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1

Rupture process of a multiple main shock sequence: analysis of teleseismic, local and field observations of the Tennant Creek, Australia, earthquakes of January 22, 1988  

USGS Publications Warehouse

On January 22, 1988, three large intraplate earthquakes (with MS 6.3, 6.4 and 6.7) occurred within a 12-hour period near Tennant Creek, Australia. Broadband displacement and velocity records of body waves from teleseismically recorded data are analyzed to determine source mechanisms, depths, and complexity of rupture of each of the three main shocks. Hypocenters of an additional 150 foreshocks and aftershocks constrained by local arrival time data and field observations of surface rupture are used to complement the source characteristics of the main shocks. The interpretation of the combined data sets suggests that the overall rupture process involved unusually complicated stress release. Rupture characteristics suggest that substantial slow slip occurred on each of the three fault interfaces that was not accompanied by major energy release. Variation of focal depth and the strong increase of moment and radiated energy with each main shock imply that lateral variations of strength were more important than vertical gradients of shear stress in controlling the progression of rupture. -from Authors

Choy, G. L.; Bowman, J. R.

1990-01-01

2

Initial-rupture fault, main-shock fault, and aftershock faults: Fault geometry and bends inferred from centroid moment tensor inversion of the 2005 west off Fukuoka prefecture earthquake  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 2005 west off Fukuoka prefecture earthquake (MJMA = 7.0) occurred on March 20, 2005 in northwest Kyusyu, Japan. The fault geometry and rupture propagation of the main shock are investigated by applying the centroid moment tensor (CMT) inversion method to densely-distributed broadband seismic network data. An accurate distribution of small aftershocks is also examined by a double-difference method. The

Yoshihiro Ito; Kazushige Obara; Tetsuya Takeda; Katsuhiko Shiomi; Takumi Matsumoto; Shoji Sekiguchi; Sadaki Hori

2006-01-01

3

Successful endovascular treatment of rupture of mycotic left main coronary artery aneurysm.  

PubMed

Mycotic coronary aneurysm formation is a rare complication in patients with infective endocarditis. Furthermore, rupture of coronary artery aneurysm, also rare, is life threatening. Sudden rupture of left main mycotic coronary aneurysm occurred in a patient, aged 68 years, 1 month after root replacement for aortic regurgitation caused by infectious endocarditis. A polytetrafluoroethylene-covered stent was implanted covering the entire aneurysmal portion crossing over the left circumflex coronary artery in this emergent situation. After a successful hemostatic procedure, the patient recovered from cardiogenic shock. We confirmed the sustained patency of the stent segment by coronary angiography 6 months after the procedure. PMID:23395219

Torii, Sho; Ohta, Hiroshi; Morino, Yoshihiro; Nakashima, Makoto; Suzuki, Yoshitaka; Murata, Seiichiro; Sakuma, Yoshihiro; Ikari, Yuji; Tamura, Tsutomu

2013-02-08

4

Ruptured right sinus of Valsalva into main pulmonary artery.  

PubMed

A young adult who presented with congestive heart failure was found to have ruptured aneurysm of right sinus of Valsalva. The aneurysm was opening into the main pulmonary artery, which was demonstrated well by transthoracic and transesophageal echocardiography and confirmed by cardiac catheterization. Aneurysm was repaired followed by aortic valve replacement. PMID:22629032

Mohite, Prashant N; Rohit, Manoj K; Thingnam, Shyam K

2012-04-01

5

Remotely triggered earthquakes following moderate main shocks  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Since 1992, remotely triggered earthquakes have been identified following large (M > 7) earthquakes in California as well as in other regions. These events, which occur at much greater distances than classic aftershocks, occur predominantly in active geothermal or volcanic regions, leading to theories that the earthquakes are triggered when passing seismic waves cause disruptions in magmatic or other fluid systems. In this paper, I focus on observations of remotely triggered earthquakes following moderate main shocks in diverse tectonic settings. I summarize evidence that remotely triggered earthquakes occur commonly in mid-continent and collisional zones. This evidence is derived from analysis of both historic earthquake sequences and from instrumentally recorded M5-6 earthquakes in eastern Canada. The latter analysis suggests that, while remotely triggered earthquakes do not occur pervasively following moderate earthquakes in eastern North America, a low level of triggering often does occur at distances beyond conventional aftershock zones. The inferred triggered events occur at the distances at which SmS waves are known to significantly increase ground motions. A similar result was found for 28 recent M5.3-7.1 earthquakes in California. In California, seismicity is found to increase on average to a distance of at least 200 km following moderate main shocks. This supports the conclusion that, even at distances of ???100 km, dynamic stress changes control the occurrence of triggered events. There are two explanations that can account for the occurrence of remotely triggered earthquakes in intraplate settings: (1) they occur at local zones of weakness, or (2) they occur in zones of local stress concentration. ?? 2007 The Geological Society of America.

Hough, S. E.

2007-01-01

6

Spontaneous rupture of the right gastroepiploic artery: unusual cause of acute abdomen and shock  

Microsoft Academic Search

INTRODUCTION: Spontaneous rupture of the right gastroepiploic artery is an extremely rare case which can be a cause of abdominal apoplexy. CASE REPORT: We present a case of a 64-year old woman with a Spontaneous rupture of the right gastroepiploic artery with hemorrhagic shock that was successfully treated by emergency surgery. CONCLUSION: Simultaneous restoration of circulating volume and rapid diagnosis

Karim Ibn Majdoub Hassani; Ali Bounekar; Jean-Manuel Gruss

2009-01-01

7

Rupture Process of the 2007 Noto Hanto Earthquake Inferred From Local P-wave Records: Second hypocenter, Initial Rupture, Main Rupture, Asperity and Killer Pulse  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 2007 Noto Hanto earthquake (Mjma6.9; Mw6.7) occurred on 25 March 2007 (JST) in the Noto Peninsula area of central Japan, which shook strongly the near-source region. Many strong-motion stations recorded the seismic motion near the source region. In this study we analyzed the P-wave part of such records. In the waveform a typical characteristic can be seen. That is an emergent onset. The strong-motion records at local stations except the three nearest stations show nearly two seconds of small but increasing amplitude arrival (hereafter, called "initial rupture phase") followed by the onset of the main energy release (hereafter, called "main rupture phase"). Such an emergent onset is seen on strong-motion records of other earthquakes (e.g., the 2000 Western Tottori earthquake; the 2005 West Off Fukuoka Prefecture earthquake; the 2007 Niigataken Chuetsu-oki earthquake). For the three nearest stations, S wave may have masked the main rupture phase with the lager amplitudes. The P- wave part of the records has another remarkable feature. In the first P onset part of the initial rupture phase two events can be seen. The difference between the two arrivals is about 0.5 s. Using a master-event technique (Takenaka et al., 2006, EPS) we determined the location of the second event (hereafter called "the second hypocenter") relative to the location of the first event (i.e. hypocenter), and then estimated the relative location and time of the onset of the main rupture with respect to the second hypocenter. We furthermore mapped the asperity area on the main fault plane using a source imaging technique based on the back-projection (Yamamoto and Takenaka, 2006, AGU Fall Meeting). From these analyses, we derived the following rupture history of this earthquake: The initial rupture plane and the main rupture plane are different as suggested by the focal mechanism solutions of the P-wave polarities (JMA, 2007) and the CMT (F-net, NIED, 2007). The rupture first propagated toward the direction of strike of the initial rupture plane for 0.5 seconds and changed to the main rupture plane, where this changing point is the second hypocenter. It located at about 1 km apart from the hypocenter. The rupture then restarted toward the direction of Wajima City along the main rupture plane. The main rupture (breaking of the asperity) began at a time of 2.4 s after the second hypocenter onset at a position of 1.0 km and 1.4 km in the strike and updip directions, respectively, from the second hypocenter. The asperity distributes along an updip and strike direction from the second hypocenter and the imaging peak locates around the coast near Monzen-cho, Wajima city in the Noto Peninsula. This estimated rupture history is consistent with damage distribution and spatial pattern of the observed killer pulse (forward rupture directivity pulse) in S-wave portion of the strong-motion records. (Acknowledgements) We used the strong-motion records supplied by the National Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (NIED; K-NET, KiK-net, F-net), and the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA).

Yamamoto, Y.; Takenaka, H.

2007-12-01

8

A successful team treatment for left main shock syndrome  

PubMed Central

Acute myocardial infarction complicated by cardiogenic shock and left main coronary artery disease is called left main shock syndrome. It is reported that the morbility and mortality of the syndrome is approximately 0.46% and 55%–80%, respectively. However, the best treatment strategy in these cases is unknown. In this article, we present a patient with LMSS who successively underwent emergency percutaneous coronary intervention and coronary artery bypass grafting with hemodynamic support within 5 days. The patient is now on his three month uneventful out-patient follow-up.

Que, Bin; Cheng, Yu-Tong; Gao, Hai; Hou, Xiao-Tong; Dong, Ran; Li, Nan; Nie, Shao-Ping

2013-01-01

9

Spontaneous adrenal pheochromocytoma rupture complicated by intraperitoneal hemorrhage and shock.  

PubMed

MEN2A is a hereditary syndrome characterized by medullary thyroid carcinoma, hyperparathyroidism, and pheochromocytoma. Classically patients with a pheochromocytoma initially present with the triad of paroxysmal headaches, palpitations, and diaphoresis accompanied by marked hypertension. However, although reported as a rare presentation, spontaneous hemorrhage within a pheochromocytoma can present as an abdominal catastrophe. Unrecognized, this transformation can rapidly result in death. We report the only documented case of a thirty eight year old gentleman with MEN2A who presented to a community hospital with hemorrhagic shock and peritonitis secondary to an unrecognized hemorrhagic pheochromocytoma. The clinical course is notable for an inability to localize the source of hemorrhage during an initial damage control laparotomy that stabilized the patient sufficiently to allow emergent transfer to our facility, re-exploration for continued hemorrhage and abdominal compartment syndrome, and ultimately angiographic embolization of the left adrenal artery for control of the bleeding. Following recovery from his critical illness and appropriate medical management for pheochromocytoma, he returned for interval bilateral adrenal gland resection, from which his recovery was unremarkable. Our review of the literature highlights the high mortality associated with the undertaking of an operative intervention in the face of an unrecognized functional pheochromocytoma. This reinforces the need for maintaining a high index of suspicion for pheochromocytoma in similar cases. Our case also demonstrates the need for a mutimodal treatment approach that will often be required in these cases. PMID:21843357

Hanna, Joseph S; Spencer, Philip J; Savopoulou, Cornelia; Kwasnik, Edward; Askari, Reza

2011-08-15

10

Near-field TEC response to the main shock of the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the first time we have registered near-field TEC response to the WENCHUAN earthquake (EQ) on 12 May 2008. The Wenchuan earthquake (magnitude 7.9) occurred at 06:28:01 UT as the result of motion on a northeast striking reverse fault (thrust fault) on the northwestern margin of the Sichuan Basin. The earthquake reflects tectonic stresses resulting from the convergence of crustal material slowly moving from the high Tibetan Plateau, to the west, against strong crust underlying the Sichuan Basin and southeastern China (http://earthquake.usgs.gov). Firstly we used the simple 3-GPS sites interferometric method D1 for determining the angular characteristics of the wave vector and phase velocity of N-shape shock-acoustic waves (SAW), generated during earthquakes. This method provided an estimation of SAW parameters without a priori information about the site and time of the EQ main shock. But using D1 method doesn't allow us to determine the form of phase front of SAW (plane or the spherical wave front). Therefore we used the quasi-optimum algorithm, QOA, developed by authors. This algorithm realized the coherent summation of the TEC series accounting for selected space-time parameters of disturbance. For each combination of the estimated parameters the normalized criterion function C for the coherent sum of all TEC series and the reference signal were calculated. The largest maximum value Cmax corresponds to the best-fit perturbation parameters. We found that an intensive N-shape SAW with a plane waveform and with half-period of about 200 sec propagated south-eastward with a velocity 600 m/s for distance about 1000 km from epicenter. The wave front of N-shape disturbance was parallel with the earthquake rupture direction (from NE to SW). The main directional lobe of shock-acoustic wave emitter is directed southeastward, i.e. transversely to the rupture. We suppose that the above properties of TEC response are determined by the geodynamics of the WENCHUAN earthquake. No noticeable TEC response on that earthquake was found in far-field regions in South Korea and Japan. Authors are grateful to members of the Crustal Movement Observation Network of China, the Japanese GPS network GEONET and the South Korean GPS array KGN for GPS data used in this paper. The work was supported by the SB RAS collaboration project N 3.24 and the RFBR-GFEN grant N 06-05-39026; by the Japanese Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS); by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (grants 40774090 and 40636032) and the National Important basic Research Project (2006CB806306).

Afraimovich, E. L.; Feng, Ding; Kiryushkin, V. V.; Astafyeva, E. I.; Jin, Shuanggen

2009-04-01

11

Holocene slip rate and evidences of surface ruptures along the Main Frontal Thrust in Bhutan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On the long term, the Himalayas absorb about 20 mm/yr of the convergence between the India and Eurasia plates. Morphotectonics studies East of Bhutan yielded an Holocene slip rate of 23 ± 6.2 mm/yr consistent with the 21 ± 1.5 mm/yr estimated in Nepal. In the past 1000 years, most of this crustal shortening is accommodated along the Main Frontal Thrust (MFT) by major M?8 earthquakes. Recent paleoseismic investigations between the meizoseismal areas of the 1934 Bihar-Nepal and 1950 Assam earthquakes west and east of the Bhutan suggest that a great earthquake may have ruptured a 700 to 800 km long section of the MFT during a single event around AD 1100. However, between 89°E and 92°E where the MFT runs along the southern border of the Kingdom of Bhutan, no major earthquakes has been recorded so far. In December 2012, we carried out a morphotectonic and paleosismologic study within two sites along the MFT in central Bhutan. We identified several sequences of abandoned fluvial terraces that have been uplifted along the fault. From a kinematic GPS survey, we estimated that the oldest terrace sequence (T2) displays a cumulative offset of ~60 m. A younger sequence (T1) showed an offset of ~4 m on the lower terrace (T1a) and ~9 m on the upper one (T1b). We interpret this 4 m uplift as the vertical component of the last seismic event while the 9 m may be the cumulative offset of the two last earthquakes. These preliminary observations may suggest that the latest seismic event as well as the penultimate event correspond to two major M>8 events. Samples for 14C, OSL and 10Be dating (charcoals, fine sands and quartz rich cobbles, respectively) have been collected in excavations within the different uplifted alluvial surfaces in order to determine the ages of these two last seismic events as well as the Holocene uplift and shortening rates. Compiled with the morphotectonic and paleoseismological data published in the literature, these new results will allow discussing the issue of seismic cycle along this portion of the Himalayan belt.

Ritz, Jean-François; Berthet, Théo; Pelgay, Phuntsho; Ferry, Mathieu; Drukpa, Dowchu; Cattin, Rodolphe; Chophel, Jamyang; Thinley, Kinzang

2013-04-01

12

Thermal-Hydraulic Analyses of Pressurized-Thermal-Shock-Induced Vessel Ruptures.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A severe overcooling transient was postulated to produce vessel wall temperatures below the nil-ductility transition temperature which in conjunction with system repressurization, led to vessel rupture at the core midplane. Such transients are referred to...

D. Dobranich

1982-01-01

13

The Shock Effect of China's Economic Growth on Main Energy's Carbon Dioxide Emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to examine the shock effect of China's economic growth on main energy's (consist of raw coal and crude oil in this paper) carbon dioxide emissions. The impulse response functions (IRF) derived from a factor-augmented vector autoregression (FAVAR) model are used in this paper. By intruducing model's operation steps and conducting 153 macroeconomic time series in quarterly frequency over

Shanshen Li; Yu Yao; Kuisheng Zhou

2011-01-01

14

Unprotected Left Main Coronary Artery Intervention for Acute Myocardial Infarction and Cardiogenic Shock  

PubMed Central

Medical therapy alone often insufficiently alters the clinical course of patients who have experienced acute myocardial infarction and concomitant cardiogenic shock, and in whom the left main coronary artery is the culprit vessel. Emergency coronary artery bypass grafting is an effective yet time-consuming approach that entails the risk of extensive, irreversible myocardial damage. Percutaneous coronary intervention in the unprotected left main coronary artery can enable initial revascularization and rapid stabilization even in high-risk patients, but outcomes from the procedure since the recent advent of drug-eluting stents are still being determined. Herein, we report the successful deployment of a sirolimus-eluting stent in a 65-year-old man who had experienced acute myocardial infarction and cardiogenic shock consequent to an occluded left main coronary artery. The patient recovered rapidly and completely. We review the medical literature and compare percutaneous coronary intervention with other methods of treatment.

Abuzahra, Mohammed M.; Mesa, Andres; Treistman, Bernardo

2007-01-01

15

Earthquake source parameters for the 2010 January Haiti main shock and aftershock sequence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Previous analyses of geological and geodetic data suggest that the obliquely compressive relative motion across the Caribbean-North America plate boundary in Hispaniola is accommodated through strain partitioning between near-vertical transcurrent faults on land and low-angle thrust faults offshore. In the Dominican Republic, earthquake focal-mechanism geometries generally support this interpretation. Little information has been available about patterns of seismic strain release in Haiti, however, due to the small numbers of moderate-to-large earthquakes occurring in western Hispaniola during the modern instrumental era. Here, we analyse the damaging MW = 7.0 earthquake that occurred near Port au Prince on 2010 January 12 and aftershocks occurring in the four months following this event, to obtain centroid-moment-tensor (CMT) solutions for 50 earthquakes with magnitudes as small as MW = 4.0. While the 2010 January main shock exhibited primarily strike-slip motion on a steeply dipping nodal plane (strike=250°, dip=71° and rake=22°), we find that nearly all of the aftershocks show reverse-faulting motion, typically on high-angle (30°-45°) nodal planes. Two small aftershocks (MW 4.5 and 4.6), located very close to the main shock epicentre, show strike-slip faulting with geometries similar to the main shock. One aftershock located off the south coast of Haiti shows low-angle thrust faulting. We also examine earthquakes occurring in this region from 1977-2009 successful analysis of four such events provides evidence for both strike-slip and reverse faulting. The pattern of seismic strain release in southern Haiti thus indicates that partitioning of plate motion between transcurrent and reverse structures extends far west within Hispaniola. While we see limited evidence for low-angle underthrusting offshore, most reverse motion appears to occur on high-angle fault structures adjacent to the Enriquillo fault. Our results highlight the need to incorporate seismogenic slip on compressional structures into hazard assessments for southern Haiti.

Nettles, Meredith; Hjörleifsdóttir, Vala

2010-10-01

16

Chapter A. The Loma Prieta, California, Earthquake of October 17, 1989 - Main Shock Characteristics  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The October 17, 1989, Loma Prieta, Calif., earthquake (0004:15.2 G.m.t. October 18; lat 37.036? N., long 121.883? W.; 19-km depth) had a local magnitude (ML) of about 6.7, a surface-wave magnitude (MS) of 7.1, a seismic moment of 2.2x1019 N-m to 3.5x1019 N-m, a source duration of 6 to 15 s, and an average stress drop of at least 50 bars. Slip occurred on a dipping fault surface about 35 km long and was largely confined to a depth of about 7 to 20 km. The slip vector had a large vertical component, and slip was distributed in two main regions situated northwest and southeast of the hypocenter. This slip distribution caused about half of the earthquake's energy to be focused toward the urbanized San Francisco Bay region, while the other half was focused toward the southeast. Had the rupture initiated at the southeast end of the aftershock zone, shaking in the bay region would have been both longer and stronger. These source parameters suggest that the earthquake was not a typical shallow San Andreas-type event but a deeper event on a different fault with a recurrence interval of many hundreds of years. Therefore, the potential for a damaging shallow event on the San Andreas fault in the Santa Cruz Mountains may still exist.

Edited by Spudich, Paul

1996-01-01

17

Main shock and aftershock records of the 1999 Izmit and Duzce, Turkey earthquakes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The August 17, 1999 Izmit (Turkey) earthquake (Mw=7.4) will be remembered as one of the largest earthquakes of recent times that affected a large urban environment (U.S. Geological Survey, 1999). This significant event was followed by many significant aftershocks and another main event (Mw=7.2) that occurred on November 12, 1999 near Duzce (Turkey). The shaking that caused the widespread damage and destruction was recorded by a handful of accelerographs (~30) in the earthquake area operated by different networks. The characteristics of these records show that the recorded peak accelerations, shown in Figure 1, even those from near field stations, are smaller than expected (Çelebi, 1999, 2000). Following this main event, several organizations from Turkey, Japan, France and the USA deployed temporary accelerographs and other aftershock recording hardware. Thus, the number of recording stations in the earthquake affected area was quadrupled (~130). As a result, as seen in Figure 2, smaller magnitude aftershocks yielded larger peak accelerations, indicating that because of the sparse networks, recording of larger motions during the main shock of August 17, 1999 were possibly missed.

Celebi, M.; Akkar, S.; Gulerce, U.; Sanli, A.; Bundock, H.; Salkin, A.

2001-01-01

18

Shock waves in Eulerian cosmological simulations: main properties and acceleration of cosmic rays  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large-scale shocks are responsible for the heating of the intracluster medium and can be important sources of cosmic rays (CRs) in the Universe. However, the occurrence and properties of these shocks are still poorly constrained from both a theoretical and an observational side. In this work we analyse the properties of large-scale shocks in a (103Mpch-1)3 cosmological volume simulated with

F. Vazza; G. Brunetti; C. Gheller

2009-01-01

19

Shock  

MedlinePLUS

... or internal bleeding from a serious injury. Spinal injuries can also cause shock. Toxic shock syndrome is an example of a ... the person with a known or suspected spinal injury . Do NOT wait for milder shock symptoms to worsen before calling for emergency medical ...

20

Intramitochondrial localization of the main 70-kDa heat-shock cognate protein in Drosophila cells.  

PubMed

The main heat shock cognate protein (hsc) of 70 kDa in Drosophila, hsc 4, was localized in cultured cells using a specific affinity-purified antibody and colloidal gold immunoelectron microscopy. This constitutively expressed member of the heat shock protein (hsp) 70 family is found in the cytosol, in mitochondria, and in the nucleus of unstressed cells. The identity of hsc 4 in these three cellular compartments was confirmed by two-dimensional gel immunoblots and partial proteolytic digestion patterns. In mitochondria, the colloidal gold particles are observed in close proximity to or on the inner membranes. The intramitochondrial localization of this hsc was confirmed by density gradient purification and by resistance of hsc 4 to externally added trypsin. In the nucleus, the labeling is found on nucleo-plasmic perichromatin RNP fibrils and is not detected in the nucleolus. Heat shock induces an intracellular redistribution of hsc 4 with an enrichment in the nucleus. The localization of this hsc in different cellular compartments is consistent with the previously suggested functions of some members of this family of proteins in basic cellular processes such as protein folding. Moreover, the present data suggests that the main constitutively expressed member of the hsp 70 family, hsc 4, functions both within the mitochondrial compartment and in the nucleus. PMID:8344382

Carbajal, E M; Beaulieu, J F; Nicole, L M; Tanguay, R M

1993-08-01

21

Spontaneous Pre-Labour Rupture of Membranes at Term: Immediate versus Delayed Induction of Labour La Rupture Pré-de la main-d'œuvre Spontanée de Membranes au Terme : Immédiat contre l'Induction Retardée de parti travailliste  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Spontaneous pre-labour rupture of membranes (SPROM) at term is one of the most common complications of pregnancy. It is an important cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality, particularly because it is associated with a latency period from membrane rupture to delivery. OBJECTIVE: To compare the outcome of labour in women who had immediate induction of labour, with those who

A. Omole-Ohonsi; A. Ashimi; S. Adeleke

22

Blood vessel rupture by cavitation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cavitation is thought to be one mechanism for vessel rupture during shock wave lithotripsy treatment. However, just how cavitation\\u000a induces vessel rupture remains unknown. In this work, a high-speed photomicrography system was set up to directly observe\\u000a the dynamics of bubbles inside blood vessels in ex vivo rat mesenteries. Vascular rupture correlating to observed bubble dynamics\\u000a were examined by imaging

Hong Chen; Andrew A. Brayman; Michael R. Bailey; Thomas J. Matula

2010-01-01

23

Eccentric Loading, Shock-Wave Treatment, or a Wait and-See Policy for Tendinopathy of the Main Body of Tendo AchillisA Randomized Controlled Trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Few randomized controlled trials compare different methods of management in chronic tendinopathy of the main body of tendo Achillis.Purpose: To compare the effectiveness of 3 management strategies—group 1, eccentric loading; group 2, repetitive low-energy shock-wave therapy (SWT); and group 3, wait and see—in patients with chronic tendinopathy of the main body of tendo Achillis.Study Design: Randomized controlled trial; Level

Jan D. Rompe; Bernhard Nafe; John P. Furia; Nicola Maffulli

2007-01-01

24

Ruptured jejunal artery aneurysm.  

PubMed

Visceral artery aneurysms (VAAs), unlike aortic aneurysms, are very rare, but are also a potentially lethal vascular disease. Jejunal artery aneurysms only account for less than 3% of VAAs, but have a 30% risk of rupture, with 20% death rate, presenting with only few and vague symptoms. We report the case of a 76-year-old man presenting at the emergency department (ED) with a crampy epigastric pain and vomiting. An ultrasound performed diagnosed free abdominal fluid and immediate CT scan diagnosed jejunal artery aneurysm spontaneously rupturing, followed by hypovolaemic shock. Emergent surgery was undertaken, and aneurysmectomy, followed by partial enterectomy with primary anastomosis were performed, because of segmentary jejunal ischaemia. The patient's recovery was unremarkable. High level of suspicion, rapid diagnosis capability and prompt surgical or endovascular intervention, as well as an effective teamwork in the ED are critical to avoid the devastating consequences of ruptured VAAs. PMID:23771962

Costa, Sílvia; Costa, Alexandre; Pereira, Tiago; Maciel, Jorge

2013-06-13

25

[Splenic rupture and anticoagulant therapy].  

PubMed

Splenic rupture associated with anticoagulant therapy is a rare entity. We report a case of spontaneous splenic rupture in a 62-year-old man who was treated by acenocoumarol orally after an aortic-valve replacement. Unrecognised, minor trauma may lead to splenic haemorrhage in patients receiving anticoagulant therapy. The symptoms and signs may mimic those of acute myocardial infarction and cardiogenic shock. Early diagnosis is essential. Reversal of the anticoagulant and emergent splenectomy are the treatments of choice. PMID:15324967

Badaoui, R; Chebboubi, K; Delmas, J; Jakobina, S; Mahjoub, Y; Riboulot, M

2004-07-01

26

The 1997 Umbria-Marche, Italy, earthquake sequence: a first look at the main shocks and aftershocks  

Microsoft Academic Search

A long sequence of earthquakes, six with magnitudes between 5 and 6, struck Central Italy starting on September 26, 1997, causing severe damages and loss of human lives. The seismogenic structure consists of a NW-SE elongated fault zone extending for about 40 km. The focal mechanisms of the largest shocks reveal normal faulting with NE-SW extension perpendicular to the trend

A. Amato; R. Azzara; C. Chiarabba; G. B. Cimini; M. Cocco; M. Di Bona; L. Margheriti; S. Mazza; F. Mele; G. Selvaggi; A. Basili; E. Boschi; F. Courboulex; A. Deschamps; S. Gaffet; G. Bittarelli; L. Chiaraluce; D. Piccinini; M. Ripepe

1998-01-01

27

Partial Rotator Cuff Ruptures  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Partial rotator cuff ruptures are not rare and occur mainly in the supraspinatus tendon and may extend to that of infraspinatus,\\u000a but rarely to the tendon of subscapularis. Isolated lesions in the tendons of infraspinatus, teres minor or subscapularis\\u000a are rare. Partial ruptures usually occur before the sixth decade of life and can be a cause of unexplained pain in

Antonio Cartucho

28

AntiShock Garments for Obstetric Hemorrhage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Annually, over 500,000 women die from complications of pregnancy and childbirth; the majority die from hemorrhage and shock. Obstetrical hemorrhage of all etiologies, such as uterine atony, ruptured uterus, and ruptured ectopic, can cause massive blood loss resulting in severe shock. Unless women can access fluid replacement, blood transfusions, and, often, surgery, the shock leads to organ failure and death.

Suellen Miller; Aderinola Ojengbede; Janet Turan; Oladosu Ojengbede; Elizabeth Butrick; Paul Hensleigh

2007-01-01

29

[Septic shock following flexible transurethral lithotripsy showing favourable response after multidisciplinary treatment mainly composed of recombinant thrombomodulin : a case report].  

PubMed

We herein present a case of a 65-year-old woman who developed severe septic shock following flexible transurethral lithotripsy (f-TUL) showing favourable response after treatment with doripenem and recombinant thrombomodulin (rTM). The patient underwent f-TUL for nephrolithiasis of the left kidney. Preoperative urine culture indicated the presence of a mucoid strain of E. coli that was susceptible to cefazolin ; therefore, the antibiotic cefazolin was administered as a preventive measure. The operation was completed without any specific intraoperative complications. On the day following the operation, blood pressure decreased and clouding of consciousness was observed. Hematological examination showed high levels of procalcitonin, a decrease in platelet count, and high levels of fibrin degradation products (FDP), indicative of severe septic shock and disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). The patient was immediately shifted to the intensive care unit (ICU), and multidisciplinary treatment consisting of doripenem (3 g/day) and rTM (380 U/kg) was administered. The medical treatment was successful ; the patient recovered from DIC at an early stage and was able to leave the hospital within 10 days after the operation. The risk of complications is expected to increase with the spread of f-TUL, and prompt action must be taken. PMID:23070390

Kato, Haruo; Shibata, Yasuhiro; Suzuki, Tomomi; Ito, Kazuto; Suzuki, Kazuhiro

2012-09-01

30

Active diaphragm rupture with laser beam irradiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We performed shock tube operations with a layer of diaphragm being ruptured by laser beam irradiation. Mylar or Cellophane was examined as the diaphragm material. It has been demonstrated that shock tube can be operated with this new technique. The absorbed energy depends on the material and thickness of the diaphragm and is an important control parameter.

Takahashi, T.; Torikai, H.; Yang, Q. S.; Watanabe, K.; Sasoh, A.

31

Uterine Rupture  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Uterine rupture may be defined as a disruption of the uterine muscle extending to and involving the uterine serosa or disruption\\u000a of the uterine muscle with extension to the bladder or broad ligament [1]. Uterine dehiscence is defined as disruption of\\u000a the uterine muscle with intact uterine serosa [1]. Uterine rupture is associated with severe maternal and perinatal morbidity\\u000a and

Sharon R. Sheehan; Deirdre J. Murphy

32

Subevent location and rupture imaging using iterative backprojection for the 2011 Tohoku Mw 9.0 earthquake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Knowledge of the rupture speed and spatial-temporal distribution of energy radiation of earthquakes is important for earthquake physics. Backprojection of teleseismic waves is commonly used to image the rupture process of large events. The conventional backprojection method typically performs temporal and spatial averaging to obtain reliable rupture features. We present an iterative backprojection method with subevent signal stripping to determine the distribution of subevents (large energy bursts) during the earthquake rupture. We also relocate the subevents initially determined by iterative backprojection using the traveltime shifts from subevent waveform cross-correlation, which provides more accurate subevent locations and source times. A bootstrap approach is used to assess the reliability of the identified subevents. We apply this method to the Mw 9.0 Tohoku earthquake in Japan using array data in the United States. We identify 16 reliable subevents in the frequency band 0.2-1 Hz, which mostly occurred around or west of the hypocentre in the downdip region. Analysis of Tohoku aftershocks shows that depth phases can often produce artefacts in the backprojection image, but the position and timing of our main shock subevents are inconsistent with depth-phase artefacts. Our results suggest a complicated rupture with a component of bilateral rupture along strike. The dominant energy radiation (between 0.2 and 1 Hz) is confined to a region close to the hypocentre during the first 90 s. A number of subevents occurred around the hypocentre in the first 90 s, suggesting a low initial rupture speed and repeated rupture or slip near the hypocentre. The rupture reached the coastal region about 106 km northwest of the hypocentre at 43 s and the region about 110 km north of the hypocentre at 105 s with a northward rupture speed ˜2.0 km s-1 at 60-110 s. After 110 s, a series of subevents occurred about 120-220 km southwest of the hypocentre, consistent with a 3 km s-1 along-strike rupture speed. The abundant high-frequency radiation in the downdip region close to the coast suggests intermittent rupture probably in the brittle-ductile transition zone. The lack of high-frequency radiation in the updip region suggests the rupture near the trench was more continuous, probably due to more homogeneous frictional properties of the shallow slab interface. The lack of early aftershocks in the updip region indicates that most of the accumulated slip in the updip region during the interseismic period was probably released during the main shock.

Yao, Huajian; Shearer, Peter M.; Gerstoft, Peter

2012-08-01

33

Antibodies to mycobacterial 65-kD heat shock protein cross-react with the main mitochondrial antigens in patients with primary biliary cirrhosis.  

PubMed

Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) is a chronic cholestatic liver disease associated with autoimmune disorders. The aetiology is unknown, although it has been suggested that the disease may be related to infectious agents. Previous studies revealed that sera from patients with PBC react against Mycobacterium gordonae. This specific reactivity, characterized by a recognition of two membrane polypeptides of 70-65 and 55 kD, cross-react with the two major mitochondrial autoantigens of PBC. As the most immunogenic components of mycobacteria are the heat shock proteins (hsp), which have been associated with autoimmunity, this study has been undertaken to characterize whether the reacting polypeptides in PBC are hsp from M. gordonae. Cultures of M. gordonae were incubated at 37 degrees C and 46 degrees C before sonication, protein extraction and separation by SDS-PAGE. Exposure of M. gordonae to heat shock treatment resulted in membrane protein overexpression, similar to the 70-65-kD polypeptide recognized by the sera from patients with PBC. Immunoprecipitation assays with a monoclonal antibody directed against the Hsp65 kD of mycobacteria and with sera from patients with PBC revealed similar reacting profiles characterized by the precipitation of the overexpressed 65-kD polypeptide from M. gordonae. Competitive immunoblotting showed that binding of the monoclonal antibody to the Hsp65 kD protein was prevented by preincubation with sera from patients with PBC, but not with sera from healthy subjects. Furthermore, monoclonal antibody to the Hsp65 kD protein recognized the main mitochondrial autoantigens of PBC (PDH-E2 and BCKDH-E2). These data indicate the existence of cross-reacting epitopes contained on M. gordonae Hsp65 kD and the main mitochondrial antigens in patients with PBC. PMID:9279530

Vilagut, L; Parés, A; Viñas, O; Vila, J; Jiménez de Anta, M T; Rodés, J

1997-08-01

34

Mapping the rupture process of moderate earthquakes by inverting accelerograms  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We present a waveform inversion method that uses recordings of small events as Green's functions to map the rupture growth of moderate earthquakes. The method fits P and S waveforms from many stations simultaneously in an iterative procedure to estimate the subevent rupture time and amplitude relative to the Green's function event. We invert the accelerograms written by two moderate Parkfield earthquakes using smaller events as Green's functions. The first earthquake (M = 4.6) occurred on November 14, 1993, at a depth of 11 km under Middle Mountain, in the assumed preparation zone for the next Parkfield main shock. The second earthquake (M = 4.7) occurred on December 20, 1994, some 6 km to the southeast, at a depth of 9 km on a section of the San Andreas fault with no previous microseismicity and little inferred coseismic slip in the 1966 Parkfield earthquake. The inversion results are strikingly different for the two events. The average stress release in the 1993 event was 50 bars, distributed over a geometrically complex area of 0.9 km2. The average stress release in the 1994 event was only 6 bars, distributed over a roughly elliptical area of 20 km2. The ruptures of both events appear to grow spasmodically into relatively complex shapes: the inversion only constrains the ruptures to grow more slowly than the S wave velocity but does not use smoothness constraints. Copyright 1999 by the American Geophysical Union.

Hellweg, M.; Boatwright, J.

1999-01-01

35

Rupture disc  

Microsoft Academic Search

The intermediate heat transport system for a sodium-cooled fast breeder reactor includes a device for rapidly draining the sodium therefrom should a sodium-water reaction occur within the system. This device includes a rupturable member in a drain line in the system and means for cutting a large opening therein and for positively removing the sheared-out portion from the opening cut

Robert G

1977-01-01

36

Experimental study on the hierarchical rupture process of faults having heterogeneous asperities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Earthquake faulting is characterized by nonuniform distributions of rupture velocity, stress drop as well as co-seismic slip, indicating nonuniform distribution of local strength over the earthquake fault. Strong seismic wave is generally radiated from where the rupture velocity or stress drop changes rapidly. Many after shocks, especially strong ones, may take place at the unbroken barriers on the earthquake fault. Therefore, the rupture process of coupled fault asperities is an important rule for understanding the source preparation of earthquake. The authors studied the detailed faulting process (from quasi-static to dynamic rupture) of several naturally healed faults having heterogeneous asperities in rock samples based on the hypocenter distribution of acoustic emission (AE) events. The initial phase of microcracking is also examined with high-dynamic range waveforms. Experimental results indicate that the quasi-static nucleation of the geometrically heterogeneous fault is, in fact, the fracture process of several asperities. Fracture of a asperity contains 1) foreshocks initiated at one or several positions along the edge of the asperity, 2) a few main shocks started at also the edge of the asperity, and 3) after shocks fill out the whole asperity area. The seismic b-value of foreshocks is high ( ~1.0). However, the period of the main shocks shows the minimum b-value around 0.6. Finally, the after shocks associated with an increasing b-value (to 1.0). After the main shocks, local stress around the asperity is partially releases and thus stress redistribution occurs. As a result, the fracture of the neighbor asperities may be initiated or promoted. Fractures of several asperities in the nucleation zone are associated with the short-term precursory fluctuations in the b-value as well as event rate. Since fracturing of an asperity shows a dense spatial clustering, a maximum event rate, and a minimum b-value, multiple minima of b-value can be observed associated with a fault of multiple asperities. These facts indicate that detailed time-space distribution of hypocenter and b-value can be used to identify asperities. However, a careful analysis is required since an asperity may show high and low b-values at different stress stages. High-dynamic range waveform data shows microcracking in mm scale has similar dynamic rupture behavior to earthquakes. Initial phase associated with the quasi-static to quasi-dynamic rupture growth were observed for some events. The critical size of the nucleation zone can be estimated from the initial phase or pre-events. The power law relation between the duration of the initial phase and the critical nucleation size is consistent with the data obtained from friction test as well as some large earthquakes. It was found that the quasi-static rupture growth in a specific scale consists of dynamic fractures of asperities in a smaller scale, and so on. Therefore, the rupture process is considered to be hierarchical and it is expected that the dynamic rupture in a small scale can map out the quasi-static nucleation process of the rupture in a larger scale. Since dynamic motions are easier to detect remotely than static ones, the dialectic relationship between _gstatic_h and _gdynamic_h is thus very helpful for understanding the source preparing of large earthquakes. >http://staff.aist.go.jp/xinglin-lei/Studies/Hasperity.htm

Lei, X.; Kusunose, K.; Satoh, T.; Nishizawa, O.

2001-12-01

37

Source Rupture Process And Seismotectonic Implication Of Van Tabanli Earthquake, October 23, 2011  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A large magnitude earthquake (Mw:7.2) hit on October 23, 2011 Van - Ercis (Eastern Turkey) region and surrounding area at 13:41 pm local time, resulted in life and property losses in Van, Ercis and many villages. The epicenter is located on 24 km of north of Van city, close to Tabanli village. To review the details of ruptures along the main shock, with Kikuchi and Kanamori (1991) method using the 37 stations recorded teleseismic P waveforms are modeled. According to the results obtained, the earthquake occurred with three shocks. If we give the magnitudes of their occurrence in order of Mw=6.6, Mw=7.1 and Mw=6.5. According to the spatial distribution of the shocks, rupturing started in the northeast and advanced in a systematic way towards SW and occured with different faulting mechanism. The first and second shock have been near each other in space and time dimension of the component is dominated by oblique reverse faulting mechanism suggest that the type of faulting. The third shock occurred after 30 seconds with a normal fault mechanism on SW part of the earthquake region. The biggest seismic moment which occurred with main shock dropped in 20 km depth. The parameters of first and second nodel planes (strike, dip and slip vector) respectively are 116, 57, 110 and 262, 38, 62. According to, the strike of slip vectors for first nodel plane is in direction of NW-SE and NE-SW for the second nodel plane. Key Words: Tabanl?-Van, earthquake, main shock, source mechanism

Altuncu Poyraz, S.; ?engül, M. Alper; P?nar, A.

