due to (1) its high sensitivity to non-LTE effects, (2) the transition between low lying levels leading to compact model atom and (3) reliable atomic data available for most processes involving helium atoms or ions. The difficulties inherent to modeling this line are discussed with particular attention being paid to the likely influence of line-blanketing.

  5. Numerical Investigation of the Main Characteristics of Heat and Mass Transfer while Heating the Heterogeneous Water Droplet in the Hot Gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piskunov, Maxim V.; Shcherbinina, Anastasia A.; Vysokomornaya, Olga V.

    2016-02-01

    The processes of heat and evaporation of heterogeneous water droplet with solid (by the example of carbon) inclusion in hot (from 800 K to 1500 K) gases were investigated by the developed models of heat and mass transfer. We defined the limited conditions, characteristics of the droplet and the gas medium which are sufficient for implementing the "explosive" destruction of heterogeneous droplet due to intensive vaporization on an inner interface, and intensive evaporation of liquid from an external (free) droplet surface. The values of the main characteristic of the process (period from start of heating to "explosive" destruction) obtained in response to using various heat and mass transfer models were compared.

  6. A general function of noncoding polynucleotide sequences. Mass binding of transconformational proteins.

    PubMed

    Zuckerkandl, E

    1981-05-22

    It is proposed that a general function of noncoding DNA and RNA sequences in higher organisms (intergenic and intervening sequences) is to provide multiple binding sites over long stretches of polynucleotide for certain types of regulatory proteins. Through the building up or abolishing of high-order structures, these proteins either sequester sites for the control of, e.g., transcription or make the sites available to local molecular signals. If this is to take place, the existence of a 'c-value paradox' becomes a requirement. Multiple binding sites for a given protein may recur in the form of a sequence 'motif' that is variable within certain limits. Noncoding sequences of the chickens ovalbumin gene furnish an appropriate example of a sequence motif. GAAAATT. Its improbably high frequency and significant periodicity are both absent from the coding sequences of the same gene and from the noncoding sequences of a differently controlled gene in the same organisms, the preproinsulin gene. This distribution of a sequence motif is in keeping with the concepts outlined. Low specificity of sequences that bind protein is likely to be compatible with highly specific conformational changes. PMID:6789141

  7. Statistical physics inspired methods to assign statistical significance in bioinformatics and proteomics: From sequence comparison to mass spectrometry based peptide sequencing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alves, Gelio

    After the sequencing of many complete genomes, we are in a post-genomic era in which the most important task has changed from gathering genetic information to organizing the mass of data as well as under standing how components interact with each other. The former is usually undertaking using bioinformatics methods, while the latter task is generally termed proteomics. Success in both parts demands correct statistical significance assignments for results found. In my dissertation. I study two concrete examples: global sequence alignment statistics and peptide sequencing/identification using mass spectrometry. High-performance liquid chromatography coupled to a mass spectrometer (HPLC/MS/MS), enabling peptide identifications and thus protein identifications, has become the tool of choice in large-scale proteomics experiments. Peptide identification is usually done by database searches methods. The lack of robust statistical significance assignment among current methods motivated the development of a novel de novo algorithm, RAId, whose score statistics then provide statistical significance for high scoring peptides found in our custom, enzyme-digested peptide library. The ease of incorporating post-translation modifications is another important feature of RAId. To organize the massive protein/DNA data accumulated, biologists often cluster proteins according to their similarity via tools such as sequence alignment. Homologous proteins share similar domains. To assess the similarity of two domains usually requires alignment from head to toe, ie. a global alignment. A good alignment score statistics with an appropriate null model enable us to distinguish the biologically meaningful similarity from chance similarity. There has been much progress in local alignment statistics, which characterize score statistics when alignments tend to appear as a short segment of the whole sequence. For global alignment, which is useful in domain alignment, there is still much room for

  8. H2 and CO Emission from Disks around T Tauri and Herbig Ae Pre-Main-Sequence Stars and from Debris Disks around Young Stars: Warm and Cold Circumstellar Gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thi, W. F.; van Dishoeck, E. F.; Blake, G. A.; van Zadelhoff, G. J.; Horn, J.; Becklin, E. E.; Mannings, V.; Sargent, A. I.; van den Ancker, M. E.; Natta, A.; Kessler, J.