2012-04-01

38

Splenic rupture as a presenting feature of endocarditis  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe the first case of infective endocarditis presenting with spontaneous splenic rupture. Our patient, a known intravenous drug user presented with hypovolaemic shock secondary to splenic rupture. The patient was resuscitated and underwent an emergency splenectomy. Subsequent clinical examination revealed a systolic murmur and a diagnosis of mitral valve infective endocarditis was made after echocardiography. Splenic tissue, blood cultures

James Roger Winearls; Steven McGloughlin; John F Fraser

2009-01-01

39

Rupture Speed and Dynamic Frictional Processes for the 1995 ML4.1 Shacheng, Hebei, China, Earthquake Sequence  

Microsoft Academic Search

An earthquake with ML4.1 occurred at Shacheng, Hebei, China, on July 20, 1995, followed by 28 aftershocks with 0.9<=ML<=4.0 (Chen et al, 2005). According to ZÚÑIGA (1993), for the 1995 ML4.1 Shacheng earthquake sequence, the main shock is corresponding to undershoot, while aftershocks should match overshoot. With the suggestion that the dynamic rupture processes of the overshoot aftershocks could be

B. Liu; B. Shi

2010-01-01

40

Rupture directivity of small earthquakes at Parkfield  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

main</span>">AbstractTheoretical modeling of strike-slip <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> along a bimaterial interface suggests that earthquakes initiating on the interface will have a preferred <span class="hlt">rupture</span> direction. We test this model with 450 small earthquakes (2 < M < 5) from Parkfield, California, to look for evidence of consistent <span class="hlt">rupture</span> directivity along the San Andreas Fault. We analyze azimuthal variations in earthquake source spectra after applying an iterative correction for wave propagation effects. Our approach avoids directly modeling source spectra because these models generally assume symmetric <span class="hlt">rupture</span>; instead, we look for azimuthal variations in the amplitudes of the source spectra over specified frequency bands. Our overall results show similar proportions of events exhibiting characteristics of <span class="hlt">rupture</span> directivity toward either the southeast or northwest. However, the proportion of events with southeast <span class="hlt">rupture</span> directivity increases as we limit the data set to larger magnitudes, with 70% of the 46 events M > 3 exhibiting southeast <span class="hlt">rupture</span> characteristics. Some spatial and temporal variability in <span class="hlt">rupture</span> directivity is also apparent. We observe a higher proportion of northwest directivity <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> following the 2004 M 6 Parkfield earthquake, which <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> toward the northwest. Our results are generally consistent with the preferred southeast <span class="hlt">rupture</span> directivity model but suggest that directivity is likely due to several contributing factors.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kane, Deborah L.; Shearer, Peter M.; Goertz-Allmann, Bettina P.; Vernon, Frank L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" 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showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">41</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFM.T11A1783C"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Rupture</span> Directivity Analysis for the 2008 Wenchuan (China) Earthquake Inferred from the Rayleigh-Wave Phase Velocity</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">rupture</span> directivity for the 2008 Wehchuan (China) earthquake is analyzed by examining travel-time differences of 100-s Rayleigh-waves between the <span class="hlt">main</span> <span class="hlt">shock</span> and the reference earthquake. The Rayleigh-wave travel times for the reference earthquake are calculated from a known global Rayleigh-wave phase-velocity map. Variations of travel-time differences with station azimuths demonstrate apparently the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> directivity for the 2008 Wehchuan (China) earthquake. The maximum travel-time difference (~125 s) appears in an azimuth of about 130 degree; whereas the minimum one (~20 s) locates in an azimuth of about 33degree. By the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> directivity analysis, the optimal <span class="hlt">rupture</span> azimuth is about 48 degree, and then we obtain the average source duration of ~83.3 sec and the propagation time, ~50.9 sec, with which the 100-s Rayleigh-wave passed through the fault. Providing the phase-velocity of 4.15 km/sec in the source area, we estimate the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> length from the propagation time to be about 211.2 km, and then the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> velocity estimated from the entire source duration is about 2.54 km/sec. Because the entire source duration includes the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> time and rise time of source, we analyze the spectral-node periods of Rayleigh waves to judge the reasonable <span class="hlt">rupture</span> time. The estimated rise time is about 18 sec. Thus, the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> velocity is estimated afresh to be 3.23 km/sec, probably approaching to the S-wave velocity in the upper crust.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Chang, W.; Hwang, R.; Chang, J.; Wu, J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">42</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12.2567C"> <span id="translatedtitle">Kinematic Seismic <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> Parameters from a Doppler Analysis</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The radiation emitted from extended seismic sources, <span class="hlt">mainly</span> when the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> spreads in preferred directions, presents spectral deviations as a function of the observation location. This aspect, unobserved to point sources, and named as directivity, are manifested by an increase in the frequency and amplitude of seismic waves when the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> occurs in the direction of the seismic station and a decrease in the frequency and amplitude if it occurs in the opposite direction. The model of directivity that supports the method is a Doppler analysis based on a kinematic source model of <span class="hlt">rupture</span> and wave propagation through a structural medium with spherical symmetry [1]. A unilateral <span class="hlt">rupture</span> can be viewed as a sequence of <span class="hlt">shocks</span> produced along certain paths on the fault. According this model, the seismic record at any point on the Earth's surface contains a signature of the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> process that originated the recorded waveform. Calculating the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> direction and velocity by a general Doppler equation, - the goal of this work - using a dataset of common time-delays read from waveforms recorded at different distances around the epicenter, requires the normalization of measures to a standard value of slowness. This normalization involves a non-linear inversion that we solve numerically using an iterative least-squares approach. The evaluation of the performance of this technique was done through a set of synthetic and real applications. We present the application of the method at four real case studies, the following earthquakes: Arequipa, Peru (Mw = 8.4, June 23, 2001); Denali, AK, USA (Mw = 7.8; November 3, 2002); Zemmouri-Boumerdes, Algeria (Mw = 6.8, May 21, 2003); and Sumatra, Indonesia (Mw = 9.3, December 26, 2004). The results obtained from the dataset of the four earthquakes agreed, in general, with the values presented by other authors using different methods and data. [1] Caldeira B., Bezzeghoud M, Borges JF, 2009; DIRDOP: a directivity approach to determining the seismic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> velocity vector. J Seismology, DOI 10.1007/s10950-009-9183-x</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Caldeira, Bento; Bezzeghoud, Mourad; Borges, José F.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">43</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999GeoJI.139..152C"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Rupture</span> complexity of a moderate intraplate earthquake in the Alps: the 1996 M5 Epagny-Annecy earthquake</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The magnitude 5 Epagny-Annecy earthquake of 1996 July 15 is the largest seismic event to have occurred in the Alps since the introduction of modern digital instrumentation. This strike-slip event was located on the Vuache Fault, near the town of Annecy, in the northern French Alps. The aim of our work was to retrieve the <span class="hlt">main</span> parameters of the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> process of this earthquake from seismograms recorded at local and regional distances (20-300 km). To eliminate path and site effects from the seismograms, we compared the <span class="hlt">main</span> <span class="hlt">shock</span> recordings at each station with those of the largest aftershocks nearby. We used a combination of techniques, including pulse-width measurements and cross-correlation of velocity traces, comparison of P-wave displacement pulses, and empirical Green's function deconvolution, to retrieve the apparent duration of the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> process as seen at each station. Our results demonstrate that, in the absence of on-scale data, P-wave pulse-width measurements on clipped signals can be misleading if the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> process is complex. In the case of the Annecy earthquake, comparisons of on-scale P-wave displacement seismograms and the empirical Green's function deconvolutions show that the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> process consisted of at least two subevents separated by 0.2-0.3 s, and with a total duration of about 0.5 s. The systematic azimuthal dependence of both the shape and duration of the apparent source-time function is consistent with a nearly unilateral propagation of the <span class="hlt">main</span> <span class="hlt">rupture</span> phase in a southeast direction along the fault plane and parallel to the direction of slip. An isochron analysis reveals that the first subevent occurred slightly to the northwest of the nucleation point but that the second subevent was located further to the southeast, thus confirming the overall <span class="hlt">rupture</span> directivity towards the southeast. An interpretation of our results in light of the previously documented aftershock distribution and of observations of ground cracks in the epicentral area suggests that the <span class="hlt">main</span> <span class="hlt">shock</span> occurred on the Vuache Fault, and that <span class="hlt">rupture</span> in a northwest direction was inhibited by a right-lateral stepover in the fault. Accordingly, the vast majority of the subsequent aftershocks, which include several magnitude 3-4 events, occurred on a fault segment that is slightly offset from the inferred surface trace of the Vuache Fault and that was activated by the <span class="hlt">main</span> <span class="hlt">shock</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Courboulex, Françoise; Deichmann, Nicholas; Gariel, Jean-Christophe</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">44</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=460914"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Rupture</span> of the tracheobronchial tree.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Eleven cases of tracheobronchial <span class="hlt">rupture</span> are described. Nine were the result of external non-penetrating trauma and all but three had other serious injuries. The remaining two were caused by endobronchial intubation. Of the cases caused by external injury, respiratory tract injury was confined to the cervical trachea in three. Two required tracheostomy and repair and the third was managed conservatively; all made satisfactory recoveries. Intrathoracic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> was recognised on or soon after admission in three cases. One patient died of uncontrollable pulmonary haemorrhage before he could be operated on; immediate repair gave good long term results in the other two. In three cases <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of the <span class="hlt">main</span> bronchus was not recognised until complete obstruction developed three, five, and 12 weeks after the accidents. The strictures were resected and the lung re-expanded. Robertshaw endobronchial tubes <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> the left <span class="hlt">main</span> bronchus in two patients undergoing oesophageal surgery. Uneventful recovery followed immediate repair. The difficulty of confirming <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of a major airway is discussed and the importance of conserving the lung when the diagnosis has been missed is emphasised. Images</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Roxburgh, J C</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1987-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">45</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.9945C"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Rupture</span> process of the 2009 L'Aquila, central Italy, earthquake, from the separate and joint inversion of Strong Motion, GPS and DInSAR data.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this study, we investigate the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> history of the April 6th 2009 (Mw 6.1) L'Aquila normal faulting earthquake by using a nonlinear inversion of strong motion, GPS and DInSAR data. We use a two-stage non-linear inversion technique. During the first stage, an algorithm based on the heat-bath simulated annealing generates an ensemble of models that efficiently sample the good data-fitting regions of parameter space. In the second stage the algorithm performs a statistical analysis of the ensemble providing us the best-fitting model, the average model, the associated standard deviation and coefficient of variation. This technique, rather than simply looking at the best model, extracts the most stable features of the earthquake <span class="hlt">rupture</span> that are consistent with the data and gives an estimate of the variability of each model parameter. The application to the 2009 L'Aquila <span class="hlt">main-shock</span> shows that both the separate and joint inversion solutions reveal a complex <span class="hlt">rupture</span> process and a heterogeneous slip distribution. Slip is concentrated in two <span class="hlt">main</span> asperities: a smaller shallow patch of slip located up-dip from the hypocenter and a second deeper and larger asperity located southeastward along strike direction. The key feature of the source process emerging from our inverted models concerns the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> history, which is characterized by two distinct stages. The first stage begins with <span class="hlt">rupture</span> initiation and with a modest moment release lasting nearly 0.9 seconds, which is followed by a sharp increase in slip velocity and <span class="hlt">rupture</span> speed located 2 km up-dip from the nucleation. During this first stage the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> front propagated up-dip from the hypocenter at relatively high (˜ 4.0 km/s), but still sub-shear, <span class="hlt">rupture</span> velocity. The second stage starts nearly 2 seconds after nucleation and it is characterized by the along strike <span class="hlt">rupture</span> propagation. The largest and deeper asperity fails during this stage of the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> process. The <span class="hlt">rupture</span> velocity is larger in the up-dip than in the along-strike direction. The up-dip and along-strike <span class="hlt">rupture</span> propagation are separated in time and associated with a Mode II and a Mode III crack, respectively. Our results show that the 2009 L'Aquila earthquake featured a very complex <span class="hlt">rupture</span>, with strong spatial and temporal heterogeneities suggesting a strong frictional and/or structural control of the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> process.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Cirella, A.; Piatanesi, A.; Tinti, E.; Chini, M.; Cocco, M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">46</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/55435941"> <span id="translatedtitle">Split Nodes and Fault Zone Models for Dynamic <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> Simulation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The accuracy of numerical calculation of the dynamic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> process of earthquakes <span class="hlt">mainly</span> depends on the fault boundary condition on the fault where friction is taking place. During <span class="hlt">rupture</span> the slip is calculated via the equation of motion while the shear stress is controlled by frictional sliding. Such <span class="hlt">rupture</span> models generally lead to nonlinear, mixed-boundary value problems. The boundary treatment</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">L. A. Dalguer; S. M. Day</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">47</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23293421"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Ruptured</span> rudimentary horn at 22 weeks.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Rudimentary horn is a developmental anomaly of the uterus. Pregnancy in a non-communicating rudimentary horn is very difficult to diagnose before it <span class="hlt">ruptures</span>. A case of undiagnosed rudimentary horn pregnancy at 22 weeks presented to Nizwa regional referral hospital in <span class="hlt">shock</span> with features of acute abdomen. Chances of <span class="hlt">rupture</span> in first or second trimester are increased with catastrophic haemorrhage leading to increased maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. Management of such cases is a challenge till today due to diagnostic dilemma. Expertise in ultrasonography and early resort to surgical management is life saving in such cases. PMID:23293421</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Dhar, Hansa</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">48</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002AGUFMNG21B0939D"> <span id="translatedtitle">Fault Branching and <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> Directivity</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Can the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> directivity of past earthquakes be inferred from fault geometry? Nakata et al. [J. Geogr., 1998] propose to relate the observed surface branching of fault systems with directivity. Their work assumes that all branches are through acute angles in the direction of <span class="hlt">rupture</span> propagation. However, in some observed cases <span class="hlt">rupture</span> paths seem to branch through highly obtuse angles, as if to propagate ``backwards". Field examples of that are as follows: (1) Landers 1992. When crossing from the Johnson Valley to the Homestead Valley (HV) fault via the Kickapoo (Kp) fault, the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> from Kp progressed not just forward onto the northern stretch of the HV fault, but also backwards, i.e., SSE along the HV [Sowers et al., 1994, Spotila and Sieh, 1995, Zachariasen and Sieh, 1995, Rockwell et al., 2000]. Measurements of surface slip along that backward branch, a prominent feature of 4 km length, show right-lateral slip, decreasing towards the SSE. (2) At a similar crossing from the HV to the Emerson (Em) fault, the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> progressed backwards along different SSE splays of the Em fault [Zachariasen and Sieh, 1995]. (3). In crossing from the Em to Camp Rock (CR) fault, again, <span class="hlt">rupture</span> went SSE on the CR fault. (4). Hector Mine 1999. The <span class="hlt">rupture</span> originated on a buried fault without surface trace [Li et al., 2002; Hauksson et al., 2002] and progressed bilaterally south and north. In the south it met the Lavic Lake (LL) fault and progressed south on it, but also progressed backward, i.e. NNW, along the northern stretch of the LL fault. The angle between the buried fault and the northern LL fault is around -160o, and that NNW stretch extends around 15 km. The field examples with highly obtuse branch angles suggest that there may be no simple correlation between fault geometry and <span class="hlt">rupture</span> directivity. We propose that an important distinction is whether those obtuse branches actually involved a <span class="hlt">rupture</span> path which directly turned through the obtuse angle (while continuing also on the <span class="hlt">main</span> fault), or rather involved arrest by a barrier on the original fault and jumping [Harris and Day, JGR, 1993] to a neighboring fault on which <span class="hlt">rupture</span> propagated bilaterally to form what appears as a backward-branched structure. Our studies [Poliakov et al., JGR in press, 2002; Kame et al, EOS, 2002] of stress fields around a dynamically moving mode II crack tip show a clear tendency to branch from the straight path at high <span class="hlt">rupture</span> speeds, but the stress fields never allow the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> path to directly turn through highly obtuse angles, and hence that mechanism is unlikely. In contrast, study of fault maps in the vicinity of the Kp to HV fault transition [Sowers et al., 1994], discussed as case (1) above, strongly suggest that the large-angle branching occurred as a jump, which we propose as the likely general mechanism. Implications for the Nakata et al. [1998] aim of inferring <span class="hlt">rupture</span> directivity from branch geometry is that this will be possible only when rather detailed characterization (by surface geology, seismic relocation, trapped waves) of fault connectivity can be carried out in the vicinity of the branching junction, to ascertain whether direct turning of the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> path through an angle, or jumping and then propagating bilaterally, were involved in prior events. They have opposite implications for how we would associate past directivity with a (nominally) branched fault geometry.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Dmowska, R.; Rice, J. R.; Kame, N.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">49</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3132363"> <span id="translatedtitle">Physiopathology of <span class="hlt">shock</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Shock</span> syndromes are of three types: cardiogenic, hemorrhagic and inflammatory. Hemorrhagic <span class="hlt">shock</span> has its initial deranged macro-hemodynamic variables in the blood volume and venous return. In cardiogenic <span class="hlt">shock</span> there is a primary pump failure that has cardiac output/mean arterial pressure as initial deranged variables. In Inflammatory <span class="hlt">Shock</span> it is the microcirculation that is <span class="hlt">mainly</span> affected, while the initial deranged macrocirculation variable is the total peripheral resistance hit by systemic inflammatory response.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bonanno, Fabrizio Giuseppe</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">50</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3649179"> <span id="translatedtitle">A case of splenic torsion and <span class="hlt">rupture</span> presenting as <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> ectopic pregnancy</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Splenic torsion with <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of spleen is an extremely rare phenomenon. The clinical picture mimics several common conditions which are causes of acute abdomen and so it is seldom detected pre-operatively. An 18 year old female patient was admitted with an acute abdomen and <span class="hlt">shock</span>. The provisional diagnosis was of a <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> ectopic pregnancy. Peri-operatively we found a spontaneous <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of the spleen following torsion along with early intrauterine pregnancy. Splenectomy was carried out and patient recovered well. Our report confirms that this rare entity can present as an acute abdomen which is very difficult to diagnose preoperatively and can masquerade as <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> ectopic pregnancy in women of childbearing age group.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lahiri, Somdatta; Dasgupta, Nabanita; Mondal, Aftab-ud-din</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">51</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70016902"> <span id="translatedtitle">High-frequency spectral falloff of earthquakes, fractal dimension of complex <span class="hlt">rupture</span>, b value, and the scaling of strength on faults</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The high-frequency falloff ??-y of earthquake displacement spectra and the b value of aftershock sequences are attributed to the character of spatially varying strength along fault zones. I assume that the high frequency energy of a <span class="hlt">main</span> <span class="hlt">shock</span> is produced by a self-similar distribution of subevents, where the number of subevents with radii greater than R is proportional to R-D, D being the fractal dimension. In the model, an earthquake is composed of a hierarchical set of smaller earthquakes. The static stress drop is parameterized to be proportional to R??, and strength is assumed to be proportional to static stress drop. I find that a distribution of subevents with D = 2 and stress drop independent of seismic moment (?? = 0) produces a <span class="hlt">main</span> <span class="hlt">shock</span> with an ??-2 falloff, if the subevent areas fill the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> area of the <span class="hlt">main</span> <span class="hlt">shock</span>. By equating subevents to "islands' of high stress of a random, self-similar stress field on a fault, I relate D to the scaling of strength on a fault, such that D = 2 - ??. Thus D = 2 corresponds to constant stress drop scaling (?? = 0) and scale-invariant fault strength. A self-similar model of aftershock <span class="hlt">rupture</span> zones on a fault is used to determine the relationship between the b value, the size distribution of aftershock <span class="hlt">rupture</span> zones, and the scaling of strength on a fault. -from Author</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Frankel, A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1991-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">52</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/31470788"> <span id="translatedtitle">Recurrent spontaneous esophageal <span class="hlt">rupture</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Spontaneous esophageal <span class="hlt">rupture</span> is an uncommon and poorly understood condition. Recurrent <span class="hlt">rupture</span> is extremely rare, with only one previously reported case in the literature. Here, we present a case series of two patients who had recurrent <span class="hlt">ruptures</span>, and discuss the principles underlying the management of such cases.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Omar A. Khan; Clifford W. Barlow; David F. Weeden; Khalid M. Amer</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">53</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/32327726"> <span id="translatedtitle">Spontaneous Kidney Allograft <span class="hlt">Rupture</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Spontaneous renal allograft <span class="hlt">rupture</span> is one of the most dangerous complications of kidney transplantation, which can result in graft loss.This condition needs immediate surgical intervention. Conservative management has dismal results. Its prevalence varies from 0.3% to 3%. <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> occurs in first few weeks after transplantation. Predisposing factors for graft <span class="hlt">rupture</span> are acute rejection, acute tubular necrosis, and renal vein thrombosis.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">H. Shahrokh; H. Rasouli; M. A. Zargar; K. Karimi; K. Zargar</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">54</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/doepatents/details.jsp?query_id=0&page=0&ostiID=874840"> <span id="translatedtitle">Glass <span class="hlt">rupture</span> disk</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A frangible <span class="hlt">rupture</span> disk and mounting apparatus for use in blocking fluid flow, generally in a fluid conducting conduit such as a well casing, a well tubing string or other conduits within subterranean boreholes. The disk can also be utilized in above-surface pipes or tanks where temporary and controllable fluid blockage is required. The frangible <span class="hlt">rupture</span> disk is made from a pre-stressed glass with controllable <span class="hlt">rupture</span> properties wherein the strength distribution has a standard deviation less than approximately 5% from the mean strength. The frangible <span class="hlt">rupture</span> disk has controllable operating pressures and <span class="hlt">rupture</span> pressures.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Glass, S. Jill (Albuquerque, NM); Nicolaysen, Scott D. (Albuquerque, NM); Beauchamp, Edwin K. (Albuquerque, NM)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">55</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/881121"> <span id="translatedtitle">Simulations of Relativistic Collisionless <span class="hlt">Shocks</span>: <span class="hlt">Shock</span> Structure and Particle Acceleration</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We discuss 3D simulations of relativistic collisionless <span class="hlt">shocks</span> in electron-positron pair plasmas using the particle-in-cell (PIC) method. The <span class="hlt">shock</span> structure is <span class="hlt">mainly</span> controlled by the <span class="hlt">shock</span>'s magnetization (''sigma'' parameter). We demonstrate how the structure of the <span class="hlt">shock</span> varies as a function of sigma for perpendicular <span class="hlt">shocks</span>. At low magnetizations the <span class="hlt">shock</span> is mediated <span class="hlt">mainly</span> by the Weibel instability which generates transient magnetic fields that can exceed the initial field. At larger magnetizations the <span class="hlt">shock</span> is dominated by magnetic reflections. We demonstrate where the transition occurs and argue that it is impossible to have very low magnetization collisionless <span class="hlt">shocks</span> in nature (in more than one spatial dimension). We further discuss the acceleration properties of these <span class="hlt">shocks</span>, and show that higher magnetization perpendicular <span class="hlt">shocks</span> do not efficiently accelerate nonthermal particles in 3D. Among other astrophysical applications, this may pose a restriction on the structure and composition of gamma-ray bursts and pulsar wind outflows.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Spitkovsky, Anatoly; /KIPAC, Menlo Park</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-04-10</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">56</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/51747169"> <span id="translatedtitle">Experimental study on the hierarchical <span class="hlt">rupture</span> process of faults having heterogeneous asperities</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Earthquake faulting is characterized by nonuniform distributions of <span class="hlt">rupture</span> velocity, stress drop as well as co-seismic slip, indicating nonuniform distribution of local strength over the earthquake fault. Strong seismic wave is generally radiated from where the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> velocity or stress drop changes rapidly. Many after <span class="hlt">shocks</span>, especially strong ones, may take place at the unbroken barriers on the earthquake fault.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">X. Lei; K. Kusunose; T. Satoh; O. Nishizawa</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">57</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6147822"> <span id="translatedtitle">Fault kinematics in the 1989 Loma Prieta <span class="hlt">rupture</span> area during 20 years before that event</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Loma Prieta (LP) compressional bend of the San Andreas fault zone (SAF) appears to be multi-stranded and vertically segmented; thus, faults in this segment other than the one that <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> in 1989 may: (1) be the source of prior large events associated with this portion of the SAF and (2) be highly stressed after the 1989 LP event. The fault that <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> in 1989 was remarkably aseismic during the preceding 20 years; seismicity occurred on some of the neighboring faults of the system, but others remained aseismic. The Lake Elsman burst of seismicity within 1.6 years of the <span class="hlt">main</span> <span class="hlt">shock</span> is on a set of secondary faults within the foot-wall of the <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. The shallow ({le}5 km) portion of the SAF, morphologically and structurally characterized as steep and predominantly strike-slip, and the imbricate thrust zone to the northeast were also quiescent. These upper crustal faults may partition oblique motion accomplished by LP-like <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> in the lower crust into fault-parallel (transcurrence) and fault-normal motion (convergence), respectively. While the overall level of seismicity in the region around LP increased over the 20 years before 1989, the level of seismicity (number of events) on the creeping portion of the SAF next to the LP segment decreased. Moreover, the level of background seismicity on this and other fault segments varied dramatically, both up and down, in conjunction with major regional earthquakes on other segments. Thus, improved models for precursory patterns of seismicity should account for mechanistically more realistic changes than simple seismicity increase or decrease everywhere around an impending <span class="hlt">rupture</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Seeber, L.; Armbruster, J.G. (Columbia Univ., Palisades, NY (USA))</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1990-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">58</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12.5421G"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Rupture</span> process of the 2000 and 2008 Ölfus (Iceland) earthquakes</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We have studied the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> process of three earthquakes occurred in 2000 (17-06, Mw=6.5 and 21-06, Mw=6.4) and 2008 (29-05, Mw=6.2) in Iceland, with epicentres very close. We have estimated focal mechanism from inversion of body waves at teleseismic distances (30°-90°) using the algorithm developed by Kikuchi and Kanamori for a kinematic source. In a second step, the slip distribution over the fault-plane has been estimated. The <span class="hlt">rupture</span> velocity and direction of the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> have been estimated from Rayleigh waves using the directivity function. The obtained results show similar focal mechanism for the three earthquakes corresponding to strike-slip motion. The <span class="hlt">rupture</span> plane is oriented in all cases in NS direction, which agrees with tectonics of the area. The slip distribution obtained for the three <span class="hlt">shocks</span>, shows a single process that starts at shallow depth (5 to 7 km), with the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> propagating to the south and parallel to the surface. The <span class="hlt">rupture</span> velocity estimated from body waves and Rayleigh waves is very low: 1.5 km/s. In order to confirm these low values, we have estimated the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> process using strong motion data recorded by Icelandic Strong-Motion Network. Accelerograms were converted to displacement by double integration and filtered. We have carried out a kinematic inversion of these data in order to constraint the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> velocity.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Girona, Társilo; Pro, Carmen; Buforn, Elisa; Peyrat, Sophie; Sigbjörnsson, Ragnar</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">59</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.3842L"> <span id="translatedtitle">Coseismic Fault Slip <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> from the Joint Inversion of Teleseismic, Local Strong-Motion and CGPS Related to the 2010 Jia-Shian Earthquake in Southwestern Taiwan</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Jia-Shian earthquake (Mw=6.3) occurred on 04th March 2010 in the southwestern Taiwan. We used the waveforms of teleseismics to identify the strike, dip and rake of focal mechanism are 311/33/37. Furthermore, we explored the strike, dip and rake are 316/40/44 on the first pulse of the teleseismic P wave. We also took account of the Continuous Global Positioning System (CGPS) data for the coseismic offset. The maximum horizontal and vertical (uplift) of coseismic offsets at the surface are 29.8mm± 1.0mm and 30.6mm± 5.1mm, respectively at station GS51. Moreover, the space and time distribution of slip during the coseismic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> was modeled by the joint inversion, which includes the CGPS coseismic offset, the teleseismic, and near field seismic records. We identified the faults geometry and reconstructed the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> process of coseismic faults slip. The initial <span class="hlt">rupture</span> was generated on the northwest - southeast trending fault and propagated to the northeast - southwest trending structure after 5 s of <span class="hlt">main</span> <span class="hlt">shock</span>. Their strike, dip and rake are 311/33/37 and 020/25/108, respectively. The average slip of <span class="hlt">rupture</span> was 20.1 cm, with the maximum slip of 50.4 cm. The <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of the seismic moment was 4.0 × 10 ^ 25 dyne-cm in 30 s of duration time.The slip <span class="hlt">rupture</span> constrained the synthetic data quite well, especially for the CGPS coseismic offset. We inferred the Jia-Shian earthquake took place on blind fault and the northeast - southwest trending structure was activated following the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> on <span class="hlt">main</span> northwest - southeast trending fault.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lin, Kuan-Chuan; Delouis, Bertrand; Hu, Jyr-Ching; Nocquet, Jean-Mathieu; Mozziconacci, Laetitia; Bethoux, Nicole</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">60</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3719369"> <span id="translatedtitle">Placenta Accreta Causing Uterine <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> in Second Trimester of Pregnancy after in vitro Fertilization: A Case Report</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background Placenta accreta is a rare obstetrical condition that <span class="hlt">mainly</span> occurs in the third trimester leading to life-threatening complications. Hereby, a case of uterine <span class="hlt">rupture</span> due to placenta accreta occuring in the second trimester is presented. Case Presentation A forty-year old patient who conceived after in vitro fertilization treatment (oocyte donation and embryo transfer) presented in emergency department in the nineteen weeks of gestation with acute abdominal pain, heamoperitoneum and fetal death. Emergency laprotomy showed uterine <span class="hlt">rupture</span> along with placenta accreta for which the patient underwent subtotal hysterectomy. Conclusion Although, an uncommon occurrence, physicians in assisted reproductive techniques (ART) clinics should consider placenta accreta in gravid patients who present with acute abdominal pain and <span class="hlt">shock</span>, considering the fact that they usually have associated high risk factors for abnormal placentation.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Dahiya, Priya; Nayar, Kanad D.; Gulati, Amar J.S.; Dahiya, Kiran</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return 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href="#">3</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">61</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2770317"> <span id="translatedtitle">Aortic <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> in seat belt wearers.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Several investigations have indicated that <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of the thoracic aorta is one of the leading causes of immediate death in victims of road traffic accidents. In Finland in 1983, 92% of front-seat passengers were seat belt wearers on highways and 82% in build-up areas. The mechanisms of <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of the aorta have been intensively investigated, but the relationship between seat belt wearing and injury mechanisms leading to aortic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> is still largely unknown. This study comprises 4169 fatally injured victims investigated by the Boards of Traffic Accident Investigation of Insurance Companies during the period 1972 to 1985. Chest injuries were recorded as the <span class="hlt">main</span> cause of death in 1121 (26.9%) victims, 207 (5.0%) of those victims having worn a seat belt. Aortic <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> were found at autopsy in 98 victims and the exact information of the location of the aortic tears was available in 68. For a control group, we analyzed 72 randomly chosen unbelted victims who had a fatal aortic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> in similar accidents. The location of the aortic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> in unbelted victims was more often in the ascending aorta, especially in drivers, whereas in seat belt wearers the distal descending aorta was statistically more often <span class="hlt">ruptured</span>, especially in right-front passengers (p less than 0.05). The steering wheel predominated statistically as the part of the car estimated to have caused the injury in unbelted victims (37/72), and some interior part of the car was the most common cause of fatal thoracic impacts in seat belt wearers (48/68) (p less than 0.001). The mechanism of <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of the aorta in the classic site just distal to the subclavian artery seems to be rapid deceleration, although complex body movements are also responsible in side impact collisions. The <span class="hlt">main</span> mechanism leading to <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of the ascending aorta seems to be severe blow to the bony thorax. This also often causes associated thoracic injuries, such as heart <span class="hlt">rupture</span> and sternal fracture. Injuries in the ascending aorta were mostly found in unbelted victims and were sustained in frontal impact collisions, the injury-causing part of the car being the steering wheel. <span class="hlt">Ruptures</span> of the distal descending part of the aorta were frequently associated with fractures of the thoracic vertebra. PMID:2770317</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Arajärvi, E; Santavirta, S; Tolonen, J</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1989-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">62</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.biomedcentral.com/content/pdf/1749-7922-2-17.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Emergency endovascular repair of <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> visceral artery aneurysms</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">BACKGROUND: Visceral artery aneurysms although rare, have very high mortality if they <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. CASE PRESENTATION: An interesting case of a bleeding inferior pancreaticduodenal artery aneurysm is reported in a young patient who presented with hypovolemic <span class="hlt">shock</span> while being treated in the hospital after undergoing total knee replacement. Endovascular embolization was successfully employed to treat this patient, with early hospital discharge.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Umar Sadat; Nadim Noor; Tjun Tang; Kevin Varty</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">63</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/31198788"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Rupture</span> of the right hemidiaphragm due to blunt trauma</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Five cases of right-sided <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of the diaphragm are reviewed. Orthopedic injury, head injury, and <span class="hlt">shock</span> were the most common associated findings. Apparent elevation of the right hemidiaphragm was seen initially in all cases, but two were misdiagnosed. An algorithm that includes modified peritoneal lavage, CT scan with contrast, and intraperitoneal Tc sulfur colloid is suggested for patients with suspected</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">P LEAMAN</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1983-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">64</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.S33E..02Z"> <span id="translatedtitle">Evidence for Coseismic <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> Beyond the Base of the Seismogenic Layer</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">For scientific reasons and hazard assessment it is important to better understand the physics and <span class="hlt">rupture</span> characteristics of large, destructive earthquakes. However, those events occur infrequently, severely obstructing their analysis. Smaller but more frequent earthquakes are usually studied and their characteristics are extrapolated to assess large earthquake behavior, assuming that small and large events are associated with the same physical processes and parameters. For small and moderate size earthquakes it was observed and independently derived from elastic models that coseismic stress drop is independent of earthquake size and that slip is proportional to the smallest <span class="hlt">rupture</span> dimension. It is therefore assumed that large earthquake stress drops are essentially equal to the stress drop of their smaller size siblings. It is further assumed that the slip amount of large events does not further increase once it <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> the full seismogenic layer--the base of the seismogenic layer is commonly thought to limit the earthquake down-dip <span class="hlt">rupture</span> extend and thus defines the smallest <span class="hlt">rupture</span> dimension. However, slip observations for many large strike-slip events show how offset gradually increases with <span class="hlt">rupture</span> length. Two explanations have been formulated: If the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> width of those events were indeed limited by the base of the seismogenic layer, the observations would imply larger stress drops and possibly other processes involved in large earthquake <span class="hlt">rupture</span>, questioning the validity of the aforementioned extrapolation from small to large earthquakes. On the other hand, if <span class="hlt">rupture</span> width of large earthquakes were not limited by the base of the seismogenic layer but were allowed to extend further down (as suggested by recent studies), the increased slip amount may be explained without an increase in stress drop or additional <span class="hlt">rupture</span> mechanisms for large earthquakes. For the study we present here, we analyzed seismic data constraining the depth extent of large earthquakes relative to the depth of the seismogenic base. We utilized time series data of aftershock depths for a number of large strike-slip earthquakes, generating aftershock time vs. depth histograms to investigate the temporal variation in depth distribution. Based on hypocenter depth of small earthquakes along the Landers fault (causing the 1992 M7.3 Landers earthquake), we identified the base of the seismogenic layer at ~10km. Aftershocks that occurred only days after the Landers earthquake had maximum depths of ~18km, suggesting that <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of the <span class="hlt">main</span> <span class="hlt">shock</span> extended this far down and therefore went well below the base of the seismogenic layer. Maximum aftershock depth then decayed roughly logarithmically, reaching the previous value of ~10km after about 5.5years. We argue that these observations are a logical consequence of the visco-elastic rheology of crustal rocks: Coseismically highly increased strains elevate the crustal stiffness, temporarily lowering the base of the seismogenic layer and permitting initiation of slip instabilities at depths that are otherwise characterized by viscous behavior. Extrapolation from small to large earthquakes is therefore permitted. No additional stress drop or <span class="hlt">rupture</span> mechanism is required to explain the data.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zielke, O.; Wesnousky, S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">65</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012GeoRL..3917303Z"> <span id="translatedtitle">Evidence of sudden <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of a large asperity during the 2008 Mw7.9 Wenchuan earthquake based on strong motion analysis</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We investigate the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> process of the 12 May 2008 Wenchuan earthquake using the records of 26 strong-motion stations, located 20-120 km from the seismic fault and with a good azimuthal coverage. The wave velocity model required to conduct this analysis has been validated against aftershocks, for which the point source hypothesis is a very good approximation. The inversion of the <span class="hlt">main</span> <span class="hlt">shock</span> <span class="hlt">rupture</span> process confirms the slip distribution and the average <span class="hlt">rupture</span> velocity (˜3 km/s) previously determined. However, a very peculiar behavior is clearly resolved by the extensive data set used in this study: the major slip area of the Wenchuan earthquake, located at 20-50 km North-East of the epicenter, is shown to break almost simultaneously, 25 s after earthquake initiation. This implies that slip in this part of the fault cannot be understood by simple stress release at the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> front. A more likely interpretation is the presence of a strong asperity, which could break only when it was completely surrounded by stress increase, resulting in a delayed but brutal <span class="hlt">rupture</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zhang, Guohong; Vallée, Martin; Shan, Xinjian; Delouis, Bertrand</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">66</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12474751"> <span id="translatedtitle">[<span class="hlt">Ruptured</span> abdominal aortic aneurysm].</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Rupture</span> of the abdominal aortic aneurysm is a high lethal risk pathology, which requires precise diagnosis and urgent and efficient surgical treatment. Despite improved diagnostic capabilities (echoscopy, in specialized departments--angiography, computed tomography, magnetic nucleus resonance), mortality related to this pathology remains high in intensive care units. In the present article data concerning prevalence and clinical outcomes of the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of the abdominal aortic aneurysm for 1999-2001 is presented in detail. During this period 22 patients have undergone surgery due to abdominal aortic aneurysm <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. Described are most prevalent complications, mortality rates and causes, analyzed are treatment strategy and tactics. PMID:12474751</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Urbonavicius, Sigitas; Antusevas, Aleksandras</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">67</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23612340"> <span id="translatedtitle">[The risk of death from splenic <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> by polytrauma among children].</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The retrospective analysis of polytrauma with lethal outcome in 105 children showed that splenic injury had 31.4% of children. It was twice more often than liver injury, though the hemoperitoneum volume by liver injury exceeds that by spleen trauma (846.1±753.8 ml vs. 311±270.3 ml; p<0.002). The risk of death of intraabdominal bleeding by the spleen <span class="hlt">rupture</span> is considerably low (OR 0.16; 95% CI 0.019-1.34; p=0.04). Nevertheless, the hemothorax by the spleen injury was much more significant than hemoperitoneum (977±866.9 ml vs. 311±270.3 ml; p<0.0003). The risk of death of intrathoracic bleeding by the spleen <span class="hlt">rupture</span> is 45 times higher than of intraabdominal. The degree of splenic injury poorly correlates with the traumatic mechanism and the hemoperitoneum volume. The chances of the immediate death is considerably low (OR 0.09; 95% CI 0.0096-0.84; p<0.017). The <span class="hlt">main</span> reasons of death by polytrauma remain brain injury, hemorrhagic <span class="hlt">shock</span> after injury of thoracic cavity and traumatic <span class="hlt">shock</span>. PMID:23612340</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Podkamenev, V V; Pikalo, I A; Za?tsev, A P</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">68</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=481840"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Rupture</span> of the myocardium. Occurrence and risk factors.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The occurrence of myocardial <span class="hlt">rupture</span> was studied in a well defined unselected population of patients with acute myocardial infarction, and the group of patients who died of <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of the heart were compared with two control groups. Of a total of 3960 patients, 1746 (44%) fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for acute myocardial infarction. <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> was defined solely on the basis of the presence of a pathological passage through part of the myocardium, either the free wall of the left ventricle or the septum, found at necropsy or during operation. Two controls were selected for each patient and matched for age and sex, one (control group A) with acute myocardial infarction having died in hospital but not of <span class="hlt">rupture</span> (non-<span class="hlt">rupture</span> cardiac death) and one (control group B) with acute myocardial infarction having survived the hospital stay. Necropsy was performed in 75% of all fatal cases with acute myocardial infarction. The total hospital mortality was 19%, the highest mortality being among women over 70 years (29%). <span class="hlt">Ruptures</span> (n = 56) were found in 17% of the hospital deaths, or 3.2% of all cases of acute myocardial infarction. Women aged less than 70 had the highest incidence of <span class="hlt">rupture</span>, 42% of deaths being due to <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. The mean age for patients with <span class="hlt">rupture</span> and controls was 70.5 years. The median time after admission to death was approximately 50 hours for patients and control group A. Thirty per cent of the patients with <span class="hlt">rupture</span> occurred within 24 hours of the initial symptoms occurring. Angina and previous acute myocardial infarction were more common among control group A. Patients with <span class="hlt">rupture</span> and control group B were mostly relatively free of previous cardiovascular or other diseases (chronic angina pectoris ( > 2 months) and previous myocardial infarction). Sustained hypertension during admission to the coronary care unit was more common in patients than in control group A. Hypotension and <span class="hlt">shock</span> were more common among control group A. Most (79%) of the patients who subsequently <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> did not receive any corticosteroids at all during the hospital stay. Severe heart failure and antiarrhythmic treatment were more uncommon among patients than among control group A. Patients with <span class="hlt">rupture</span> received analgesics approximately three times a day throughout their stay. Control group B received analgesics mostly during the first 24 hours. Thus female patients, patients with first infarcts, and patients with sustained chest pain should be investigated for the possibility of <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. As many as one third (32%) of <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> may be subacute, and therefore time is available for diagnosis and surgery.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Dellborg, M; Held, P; Swedberg, K; Vedin, A</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1985-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">69</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000185.htm"> <span id="translatedtitle">Cardiogenic <span class="hlt">shock</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePLUS</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Shock</span> - cardiogenic ... Cardiogenic <span class="hlt">shock</span> occurs whenever the heart is unable to pump as much blood as the body needs. The most ... orthostatic hypotension) Weak (thready) pulse To diagnose cardiogenic <span class="hlt">shock</span>, a catheter (tube) may be placed in the ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">70</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3195329"> <span id="translatedtitle">A Patient with Splenic Artery Aneurysm <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> and the Importance of Rapid Sonography in the ED</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We report a case of a splenic artery aneurysm <span class="hlt">rupture</span> presenting with <span class="hlt">shock</span> which required timely embolization therapy. This case demonstrates how the rapid use of bedside ultrasound by emergency department (ED) physicians can help identify the cause of <span class="hlt">shock</span> and, therefore, initiate appropriate treatment quickly even if the cause is rare, as in this case.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Iyanaga, Masayuki; Watts, Susan; Kasai, Takeshi</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">71</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21919393"> <span id="translatedtitle">[Knee extensor mechanism <span class="hlt">ruptures</span>].</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Knee extensor mechanism is composed of the quadriceps and its tendon, patella and patellar tendon. <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> of either the quadriceps or patellar tendon, or of the patella itself, lead to a disruption of the knee extensor mechanism. Clinical examination reveals an inability to actively extend the knee. Standard radiographs of the knee show a suprapatellar swelling of the soft tissues in case of quadriceps tendon <span class="hlt">rupture</span>, or a displaced patellar fracture, or a patella alta in case of patellar tendon <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. Echography and MRI confirm the diagnosis and may reveal associated injuries. In case of knee extensor mechanism <span class="hlt">rupture</span>, early surgical reconstruction of quadriceps or patellar tendon, or patella osteosynthesis, are mandatory to achieve early functional recovery. PMID:21919393</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Duthon, V B; Fritschy, D</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-08-10</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">72</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AGUFM.S23B1906P"> <span id="translatedtitle">Detailed source process of the 2007 Tocopilla earthquake and its <span class="hlt">main</span> aftershocks</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We investigated the detail <span class="hlt">rupture</span> process of the Tocopilla earthquake (Mw 7.7) of the 14 November 2007 and of the <span class="hlt">main</span> aftershocks that occurred in the southern part of the North Chile seismic gap using teleseismic broadband and strong motion data. The earthquake happen in the middle of the permanent broad band and strong motion network IPOC newly installed by GFZ and IPGP-CNRS, and of a digital strong- motion network operated by the University of Chile. The Tocopilla earthquake is the last large thrust subduction earthquake since the major Iquique 1877 earthquake which produced a destructive tsunami. The Arequipa (2001) and Antofagasta (1995) earthquakes already <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> the northern and southern parts of the gap, and the intraplate intermediate depth Tarapaca earthquake (2005) may have changed the tectonic loading of this part of the Peru-Chile subduction zone. The Tocopilla earthquake raises some disturbing questions: why this earthquake didn't extent further north ; what has been the role of the Mejillones peninsula in the south which seems to act as a barrier? We studied the detailed source process using the strong motion data available. The strong-motion data show clearly two S-waves arrivals, allowing the localization of two sources. The <span class="hlt">main</span> <span class="hlt">shock</span> started north of the segment close to Tocopilla. The <span class="hlt">rupture</span> propagated southward. The second source was identified to start about 20 seconds later and located 50 km south from the hypocenter. The earthquake <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> the interplate seismic zone over more than 150 km and generated several large aftershocks, <span class="hlt">mainly</span> located south of the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> area with the same focal mechanism, except for the largest one that took place on the 16 December. This event is a down-dip compressional event (slab push) placed down dip of the <span class="hlt">main</span> interplate coupling zone at the southern end of the <span class="hlt">main</span> event <span class="hlt">rupture</span> zone. Finally in order to understand whether the northern gap has actually been reduced or not by the occurrence of the Tocopilla earthquake which was smaller than expected, we will discuss different spontaneous <span class="hlt">rupture</span> scenarios.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Peyrat, S.; Madariaga, R.; Buforn, E.; Meneses, G.; Campos, J.; Favreau, P.; Bernard, P.; Vilotte, J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">73</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AAS...212.0336D"> <span id="translatedtitle">Structure in Radiative <span class="hlt">Shocks</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Radiative <span class="hlt">shocks</span> are <span class="hlt">shock</span> waves fast enough that radiation from the <span class="hlt">shock</span>-heated matter alters the structure of the <span class="hlt">shock</span>. They are of fundamental interest to high-energy-density physics and also have applications throughout astrophysics. This poster will review the dimensionless parameters that determine structure in these <span class="hlt">shocks</span> and will discuss recent experiments to measure such structure for strongly radiative <span class="hlt">shocks</span> that are optically thin upstream and optically thick downstream. The <span class="hlt">shock</span> transition itself heats <span class="hlt">mainly</span> the ions. Immediately downstream of the <span class="hlt">shock</span>, the ions heat the electrons and the electrons radiate, producing an optically thin cooling layer, followed by the downstream layer of warm, <span class="hlt">shocked</span> material. The axial structure of these systems is of interest, because the transition from precursor through the cooling layer to the final state is complex and difficult to calculate. Their lateral structure is also of interest, as they seem likely to be subject to some variation on the Vishniac instability of thin layers. In our experiments to produce such <span class="hlt">shocks</span>, laser ablation launches a Be plasma into a tube of Xe or Ar gas, at a velocity above 100 km/s. This drives a <span class="hlt">shock</span> down the tube. Radiography provides fundamental information about the structure and evolution of the <span class="hlt">shocked</span> material in Xe. Thomson scattering and pyrometry have provided data in Ar. We will summarize the available evidence regarding the properties of these <span class="hlt">shocks</span>, and will discuss their connections to astrophysical cases. This research was sponsored by the National Nuclear Security Administration under the Stewardship Science Academic Alliances program through DOE Research Grants DE-FG52-07NA28058, DE-FG52-04NA00064, and other grants and contracts.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Drake, R. Paul; Visco, A.; Doss, F.; Reighard, A.; Froula, D.; Glenzer, S.; Knauer, J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">74</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010APS..DPPUI2005D"> <span id="translatedtitle">Structure in Radiating <span class="hlt">Shocks</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The basic radiative <span class="hlt">shock</span> experiment is a <span class="hlt">shock</span> launched into a gas of high-atomic-number material at high velocities, which fulfills the conditions for radiative losses to collapse the post-<span class="hlt">shock</span> material to over 20 times the initial gas density. This has been accomplished using the OMEGA Laser Facility by illuminating a Be ablator for 1 ns with a total of 4 kJ, launching the requisite <span class="hlt">shock</span>, faster than 100 km/sec, into a polyimide <span class="hlt">shock</span> tube filled with Xe. The experiments have lateral dimensions of 600 ?m and axial dimensions of 2-3 mm, and are diagnosed by x-ray backlighting. Repeatable structure beyond the one-dimensional picture of a <span class="hlt">shock</span> as a planar discontinuity was discovered in the experimental data. One form this took was that of radial boundary effects near the tube walls, extended approximately seventy microns into the system. The cause of this effect - low density wall material which is heated by radiation transport ahead of the <span class="hlt">shock</span>, launching a new converging <span class="hlt">shock</span> ahead of the <span class="hlt">main</span> <span class="hlt">shock</span> - is apparently unique to high-energy-density experiments. Another form of structure is the appearance of small-scale perturbations in the post-<span class="hlt">shock</span> layer, modulating the <span class="hlt">shock</span> and material interfaces and creating regions of enhanced and diminished aerial density within the layer. The authors have applied an instability theory, a variation of the Vishniac instability of decelerating <span class="hlt">shocks</span>, to describe the growth of these perturbations. We have also applied Bayesian statistical methods to better understand the uncertainties associated with measuring <span class="hlt">shocked</span> layer thickness in the presence of tilt. Collaborators: R. P. Drake, H. F. Robey, C. C. Kuranz, C. M. Huntington, M. J. Grosskopf, D. C. Marion.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Doss, Forrest</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">75</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3619046"> <span id="translatedtitle">A forgotten devil; <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> of mitral valve papillary muscle</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Summary Background: Papillary muscle <span class="hlt">rupture</span> is one of the catastrophic mechanical complications following myocardial infarction. <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> leads to acute mitral valve regurgitation, pulmonary edema, and cardiogenic <span class="hlt">shock</span>. Survival is dependent on prompt recognition and surgical intervention. Cases Report: We present two cases where acute myocardial infarction was complicated by papillary muscle <span class="hlt">rupture</span> resulting in severe mitral regurgitation and cardiogenic <span class="hlt">shock</span>. In both cases <span class="hlt">rupture</span> occurred within one week of infarction. Both patients did not receive coronary revascularization; one patient presented late after the onset of chest pain, the other patient percutaneous revascularization attempted and was not successful. Both patients suffered an inferior wall infarction. Echocardiogram demonstrated severe mitral regurgitation with a jet directed posteriorly. In both cases <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of the posteromedial papillary muscle resulted in flail of the anterior mitral valve leaflet, thus serving as a reminder that both the anterior and the posterior leaflets attach to both papillary muscles. Conclusions: While one case had a good outcome, the other reinforces the fact that this is a very serious complication requiring prompt recognition and treatment.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jain, Sachin Kumar Amruthlal; Larsen, Timothy R.; Darda, Saba; Saba, Souheil; David, Shukri</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">76</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AGUFM.S31A0186B"> <span id="translatedtitle">Role of Fault Branches in Earthquake <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> Dynamics</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We analyze earthquake <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> propagating along a straight "<span class="hlt">main</span>" fault and encountering a finite-length branch fault. Such intersections are often observed in natural fault systems. The predicted effects of the interaction with the branch that we report can be remarkable; they can strongly perturb the propagation velocity on the <span class="hlt">main</span> fault and, in some cases, even arrest that propagation. Earlier work [Poliakov et al., 2002, Kame et al., 2003; Bhat et al., 2004] emphasized the role of the fault pre-stress state, branch geometry (i.e., branching angle), and the incoming <span class="hlt">rupture</span> velocity at the branching junction in determining whether the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> would follow the branch or continue on the <span class="hlt">main</span> fault or both, through simulations which did not let a <span class="hlt">rupture</span> on the branch encounter a barrier or a fault end (called "infinite" branch cases henceforth). In this study we look at "finite" branch cases, and study the effect also of branch length, with <span class="hlt">rupture</span> being blocked from propagation beyond the branch end. It is known that sudden stoppage of a dynamic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> front leads to the propagation of large dynamic stress perturbations in the medium. These have been known to nucleate <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> on adjacent fault segments [Harris and Day, 1983, Harris et al., 2001,Fliss et al., 2004, among others]. We thus anticipate interaction between the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> on the <span class="hlt">main</span> fault and the branched one at two stages, namely, when the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> is propagating on the branch and when it is suddenly blocked at the branch end. We show that in general <span class="hlt">rupture</span> termination on a compressional branch little affects propagation on the <span class="hlt">main</span> fault compared to the infinite branch cases. For branches on the extensional side, we show in some cases that whereas an infinite branch would have allowed (or stopped) <span class="hlt">rupture</span> propagation on the <span class="hlt">main</span> fault, a finite branch stops (or allows) propagation on the <span class="hlt">main</span> fault. Such results have a dependence on branch length that we document. We also illustrate branch-related complexities in <span class="hlt">rupture</span> velocity evolution which could be one of the sources of the high-frequency content of strong ground motion records. Complexities in the slip distribution, often associated with a presumed heterogeneous strength distribution along the fault, can also be observed when <span class="hlt">rupture</span> is terminated on a branch.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bhat, H. S.; Dmowska, R.; Olives, M.; Rice, J. R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">77</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007JGRB..11211309B"> <span id="translatedtitle">Role of fault branches in earthquake <span class="hlt">rupture</span> dynamics</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We analyze earthquake <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> propagating along a straight "<span class="hlt">main</span>" fault and encountering a finite-length branch fault. Such intersections are often observed in natural fault systems. The predicted effects of the interaction with the branch that we report can be remarkable; they can strongly perturb the propagation velocity on the <span class="hlt">main</span> fault and, in some cases, even arrest that propagation. Earlier work (Kame et al., 2003; Bhat et al., 2004) emphasized the role of the fault pre-stress state, branch geometry (i.e., branching angle), and the incoming <span class="hlt">rupture</span> velocity at the branching junction in determining whether the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> would follow the branch or continue on the <span class="hlt">main</span> fault or both, through simulations which did not let a <span class="hlt">rupture</span> on the branch encounter a barrier or a fault end (called `infinite' branch cases henceforth). In this study we look at "finite" branch cases, and study the effect also of branch length, with <span class="hlt">rupture</span> being blocked from propagation beyond the branch end. It is known that sudden stoppage of a dynamic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> front leads to the propagation of large dynamic stress perturbations in the medium. These have been known to nucleate or terminate <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> on adjacent fault segments (Harris et al., 1991; Harris and Day, 1993, 1999; Harris et al., 2002; Fliss et al., 2005, among others). We thus anticipate interaction between the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> on the <span class="hlt">main</span> fault and the branched one at two stages, when the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> is propagating on the branch and when it is suddenly blocked at the branch end. We show that in general <span class="hlt">rupture</span> termination on a compressional branch little affects propagation on the <span class="hlt">main</span> fault compared to the infinite branch cases. For branches on the extensional side, we show in some cases, that whereas an infinite' branch would have allowed (or stopped) <span class="hlt">rupture</span> propagation on the <span class="hlt">main</span> fault, a finite branch stops (or allows) propagation on the <span class="hlt">main</span> fault. Such results have a dependence on branch length that we document. We also illustrate branch-related complexities in <span class="hlt">rupture</span> velocity evolution which could be one of the sources of the high-frequency content of strong ground motion record. Complexities in the slip distribution, often associated with a presumed heterogeneous strength distribution along the fault, can also be observed when <span class="hlt">rupture</span> is terminated on a branch.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bhat, Harsha S.; Olives, Marion; Dmowska, Renata; Rice, James R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">78</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JSeis..17..207O"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Constantine (Algeria) seismic sequence of 27 October 1985: a new <span class="hlt">rupture</span> model from aftershock relocation, focal mechanisms, and stress tensors</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The October 27, 1985 Constantine earthquake of magnitude MS 5.9 (NEIC) although moderate is the strongest earthquake recorded in the eastern Tellian Atlas (northeast Algeria) since the beginning of instrumental seismology. The <span class="hlt">main</span> <span class="hlt">shock</span> locations given by different institutions are scattered and up to 10 km away northwest from the NE-SW 30 km long elongated aftershocks cloud localized by a dedicated temporary portable network. The focal mechanism indicates left-lateral strike-slip on an almost vertical fault with a small reverse component on the northwest dipping plane. This paper presents relocations of the <span class="hlt">main</span> <span class="hlt">shock</span> and aftershocks using TomoDD. One hundred thirty-eight individual focal mechanisms have been built allowing the determination of the stress tensor at different scales. A <span class="hlt">rupture</span> model has been suggested, which explains the different observations of aftershock distribution and stress tensor rotation.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ousadou, F.; Dorbath, L.; Dorbath, C.; Bounif, M. A.; Benhallou, H.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">79</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3719360"> <span id="translatedtitle">Incomplete Cesarean Scar <span class="hlt">Rupture</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background Uterine <span class="hlt">rupture</span> at the site of a previous cesarean scar is an uncommon but catastrophic complication of pregnancy, which is associated with significant maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. Case Presentation A 30-year old woman at 24th week of gestation and complaint of pain, contractions and spotting was admitted in Royan Institute in Tehran, Iran. She had a past medical history of an EP and a cesarean section delivery, respectively 4 and 2 years before hospitalization. Herniation of an amniotic membrane into the maternal bladder was found on ultrasound examination. Conclusion Risk factors of cesarean scar <span class="hlt">rupture</span> should be considered in women undergoing subsequent pregnancies as they need extra care. Ultrasonography can be used to evaluate women with previous cesarean section to assess the risks of scar <span class="hlt">rupture</span> during subsequent pregnancies.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ahmadi, Firoozeh; Siahbazi, Shiva; Akhbari, Farnaz</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">80</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16146098"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Ruptured</span> abdominal aortic aneurysm in computed tomography.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The aim of the study is presentation the usefulness of CT examination in evaluation of <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> abdominal aortic aneurysms. Material comprises a group of six patients (two women and four men) aged 52-79 years, examined in the 2nd Department of Radiology, Medical University of Lublin between the year 1997 and 2002. In all patients US examination and CT was performed. USG was performed with a Hitachi EUB 410 apparatus. CT was performed with Somatom AR. T scanner by Siemens, with two matrixes, 512 x 512 and 320 x 320 pixels. High resolution reconstruction algorithm was used with the possibility of performing spatial reformations. Five- and 10 mm-axial sections were performed before and after administering of contrast agents. Delayed scans were performed to reveal extravasations of the contrast agent. In three cases axial sections and MPR reconstructions revealed the presence of the periaortic haematoma with active extravasation of the contrasted blood. The <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> aneurysm in two cases was associated with extensive retroperitoneal haematoma. The periaortic haematoma extended along the wall of the aneurysm. In one case the haematoma was localized <span class="hlt">mainly</span> in front of aorta. In one case of aneurysm of abdominal aorta and iliac arteries, the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> or left iliac artery with large retroperitoneal haematoma in the pelvis and intensive extravasation of contrasted blood was seen. The US examination with Power Doppler and Duplex facilitate in three cases evaluation of aneurysm localization. The <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of abdominal aortic aneurysm is life-threatening condition, in vast majority of cases resulting in patient's death. In cases of acute <span class="hlt">rupture</span> the clinical symptoms and CT examination of stable patients are essential. In chronic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> the early diagnosis is very important. The <span class="hlt">main</span> role plays CT examination, which enables revealing of the aneurysm, precise evaluation of the leakage, retroperitoneal haematoma, vertebral destruction and dislocation of aorta and kidneys. PMID:16146098</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Pas?awski, Marek; Z?omaniec, Janusz; Gwizdak, Jacek; Szafranek, Joanna</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return 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<a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">81</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21747126"> <span id="translatedtitle">Post myocardial infarction cardiogenic <span class="hlt">shock</span>: a review of current therapies.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Cardiogenic <span class="hlt">shock</span> is often a devastating consequence of acute myocardial infarction (MI) and portends to significant mortality and morbidity. Despite improvements in expediting the time to treatment and enhancements in available medical therapy and reperfusion techniques, cardiogenic <span class="hlt">shock</span> remains the most common cause of mortality following MI. Post-MI cardiogenic <span class="hlt">shock</span> most commonly occurs as a consequence of severe left ventricular dysfunction. Right ventricular (RV) MI must also be considered. Mechanical complications including acute mitral regurgitation, ventricular septal <span class="hlt">rupture</span>, and ventricular free-wall <span class="hlt">rupture</span> can also lead to cardiogenic <span class="hlt">shock</span>. Rapid diagnosis of cardiogenic <span class="hlt">shock</span> and its underlying cause is pivotal to delivering definitive therapy. Intravenous vasoactive agents and mechanical support devices may temporize the patient's hemodynamic status until definitive therapy by percutaneous or surgical intervention can be performed. Despite prompt management, post-MI cardiogenic <span class="hlt">shock</span> mortality remains high. PMID:21747126</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ng, Ramford; Yeghiazarians, Yerem</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-07-11</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">82</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/24706588"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Ruptured</span> extrauterine pregnancy</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Extrauterine pregnancies contribute substantially to maternal mortality in all parts of the world. The most common cause of these deaths is massive bleeding after <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of the ectopic pregnancy. The advent of transvaginal ultrasonography in early pregnancy and the use of quantitative measurement of the ?-unit of human chorionic gonadotropin have revolutionized the management of this condition. These diagnostic modalities</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">D. R. Slabbert; T. F. Kruger</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">83</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/cardiogenic-shock/DS01152/METHOD=print"> <span id="translatedtitle">Cardiogenic <span class="hlt">Shock</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePLUS</a></p> <p class="result-summary">... be reprinted for personal, noncommercial use only. Cardiogenic <span class="hlt">shock</span> By Mayo Clinic staff Original Article: http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/cardiogenic-<span class="hlt">shock</span>/DS01152 Definition Symptoms Causes Risk factors Complications Tests ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">84</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFM.U13C..05P"> <span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> History of the 2009 L’Aquila earthquake by non-linear joint inversion of strong motion and GPS data</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The 2009 L’Aquila earthquake (Mw 6.3) occurred in the Central Apennines (Italy) on April 6th at the 01:32 UTC and caused nearly 300 fatalities and heavy damages in the L’Aquila town and in several villages nearby. The <span class="hlt">main</span> <span class="hlt">shock</span> <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> a normal fault striking along the Apennine axis and dipping at nearly 50° to the SW. Most of the aftershocks are also associated with normal faulting, which is consistent with the present-day tectonic setting of this sector of the Apennines. The identification of the fault geometry of the L’Aquila <span class="hlt">main</span> <span class="hlt">shock</span> relies on the aftershock pattern, the SAR interferometric data, the GPS displacements as well as the induced surface breakages. The earthquake allowed for the collection of an excellent data set for normal faulting events. In this study, we have imaged the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> history of the L’Aquila earthquake using a nonlinear joint inversion of strong motion and GPS data. Our results show that slip distribution on the fault is quite heterogeneous and characterized by a small shallow slip patch located up-dip the hypocenter and a large and deeper patch located southeastward. The <span class="hlt">rupture</span> velocity is larger in the up-dip than in the along-strike direction. This difference can be partially accounted by the local crustal structure, which is characterized by a high velocity layer above the hypocenter (9.46 km) and a lower velocity below. The latter velocity seems to have affected the along strike propagation since the largest slip patch is located at depths between 9 and 14 km. The imaged slip distribution correlates well with the on-fault aftershock pattern as well as with mapped surface breakages. The <span class="hlt">rupture</span> history is also consistent with the large PGA values recorded at L’Aquila that is located right above the hypocenter.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Piatanesi, A.; Cirella, A.; Cocco, M.; Tinti, E.; Scognamiglio, L.; Michelini, A.; Lomax, A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">85</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.agu.org/journals/ja/ja1011/2010JA015659/2010JA015659.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Statistical study of the quasi-perpendicular <span class="hlt">shock</span> ramp widths</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The width of the collisionless <span class="hlt">shock</span> front is one of the key <span class="hlt">shock</span> parameters. The width of the <span class="hlt">main</span> <span class="hlt">shock</span> transition layer is related to the nature of the collisionless process that balances nonlinearity and therefore leads to the formation of the <span class="hlt">shock</span> itself. The <span class="hlt">shock</span> width determines how the incoming plasma particles interact with the macroscopic fields within the</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Y. Hobara; M. Balikhin; V. Krasnoselskikh; M. Gedalin; H. Yamagishi</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">86</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2783104"> <span id="translatedtitle">A rare clinic presentation of abdominal pain: <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of splenic artery aneurysm: a case report</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background Splenic artery aneurysms (SAA) are uncommon but the most common visceral artery aneurysm. Splenic artery aneurysms are important to recognize because up to 25% may be complicated by <span class="hlt">rupture</span> and the mortality rate after <span class="hlt">rupture</span> is between 25% and 70%. Case report We present a patient who have abdominal pain. Previously healthy 22-year-old female admitted to emergency department with abdominal pain. Her physical examination reveals only left upper quadrant tenderness. Suddenly she developed hypovolemic <span class="hlt">shock</span>. On emergent laparotomy massive blood collection within peritoneal cavity and retroperitoneal space at the left upper quadrant was detected. The source of bleeding was evident as <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of splenic artery aneurysm. Splenectomy was performed following the ligation of splenic artery proximal to lesion. On the tenth day she was discharged from the hospital with complete recovery. Conclusion It is important to remember <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of splenic artery aneurysm in patients with abdominal pain and hypovolemic <span class="hlt">shock</span> status.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">87</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23493246"> <span id="translatedtitle">Spontaneous liver <span class="hlt">rupture</span>: A report of two cases.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Spontaneous bleeding due to a non traumatic liver <span class="hlt">rupture</span> is a rare occurrence. However, it is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Usually the predisposing factors are like Hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelet count (HELLP) syndrome in pregnant women and other liver diseases. It is generally diagnosed by imaging studies such as ultra sonogram or computerized tomogram (CT). Due to its rarity no standard treatment has been described. Here, we report two cases of spontaneous <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of normal liver in two young males. They presented with severe <span class="hlt">shock</span> and hemoperitoneum. The diagnosis was confirmed by CT. They were managed surgically. In case of hemoperitoneum, spontaneous liver <span class="hlt">rupture</span> should be considered. An early aggressive resuscitation and appropriate intervention gives better outcome. PMID:23493246</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yacob, Myla; Jesudason, Mark R; Nayak, Sukria</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">88</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3589860"> <span id="translatedtitle">Spontaneous liver <span class="hlt">rupture</span>: A report of two cases</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Spontaneous bleeding due to a non traumatic liver <span class="hlt">rupture</span> is a rare occurrence. However, it is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Usually the predisposing factors are like Hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelet count (HELLP) syndrome in pregnant women and other liver diseases. It is generally diagnosed by imaging studies such as ultra sonogram or computerized tomogram (CT). Due to its rarity no standard treatment has been described. Here, we report two cases of spontaneous <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of normal liver in two young males. They presented with severe <span class="hlt">shock</span> and hemoperitoneum. The diagnosis was confirmed by CT. They were managed surgically. In case of hemoperitoneum, spontaneous liver <span class="hlt">rupture</span> should be considered. An early aggressive resuscitation and appropriate intervention gives better outcome.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yacob, Myla; Jesudason, Mark R.; Nayak, Sukria</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">89</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23459431"> <span id="translatedtitle">Traumatic <span class="hlt">shock</span>: the fifth <span class="hlt">shock</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Although, historically, <span class="hlt">shock</span> associated with traumatic injury has been evaluated through knowledge of the 4 recognized <span class="hlt">shock</span> patterns--cardiogenic, obstructive, distributive, and hypovolemic--many trauma practitioners view traumatic <span class="hlt">shock</span> as a unique fifth <span class="hlt">shock</span> pattern. Although secondary to a systemic inflammatory response syndrome triggered by endogenous danger signals, traumatic <span class="hlt">shock</span> represents a unique pathological condition that begins with multiple, usually blunt, trauma and may conclude with multiple organ dysfunction syndrome and death. While varying mechanisms of injury may lead to different presentations of <span class="hlt">shock</span> and cardiovascular decompensation, a unifying theme of traumatic <span class="hlt">shock</span> is an overwhelming inflammatory response driven by proinflammatory cytokines, and the downstream results of this cytokine storm including, but not limited to, acute respiratory distress syndrome, coagulopathy, sepsis, and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome. Treatment is primarily supportive; however, research into novel therapeutics for traumatic <span class="hlt">shock</span> is ongoing and promises some direction for future care. PMID:23459431</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Anderson, Maighdlin W; Watson, Gregory A</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">90</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1992ersf.meet..176K"> <span id="translatedtitle">Particle acceleration at relativistic <span class="hlt">shocks</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A brief review is given of the status of the theory of particle acceleration at relativistic <span class="hlt">shocks</span>, indicating the importance of the effects which arise in oblique <span class="hlt">shocks</span>. In the case of ultra-relativistic <span class="hlt">shocks</span>, it is suggested that the <span class="hlt">main</span> acceleration mechanism is <span class="hlt">shock</span>-drift acceleration, because even a slight obliquity of the magnetic field suffices to inhibit the ability of a particle to cross and recross the <span class="hlt">shock</span> front. However, for mildly relativistic flows in which the magnetic field is almost parallel to the <span class="hlt">shock</span> normal the first order Fermi mechanism can be effective. In this case it is possible to estimate the efficiency of acceleration by considering the back reaction of particles on the fluid. The results of an investigation of the stationary solutions of this nonlinear problem show interesting deviations from the nonrelativistic results even at modest <span class="hlt">shock</span> speeds (?c/3).</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kirk, J. G.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">91</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5024132"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Rupture</span> of the right hemidiaphragm due to blunt trauma</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Five cases of right-sided <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of the diaphragm are reviewed. Orthopedic injury, head injury, and <span class="hlt">shock</span> were the most common associated findings. Apparent elevation of the right hemidiaphragm was seen initially in all cases, but two were misdiagnosed. An algorithm that includes modified peritoneal lavage, CT scan with contrast, and intraperitoneal Tc sulfur colloid is suggested for patients with suspected right diaphragmatic trauma.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Leaman, P.L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1983-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">92</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3647170"> <span id="translatedtitle">Acoustic-Friction Networks and the Evolution of Precursor <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> Fronts in Laboratory Earthquakes</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The evolution of shear <span class="hlt">rupture</span> fronts in laboratory earthquakes is analysed with the corresponding functional networks, constructed over acoustic emission friction-patterns. We show that the mesoscopic characteristics of functional networks carry the characteristic time for each phase of the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> evolution. The classified <span class="hlt">rupture</span> fronts in network states–obtained from a saw-cut fault and natural faulted Westerly granite - show a clear separation into three <span class="hlt">main</span> groups, indicating different states of <span class="hlt">rupture</span> fronts. With respect to the scaling of local <span class="hlt">ruptures</span>' durations with the networks' parameters, we show that the gap in the classified fronts could be related to the possibility of a separation between slow and regular fronts.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ghaffari, H. O.; Young, R. P.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">93</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/w465xup784517r01.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Rust and <span class="hlt">Rupture</span>: Atherosclerosis</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">\\u000a This chapter provides an overview of the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, and integrates the latest clinical guidelines and\\u000a trials into a concise and practical guide to cardiovascular risk reduction and the management of dyslipidemia. These measures\\u000a form the basis for a management strategy aimed at halting the progression of atherosclerosis, stabilizing <span class="hlt">rupture</span>-prone plaques,\\u000a preventing arterial thrombosis, and improving cardiovascular prognosis.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Justin T. Saunders; Christie M. Ballantyne</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">94</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2607991"> <span id="translatedtitle">Premature <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of membranes.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The management of patients with premature <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of membranes has changed markedly in the past several years. The basis for this is a combination of a better understanding of newborn physiology, improved neonatal care, refinements in antibiotic therapy, and the widespread use of maternal and fetal monitoring. The best outcome for both mother and infant undoubtedly reflects data based on a combination of factors, among which are gestational age survival, evidence of fetal distress, presence or absence of labor and sepsis, and of course, the cervical condition as it is related to labor-readiness. An important recent advance is the recognition that an active observation management program is associated with less morbidity and mortality than the classic management course of delivery within 12 hours of membrane <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. The fact that preterm premature <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of membranes tends to recur in subsequent pregnancies offers an opportunity for prevention. Moreover, advances in perinatal and neonatal care will continue to improve the outcomes of these women and their children.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Poma, P. A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1996-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">95</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/eimsapi.dispdetail?deid=142562"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">MAINE</span> POPULATION</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p class="result-summary">MEPOP250 depicts <span class="hlt">Maine</span>'s 1950-1990 population data by town or Census in unorganized territories. Populations were compiled from US Census Bureau data where available or from <span class="hlt">Maine</span> Municipal Information (<span class="hlt">mainly</span> for older records). Unorganized towns with very low or zero pop...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">96</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23634419"> <span id="translatedtitle">The spontaneous prelabour <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of anunscarred uterus at 34 weeks of pregnancy.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Uterine <span class="hlt">rupture</span> is an obstetric emergency needs immediate surgery and is associated with poor fetal & maternal outcome. Usually uterine <span class="hlt">rupture</span> occurs at the lower segment (weakest part) if there is no history of uterine surgery. We hereby are reporting a case of spontaneous uterine <span class="hlt">rupture</span> at fundus, at 34 weeks of gestation in a patient who has never had uterine surgery. Only uterine curettage was done once for missed abortion. In this case, diagnosis was delayed until the patient went into massive hemorrhagic <span class="hlt">shock</span>; because, there was no history of previous uterine surgery. However, clinical picture of the <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> uterus at the fundus suggests there was some weakness at the fundus. Thereafter, D & C operation was taken into account. Subtotal hysterectomy was done as the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> was irreparable damage to the fundus. Her one month follow up was uneventful. PMID:23634419</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Misra, Malabika; Roychowdhury, Ronita; Sarkar, Nayan Chandra; Koley, Murary Mohan</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">97</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012PhDT.......104H"> <span id="translatedtitle">Multi-fluid Dynamics for Supersonic Jet-and-Crossflows and Liquid Plug <span class="hlt">Rupture</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Multi-fluid dynamics simulations require appropriate numerical treatments based on the <span class="hlt">main</span> flow characteristics, such as flow speed, turbulence, thermodynamic state, and time and length scales. In this thesis, two distinct problems are investigated: supersonic jet and crossflow interactions; and liquid plug propagation and <span class="hlt">rupture</span> in an airway. Gaseous non-reactive ethylene jet and air crossflow simulation represents essential physics for fuel injection in SCRAMJET engines. The regime is highly unsteady, involving <span class="hlt">shocks</span>, turbulent mixing, and large-scale vortical structures. An eddy-viscosity-based multi-scale turbulence model is proposed to resolve turbulent structures consistent with grid resolution and turbulence length scales. Predictions of the time-averaged fuel concentration from the multi-scale model is improved over Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes models originally derived from stationary flow. The response to the multi-scale model alone is, however, limited, in cases where the vortical structures are small and scattered thus requiring prohibitively expensive grids in order to resolve the flow field accurately. Statistical information related to turbulent fluctuations is utilized to estimate an effective turbulent Schmidt number, which is shown to be highly varying in space. Accordingly, an adaptive turbulent Schmidt number approach is proposed, by allowing the resolved field to adaptively influence the value of turbulent Schmidt number in the multi-scale turbulence model. The proposed model estimates a time-averaged turbulent Schmidt number adapted to the computed flowfield, instead of the constant value common to the eddy-viscosity-based Navier-Stokes models. This approach is assessed using a grid-refinement study for the normal injection case, and tested with 30 degree injection, showing improved results over the constant turbulent Schmidt model both in mean and variance of fuel concentration predictions. For the incompressible liquid plug propagation and <span class="hlt">rupture</span> study, numerical simulations are conducted using an Eulerian-Lagrangian approach with a continuous-interface method. A reconstruction scheme is developed to allow topological changes during plug <span class="hlt">rupture</span> by altering the connectivity information of the interface mesh. <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> time is shown to be delayed as the initial precursor film thickness increases. During the plug <span class="hlt">rupture</span> process, a sudden increase of mechanical stresses on the tube wall is recorded, which can cause tissue damage.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hassan, Ezeldin A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">98</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/29063591"> <span id="translatedtitle">Blood viscosity and circulatory <span class="hlt">shock</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Rheological features of the whole blood and blood components are of potential importance for microcirculatory blood flow in circulatory <span class="hlt">shock</span>. The relative contribution of vascular geometric and rheological factors to the resistance to blood flow in the various <span class="hlt">shock</span> states in man, however, are hard to elucidate [73]. Blood viscosity is <span class="hlt">mainly</span> determined by haematocrit. In low flow states RBC</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">H. J. Voerman; A. B. J. Groeneveld</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1989-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">99</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/110119"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Rupture</span> of an oxide blister</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Expressions have been derived which describe the critical stress and pressure necessary to <span class="hlt">rupture</span> oxide blisters which form on aluminum during the growth of corrosion pits. These expressions have been derived and evaluated for radial cracks in the oxide blister. The critical stress and corresponding pressure for <span class="hlt">rupture</span> decrease with increasing blister radius and decrease with increasing crack length. The critical stress is independent of the ratio of oxide film thickness to blister radius, whereas the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> pressure increases with this ratio. The critical stress is independent of Poisson`s ratio for the oxide film whereas the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> pressure is weakly dependent on Poisson`s ratio for the oxide film.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ryan, R.L.; McCafferty, E. [Naval Research Lab., Washington, DC (United States)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1995-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">100</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10798233"> <span id="translatedtitle">[Achilles tendon <span class="hlt">rupture</span>].</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The treatment of acute of Achilles tendon <span class="hlt">rupture</span> experienced a dynamic development in the last ten years. Decisive for this development was the application of MRI and above all the ultrasonography in the diagnostics of the pathological changes and injuries of tendons. The question of <span class="hlt">rupture</span> morphology as well as different courses of healing could be now evaluated objectively. These advances led consequently to new modalities in treatment concepts and rehabilitation protocols. The decisive input for improvements of the outcome results and particularly the shortening of the rehabilitation period came with introduction of the early functional treatment in contrast to immobilizing plaster treatment. In a prospective randomized study (1987-1989) at the Trauma Dept. of the Hannover Medical School could show no statistical differences comparing functional non-operative with functional operative therapy with a special therapy boot (Variostabil/Adidas). The crucial criteria for therapy selection results from the sonographically measured position of the tendon stumps in plantar flexion (20 degrees). With complete adaptation of the tendons' ends surgical treatment does not achieve better results than non-operative functional treatment in term of tendon healing and functional outcome. Regarding the current therapeutic standards each method has is advantages and disadvantages. Both, the operative and non-operative functional treatment enable a stable tendon healing with a low risk of re-<span class="hlt">rupture</span> (1-2%). Meanwhile there is consensus for early functional after-treatment of the operated Achilles' tendons. There seems to be a trend towards non-operative functional treatment in cases of adequate sonographical findings, or to minimal invasive surgical techniques. PMID:10798233</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Thermann, H; Hüfner, T; Tscherne, H</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2000-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a 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src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">101</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/eimsapi.dispdetail?deid=142541"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">MAINE</span> AQUIFERS</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p class="result-summary">AQFRS24 contains polygons of significant aquifers in <span class="hlt">Maine</span> (glacial deposits that are a significant ground water resource) mapped at a scale 1:24,000. This statewide coverage was derived from aquifer boundaries delineated and digitized by the <span class="hlt">Maine</span> Geological Survey from data com...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">102</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15777313"> <span id="translatedtitle">Methemoglobinemia misdiagnosed as <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> ectopic pregnancy.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A 22-year-old woman with an initial diagnosis of '<span class="hlt">ruptured</span> ectopic pregnancy' and 'hemorrhagic <span class="hlt">shock</span>' was sent to the operation room for surgical treatment. The mucocutaneous color was deeply cyanosed and the pulse oximeter oxygen saturation (SpO2) was only 86% after tracheal intubation (100% O2). 'Chocolate-brown' blood was observed and methemoglobinemia was considered. Then the arterial blood gas (ABG) sample was obtained, an intravenous infusion of methylene blue and vitamin C followed. The patient recovered quickly, and later two other patients with similar symptoms were treated in the same way. The success was due to a correct diagnosis accompanied with prompt treatment and quick recognition of the etiology. PMID:15777313</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yang, J J; Lin, N; Lv, R; Sun, J; Zhao, F; Zhang, J; Xu, J G</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">103</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/27008368"> <span id="translatedtitle">Creep <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> Modelling of Polymers</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Damage by creep related fracture process is of primary importance in en gineering polymers and their composites. Modelling of creep <span class="hlt">rupture</span> is useful for engi neering design especially in obtaining design stresses. Previously, the creep <span class="hlt">rupture</span> times of polyethylene and polypropylene have been described successfully using a three element model with a critical elastic stored energy criterion. The modelling is</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">S. H. Teoh; B. W. Cherry; H. H. Kausch</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1992-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">104</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/19229458"> <span id="translatedtitle">Creep <span class="hlt">Ruptures</span> in Heterogeneous Materials</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">We present creep experiments on fiber composite materials with different controlled heterogeneity. All samples exhibit a power-law relaxation of the strain rate in the primary creep regime (Andrade's law) followed by a power-law acceleration up to <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. We discover that the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> time is proportional to the duration of the primary creep regime, showing the interplay between the two regimes</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">H. Nechad; A. Helmstetter; R. El Guerjouma; D. Sornette</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">105</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/eimsapi.dispdetail?deid=142573"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">MAINE</span> WOODLOTS</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p class="result-summary">MEOWN250 describes industrial, non-industrial, and public woodlot ownership in <span class="hlt">Maine</span> at 1:250,000 scale. Industrial owners are those having at least one primary wood processing facility. Non-industrial owners are those with no primary wood processing facility. Public ownership...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">106</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/eimsapi.dispdetail?deid=142555"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">MAINE</span> HYDROGRAPHY</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Hydronet_me24 and Hydropoly_me24 depict <span class="hlt">Maine</span>'s hydrography data, based on 8-digit hydrological unit codes (HUC's) at the 1:24,000 scale. Some New Hampshire and New Brunswick hydrography data are also included. The NHD hydrography data was compiled from previous ArcIn...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">107</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3760260"> <span id="translatedtitle">Spontaneous <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> of Pyometra</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Spontaneous perforation is a very rare complication of pyometra. The clinical findings of perforated pyometra are similar to perforation of the gastrointestinal tract and other causes of acute abdomen. In most cases, a correct and definite diagnosis can be made only by laparotomy. We report two cases of diffuse peritonitis caused by spontaneous perforated pyometra. The first case is a 78-year-old woman with abdominal pain for which laparotomy was performed because of suspected incarcerated hernia. The second case is a 61-year-old woman with abdominal pain for which laparotomy was performed because of symptoms of peritonitis. At laparotomy of both cases, 1 liter of pus with the source of uterine was found in the abdominal cavity. The <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> uterine is also detected. More investigations revealed no malignancy as the reason of the pyometra.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mallah, Fatemeh; Eftekhar, Tahere; Naghavi-Behzad, Mohammad</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">108</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21608742"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Ruptured</span> Aneurysm of Intercostal Arteriovenous Malformation Associated With Neurofibromatosis Type 1: A Case Report</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Intercostal arteriovenous malformations (AVM) are rare, with most being secondary to trauma or iatrogenic therapeutic procedures. Only one case of presumably congenital AVM has been reported. Here we report the first case of a <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> aneurysm of intercostal AVM associated with neurofibromatosis type 1 in a 32-year-old woman who experienced hypovolemic <span class="hlt">shock</span> caused by massive hemothorax.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kim, Hyung Jun; Seon, Hyun Ju, E-mail: sunaura@hanmail.net; Choi, Song; Jang, Nam Kyu [Chonnam National University Hospital, Department of Radiology (Korea, Republic of)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-02-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">109</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22120413"> <span id="translatedtitle">Collective osmotic <span class="hlt">shock</span> in ordered materials.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Osmotic <span class="hlt">shock</span> in a vesicle or cell is the stress build-up and subsequent <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of the phospholipid membrane that occurs when a relatively high concentration of salt is unable to cross the membrane and instead an inflow of water alleviates the salt concentration gradient. This is a well-known failure mechanism for cells and vesicles (for example, hypotonic <span class="hlt">shock</span>) and metal alloys (for example, hydrogen embrittlement). We propose the concept of collective osmotic <span class="hlt">shock</span>, whereby a coordinated explosive fracture resulting from multiplexing the singular effects of osmotic <span class="hlt">shock</span> at discrete sites within an ordered material results in regular bicontinuous structures. The concept is demonstrated here using self-assembled block copolymer micelles, yet it is applicable to organized heterogeneous materials where a minority component can be selectively degraded and solvated whilst ensconced in a matrix capable of plastic deformation. We discuss the application of these self-supported, perforated multilayer materials in photonics, nanofiltration and optoelectronics. PMID:22120413</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zavala-Rivera, Paul; Channon, Kevin; Nguyen, Vincent; Sivaniah, Easan; Kabra, Dinesh; Friend, Richard H; Nataraj, S K; Al-Muhtaseb, Shaheen A; Hexemer, Alexander; Calvo, Mauricio E; Miguez, Hernan</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-11-27</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">110</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23471359"> <span id="translatedtitle">[Cardiogenic <span class="hlt">shock</span>].</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Cardiogenic <span class="hlt">shock</span> is most commonly a complication of acute myocardial infarction. The ischemic loss of functional myocardium triggers distinct cardiovascular responses which can deteriorate to global pump failure with a mortality rate of more than 50%. Causes of cardiogenic <span class="hlt">shock</span> beyond myocardial ischemia are very diverse. Decisive management with rapid evaluation, identification of the underlying disease and urgent initiation of supportive measures as well as definitive therapy is of prognostic value. Causal treatment of the cardiac disease is crucial but has to be weighed against the specific surgical circumstances of perioperative patients, particularly concerning anticoagulation, platelet inhibition and bleeding risks. Hemodynamic stabilization is achieved by pharmacological support of myocardial function, control of arrhythmia and volume load. Prevention and intensive care of <span class="hlt">shock</span>-related multiorgan failure is of pivotal importance in the successful management of cardiogenic <span class="hlt">shock</span>. PMID:23471359</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rasche, S; Georgi, C</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">111</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12198358"> <span id="translatedtitle">Fatal splenic arterial aneurysmal <span class="hlt">rupture</span> associated with chronic pancreatitis.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Splenic arterial aneurysms (SAA) are rare and are usually atherosclerotic and/or related to pregnancy. Because pregnancy is the most important predisposing factor, the strong predilection of SAA for women is not surprising. The authors report a case of SAA <span class="hlt">rupture</span> in a man with chronic pancreatitis as the predisposing factor. A 56-year-old man with abdominal pain and hematemesis was resuscitated and underwent endoscopy, but he died 18 hours later of massive hematemesis before definitive surgery could be carried out. At autopsy, there was chronic pancreatitis with fibrous adhesions tethering the tail of the pancreas, spleen, and posterior wall of the stomach together. The SAA was indented into the posterior wall of the stomach, into which it had <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> from without. He also had alcoholic cirrhosis but no esophageal varices or conventional gastric ulcers. Other important predisposing factors such as abdominal trauma, infective endocarditis, polyarteritis nodosa, and segmental medial arteriopathy were absent. Histologic examination confirmed the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of the SAA. The SAA had Monckeberg medial calcinosis but little evidence of atherosclerosis. The well-documented complications of acute and chronic pancreatitis include <span class="hlt">shock</span>, abscess, pseudocyst formation, and duodenal obstruction. This report describes the rare complication of SAA <span class="hlt">rupture</span>, which may be fatal. PMID:12198358</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lamba, Manisha; Veinot, John P; Acharya, Virbala; Moyana, Terence</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">112</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/47814699"> <span id="translatedtitle">Septic <span class="hlt">Shock</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">\\u000a Septic <span class="hlt">shock</span> remains a frequent and dreaded complication among patients with hematological malignancies, and most often results\\u000a from severe pulmonary infections. The mortality rate of septic <span class="hlt">shock</span> remains dramatically higher in cancer patients than in\\u000a nonimmunocompromised patients. Various therapeutic interventions, including early initiation of antibiotics, aggressive restoration\\u000a of hemodynamics and new adjuvant therapies of sepsis, have been associated with increased</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">David Grimaldi; Frédéric Pène</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">113</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22587121"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Rupture</span> of a biomembrane under dynamic surface tension.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">How long will a fluid membrane vesicle stressed with a steady ramp of micropipette last before <span class="hlt">rupture</span>? Or conversely, how high should the surface tension be to <span class="hlt">rupture</span> such a membrane? To answer these challenging questions we developed a theoretical framework that allows for the description and reproduction of dynamic tension spectroscopy (DTS) observations. The kinetics of the membrane <span class="hlt">rupture</span> under ramps of surface tension is described as a succession of an initial pore formation followed by the Brownian process of the pore radius crossing the time-dependent energy barrier. We present the formalism and a derive (formal) analytical expression of the survival probability describing the fate of the membrane under DTS conditions. Using numerical simulations for the membrane prepared in an initial state with a given distribution of times for pore nucleation, we study the membrane lifetime (or inverse of <span class="hlt">rupture</span> rate) and distribution of membrane surface tension at <span class="hlt">rupture</span> as a function of membrane characteristics like pore nucleation rate, the energy barrier to failure, and tension loading rate. It is found that simulations reproduce the <span class="hlt">main</span> features of DTS experiments, particularly the pore nucleation and pore-size diffusion-controlled limits of membrane <span class="hlt">rupture</span> dynamics. This approach can be adapted and applied to processes of permeation and pore opening in membranes (electroporation, membrane disruption by antimicrobial peptides, vesicle fusion). PMID:22587121</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bicout, D J; Kats, E</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-03-07</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">114</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005PhRvL..94d5501N"> <span id="translatedtitle">Creep <span class="hlt">Ruptures</span> in Heterogeneous Materials</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We present creep experiments on fiber composite materials with different controlled heterogeneity. All samples exhibit a power-law relaxation of the strain rate in the primary creep regime (Andrade's law) followed by a power-law acceleration up to <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. We discover that the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> time is proportional to the duration of the primary creep regime, showing the interplay between the two regimes and offering a method of <span class="hlt">rupture</span> prediction. These experimental results are rationalized by a mean-field model of representative elements with nonlinear viscoelastic rheology and with a large heterogeneity of strengths.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Nechad, H.; Helmstetter, A.; El Guerjouma, R.; Sornette, D.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">115</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15783567"> <span id="translatedtitle">Creep <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> in heterogeneous materials.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We present creep experiments on fiber composite materials with different controlled heterogeneity. All samples exhibit a power-law relaxation of the strain rate in the primary creep regime (Andrade's law) followed by a power-law acceleration up to <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. We discover that the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> time is proportional to the duration of the primary creep regime, showing the interplay between the two regimes and offering a method of <span class="hlt">rupture</span> prediction. These experimental results are rationalized by a mean-field model of representative elements with nonlinear viscoelastic rheology and with a large heterogeneity of strengths. PMID:15783567</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Nechad, H; Helmstetter, A; El Guerjouma, R; Sornette, D</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-31</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">116</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/x85w9451124v2m83.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Partial ACL <span class="hlt">rupture</span>: an MR diagnosis?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Purpose. We sought to clarify the ability of magnetic resonance imaging (MR) to show partial ante- rior cruciate ligament (ACL) <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> and to allow dis- tinction of partial from complete ACL <span class="hlt">ruptures</span>. Materials and methods. Eighty-eight patients were stud- ied by arthroscopy and MR (36 with normal ACLs, 21 with partial ACL <span class="hlt">ruptures</span>, and 31 with complete ACL <span class="hlt">ruptures</span>). MR</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lawrence Yao; Amilcare Gentili; Leonard Petrus; Joong K. Lee</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1995-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">117</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22708338"> <span id="translatedtitle">[Uterine <span class="hlt">rupture</span> superficial externum--a case report].</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The article presents a case of external superficial <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of the uterus--along the left lateral margin--with <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> posterior lamina of the broad uterine ligament. The complication developed in a 29-year-old patient--following delivery from breech fetal presentation with footling, in 41 hbd, 4th delivery. The patient had no history of any uterine operations, reported no injury to the uterus or inflammations of her sex organs. The symptoms of bleeding into the abdominal cavity and hypovolemic <span class="hlt">shock</span> developed during early postpartum period. The operation was performed on an emergency basis: postpartum hysterectomy without adnexa was performed. Postoperative course was complicated, the patient developed superficial thrombophlebitis in the left leg. The patient and her healthy baby were released home on 24th day following the delivery and operation. PMID:22708338</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sikora-Szcze?niak, Dobros?awa</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">118</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22047814"> <span id="translatedtitle">PARTICLE ACCELERATION IN <span class="hlt">SHOCK-SHOCK</span> INTERACTION: MODEL TO DATA COMPARISON</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Shock-shock</span> interaction is a well-established particle acceleration mechanism in astrophysical and space plasmas, but difficult to study observationally. Recently, the interplanetary <span class="hlt">shock</span> collision with the bow <span class="hlt">shock</span> of the Earth on 1998 August 10 was identified as one of the rare events where detailed in situ observations of the different acceleration phases can be made. Due to the advantageous spacecraft and magnetic field configurations, in 2011, Hietala et al. were able to distinguish the seed population and its reacceleration at the bow <span class="hlt">shock</span>, as well as the Fermi acceleration of particles trapped between the <span class="hlt">shocks</span>. They also interpreted their results as being the first in situ evidence of the release of particles from the trap as the two <span class="hlt">shocks</span> collided. In the present study we use a global 2.5D test-particle simulation to further study particle acceleration in this event. We concentrate on the last phases of the <span class="hlt">shock-shock</span> interaction, when the <span class="hlt">shocks</span> approach and pass through each other. The simulation results verify that the <span class="hlt">main</span> features of the measurements can be explained by <span class="hlt">shock-shock</span> interaction in this magnetic geometry, and are in agreement with the previous interpretation of particle release. <span class="hlt">Shock-shock</span> collisions of this type occur commonly in many astrophysical locations such as stellar coronae, planetary and cometary bow <span class="hlt">shocks</span>, and the distant heliosphere.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hietala, H.; Vainio, R. [Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 64, 00014 Helsinki (Finland); Sandroos, A., E-mail: heli.hietala@helsinki.fi [Finnish Meteorological Institute, P.O. Box 503, 00101 Helsinki (Finland)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-05-20</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">119</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFM.T52A..04S"> <span id="translatedtitle">Laboratory investigation of the radiative energy transfer during <span class="hlt">rupture</span> nucleation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Triaxial compression experiments were performed on several materials (Glass, Granite, Basalt, Sandstone, Marble and Gypsum) at confining pressures ranging from 10 to 100MPa, and from room temperature to 70 degrees C. During each of these experiments, acoustic waves radiated from damage accumulation and fast crack propagation were continuously monitored thanks to a fast acoustic recorder, which enables to obtain continuous acoustogram of <span class="hlt">rupture</span> nucleation and propagation, without the limitations of former trigger systems. In our experiments, <span class="hlt">rupture</span> does not need to be slowed down, and the transition from quasi-static nucleation to dynamic propagation has now been systematically investigated.Comparing each material, three <span class="hlt">main</span> observation can be drawn : - First, the amount of damage accumulation before the dynamic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> propagation varies from material to material, and also depends on the pressure and temperature conditions. For instance, glass, granites and sandstones are typically materials where the nucleation involves a large amount of cracking prior to <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. In contrast, <span class="hlt">rupture</span> in basalt at low confinement is not preceded by any damage accumulation. Finally, pre-<span class="hlt">rupture</span> damage accumulation can also be purely aseismic, which is the case of marble for instance. - Second, the brittle-ductile transition does not exactly overlaps the aseismic-seismic transition, at least in the conditions at which we performed our experiments. For example, marble deforms plastically beyond 50MPa, and although the deformation is ductile, a large amount of crack accumulates in the rock, which tends to make it unstable. In the same way, acoustic emissions decrease in gypsum with increasing pressure and temperatures. - Finally, the time during which <span class="hlt">rupture</span> propagates depends largely on the rheology. For instance, and in the case of ductile failures such as in marble, dislocation and twin accumulation is such that cracks propagation steps are small and/or slow, and thus the radiated energy release rate remains small at early stages of <span class="hlt">rupture</span> and increases with <span class="hlt">rupture</span> speed. Put together, our observations clearly highlight the dependence of the radiated acoustic (and microseismic?) energy during <span class="hlt">rupture</span> nucleation and early stages of crack propagation not only on the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> propagation speed and the slip velocity but most importantly on the rock’s lithology and rheology.