    2001-11-01

    We present ISO Short-Wavelength Spectrometer observations of H2 pure-rotational line emission from the disks around low- and intermediate-mass pre-main-sequence stars as well as from young stars thought to be surrounded by debris disks. The pre-main-sequence sources have been selected to be isolated from molecular clouds and to have circumstellar disks revealed by millimeter interferometry. We detect ``warm'' (T~100-200 K) H2 gas around many sources, including tentatively the debris-disk objects. The mass of this warm gas ranges from ~10-4 Msolar up to 8×10-3 Msolar and can constitute a nonnegligible fraction of the total disk mass. Complementary single-dish 12CO 3-2, 13CO 3-2, and 12CO 6-5 observations have been obtained as well. These transitions probe cooler gas at T~20-80 K. Most objects show a double-peaked CO emission profile characteristic of a disk in Keplerian rotation, consistent with interferometer data on the lower J lines. The ratios of the 12CO 3-2/13CO 3-2 integrated fluxes indicate that 12CO 3-2 is optically thick but that 13CO 3-2 is optically thin or at most moderately thick. The 13CO 3-2 lines have been used to estimate the cold gas mass. If a H2/CO conversion factor of 1×104 is adopted, the derived cold gas masses are factors of 10-200 lower than those deduced from 1.3 millimeter dust emission assuming a gas/dust ratio of 100, in accordance with previous studies. These findings confirm that CO is not a good tracer of the total gas content in disks since it can be photodissociated in the outer layers and frozen onto grains in the cold dense part of disks, but that it is a robust tracer of the disk velocity field. In contrast, H2 can shield itself from photodissociation even in low-mass ``optically thin'' debris disks and can therefore survive longer. The warm gas is typically 1%-10% of the total mass deduced from millimeter continuum emission, but it can increase up to 100% or more for the debris-disk objects. Thus, residual molecular gas may

  9. POPULATION PARAMETERS OF INTERMEDIATE-AGE STAR CLUSTERS IN THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD. III. DYNAMICAL EVIDENCE FOR A RANGE OF AGES BEING RESPONSIBLE FOR EXTENDED MAIN-SEQUENCE TURNOFFS

    SciTech Connect

    Goudfrooij, Paul; Kozhurina-Platais, Vera; Puzia, Thomas H.; Chandar, Rupali E-mail: verap@stsci.edu E-mail: rupali.chandar@utoledo.edu

    2011-08-10

    We present a new analysis of 11 intermediate-age (1-2 Gyr) star clusters in the Large Magellanic Cloud based on Hubble Space Telescope imaging data. Seven of the clusters feature main-sequence turnoff (MSTO) regions that are wider than can be accounted for by a simple stellar population, whereas their red giant branches (RGBs) indicate a single value of [Fe/H]. The star clusters cover a range in present-day mass from about 1 x 10{sup 4} M{sub sun} to 2 x 10{sup 5} M{sub sun}. We compare radial distributions of stars in the upper and lower parts of the MSTO region, and calculate cluster masses and escape velocities from the present time back to a cluster age of 10 Myr. Our main result is that for all clusters in our sample with estimated escape velocities v{sub esc} {approx}> 15 km s{sup -1} at an age of 10 Myr, the stars in the brightest half of the MSTO region are significantly more centrally concentrated than the stars in the faintest half and more massive RGB and asymptotic giant branch stars. This is not the case for clusters with v{sub esc} {approx}< 10 km s{sup -1} at an age of 10 Myr. We argue that the wide MSTO region of such clusters is caused mainly by a {approx}200-500 Myr range in the ages of cluster stars due to extended star formation within the cluster from material shed by first-generation stars featuring slow stellar winds. Dilution of this enriched material by accretion of ambient interstellar matter is deemed plausible if the spread of [Fe/H] in this ambient gas was very small when the second-generation stars were formed in the cluster.

  10. Constraining the low-mass Slope of the star formation sequence at 0.5 < z < 2.5

    SciTech Connect

    Whitaker, Katherine E.; Henry, Alaina; Rigby, Jane R.; Franx, Marijn; Fumagalli, Mattia; Labbé, Ivo; Leja, Joel; Van Dokkum, Pieter G.; Momcheva, Ivelina G.; Nelson, Erica J.; Skelton, Rosalind E.; Brammer, Gabriel B.