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Schubnel, A. J.; Brantut, N.; Ougier-Simonin, A.; Adelinet, M.; Fortin, J.; Gueguen, Y.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">120</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://esag.harvard.edu/dmowska/KRD.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Effects of prestress state and <span class="hlt">rupture</span> velocity on dynamic fault branching</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">We consider a mode II <span class="hlt">rupture</span> which propagates along a planar <span class="hlt">main</span> fault and encounters an intersection with a branching fault. Using an elastodynamic boundary integral equation formulation, allowing the failure path to be dynamically self-chosen, we study the following questions: Does the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> initiate along the branch? Does it continue? Is the extensional or compressional side most favored for</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Nobuki Kame; James R. Rice; Renata Dmowska</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return 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id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">121</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=N19990071173"> <span id="translatedtitle">Analysis of Unsteady Flow Phenomena: <span class="hlt">Shock</span> - Vortex and <span class="hlt">Shock</span> - Boundary Layer Interactions.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The interaction of <span class="hlt">shock</span> waves with vortices has received much attention in the past, <span class="hlt">mainly</span> because <span class="hlt">shock</span>-vortex interaction closely models the interaction of a <span class="hlt">shock</span> wave with the coherent structures of a turbulent flow-field, and is a key feature in th...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">F. Grasso</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">122</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/40832130"> <span id="translatedtitle">Creep <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of polymer composites</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A creep-<span class="hlt">rupture</span> model, based on a creep model which was successfully applied in a previous paper to model and predict the creep of a unidirectional carbon-fiber-reinforced epoxy composite and that of the epoxy matrix, and a critical energy fracture criterion, are presented. The results of the successful application of this model to predict the creep <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of AS4\\/3501-6 composite specimens</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">J. Raghavan; M. Meshii</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">123</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PhPl...20h2702V"> <span id="translatedtitle">Finite Mach number spherical <span class="hlt">shock</span> wave, application to <span class="hlt">shock</span> ignition</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A converging and diverging spherical <span class="hlt">shock</span> wave with a finite initial Mach number Ms0 is described by using a perturbative approach over a small parameter Ms-2. The zeroth order solution is the Guderley's self-similar solution. The first order correction to this solution accounts for the effects of the <span class="hlt">shock</span> strength. Whereas it was constant in the Guderley's asymptotic solution, the amplification factor of the finite amplitude <span class="hlt">shock</span> ?(t)~dUs/dRs now varies in time. The coefficients present in its series form are iteratively calculated so that the solution does not undergo any singular behavior apart from the position of the <span class="hlt">shock</span>. The analytical form of the corrected solution in the vicinity of singular points provides a better physical understanding of the finite <span class="hlt">shock</span> Mach number effects. The correction affects <span class="hlt">mainly</span> the flow density and the pressure after the <span class="hlt">shock</span> rebound. In application to the <span class="hlt">shock</span> ignition scheme, it is shown that the ignition criterion is modified by more than 20% if the fuel pressure prior to the final <span class="hlt">shock</span> is taken into account. A good agreement is obtained with hydrodynamic simulations using a Lagrangian code.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Vallet, A.; Ribeyre, X.; Tikhonchuk, V.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">124</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22564877"> <span id="translatedtitle">Splenic artery aneurysm <span class="hlt">rupture</span>: a rare but fatal cause for peripartum collapse.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Splenic artery aneurysm (SAA) is the most common (60%) of all visceral artery aneurysms. The majority of these cases are asymptomatic, but the presentation of their <span class="hlt">rupture</span> can vary from abdominal/chest pain to cardiovascular collapse (Sadat U, Dar O, Walsh S, Varty K. Splenic artery aneurysms in pregnancy-a systematic review. Int J Surg. 2008;6(3):261-265.). Although rare, the mortality associated with the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> is as high as 25% (De Vries JE, Schattenkerk ME, Malt RA. Complications of splenic artery aneurysm other than intraperitoneal <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. Surgery. 1982;91(2):200-204; Caillouette JC, Merchant EB: <span class="hlt">Ruptured</span> splenic artery aneurysm in pregnancy. Twelfth reported case with maternal and fetal survival. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1993;168(6 Pt 1):1810-1811) and increases to 75% among pregnant women with a concomitant fetal mortality of 95% (O'Grady JP, Day EJ, Toole AL, et al. Splenic artery aneurysm <span class="hlt">rupture</span> in pregnancy. A review and case report. Obstet Gynecol. 1977; 50(5):627-630). Because of such high maternal and fetal mortality prompt management of SAAs is of utmost importance. We are presenting a case of a 35-year-old woman with a missed <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> SAA who after an emergent cesarean section went into profound <span class="hlt">shock</span> and was unable to be resuscitated. This case illustrates the importance of considering the diagnosis of SAA <span class="hlt">rupture</span> in hemodynamically unstable peripartum females. PMID:22564877</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Khurana, Jasjit; Spinello, Irene M</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-05-06</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">125</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3537198"> <span id="translatedtitle">Post-Traumatic Chordae <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> of Tricuspid Valve</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Blunt injury to the chest can affect any one or all components of the chest wall and thoracic cavity. The clinical presentation of patients with blunt chest trauma varies widely and ranges from minor reports of pain to florid <span class="hlt">shock</span>. Traumatic tricuspid valve regurgitation is a rare cardiovascular complication of blunt chest trauma. Tricuspid valve regurgitation is usually begotten by disorders that cause the right ventricle to enlarge. Diagnosis is made by physical examination findings and is confirmed by echocardiography. We report two cases of severe tricuspid regurgitation secondary to the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of the chordae tendineae of the anterior leaflet following non-penetrating chest trauma. Both patients had uneventful postoperative courses.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Abbasi, Kyomars; Ahmadi, Hossein; Zoroufian, Arezoo; Sahebjam, Mohammad; Moshtaghi, Naghmeh; Abbasi, Seyed Hessamedin</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">126</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22669867"> <span id="translatedtitle">Spontaneous <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of utero-ovarian vessels in pregnancy.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Spontaneous <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of utero-ovarian vessels in pregnancy is rare and usually involves utero-ovarian veins. Presenting symptoms include acute-onset abdominal pain and maternal hypovolemic <span class="hlt">shock</span> secondary to haemoperitoneum. Although this condition had been documented over a century ago, an accurate diagnosis is rarely reached prior to laparotomy due to a multitude of other surgical and obstetrical presentations that may pose a similar clinical picture. In such an event an emergency exploratory laparotomy followed by caesarean section with ligation of the uterine vessels can help in preventing a maternal mortality. PMID:22669867</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Munir, Shamila Ijaz; Lo, Tammy; Seaton, John</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-05-30</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">127</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008MPLB...22.1375L"> <span id="translatedtitle">Effects of Thermal Environments on the Thermal <span class="hlt">Shock</span> Resistance of Ultra-High Temperature Ceramics</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In the present study, the temperature-dependent thermal <span class="hlt">shock</span> resistance parameter of Ultra-High Temperature Ceramics (UHTCs) was measured based on the current evaluation theories of thermal <span class="hlt">shock</span> resistance parameters, since the material parameters of UHTCs are very sensitive to the changes of temperature. The influence of some important thermal environment parameters on the thermal <span class="hlt">shock</span> resistance and critical temperature difference of <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of UHTCs were studied. By establishing the relation between the temperature and the thermal or mechanical properties of the UHTCs, we found that thermal <span class="hlt">shock</span> behavior of UHTCs is strongly affected by the surface heat transfer coefficient, heat transfer condition and initial temperature of the thermal <span class="hlt">shock</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Li, Weiguo; Fang, Daining</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">128</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3109899"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Main</span> Report</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background: States vary widely in their use of newborn screening tests, with some mandating screening for as few as three conditions and others mandating as many as 43 conditions, including varying numbers of the 40+ conditions that can be detected by tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). There has been no national guidance on the best candidate conditions for newborn screening since the National Academy of Sciences report of 19751 and the United States Congress Office of Technology Assessment report of 1988,2 despite rapid developments since then in genetics, in screening technologies, and in some treatments. Objectives: In 2002, the Maternal and Child Health Bureau (MCHB) of the Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) of the United States Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) commissioned the American College of Medical Genetics (ACMG) to: Conduct an analysis of the scientific literature on the effectiveness of newborn screening.Gather expert opinion to delineate the best evidence for screening for specified conditions and develop recommendations focused on newborn screening, including but not limited to the development of a uniform condition panel.Consider other components of the newborn screening system that are critical to achieving the expected outcomes in those screened. Methods: A group of experts in various areas of subspecialty medicine and primary care, health policy, law, public health, and consumers worked with a steering committee and several expert work groups, using a two-tiered approach to assess and rank conditions. A first step was developing a set of principles to guide the analysis. This was followed by developing criteria by which conditions could be evaluated, and then identifying the conditions to be evaluated. A large and broadly representative group of experts was asked to provide their opinions on the extent to which particular conditions met the selected criteria, relying on supporting evidence and references from the scientific literature. The criteria were distributed among three <span class="hlt">main</span> categories for each condition: The availability and characteristics of the screening test;The availability and complexity of diagnostic services; andThe availability and efficacy of treatments related to the conditions. A survey process utilizing a data collection instrument was used to gather expert opinion on the conditions in the first tier of the assessment. The data collection format and survey provided the opportunity to quantify expert opinion and to obtain the views of a diverse set of interest groups (necessary due to the subjective nature of some of the criteria). Statistical analysis of data produced a score for each condition, which determined its ranking and initial placement in one of three categories (high scoring, moderately scoring, or low scoring/absence of a newborn screening test). In the second tier of these analyses, the evidence base related to each condition was assessed in depth (e.g., via systematic reviews of reference lists including MedLine, PubMed and others; books; Internet searches; professional guidelines; clinical evidence; and cost/economic evidence and modeling). The fact sheets reflecting these analyses were evaluated by at least two acknowledged experts for each condition. These experts assessed the data and the associated references related to each criterion and provided corrections where appropriate, assigned a value to the level of evidence and the quality of the studies that established the evidence base, and determined whether there were significant variances from the survey data. Survey results were subsequently realigned with the evidence obtained from the scientific literature during the second-tier analysis for all objective criteria, based on input from at least three acknowledged experts in each condition. The information from these two tiers of assessment was then considered with regard to the overriding principles and other technology or condition-specific recommendations. On the basis of this information, conditions were assigned to one of thr</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">129</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3663130"> <span id="translatedtitle">Impact of cardiac magnet resonance imaging on management of ventricular septal <span class="hlt">rupture</span> after acute myocardial infarction</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A 74-year-old man was admitted to the cardiac catheterization laboratory with acute myocardial infarction. After successful angioplasty and stent implantation into the right coronary artery, he developed cardiogenic <span class="hlt">shock</span> the following day. Echocardiography showed ventricular septal <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. Cardiac magnet resonance imaging (MRI) was performed on the critically ill patient and provided detailed information on size and localization of the <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> septum by the use of fast MRI sequences. Moreover, the MRI revealed that the ventricular septal <span class="hlt">rupture</span> was within the myocardial infarction area, which was substantially larger than the <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. As the patient’s condition worsened, he was intubated and had intra-aortic balloon pump implanted, and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation was initiated. During the following days, the patient’s situation improved, and surgical correction of the ventricular septal defect could successfully be performed. To the best of our knowledge, this case report is the first description of postinfarction ventricular septal <span class="hlt">rupture</span> by the use of cardiac MRI in an intensive care patient with cardiogenic <span class="hlt">shock</span> and subsequent successful surgical repair.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gassenmaier, Tobias; Gorski, Armin; Aleksic, Ivan; Deubner, Nikolas; Weidemann, Frank; Beer, Meinrad</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">130</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1422508"> <span id="translatedtitle">Traumatic <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> of the Aorta</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Objective To determine whether delay of the repair of the <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> thoracic aorta in patients with other major injuries is safe and has a potential positive impact on survival. Summary Background Data The accepted treatment for acute traumatic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of the thoracic aorta has been repair of the injury as soon as possible. This form of management, however, has been accompanied by a death rate of 0% to 54% mortality, often related to the presence of other injuries. Methods The records of 30 consecutive patients with <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of the thoracic aorta from blunt trauma treated from 1995 to 2001 were retrospectively reviewed. Two of them died shortly after admission and were excluded from further consideration. The remaining 28 patients were divided according to the time of the repair of the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> into two groups. Group 1 patients underwent repair of the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> immediately after the diagnosis was made. Group 2 patients, who had associated injuries that were likely to increase the risk of surgical death, had either repair more than 48 hours after injury (subgroup 2A) or had no repair (subgroup 2B). The patients in group 2 had their mean arterial pressure maintained at less than 70 mm Hg with medication to eliminate shear stress on the aortic tear while being observed. Results Twenty-eight patients (22 men, 6 women) with an average age of 36 years (range 19–76) were treated. Twenty-five had <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of the descending thoracic aorta and three had <span class="hlt">rupture</span> in the ascending thoracic aorta. Group 1 comprised 14 patients, 5 of whom died during surgery or in the early postoperative period. Group 2 comprised 14 patients, 9 in subgroup 2A and 5 in subgroup 2B. Two patients in subgroup 2A and three patients in subgroup 2B died of associated injuries or illnesses. <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> of the traumatic pseudoaneurysm of the thoracic aorta did not occur in any of the patients in group 2. Conclusions Delayed repair of acute traumatic aortic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> is safe under appropriate treatment and should be considered in selected patients.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Symbas, Panagiotis N.; Sherman, Andrew J.; Silver, Jeffery M.; Symbas, John D.; Lackey, Jodi J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">131</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3355033"> <span id="translatedtitle">Spontaneous splenic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> and Anisakis appendicitis presenting as abdominal pain: a case report</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Introduction Anisakidosis, human infection with nematodes of the family Anisakidae, is caused most commonly by Anisakis simplex. Acquired by the consumption of raw or undercooked marine fish or squid, anisakidosis occurs where such dietary customs are practiced, including Japan, the coastal regions of Europe and the United States. <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> of the spleen is a relatively common complication of trauma and many systemic disorders affecting the reticuloendothelial system, including infections and neoplasias. A rare subtype of <span class="hlt">rupture</span> occurring spontaneously and arising from a normal spleen has been recognized as a distinct clinicopathologic entity. Herein we discuss the case of a woman who presented to our institution with appendicitis secondary to Anisakis and spontaneous spleen <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. Case presentation We report the case of a 53-year-old Caucasian woman who presented with hemorrhagic <span class="hlt">shock</span> and abdominal pain and was subsequently found to have spontaneous spleen <span class="hlt">rupture</span> and appendicitis secondary to Anisakis simplex. She underwent open surgical resection of the splenic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> and the appendicitis without any significant postoperative complications. Histopathologic examination revealed appendicitis secondary to Anisakis simplex and splenic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of undetermined etiology. Conclusions To the best of our knowledge, this report is the first of a woman with the diagnosis of spontaneous spleen <span class="hlt">rupture</span> and appendicitis secondary to Anisakis simplex. Digestive anisakiasis may present as an acute abdomen. Emergency physicians should know and consider this diagnosis in patients with ileitis or colitis, especially if an antecedent of raw or undercooked fish ingestion is present. Spontaneous <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of the spleen is an extremely rare event. Increased awareness of this condition will enhance early diagnosis and effective treatment. Further research is required to identify the possible risk factors associated with spontaneous <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of the spleen.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">132</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007APS..SHK.H4005L"> <span id="translatedtitle">Detonation <span class="hlt">Shock</span> Radius Experiments.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A previous passover experiment [1] was designed to create a complex detonation transient used in validating a reduced, asymptotically derived description of detonation <span class="hlt">shock</span> dynamics (DSD). An underlying question remained on determining the location of the initial detonation <span class="hlt">shock</span> radius to start the DSD simulation with respect to the dynamical response of the initiation system coupling's to the <span class="hlt">main</span> charge. This paper concentrates on determining the initial <span class="hlt">shock</span> radius required of such DSD governed problems. `Cut-back' experiments of PBX-9501 were conducted using an initiation system that sought to optimize the transferred detonation to the desired constant radius, hemispherical shape. Streak camera techniques captured the breakout on three of the prism's surfaces for time-of-arrival data. The paper includes comparisons to simulations using constant volume explosion and high pressure hot spots. The results of the experiments and simulation efforts provide fundamental design considerations for actual explosive systems and verify necessary conditions from which the asymptotic theory of DSD may apply. [1] Lambert, D., Stewart, D. Scott and Yoo, S. and Wescott, B., ``Experimental Validation of Detonation <span class="hlt">Shock</span> Dynamics in Condensed Explosives. J. of Fluid Mechs., Vol. 546, pp.227-253 (2006).</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lambert, David; Debes, Joshua; Stewart, Scott; Yoo, Sunhee</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">133</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JAESc..48...31S"> <span id="translatedtitle">A new insight into crustal heterogeneity beneath the 2001 Bhuj earthquake region of Northwest India and its implications for <span class="hlt">rupture</span> initiations</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The seismic characteristics of the 2001 Bhuj earthquake (Mw 7.6) has been examined from the proxy indicators, relative size distribution (3D b-value mapping) and seismic tomography using a new data set to understand the role of crustal heterogeneities in <span class="hlt">rupture</span> initiations of the 2001 Bhuj earthquake of the Gujarat (India), one of the disastrous Indian earthquakes of the new millennium. The aftershocks sequence recorded by 22 seismograph stations of Gujarat Seismic Network (GSNet) during the period from 2006 to 2009, encompassing approximately 80 km × 70 km <span class="hlt">rupture</span> area had revealed clustering of aftershocks at depth of 5-35 km, which is seismogenic layer responsible for the occurrence of continued aftershocks activity in the study region. The 3D b-value mapping estimated from a total of 3850 precisely located aftershocks with magnitude of completeness Mc ? 2.7 shows that a high b-value region is sandwiched within the <span class="hlt">main</span> <span class="hlt">shock</span> hypocenter at the depth of 20-25 km and low b-value region above and below of the 2001 Bhuj <span class="hlt">main</span> <span class="hlt">shock</span> hypocenter. Estimates of 3-D seismic velocity (Vp; Vs) and Poisson's ratio (b) structure beneath the region demonstrated a very close correspondence with the b-value mapping that supports the similar physicochemical processes of retaining fluids within the fractured rock matrix beneath the 2001 Bhuj mainshock hypocenter. The overall b-value is estimated close to 1.0 which reveals that seismogenesis is related to crustal heterogeneity, which, in turn also supported by low-Vs and high-b structures. The high b-value and high-b anomaly at the depth of 20-25 km indicate the presence of highly fractured heterogeneous rock matrix with fluid intrusions into it at deeper depth beneath the <span class="hlt">main</span> <span class="hlt">shock</span> hypocenter region. Low b-value and high-Vp in the region is observed towards the north-east and north-west of the <span class="hlt">main</span> <span class="hlt">shock</span> that might be an indication of the existence of relatively competent rock masses with negligible volume of cracks that may have contained over-pressurized fluids without molten rocks.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Singh, A. P.; Mishra, O. P.; Yadav, R. B. S.; Kumar, Dinesh</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">134</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AGUFM.T43A1974L"> <span id="translatedtitle">Geodynamics of Continental Lithospheric <span class="hlt">Rupturing</span>: Progress and Challenge</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The break-up and transition from rifting to drifting of continental lithosphere are vital for deciphering the formation and evolution of rift and ocean, marginal sea and associated resource consequences as well; however, the physics and mechanism of this <span class="hlt">rupturing</span> process are controversial. Thanks to the endeavors of international geoscience community with large research programs such as IODP and MARGINS and mass geophysical and geological observations available, prominent advancements on this issue have been made during recent decade. Here we briefly review related progress on continental lithosphere <span class="hlt">rupturing</span> and <span class="hlt">mainly</span> focus on the topics as follows: nature of crustal structure of conjugated continental margin, conceptional model on continental lithospheric <span class="hlt">rupturing</span> and geodynamic modeling. The existence of zone of exhumed continental mantle in the oceanic-continental transition of non-volcanic type continental margin, composed by serpentinized peridotite, is emphasized here, regarding its relatively weak rheology that facilitates the break up of lithosphere. The fault system of diverse types, especially the concave downward fault, absorbing the deformation from rifting to drifting should be taken into account in constructing conceptional mode for lithospheric rupturin. The configuration of pre-rifting lithosphere, for instance, the rheological heterogeneity, thermal structure and tectonic inheritance, are the key factors that control the <span class="hlt">rupturing</span> process of continental lithosphere. Lastly, some challenges are all presented, and we conclude that multidisciplinary studies of the typical conjugated continental margins in the world are essential for better understanding on lithospheric <span class="hlt">rupturing</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Liu, S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">135</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23749832"> <span id="translatedtitle">Diagnosis and management of a <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> rudimentary horn pregnancy in a low-resource setting.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A 22-year-old woman presented with amenorrhoea, lower abdominal pain and brown vaginal discharge. She was noted to be in hypovolaemic <span class="hlt">shock</span> with a distended and peritonitic abdomen. On bimanual examination, the uterus was not palpated, the posterior fornix was full and cervical excitation was present. A clinical diagnosis of a <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> ectopic pregnancy was made. She was resuscitated and an emergency laparotomy was performed. Intraoperatively, a <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> rudimentary horn with an ex utero pregnancy was discovered. The right horn and tube were removed, as was the non-viable fetus. There were no postoperative complications and the patient was discharged after 5 days of observation. PMID:23749832</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Nathan, Hannah; Sornum, Alvin</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-06-06</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">136</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.T51B2033F"> <span id="translatedtitle">Field measurements along the 2010 Ms 7.1 Yushu earthquake <span class="hlt">rupture</span> shows strike-slip and dip-slip activities, resulting in mountains uplift</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Yushu Ms 7.1 earthquake occurred in the Qinghai Province, China, on April 14th, 2010. Understanding its mechanism is critical to studying the local stress field and the mechanism of earthquake, therefore we conducted careful field investigation immediately after the <span class="hlt">main</span> <span class="hlt">shock</span>. Morphological field research shows that the earthquake was triggered by the Ganzi-Yushu fault, trending NW-SE and dipping NE. It spreads at the base of the range-front, along which huge triangular facets (up to 600 m) are distributed, attesting the important vertical component of this fault. Geomorphic features (such as troughs, rivers, fences, and alluvial fans) exhibit sinistral offsets that vary from tens of meters to hundreds of meters. Due to both strike-slip and dip-slip displacements, this fault seems to be a transtensional fault. Thorough observation and measurements were made along the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> zone, which is about 49 km-long, and consists of 3 discontinuous left-stepping <span class="hlt">rupture</span> segments (19 km, 22 km, and about 8 km, respectively, from west to east). We observed a maximum sinistral offset of 2.3 m along the central segment and a maximum vertical offset of 0.6 m along the western segment. These offsets, as well as push-up, co-seismic pull-apart and left stepping en-echelon tension fissures, show strike-slip and dip-slip components. The angle (?) between the Principal Displacement Zone (PDZ) and en-echelon tension fissures can reflect the surface <span class="hlt">rupture</span> kinematics: ? larger than 45 degrees in transpression, ? less than 45 degrees in transtension, and ? equals to 45 degrees in simple shear. For instance, along the Changu Temple segment, we measured 125 <span class="hlt">rupture</span> directions and found that the mean PDZ strike is ca.295 degrees NW while the fissures’ strike ranges from 278-300 degrees NW. The value of ? is less than 45 degrees, revealing the transtensional regime. In the Guoyangyansongduo segment, we measured 287 <span class="hlt">rupture</span> directions and found that the PDZ strikes ca.300 degrees NW while fissures strike 265-290 degrees NW, also indicating ? is less than 45 degrees and a transtensional regime. Lastly, in the Longbao Lake segment, 30 <span class="hlt">rupture</span> direction measurements show that the PDZ strikes 290 degrees NW and fissures strike 270 degrees NW, also showing a transtensional regime. The uplift of the mountain range therefore results from the transtensional regime of the fault and the long term activity resembles Yushu earthquake of this fault.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Fuyao, W.; Li, H.; Pan, J.; Xu, Z.; Li, N.; Guo, R.; Zhang, W.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">137</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23225558"> <span id="translatedtitle">Spontaneous hepatic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> in amyloidosis - report of a case.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In systemic amyloidosis spontaneous <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of the liver is a rare complication. Here we report on a patient with unrecognized systemic amyloidosis who presented to an outside hospital with unspecific abdominal pain. Under the signs of a hemorrhagic <span class="hlt">shock</span>, distended abdomen and intraabdominal bleeding a laparotomy was performed. Due to uncontrollable hemorrhage of the <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> right liver lobe a packing was performed. After being transferred to the reporting institution a CT scan was performed showing a grade IV laceration of the right liver. Therefore a transarterial embolization of the right hepatic artery was carried out. The following day an infection of the abdominal cavity and the abdominal wall with gas-producing bacteria was noticed and a relaparotomy, necrectomy and repacking due to diffuse bleeding were performed. The situation deteriorated and at the second relaparotomy the following day an almost completely necrotic liver was found. The patient deceased the following day. Life-threatening spontaneous liver <span class="hlt">rupture</span> due to systemic amyloidosis might only successfully be cured by high urgency liver transplantation as presented in the literature. However, in two published cases interventional therapy by embolization of bleeding vessels has saved patients' life. PMID:23225558</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lehmann, T G; Scheble, V; Miller, S; Heininger, A; Fend, F; Koenigsrainer, A</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-12-07</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">138</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title46-vol2/pdf/CFR-2011-title46-vol2-sec64-61.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">46 CFR 64.61 - <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> disc.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MARINE PORTABLE TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Pressure Relief Devices and Vacuum Relief Devices for MPTs § 64.61 <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> disc. If a <span class="hlt">rupture</span> disc is the only pressure relief device on the tank,...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">139</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1763267"> <span id="translatedtitle">Traumatic duodenal <span class="hlt">rupture</span> in a soccer player</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Traumatic duodenal <span class="hlt">rupture</span> resulting from blunt trauma during soccer is an extremely rare occurrence. A case report of this unusual condition is presented together with a review of the literature. Key Words: soccer; football; duodenal <span class="hlt">rupture</span>; trauma</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Houshian, S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2000-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">140</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=481416"> <span id="translatedtitle">Chordal <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. I: aetiology and natural history.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Between 1970 and 1981, 12% of patients undergoing mitral valve surgery were found to have chordal <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. Spontaneous or primary <span class="hlt">rupture</span> accounted for 74.6% of patients (primary group); in the remainder (secondary group) chordal <span class="hlt">rupture</span> complicated chronic rheumatic valvular disease (8.9%), bacterial endocarditis on both normal (8.5%) and rheumatic valves (4.7%), ischaemic heart disease (2.3%), acute rheumatic fever (0.5%), and osteogenesis imperfecta (0.5%). Isolated posterior <span class="hlt">rupture</span> was seen most frequently (54%), with anterior <span class="hlt">rupture</span> in 36% and <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of both mitral cusps in 10% of patients. A short symptomatic history of acute mitral regurgitation was rare, occurring in only 4% of patients in either the primary or secondary groups, suggesting that mitral regurgitation due to <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> chordae is a progressive disease. In contrast to previous reports the clinical presentation did not help to differentiate the aetiology of the chordal <span class="hlt">rupture</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Oliveira, D B; Dawkins, K D; Kay, P H; Paneth, M</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1983-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span 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<a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">141</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3499276"> <span id="translatedtitle">Hemothorax caused by spontaneous <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of hepatocellular carcinoma: a case report and review of the literature</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We report a rare case in which hemothorax occurred in addition to hemoperitoneum due to spontaneous <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) originating from the caudate lobe of the liver. The case pertains to a 56-year-old female who was transported to our hospital for impaired consciousness due to hemorrhagic <span class="hlt">shock</span>. Computed tomography (CT) demonstrated <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> HCC originating from the caudate lobe and accompanying hemoperitoneum and right hemothorax. Hemostasis was carried out by transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE), and surgery was conducted approximately one month after TAE. In the present case, no lesions as possible sources of bleeding were observed inside the pleural cavity, and, moreover, the diaphragm had no abnormalities in the intraoperative findings, suggesting that blood from the <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> tumor may have traversed the intact diaphragm to enter the right pleural cavity soon after the HCC <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. However, to the best of our knowledge, no similar cases of HCC have been reported to date, and this case is thus believed to be very rare. This unusual phenomenon may therefore be strongly associated with the location of the <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> tumor and the formation of a hematoma inside the omental bursa. We discuss the mechanism causing hemothorax in the present case and also review the previously reported cases of <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> HCC complicated by hemothorax.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">142</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1985JGR....90.6773B"> <span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">rupture</span> process of the 1976 Mindanao Earthquake</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The large Mindanao earthquake (Mw = 8.1) of August 16, 1976, presents a complex <span class="hlt">rupture</span> history. The epicenter of this earthquake is located at the southern end of the 160×80 km2 aftershock area, and the thrust mechanism with a shallow NE dipping plane indicates the subduction of the North Celebes Sea beneath Mindanao. We have characterized both temporally and spatially the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> process of this event by deconvolving the source time functions from long-period P wave seismograms at 20 azimuthally well-distributed stations. The seismic moment is released in a jagged fashion in two <span class="hlt">main</span> pulses. The observable directivity associated with these two pulses of moment release defines three segments on the fault: (1) from 0 to 54 km N-NW of the epicenter with ?½ of the moment release and an apparent <span class="hlt">rupture</span> velocity of 2.0 km/s, (2) from 54 to 72 km N-NW of the epicenter with low to no resolvable moment release and an apparent <span class="hlt">rupture</span> velocity of 0.8 km/s, and (3) from 72 to 157 km N-NW of the epicenter with ?½ of the moment release and a <span class="hlt">rupture</span> velocity of 3.3 km/s. Although the overall moment release is comparable in the first and second pulses, the second pulse has a substantially higher <span class="hlt">rupture</span> velocity and a higher level of short-period radiation. The sharp truncation of the second pulse generates the largest amplitudes in the P wave seismograms and is interpreted as the abrupt termination of the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> front against Mindanao Island, 160 km N-NW of the epicenter. An additional third pulse of moment release after the dominant truncation is identified at stations to the NW and SE. This additional moment release is located on a separate fault to the west which is probably strike-slip in nature and related to a large strike-slip aftershock along the coast of Mindanao. The jagged, multiple event moment release of the Mindanao earthquake is in sharp contrast to the smooth <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of the 1979 Colombia subduction zone earthquake (Mw = 8.2), which resulted from the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of a single large asperity ( ?60 km). Although these two earthquakes are both underthrusting events, they occur in very different tectonic settings. The Mindanao earthquake occurred at a relatively young subduction zone in a region with rapidly evolving plate boundaries, whereas the Colombia earthquake occurred at a well-established plate boundary.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Beck, Susan L.; Ruff, Larry. J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1985-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">143</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1992shwa.conf..403M"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Shock</span> metamorphism in artificial impact craters</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Shock</span> metamorphism has been investigated in artificial impact craters of gabbroic anorthositic and granitic target rocks. <span class="hlt">Shocked</span> quartz grains with irregularly wavy extinction are found at crater walls and ejecta, and show the largest values of density in fine aggregates of ejecta. When <span class="hlt">shock</span>-loaded by a steel projectile, a larger density of <span class="hlt">shocked</span> quartz is obtained in target rock of gabbroic anorthosite with smaller homogeneous grains than in granite rock with larger irregular grains. There are two types of <span class="hlt">shocked</span> quartz: (1) <span class="hlt">shocked</span> quartz formed by direct transformation from high-pressure silica; and (2) fine <span class="hlt">shocked</span> quartz crystallized by chemical change <span class="hlt">mainly</span> from feldspar composition under the vapor condition of the impact event. The closed system of the experimental chamber produced easily <span class="hlt">shocked</span> cristobalite high-temperature type silica but no stishovite high-pressure type. Chemical change of feldspar composition can be proved also by the anomalous composition of low-K-Na-Ca elements revealed by electron microprobe data. <span class="hlt">Shock</span> pressures of <span class="hlt">shocked</span> quartz are estimated by a regression equation for the density-deviation of <span class="hlt">shocked</span> quartz from the Charlevoix impact structure.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Miura, Y.; Takayama, K.; Kato, T.; Kawashima, N.; Yamori, A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">144</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19857843"> <span id="translatedtitle">Open repair of acute Achilles tendon <span class="hlt">ruptures</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Although the Achilles tendon is the strongest in the body, it also is the most often <span class="hlt">ruptured</span>. Achilles tendon <span class="hlt">rupture</span> most often occurs during sports activities in middle-aged men. Operative repair of a <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> Achilles tendon can be accomplished with a variety of techniques, ranging from open repair, to minimally invasive technique, to endoscopic-assisted repair. This article focuses on open repair of acute Achilles tendon <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. Surgical techniques, rehabilitation protocol, and the authors' preferred method are described. PMID:19857843</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rosenzweig, Seth; Azar, Frederick M</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">145</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/40493648"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Rupture</span> dimensions and <span class="hlt">rupture</span> processes of fluid-induced microcracks in salt rock</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">We developed and applied a simple empirical Green function method to study induced microcracks observed during hydraulic fracturing experiments in salt rock. Either unidirectional <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> on rectangular faults or allround <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> on elliptical faults are tested to explain the observed directivity effects in body-wave amplitude spectra. Mostly, the rectangular <span class="hlt">rupture</span> model and horizontal fault planes are favored. The average <span class="hlt">rupture</span></p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">T. Dahm</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">146</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9211612"> <span id="translatedtitle">Histopathological findings in spontaneous tendon <span class="hlt">ruptures</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A spontaneous <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of a tendon may be defined as a <span class="hlt">rupture</span> that occurs during movement and activity, that should not and usually does not damage the involved musculotendinous units (1). Spontaneous tendon <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> were uncommon before the 1950s. Böhler found only 25 Achilles tendon <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> in Wien between 1925 and 1948 (2). Mösender & Klatnek treated 20 Achilles tendon <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> between 1953 and 1956, but 105 <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> between 1964 and 1967 (3). Lawrence et al. found only 31 Achilles tendon <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> in Boston during a period of 55 years (1900-1954) (4). During the recent decades tendon <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> have, however, become relatively common in developed countries, especially in Europe and North America. A high incidence of tendon <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> has been reported in Austria, Denmark, Finland, Germany. Hungary, Sweden, Switzerland and the USA; somewhat lower incidences have been reported in Canada, France, Great Britain and Spain. On the other hand, Greece, Japan, the Netherlands and Portugal have reported a clearly lower incidence. Interestingly, Achilles tendon <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> are a rarity in developing countries, especially in Africa and East-Asia (5). In many developed countries, the increases in the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> incidence have been dramatic. In the National Institute of Traumatology in Budapest, Hungary, the number of patients with an Achilles tendon <span class="hlt">rupture</span> increased 285% in men and 500% in women between two successive 7-year periods, 1972-1978 and 1979-1985 (5). PMID:9211612</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Józsa, L; Kannus, P</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">147</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ejcts.ctsnetjournals.org/cgi/reprint/28/1/178.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Case report Recurrent spontaneous esophageal <span class="hlt">rupture</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Spontaneous esophageal <span class="hlt">rupture</span> is an uncommon and poorly understood condition. Recurrent <span class="hlt">rupture</span> is extremely rare, with only one previously reported case in the literature. Here, we present a case series of two patients who had recurrent <span class="hlt">ruptures</span>, and discuss the principles underlying the management of such cases. Q 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Omar A. Khan; Clifford W. Barlow; David F. Weeden; Khalid M. Amer</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">148</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.tzuchi.com.tw/file/tcmj/93-3/1.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Blunt Traumatic <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> of the Aorta</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Objective: Aortic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> is a potentially fatal complication in trauma. We report our surgical result in the treatment of traumatic aortic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> in eastern Taiwan. Patients and Methods: From August 1996 to October 2000, six patients with traumatic aortic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> had surgery at Tzu Chi General Hospital. Five had a widened mediastinum on chest X-ray examination. They were diag- nosed</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Shen-Feng Chao; Bee-Song Chang</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">149</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/53607023"> <span id="translatedtitle">Fractal avalanche <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> in biological membranes</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Bilayer membranes envelope cells as well as organelles, and constitute the most ubiquitous biological material found in all branches of the phylogenetic tree. Cell membrane <span class="hlt">rupture</span> is an important biological process, and substantial <span class="hlt">rupture</span> rates are found in skeletal and cardiac muscle cells under a mechanical load. <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> can also be induced by processes such as cell death, and active</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Irep Gözen; Paul Dommersnes; Ilja Czolkos; Aldo Jesorka; Tatsiana Lobovkina; Owe Orwar</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">150</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/39205742"> <span id="translatedtitle">Traumatic pericardial <span class="hlt">rupture</span> with skeletonized phrenic nerve</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">BACKGROUND: Traumatic pericardial <span class="hlt">rupture</span> is a rare presentation. Pericardial <span class="hlt">rupture</span> itself is asymptomatic unless complicated by either hemorrhage or herniation of the heart through the defect. Following diagnosis surgical repair of the pericardium is indicated because cardiac herniation may result in vascular collapse and sudden death. OBJECTIVES: Here we present a case of traumatic, non-herniated pericardial <span class="hlt">rupture</span> with complete skeletonization</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zain Khalpey; Taufiek K Rajab; Jan D Schmitto; Philipp C Camp</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">151</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ajronline.org/cgi/reprint/184/1/24.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Helical CT of Blunt Diaphragmatic <span class="hlt">Rupture</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">OBJECTIVE. This study evaluated CT findings for signs of blunt diaphragmatic <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. MATERIALS AND METHODS. CT examinations of 179 blunt trauma patients, includ- ing 11 with left-sided and five with right-sided blunt diaphragmatic <span class="hlt">rupture</span>, were reviewed by two staff radiologists who first decided by consensus on the presence or absence of 11 pub- lished signs of blunt diaphragmatic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> and</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Alain Nchimi; David Szapiro; Benoît Ghaye; Valérie Willems; Jamil Khamis; Luc Haquet; Charlemagne Noukoua; Robert F. Dondelinger</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">152</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2429763"> <span id="translatedtitle">Spontaneous <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of a splenotic nodule.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A case is presented of spontaneous <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of splenic tissue occurring 14 years after a splenectomy was carried out for trauma. Spontaneous <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of a splenotic nodule has not previously been described and it may be added to the list of causes of spontaneous haemoperitoneum. The incidence and function of residual splenic tissue are briefly discussed and other causes of splenic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> are outlined.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lanigan, D. J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1990-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">153</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/31084381"> <span id="translatedtitle">MRI of tibialis anterior tendon <span class="hlt">rupture</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Ruptures</span> of the tibialis anterior tendon are rare. We present the clinical histories and MRI findings of three recent male patients with tibialis anterior tendon <span class="hlt">rupture</span> aged 58–67 years, all of whom presented with pain over the dorsum of the ankle. Two of the three patients presented with complete <span class="hlt">rupture</span> showing discontinuity of the tendon, thickening of the retracted portion of</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Robert A. Gallo; Brett H. Kolman; Richard H. Daffner; Robert L. Sciulli; Catherine C. Roberts; Patrick J. DeMeo</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">154</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19668895"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Rupture</span> of spleen post colonoscopy.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We review an interesting case of elective colonoscopy for rectal bleeding in a 68-year-old woman complicated by splenic <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. She was managed by aggressive fluid and blood resuscitation followed by splenectomy. She had a smooth recovery and was discharged home 4 days after admission. The extreme rarity and interesting clinical course of the patient are discussed. PMID:19668895</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Younes, Nidal A; Al-Ardah, Mahmoud I; Daradkeh, Salam S</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">155</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3787076"> <span id="translatedtitle">[<span class="hlt">Rupture</span> during pregnancy of the rudimentary horn of a pseudo-unicorn uterus. Apropos of a case].</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of the rudimentary horn of a pseudo-unicorn uterus is a rare accident. The case reported here is very similar to most of those published. It is usually during the fifth month of a pregnancy, normal until then, that a state of <span class="hlt">shock</span> appear suddenly, requiring a surgical procedure and disclosing this exceptional diagnosis. PMID:3787076</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Aubard, Y; Moinet, A; Eyraud, J P; Amat, P; Renaudie, J; Baudet, J H</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1986-09-20</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">156</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/60044029"> <span id="translatedtitle">Drill string <span class="hlt">shock</span> absorber</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A telescopic <span class="hlt">shock</span> absorber for use in a drill string includes a resilient arrangement to cushion telescopic contraction and extension of the <span class="hlt">shock</span> absorber in response to <span class="hlt">shock</span> loads and vibrations imparted during drilling. The <span class="hlt">shock</span> absorber operates independently of the drilling fluid pressure conducted through the structure during drilling operations. A dampening system assists in cushioning the <span class="hlt">shock</span> loads</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">E. A. Anderson; D. D. Webb</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1985-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">157</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22439053"> <span id="translatedtitle">Uterine <span class="hlt">rupture</span> after prostaglandin analogues to induce midtrimester abortion.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Although prostaglandins are largely used and considered safe drugs to induce midtrimester abortion, the literature reports several cases of uterine <span class="hlt">rupture</span> consequent to their administration. We report the second ever-described case of uterine <span class="hlt">rupture</span> after administration of gemeprost and sulprostone for midtrimester abortion in a 45 years-old women with scarred uterus.She was admitted to our Unit for termination at 20 weeks' gestation because of trisomy 21 diagnosed by chromosomal analysis of amniotic liquid at 16 weeks' gestation. Five pessaries of gemeprost (one pessary, every 3 hours) were administered into the posterior vaginal fornix. Since the cervix remained closed and uneffaced, another cycle of 5 gemeprost administration was conducted. When the cervix changed in consistency and dilatation, we decided to administrate sulprostone. At the obstetric examination any visible fetus was evidenced. The abdominal ultrasonography showed an empty uterine cavity and the gestational sac with the dead fetus in abdomen. Emergency laparotomy was therefore undertaken. Primary suture of the <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> uterus was initially attempted but in vain. Therefore, total abdominal hysterectomy was performed to control bleeding and eventual hypovolemic <span class="hlt">shock</span>.Given the lack of strong evidence in literature and the fact that case reports are not an optimal method for assessing frequency of an event nor the overall risks of a procedure since they frequently report rare single events, other larger studies are needed to assess whether women with multiple risk factors (e.g. advanced age and previous uterine surgery), and administered with prostaglandins' association have a higher risk of uterine <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. PMID:22439053</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Pappalardo, Elisa Maria; La Greca, Michele; Rapisarda, Giusi; Consoli, Daniele</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">158</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AGUFM.S31B1904Z"> <span id="translatedtitle">Source mechanism and <span class="hlt">rupture</span> process of Wenchuan great earthquake</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">On May 12, 2008, occurred a disastrous earthquake, whose magnitude was later modified to be Ms8.0. Focal mechanism and <span class="hlt">rupture</span> process of the event were determined by inverting long period waveforms from the world-wide stations. The focal mechanism was obtained by a technique of moment tensor inversion considering source time complexity, indicating that the earthquake was a thrust-dominant event with quite right-lateral component. Based on one of the inverted fault planes, which was of strike 230°/dip35°/rake123°, we selected an area with a length of 510 km in strike direction and a width of 50 km in dip direction and divided it into 255 subfaults of 10 km x 10km for inversion of <span class="hlt">rupture</span> process. The inverted results showed that the source time function was consisted of at least 3 bigger sub-events with a total duration time of 90s, and the maximum slip value is about 7.3 m and the average slip value is 2.4 m, corresponding the maximum stress drop of 53 MPa and the average stress drop of 18 MPa, respectively. From the static slip dislocation distribution, there were <span class="hlt">mainly</span> 2 slip-concentrated areas located in Wenchuan and Beichuan, respectively. The <span class="hlt">rupture</span> broke the ground surface and resulted in the maximum slip of 6.1 m in Wenchuan and 5.6 m in Beichuan, respectively. From the slip-rate snapshots, there existed an evident phenomenon that the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> strongly extended to SW in 15 s-30 s after the earthquake started, which implied that the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> have ever come back for some time in the whole <span class="hlt">rupture</span> process of propagating to NE direction. Also, we calculated the near-fault co-seismic displacement field based on the inverted static slip distribution, and the calculated displacement field well featured the observed intensity contours.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zhang, Y.; Liu, C.; Chen, Y.; Feng, W.; Xu, L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">159</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23966259"> <span id="translatedtitle">Multiple tendon <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> of unknown etiology.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Tendon <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> are common findings in foot and ankle practice. The etiology of tendon <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> tends to be multifactorial-usually due to a combination of trauma, effects of systemic diseases, adverse effects of medications, and obesity. We present an unusual case of right Achilles tendinitis, left Achilles tendon <span class="hlt">rupture</span>, bilateral peroneus longus tendon <span class="hlt">rupture</span>, and left peroneus brevis tendon <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of unknown etiology. This case report highlights the need for research for other possible, lesser known etiologies of tendon pathology. Level of Evidence: Therapeutic, Level IV, Case Study. PMID:23966259</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Axibal, Derek P; Anderson, John G</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-08-21</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">160</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15783046"> <span id="translatedtitle">Successful treatment for <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of pancreaticoduodenal artery aneurysm: two case reports.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We report 2 cases of <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> pancreaticoduodenal artery aneurysm (PDAA) treated by transcatheter embolization (TAE). In the first case, a 63-year-old man complained of sudden abdominal pain and was transferred to our hospital because he collapsed in a state of <span class="hlt">shock</span>. Abdominal computed tomography (CT) revealed retroperitoneal hematoma and ascites. Abdominal angiography showed bleeding from one of the branches of the inferior pancreaticoduodenal artery. The <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> PDAA was terminated by TAE. In the second case, a 65-year-old man experienced sudden abdominal pain. Abdominal CT revealed a retroperitoneal hematoma. He received TAE to terminate bleeding from a PDAA, but his abdominal pain worsened. At operation, ileus caused by the hematoma compressing the transverse colon was diagnosed, and cecostomy was performed. He recovered well and was discharged a few days later. In summary, a patient with a <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> PDAA should first be treated by TAE, followed if necessary by surgery. PMID:15783046</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mihara, Yoshiaki; Kubota, Keiichi; Nemoto, Takehiko; Rokkaku, Kyu; Yamamoto, Satoshi; Tachibana, Masatsugu</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a 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<img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">161</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2383780"> <span id="translatedtitle">Septic <span class="hlt">Shock</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Septic <span class="hlt">shock</span> is a dynamic syndrome of inadequate tissue perfusion caused by invasion of the blood by micro-organisms. Gram-negative rod bacteremia accounts for about two-thirds of patients with this syndrome. The fully developed syndrome of high fever, chills, cold, moist extremities, hypotension and oliguria is easy to recognize. However, the initial features of the syndrome may be quite non-specific and subtle, particularly in elderly patients. Treatment is aimed at eliminating the infection, improving tissue perfusion, supporting ventilation and managing specific complications.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Achong, Michael R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1980-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">162</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3406433"> <span id="translatedtitle">Multiple esophageal variceal <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> with massive ascites due to myelofibrosis-induced portal hypertension</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A 75-year old man had been diagnosed at 42 years of age as having polycythemia vera and had been monitored at another hospital. Progression of anemia had been recognized at about age 70, and the patient was thus referred to our center in 2008 where secondary myelofibrosis was diagnosed based on bone marrow biopsy findings. Hematemesis due to <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of esophageal varices occurred in January and February of 2011. The bleeding was stopped by endoscopic variceal ligation. Furthermore, in March of the same year, hematemesis recurred and the patient was transported to our center. He was in irreversible hemorrhagic <span class="hlt">shock</span> and died. The autopsy showed severe bone marrow fibrosis with <span class="hlt">mainly</span> argyrophilic fibers, an observation consistent with myelofibrosis. The liver weighed 1856 g the spleen 1572 g, indicating marked hepatosplenomegaly. The liver and spleen both showed extramedullary hemopoiesis. Myelofibrosis is often complicated by portal hypertension and is occasionally associated with gastrointestinal hemorrhage due to esophageal varices. A patient diagnosed as having myelofibrosis needs to be screened for esophageal/gastric varices. Myelofibrosis has a poor prognosis. Therefore, it is necessary to carefully decide the therapeutic strategy in consideration of the patient’s concomitant conditions, treatment invasiveness and quality of life.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Tokai, Koichi; Miyatani, Hiroyuki; Yoshida, Yukio; Yamada, Shigeki</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">163</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..1214548B"> <span id="translatedtitle">Source <span class="hlt">rupture</span> process of the 12 January 2010 Port-au-Prince (Haiti, Mw7.0) earthquake</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Haiti earthquake occurred on tuesday, January 12, 2010 at 21:53:10 UTC. Its epicenter was at 18.46 degrees North, 72.53 degrees West, about 25 km WSW of Haiti's capital, Port-au-Prince. The earthquake was relatively shallow (H=13 km, U.S. Geological Survey) and thus had greater intensity and destructiveness. The earthquake occurred along the tectonic boundary between Caribbean and North America plate. This plate boundary is dominated by left-lateral strike slip motion and compression with 2 cm/year of slip velocity eastward with respect to the North America plate. The moment magnitude was measured to be 7.0 (U.S. Geological Survey) and 7.1 (Harvard Centroid-Moment-Tensor (CMT). More than 10 aftershocks ranging from 5.0 to 5.9 in magnitude (none of magnitude larger than 6.0) struck the area in hours following the <span class="hlt">main</span> <span class="hlt">shock</span>. Most of these aftershocks have occurred to the West of the mainshock in the Mirogoane Lakes region and its distribution suggests that the length of the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> was around 70 km. The Harvard Centroid Moment Tensor (CMT) mechanism solution indicates lefth-lateral strike slip movement with a fault plane trending toward (strike = 251o ; dip = 70o; rake = 28o). In order to obtain the spatiotemporal slip distribution of a finite <span class="hlt">rupture</span> model we have used teleseismic body wave and the Kikuchi and Kanamori's method [1]. <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> velocity was constrained by using the directivity effect determined from a set of waveforms well recorded at regional and teleseismic distances [2]. Finally, we compared a map of aftershocks with the Coulomb stress changes caused by the event in the region [3]. [1]- Kikuchi, M., and Kanamori, H., 1982, Inversion of complex body waves: Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am., v. 72, p. 491-506. [2] Caldeira B., Bezzeghoud M, Borges JF, 2009; DIRDOP: a directivity approach to determining the seismic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> velocity vector. J Seismology, DOI 10.1007/s10950-009-9183-x (http://www.springerlink.com/content/xp524g2225628773/) [3] -King, G. C. P., Stein, R. S. y Lin, J, 1994, Static stress changes and the triggering of earthquakes. Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am. 84,935-953.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Borges, José; Caldeira, Bento; Bezzeghoud, Mourad; Santos, Rúben</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">164</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21386557"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Shock</span>-induced phase transformation in tantalum.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A TEM study of pure tantalum and tantalum-tungsten alloys explosively <span class="hlt">shocked</span> at a peak pressure of 30 GPa is presented. While no omega phase was found in <span class="hlt">shock</span>-recovered pure Ta and Ta-5W which <span class="hlt">mainly</span> contain a cellular dislocation structure, a <span class="hlt">shock</span>-induced omega phase was found in Ta-10W which contains evenly distributed dislocations with a density higher than 1 × 10(12) cm( - 2). The <span class="hlt">shock</span>-induced [Formula: see text] (hexagonal) transition occurs when the dynamic recovery of dislocations becomes largely suppressed in Ta-10W <span class="hlt">shocked</span> under dynamic-pressure conditions. A dislocation-based mechanism is proposed for the <span class="hlt">shock</span>-induced phase transformation. PMID:21386557</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hsiung, Luke L</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-09-08</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">165</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/58774286825p28t2.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Sutureless patch repair for small blowout <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of the left ventricle after myocardial infarction</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Rupture</span> of the left ventricular free wall is one of the most serious complications of myocardial infarction. A 73-year-old\\u000a man with severe chest pain visited our hospital. Coronary angiography revealed acute myocardial infarction in the territory\\u000a of the diagonal branch. About six hours after successful percutaneous coronary intervention, the patient fell into cardiogenic\\u000a <span class="hlt">shock</span> with chest pain. Echocardiography showed moderate</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kazuhiko Nishizaki; Toshio Seki; Atsushi Fujii; Yasunori Nishida; Masafumi Funabiki; Yoshinobu Morikawa</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">166</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23517694"> <span id="translatedtitle">[<span class="hlt">Ruptured</span> cerebral artery blister aneurysm].</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We report the case of a young patient with subarachnoid haemorrhage secondary to a <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> blister-like aneurysm. Since this kind of aneurysms have fragile walls without a well-defined neck, their treatment is difficult. We initially planned the deployment of a flow-diverter stent, but an angiogram obtained after 10 days revealed a morphological change of the aneurysm. Therefore, we finally deployed a conventional stent and introduced 2 micro coils into the point of <span class="hlt">rupture</span>, obtaining a good morphological result without rebleeding. Follow-up at 1 and 6 months did not observe regrowth of the aneurysm. We offer a brief introduction and discussion of this pathology and its treatment. PMID:23517694</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Vega Valdés, Pedro; Murias Quintana, Eduardo; Meilán Martínez, Angela; Gutiérrez Morales, Julio; Lopez Garcia, Antonio</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-03-19</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">167</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21934278"> <span id="translatedtitle">Traumatic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of horseshoe kidney.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We present the case of a 25-year-old male who came to the emergency room for pain and abdominal distension following trauma to the mesogastrium. A CT scan was performed, revealing a voluminous retroperitoneal hematoma with laceration of both inferior renal poles with regard to <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of the isthmus of a horseshoe kidney. The patient presented anemization and increased pain, requiring selective embolization by means of arteriography of a branch of the right renal artery and placement of a double J stent due to urinary extravasation in the lower left kidney pole. Following 1 year of monitoring, the patient has maintained normal renal function. Renal affection in blunt abdominal trauma is frequent, occurring in 7% of previously pathological kidneys. The traumatic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of horseshoe kidney is facilitated by its particular anatomical characteristics, constituting an infrequent entity, knowledge of which is necessary to achieve conservative management that renders it possible to preserve renal function. PMID:21934278</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Molina Escudero, R; Cancho Gil, M J; Husillos Alonso, A; Lledó García, E; Herranz Amo, F; Ogaya Piniés, G; Ramón Botella, E; Simó, G; Navas Martínez, M C; Hernández Fernández, C</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-09-17</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">168</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7837018"> <span id="translatedtitle">Traumatically <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> globes in children.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This retrospective study was designed to document the etiology of traumatically <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> globes in children and to determine the prognostic value of several clinical parameters with respect to visual outcome. Forty-six children 16 years of age and under seen in the emergency room over a 2-year period were found to have full thickness penetration of the globe. Fifty-nine percent of injuries occurred during recreational activities, and 59% occurred outside of the home. Boys outnumbered girls by a 6:1 ratio. For children, initial visual acuity proved to be less valuable as a prognostic indicator with regard to final vision than has been reported in adults. Smaller corneal wounds offered better visual outcomes. Four eyes were enucleated. Ten <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> (22%) were related to activity involving guns. Four of six BB gun injuries were the result of a ricocheted BB. Visual outcomes in gun-related injuries were particularly poor. PMID:7837018</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rudd, J C; Jaeger, E A; Freitag, S K; Jeffers, J B</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">169</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/48810272"> <span id="translatedtitle">Prehospital HMG CoA reductase inhibitor use and reduced mortality in hemorrhagic <span class="hlt">shock</span> due to trauma</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Introduction  3-Hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl Co-A reductase inhibitors (HMG Co-A reductase inhibitors, statins) are commonly used medications\\u000a for the control of serum cholesterol. Recent data suggests that these medications also modify the inflammatory pathways in\\u000a sepsis, septic <span class="hlt">shock</span>, and hemorrhagic <span class="hlt">shock</span> due to <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> abdominal aortic aneurysms. Statin use in hemorrhagic <span class="hlt">shock</span> due\\u000a to trauma, however, has conflicting data, with one study showing improvement,</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">J. M. Feeney; V. Jayaraman; J. Spilka; D. S. Shapiro; S. Ellner; W. T. Marshall; L. M. Jacobs</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">170</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23438535"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Rupture</span> of valsalva sinus after aortic root replacement with freestyle stentless bioprosthesis.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We report a case of aortic wall <span class="hlt">rupture</span> in a patient with a Medtronic Freestyle stentless bioprosthesis (Medtronic Inc, Minneapolis, MN) after full root implantation. A 68-year-old man who underwent aortic root replacement with a Freestyle bioprosthesis 12 years prior was found to have a large pseudoaneurysm originating from the <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> noncoronary porcine aortic sinus. A reoperation for aortic root replacement was successfully performed. Despite excellent durability of porcine aortic root bioprostheses, several cases with a <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> aortic wall have been reported. Degeneration of the elastic tissue and inflammatory reactions may be the <span class="hlt">main</span> mechanism of this potentially catastrophic complication. PMID:23438535</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sakaguchi, Taichi; Miyagawa, Shigeru; Nishi, Hiroyuki; Yoshikawa, Yasushi; Fukushima, Satsuki; Saito, Shunsuke; Sawa, Yoshiki</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">171</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/46495553"> <span id="translatedtitle">The effect of helium environment on the creep <span class="hlt">rupture</span> properties of Inconel 617 at 1000°C</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The effect of oxygen contents in helium and in vacuum on the creep <span class="hlt">rupture</span> properties of Inconel 617 has been investigated\\u000a at 1000°C under the stress of 3.5 Kg\\/mm2. The <span class="hlt">main</span> results are as follows. 1) The creep <span class="hlt">rupture</span> properties in 99.9999 pct and 99.995 pct helium and in high vacuum\\u000a are almost the same as those in air. 2)</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yuzo Hosoi; Seizaburo Abe</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1975-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">172</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7116984"> <span id="translatedtitle">Earthquake fault <span class="hlt">rupture</span> propagation through soil</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The phenomenon of earthquake fault <span class="hlt">rupture</span> propagation through soil is quite complex and is not well understood at this time. This paper presents the results of an integrated investigation of this problem. Insights are developed from the examination of surface fault <span class="hlt">rupture</span> field case histories, laboratory physical model tests, and physical analogies to the earthquake fault <span class="hlt">rupture</span> process. Field observations and experimental results illustrate the typical patterns of behavior developed in the soil overlying a base rock fault displacement. Evidence suggests that differential movement across the distinct fault <span class="hlt">rupture</span> dissipates as the fault <span class="hlt">rupture</span> propagates toward the ground surface through unconsolidated earth materials, and that the characteristics of the soil overlying the bedrock fault strongly influence the observed earthquake fault <span class="hlt">rupture</span> propagation behavior.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bray, J.D.; Seed, R.B.; Seed, H.B. (Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)); Cluff, L.S. (Pacific Gas Electric, San Francisco, CA (United States))</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1994-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">173</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21549964"> <span id="translatedtitle">A case of 'second <span class="hlt">rupture</span>' following open repair of a <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> Achilles tendon.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We present a case of Achilles tendon <span class="hlt">rupture</span> in a 54-year-old man whilst rehabilitating following end-to-end open repair of an acute Achilles tendon <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. Re-<span class="hlt">rupture</span> following surgical repair of Achilles tendon is well known. This case however, is atypical as the second <span class="hlt">rupture</span> occurred significantly proximal to the first <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. To our knowledge this is the first time this has been described in the English literature. We have termed this incident a 'second <span class="hlt">rupture</span>'. We describe the surgical technique used by the operating surgeon during open repair of this 'second <span class="hlt">rupture</span>', involving a gastrocnemius flap turndown. This has lead to the patient making a good recovery, despite complications. This case report serves to inform surgeons of the existence of this type of Achilles tendon <span class="hlt">rupture</span>, whilst considering possible aetiologies and suggesting a technique for repair of the injury. PMID:21549964</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rushton, P R P; Singh, A K; Deshmukh, R G</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-09-09</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">174</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22055493"> <span id="translatedtitle">A case of "fresh <span class="hlt">rupture</span>" after open repair of a <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> Achilles tendon.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We present the case of Achilles tendon <span class="hlt">rupture</span> in a 54-year-old man while rehabilitating after end-to-end open repair of an acute Achilles tendon <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. Re-<span class="hlt">rupture</span> after surgical repair of Achilles tendon is well known. The present case, however, is atypical, because the second <span class="hlt">rupture</span> occurred significantly proximal to the first <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. To our knowledge, this is the first time this has been described in English language studies. We have termed this incident a fresh <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. A gastrocnemius turndown flap was used to repair the fresh <span class="hlt">rupture</span>, which led to a satisfactory recovery. This case report serves to inform surgeons of the existence of this type of Achilles tendon <span class="hlt">rupture</span>, while considering the possible etiologies and suggesting a technique that has been shown to be successful in the present case. PMID:22055493</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rushton, Paul R P; Singh, Alok K; Deshmukh, Rajiv G</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-11-04</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">175</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/k9wj3p82pt46w82r.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Delayed presentation of traumatic intraperitoneal bladder <span class="hlt">rupture</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A child with urine ascites as a delayed manifestation of post-traumatic intraperitoneal bladder <span class="hlt">rupture</span> is presented. The\\u000a diagnosis was suggested by abdominal CT scan and confirmed with a cystogram. While uncommon, late presentation of intraperitoneal\\u000a bladder <span class="hlt">rupture</span> following trauma may occur from masking of a primary laceration or development of secondary <span class="hlt">rupture</span> at the\\u000a site of a hematoma in the</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">D. Brown; H. L. Magill; T. L. Black</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1986-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">176</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/29298585"> <span id="translatedtitle">Extracellular matrix content of <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> anterior cruciate ligament tissue</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Anterior cruciate ligaments (ACLs) can <span class="hlt">rupture</span> with simple movements, suggesting that structural changes in the ligament may reduce the loading capacity of the ligament. We aimed to investigate if proteoglycan and collagen levels were different between <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> and non-<span class="hlt">ruptured</span> ACLs. We also compared changes in <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> tissue over time.During arthroscopic knee reconstruction surgery 24 <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> ACLs were collected from participants</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kate Young; Tom Samiric; Julian Feller; Jill Cook</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">177</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23707180"> <span id="translatedtitle">Acute achilles tendon <span class="hlt">rupture</span> in athletes.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The incidence of AT <span class="hlt">rupture</span> has increased in recent decades. AT <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> frequently occur in the third or fourth decade of life in sedentary individuals who play sport occasionally. <span class="hlt">Ruptures</span> also occur in elite athletes. Clinical examination must be followed by imaging. Conservative management and early mobilization can achieve excellent results, but the rerupture rate is not acceptable for the management of young, active, or athletic individuals. Open surgery is the most common option for AT <span class="hlt">ruptures</span>, but there are risks of superficial skin breakdown and wound problems. These problems can be prevented with percutaneous repair. PMID:23707180</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Longo, Umile Giuseppe; Petrillo, Stefano; Maffulli, Nicola; Denaro, Vincenzo</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-03-20</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">178</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005AIPC..801..385N"> <span id="translatedtitle">Particle Acceleration at High-? <span class="hlt">Shock</span> Waves</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">First-order Fermi acceleration processes at ultrarelativistic (? ~ 5-30) <span class="hlt">shocks</span> are studied with the method of Monte Carlo simulations. The accelerated particle spectra are obtained by integrating the exact particle trajectories in a turbulent magnetic field near the <span class="hlt">shock</span>. The magnetic field model assumes finite-amplitude perturbations within a wide wavevector range and with a predefined wave power spectrum, which are imposed on the mean field component inclined at some angle to the <span class="hlt">shock</span> normal. The downstream field structure is obtained as the compressed upstream field. We show that the <span class="hlt">main</span> acceleration process at oblique <span class="hlt">shocks</span> is the particle compression at the <span class="hlt">shock</span>. Formation of energetic spectral tails is possible in a limited energy range for highly perturbed magnetic fields. Cut-offs in the spectra occur at low energies in the resonance range considered. We relate this feature to the structure of the magnetic field downstream of the <span class="hlt">shock</span>, where field compression produces effectively 2D turbulence in which cross-field diffusion is very small. Because of the field compression downstream, the acceleration process is inefficient also in parallel high-? <span class="hlt">shocks</span> for larger turbulence amplitudes, and features observed in oblique <span class="hlt">shocks</span> are recovered. For small-amplitude perturbations, particle spectra are formed in a wide energy range and modifications of the acceleration process due to the existence of long-wave perturbations are observed. The critical turbulence amplitude for efficient acceleration at parallel <span class="hlt">shocks</span> decreases with ?. We also study the influence of strong short-wave perturbations, generated downstream of the <span class="hlt">shock</span>, on the particle acceleration processes at high-? <span class="hlt">shocks</span>. The spectral indices obtained do not converge to the ``universal'' value ? ~ 4.2. Our results indicate inefficiency of the first-order Fermi process to generate high-energy cosmic rays at ultrarelativistic <span class="hlt">shocks</span> with the perturbed magnetic field structures considered in the present work.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Niemiec, Jacek</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">179</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/52389815"> <span id="translatedtitle">Development of a <span class="hlt">Shock</span> Attenuation Device for the ESC-A Attitude and Roll Control System</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The attitude and roll controll system of the new upper stage of ARIANE 5 ESC-A is located in the vicinity of the stage pyro separation system. In order to protect the equipment against high pyrotecnique <span class="hlt">shock</span> levels, a <span class="hlt">shock</span> attenuation device has been developed. This <span class="hlt">shock</span> attenuation device will reduce the <span class="hlt">shock</span> levels <span class="hlt">mainly</span> by multiple interfaces and a low</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">J. Albus; J. Schneegass</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">180</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/112337"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Shock</span> wave measurements</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Much of our knowledge of the properties of matter at high pressures, from the static ruby pressure scale to <span class="hlt">shock</span> compression at Gbar pressures, rests ultimately on the use of <span class="hlt">shock</span> waves. Simple conservation relations define the initial and final states, leading to absolute measurements. I will describe some methods for measuring the equation of state of materials under <span class="hlt">shock</span> loading for a variety of methods of <span class="hlt">shock</span> production, and also describe the basis for other optical methods used widely in <span class="hlt">shock</span> physics.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Holmes, N.C.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1995-09-12</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" 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showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">181</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23688569"> <span id="translatedtitle">Median arcuate ligament syndrome presenting as hemorrhagic <span class="hlt">shock</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The major symptoms of median arcuate ligament syndrome, celiac axis stenosis, or occlusion compressed by the median arcuate ligament include eating-associated abdominal pain and weight loss. Because celiac stenosis increases retrograde collateral blood flow from the superior mesenteric artery to the celiac artery via the pancreaticoduodenal arcade, a pancreaticoduodenal artery aneurysm could occur at a low incidence rate. <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> of the pancreaticoduodenal artery aneurysm and hemorrhagic <span class="hlt">shock</span> are rare. In this report, we present 3 cases of patients who had been well with no abdominal symptoms until the day of admission, when they experienced sudden-onset intra-abdominal hemorrhage and <span class="hlt">shock</span>. These 3 patients were admitted to the emergency department, and contrast-enhanced computed tomography and radiographic selective catheter angiography revealed intra-abdominal hemorrhage, stenosis of the celiac arteries, and dilated pancreaticoduodenal arcade. Case 1 demonstrated severe hemorrhagic <span class="hlt">shock</span>, whereas case 2 demonstrated moderate <span class="hlt">shock</span>. We treated <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> pancreaticoduodenal artery aneurysms with coil embolization. Case 3 demonstrated complete celiac occlusion and moderate hemorrhagic <span class="hlt">shock</span>, and no aneurysm was detected. PMID:23688569</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Matsumura, Yosuke; Nakada, Taka-aki; Kobe, Yoshiro; Hattori, Noriyuki; Oda, Shigeto</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-05-18</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">182</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12741313"> <span id="translatedtitle">["Spontaneous" <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of the left iliac vein complicating Cockett's syndrome].</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The case history reported concerns a female patient aged 42 years for whom the clinical picture was that of a blue phlebitis (phlegmatia caerulea dolens), associated with a state of <span class="hlt">shock</span> evoking a severe pulmonary embolus. The absence of echocardiographic dilatation of the right cavities, and the appearance of a left iliac fossa mass, steered the diagnosis towards internal haemorrhage. Emergency laparotomy allowed diagnosis and treatment of a so-called spontaneous <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of the left iliac vein, a rare condition for which 20 cases have been reported in the literature. Re-operation performed 24 hours afterwards for the absence of venous return allowed the discovery of Cockett's syndrome with ascending thrombosis, requiring cross-venous bypass associated with the creation of an arterio-venous fistula in order to maintain permeability. One year afterwards the appearance of signs of cardiac insufficiency led to the closure of this fistula. PMID:12741313</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kismoune, N; Eicher, J C; Jazayeri, S; André, F; Terriat, B; David, M; Wolf, J E</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">183</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009GeoJI.177..717L"> <span id="translatedtitle">Analysis of supershear transition regimes in <span class="hlt">rupture</span> experiments: the effect of nucleation conditions and friction parameters</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We consider the effect of the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> initiation procedure on supershear transition of Mode II <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> on interfaces governed by linear slip-weakening friction. Our study is motivated by recent experiments, which demonstrated the transition of spontaneous <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> from sub-Rayleigh to supershear speeds in the laboratory. In these works the experiments were analysed using the Burridge-Andrews model of supershear transition, in which a supershear daughter crack is nucleated in front of the <span class="hlt">main</span> mother <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. It was concluded that the critical slip of the linear slip-weakening formulation needs to be pressure-dependent for a good match with experiments. However, the dynamic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> initiation mechanism in the experiments was conceptually different from the quasi-static one adopted in the numerical work used for comparison. Here, our goal is to determine the effect of the nucleation by numerically modelling the experiments using a <span class="hlt">rupture</span> initiation procedure that captures the dynamic nature of the wire explosion mechanism used in the experiments. We find parameter regimes that match the experimentally observed transition distances for the entire range of experimental conditions. Our simulations show that the dynamic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> initiation procedure significantly affects the resulting transition distances, shortening them by about 30-50 per cent compared to those predicted through the quasi-static <span class="hlt">rupture</span> initiation process. Moreover, for some cases, the dynamic initiation procedure changes the very mode of transition, causing a direct supershear transition at the tip of the <span class="hlt">main</span> <span class="hlt">rupture</span> instead of the mother-daughter mechanism. We find reasonable parameter regimes which match experimentally determined transition distances with both direct supershear transition at the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> tip and the Burridge-Andrews (mother-daughter) mechanism, using both pressure-independent and pressure-dependent critical slip. The results show that there are trade-offs between the parameters of the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> initiation procedure and the properties of interface friction. This underscores the importance of quantifying experimental parameters for proper interpretation of the experiments and highlights the importance of the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> initiation procedure, in simulations of both experiments and real-life earthquake events.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lu, Xiao; Lapusta, Nadia; Rosakis, Ares J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">184</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ASPC..476..333A"> <span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">Shock</span> Chemistry of Phosphorus in the <span class="hlt">Shocked</span> Region L1157 B1</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We study the evolution of phosphorous-bearing species in one-dimensional C-<span class="hlt">shock</span> models. We find that the abundances of P-bearing species depend sensitively on the elemental abundance of P in the gas phase and on the abundance of N atoms in the pre-<span class="hlt">shock</span> gas. The observed abundance of PN and the non-detection of PO towards L1157 B1 are reproduced in C-<span class="hlt">shock</span> models with <span class="hlt">shock</span> velocity v = 20 km s-1 and pre-<span class="hlt">shock</span> density n(H2) = 104 cm-3 - 105 cm-3, if the elemental abundance of P in the gas phase is ˜ 10-9 relative to hydrogen and the N-atom abundance is n(N)/nH ˜ 10-5 in the pre-<span class="hlt">shock</span> gas. We also find that P-chemistry is sensitive to O- and N-chemistry, because N atoms are destroyed <span class="hlt">mainly</span> by OH and NO.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Aota, T.; Aikawa, Y.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">185</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.S51E..06T"> <span id="translatedtitle">The 6 July 2011 (Mw 7.6) Normal-Faulting Kermadec Trench Earthquake: <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> Process and Aftershock Sequence</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">On 6 July 2011, a large normal-faulting earthquake occurred along the Kermadec Trench in the southwestern Pacific Ocean (USGS source parameters: Ms 7.4, mb 7.0, 19:03:16.74 UTC, 29.312°S, 176.204°W, hypocentral depth 20 km; GCMT Mw 7.6, centroid depth 22.7 km). Typically, normal-faulting earthquakes of this magnitude occur in the outer-rise or outer trench-slope and are preceded by a larger thrust event that abruptly relaxes the stresses in the subducting plate and allows shallow intraplate extensional faulting to occur. This event occurred seaward of the region considered to be the most strongly seismically coupled portion of the Kermadec-Tonga arc. The down-dip megathrust fault in this region had a large Mw 7.9 thrust event on 14 January 1976, but the largest recent thrust event was an Mw 7.0 event on 29 September 2008. This extensional event may be considered an unusually large aftershock, but if the down-dip region is largely strongly coupled it is not clear why the event is so large. The 2011 event is also notable because all of the aftershocks within a few degrees of the <span class="hlt">main</span> <span class="hlt">shock</span> large enough to have GCMT solutions are thrust events on the plate boundary. The 2009 Samoa Mw 8.1 outer slope extensional event is also distinctive for having triggered extensive thrust faulting aftershocks, but that portion of the subduction zone does not appear to be strongly coupled down-dip. Since most outer rise normal-faulting earthquakes occur in the upper portion of the subducting plate where bending stresses are the greatest, determining the depth extent of <span class="hlt">rupture</span> for the Kermadec event is of interest. We will present an analysis of the body-wave signals, <span class="hlt">rupture</span> process and aftershock characteristics for this unusual event.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Todd, E.; Lay, T.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">186</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1983JGR....88.4277D"> <span id="translatedtitle">Breaking of a single asperity: <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> process and seismic radiation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The problem of spontaneous shear <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of a single circular asperity on an infinite fault plane is studied. Initially, the fault plane is broken everywhere except at a circular asperity. An applied displacement at infinity results in a stress concentration along the bounding edge of the asperity. The frictional stress on the broken part of the fault plane is taken to be a constant. Once a point on the asperity breaks, the stress there drops to the same value as on the `<span class="hlt">main</span>' fault surface. The <span class="hlt">rupture</span> is started by relaxing the shear stress at a point on the asperity edge and is then allowed to propagate spontaneously, using a critical stress level fracture criterion. The <span class="hlt">rupture</span> process is calculated numerically. It is found that for asperities of constant strength, the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> first propagates around the edge of the asperity and then inward, a phenomenon best described by the well-known term of classic military maneuver: `the double encircling pincer movement.' In the appendix, the expressions for the far-field seismic radiation due to the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of such an asperity are derived. It is shown that the nth Cartesian component of the far-field displacement at (x, t) for P, SV, and SH waves, using the notation of Aki and Richards (1980), is given by un(x, t) = (Dni/4??c2R)??s0?i3{?, t - [(R - ? · ?)/c]} dS(?). Thus the far-field pulses can be directly found from the stress drops on the fault plane. This formula is also true for `crack' or `dislocation' problems. The directivity function Dni for displacement for the asperity problem is found to be that for the double couple, modified by some factor. In particular, the fault plane is a nodal plane for SV waves. For the <span class="hlt">rupturing</span> of asperities on a finite fault, these directivity functions are applicable only to the initial part of observed pulses at a receiver, provided the receiver is not located on the fault plane outside the broken part of the <span class="hlt">main</span> crack edge, in which case it is inapplicable for all time.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Das, S.; Kostrov, B. V.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1983-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">187</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/295481"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Shock</span>-initiation chemistry of nitroarenes</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We present evidence that the <span class="hlt">shock</span>-initiation chemistry of nitroarenes is dominated by the intermolecular hydrogen transfer mechanism discussed previously. The acceleration by pressure, kinetic isotope effect, and product distribution are consistent with the bimolecular transition state rather than rate-determining C-N homolysis. GC-MS analysis of samples which were subjected to a <span class="hlt">shock</span> wave generated by detonation of nitromethane shows that nitrobenzene produces aniline and biphenyl, and {ital o}-nitrotoluene forms aniline, toluene, {ital o}-toluidine and {ital o}-cresol, but not anthranil, benzoxazinone, or cyanocyclopentadiene. In isotopic labeling experiments {ital o}-nitrotoluene and TNT show extensive H-D exchange on their methyl groups, and C-N bond <span class="hlt">rupture</span> is not consistent with the formation of aniline from nitrobenzene or nitrotoluene, nor the formation of {ital o}-toluidine from {ital o}-nitrotoluene. Recent work incorporating fast TOF mass spectroscopy of samples <span class="hlt">shocked</span> and quenched by adiabatic expansion indicates that the initial chemical reactions in <span class="hlt">shocked</span> solid nitroaromatic explosives proceed along this path. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Davis, L.L. [DX-1, Mail Stop P-952, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Brower, K.R. [Department of Chemistry, New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, Socorro, New Mexico 87801 (United States)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1998-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">188</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/548632"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Shock</span>-initiation chemistry of nitroarenes</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The authors present evidence that the <span class="hlt">shock</span>-initiation chemistry of nitroarenes is dominated by the intermolecular hydrogen transfer mechanism discussed previously. The acceleration by pressure, kinetic isotope effect, and product distribution are consistent with the bimolecular transition state kinetic isotope effect, and product distribution are consistent with the bimolecular transition state rather than rate-determining C-N homolysis.GC-MS analysis of samples which were subjected to a <span class="hlt">shock</span> wave generated by detonation of nitromethane shows that nitrobenzene produces aniline and biphenyl, and o-nitrotoluene forms aniline, toluene, o-toluidine and o-cresol, but not anthranil, benzoxazinone, or cyanocyclopentandiene. In isotopic labeling experiments o-nitrotoluene and TNT show extensive H-D exchange on their methyl groups, and C-N bond <span class="hlt">rupture</span> is not consistent with the formation of aniline from nitrobenzene or nitrotoluene, nor the formation of o-toluidine from o-nitrotoluene. Recent work incorporating fast TOF mass spectroscopy of samples <span class="hlt">shocked</span> and quenched by adiabatic expansion shows that the initial chemical reactions in <span class="hlt">shocked</span> solid nitroaromatic explosives proceed along this path.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Davis, L.L. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Brower, K.R. [New Mexico Inst. of Mining and Technology, Socorro, NM (United States). Dept. of Chemistry</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">189</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013Geomo.184..127G"> <span id="translatedtitle">Complex <span class="hlt">rupture</span> mechanism and topography control symmetry of mass-wasting pattern, 2010 Haiti earthquake</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The 12 January 2010 Mw 7.0 Haiti earthquake occurred in a complex deformation zone at the boundary between the North American and Caribbean plates. Combined geodetic, geological and seismological data posited that surface deformation was driven by <span class="hlt">rupture</span> on the Léogâne blind thrust fault, while part of the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> occurred as deep lateral slip on the Enriquillo-Plantain Garden Fault (EPGF). The earthquake triggered > 4490 landslides, <span class="hlt">mainly</span> shallow, disrupted rock falls, debris-soil falls and slides, and a few lateral spreads, over an area of ~ 2150 km2. The regional distribution of these slope failures defies those of most similar earthquake-triggered landslide episodes reported previously. Most of the coseismic landslides did not proliferate in the hanging wall of the <span class="hlt">main</span> <span class="hlt">rupture</span>, but clustered instead at the junction of the blind Léogâne and EPGF <span class="hlt">ruptures</span>, where topographic relief and hillslope steepness are above average. Also, low-relief areas subjected to high coseismic uplift were prone to lesser hanging wall slope instability than previous studies would suggest. We argue that a combined effect of complex <span class="hlt">rupture</span> dynamics and topography primarily control this previously rarely documented landslide pattern. Compared to recent thrust fault-earthquakes of similar magnitudes elsewhere, we conclude that lower static stress drop, mean fault displacement, and blind <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> of the 2010 Haiti earthquake resulted in fewer, smaller, and more symmetrically distributed landslides than previous studies would suggest. Our findings caution against overly relying on across-the-board models of slope stability response to seismic ground shaking.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gorum, Tolga; van Westen, Cees J.; Korup, Oliver; van der Meijde, Mark; Fan, Xuanmei; van der Meer, Freek D.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">190</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AAS...21813405D"> <span id="translatedtitle">Radiative <span class="hlt">Shock</span> Waves In Emerging <span class="hlt">Shocks</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In laboratory experiments we produce radiative <span class="hlt">shock</span> waves having dense, thin shells. These <span class="hlt">shocks</span> are similar to <span class="hlt">shocks</span> emerging from optically thick environments in astrophysics in that they are strongly radiative with optically thick <span class="hlt">shocked</span> layers and optically thin or intermediate downstream layers through which radiation readily escapes. Examples include <span class="hlt">shocks</span> breaking out of a Type II supernova (SN) and the radiative reverse <span class="hlt">shock</span> during the early phases of the SN remnant produced by a red supergiant star. We produce these <span class="hlt">shocks</span> by driving a low-Z plasma piston (Be) at > 100 km/s into Xe gas at 1.1 atm. pressure. The <span class="hlt">shocked</span> Xe collapses to > 20 times its initial density. Measurements of structure by radiography and temperature by several methods confirm that the <span class="hlt">shock</span> wave is strongly radiative. We observe small-scale perturbations in the post-<span class="hlt">shock</span> layer, modulating the <span class="hlt">shock</span> and material interfaces. We describe a variation of the Vishniac instability theory of decelerating <span class="hlt">shocks</span> and an analysis of associated scaling relations to account for the growth of these perturbations, identify how they scale to astrophysical systems such as SN 1993J, and consider possible future experiments. Collaborators in this work have included H.F. Robey, J.P. Hughes, C.C. Kuranz, C.M. Huntington, S.H. Glenzer, T. Doeppner, D.H. Froula, M.J. Grosskopf, and D.C. Marion ________________________________ * Supported by the US DOE NNSA under the Predictive Sci. Academic Alliance Program by grant DE-FC52-08NA28616, the Stewardship Sci. Academic Alliances program by grant DE-FG52-04NA00064, and the Nat. Laser User Facility by grant DE-FG03-00SF22021.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Drake, R. Paul; Doss, F.; Visco, A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">191</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/29201007"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Rupture</span> of the uterus: A changing picture</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Eighty nine cases of <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of the gravid uterus occurring over a period of 15 years with 77,133 deliveries, were analysed. The overall incidence of <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> uteri was 1 per 866 deliveries. The patients were devided into two groups, those with a scarred uterus (47) and those with an unscarred uterus (42). Distinct differences in terms of parity, age, aetiology</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">J. V. Van der Merwe; W. U. A. M. Ombelet</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1987-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">192</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.agu.org/journals/jb/v081/i032/JB081i032p05679/JB081i032p05679.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Rupture</span> Velocity of Plane Strain Shear Cracks</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Propagation of plane strain shear cracks is calculated numerically by using finite difference equations with second-order accuracy. The <span class="hlt">rupture</span> model, in which stress drops gradually as slip increases, combines two different <span class="hlt">rupture</span> criteria: (1) slip begins at a finite stress level; (2) finite energy is absorbed per unit area as the crack advances. Solutions for this model are nonsingular. In</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">D. J. Andrews</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1976-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">193</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/10680095"> <span id="translatedtitle">Traumatic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of the innominate artery</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Objective: Blunt traumatic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of the innominate artery is uncommon. We reviewed our experience to correlate the impact of patient stability, presence of associated injuries and location of the injury within the artery with outcome. Methods: A retrospective review was performed of patients admitted between January 1, 1998 and December 17, 2002 with traumatic innominate artery <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. Injuries were defined</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Riyad Karmy-Jones; Robert DuBose; Stephen King</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">194</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/60403918"> <span id="translatedtitle">Capacity credit calculation for exchanger tube <span class="hlt">rupture</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper reports that overpressure relieving in heat exchanger tube <span class="hlt">rupture</span> case is quite different from other cases, such as fire, utility failure, inadvertent valve opening\\/closure, etc., when designing a pressure relief valve (PRV). In most cases, it is quite straightforward. The calculated relief load is the capacity that needs to be relieved. But, in heat exchanger tube <span class="hlt">rupture</span> cases,</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1992-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">195</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/55725946"> <span id="translatedtitle">Dynamic Interface <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> in Extremely Heterogeneous Media</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Fracture experiments of monolithic brittle materials usually show the maximum speed of smooth <span class="hlt">rupture</span> at some 30 % of the relevant shear wave speed. This experimental maximum <span class="hlt">rupture</span> speed is by far lower than those predicted by theories and inferred from inversions of seismograms, and some seismic inversions (e.g., the 1979 Imperial Valley, 1992 Landers, 1999 Izmit, 2001 the central</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">K. Uenishi; K. Tsuji</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">196</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3085625"> <span id="translatedtitle">Superficial Dorsal Vein <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> Imitating Penile Fracture</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Dorsal vein <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of the penis is a rare condition, and few cases have been reported in the literature. Herein we report a 41-year-old man who presented with mildly painful and acute swollen penis, which initially imitated a penile fracture but was surgically explored and shown to be a superficial dorsal vein <span class="hlt">rupture</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Topsakal, Medih; Kavukcu, Ender; Karadeniz, Tahir</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">197</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/28955380"> <span id="translatedtitle">Posterior tibial tendon <span class="hlt">rupture</span> in athletic people</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">We present our findings in six athletic patients with a <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> or partially <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> posterior tibial tendon. Pain in the midarch region, difficulty pushing off while running, and a pronated flattened longitudinal arch are the usual symptoms and physical findings of this injury. Surgical treatment, including reattachment of the rup tured posterior tibial tendon, is effective in restoring some but</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lee Woods; Robert E. Leach</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1991-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">198</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/32203434"> <span id="translatedtitle">Arachnoid Cyst <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> with Concurrent Subdural Hygroma</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Arachnoid cysts (ACs) are relatively common intracranial mass lesions, which occur most often in the middle cranial fossa. While these lesions can present as a mass lesion, many are asymptomatic. Rarely, posttraumatic or spontaneous <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of ACs can result in intracystic hemorrhage, subdural hematoma or subdural hygroma. We have encountered two cases of <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> arachnoid cysts that resulted in subdural</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jill W. Donaldson; Mary Edwards-Brown; Thomas G. Luerssen</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2000-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">199</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20537884"> <span id="translatedtitle">Acute closed <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of EHL revisited.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Isolated closed injuries to the EHL are rare. Traumatic closed <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of EHL in the absence of diabetes mellitus, arthritis or local steroid injections is hitherto unreported. We present a case of closed EHL <span class="hlt">rupture</span> after a hyperflexion injury to the interphalangeal joint of the big toe, successfully managed with surgery, along with review of existing literature. PMID:20537884</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Shah, K; Carter, Bob</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-05-26</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">200</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/28064956"> <span id="translatedtitle">Longitudinal <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> of polyester knitted vascular prostheses</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Aim: The purpose of the study was the characterization of a type of <span class="hlt">rupture</span> occurring on warp-knitted polyester vascular prostheses. Materials and Methods: We studied 20 cases of warp-knitted polyester vascular prostheses that were explanted from humans that showed a longitudinal <span class="hlt">rupture</span> as a part of a collaborative retrieval program. All the prostheses were immediately fixed in a 10% formaldehyde</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Nabil Chakfe; Gunnar Riepe; Florence Dieval; Jean-Francois Le Magnen; Lu Wang; Elisabeth Urban; Marc Beaufigeau; Bernard Durand; Herbert Imig; Jean-Georges Kretz</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous 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showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">201</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://jeb.biologists.org/cgi/reprint/198/3/831.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">CREEP <span class="hlt">RUPTURE</span> OF WALLABY TAIL TENDONS</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The tail tendons from wallabies ( Macropus rufogriseus) suffer creep <span class="hlt">rupture</span> at stresses of 10 MPa or above, whereas their yield stress in a dynamic test is about 144 MPa. At stresses between 20 and 80 MPa, the time-to- <span class="hlt">rupture</span> decreases exponentially with stress, but at 10 MPa, the lifetime is well above this exponential. For comparison, the stress on</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">XIAO TONG WANG; ROBERT F. KER</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">202</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/26099653"> <span id="translatedtitle">Creep <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of polymer-matrix composites</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">An accelerated characterization method for resin-matrix composites is reviewed. Methods for determining modulus and strength master curves are given. Creep-<span class="hlt">rupture</span> analytical models are discussed as applied to polymers and polymer-matrix composites. Comparisons between creep-<span class="hlt">rupture</span> experiments and analytical models are presented.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">H. F. Brinson; W. I. Griffith; D. H. Morris</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1981-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">203</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/19901876"> <span id="translatedtitle">Creep <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> of the Andrade Shear Disk</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The use of the Andrade shear disk as a means of determining the multiaxial stress <span class="hlt">rupture</span> criteria for metals is discussed. Test results are reported for disks machined from materials which undergo both small and large strains to failure. The <span class="hlt">rupture</span> behaviour of the disks which undergo large deformations is analysed. Statements are made concerning the use of conventional constitutive</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">D. R. Hayhurst; B. Storakers</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1976-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">204</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012cosp...39.1744S"> <span id="translatedtitle">Earth's bow <span class="hlt">shock</span>: Power aspects.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The process of energy transfer from the solar wind into the magnetosphere, or rather, to convecting magnetospheric plasma, appears to be rather complicated. The bow <span class="hlt">shock</span> front is the <span class="hlt">main</span> converter of solar wind kinetic energy into electromagnetic energy [Ponomarev, Sedykh, J. of Atm. Solar-Terr. Phys. V. 68. 2006; Ponomarev, Sedykh et al., Geomagn. and Aeron., 2009]. Solar wind undergoes significant changes in its parameters during its passing through the bow <span class="hlt">shock</span> front. Indeed, at the bow point, when crossing the front, the magnetic field tangential component and magnetic energy density increase by factors of almost 4 and approximately 15, respectively. In describing the bow <span class="hlt">shock</span>, we followed [Whang, 1987; Ponomarev et al., 2006]. A jump of the magnetic field tangential component when crossing the bow <span class="hlt">shock</span> front means that the front carries an electric current. It is possible to show that electric current is diverging in this layer, that is the front is the generator of the current. Since plasma with magnetic field passes through the bow <span class="hlt">shock</span> front, electric field arises in the front reference system. Thus, the bow <span class="hlt">shock</span> front is a source of electric power. The direction of electric current behind the bow <span class="hlt">shock</span> front depends on the sign of the IMF Bz-component. It is this current which sets convection in motion. Energetically, this external current is necessary for maintaining convection of plasma in the inhomogeneous system (geomagnetosphere). The generator at the bow <span class="hlt">shock</span> front can be a sufficient source of power for supplying energy to substorm processes [Sedykh, Sun and Geosphere, 2011]. The sign of power does not depend on the IMF sign, and energy flux is always directed into the magnetosphere. The magnitude of the power is different and is realized in different regions of the magnetosphere depending on the IMF direction. When the Bz-component is negative, the electric convection field is larger, with the anticonvection field being smaller, than for the same absolute magnitude of the positive IMF Bz-component. Therefore in the first case, the energy dissipates primarily in the auroral zone, while in the second case it does in the polar cap. Electric current from the generator at bow <span class="hlt">shock</span>, changing its sign when the Bz component changes its direction, cannot enter the magnetosphere during the first stage, because a plasma pressure gradient corresponding to the previous value of the electric current is still present there. Only after some time, when the new convection system has restructured the plasma pressure, the current of new direction can enter the magnetosphere.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sedykh, Pavel</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">205</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3033242"> <span id="translatedtitle">Traumatic pericardial <span class="hlt">rupture</span> with skeletonized phrenic nerve</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background Traumatic pericardial <span class="hlt">rupture</span> is a rare presentation. Pericardial <span class="hlt">rupture</span> itself is asymptomatic unless complicated by either hemorrhage or herniation of the heart through the defect. Following diagnosis surgical repair of the pericardium is indicated because cardiac herniation may result in vascular collapse and sudden death. Objectives Here we present a case of traumatic, non-herniated pericardial <span class="hlt">rupture</span> with complete skeletonization of the phrenic nerve. Case report An 18-year-old healthy male suffered multi-trauma after falling 50 feet onto concrete. The patient could not be stabilized despite exploratory laparotomy with splenectomy, IR embolization and packing for a liver laceration. Right posterolateral thoracotomy revealed a <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> pericardium with a completely skeletonized phrenic nerve. The pericardium was repaired with a Goretex(R) patch. Conclusion A high level of suspicion for pericardial <span class="hlt">rupture</span> is necessary in all patients with high-velocity thoracic injuries.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">206</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012ShWav..22..287H"> <span id="translatedtitle">The effects that changes in the diaphragm aperture have on the resulting <span class="hlt">shock</span> tube flow</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In a conventional <span class="hlt">shock</span> tube, the driver and the driven sections have similar (if not identical) cross-sectional area and the diaphragm opened area, upon <span class="hlt">rupturing</span>, is practically equal to the tube cross-sectional area. Such geometry results in generating a well-formed <span class="hlt">shock</span> wave in the tube's driven section. The present experimental work checks the effects that changes in the diaphragm <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> area have on the generated <span class="hlt">shock</span> and rarefaction waves. Experiments were conducted in an 80 mm by 80 mm cross section <span class="hlt">shock</span> tube generating incident <span class="hlt">shock</span> waves having Mach numbers within the range from 1.06 to 1.25. In each run, pressure histories were recorded along the driven and the driver sections of the <span class="hlt">shock</span> tube. The recorded pressures reveal that progressive reduction in the diaphragm open space resulted in a weaker <span class="hlt">shock</span> and both longer time and distance until the compression waves generated close to the diaphragm coalesces into a <span class="hlt">shock</span> wave. In addition, reducing the open space of the diaphragm resulted in a significant slow down in the high pressure reduction prevailing in the driver section.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Houas, L.; Biamino, L.; Mariani, C.; Igra, O.; Jourdan, G.; Massol, A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">207</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003AGUFM.S42I..02N"> <span id="translatedtitle">Mapping Great Earthquake <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> Area</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">At the northern Cascadia margin, the Juan de Fuca plate is underthrusting North America at about 45 mm/yr. Thermal and deformation studies indicate that, off southern Vancouver Island, the interplate interface is presently fully locked for a distance of some 60 km downdip from the deformation front. Great thrust earthquakes on this section of the interface, with magnitudes of up to 9, have been estimated to occur at an average interval of about 590 yr. Further downdip there is a transition zone from fully locked behavior to aseismic sliding, with the deep aseismic zone exhibiting slow slip thrust events. We show that at the northern Cascadia margin there is a change in the reflection character on seismic images from a thin reflection package (< 2 km thick) where the subduction thrust is inferred to be seismogenic, to a broad reflection band (> 4 km thick) at greater depth where there is aseismic slip. This change in reflection character provides us with a new technique for detailed mapping of the maximum landward extent of great earthquake <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. The landward edge of the locked zone on the northern Cascadia subduction thrust inferred by reflection imaging appears to lie some 25-30 km closer to the land than estimated from thermal and dislocation modeling, possibly suggesting a somewhat greater megathrust seismic hazard at inland cities. Deep seismic reflection images from Alaska, Chile and SW Japan show a similar broad reflection band above the subduction thrust in the region of stable sliding and thin thrust reflections further seaward, perhaps suggesting that reflection imaging may be a globally important predictive tool for determining the maximum expected <span class="hlt">rupture</span> area in megathrust earthquakes. The eastern Alaska-Aleutian subduction zone is an ideal setting for testing this hypothesis. In this region, recent megathrust earthquake <span class="hlt">rupture</span> areas are defined by aftershocks, inversion of geodetic data points to strong lateral variations in coupling, and wide shelf area allows for a relatively inexpensive and full marine mapping of the locked and transition zones, and partial mapping of the slow slip zone.