    2014-11-10

    We constrain the slope of the star formation rate (SFR; log Ψ) to stellar mass (log M {sub *}) relation down to log (M {sub *}/M {sub ☉}) = 8.4 (log (M {sub *}/M {sub ☉}) = 9.2) at z = 0.5 (z = 2.5) with a mass-complete sample of 39,106 star-forming galaxies selected from the 3D-HST photometric catalogs, using deep photometry in the CANDELS fields. For the first time, we find that the slope is dependent on stellar mass, such that it is steeper at low masses (log Ψ∝log M {sub *}) than at high masses (log Ψ∝(0.3-0.6)log M {sub *}). These steeper low-mass slopes are found for three different star formation indicators: the combination of the ultraviolet (UV) and infrared (IR), calibrated from a stacking analysis of Spitzer/MIPS 24 μm imaging; β-corrected UV SFRs; and Hα SFRs. The normalization of the sequence evolves differently in distinct mass regimes as well: for galaxies less massive than log (M {sub *}/M {sub ☉}) < 10 the specific SFR (Ψ/M {sub *}) is observed to be roughly self-similar with Ψ/M {sub *}∝(1 + z){sup 1.9}, whereas more massive galaxies show a stronger evolution with Ψ/M {sub *}∝(1 + z){sup 2.2-3.5} for log (M {sub *}/M {sub ☉}) = 10.2-11.2. The fact that we find a steep slope of the star formation sequence for the lower mass galaxies will help reconcile theoretical galaxy formation models with the observations.

  11. Studying the impurity charge and main ion mass dependence of impurity confinement in ECR-heated TJ-II stellarator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zurro, B.; Hollmann, E. M.; Baciero, A.; Ochando, M. A.; McCarthy, K. J.; Medina, F.; Velasco, J. L.; Pastor, I.; Baião, D.; de la Cal, E.; Rapisarda, D.; the TJ-II Team

    2014-12-01

    The dependence of impurity confinement time on the charge and mass of the impurity ions injected from various samples (LiF, BN, W) by the laser blow-off method is reported for electron cyclotron heated discharges of the TJ-II heliac. Distinct impurity confinements are distinguished clearly for these injected ions in the plasma core as revealed by soft x-ray analysis and by tomographic reconstruction of bolometer array signals. A dependence of impurity confinement with charge seems to be the most probable explanation, as confirmed by the analysis of spectrally resolved data in the vacuum-ultraviolet range. This is discussed in terms of the dependence of impurity neoclassical transport on the background radial electric field. In addition, the impurity confinement of LiF is studied for a set of discharges in which the hydrogenic isotope mixture (H, D) is known (and evolves along the experiment), revealing a moderate isotope effect that is observed for the first time in particle confinement in a stellarator. This effect is consistent with a similar effect reported in global energy confinement time in the ATF stellarator.

  12. Microheterogeneity of odorant-binding proteins in the porcupine revealed by N-terminal sequencing and mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ganni, M; Garibotti, M; Scaloni, A; Pucci, P; Pelosi, P

    1997-06-01

    Several odorant-binding proteins (OBP) have been previously purified from the nasal mucosa of the old world porcupine Hystrix cristata. In this paper, we report their N-terminal amino-acid sequences and accurate molecular weights, as measured by electrospray mass spectrometry. The partial amino acid sequences reveal significant similarity with OBPs of other mammalian species and segregate the eight proteins purified into two subclasses. Mass spectrometry has revealed microheterogeneity among the proteins belonging to each of these two groups, suggesting a total number of OBPs of at least nine. The molecular weight differences between OBPs cannot be readily accounted for by common post-translation modifications and indicate different gene products. Such a large number of different OBPs may represent further support to an odour discriminating role for these proteins. PMID:9226887

  13. A Search for Coronal Emission at the Bottom of the Main-Sequence: Stars and Brown Dwarf Candidates with Spectral Types Later than M7 and the Rotation-Activity Relation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stringfellow, Guy