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Nedimovi?, M. R.; Hyndman, R. D.; Ramachandran, K.; Spence, G. D.; Brocher, T. M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">208</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007Ap%26SS.307..159M"> <span id="translatedtitle">Theoretical and Experimental Studies of Radiative <span class="hlt">Shocks</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper deals with the radiative <span class="hlt">shock</span> from both theoretical and numerical points of view. It is based on the whole experimental results obtained at Laboratoire d'Utilisation des Lasers Intenses (LULI, École Polytechnique). Radiative <span class="hlt">shocks</span> are high-Mach number <span class="hlt">shocks</span> with a strong coupling between radiation and hydrodynamics which leads to a structure governed by a radiative precursor. These <span class="hlt">shocks</span> are involved in various astrophysical systems: stellar accretion <span class="hlt">shocks</span>, pulsating stars, interaction between supernovae and the interstellar medium. In laboratory, these radiative <span class="hlt">shocks</span> are generated using high power lasers. New diagnostics have been implemented to study the geometrical shape of the <span class="hlt">shock</span> and the front <span class="hlt">shock</span> density. Data were obtained varying initial conditions for different laser intensities and temperature. The modeling of these phenomena is <span class="hlt">mainly</span> performed through numerical simulations (1D and 2D) and analytical studies. We exhibit results obtained from several radiative hydrodynamics codes. As a result, it is possible to discuss about the influence of the geometry and physical parameters introduced in the 1D and 2D models.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Michaut, C.; Vinci, T.; Boireau, L.; Koenig, M.; Bouquet, S.; Benuzzi-Mounaix, A.; Osaki, N.; Herpe, G.; Falize, E.; Loupias, B.; Atzeni, S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">209</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007PhDT.......102B"> <span id="translatedtitle">Role of geometric complexities and off-fault damage in dynamic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> propagation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">To analyze the effect of fault branches on dynamic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> propagation we numerically simulated the observed dynamic slip transfer from the Denali to Totschunda faults during the Mw 7.9, November 3, 2002, Denali fault earthquake, Alaska and show that the theory and methodology of Poliakov et al. [2002] and Kame et al. [2003] is valid for the 2002 Denali fault event. To understand the effect of fault branch length on dynamic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> propagation we analyze earthquake <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> propagating along a straight "<span class="hlt">main</span>" fault and encountering a finite-length branch fault. We show finite branches have the tendency of stopping or re-nucleating <span class="hlt">rupture</span> on the <span class="hlt">main</span> fault depending on their length in addition to the parameters singled out by Kame et al. [2003]. We also illustrate branch-related complexities in <span class="hlt">rupture</span> velocity and slip evolution. We illustrate the effect of backward branches (branches at obtuse angle to the <span class="hlt">main</span> fault with the same sense of slip as the <span class="hlt">main</span> fault) and propose a mechanism of backward branching. As a field example we simulate numerically, using a two-dimensional elastodynamic boundary integral equation formulation incorporating slip-weakening <span class="hlt">rupture</span>, the backward branching phenomenon observed during the Landers 1992 earthquake. To characterize the effect of supershear <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> on off-fault materials we extend a model of a two-dimensional self-healing slip pulse, propagating dynamically in steady-state with slip-weakening failure criterion, to the supershear regime and show that there exists a non-attenuating stress field behind the Mach front which radiates high stresses arbitrarily far from the fault (practically this would be limited to distances comparable to the depth of the seismogenic zone). We apply this model to study damage features induced during the 2001 Kokoxili (Kunlun) event in Tibet. We also study the 3D effects of supershear <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> by simulating bilateral <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> on a finite-width vertical strike-slip fault breaking the surface of an elastic half-space, and focus on the wavefield in the near-source region. We provide numerical evidence for the existence of Rayleigh Mach fronts, in addition to shear Mach fronts. We conclude that radiating Mach waves of three-dimensional supershear <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> do transmit large-amplitude ground motions and stresses far from the fault. The amplitudes along the shear Mach front would be moderated at distances greater than the fault width by decay with distance due to geometrical spreading. However, in an ideally elastic material, we do not expect any geometrical attenuation along the Rayleigh Mach front.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bhat, Harsha Suresh</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">210</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2657701"> <span id="translatedtitle">Endoscopic management of a relapsing hepatic hydatid cyst with intrabiliary <span class="hlt">rupture</span>: A case report and review of the literature</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Hydatid disease, although endemic mostly in sheep-farming countries, remains a public health issue worldwide, involving <span class="hlt">mainly</span> the liver. Intrabiliary <span class="hlt">rupture</span> is the most frequent complication of the hepatic hydatid cyst. Endoscopy is advocated, preoperatively, to alleviate obstructive jaundice caused by intracystic materials after a frank <span class="hlt">rupture</span> and is also a useful and well-established adjunct in locating postoperative biliary fistulas. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiography with sphincterotomy has been successful as the sole and definitive means of treatment of intra-biliary <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> hydatid cysts. A case of an elderly woman with frank <span class="hlt">rupture</span> is presented, where the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> was definitively managed endoscopically in conjunction with sphincterotomy to remove the intrabiliary obstructive daughter cysts and to achieve decontamination of the biliary tree. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiography provided an excellent diagnostic and therapeutic modality in the present case and, thus, it should be considered as definitive treatment in similar cases especially if surgical risk is anticipated to be high.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Manouras, Andreas; Genetzakis, Michael; Antonakis, Pantelis T; Lagoudianakis, Emmanuel; Pattas, Michael; Papadima, Artemisia; Giannopoulos, Panagiotis; Menenakos, Evangelos</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">211</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.mayoclinic.com/print/toxic-shock-syndrome/DS00221/DSECTION=all&METHOD=print"> <span id="translatedtitle">Toxic <span class="hlt">Shock</span> Syndrome</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePLUS</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Toxic <span class="hlt">shock</span> syndrome Basics In-Depth Resources Reprints A single copy of this article may be reprinted for personal, noncommercial use only. Toxic <span class="hlt">shock</span> syndrome By Mayo Clinic staff Original Article: ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">212</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://kidshealth.org/teen/sexual_health/girls/tss.html"> <span id="translatedtitle">Toxic <span class="hlt">Shock</span> Syndrome</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePLUS</a></p> <p class="result-summary">... about it, then take some precautions. What Is Toxic <span class="hlt">Shock</span> Syndrome? If you're a girl who's ... period, you may have heard frightening stories about toxic <span class="hlt">shock</span> syndrome (TSS), a serious illness originally linked ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">213</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/52420027"> <span id="translatedtitle">Optimization of pressure waveform, distribution and sequence in <span class="hlt">shock</span> wave lithotripsy</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This work aims to improve <span class="hlt">shock</span> wave lithotripsy (SWL) technology by increasing stone comminution efficiency while reducing simultaneously the propensity of tissue injury. First, the mechanism of vascular injury in SWL was investigated. Based on in vitro vessel phantom experiment and theoretical calculation, it was found that SWL-induced large intraluminal bubble expansion may constitute a primary mechanism for the <span class="hlt">rupture</span></p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yufeng Zhou</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">214</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/19895638"> <span id="translatedtitle">Explosion Waves and <span class="hlt">Shock</span> Waves. VI. The Disturbance Produced by Bursting Diaphragms with Compressed Air</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Experimental verification of the theoretical relationships governing the motion of <span class="hlt">shock</span> waves has been derived from an investigation into the development of the disturbance set up in a uniform tube when a body of compressed gas, confined at one end by means of a copper diaphragm, is released by <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of the diaphragm. The wave-speed camera has been used to</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">William Payman; Wilfred Charles Furness Shepherd</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1946-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">215</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=causes+AND+allergies&pg=2&id=ED220706"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Shock</span> & Anaphylactic <span class="hlt">Shock</span>. Learning Activity Package.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">|This learning activity package on <span class="hlt">shock</span> and anaphylactic <span class="hlt">shock</span> is one of a series of 12 titles developed for use in health occupations education programs. Materials in the package include objectives, a list of materials needed, information sheets, reviews (self evaluations) of portions of the content, and answers to reviews. These topics are…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hime, Kirsten</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">216</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/51660574"> <span id="translatedtitle">Acoustical model of small calibre ballistic <span class="hlt">shock</span> waves in air for automatic sniper localization applications</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The phenomenon of ballistic <span class="hlt">shock</span> wave emission by a small calibre projectile at supersonic speed is quite relevant in automatic sniper localization applications. When available, ballistic <span class="hlt">shock</span> wave analysis makes possible the estimation of the <span class="hlt">main</span> ballistic features of a gunfire event. The propagation of ballistic <span class="hlt">shock</span> waves in air is a process which <span class="hlt">mainly</span> involves nonlinear distortion, or steepening,</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Juan R. Aguilar; Renato A. Salinas; Mongi A. Abidi</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">217</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.me.umn.edu/education/courses/me8381/LeeAnnRev2000.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">BIOPHYSICAL INJURY MECHANISMS IN ELECTRICAL <span class="hlt">SHOCK</span> TRAUMA</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">? Abstract Electrical <span class="hlt">shock</span> trauma,tends to produce,a very complex,pattern of in- jury, <span class="hlt">mainly</span> because of the multiple modes of frequency-dependent tissue-field interac- tions. Historically, Joule heating was thought to be the only cause of electrical injuries to tissue by commercial-frequency electrical <span class="hlt">shocks</span>. In the last 15 years, biomedical engineering research has improved,the understanding,of the underlying biophysical in- jury mechanisms. Besides</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Raphael C. Lee; Dajun Zhang; Jurgen Hannig</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2000-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">218</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013APS..MAR.H1301H"> <span id="translatedtitle">Electron <span class="hlt">Shock</span> Waves with Current behind the <span class="hlt">Shock</span> Front</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Electrical breakdown of a gas in a strong electric field is carried out by a wave with a strong discontinuity at the wave front, and traveling with speed comparable to speed of light. For theoretical investigation of electrical breakdown of a gas, we apply a one-dimensional, steady state, constant velocity, three component fluid model, and assume the electrons to be the <span class="hlt">main</span> element in propagation of the wave. Our set of electron fluid-dynamical equations consists of the equations of conservation of mass, momentum, and energy plus the Poisson's equation. For breakdown waves with a significant current behind the <span class="hlt">shock</span> front, in addition to the set of electron fluid dynamical equations, the <span class="hlt">shock</span> condition on electron temperature need to be modified as well. Considering existence of current behind the <span class="hlt">shock</span> front, we have derived the <span class="hlt">shock</span> condition on electron temperature, and for a set of experimentally measured current values, we have been able to integrated the set of electron fluid dynamical equations through the dynamical transition region of the wave. Our results meet the expected conditions at the trailing edge of the wave.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hemmati, Mostafa; Childs, W. C.; Morris, H.; Pinkston, P.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">219</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=AD633076"> <span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">Shock</span> and Vibration Bulletin.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Contents: <span class="hlt">shock</span> testing to simulate random vibration peaks, 10,000 G slingshot <span class="hlt">shock</span> tests on a modified sand-drop machine, <span class="hlt">shock</span> springs and pulse shaping on impact <span class="hlt">shock</span> machines, <span class="hlt">shock</span> testing a spacecraft to <span class="hlt">shock</span> response spectrum by means of an elec...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1966-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">220</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/3739640"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Shock</span> metamorphism of ordinary chondrites</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This study proposes a revised petrographic classification of progressive stages of <span class="hlt">shock</span> metamorphism of 26 ordinary chondrites. Six stages of <span class="hlt">shock</span> (S1 to S6) are defined on the basis of <span class="hlt">shock</span> effects in olivine and plagioclase as recognized by thin section microscopy, and the characteristic <span class="hlt">shock</span> effects of each <span class="hlt">shock</span> stage are described. It is concluded that <span class="hlt">shock</span> effects and</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Dieter Stoeffler; Klaus Keil; Edward R. D. Scott</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1991-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' 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style="font-weight: bold;">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">221</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/31403873"> <span id="translatedtitle">Sepsis and septic <span class="hlt">shock</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Mortality from septic <span class="hlt">shock</span> is considerable despite the advantages of cardiovascular support and antibiotic therapy. This article reviews current therapy of septic <span class="hlt">shock</span> including immunotherapy and futher possibilities of septic <span class="hlt">shock</span> treatment. The role of cytokines, their inhibitors and antibodies to endotoxin is mentioned. Although these treatments hold much promise for the future, careful evalution of both the benefits and</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jiri Mayer; Roman Hajek; Jiri Vorlicek; Miroslav Tomiska</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1995-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">222</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17807728"> <span id="translatedtitle">Emplacement of cretaceous-tertiary boundary <span class="hlt">shocked</span> quartz from chicxulub crater.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Observations on <span class="hlt">shocked</span> quartz in Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) boundary sediments compellingly tied to Chicxulub crater raise three problems. First, in North America <span class="hlt">shocked</span> quartz occurs above the <span class="hlt">main</span> K-T ejecta layer. Second, <span class="hlt">shocked</span> quartz is more abundant west than east of Chicxulub. Third, <span class="hlt">shocked</span> quartz reached distances requiring initial velocities up to 8 kilometers per second, corresponding to <span class="hlt">shock</span> pressures that would produce melt, not the moderate-pressure <span class="hlt">shock</span> lamellae observed. <span class="hlt">Shock</span> devolatilization and the expansion of carbon dioxide and water from impacted wet carbonate, producing a warm, accelerating fireball after the initial hot fireball of silicate vapor, may explain all three problems. PMID:17807728</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Alvarez, W; Claeys, P; Kieffer, S W</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1995-08-18</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">223</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004AGUFM.S41A0955U"> <span id="translatedtitle">Seismic Wave Radiation of <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> in Branched Fault Modeling</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We simulate dynamic mode II <span class="hlt">rupture</span> that finally forms a branched fault trace, where our <span class="hlt">main</span> interest lies in the resultant seismic wave radiation due to the dynamic branching process. For this purpose we adopt the elastodynamic boundary integral equation method, which enables us to work with non-planar fault geometry. We consider a medium under biaxial compressional load in which Coulomb friction acts on <span class="hlt">rupture</span> surfaces and apply a critical shear stress criterion in determining the direction and the extension of <span class="hlt">rupture</span> tips . In our simulation, dynamic branching first occurs due to local off-plane stressing around the fast propagating tips and each branch increases its bending angle. The growth of branch is then arrested because the stress to be released on such branch becomes negative under biaxial compression.In order to find phases associated with the dynamic branching process, we synthesize waveforms of the branching model and compare them with those radiated from a planar fault model whose growth is arrested without branching. When the observation point is very near the branching point, we can successfully identify a small distinct branching phase in the component for which no wave radiation is expected from the planar model. Otherwise we cannot find little effect of the dynamic branching process on the seismic wave radiation. This is because the moment release rate on the branching part of the fault is negligible compared with that on the entire fault.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Uchida, K.; Kame, N.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">224</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3484796"> <span id="translatedtitle">Woman Health; Uterus <span class="hlt">Rupture</span>, Its Complications and Management in Teaching Hospital Bannu, Pakistan</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">ABSTRACT Objectives: To evaluate risk factors, management, maternal and fetal outcomes of <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> uterus at Women and Children Teaching Hospital Bannu, Pakistan. Study design: The prospective observational study was designed from January 2009 to December 2009. A total 64 patients were found with <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> uterus evaluated in Women and Children Teaching Hospital Bannu, Pakistan. The aim of the study was to evaluate risk factors, management, maternal and fetal outcomes. Results: Frequency of <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> uterus in hospital was found in 9/ 1000 deliveries, higher than most other studies. Amongst etiological factors the most important were great multiparity 27 (42.2%), injudicious use of Oxytocin 33 (51.6%), obstructed labour 8 (12.5%) and previous caesarean section 12 (18.8%). Of the total number of patients, 49 (76.6%) underwent abdominal hysterectomy (either subtotal or total), 3.1% of them needed bladder repair and 15.6% underwent repair of uterus. 5 (7.8%) died either due to irreversible <span class="hlt">shock</span> or disseminated intravascular coagulation, 4% of patients had incontinence of urine, 53 (82.8%) of cases delivered dead babies and 9 (14.1%) had severe birth asphyxia needing neonatal intensive care. Conclusion: Uterine <span class="hlt">rupture</span> is amongst the preventable obstetric complication that carries severe risks both to the mother as to the baby. Health education of people, training and supervision of health personal may reduce incidence especially in remote areas.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">QAZI, Qudsia; AKHTAR, Zubaida; KHAN, Kamran; KHAN, Amer Hayat</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">225</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3522947"> <span id="translatedtitle">The management of <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> abdominal aortic aneurysms in rural Colorado. With a historical note on Kit Carson's death.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Kit Carson died of a <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> aneurysm in rural Colorado in 1868. Since that time, techniques for management of aortic aneurysms have been developed and disseminated to rural areas with small hospitals. A survey of six Colorado rural hospitals' experience with <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> abdominal aortic aneurysms is presented. Fifty-seven <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> aneurysms had been managed during periods ranging from three to ten years. The average time to the operating room was 3.5 to 4.0 hours after hospital arrival and less than 45 minutes after diagnosis. Of those cases arriving with a systolic blood pressure less than 100 mm Hg, the mortality was 56%. The overall mortality was 53%. Groups are analyzed according to preoperative delay, occurrence of <span class="hlt">shock</span>, and other risk factors. The results are compared with several series from metropolitan hospitals. Techniques of management that are of potential benefit in low-volume vascular case settings are discussed. PMID:3522947</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Abernathy, C M; Baumgartner, R; Butler, H G; Collins, J; Dickinson, T C; Hildebrand, J; Yajko, R D; Harken, A H</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1986-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">226</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3797604"> <span id="translatedtitle">Spontaneous <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of falciparum malarial spleen presenting as hemoperitoneum, hemothorax, and hemoarthrosis</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Patient: Male, 29 Final Diagnosis: Spontaneous spleen <span class="hlt">rupture</span> Symptoms: Abdominal distension • abdominal pain • abdominal tenderness • disorientation • fever • hemothorax • hip pain • reduced urine output Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Splenectomy Specialty: Infectious Diseases Objective: Rare diseases Background: Spontaneous <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of a malarial spleen is uncommon even in the endemic regions of malaria. This may lead to delayed or missed diagnosis of splenic <span class="hlt">rupture</span>, which may be life threatening. Case Report: We are reporting a patient with P. falciparum malaria who developed a spontaneous splenic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> encountered in our department. A 29-year-old male patient with history of high grade intermittent fever with chills for 4 days followed by disorientation and reduced urine output and abdominal pain with distension associated with bilateral hip pain and dyspnea with bilateral chest pain (<span class="hlt">mainly</span> on the left side) for 1 day. There was no history of any trauma or abnormal bleeding. Investigations revealed P. falciparum malaria, hemoperitoneum, hemothorax, and hemoarthrosis. Laparotomy confirmed hemoperitoneum with about 1.5 L of blood-stained fluid, enlarged friable spleen with <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of the splenic capsule on the inner surface, and active bleeding. Splenectomy was performed. The patient was diagnosed with malarial spleen and received antimalarial therapy. Conclusions: Splenic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> with hemoperitoneum should be managed with laparotomy and splenectomy, along with antimalarial drugs. A high index of suspicion is needed to detect these complications early.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Fareed, Mohammad I.; Mahmoud, Ahmed E.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">227</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2024280"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Rupture</span> of the internal elastic lamina and vascular fragility in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We studied a possible relation between stroke and an enhanced susceptibility to <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of the arterial internal elastic lamina by comparing stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats with spontaneously hypertensive rats, which have a very low incidence of stroke. We quantified interruptions in the internal elastic lamina in certain arteries and studied the effect of beta-aminopropionitrile, an inhibitor of cross-link formation in collagen and elastic fibers, on <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of the internal elastic lamina and on mortality in these two substrains. To eliminate any influence of higher blood pressure in the stroke-prone rats on the parameters studied, we used antihypertensive treatment to obtain equivalent blood pressures in the two substrains. Results showed that stroke sensitivity was associated with an enhanced early spontaneous <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of the internal elastic lamina in the caudal artery, an increased susceptibility to beta-aminopropionitrile-induced <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of the internal elastic lamina, and earlier mortality, <span class="hlt">mainly</span> from aortic <span class="hlt">rupture</span>, under beta-aminopropionitrile treatment. These findings suggest that stroke-prone rats have an enhanced minor connective tissue defect that is expressed by <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of the internal elastic lamina and may be related, at least in part, to their greater vascular fragility and increased susceptibility to stroke. PMID:2024280</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Coutard, M; Osborne-Pellegrin, M</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1991-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">228</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21144790"> <span id="translatedtitle">Fatal lower extremity varicose vein <span class="hlt">rupture</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Varicose vein <span class="hlt">rupture</span> is a rare cause of death, although varicosities are a common pathology. We present three cases of sudden death due to varicose vein <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. After a review of the literature, the case circumstances and the findings of imaging examination, performed in two cases, are presented. One of them had undergone a post-mortem computed tomography angiography (PMCTA), and one a PMCTA as well as a post-mortem magnetic resonance (PMMR) imaging prior to conventional autopsy. One of the cases presented herein is, to our knowledge, the youngest known fatality due to varicose vein <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. PMID:21144790</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ampanozi, Garyfalia; Preiss, Ulrich; Hatch, Gary M; Zech, Wolf Dieter; Ketterer, Thomas; Bolliger, Stephan; Thali, Michael J; Ruder, Thomas D</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-12-08</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">229</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3407438"> <span id="translatedtitle">Laparoscopic Repair of a Traumatic Bladder <span class="hlt">Rupture</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Laparoscopic repair of the traumatic intraperitoneal bladder <span class="hlt">rupture</span> is a proven, safe, and effective technique in the appropriate setting. A 23-year-old male with traumatic intraperitoneal bladder <span class="hlt">rupture</span> proven by cystogram after a motor vehicle collision was successfully repaired via a laparoscopic approach. We describe the technique in detail including 2-layer closure and follow-up care. A review of the literature using PubMed with the key words [laparoscopic repair bladder injury] AND [bladder trauma] was performed. We recommend the consideration of laparoscopic repair of the intraperitoneal bladder <span class="hlt">rupture</span> in more trauma patients who meet criteria.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hugo Cuadra, Rene; Ricchiuti, Daniel J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">230</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21167821"> <span id="translatedtitle">Effects of Tube <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> Modeling and Parameters on Analysis of MSGTR Event Progression in PWR</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A multiple steam generator tube <span class="hlt">rupture</span> (MSGTR) event in APR1400 has been investigated using the best estimate thermal hydraulic system code, MARS1.4. The effects of parameters such as the number of <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> tubes, <span class="hlt">rupture</span> location, affected steam generator on analysis of the MSGTR event in APR1400 is examined. In particular, tube <span class="hlt">rupture</span> modeling methods, single tube modeling (STM) and double tube modeling (DTM), are compared. When five tubes are <span class="hlt">ruptured</span>, the STM predicts the operator response time of 2085 seconds before <span class="hlt">main</span> steam safety valves (MSSVs) are lifted. The effects of <span class="hlt">rupture</span> location on the MSSV lift time is not significant in case of STM, but the MSSV lift time for tube-top <span class="hlt">rupture</span> is found to be 25.3% larger than that for <span class="hlt">rupture</span> at hog-leg side tube sheet in case of DTM. The MSSV lift time for the cases that both steam generators are affected (4C5x, 4C23x) are found to be larger than that of the single steam generator cases (4A5x, 4B5x) due to a bifurcation of the primary leak flow. The discharge coefficient of Cd is found to affect the MSSV lift time only for smaller value of 0.5. It is found that the most dominant parameter governing the MSSV lift time is the leak flow rate. Whether any modeling method is used, it gives the similar MSSV lift time if the leak flow rate is close, except the case of both steam generators are affected. Therefore, the system performance and the MSSV lift time of the APR1400 are strongly dependent on the break flow model used in the best estimate system code. (authors)</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jeong, Ji Hwan [Dept of Environmental System, Cheonan College of Foreign Studies, Anseo-dong, Cheonan, Choongnam, 330-705 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Ki Yong [Thermal-Hydraulic Safety Research Team, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Deogjin-dong, Yusong-gu, Daejeon, 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Chang, Keun Sun; Kweon, Young Chel [Dept of Mechanical Engineering, Sunmoon University, Tangjeong-myeon, Asan, Choongnam, 336-708 (Korea, Republic of)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">231</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.T13E2428N"> <span id="translatedtitle">Pulverization of quartz single crystal and natural quartzite induced by possible super-shear <span class="hlt">rupture</span> during stick -slips</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Intensely pulverized rocks have been reported from large scale strike slip faults such as San Andreas Fault (e.g., Dor et al., 2006). These rocks are characterized by apparent lack of shear deformation, suggesting shattering and comminuation of grains possibly resulting from a rapid decrease in normal stress and perhaps transient fault opening during passage of the dynamic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> front. Doan and Gary (2009) experimentally reported that the pulverization of granite requires high strain rates and could be explained by a super shear <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. So far, there has been almost few experimental study on damage formation of wall rocks of fault in association with <span class="hlt">rupture</span> propagation during a stick-slip using crustal materials. In order to clarify how <span class="hlt">rupture</span> propagates and damages wall rocks during a stick-slip , we have performed experiments on a stick-slip with a single crystal of synthetic quartz and natural quartzite. We used a gas apparatus, and performed the experiments at confining pressures of 120-180 MPa and axial strain rate of 10-3/s. Single crystal s of dry synthetic quartz and natural quartzite were cored with a diameter of 20 mm and cut to a length of about 40 mm. Then the cores were cut 50° to the long axis of the core, and the precut surfaces were mirror polished. Axial stresses and shear strains along the fault surfaces were measured by strain gauges, and the data were sampled at 5 MHz . Our experimental results on single crystal of quartz yielded two different frictional behaviors and final states of samples: 1) simple fracturing state associated with multiple small stick-slips at the confining pressure (Pc) less than 160 MPa, where samples were split into fragments but no intense pulverization, 2) intense pulverization state associated with large stick-slips at Pc of 180 MPa, where samples were intensely pulverized into numerous small fragments. The size of the fragments extends down to submicron in the vicinity of the slip plane. In pulverized samples, the axial stress abruptly decreased as large as 700 MPa and the slip distance attained up to 2 mm during the <span class="hlt">main</span> <span class="hlt">shock</span> of the stick-slip. The pulverized fragments show polygonal column, and the fractographic textures suggest them to be a tensile fracture origin. Similar fracturing texture developed in natural quartzite, but less intense than single crystal case even at Pc of 180MPa. The mechanical data and the mode of intense pulverization of synthetic quartz imply that super shear <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> radiated supersonic waves during the stick-slip s by anomalously high strain rates and peak stresses. Synthetic single crystals of quartz are very brittle and the stress drops in our experiments are much larger than actual earthquakes, but mosaic textures of pulverized rocks with lack of distinct shear deformation are reproduced in the experiment on natural quartzite and often observable in natural faults. Therefore, it is likely that the pulverization by super-shear would be a mechanism to widen the damaged zones of seismic faults, and change of the site response with passage of seismic wave.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Nishikawa, O.; Muto, J.; Otsuki, K.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">232</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=soil&pg=2&id=EJ826517"> <span id="translatedtitle">Describing Soils: Calibration Tool for Teaching Soil <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> Resistance</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">|<span class="hlt">Rupture</span> resistance is a measure of the strength of a soil to withstand an applied stress or resist deformation. In soil survey, during routine soil descriptions, <span class="hlt">rupture</span> resistance is described for each horizon or layer in the soil profile. The lower portion of the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> resistance classes are assigned based on <span class="hlt">rupture</span> between thumb and…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Seybold, C. A.; Harms, D. S.; Grossman, R. B.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">233</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012HEDP....8..161V"> <span id="translatedtitle">Simulating radiative <span class="hlt">shocks</span> in nozzle <span class="hlt">shock</span> tubes</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We use the recently developed Center for Radiative <span class="hlt">Shock</span> Hydrodynamics (CRASH) code to numerically simulate laser-driven radiative <span class="hlt">shock</span> experiments. These <span class="hlt">shocks</span> are launched by an ablated beryllium disk and are driven down xenon-filled plastic tubes. The simulations are initialized by the two-dimensional version of the Lagrangian Hyades code which is used to evaluate the laser energy deposition during the first 1.1 ns. Later times are calculated with the CRASH code. CRASH solves for the multi-material hydrodynamics with separate electron and ion temperatures on an Eulerian block-adaptive-mesh and includes a multi-group flux-limited radiation diffusion and electron thermal heat conduction. The goal of the present paper is to demonstrate the capability to simulate radiative <span class="hlt">shocks</span> of essentially three-dimensional experimental configurations, such as circular and elliptical nozzles. We show that the compound <span class="hlt">shock</span> structure of the primary and wall <span class="hlt">shock</span> is captured and verify that the <span class="hlt">shock</span> properties are consistent with order-of-magnitude estimates. The synthetic radiographs produced can be used for comparison with future nozzle experiments at high-energy-density laser facilities.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">van der Holst, B.; Tóth, G.; Sokolov, I. V.; Daldorff, L. K. S.; Powell, K. G.; Drake, R. P.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">234</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009A%26ARv..17..409T"> <span id="translatedtitle">Fundamentals of collisionless <span class="hlt">shocks</span> for astrophysical application, 1. Non-relativistic <span class="hlt">shocks</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A comprehensive review is given of the theory and properties of nonrelativistic <span class="hlt">shocks</span> in hot collisionless plasmas—in view of their possible application in astrophysics. Understanding non-relativistic collisionless <span class="hlt">shocks</span> is an indispensable step towards a general account of collisionless astrophysical <span class="hlt">shocks</span> of high Mach number and of their effects in dissipating flow-energy, in heating matter, in accelerating particles to high—presumably cosmic-ray—energies, and in generating detectable radiation from radio to X-rays. Non-relativistic <span class="hlt">shocks</span> have Alfvénic Mach numbers {{fancyscript{M}}_A? sqrt{m_i/m_e}(?_{pe}/?_{ce})}, where m i / m e is the ion-to-electron mass ratio, and ? pe , ? ce are the electron plasma and cyclotron frequencies, respectively. Though high, the temperatures of such <span class="hlt">shocks</span> are limited (in energy units) to T < m e c 2. This means that particle creation is inhibited, classical theory is applicable, and reaction of radiation on the dynamics of the <span class="hlt">shock</span> can be neglected. The majority of such <span class="hlt">shocks</span> are supercritical, meaning that non-relativistic <span class="hlt">shocks</span> are unable to self-consistently produce sufficient dissipation and, thus, to sustain a stationary <span class="hlt">shock</span> transition. As a consequence, supercritical <span class="hlt">shocks</span> act as efficient particle reflectors. All these <span class="hlt">shocks</span> are microscopically thin, with <span class="hlt">shock</span>-transition width of the order of the ion inertial length ? i = c/ ? pi (with ? pi the ion plasma frequency). The full theory of such <span class="hlt">shocks</span> is developed, and the different possible types of <span class="hlt">shocks</span> are defined. Since all collisionless <span class="hlt">shocks</span> are magnetised, the most important distinction is between quasi-perpendicular and quasi-parallel <span class="hlt">shocks</span>. The former propagate about perpendicularly, the latter roughly parallel to the upstream magnetic field. Their manifestly different behaviours are described in detail. In particular, although both types of <span class="hlt">shocks</span> are non-stationary, they have completely different reformation cycles. From numerical full-particle simulations it becomes evident that, on ion-inertial scales close to the <span class="hlt">shock</span> transition, all quasi-parallel collisionless supercritical <span class="hlt">shocks</span> are locally quasi-perpendicular. This property is of vital importance for the particle dynamics near the quasi-parallel <span class="hlt">shock</span> front. Considerable interest focusses on particle acceleration and the generation of radiation. Radiation from non-relativistic <span class="hlt">shocks</span> results <span class="hlt">mainly</span> in wave-wave interactions among various plasma waves. Non-thermal charged particles can be further accelerated to high energies by a Fermi-like mechanism. The important question is whether the <span class="hlt">shock</span> can pre-accelerate <span class="hlt">shock</span>-reflected particles to sufficiently high energies in order to create the seed-population of the non-thermal particles required by the Fermi mechanism. Based on preliminary full-particle numerical simulations, this question is answered affirmatively. Such simulations provide ample evidence that collisionless <span class="hlt">shocks</span> with high-Mach numbers—even when non-relativistic—could probably by themselves produce the energetic seed-particle population for the Fermi-process.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Treumann, R. A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">235</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21091032"> <span id="translatedtitle">Acute Iliac Artery <span class="hlt">Rupture</span>: Endovascular Treatment</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The authors present 7 patients who suffered iliac artery <span class="hlt">rupture</span> over a 2 year period. In 5 patients, the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> was iatrogenic: 4 cases were secondary to balloon angioplasty for iliac artery stenosis and 1 occurred during coronary angioplasty. In the last 2 patients, the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> was secondary to iliac artery mycotic aneurysm. Direct placement of a stent-graft was performed in all cases, which was dilated until extravasation was controlled. Placement of the stent-graft was successful in all the cases, without any complications. The techniques used, results, and mid-term follow-up are presented. In conclusion, endovascular placement of a stent-graft is a quick, minimally invasive, efficient, and safe method for emergency treatment of acute iliac artery <span class="hlt">rupture</span>, with satisfactory short- and mid-term results.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Chatziioannou, A.; Mourikis, D.; Katsimilis, J.; Skiadas, V., E-mail: bill_skiadas@yahoo.gr; Koutoulidis, V.; Katsenis, K.; Vlahos, L. [University of Athens, Radiology Department, Areteion Hospital (Greece)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-04-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">236</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19085055"> <span id="translatedtitle">Traumatic pericardial <span class="hlt">rupture</span> without cardiac injury.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Pericardial <span class="hlt">rupture</span> is a rare injury following blunt chest trauma. It is frequently fatal because of serious complications such as cardiac herniation and/or contusion. We report a case of traumatic pericardial <span class="hlt">rupture</span> without cardiac injury, which was incidentally identified intraoperatively. A 63-year-old woman was transported to the hospital after sustaining blunt chest trauma from a motor vehicle accident. Radiographic workup demonstrated multiple fractures, pulmonary contusion, and hemopneumothorax. A chest tube was inserted, and persistent bleeding was observed. An exploratory thoracotomy was performed, and active pulmonary bleeding was controlled. Further exploration revealed major pericardial <span class="hlt">rupture</span> without cardiac herniation or intrapericardial injury, which was repaired by a bovine pericardial patch. Her postoperative course was uneventful. It is usually difficult to make a diagnosis of pericardial <span class="hlt">rupture</span>, and a misdiagnosis often leads to a fatal consequence. Therefore, an immediate surgical exploration is warranted if clinical and radiographic findings suggest the condition. PMID:19085055</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Nakamura, Teruya; Maloney, James D; Osaki, Satoru</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-12-16</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">237</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10854026"> <span id="translatedtitle">Traumatic duodenal <span class="hlt">rupture</span> in a soccer player.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Traumatic duodenal <span class="hlt">rupture</span> resulting from blunt trauma during soccer is an extremely rare occurrence. A case report of this unusual condition is presented together with a review of the literature. PMID:10854026</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Houshian, S</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2000-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">238</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=NUREG0651"> <span id="translatedtitle">Evaluation of Steam Generator Tube <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> Events.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The NRC Staff's review of three domestic pressurized water reactor steam generator tube <span class="hlt">rupture</span> events has shown that no significant offsite doses or systems performance inadequacies have occurred. The plant operators and systems successfully avoided dire...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">L. B. Marsh</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1980-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">239</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17374865"> <span id="translatedtitle">Spectrum of CT findings in <span class="hlt">rupture</span> and impending <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of abdominal aortic aneurysms.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Prompt diagnosis of <span class="hlt">rupture</span> and impending <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of abdominal aortic aneurysms is imperative. The computed tomographic (CT) findings of <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> abdominal aortic aneurysms are often straightforward. Most <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> are manifested as a retroperitoneal hematoma accompanied by an abdominal aortic aneurysm. Periaortic blood may extend into the perirenal space, the pararenal space, or both. Intraperitoneal extravasation may be an immediate or a delayed finding. Discontinuity of the aortic wall or a focal gap in otherwise continuous circumferential wall calcifications may point to the location of a <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. There usually is a delay of several hours between the initial intramural hemorrhage and frank extravasation into the periaortic soft tissues. Contained or impending <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> are more difficult to identify. A small amount of periaortic blood may be confused with the duodenum, perianeurysmal fibrosis, or adenopathy. Imaging features suggestive of instability or impending <span class="hlt">rupture</span> include increased aneurysm size, a low thrombus-to-lumen ratio, and hemorrhage into a mural thrombus. A peripheral crescent-shaped area of hyperattenuation within an abdominal aortic aneurysm represents an acute intramural hemorrhage and is another CT sign of impending <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. Draping of the posterior aspect of an aneurysmal aorta over the vertebrae is associated with a contained <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. PMID:17374865</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rakita, Dmitry; Newatia, Amit; Hines, John J; Siegel, David N; Friedman, Barak</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">240</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/24732112"> <span id="translatedtitle">Imaging of <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> abdominal and pelvic tumors</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Rupture</span> of tumors is usually a critical and life-threatening condition. We demonstrate a wide variety of <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> tumors\\u000a with their imaging characteristics including gastric lymphoma, gastric leiomyosarcoma, leiomyosarcoma of the ileum, hepatocellular\\u000a carcinoma, pancreatic pseudocyst, renal angiomyolipoma, renal cell carcinoma, ovarian endometrial cyst, ovarian corpus luteum\\u000a cyst, and ovarian teratoma. Their imaging features are illustrated with an emphasis on clues</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yoshie Iwasaki; Junichi Matsumoto; Eimei Okamoto; Hiroshi Niimi; Yasuo Nakajima; Tohru Ishikawa</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a 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showDiv("page_14");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">241</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2584656"> <span id="translatedtitle">Three rare causes of extensor tendon <span class="hlt">rupture</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Three unusual cases of <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of finger extensor tendons by attrition are reported. In one instance it was associated with long-standing nonunion of a scaphoid fracture, with a posttraumatic dorsal subluxation of the lower end of the ulna in another, and with a Madelung's deformity in the third. Extensor tendon <span class="hlt">rupture</span> has not been previously recorded in the English-language literature after the first two conditions. PMID:2584656</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Harvey, F J; Harvey, P M</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1989-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">242</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/7q57323t7175088j.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Cognitive Frames in Psychology: Demarcations and <span class="hlt">Ruptures</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">As there seems to be a recurrent feeling of crisis in psychology, its present state is analyzed in this article. The author\\u000a believes that in addition to the traditional manifestations that have dogged psychology since it emerged as an independent\\u000a science some new features of the crisis have emerged. Three fundamental “<span class="hlt">ruptures</span>” are identified: the “horizontal” <span class="hlt">rupture</span>\\u000a between various schools</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Andrey V. Yurevich</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">243</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14529221"> <span id="translatedtitle">Delayed primary realignment of posterior urethral <span class="hlt">rupture</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The treatment of acute posterior urethral <span class="hlt">rupture</span> is controversial. Twelve patients who presented with acute posterior urethral <span class="hlt">rupture</span> over a five-year period were treated by delayed primary realignment of the injury. The technique of this procedure and the outcome are the subject of this presentation. Eight patients had successful realignment without strictures. Two patients with strictures responded to simple dilatations with bougies and the other two had formal urethroplasty. PMID:14529221</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Shittu, O B; Okeke, L I; Kamara, T B; Adebayo, S A</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">244</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2879216"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Ruptured</span> Profunda Femoris Aneurysm Secondary to Neurofibromatosis</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Neurofibromatosis is an autosomal dominant genetic disease characterized by abnormal growth that involves tissues of mesodermal and neuroectodermal origin. Aneurysms are rarely seen in peripheral arteries. This report presents a case of <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> arterial aneurysm secondary to neurofibromatosis; the lesion occurred in the profunda femoris artery, a highly unusual location. Treatment of patients with <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> arterial aneurysm secondary to neurofibromatosis may be interventional or surgical. In this case, a surgical approach was successful.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Emrecan, Bilgin; Onem, Gokhan; Susam, Ibrahim</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">245</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23313500"> <span id="translatedtitle">Closed traumatic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of the extensor hallucis longus muscle.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A 23-year-old healthy laborer involved in a work-related injury, sustained excessive left ankle plantarflexion, which resulted in closed <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of the extensor hallucis longus muscle without any predisposing factors. He had an associated fracture of the second metatarsal shaft. The muscle proximal to the musculotendinous junction was excised, and the tendon was looped through a longitudinal slit in the <span class="hlt">main</span> extensor digitorum communis tendon and sutured to it. The second metatarsal fracture was fixed with Kirschner wires. The patient regained full function and was symptom free 6 months after surgery. PMID:23313500</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Tadros, Ayman M A; Al-Shaeel, Rashed A</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-11</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">246</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15132929"> <span id="translatedtitle">Percutaneous repair of acute Achilles tendon <span class="hlt">rupture</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Various studies have shown that the operative treatment of a freshly <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> Achilles tendon is generally considered to be more appropriate than a nonoperative regimen. However, complications in open reconstructions are reported to occur in 11-29%. The method used in this study reduced the risk of complications arising from operation, but simultaneously allowed early postoperative mobilization and functional treatment. It was a percutaneous repair of the Achilles tendon, using two Lengemann extension wires for coadaptation of the <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> tendon. To fix the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> site, the authors used a fibrin sealant. The spikes of the wire were hooked in at the fascia of the soleus muscle. Via a big, curved needle, the wire was placed in the distal stumps of the <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> tendon and guided out laterally and medially above the calcaneus. After blocking the wires distally, the fibrin sealant was applied at the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> site. The current report describes this method of treatment in 66 patients. The postoperative observation period was 1 year. Sixty-four patients were male and two were female. Their average age was 42 years. The Achilles tendon <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> occurred during sporting activities and were treated by operation within 22 hours on average. The outcome was very good in 98%. One patient (2%) suffered a rerupture due to trauma. There were no other complications. PMID:15132929</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gorschewsky, Ottmar; Pitzl, Martin; Pütz, Andrej; Klakow, Andreas; Neumann, Wolfram</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">247</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.S52B..06G"> <span id="translatedtitle">Broadband Ground Motion Simulations for a Kinematic Variation of the Mw 7.8 ShakeOut <span class="hlt">Rupture</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The 2008 ShakeOut Scenario (Porter et al., 2011) describes a hypothetical Mw 7.8 earthquake on the southern San Andreas Fault, the associated simulated ground motions, and their potential impact on the built environment. The <span class="hlt">main</span> features of the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> scenario, including its end-points, magnitude, and gross slip distribution, were defined through expert opinion. Other details of the original <span class="hlt">rupture</span> description such as slip at smaller length scales, <span class="hlt">rupture</span> speed, and rise time were constrained using empirical relationships and experience gained from previous strong-motion modeling (Hudnut et al., 2008). Subsequent analyses considering the sensitivity of kinematically prescribed <span class="hlt">rupture</span> speed (Graves et al., 2008) and fully spontaneous dynamic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> parameterizations (Olsen et al., 2009) found that ground motion amplification due to <span class="hlt">rupture</span> directivity can be significantly affected by the coherency of the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> across the fault surface. Here, we build on these earlier studies by considering an alternative kinematic parameterization of the ShakeOut <span class="hlt">rupture</span> developed using the methodology presented by Graves and Pitarka (2010). The resulting <span class="hlt">rupture</span> description has a high degree of spatial and temporal complexity, which leads to a reduction in the coherence of the radiated energy and diminished longer period <span class="hlt">rupture</span> directivity effects relative to the original scenario. Analysis of the original ShakeOut results by Star et al. (2011) also found the shorter period simulations attenuate faster with distance and have lower intra-event sigma compared with empirical predictions. We have addressed these issues by adjusting the Q value used in the model and increasing the stochastic variability in the shorter period simulation approach. Comparison of the updated simulation results with estimates from ground motion prediction equations shows improved distance attenuation behavior and an intra-event dispersion that is similar to the empirical models at periods longer than about 1 sec, and closer to, but still somewhat lower, at shorter periods.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Graves, R. W.; Seyhan, E.; Stewart, J. P.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">248</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011EP%26S...63..955P"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Rupture</span> process and coseismic deformations of the 27 February 2010 Maule earthquake, Chile</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We estimated the spatial and temporal slip distribution for the 27 February 2010 Maule earthquake from teleseismic body wave data. To obtain a stable inversion solution, we used the data covariance matrix from the observation and modeling errors, incorporated smoothing constraints and determined their optimal values by using the Akaike Bayesian Information Criterion (ABIC). The fault <span class="hlt">rupture</span> can be divided into three stages. For the first 30 s the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> started as an elliptical crack elongated in the in-plane direction along the dip. After 30 s the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> propagated bi-laterally along strike reaching the maximum moment release rate at around 50 s near the hypocenter. Finally the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> propagated <span class="hlt">mainly</span> to the north reaching another peak of moment release rate at 80 s and 130 km north-east from the hypocenter. <span class="hlt">Main</span> <span class="hlt">rupture</span> lasted for about 110 s. In order to evaluate our source model, we calculated the predicted coseismic vertical displacements and compare them with observed uplift/subsidence values measured along the coastline, as well as displacements obtained from strong ground motion and high-sampling GPS records in Concepción. Our model provides good estimations of the static displacements in the northern source region, but under-estimates the coseismic uplifts in the southern region.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Pulido, N.; Yagi, Y.; Kumagai, H.; Nishimura, N.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">249</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003JGRA..108.1233H"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Shock</span> front nonstationarity of supercritical perpendicular <span class="hlt">shocks</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">shock</span> front nonstationarity of perpendicular <span class="hlt">shocks</span> in super-critical regime is analyzed by examining the coupling between "incoming" and "reflected" ion populations. For a given set of parameters including the upstream Mach number (MA) and the fraction ? of reflected to incoming ions, a self-consistent, time-stationary solution of the coupling between ion streams and the electromagnetic field is sought for. If such a solution is found, the <span class="hlt">shock</span> is stationary; otherwise, the <span class="hlt">shock</span> is nonstationary, leading to a self-reforming <span class="hlt">shock</span> front often observed in full particle simulations of quasi-perpendicular <span class="hlt">shocks</span>. A parametric study of this numerical model allows us to define a critical ?crit between stationary and nonstationary regimes. The <span class="hlt">shock</span> can be nonstationary even for relatively low MA(2-5). For a moderate MA(5-10), the critical value ?crit is about 15 to 20%. For very high MA (>10), ?crit saturates around 20%. Moreover, present full simulations show that self-reformation of the <span class="hlt">shock</span> front occurs for relatively low ?i and disappears for high ?i, where ?i is the ratio of upstream ion plasma to magnetic field pressures. Results issued from the present theoretical model are found to be in good agreement with full particle simulations for low ?i case; this agreement holds as long as the motion of reflected ions is coherent enough (narrow ion ring) to be described by a single population in the model. The present model reveals to be "at variance" with full particle simulations results for the high ?i case. Present results are also compared with previous hybrid simulations.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hada, Tohru; Oonishi, Makiko; LembèGe, Bertrand; Savoini, Philippe</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">250</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1996APS..DPP..5E04L"> <span id="translatedtitle">The hypercritical <span class="hlt">shock</span> wave</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">When the <span class="hlt">shock</span> velocity increases the <span class="hlt">shock</span> temperature becomes high enough to induce a radiative precursor in the unperturbed material, the <span class="hlt">shock</span> wave is no longer adiabatic and is said supercritical. Such a <span class="hlt">shock</span> was evidenced in xenon gas by laser irradiating an Al foil in 1986. New experiments have been recently performed on the Octal- Heliotrope installation. A laser irradiated low density foam allowed us to get a 100 eV radiative precursor in the supercritical <span class="hlt">shock</span> wave. At even higher velocities the <span class="hlt">shock</span> temperature becomes high enough to make the <span class="hlt">shocked</span> material transparent to its own radiation, as a consequence the <span class="hlt">shock</span> wave tends to a near adiabatic regime. This regime is not permanent when the <span class="hlt">shock</span> velocity remains constant. Furthermore, the radiative precursor propagation law is different from that of the supercritical case. For these reasons we call it the "hypercritical" <span class="hlt">shock</span> wave. We present here the experimental results and show their good agreement with a simple analytical model and with 1D numerical calculations.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Le Breton, Jean-Pierre; Bozier, Jean-Claude; Jalinaud, Thierry; Valadon, Josiane</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1996-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">251</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7989797"> <span id="translatedtitle">[A case of operation for acute postinfarction mitral insufficiency due to papillary muscle <span class="hlt">rupture</span>].</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A 75-year-old man was brought to hospital with complaining of chest pain. He was diagnosed acute myocardial infarction and treated medically using thrombolytic drugs. Without chest pain relieved, cardiac catheterization revealed three coronary vessel disease and severe mitral insufficiency (MR). MR was diagnosed due to papillary muscle <span class="hlt">rupture</span> by echocardiography. After being transferred to our hospital, the patient developed in <span class="hlt">shock</span> and underwent emergency operation with IABP inserted. Triple CABGs (to LAD, PD and 4PL) and mitral valve replacement were performed using saphenous vein grafts and a mechanical valve (Carbomedicus 25 M). The patient recovered gradually and discharged one and a half month after operation. PMID:7989797</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Higuchi, K; Konishi, T; Shigeta, O; Fukata, M; Okuwaki, H; Makuuchi, H</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1994-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">252</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.8919B"> <span id="translatedtitle">Kinematic <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> Process Of Karakocan-Elazig Earthquake, Eastern Turkey</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">An earthquake (Mw=5.9) hit Elazig in the eastern part of Turkey on March 8, 2010 at 02:32 (GMT). It is located midway between the provincial capital of Elaz?? and Bingöl with coordinates reported as 38o48.42N and 40o5.99E by Bogazici University Kandilli Observatory and Earthquake Research Institute (KOERI). Source characterization and slip history were estimated the <span class="hlt">main</span> and four moderate size earthquake almost at the same location. The earthquake occurred at one of the tectonically very active East Anatolian Fault zone starts at the Karl?ova triple junction, where it meets the North Anatolian fault to the NE. Multi time-window linear waveform inversion technique (MTWIT) was applied to strong ground motion (SGM) data. Theoretical Green's functions between subfaults and stations were calculated by a Discrete Wave Number Method (DWNM) using 1-D velocity structure. Inversion technique used in this study yields a non unique solution. Therefore various <span class="hlt">rupture</span> models have been tried until both observed and synthetic data were matched. Results show simple patterns in slip distributions. Maximum slip is 0.78 and seismic moment is 1.435E+25 dyne.cm from the kinematic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> process of the strike slip faulting. In this study, we searched a stable 1-D crustal velocity model with low RMS misfit to construct the theoretical Green's function between each sub-fault and each station among the 4 different models. These are Preliminary Reference Earth Model (PREM; Dziewonski and Anderson, 1981), International Association of Seismology and the Physics of the Earth's Interior (IASP91) (Kennett and Engdahl, 1991), Kandilli Observatory and Earthquake Research Institute (KOERI) earthquake location model, explosion model (Gurbuz, 2004). We have collected previous studies Rebollar et al., (2001), Ichinose et al., (1997), Abdel-Fattah (2002), Somerville et al., (1999), Wells and Coppersmith (1994) on source information of moderate size earthquakes occurred worldwide and compared with our results. Results were compared with those of similar size earthquakes around the world and a new empirical relationship was proposed between seismic moment and <span class="hlt">rupture</span> area. We expect our findings provide usefull information to resolving <span class="hlt">rupture</span> mechanisms and triggering of the events in Eastern Anatoion Region. Key Words: <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> Process, Elazig Earthquake, Eastern Turkey</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bekler, F. N.; Ozel, N. M.; Tanircan, G. B.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">253</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12098827"> <span id="translatedtitle">[<span class="hlt">Rupture</span> of the uterine artery after spontaneous delivery with unusual course in childbed].</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Haemorrhage from <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> uterine vessels is a rare but life-threatening complication during pregnancy. The high rate of mortality associated with this condition is correlated to the rapidity of haematoma formation. The dynamics of this event become particularly evident at the time of birth when the uterus requires one-fifth of the cardiac output. This high rate of flow emphasizes the possible fatal consequences of delayed therapeutical intervention. Information available on the aetiology and pathogenesis of such events is poor, especially if an involvement of cervical vessels or extraperitoneal (incomplete) <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of the uterus can be excluded. Diagnosis and therapy are based on the classical clinical symptoms of acute abdominal pain-and-<span class="hlt">shock</span> symptomatology. We report on a 31-year old patient after spontaneous delivery and initially uneventful puerperium. She had to be laparotomised on the third day post partum because of pain and haemoglobin deficiency. We found a large retroperitoneal (supralevatorial) haematoma caused by <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> lateral branches of the left arteria uterina. The uterus was preserved after haematoma removal and revision and suture of the bleeding vessels. The case reported on shows that peripartal <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of arterial uterine vessels may turn out to be clinically relevant only after a relatively long time (> 72 hours). Only four comparable cases have been reported in the literature, the course being different from that in all the other cases. In all the documented cases arterial uterine haemorrhages resulted in short-term acute aggravation of the symptomatology with severe abdominal pain, haemodynamic collapse and simultaneous haemoglobin deficit. The case under report in the present paper was at first clinically occult and eventually developed a pathology that had not been described before. Its specific significance lies in illustrating the need for re-evaluating such initially hidden cases while paying special attention to <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> uterine vessels. PMID:12098827</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Becker, R; Kowalsky, B L; Hatzmann, W</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">254</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AIPC.1302..231R"> <span id="translatedtitle">Heliospheric <span class="hlt">shocks</span> and sheaths</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Voyager 2 has observed the effects of pickup ions since about 20 AU, first in pressure-balance structures and then in the slowdown and heating of the solar wind. By the time Voyager 2 (V2) reached the termination <span class="hlt">shock</span> (TS), the speed had decreased by about 17% due to mass-loading by pickup ions. At the TS, most of the flow energy did not go into the thermal ions but instead heated these pickup ions. ICME-driven <span class="hlt">shocks</span> are studied and compared to planetary bow <span class="hlt">shocks</span> and the TS to see if pickup ions affect the heating at these <span class="hlt">shocks</span>. The percentage of reflected ions at interplanetary <span class="hlt">shocks</span> increases to about 35 AU and is similar to the percentage observed in planetary magnetosheaths at the same distance. However, outside 35 AU, no reflected thermal ions are observed downstream of interplanetary <span class="hlt">shocks</span> or the TS, likely because pickup ions dominate the thermal plasma pressure outside this distance.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Richardson, John D.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">255</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002sf2a.conf..531L"> <span id="translatedtitle">New radiative <span class="hlt">shocks</span> experiment</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">An experimental study of <span class="hlt">shocks</span> with astrophysical relevance is performed with the high energy density laser of the LULI, at the Ecole Polytechnique. The peculiarity of these <span class="hlt">shocks</span> is the strong coupling between radiation and hydrodynamics which leads to a structure governed by a radiative precursor. A new experiment has been performed this year where we have observed <span class="hlt">shocks</span> identified as radiative <span class="hlt">shocks</span>. We study them in various experimental configurations (several speeds and geometries of the medium where the <span class="hlt">shock</span> propagates, allowing a quasi-planar or a quasi-spherical expansion). From the measurements it is possible to infer several features of the <span class="hlt">shock</span> such as the speed, the electronic density, the geometrical shape and spectroscopic informations. The results will be studied with numerical simulations.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Leygnac, S.; Bouquet, S.; Stehlé, C.; Benuzzi, A.; Boireau, J.-P.; Chièze, J.-P.; Grandjouan, N.; Huser, G.; Koenig, M.; Malka, V.; Merdji, H.; Michaut, C.; Thais, F.; Vinci, T.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">256</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003ASAJ..113..586Z"> <span id="translatedtitle">Suppression of large intraluminal bubble expansion in <span class="hlt">shock</span> wave lithotripsy without compromising stone comminution: Refinement of reflector geometry</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Using the Hamilton model [Hamilton, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 93, 1256-1266 (1993)], the effects of reflector geometry on the pulse profile and sequence of the <span class="hlt">shock</span> waves produced by the original and upgraded reflector of an HM-3 lithotripter were evaluated qualitatively. Guided by this analysis, we have refined the geometry of the upgraded reflector to enhance its suppressive effect on intraluminal bubble expansion without compromising stone comminution in <span class="hlt">shock</span> wave lithotripsy. Using the original HM-3 reflector at 20 kV, <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of a standard vessel phantom made of cellulose hollow fiber (i.d.=0.2 mm), in which degassed water seeded with ultrasound contrast agents was circulated, was produced at the lithotripter focus after about 30 <span class="hlt">shocks</span>. In contrast, using the upgraded reflector at 24 kV no <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of the vessel phantom could be produced within a 20-mm diameter around the lithotripter focus even after 200 <span class="hlt">shocks</span>. On the other hand, stone comminution was comparable between the two reflector configurations, although slightly larger fragments were produced by the upgraded reflector. After 2000 <span class="hlt">shocks</span>, stone comminution efficiency produced by the original HM-3 reflector at 20 kV is 97.15+/-1.92% (mean+/-SD), compared to 90.35+/-1.96% produced by the upgraded reflector at 24 kV (p<0.02). All together, it was found that the upgraded reflector could significantly reduce the propensity for vessel <span class="hlt">rupture</span> in <span class="hlt">shock</span> wave lithotripsy while maintaining satisfactory stone comminution.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zhou, Yufeng; Zhong, Pei</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">257</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013M%26PSA..76.5267H"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Shock</span> Metamorphism in L Chondrites Above <span class="hlt">Shock</span> Stage S6</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We investigated several L6 chondrites <span class="hlt">shocked</span> to between stage S6 and whole rock melting. The study presents the effects of high post-<span class="hlt">shock</span> temperature and the annealing of high-pressure evidence in highly <span class="hlt">shocked</span> chondrites.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hu, J.; Sharp, T. G.; De Carli, P. S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">258</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998LNP...505...79M"> <span id="translatedtitle">Concepts of <span class="hlt">Shock</span> Waves</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Shock</span> Waves Definition and Formation Properties of Sonic Waves Formation of a <span class="hlt">Shock</span> Wave Rankine-Hugoniot Equations (Conservation Laws) Conservation of Mass, Momentum and Energy in the Laboratory Frame The Same in the <span class="hlt">Shock</span> Front Frame The Same in Special Relativity Hugoniot Curve and Its Representation in the (P, up) Plane Comments on Conservation Laws and Relative Position of Hugoniot and - Isentropic Curves in the (P, V) Plane Comments on Conservation Laws Position of Hugoniot Curve (H) Relatively to Isentropic Curves - in the (P,V) Plane Experimental Results Some Experimental Results on Simple Metals Relation Between Us (<span class="hlt">Shock</span> Wave Velocity) and up (Particular - Velocity) Some Results on Geogical Materials Numerical Compendiums Hydrodynamic Attenuation Hydrodynamic Decay of Pressure Pulses <span class="hlt">Shock</span> Transmissions Between Two Media Reflected <span class="hlt">Shock</span> Waves Reflected Release Waves Equilibrium State at the Interface Approximation on Curves H'1 and S_{1^-} Planar Impact of Projectile on Semi-infinite and Massice Target at - Rest Chronology of Events Theory Numerical Examples Equation of State and Temperature Evaluation Mie-Gruneisen Equation of State Temperature Behind a <span class="hlt">Shock</span> Front. Low Pressure Temperature Behind a <span class="hlt">Shock</span> Front. High Pressure Numerical Applications Release from the <span class="hlt">Shocked</span> State Residual Temperature Isentropic Curve from the Initial State Comments Reference</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Miigault, A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">259</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/wp/2010/wp1053.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">International Commodity Price <span class="hlt">Shocks</span>, Democracy, and External Debt</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">We examine the effects that international commodity price <span class="hlt">shocks</span> have on external debt using panel data for a world sample of 93 countries spanning the period 1970-2007. Our <span class="hlt">main</span> finding is that positive commodity price <span class="hlt">shocks</span> lead to a significant reduction in the level of external debt in democracies, but to no significant reduction in the level of external debt</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rabah Arezki; Markus Bruckner</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">260</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/18840505"> <span id="translatedtitle">Tandem <span class="hlt">shock</span> wave cavitation enhancement for extracorporeal lithotripsy</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Extracorporeal <span class="hlt">shock</span> wave lithotripsy (ESWL) has been successful for more than twenty years in treating patients with kidney stones. Hundreds of underwater <span class="hlt">shock</span> waves are generated outside the patient's body and focused on the kidney stone. Stones fracture <span class="hlt">mainly</span> due to spalling, cavitation and layer separation. Cavitation bubbles are produced in the vicinity of the stone by the tensile phase</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Achim M Loske; Fernando E Prieto; Francisco Fernández; Javier van Cauwelaert</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a 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showDiv("page_15");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">261</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21432219"> <span id="translatedtitle">Multidimensional effects on relativistic electrons in an oblique <span class="hlt">shock</span> wave</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Multidimensional effects on electron motion in a magnetosonic <span class="hlt">shock</span> wave propagating obliquely to an external magnetic field are studied by means of a two-dimensional (two space coordinates and three velocities) relativistic, electromagnetic particle code. The simulations demonstrate that after trapping and energization in the <span class="hlt">main</span> pulse of the <span class="hlt">shock</span> wave, electrons can be detrapped from it keeping their ultrarelativistic energies. This detrapping is caused by magnetic fluctuations propagating along the wave front. Furthermore, some of the detrapped electrons can be accelerated to much higher energies by the <span class="hlt">shock</span> wave because they can enter and exit the <span class="hlt">shock</span> wave as a result of their gyromotions.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Shikii, Kenta; Toida, Mieko [Department of Physics, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-08-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">262</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6856091"> <span id="translatedtitle">Capacity credit calculation for exchanger tube <span class="hlt">rupture</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper reports that overpressure relieving in heat exchanger tube <span class="hlt">rupture</span> case is quite different from other cases, such as fire, utility failure, inadvertent valve opening/closure, etc., when designing a pressure relief valve (PRV). In most cases, it is quite straightforward. The calculated relief load is the capacity that needs to be relieved. But, in heat exchanger tube <span class="hlt">rupture</span> cases, the actual amount of relieving capacity from the relieving device is not necessarily equal to the one from the high-pressure side through a tube <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. Very often, the actual amount of relieving capacity from the relieving device is less than the flow from the higher-pressure side through a tube <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. At the time of a tube <span class="hlt">rupture</span>, the process fluid flows through the breakage of a heat exchanger tube wall from its high-pressure side to its low-pressure side. The process fluid will then flow through the orifice of a PRV from the low-pressure side of the heat exchanger to the back-pressure side, which could be a flare, a K.O. drum or even atmosphere.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wong, W.Y. (Stothert-Christenson Engineering Ltd., Burnaby, B.C. (Canada))</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1992-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">263</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=470154"> <span id="translatedtitle">Pericardial <span class="hlt">rupture</span> from blunt chest trauma</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Borrie, J. and Lichter, I. (1974).Thorax, 29, 329-337. Pericardial <span class="hlt">rupture</span> from blunt chest trauma. Pericardial <span class="hlt">rupture</span> may occur in two distinct anatomical sites, namely the diaphragmatic pericardium and the pleuropericardium. They may be combined. The problems in each type are different. In <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> diaphragmatic pericardium the rent may involve the pericardial cavity alone, or may extend into one or both adjoining pleural cavities. Upward herniation of abdominal viscera can occur, with or without strangulation. The presence of a pericardial rent may be suggested by diagnostic pneumoperitoneum, and chest films showing displaced abdominal viscera; its extent may be fully revealed only by thoracotomy. If the rent involves only the diaphragmatic pericardium without lateral spread into a pleural cavity, the presence of a rent may be revealed only by exploratory thoracotomy with pericardiotomy. In <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> pleuropericardium the rent is usually vertical and may occur on either side, more usually on the left. It may be recognized on chest films in its early stages by the presence of intrapericardial air arising from associated lung trauma. There is serious risk of heart dislocation with or without strangulation. The defect must be surgically repaired and, because of pericardial retraction, it may require a fabric patch. Teflon fabric has proved to be a long-term satisfactory pericardial substitute. Two cases of each type of pericardial <span class="hlt">rupture</span> are described and illustrate these points. Images</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Borrie, J.; Lichter, I.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1974-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">264</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005AGUFM.U11A0819O"> <span id="translatedtitle">Imaging of Large Earthquake <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> Processes Using Multiple Teleseismic Arrays: Application to the Sumatra-Andaman Islands Earthquake</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The spatial extent of large earthquake <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> is usually indirectly inferred from aftershock distributions or by waveform inversion techniques. In this work we present a method which allows the direct estimation of the spatio-temporal characteristics of large earthquake <span class="hlt">rupture</span> processes. The technique exploits the high-quality records from the stations of the global broadband network using a simple, yet efficient, migration technique. In particular, we combine coherency and beam-power measures which are obtained from curved wavefront stacking of the direct P wave at multiple large aperture arrays surrounding the source region at tele-seismic distances. Applying this method to the Mw=9.3 Sumatra earthquake from 26/12/2004 and the subsequent Nias earthquake from 28/03/2005 (Mw=8.7), we show that it is possible to track the focus of the most coherent/largest energy release in space and time. For the Sumatra event, we confirm the overall extent of the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> length being in the order of 1150 km. The <span class="hlt">rupture</span> front propagated during a time span of at least 480-500 s following the trench geometry from the northern tip of Sumatra to the Andaman Islands region. A visualization of the coherent energy accumulation over time suggests the existence of slow after-slip in the northern part of the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> after the <span class="hlt">main</span> <span class="hlt">rupture</span> front has passed. However, due to the interference of large later phases it is not possible to determine whether this afterslipping event persists much longer then the overall duration of the <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. The final areal estimate of cumulative energy release is in full agreement with the aftershock distribution observed in the months following this earthquake. Including a number of additional seismic phases (e.g. pP, sP) into the migration scheme, it seems for this event feasible to constrain the depth extent of the <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. For the Nias earthquake we observe unilateral propagation of the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> in south-eastern direction starting from an area south-east to the epicentral region of the Sumatra event. The <span class="hlt">rupture</span> extent and duration of this event is about 25% of its predecessor. The estimation of the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> duration for these events and their corresponding spatial extent allows deriving approximate source energy estimates during the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> process and finally provides an appropriate estimate of the total earthquake size within minutes after the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> onset. Considering the urgent need for early-warning systems for the detection of tsunami-genic earthquakes, we feel that this technique has the potential to become an integral part of such a system.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ohrnberger, M.; Krüger, F.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">265</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=ADA183943"> <span id="translatedtitle">Recent Trends in Ship <span class="hlt">Shock</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The recent change from ship <span class="hlt">shock</span> tests to ship <span class="hlt">shock</span> trials is discussed including the differences between the two. The implication of this change is examined as it relates to equipment and system engineers. <span class="hlt">Shock</span> trial unique preparations are presented.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">J. M. Fowler</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1987-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">266</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=AD723341"> <span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">Shock</span> and Vibration Bulletin.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Contents: Experimental approach to understanding <span class="hlt">shock</span> response; Explosive <span class="hlt">shock</span>; Modal velocity as criterion of <span class="hlt">shock</span> severity; Simultaneous application of transient and steady state dynamic excitations in a combined environment test facility simulating ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1969-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">267</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=PB92120625"> <span id="translatedtitle">Macroalgae Industry in <span class="hlt">Maine</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Contents: Physical description and climate of the <span class="hlt">Maine</span> coast; Seaweed biology; Some uses of macroalgae; Determination of candidates for aquaculture; Economically important macroalgae in <span class="hlt">Maine</span>--Porphyra; Chondrus crispus; Mastocarpus stellata; Palmaria pa...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">S. Crawford</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1991-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">268</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21180065"> <span id="translatedtitle">Secondary <span class="hlt">shock</span> wave in laser-material interaction</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this work, the effects of <span class="hlt">shock</span> driven process of the laser-ablated argon plume in a background gas environment are explored via molecular dynamics simulations. The primary <span class="hlt">shock</span> wave propagation and its influence on the backward motion of the target material are delineated. It is observed that the strong pressure gradient inside the <span class="hlt">main</span> <span class="hlt">shock</span> wave overcomes the forward momentum of the plume and some compressed gas, leading to backward movement and redeposition on the target surface. Reflection of the backward moving gas on the target surface results in the secondary <span class="hlt">shock</span> wave. Detailed investigation of the secondary <span class="hlt">shock</span> wave phenomenon is provided, which gives, for the first time, an insight into formation and evolution of the internal gaseous <span class="hlt">shock</span> at the atomistic level.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gacek, Sobieslaw; Wang Xinwei [Department of Mechanical Engineering, 2010 H. M. Black Engineering Building, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011-2161 (United States)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-12-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">269</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.T43D2396Y"> <span id="translatedtitle">The localization of earthquake surface <span class="hlt">rupture</span> zones and associated building damage features</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">According to statistics on the world's 130 surface <span class="hlt">rupturing</span> earthquakes, 90% to 95% of the casualties are due caused by collapse of the buildings. After 2008 Wenchuan Mw 7.9 earthquake and 2010 Yushu Mw 7.1 earthquake, Basing on in-situ measurements of the earthquake surface <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> and surveys of building damage associated with the earthquake along the measured profile, we analyzes various types of earthquake surface <span class="hlt">rupture</span> features and their associated building damages. Then, a relationship between the gradient of the surface deformation and the building damage degree is quantitatively discussed. The results indicate that, the <span class="hlt">main</span> factors affecting the damage degree of buildings might include: the distance to the surface <span class="hlt">rupture</span> zone, the angle between the building extension and the strike of the fault, the structure of buildings itself, the quality of materials for building construction, and time of building utilization. The most direct effect, however, comes from the surface deformation gradient of the site where the building is located. The direct damage of the buildings on the ground caused by the co-seismic displacement along the seismogenic fault is limited within a limited width range. The both hanging-wall and footwall of the fault are characterized by entire consistent motion and the surface <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> or strong deformation zones are constrained within a limited width range less than 30 meters across the fault. The results of this study may provide a reliable and quantitative constraint for the setback width for building construction along the fault.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yu, G.; Xu, X.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">270</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EaSci..23..201Z"> <span id="translatedtitle">Fast inversion of <span class="hlt">rupture</span> process of the 14 April 2010 Yushu, Qinghai, earthquake</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Four results of the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> process of 14 April 2010 Yushu, Qinghai, earthquake, obtained by inverting the broadband seismic data of Global Seismographic Network (GSN) based on the inversion method of earthquake <span class="hlt">rupture</span> process, were compared and discussed. It is found that the Yushu earthquake has several basic characteristics as follows: ? There exist two principal sub-events which correspond to two slip-concentrated patches being located near the hypocenter and to the southeast of the epicenter. The <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of the slip-concentrated patch to the southeast of the epicenter broke though the ground surface; ? The peak slip and peak slip-rate are about 2.1 m and 1.1 m/s, respectively, indicating that the Yushu earthquake is an event with large slip-rate on the fault plane; ? Overall the Yushu earthquake is a unilateral <span class="hlt">rupture</span> event with the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> <span class="hlt">mainly</span> propagating southeastward. The strong focusing of the seismic energy in the southeast of the epicenter due to the “seismic Doppler effect” reasonably accounts for the tremendous damage in the Yushu city.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zhang, Yong; Xu, Lisheng; Chen, Yun-Tai</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">271</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/12525227"> <span id="translatedtitle">MULTI-TRANSONIC BLACK HOLE ACCRETION DISCS WITH ISOTHERMA L STANDING <span class="hlt">SHOCKS</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this work we would like to address the issue of <span class="hlt">shock</span> formation in black hole accretion discs. We provide a generalized two parameter solution schemefor multi-transonic, accretion and wind around Schwarzschild black holes, by <span class="hlt">mainly</span> concentrating on accretion solutions which may contain steady, standing isothermal <span class="hlt">shocks</span>. Such <span class="hlt">shocks</span> conserve flow temperature by the dissipation of energ y at the</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">TAPAS K. DAS; JAYANT K. PENDHARKAR; SANJIT MITRA</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">272</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://archinte.ama-assn.org/cgi/reprint/162/9/1028.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Relevance of Mutations in the TLR4 Receptor in Patients With Gram-Negative Septic <span class="hlt">Shock</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background: Septic <span class="hlt">shock</span> remains a significant health concern worldwide, and despite progress in understand- ing the physiological and molecular basis of septic <span class="hlt">shock</span>, the high mortality rate of patients with septic <span class="hlt">shock</span> re- <span class="hlt">mains</span> unchanged. We recently identified a common poly- morphism in toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) that is associ- ated with hyporesponsiveness to inhaled endotoxin or lipopolysaccharide in humans.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Eva Lorenz; Jean Paul Mira; Kathy L. Frees; David A. Schwartz</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">273</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012PhyD..241.1567E"> <span id="translatedtitle">Refraction of dispersive <span class="hlt">shock</span> waves</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We study a dispersive counterpart of the classical gas dynamics problem of the interaction of a <span class="hlt">shock</span> wave with a counter-propagating simple rarefaction wave, often referred to as the <span class="hlt">shock</span> wave refraction. The refraction of a one-dimensional dispersive <span class="hlt">shock</span> wave (DSW) due to its head-on collision with the centred rarefaction wave (RW) is considered in the framework of the defocusing nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS) equation. For the integrable cubic nonlinearity case we present a full asymptotic description of the DSW refraction by constructing appropriate exact solutions of the Whitham modulation equations in Riemann invariants. For the NLS equation with saturable nonlinearity, whose modulation system does not possess Riemann invariants, we take advantage of the recently developed method for the DSW description in non-integrable dispersive systems to obtain <span class="hlt">main</span> physical parameters of the DSW refraction. The key features of the DSW-RW interaction predicted by our modulation theory analysis are confirmed by direct numerical solutions of the full dispersive problem.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">El, G. A.; Khodorovskii, V. V.; Leszczyszyn, A. M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">274</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10140552"> <span id="translatedtitle">Component external leakage and <span class="hlt">rupture</span> frequency estimates</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In order to perform detailed internal flooding risk analyses of nuclear power plants, external leakage and <span class="hlt">rupture</span> frequencies are needed for various types of components - piping, valves, pumps, flanges, and others. However, there appears to be no up-to-date, comprehensive source for such frequency estimates. This report attempts to fill that void. Based on a comprehensive search of Licensee Event Reports (LERs) contained in Nuclear Power Experience (NPE), and estimates of component populations and exposure times, component external leakage and <span class="hlt">rupture</span> frequencies were generated. The remainder of this report covers the specifies of the NPE search for external leakage and <span class="hlt">rupture</span> events, analysis of the data, a comparison with frequency estimates from other sources, and a discussion of the results.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Eide, S.A.; Khericha, S.T.; Calley, M.B.; Johnson, D.A.; Marteeny, M.L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1991-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">275</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8948254"> <span id="translatedtitle">Increasing incidence of Achilles tendon <span class="hlt">rupture</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">During the period 1987-91, 153 cases of total Achilles tendon <span class="hlt">rupture</span> were diagnosed in the city of Malmo (population 230,000). Almost two thirds were caused by sporting activities, notably badminton. <span class="hlt">Ruptures</span> caused by nonsports injuries were found in older subjects. Compared to the age-specific incidence in 1950-73, a marked increase in both sports and nonsports injuries was found and patients in the latter group were older than in the former period. Patients with Achilles tendon <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> can be classified into two subgroups with partly different etiologies: young or middle-aged athletes and older non-athletic persons. The increase in the former group is mostly explained by increased participation in recreational sports; the cause of increase in the latter group is unknown. PMID:8948254</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Möller, A; Astron, M; Westlin, N</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1996-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">276</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/27663546"> <span id="translatedtitle">Observing stellar bow <span class="hlt">shocks</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">For stars, the bow <span class="hlt">shock</span> is typically the boundary between their stellar wind and the interstellar medium. Named for the wave made by a ship as it moves through water, the bow <span class="hlt">shock</span> wave can be created in the space when two streams of gas collide. The space is actually filled with the interstellar medium consisting of tenuous gas and</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">A. C. Sparavigna; R. Marazzato</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">277</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24176404"> <span id="translatedtitle">[Extracorporeal <span class="hlt">shock</span> wave lithotripsy].</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Extracorporeal <span class="hlt">shock</span> wave lithotripsy (ESWL) is a treatment of urinary stones with the uses of <span class="hlt">shock</span> wave. The principle of ESWL will be exposed. The ways to localize the stones are then discussed with the mode of anesthesia. One session of ESWL will be presented in details. Contraindications, indications, prerequisit, complications and results will be briefly described. PMID:24176404</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Saussine, C</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-07-31</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">278</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/58117330"> <span id="translatedtitle">Technology <span class="hlt">Shocks</span> and Employment</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Recent empirical work has suggested that in response to a positive technology <span class="hlt">shock</span>, labour productivity rises more than output, while employment shows a persistent decline. This finding has raised doubts concerning the relevance of the RBC model as well as the quantitative significance of technology <span class="hlt">shocks</span> as a source of aggregate fluctuations. We show that the inability of the RBC</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Fabrice Collard; Harris Dellas</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">279</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.vwl.unibe.ch/papers/dp/dp0217.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Technology <span class="hlt">Shocks</span> and Employment</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Recent empirical work has suggested that in response to a positive technology <span class="hlt">shock</span> employment shows a persistent decline. This finding has raised doubts concerning the relevance of the RBC model as well as the quantitative significance of technology <span class="hlt">shocks</span> as a source of aggregate fluctuations. We show that the standard, open economy, flexible price RBC model can easily match the</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Fabrice Collard; Harris Dellas</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">280</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.staff.unibe.ch/dellas/research/downloads/technology.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Technology <span class="hlt">Shocks</span> and Employment</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Recent empirical work has suggested that in response to a positive tech- nology <span class="hlt">shock</span> employment shows a persistent decline. This finding has raised doubts concerning the relevance of the real business cycle model. We show that the standard, open economy, flexible price model can generate a neg- ative response of employment to a positive technology <span class="hlt">shock</span> and can also match</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Fabrice Collard; Harris Dellas</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" 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showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">281</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/39170841"> <span id="translatedtitle">Clinical review: Hemorrhagic <span class="hlt">shock</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This review addresses the pathophysiology and treatment of hemorrhagic <span class="hlt">shock</span> – a condition produced by rapid and significant loss of intravascular volume, which may lead sequentially to hemodynamic instability, decreases in oxygen delivery, decreased tissue perfusion, cellular hypoxia, organ damage, and death. Hemorrhagic <span class="hlt">shock</span> can be rapidly fatal. The primary goals are to stop the bleeding and to restore circulating</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Guillermo Gutierrez; H David Reines; Marian E Wulf-Gutierrez</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">282</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/51332345"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Shock</span> compaction of superconductors</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Shock</span> compression has several features which indicate a high potential for the processing of practical superconductors and for the synthesis of new superconducting phases. By using <span class="hlt">shock</span> waves a dynamic pressure pulse in the range 10 to 1000 kbar can be applied for a duration of order 1 micro sec. The pressures, densities, temperatures, strain rates, and quench rates are</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">W. J. Nellis; R. L. Landingham; J. B. Holt; M. B. Maple; C. L. Seaman</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1988-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">283</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=AD488251"> <span id="translatedtitle">Thermonuclear <span class="hlt">Shock</span> Wave Structure.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The structure of a very strong <span class="hlt">shock</span> wave propagating through a deuterium-tritium gas mixture and a pure tritium gas is studied. The temperature behind the <span class="hlt">shock</span> wave is sufficiently high so that thermonuclear reaction probabilities are large. The wave st...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">A. L. Fuller</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1966-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">284</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=217187"> <span id="translatedtitle">Blueberry <span class="hlt">shock</span> virus</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Blueberry <span class="hlt">shock</span> disease first observed in Washington state in 1987 and initially confused with blueberry scorch caused by Blueberry scorch virus (BlScV). However, <span class="hlt">shock</span> affected plants produced a second flush of leaves after flowering and the plants appeared normal by late summer except for the lac...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">285</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PhRvL.110r3903Z"> <span id="translatedtitle">Attosecond <span class="hlt">Shock</span> Waves</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Shock</span>-wave formation is a generic scenario of wave dynamics known in nonlinear acoustics, fluid dynamics, astrophysics, seismology, and detonation physics. Here, we show that, in nonlinear optics, remarkably short, attosecond <span class="hlt">shock</span> transients can be generated through a strongly coupled spatial and temporal dynamics of ultrashort light pulses, suggesting a pulse self-compression scenario whereby multigigawatt attosecond optical waveforms can be synthesized.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zhokhov, P. A.; Zheltikov, A. M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">286</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/48933485"> <span id="translatedtitle">Plasma boundaries and <span class="hlt">shocks</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The quadrennium has seen an explosive growth in our knowledge and understanding of the various plasma and magnetic field boundaries in the terrestrial magnetosphere. Nowhere is that more evident than at the magneto pause and bow <span class="hlt">shock</span>. In the 1975 and 1979 quadrennial reports, the magnetopause was covered in a single paragraph each year. The bow <span class="hlt">shock</span> received one paragraph</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">C. T. Russell; E. W. Greenstadt</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1983-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">287</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=509342"> <span id="translatedtitle">Factors predisposing to perinatal death related to uterine <span class="hlt">rupture</span> during attempted vaginal birth after caesarean section: retrospective cohort study</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Objective To determine the factors associated with an increased risk of perinatal death related to uterine <span class="hlt">rupture</span> during attempted vaginal birth after caesarean section. Design Population based retrospective cohort study. Setting Data from the linked Scottish Morbidity Record and Stillbirth and Infant Death Survey of births in Scotland, 1985-98. Participants All women with one previous caesarean delivery who gave birth to a singleton infant at term by a means other than planned repeat caesarean section (n = 35 854). <span class="hlt">Main</span> outcome measures All intrapartum uterine <span class="hlt">rupture</span> and uterine <span class="hlt">rupture</span> resulting in perinatal death (that is, death of the fetus or neonate). Results The overall proportion of vaginal births was 74.2% and of uterine <span class="hlt">rupture</span> was 0.35%. The risk of intrapartum uterine <span class="hlt">rupture</span> was higher among women who had not previously given birth vaginally (adjusted odds ratio 2.5, 95% confidence interval 1.6 to 3.9, P < 0.001) and those whose labour was induced with prostaglandin (2.9, 2.0 to 4.3, P < 0.001). Both factors were also associated with an increased risk of perinatal death due to uterine <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. Delivery in a hospital with < 3000 births a year did not increase the overall risk of uterine <span class="hlt">rupture</span> (1.1, 0.8 to 1.5, P = 0.67). However, the risk of perinatal death due to uterine <span class="hlt">rupture</span> was significantly higher in hospitals with < 3000 births a year (one per 1300 births) than in hospitals with ? 3000 births a year (one per 4700; 3.4, 1.0 to 14.3, P = 0.04). Conclusion Women who have not previously given birth vaginally and those whose labour is induced with prostaglandin are at increased risk of uterine <span class="hlt">rupture</span> when attempting vaginal birth after caesarean section. The risk of consequent death of the infant is higher in units with lower annual numbers of births.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Smith, Gordon C S; Pell, Jill P; Pasupathy, Dharmintra; Dobbie, Richard</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">288</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AAS...22143801S"> <span id="translatedtitle">Magnetic Fields In Relativistic Collisionless <span class="hlt">Shocks</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We present a systematic study on magnetic fields in Gamma-Ray Burst (GRB) relativistic <span class="hlt">shocks</span> by making use of X-ray and optical afterglow observations, mostly coming from the Swift satellite. We use two methods to constrain the afterglow parameter epsilon_B (the fraction of energy in the magnetic field in the <span class="hlt">shocked</span> plasma): 1. For the X-ray sample, the observed flux at the end of the X-ray steep decline is larger than or equal to the flux from the external-forward <span class="hlt">shock</span>. 2. The observed optical afterglow flux arises from the external-forward <span class="hlt">shock</span> emission. From the method for our X-ray sample (60 GRBs), we determine an upper limit on epsilon_B and from the method for our optical sample (35 GRBs), we determine a measurement for epsilon_B. Combining our X-ray and optical results, the median value we found for epsilon_B is ~ 10^-5. The distributions of epsilon_B from our X-ray and optical samples showed a wide distribution, with epsilon_B ranging from ~ 10^-7 - 10^-3. To characterize how much magnetic field amplification is needed, beyond <span class="hlt">shock</span> compression of the seed magnetic field, we expressed our results for epsilon_B in terms of an amplification factor, AF. For both our X-ray and optical samples, the median value we found is AF ˜ 50-70. The distributions of AF from our X-ray and optical samples also showed a wide distribution, with AF ranging from ~ 1-1000. These results for epsilon_B and AF suggest that a weak amplification, in addition to <span class="hlt">shock</span> compression, is needed to explain the afterglow observations. Our <span class="hlt">main</span> conclusion is that <span class="hlt">shock</span> compression and weak amplification of the magnetic field in GRB relativistic external <span class="hlt">shocks</span> is sufficient to explain the afterglow data.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Santana, Rodolfo; Barniol Duran, R.; Kumar, P.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">289</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5995205"> <span id="translatedtitle">Switch-on <span class="hlt">shocks</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The authors argue that parallel propagating Alfven waves steepen to second order in the wave amplitude, rather than first order, as is the case for oblique MHD waves. They derive an analytical solution for the structure of weak switch-on <span class="hlt">shocks</span>. The Rankine-Hugoniot relations fro finite amplitude switch-on <span class="hlt">shocks</span> are obtained in a compact form. The differential equation for resistive switch-on <span class="hlt">shocks</span> is solved, and the resistive critical Mach number is obtained. The differential equation for resistive switch-on <span class="hlt">shocks</span> with finite ion inertia is identical to the one obtained in the pure resistive case. They argue that efficient electron heat conduction can significantly extend the range of upstream parameters for which switch-on <span class="hlt">shocks</span> are expected.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kennel, C.F. (Univ. of California, Los Angeles (United States)); Edmiston, J.P. (Univ. of California, Los Angeles (United States) Univ. of Texas, Richardson (United States))</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1988-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">290</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1988JGR....9311363K"> <span id="translatedtitle">Switch-on <span class="hlt">shocks</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">It is argued that parallel propagating Alfven waves steepen to second order in the wave amplitude, rather than first order, as is the case for oblique MHD waves. An analytical solution for the structure of weak switch-on <span class="hlt">shocks</span> is derived. The Rankine-Hugoniot relations for finite amplitude switch-on <span class="hlt">shocks</span> are obtained in a compact form. The differential equation for resistive switch-on <span class="hlt">shocks</span> is solved, and the resistive critical Mach number is obtained. The differential equation for resistive switch-on <span class="hlt">shocks</span> with finite ion inertia is identical to the one obtained in the pure resistive case. It is argued that efficient electron heat conduction can significantly extend the range of upstream parameters for which switch-on <span class="hlt">shocks</span> are expected.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kennel, C. F.; Edmiston, J. P.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1988-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">291</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://mynasadata.larc.nasa.gov/lesson-plans/?page_id=474?&passid=100"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Fabled <span class="hlt">Maine</span> Winter</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">No study of <span class="hlt">Maine</span> weather would be complete without analysis of the year of 1816 - the year with no summer in an area from western Pennsylvania and New York, up through Quebec and across to <span class="hlt">Maine</span> and the Canadian maritimes. In this five-unit lesson, students will investigate the causes and effects of the Fabled <span class="hlt">Maine</span> Winter by exploring a variety of data sources. They will locate, graph, and analyze meteorological and climatological data for Portland, <span class="hlt">Maine</span>, for more recent years to try to find one that most closely resembles the fabled <span class="hlt">Maine</span> winter of 1816.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">292</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22883898"> <span id="translatedtitle">Tendon <span class="hlt">ruptures</span>: mallet, flexor digitorum profundus.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Mallet injuries are the most common closed tendon injury in the athlete. Flexor digitorum profundus <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> are rare in baseball, but are common injuries in contact sports. The diagnosis for each condition is based on clinical examination, although radiographs should be evaluated for a possible bony component. Treatment for mallet injury depends on the athlete's goals of competition and understanding of the consequences of any treatment chosen. Gripping, throwing, and catching would be restricted or impossible with the injured finger immobilized. Treatment of FDP <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> is almost always surgical and requires reattachment of the torn tendon to the distal phalanx. PMID:22883898</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yeh, Peter C; Shin, Steven S</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-07-03</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">293</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/657630"> <span id="translatedtitle">Bilateral simultaneous <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of the quadriceps tendons.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Bilateral simultaneous <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of the quadriceps tendons is very rare and occurred in an 82-year-old man. This may be the fifth case to have been reported in the English literature. Only minor stress on extensor mechanisms preceded the <span class="hlt">ruptures</span>. Interrupted mattress sutures restored muscle continuity and function. A "pull-out" wire system was not used for protection of healing muscles because adequate amount of tissue mass was available for approximation. Excellent results require intensive postoperative physical therapy. Old age of the patient should not be a deterrent to surgical treatment in carefully selected individuals. PMID:657630</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Siwek, K W; Rao, J P</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">294</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3277969"> <span id="translatedtitle">Treatment of <span class="hlt">Ruptured</span> ICA during Transsphenoidal Surgery</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Summary <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> of the internal carotid artery (ICA) during transsphenoidal surgery is a rare but potentially lethal complication. Direct surgical repair of the ICA may be difficult and time-consuming in an acute setting. Urgent endovascular treatments with vascular plug or stent-graft have been the feasible options to date. We desrcibe two cases of iatrogenic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of ICA during transsphenoidal surgery. In the first case we occluded the ICA with a vascular plug at the site of tear where cross circulation was adequate. In the second case we had to preserve the ICA with stent-graft since there was no adequate cross circulation. These two strategies are discussed below.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ghatge, S.B.; Modi, D.B.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">295</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/886036"> <span id="translatedtitle">COMPARISON OF CLADDING CREEP <span class="hlt">RUPTURE</span> MODELS</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The objective of this calculation is to compare several creep <span class="hlt">rupture</span> correlations for use in calculating creep strain accrued by the Zircaloy cladding of spent nuclear fuel when it has been emplaced in the repository. These correlations are used to calculate creep strain values that are then compared to a large set of experimentally measured creep strain data, taken from four different research articles, making it possible to determine the best fitting correlation. The scope of the calculation extends to six different creep <span class="hlt">rupture</span> correlations.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">P. Macheret</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2000-06-12</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">296</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3666500"> <span id="translatedtitle">Pectoralis major tendon <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. Surgical procedures review.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Summary Pectoralis major (PM) muscle is the powerful dynamic stabiliser of the shoulder that acts as a flexor, adductor and internal rotator. The <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of the PM tendon is a relatively rare injury that was firstly described in a French boy by Patissier in 1822 and later, in 1861, by Letenneur who reported another similiar case. To date, over 200 cases have been published. In this article we describe the clinical anatomy and the mechanism of injuries of PM and we review the surgical procedures for acute and chronic <span class="hlt">ruptures</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Merolla, Giovanni; Paladini, Paolo; Campi, Fabrizio; Porcellini, Giuseppe</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">297</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1996Sci...271..482B"> <span id="translatedtitle">Energy Dissipation during <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> of Adhesive Bonds</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Molecular dynamics simulations were used to study energy-dissipation mechanisms during the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of a thin adhesive bond formed by short chain molecules. The degree of dissipation and its velocity dependence varied with the state of the film. When the adhesive was in a liquid phase, dissipation was caused by viscous loss. In glassy films, dissipation occurred during a sequence of rapid structural rearrangements. Roughly equal amounts of energy were dissipated in each of three types of rapid motion: cavitation, plastic yield, and bridge <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. These mechanisms have similarities to nucleation, plastic flow, and crazing in commercial polymeric adhesives.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Baljon, Arlette R. C.; Robbins, Mark O.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1996-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">298</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21072703"> <span id="translatedtitle">Structure of fast <span class="hlt">shocks</span> in the presence of heat conduction</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">There are three types of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) <span class="hlt">shocks</span>: the fast <span class="hlt">shock</span>, intermediate <span class="hlt">shock</span>, and slow <span class="hlt">shock</span>. The structure of slow <span class="hlt">shocks</span> and intermediate <span class="hlt">shocks</span> in the presence of heat conduction has been studied earlier [C. L. Tsai, R. H. Tsai, B. H. Wu, and L. C. Lee, Phys. Plasmas 9, 1185 (2002); C. L. Tsai, B. H. Wu, and L. C. Lee, Phys. Plasmas 12, 82501 (2005)]. Based on one-dimensional MHD numerical simulations with a heat conduction term, the evolution and structure of fast <span class="hlt">shocks</span> are studied. The fast <span class="hlt">shock</span> will form a foreshock in the presence of heat conduction. The foreshock is formed due to the heat flow from downstream to upstream and located in the immediate upstream of the <span class="hlt">main</span> <span class="hlt">shock</span>. In the steady state, the value of diffusion velocity V{sub d} in the foreshock is found to nearly equal the upstream convection velocity in the fast <span class="hlt">shock</span> frame. It is found that the density jump across the <span class="hlt">main</span> <span class="hlt">shock</span> in high Mach number case can be much larger than 4 in the early simulation time. However the density jump will gradually evolve to a value smaller than 4 at steady state. By using the modified Rankine-Hugoniot relations with heat flux, the density jump across the fast <span class="hlt">shock</span> is examined for various upstream parameters. The results show that the calculated density jump with heat flux is very close to the simulation value and the density jump can far exceed the maximum value of 4 without heat conduction. The structure of foreshock and <span class="hlt">main</span> <span class="hlt">shock</span> is also studied under different plasma parameters, such as the heat conductivity K{sub 0}, the ratio of upstream plasma pressure to magnetic pressure {beta}{sub 1}, Alfven Mach number M{sub A1}, and the angle {theta}{sub 1} between <span class="hlt">shock</span> normal and magnetic field. It is found that as the upstream <span class="hlt">shock</span> parameters K{sub 0}, {beta}{sub 1}, and M{sub A1} increase or {theta}{sub 1} decreases, the width of foreshock L{sub d} increases. The present results can be applied to fast <span class="hlt">shocks</span> in the solar corona, solar wind, and magnetosphere, in which the heat conduction effects are important.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Tsai, C. L.; Chen, H. H.; Wu, B. H.; Lee, L. C. [Earth Dynamic System Research Center and Department of Physics, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, 701 Taiwan and Institute of Space Science, National Central University, Jhongli, 320 Taiwan (China); Department of Physics, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, 701 Taiwan and Institute of Space Science, National Central University, Jhongli, 320 Taiwan (China); National Space Organization, Hsinchu, 300 Taiwan (China); Institute of Space Science, National Central University, Jhongli, 320 Taiwan (China)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-12-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">299</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/48904992"> <span id="translatedtitle">Influence of plastic deformation on bimaterial fault <span class="hlt">rupture</span> directivity</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Elastic mismatch across a fault is not sufficient to predict <span class="hlt">rupture</span> directionThe orientation of the stress state controls the location of plastic deformationStress orientation and elastic mismatch control <span class="hlt">rupture</span> direction</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Nora DeDontney; Elizabeth L. Templeton-Barrett; James R. Rice; Renata Dmowska</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">300</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8632395"> <span id="translatedtitle">Blunt traumatic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of the thoracic aorta: an epidemiological perspective.