    2004-01-01

    This program intended to test whether the lowest mass stars at the bottom end of the main sequence and the lower mass brown dwarfs have coronae. If they have coronae, what are the coronal characteristics and what drives them? In the classical dynamo picture, the closed magnetic loop structure is generated near the boundary of the convective envelope and the radiative core. Stars with mass below 0.30 Msun however are fully convective, and the nature of the dynamo responsible for the generation of the coronae in this regime is poorly understood. Previous results from the ROSAT mission (e.g., Fleming et al. 1993, 1995; Schmitt et al. 1995) had confirmed three very important characteristics of M-star coronae: (1) a very high percentage of all M dwarfs have coronae (of order 85% in the local 7 pc sample), (2) those M dwarfs showing high chromospheric activity, such as having the Balmer series in emission or large/numerous optical flaring, indeed exhibit the highest coronal activity, and (3) that the maximum saturation boundary in X-ray luminosity, which amounts to 0.0001-0.001 for Lx/Lbol for the dMe stars, extends down to the current detection limit, through spectral types M7. It was likely that the incompleteness noted for result (1) above was simply a detection limit problem; for more distant sources, the X-ray fainter dM stars will drop below detection thresholds before the more X-ray luminous dMe stars. The latest stars for which direct detection of the corona had been successful were of spectral type dM7 (e.g., VB8, LHS 3003). This program proposed to obtain ROSAT HRI observations for a large number of the coolest known (at that time) stars at the bottom of the main-sequence, which had spectral types of M9 or later. Three stars were approved for observations with ROSAT-HRI totaling 180 ksec. The goal was to obtain X-ray detections or low upper limits for the three approved stars.

  14. Mass balances of mercury and nitrogen in burned and unburned forested watersheds at Acadia National Park, Maine, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, S.J.; Johnson, K.B.; Kahl, J.S.; Haines, T.A.; Fernandez, I.J.

    2007-01-01

    Precipitation and streamwater samples were collected from 16 November 1999 to 17 November 2000 in two watersheds at Acadia National Park, Maine, and analyzed for mercury (Hg) and dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN, nitrate plus ammonium). Cadillac Brook watershed burned in a 1947 fire that destroyed vegetation and soil organic matter. We hypothesized that Hg deposition would be higher at Hadlock Brook (the reference watershed, 10.2 ??g/m2/year) than Cadillac (9.4 ??g/m2/year) because of the greater scavenging efficiency of the softwood vegetation in Hadlock. We also hypothesized the Hg and DIN export from Cadillac Brook would be lower than Hadlock Brook because of elemental volatilization during the fire, along with subsequently lower rates of atmospheric deposition in a watershed with abundant bare soil and bedrock, and regenerating vegetation. Consistent with these hypotheses, Hg export was lower from Cadillac Brook watershed (0.4 ??g/m2/year) than from Hadlock Brook watershed (1.3 ??g/m2/year). DIN export from Cadillac Brook (11.5 eq/ ha/year) was lower than Hadlock Brook (92.5 eq/ha/year). These data show that ??50 years following a wildfire there was lower atmospheric deposition due to changes in forest species composition, lower soil pools, and greater ecosystem retention for both Hg and DIN. ?? Springer Science + Business Media B.V. 2006.

  15. Characterization of nucleic acids by tandem mass spectrometry - The second decade (2004-2013): From DNA to RNA and modified sequences.

    PubMed

    Schürch, Stefan

    2016-07-01

    Nucleic acids play key roles in the storage and processing of genetic information, as well as in the regulation of cellular processes. Consequently, they represent attractive targets for drugs against gene-related diseases. On the other hand, synthetic oligonucleotide analogues have found application as chemotherapeutic agents targeting cellular DNA and RNA. The development of effective nucleic acid-based chemotherapeutic strategies requires adequate analytical techniques capable of providing detailed information about the nucleotide sequences, the presence of structural modifications, the formation of higher-order structures, as well as the interaction of nucleic acids with other cellular components and chemotherapeutic agents. Due to the impressive technical and methodological developments of the past years, tandem mass spectrometry has evolved to one of the most powerful tools supporting research related to nucleic acids. This review covers the literature of the past decade devoted to the tandem mass spectrometric investigation of nucleic acids, with the main focus on the fundamental mechanistic aspects governing the gas-phase dissociation of DNA, RNA, modified oligonucleotide analogues, and their adducts with metal ions. Additionally, recent findings on the elucidation of nucleic acid higher-order structures by tandem mass spectrometry are reviewed. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., Mass Spec Rev 35:483-523, 2016. PMID:25288464