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A study was conducted from 1 July 1991 to 30 June 1994 to determine the incidence of blunt traumatic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of the thoracic aorta (RTA) in a defined area of inner-metropolitan Sydney. The study group consisted of 30 subjects with RTA following falls, rail or road accidents, who were taken by ambulance to the regional trauma centre or directly to forensic pathology. The incidence of RTA in the resident population of 330,000 was in the range 20-30/10(6)/year. There was one survivor in the series, with 24 scene deaths and five deaths en route to hospital. Road accidents were responsible for 57% of incidents. RTA was found in 36% of the fatalities that occurred as a result of car and motorbike accidents. This was 5 times more common than that observed in pedestrian deaths (P < 0.005). Twenty-seven subjects (90%) had at least one co-existent critical or lethal injury. Outcome may be improved by increasing awareness of the high prevalence of RTA in <span class="hlt">shocked</span> car- and motor-bike-accident victims and stressing the importance of rapid transport of such cases to an appropriate hospital. PMID:8632395</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hill, D A; Duflou, J; Delaney, L M</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1996-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a 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src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">301</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1875905"> <span id="translatedtitle">Asymptomatic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of the uterus: a case report.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Rupture</span> of the gravid uterus is a serious obstetric emergency that threatens maternal and fetal life. In certain cases the classic clinical picture may be absent. Most asymptomatic <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> are in the lower segment and of minor extent or are really dehiscences of scars. This paper presents a case of massive spontaneous <span class="hlt">rupture</span> involving the entire corpus diagnosed at elective postpartum sterilization. This unusual event stimulated a review of the causes and clinical presentations of uterine <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Alper, M. M.; Dudley, D. K.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1984-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">302</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/50482638"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Shock</span> Protection Using Integrated Nonlinear Spring <span class="hlt">Shock</span> Stops</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper reports the fabrication and testing of integrated nonlinear spring <span class="hlt">shock</span> stops to protect micromachined devices. This approach enables a generic batch micro-packaging technology providing superior <span class="hlt">shock</span> protection over conventional hard <span class="hlt">shock</span> stops, and can be conveniently integrated with micromachined devices without additional fabrication processes and excessive area expansion. These advantages are demonstrated by integrating the nonlinear spring <span class="hlt">shock</span></p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">S. W. Yoon; N. Yazdi; J. Chae; N. C. Perkins; K. Najafi</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">303</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.sea-acustica.es/Sevilla02/ult01013.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">TANDEM <span class="hlt">SHOCK</span> WAVES FOR EXTRACORPOREAL <span class="hlt">SHOCK</span> WAVE LITHOTRIPSY</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Extracorporeal <span class="hlt">shock</span> wave lithotripsy (SWL) has become the standard treatment for patients with renal calculi; however, <span class="hlt">shock</span> waves are not innocuous when focused on the kidney. This paper reports the design of a novel piezoelectric tandem <span class="hlt">shock</span> wave generator for SWL. The system generates two <span class="hlt">shock</span> waves with an adjustable time delay (50 - 950 ?sec) to enhance cavitation-induced damage</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Francisco Fernández; Fernando E. Prieto; Tecnología Avanzada</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">304</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5151896"> <span id="translatedtitle">Collisionless <span class="hlt">shock</span> waves</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Collisionless <span class="hlt">shocks</span> cannot occur naturally on the earth, because nearly all matter here consists of electrically neutral atoms and molecules. In space, however, high temperatures and ultraviolet radiation from hot stars decompose atoms into their constituent nuclei and electrons, producing a soup of electrically charged particles known as a plasma. Plasma physicists proposed that the collective electrical and magnetic properties of plasmas could produce interactions that take the place of collisions and permit <span class="hlt">shocks</span> to form. In 1964 the theoretical work found its first experimental confirmation. Norman F. Ness and his colleagues at the Goddard Space Flight Center, using data collected from the iMP-1 spacecraft, detected clear signs that a collisionless <span class="hlt">shock</span> exists where the solar wind encounters the earth's magnetic field. More recent research has demonstrated that collisionless <span class="hlt">shocks</span> appear in a dazzling array of astronomical settings. For example, <span class="hlt">shocks</span> have been found in the solar wind upstream (sunward) of all the planet and comets that have been visited by spacecraft. Violent flares on the sun generate <span class="hlt">shocks</span> that propagate to the far reaches of the solar system; tremendous galactic outbursts create disruptions in the intergalactic medium that are trillions of times larger. In addition, many astrophysicists think that <span class="hlt">shocks</span> from supernova explosions in our galaxy accelerate cosmic rays, a class of extraordinarily energetic elementary particles and atomic nuclei that rain down on the earth from all directions.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sagdeev, R.Z.; Kennel, C.F.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1991-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">305</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.agu.org/journals/jb/v077/i011/JB077i011p02087/JB077i011p02087.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Rupture</span> Zones of Large South American Earthquakes and Some Predictions</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This study attempts to forecast likely locations for large shallow South American earthquakes in the near future by examining the past space-time pattern of occurrence of large (M _ 7.7) earthquakes, the lateral extent of their <span class="hlt">rupture</span> zones, and, where possible, the direction of <span class="hlt">rupture</span> propagation. <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> zones of large shallow earthquakes generally abut and do not overlap. Patterns of</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">John A. Kelleher</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1972-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">306</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/48926202"> <span id="translatedtitle">Material contrast does not predict earthquake <span class="hlt">rupture</span> propagation direction</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Earthquakes often occur on faults that juxtapose different rocks. The result is <span class="hlt">rupture</span> behavior that differs from that of an earthquake occurring on a fault in a homogeneous material. Previous 2D numerical simulations have studied simple cases of earthquake <span class="hlt">rupture</span> propagation where there is a material contrast across a fault and have come to two different conclusions: 1) earthquake <span class="hlt">rupture</span></p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ruth A. Harris; Steven M. Day</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">307</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/p5jgh1b0vgnvnq9a.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Cell membrane destabilizes progressively during repetitive mechanical <span class="hlt">rupture</span> events</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The postfusion oscillation cycle method of electrofused cells was applied to red blood cell membranes to induce repetitive membrane <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> and test the mechanical membrane resistance against sequential events of membrane strain and <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. After producing doublets from pairs of electrofused cells, they entered the oscillation cycle, providing a sequence of at least four consecutive colloidosmotic-driven <span class="hlt">rupture</span> events. Different gradations</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Martin Baumann</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">308</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/27099758"> <span id="translatedtitle">Quartz Crystal Microbalance Induced Bond <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> Sensing for Medical Diagnostics</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Disease detection at the point of care could be performed using quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) induced <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of antibody-antigen bonds. An integrated digital solution for smart sensing is proposed where the QCM is driven and its resonant frequency change is captured as an indication of bond <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. After reviewing the principle of QCM induced bond <span class="hlt">rupture</span>, a digital transceiver system</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">M. J. van der Werff; Y. J. Yuan; E. R. Hirst; W. L. Xu; H. Chen; J. E. Bronlund</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">309</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/28656194"> <span id="translatedtitle">Partial <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of the distal biceps tendon</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">We report on 7 cases of partial <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of the distal biceps tendon. The mean patient age was 52 years (range, 38-58 years). There were 5 men and 2 women. The dominant arm was affected in all 7 patients. Pain was the chief complaint in all patients. Immobilization and physiotherapy were attempted in all patients, and 4 had at least</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Dimitris G. Vardakas; Douglas S. Musgrave; Sokratis E. Varitimidis; Felix Goebel; Dean G. Sotereanos</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">310</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19585785"> <span id="translatedtitle">Traumatic bladder <span class="hlt">rupture</span> in a paratrooper.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A paratrooper presents after a parachuting accident with the inability to urinate. Initial emergency bedside ultrasound, followed by confirmatory abdominal CT, is carried out and demonstrates an intraperitoneal bladder <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. The patient is taken to the operating room and a 3-layer closure with omental buttressing is carried out. PMID:19585785</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ford, David; Palma, James; Robinson, John</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">311</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://pectear.com/faq/when%20to%20operate.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Pectoralis major tendon <span class="hlt">ruptures</span>: when to operate</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The treatment of pectoralis major tendon <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> has been the subject of much debate. The classical history of the injury is forced abduction and external rotation. The cases of two patients (an amateur rugby union player and a recreational snowboarder) are reported. The diagnosis was made by clinical examination in both patients, and both were operated on more than two</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">J F Quinlan; M Molloy; B J Hurson</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">312</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/29928049"> <span id="translatedtitle">Splenic artery aneurysm <span class="hlt">rupture</span> in pregnancy</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Splenic artery aneurysm (SAA) is the commonest visceral artery aneurysm. It is diagnosed more frequently in younger women, with up to 95% presenting during pregnancy. <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> is associated with a disproportionately high maternal and fetal mortality.We performed a literature search on the patient and SAA characteristics, clinical presentations, management and outcome of this serious complication.There were 32 patients in total</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jennifer Fong Ha; Michael Phillips; Kingsley Faulkner</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">313</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3727204"> <span id="translatedtitle">Surgical Resection of <span class="hlt">Ruptured</span> Fibrolamellar Hepatocellular Carcinoma</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma (FLH) is a rare primary tumor of the liver, which typically arises from noncirrhotic livers and affects patients below the age of 35. We report on a 29-year-old male patient who presented with a <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> FLH and was treated with surgical resection. Options for treatment and review of the management are described.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Minutolo, Vincenzo; Licciardello, Alessio; Arena, Manuel; Minutolo, Orazio; Lanteri, Raffaele; Arena, Goffredo</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">314</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21959707"> <span id="translatedtitle">Spontaneous <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of fetal hydronephrosis: case report.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Hydronephrosis is the most common congenital anomaly observed with prenatal ultrasonography. Ureteropelvic junction obstruction (UPJO) is the most common cause of prenatal hydronephrosis. Spontaneous <span class="hlt">rupture</span> has been reported in adults with severe hydronephrosis. There is no reported spontaneous <span class="hlt">rupture</span> case in the fetus in the literature. A spontaneous ureteral <span class="hlt">rupture</span> due to severe UPJO was reported in this case report. Prenatal ultrasound at 33 week gestation in a 21-year-old pregnant woman, revealed a female fetus with grade IV hydronephrosis of the right kidney, suggestive of a UPJO. During the follow-up at XXXVIII week, 5 cm cystic structure was not observed in right kidney. Mild ectasia was present in pelvicalyciel part which make us think about spontaneous <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. Ultrasonographic examination after a week post-delivery revealed 15 mm pelvicalyciel ectasia on right side which persisted during the second control after 1 month. Vesicoureteral reflux was not detected during voiding cystourethrogram. Diuretic renography revealed loss of right renal function completely. Because there was not any complain or any clinical sign, surgery was not thought. Spontaneous follow-up was recommended. PMID:21959707</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kosus, A; Kosus, N; Duran, M; Turhan, N</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">315</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.data.scec.org/Module/s1act03.html"> <span id="translatedtitle">What Is an Earthquake?: <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> Models</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this activity, the learner will watch three animations based on actual data from fault <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> from the two largest Southern California earthquakes in the 1990s: Landers (1992) and Northridge (1994). In Section 3, the learner will discover more about how such data is collected and analyzed.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-04-07</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">316</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3278820"> <span id="translatedtitle">Prediction of <span class="hlt">rupture</span> in acute myocardial infarction.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In two patient series including 809 and 327 patients, respectively, with acute myocardial infarction we have compared those who died in myocardial <span class="hlt">rupture</span> (verified at autopsy, Group A) with those who died without <span class="hlt">rupture</span> (autopsied, Group B), and those who survived hospitalization (Group C) with regard to previous history and clinical course in hospital. <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> among autopsied patients was observed in 45% and 40% of the cases in the respective studies. Previous infarction was observed in each study as 0% and 0% in Group A compared with 25% and 31% in Group B, and 20% and 34% in Group C. Previous angina pectoris was observed in 26% and 22% in Group A compared with 50% and 54% in Group B and 52% and 54% in Group C. Maximum serum enzyme activity in Group A did not differ from Group B, but was higher than in Group C (p less than 0.001). Group A patients tended to have a higher initial pain score and a higher requirement of analgesics compared with other groups, whereas initial heart rate or systolic blood pressure did not differ in these patients compared to others. We thus conclude that patients with myocardial <span class="hlt">rupture</span> have a very low occurrence of previous myocardial infarction and angina pectoris, and that their pain course appears to be particularly severe in the acute phase. PMID:3278820</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Herlitz, J; Samuelsson, S O; Richter, A; Hjalmarson, A</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1988-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">317</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.escholarship.org/uc/item/65f652s5.pdf;origin=repeccitec"> <span id="translatedtitle">US Foreign Policy: Continuity or <span class="hlt">Rupture</span>?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">James Mann refutes the idea that George W. Bush’s foreign policy was a <span class="hlt">rupture</span> from previous administrations. He does find that it took previous policies much further but these trends had already been in place. He points to a number of military interventions to bolster his case including Haiti, Somalia, Panama, Iraq and Yugoslavia. He notes that previous administrations in</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">James Mann; John Mueller; Ronald Steel</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">318</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1030718"> <span id="translatedtitle">D-Zero Cryostat Supplemental <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> Disc</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The common relief and <span class="hlt">rupture</span> disc vent line requires a double disc assembly with vented interspace for accurate disc burst pressures. The first disc must take pump and purge vacuum loading, but be set to operate at 110% of the MAWP, 18.3 psig (ASME code). The available solution is 18.3 psig with a burst tolerance of +/- psig. The interspace should be locally vented by a flow limiting vent valve to decouple the vent line backpressure from the vessel <span class="hlt">rupture</span> disc. The second disc must take the worst case vent line backpressure, the steady state value found in D-Zero engineering note 3740.000-EN-63 with all three cryostats simultaneously venting at the fire condition into the 4-inch x 6-inch and 6-inch x 8-inch sections. This value is less than 2 psid. The maximum <span class="hlt">rupture</span> value for the second disc must be less than the minimum <span class="hlt">rupture</span> value for the first disc less 2 psid i.e. < 16.3.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mulholland, G.T.; /Fermilab</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1987-08-03</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">319</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2425781"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Rupture</span> of a renal angiomyolipoma (hamartoma)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A 54-year-old woman with spontaneous <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of angiomyolipoma is presented. The literature on the 2 types of angiomyolipoma, without and with association of tuberose sclerosis, their rarity and the difficulties in their diagnoses, is reviewed. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Stavorovsky, M.; Irge, D.; Morag, B.; Schujman, E.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1979-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">320</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://cardio.bjmu.edu.cn/reference/186.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">New insights into atherosclerotic plaque <span class="hlt">rupture</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Coronary artery atherosclerosis is the major cause of mortality and morbidity in the indus- trialised world. Progressive narrowing of cor- onary arteries causes angina. However, it is <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of the plaque that causes the cata- strophic consequences of atherosclerosis, such as myocardial infarction. Recent work has identified that the stability of the plaque rather than its absolute size determines the</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">D M Braganza; M R Bennett</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return 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showDiv("page_18");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">321</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/32592804"> <span id="translatedtitle">Primary obstructive megaureter with <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> kidney</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A 17-year-old boy presented to the emergency department for severe left flank pain and gross hematuria 1 hour after playing basketball without significant collision. Laboratory tests showed normal renal function and massive hematuria. Abdominal computed tomography scan disclosed a primary megaureter with <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> kidney. We successfully treated him with ureteral stenting followed by endoscopic ureterotomy and ureteroneocystostomy.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Chun-Hou Liao; H SUN; D YANG</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">322</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19041564"> <span id="translatedtitle">Primary obstructive megaureter with <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> kidney.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A 17-year-old boy presented to the emergency department for severe left flank pain and gross hematuria 1 hour after playing basketball without significant collision. Laboratory tests showed normal renal function and massive hematuria. Abdominal computed tomography scan disclosed a primary megaureter with <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> kidney. We successfully treated him with ureteral stenting followed by endoscopic ureterotomy and ureteroneocystostomy. PMID:19041564</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Chung, Shiu-Dong; Sun, Hsu-Dong; Yang, Den-Kai; Liao, Chun-Hou</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">323</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/26465607"> <span id="translatedtitle">Linear matching method for creep <span class="hlt">rupture</span> assessment</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The recently developed linear matching method (LMM), which is easily implemented within commercial FE codes, has been successfully used to evaluate elastic and plastic shakedown loads. In this paper, the method is extended to the prediction of the creep <span class="hlt">rupture</span> life of a structure, based upon a bounding method currently used in the life assessment method R5. The method corresponds</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">H. F. Chen; M. J. Engelhardt; A. R. S. Ponter</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">324</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23956918"> <span id="translatedtitle">Surgical resection of <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma (FLH) is a rare primary tumor of the liver, which typically arises from noncirrhotic livers and affects patients below the age of 35. We report on a 29-year-old male patient who presented with a <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> FLH and was treated with surgical resection. Options for treatment and review of the management are described. PMID:23956918</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Minutolo, Vincenzo; Licciardello, Alessio; Arena, Manuel; Minutolo, Orazio; Lanteri, Raffaele; Arena, Goffredo</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-07-18</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">325</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/60170726"> <span id="translatedtitle">Design procedure prevents PE pipe <span class="hlt">rupture</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A <span class="hlt">rupture</span> prevention design procedure for plastic gas distribution pipe is nearing completion at Southwest Research Institute (SWRI). Given the pipe size, polyethylene (PE) resin, and minimum operating temperature, the maximum safe operating pressure can be determined for which rapid crack propagation (RCP) cannot occur. A computer program, called PFRAC, has been developed for this purpose and uses Charpy energy</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Grigory</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1995-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">326</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ShWav..23..317P"> <span id="translatedtitle">Imploding conical <span class="hlt">shock</span> waves</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The behaviour of conical <span class="hlt">shock</span> waves imploding axisymmetrically was first studied numerically by Hornung (J Fluid Mech 409:1-12, 2000) and this prompted a limited experimental investigation into these complex flow patterns by Skews et al. (<span class="hlt">Shock</span> Waves 11:323-326, 2002). Modification of the simulation boundary conditions, resulting in the loss of self-similarity, was necessary to image the flow experimentally. The current tests examine the temporal evolution of these flows utilising a converging conical gap of fixed width fed by a <span class="hlt">shock</span> wave impinging at its entrance, supported by CFD simulations. The effects of gap thickness, angle and incident <span class="hlt">shock</span> strength were investigated. The wave initially diffracts around the outer lip of the gap shedding a vortex which, for strong incident <span class="hlt">shock</span> cases, can contain embedded <span class="hlt">shocks</span>. The converging <span class="hlt">shock</span> at exit reflects on the axis of symmetry with the reflected wave propagating outwards resulting in a triple point developing on the incident wave together with the associated shear layer. This axisymmetric shear layer rolls up into a mushroom-shaped toroidal vortex ring and forward-facing jet. For strong <span class="hlt">shocks</span>, this deforms the Mach disk to the extent of forming a second triple point with the primary <span class="hlt">shock</span> exhibiting a double bulge. Separate features resembling the Richtmeyer-Meshkov and Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities were noted in some tests. Aside from the incident wave curvature, the reflection patterns demonstrated correspond well with the V- and DV-types identified by Hornung although type S was not clearly seen, possibly due to the occlusion of the reflection region by the outer diffraction vortex at these early times. Some additional computational work explicitly exploring the limits of the parameter space for such systems has demonstrated the existence of a possible further reflection type, called vN-type, which is similar to the von Neumann reflection for plane waves. It is recommended that the parameter space be more thoroughly explored experimentally.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Paton, R. T.; Skews, B. W.; Rubidge, S.; Snow, J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">327</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.T42B..01C"> <span id="translatedtitle">Yushu Earthquake: <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of a resistive strip-slip fault</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">On April 14, 2010, Yushu Ms7.1 earthquake occurred in Ganzi-Yushu fault which is the northwest extension of the famous Xianshuihe fault. The strike direction of the surface <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of Yushu Earthquake is 310°, extending from the epicenter to the southeast as a left-lateral strike-slip fault. After the earthquake, data from a total of 77 sites along 6 MT profiles were acquired. The analysis and inversion results of the MT Data show that the Yushu earthquake generating fault is a strip-slip fault caught in two resistive zones. In the lower crust beneath the generating fault, there is a resistive abnormal body separating the conductive layers, suggesting that Yushu earthquake is a <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of a resistive left-lateral strike-slip fault interacted with the both sides of resistive blocks. In addition, it also suggests that the Ganzi-Yushu-Xianshuihe fault may not be a <span class="hlt">main</span> channel for the material flow of Tibet. Instead, it may be an isolation belt with high resistivity between Bayan Har active block and Chuandian active block. The two active blocks move to the southeast driven by the corresponding lower crust flows and interact with each other through the resistive belt, which results in forming a left-lateral strike-slip deformation and inducting a series of massive earthquarkes along the Ganzi-Yushu-Xianshuihe fault system.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Chen, X.; Tang, J.; Xiao, Q.; Dong, Z.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">328</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20023143"> <span id="translatedtitle">Anisotropic behavior and <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of hydrided Zircaloy-4 sheets</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In a French pressurized water reactor (PWR), most of the structural parts of the fuel assembly consist of zirconium alloys (ZIRCALOY-2). The mechanical behavior of ZIRCALOY-4 sheets is investigated at room temperature. The effect of hydride precipitation on the mechanical behavior and on the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> mechanism is also studied, in the range from 200 to 1,200 wt ppm hydrogen and for different stress triaxialities. It is shown that the material exhibits a strong anisotropy die to its pronounced texture, and that its mechanical properties depend on the strain rate. Hydride precipitation appears to have no effect on the anisotropy or on the strain-rate sensitivity, in the range from 10{sup {minus}4} to 10{sup {minus}2} s{sup {minus}1}. The <span class="hlt">main</span> effect of hydrogen is the reduction of the ductility and of crack resistance. The ductile <span class="hlt">rupture</span> mechanism is studied, focusing on the stage of damage nucleation by hydride fracture. Observations during scanning electron microscopy (SEM) in situ tests show that hydrides allow the transmission of slip, which occurs in ZIRCALOY-4 grains. Hydrides can also deform, together with surrounding zirconium matrix. Damage appears after a plastic-strain yield of about 14 to 25 pct. Fracture occurs first on intergranular hydrides. Fracture of transgranular hydrides is observed only prior to failure, for higher plastic strains.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Grange, M.; Besson, J.; Andrieu, E.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2000-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">329</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/55676837"> <span id="translatedtitle">Exploring <span class="hlt">Main</span> Belt Asteroids</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Terrestrial planet formation in the <span class="hlt">main</span> asteroid belt was interrupted when growing protoplanets became sufficiently massive to gravitationally perturb the local population, causing bodies to collide with increased energy, thus ending accretion and commencing fragmentation and disruption. Few of these protoplanets are thought to have survived unshattered (e.g., Ceres, Vesta, Pallas), leaving a <span class="hlt">main</span> belt population dominated by fragments of</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">M. V. Sykes; S. M. Larson; R. Whiteley; U. Fink; R. Jedicke; J. Emery; R. Fevig; M. Kelley; A. W. Harris; S. Ostro; K. Reed; R. P. Binzel; A. Rivkin; C. Magri; W. Bottke; D. Durda; R. Walker; D. Davis; W. K. Hartmann; D. Sears; H. Yano; J. Granahan; A. Storrs; S. J. Bus; J. F. Bell; D. Tholen; A. Cellino</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">330</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/eimsapi.dispdetail?deid=142557"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">MAINE</span> MARINE WORM HABITAT</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p class="result-summary">WORM provides a generalized representation at 1:24,000 scale of commercially harvested marine worm habitat in <span class="hlt">Maine</span>, based on <span class="hlt">Maine</span> Department of Marine Resources data from 1970's. Original maps were created by MDMR and published by USF&WS as part of the ""&quo...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">331</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://octopus.gma.org/surfing/weather/index.html"> <span id="translatedtitle">Gulf of <span class="hlt">Maine</span>: Weather</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Lessons and activities from the Gulf of <span class="hlt">Maine</span> Research Institute (formerly Gulf of <span class="hlt">Maine</span> Aquarium), focused on hurricanes, El Nino, fog, and volcanic eruptions. Emphasis on important hurricanes of the past. Resources include lessons, guides for simple experiments, and a student weather network. Downloadable materials and additional webpages also provided.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">332</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/54619713"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Main</span> Belt Comets</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">We have identified objects which are physically comets but which occupy orbits within the <span class="hlt">main</span> belt of asteroids No dynamical routes from the Kuiper belt or Oort Cloud cometary reservoirs have been identified Therefore we conclude that these are true comets formed in-place and constituting a new type of comet from a previously unobserved reservoir The <span class="hlt">main</span> belt comets MBCs</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">D. Jewitt; H. Hsieh</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">333</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/41973536"> <span id="translatedtitle">The evolution of interplanetary <span class="hlt">shocks</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Unambiguous identification of the solar events associated with 48 interplanetary (IP) <span class="hlt">shocks</span> has been facilitated by the observation of radio emission generated by the <span class="hlt">shocks</span>. This identification makes possible an investigation of the way in which these <span class="hlt">shocks</span> evolve and of the relationship between solar event 'strength' and <span class="hlt">shock</span> velocity. All but two of the 48 solar events associated with</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">H. V. Cane</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1985-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">334</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFMNH43B1321K"> <span id="translatedtitle">FOCUSING SEISMIC ENERGY ALONG FAULTS THROUGH TIME-VARIABLE <span class="hlt">RUPTURE</span> MODES: WENCHUAN EARTHQUAKE, CHINA</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Field analysis and RADAR differential interferometry derived from The Phased Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR) of the epicentral area of the May 12 2008 Mw 8.0 Wenchuan earthquake zone reveals some of the largest-ever fault <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> and ground displacments, with field-documented vertical displacements reaching 12 meters along the trace of the <span class="hlt">main</span> fault <span class="hlt">rupture</span>, and PALSAR-measured horizontal displacements reaching 12.3 meters. Slip indicators on the fault scarp show initially sub-horizontal then progressively steeper slip increments with time along the same fault during the 2 minute earthquake, suggesting that the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> propagated as a mixed Mode II-III fracture, with strike-slip movement at the tip directing energy from the initial <span class="hlt">rupture</span> to points north of the epicenter, followed by vertical displacement in the interior of the slipped region. The changing slip directions may correlate with three <span class="hlt">main</span> pulses of energy release at 0, 23, and 57 seconds during the earthquake as recorded by seismograms. The earthquake generated massive landslides > 100 km north of the epicenter along the trace of the fault. The concentration of massive landslides and ground deformation so far north of the epicenter may be related to the Mode II-III fracture propagation focusing the energy along the fault towards the north. The focusing of energy explains why so much devastation occurred more than 100 km from the epicenter, such as in the destroyed city of Beichuan.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kusky, T.; Ghulam, A.; Wang, L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">335</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=AD723343"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Shock</span> and Vibration Bulletin.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Contents: Further comparisons of consistent mass matrix schemes; <span class="hlt">Shock</span> spectra for statistically modelled structures; Review of modal synthesis techniques and a new approach; Rotating elements in the direct stiffness method of dynamic analysis with extens...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1969-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">336</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=DE85015141"> <span id="translatedtitle">Sandia <span class="hlt">Shock</span> Compression Database.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">An authoritative, updatable, and searchable bibliographic database whose topical area is <span class="hlt">shock</span> compression is currently under development. The database is derived from published scientific articles and reports with current emphasis in the subareas of stre...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">C. E. Anderson D. E. Grady J. C. Hokanson J. R. Asay J. S. Wilbeck</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1985-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">337</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=AD654084"> <span id="translatedtitle">Phenoxybenzamine in Septic <span class="hlt">Shock</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A series of young patients with well defined diagnoses and refractory clinical <span class="hlt">shock</span> were studied hemodynamically. When conventional methods of therapy failed to correct hemodynamic deficits phenoxybenzamine was administered and physiologic parameters wer...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">R. W. Anderson P. M. James C. E. Brendenberg R. M. Hardaway</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1966-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">338</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=PB82970008"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Shock</span> Trauma Studies.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This citation summarizes a one-page announcement of technology available for utilization. Several mathmatical developments at the Chemical Systems Laboratory have revealed new dimensions in the use of <span class="hlt">shock</span> trauma data to characterize and evaluate the sev...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1982-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">339</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000653.htm"> <span id="translatedtitle">Toxic <span class="hlt">shock</span> syndrome</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePLUS</a></p> <p class="result-summary">... by a toxin produced by certain types of Staphylococcus bacteria. A similar syndrome, called toxic <span class="hlt">shock</span>-like ... men. Risk factors include: Recently having a baby Staphylococcus aureus ( S. aureus ) infection, commonly called a Staph infection ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">340</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=ADP004408"> <span id="translatedtitle">Pharmacologic Intervention in <span class="hlt">Shock</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A scheme of the progressive changes that occur with <span class="hlt">shock</span> and ischemia which we have previously discussed in detail is presented in Figure 1. The major changes during such conditions are in microcirculation, cell membrane transport and function, energy me...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">I. H. Chaudry A. E. Baue</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1983-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' 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onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">341</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012SSRv..173..491S"> <span id="translatedtitle">Diffusive <span class="hlt">Shock</span> Acceleration and Magnetic Field Amplification</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Diffusive <span class="hlt">shock</span> acceleration is the theory of particle acceleration through multiple <span class="hlt">shock</span> crossings. In order for this process to proceed at a rate that can be reconciled with observations of high-energy electrons in the vicinity of the <span class="hlt">shock</span>, and for cosmic rays protons to be accelerated to energies up to observed galactic values, significant magnetic field amplification is required. In this review we will discuss various theories on how magnetic field amplification can proceed in the presence of a cosmic ray population. On both short and long length scales, cosmic ray streaming can induce instabilities that act to amplify the magnetic field. Developments in this area that have occurred over the past decade are the <span class="hlt">main</span> focus of this paper.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Schure, K. M.; Bell, A. R.; O'C Drury, L.; Bykov, A. M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">342</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5655552"> <span id="translatedtitle">A lecture on detonation-<span class="hlt">shock</span> dynamics</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We summarize recent investigations into the theory of multi-dimensional, time-dependent detonation. These advances have led to the development of a theory for describing the propagation of high-order detonation in condensed-phase explosives. The central approximation in the theory is that the detonation <span class="hlt">shock</span> is weakly curved. Specifically, we assume that the radius of curvature of the detonation <span class="hlt">shock</span> is large compared to a relevant reaction-zone thickness. Our <span class="hlt">main</span> findings are: (1) the flow is quasi-steady and nearly one dimensional along the normal to the detonation <span class="hlt">shock</span>; and (2) the small deviation of the normal detonation velocity from the Chapman-Jouguet (CJ) value is generally a function of curvature. The exact functional form of the correction depends on the equation of state (EOS) and the form of the energy-release law. 8 refs.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Stewart, D.S.; Bdzil, J.B.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1987-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">343</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/55630649"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Shock</span> precursor observations</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">An experimental investigation has demonstrated that the previously observed wall-supported <span class="hlt">shock</span> precursor, in high-explosive-driven argon-containing <span class="hlt">shock</span> tubes, rapidly grows to a maximum length at a tube length-to-diameter ratio of 2. It then gradually decreases in length and grows in width as a steady-state configuration is apparently asymptotically approached. All experiments were done in 10.2-cm tubes varying in length from 10</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Russell E. Duff; Frank I. Peterson</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1980-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">344</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23683197"> <span id="translatedtitle">Attosecond <span class="hlt">shock</span> waves.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Shock</span>-wave formation is a generic scenario of wave dynamics known in nonlinear acoustics, fluid dynamics, astrophysics, seismology, and detonation physics. Here, we show that, in nonlinear optics, remarkably short, attosecond <span class="hlt">shock</span> transients can be generated through a strongly coupled spatial and temporal dynamics of ultrashort light pulses, suggesting a pulse self-compression scenario whereby multigigawatt attosecond optical waveforms can be synthesized. PMID:23683197</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zhokhov, P A; Zheltikov, A M</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-05-03</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">345</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1272833"> <span id="translatedtitle">Toxic <span class="hlt">Shock</span> Syndrome</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Eight cases of toxic <span class="hlt">shock</span> syndrome, confirmed by Center for Disease Control criteria, involved women who were menstruating and were tampon users. Each patient had severe febrile illness with rash, associated hypotension, renal and liver function abnormalities, pharyngitis and vaginitis. An examination of the literature indicates that cases that were reported as adult Kawasaki disease may actually have been toxic <span class="hlt">shock</span> syndrome. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Tanner, Martha H.; Pierce, Barbara J.; Hale, DeVon C</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1981-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">346</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/eimsapi.dispdetail?deid=142572"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">MAINE</span> WEIRS 1990</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p class="result-summary">WEIR90 shows point locations of herring weirs in <span class="hlt">Maine</span> based on 1990 overflight by MDMR Marine Patrol, mapped at an approximate scale of 1:100,000. Data were screen digitized from paper maps used during the overflight....</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">347</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013SSRv..176..115J"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Heliospheric Termination <span class="hlt">Shock</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The heliospheric termination <span class="hlt">shock</span> is a vast, spheroidal <span class="hlt">shock</span> wave marking the transition from the supersonic solar wind to the slower flow in the heliosheath, in response to the pressure of the interstellar medium. It is one of the most-important boundaries in the outer heliosphere. It affects energetic particles strongly and for this reason is a significant factor in the effects of the Sun on Galactic cosmic rays. This paper summarizes the general properties and overall large-scale structure and motions of the termination <span class="hlt">shock</span>. Observations over the past several years, both in situ and remote, have dramatically revised our understanding of the <span class="hlt">shock</span>. The consensus now is that the <span class="hlt">shock</span> is quite blunt, is with the front, blunt side canted at an angle to the flow direction of the local interstellar plasma relative to the Sun, and is dynamical and turbulent. Much of this new understanding has come from remote observations of energetic charged particles interacting with the <span class="hlt">shock</span>, radio waves and radiation backscattered from interstellar neutral atoms. The observations and the implications are discussed.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jokipii, J. R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">348</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012IAUS..279..413T"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Shock</span> Breakout of Type II Plateau Supernova</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Type II-plateau supernovae (SNe II-P) are fainter than Type Ia SNe and thus have so far been observed only at z < 1. We introduce <span class="hlt">shock</span> breakout and propose a distant SN II-P survey at z > 1 with <span class="hlt">shock</span> breakout. The first observation of <span class="hlt">shock</span> breakout from the rising phase is reported in 2008. We first construct a theoretical model reproducing the UV-optical light curves (LCs) of the first example and demonstrate that the peak apparent g-band magnitude of the <span class="hlt">shock</span> breakout would be m g ~ 26.4 mag if an identical SN occurs at a redshift z = 1, which can be reached by 8m-class telescopes. Furthermore, we present LCs of <span class="hlt">shock</span> breakout of SN explosions with various <span class="hlt">main</span>-sequence masses, metallicities, and explosion energies and derive the observable SN rate and reachable redshift as functions of filter and limiting magnitude by taking into account an initial mass function, cosmic star formation history, intergalactic absorption, and host galaxy extinction. The g-band observable SN rate with limiting magnitude 27.5 mag is 3.3 SNe deg-2 day-1 and half of them are located at z > 1.2.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Tominaga, Nozomu; Morokuma, Tomoki; Blinnikov, Sergei I.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">349</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998IAUS..191P.401C"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Shock</span> Waves and Radio Continuum in Miras</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We report a search for radio continuum emission from a sample of 34 Mira and semi-regular variable stars. The <span class="hlt">main</span> aim of this survey was to look for thermal free-free emission from post-<span class="hlt">shock</span> ionised gas. The stars were observed on November 3-5, 1995, at 4.8 and 8.6 GHz using the Australia Telescope Compact Array. Radio continuum emission was detected from one source only, the symbiotic Mira R Aqr, which is a well-known radio continuum source. No continuum emission was detected from the other sources with 3 sigma upper limits of typically 0.3 mJy. We have not either detected the Miras previously known to display radio continuum, including o Cet, R Aql and W Hya. Upper limits to radio brightness temperatures are determined. We discuss a simple model for strong <span class="hlt">shocks</span> propagating in the inner envelopes of long-period variable stars and we derive simple formulae allowing to estimate the <span class="hlt">shock</span> velocity from the observed radio continuum flux. From the upper limits to the radio flux densities we find no direct evidence for strong <span class="hlt">shocks</span> with velocities above 25 km/s near two stellar radii, and we infer that the pulsation-driven stellar <span class="hlt">shocks</span> generated in the stellar photospheres are strongly damped within a short radial distance from the stellar surface.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Chapman, J. M.; Rudnitskij, G. M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">350</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3773890"> <span id="translatedtitle">Comparison between Amnisure Placental Alpha Microglobulin-1 Rapid Immunoassay and Standard Diagnostic Methods for Detection of <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> of Membranes</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Objective. To determine the diagnostic accuracy of placental alpha microglobulin-1 assay and standard diagnostic methods for detecting <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of membrane. Study Design. Prospective diagnostic study, between June 2011 to November 2011 at a tertiary centre. Initial evaluation included both the standard diagnostic methods for <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of membranes and placental alpha microglobulin-1 immunoassay. The actual <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of membranes was diagnosed on review of the medical records after delivery (absence of membrane or a positive pad chart). <span class="hlt">Main</span> Outcome Measures. Placental alpha microglobulin-1 immunoassay and standard diagnostic methods for diagnosis of <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of membrane. Results. A total of 211 patients were recruited. At initial presentation, 187 patients (88.6%) had <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> membranes, while 24 patients (11.4%) had intact membranes. Placental alpha microglobulin-1 immunoassay confirmed <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of membranes at initial presentation with a sensitivity of 95.7% (179 of 187), specificity of 100% (24 of 24), positive predictive value of 100% (179 of 179), and negative predictive value of 75.0% (24 of 32). By comparison, the conventional standard diagnostic methods had a sensitivity of 78.1% (146 of 187), specificity of 100% (24 of 24), positive predictive value of 100% (146 of 146), and negative predictive value of 36.9% (24 of 65) in diagnosing <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of membrane. Conclusion. Placental alpha-microglobulin-1 immunoassay is a rapid and accurate method for confirming the diagnosis of <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of membrane. It was superior to conventional standard diagnostic methods (pooling, nitrazine, and ferning), the nitrazine test alone or fern test alone.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ng, Beng Kwang; Lim, Pei Shan; Shafiee, Mohamad Nasir; Abdul Ghani, Nur Azurah; Mohamed Ismail, Nor Azlin; Omar, Mohd Hashim; Muhammad Yassin, Muhammad Abdul Jamil</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">351</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24073412"> <span id="translatedtitle">Comparison between Amnisure Placental Alpha Microglobulin-1 Rapid Immunoassay and Standard Diagnostic Methods for Detection of <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> of Membranes.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Objective. To determine the diagnostic accuracy of placental alpha microglobulin-1 assay and standard diagnostic methods for detecting <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of membrane. Study Design. Prospective diagnostic study, between June 2011 to November 2011 at a tertiary centre. Initial evaluation included both the standard diagnostic methods for <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of membranes and placental alpha microglobulin-1 immunoassay. The actual <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of membranes was diagnosed on review of the medical records after delivery (absence of membrane or a positive pad chart). <span class="hlt">Main</span> Outcome Measures. Placental alpha microglobulin-1 immunoassay and standard diagnostic methods for diagnosis of <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of membrane. Results. A total of 211 patients were recruited. At initial presentation, 187 patients (88.6%) had <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> membranes, while 24 patients (11.4%) had intact membranes. Placental alpha microglobulin-1 immunoassay confirmed <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of membranes at initial presentation with a sensitivity of 95.7% (179 of 187), specificity of 100% (24 of 24), positive predictive value of 100% (179 of 179), and negative predictive value of 75.0% (24 of 32). By comparison, the conventional standard diagnostic methods had a sensitivity of 78.1% (146 of 187), specificity of 100% (24 of 24), positive predictive value of 100% (146 of 146), and negative predictive value of 36.9% (24 of 65) in diagnosing <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of membrane. Conclusion. Placental alpha-microglobulin-1 immunoassay is a rapid and accurate method for confirming the diagnosis of <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of membrane. It was superior to conventional standard diagnostic methods (pooling, nitrazine, and ferning), the nitrazine test alone or fern test alone. PMID:24073412</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ng, Beng Kwang; Lim, Pei Shan; Shafiee, Mohamad Nasir; Abdul Ghani, Nur Azurah; Mohamed Ismail, Nor Azlin; Omar, Mohd Hashim; Muhammad Yassin, Muhammad Abdul Jamil</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">352</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004APh....22..323E"> <span id="translatedtitle">Diffusive <span class="hlt">shock</span> acceleration in unmodified relativistic, oblique <span class="hlt">shocks</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We present results from a fully relativistic Monte Carlo simulation of diffusive <span class="hlt">shock</span> acceleration (DSA) in unmodified <span class="hlt">shocks</span>. The computer code uses a single algorithmic sequence to smoothly span the range from non-relativistic speeds to fully relativistic <span class="hlt">shocks</span> of arbitrary obliquity, providing a powerful consistency check. While known results are obtained for non-relativistic and ultra-relativistic parallel <span class="hlt">shocks</span>, new results are presented for the less explored trans-relativistic regime and for oblique, fully relativistic <span class="hlt">shocks</span>. We find, for a wide trans-relativistic range extending to <span class="hlt">shock</span> Lorentz factors >30, that the particle spectrum produced by DSA varies strongly from the canonical f( p) ? p-4.23 spectrum known to result in ultra-relativistic <span class="hlt">shocks</span>. Trans-relativistic <span class="hlt">shocks</span> may play an important role in ?-ray bursts and other sources and most relativistic <span class="hlt">shocks</span> will be highly oblique.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ellison, Donald C.; Double, Glen P.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">353</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70042554"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Rupture</span> directivity of moderate earthquakes in northern California</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We invert peak ground velocity and acceleration (PGV and PGA) to estimate <span class="hlt">rupture</span> direction and <span class="hlt">rupture</span> velocity for 47 moderate earthquakes (3.5?M?5.4) in northern California. We correct sets of PGAs and PGVs recorded at stations less than 55–125 km, depending on source depth, for site amplification and source–receiver distance, then fit the residual peak motions to the unilateral directivity function of Ben-Menahem (1961). We independently invert PGA and PGV. The <span class="hlt">rupture</span> direction can be determined using as few as seven peak motions if the station distribution is sufficient. The <span class="hlt">rupture</span> velocity is unstable, however, if there are no takeoff angles within 30° of the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> direction. <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> velocities are generally subsonic (0.5?–0.9?); for stability, we limit the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> velocity at v=0.92?, the Rayleigh wave speed. For 73 of 94 inversions, the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> direction clearly identifies one of the nodal planes as the fault plane. The 35 strike-slip earthquakes have <span class="hlt">rupture</span> directions that range from nearly horizontal (6 events) to directly updip (5 events); the other 24 <span class="hlt">rupture</span> partly along strike and partly updip. Two strike-slip earthquakes <span class="hlt">rupture</span> updip in one inversion and downdip in the other. All but 1 of the 11 thrust earthquakes <span class="hlt">rupture</span> predominantly updip. We compare the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> directions for 10 M?4.0 earthquakes to the relative location of the mainshock and the first two weeks of aftershocks. Spatial distributions of 8 of 10 aftershock sequences agree well with the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> directivity calculated for the mainshock.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Seekins, Linda C.; Boatwright, John</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">354</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21476414"> <span id="translatedtitle">Spherical and cylindrical imploding and exploding <span class="hlt">shock</span> waves in plasma system dominated by pair production</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The propagation of ion acoustic <span class="hlt">shock</span> waves in cylindrical and spherical geometries has been investigated. The plasma system consists of cold ions, Boltzmannian electrons and positrons. Spherical, cylindrical Korteweg-de Vries-Burger equations have been derived by reductive perturbation technique and their <span class="hlt">shock</span> behavior is studied by employing finite difference method. Our <span class="hlt">main</span> emphasis is on the behavior of <span class="hlt">shock</span> as it moves toward and away from center of spherical and cylindrical geometries. It is noticed, that the <span class="hlt">shock</span> wave strength and steepness accrues with time as it moves toward the center and <span class="hlt">shock</span> enervates as it moves away from center. The strength of <span class="hlt">shock</span> in spherical geometry is found to dominate over <span class="hlt">shock</span> strength in cylindrical geometry. Positron concentration, kinematic viscosity are also found to have significant effect on the <span class="hlt">shock</span> structure and propagation. The results may have relevance in the inertial confinement fusion plasmas.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">ul Haq, Muhammad Noaman [Optics Laboratories, P.O. Box 1021, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Saeed, R.; Shah, Asif [Theoretical Plasma Physics Division, PINSTECH, P.O. Nilore, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-08-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">355</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/24712899"> <span id="translatedtitle">In situ replacement of the thoracic aorta using an equine pericardial roll graft for an aortobronchial fistula due to aortic <span class="hlt">rupture</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A 74-year-old woman with massive hemoptysis and <span class="hlt">shock</span> who had been diagnosed with thoracic aortic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> underwent in situ\\u000a replacement of the thoracic aorta using an equine pericardial roll graft. The lower lobe of the left lung was resected because\\u000a of a massive hematoma and adhesion to the wall of the thoracic aorta. Intraoperative microscopic examination of the resected\\u000a aortic</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hiroshi Yamamoto; Fumio Yamamoto; Kazuyuki Ishibashi; Yoshifumi Chida; Yoshihiro Minamiya; Hiroshi Nanjo</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">356</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.U53D0089N"> <span id="translatedtitle">Seismic reflection imaging in the <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> area of The Tohoku-Oki Earthquake - Results from rapid response seismic reflection surveys -</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake is one of the largest earthquakes ever observed and generated devastating Tsunamis. Seismological analysis revealed that the large slip occurred beneath the lower trench slope area, close to the Japan trench axis, (e.g. Ide et al. 2011), which seems to be related with the Tsunami generation. We conducted rapid response reflection seismic surveys using R/V Kairei after the <span class="hlt">main</span> <span class="hlt">shock</span> to delineate the structure of the <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> area off Miyagi. Ten E-W lines with at least 120 km of length were surveyed using a 6 km-long, 444 channel streamer cable and a 7800 inch^3 tuned air gun array. The line spacing was 10-20 km. Preliminary processed data and their interpretation demonstrate that the structure considerably varies from south to north in the survey area. Normal faults dominate in the deep sea terrace. Those faults cut sedimentary sequence in this area, and sometimes offset the reflector at the top of cretaceous sequence. Beneath the trench slope, there are few reflectors especially in the shallower depth below the seafloor. Low angle landward dipping reflectors are observed in most of the survey area, some of them coincides with the backstop interface pointed out by Tsuru et al. (2000), but apparent shape and location of these reflectors are not consistent through the survey area. These reflectors may represent faults, but it is difficult to determine the sense of faulting. In the northern part of the survey area, prominent seaward dipping normal faults are observed in the upper to middle slope. Similar normal faults in small scale can be also recognized in some other lines, and should be one of key features offshore Tohoku region.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Nakamura, Y.; No, T.; Fujie, G.; Kaiho, Y.; Sato, T.; Barnes, J.; Boston, B.; Yamashita, M.; Park, J.; Miura, S.; Takahashi, N.; Kodaira, S.; Kaneda, Y.; Moore, G. F.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">357</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFM.S31A1700B"> <span id="translatedtitle">Effects of Apparent Supersonic <span class="hlt">Ruptures</span> for Strike-slip <span class="hlt">Rupture</span>: Should We Consider it in the Seismic Hazard Analysis?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Recent numerical studies indicated that the supersonic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> could produce larger off-fault damage at distant sites than the sub-shear <span class="hlt">rupture</span>, due to the famous "mach cone" effect (Dunham and Archuleta, 2005; Bhat et al, 2007). These results were obtained using the steady-state <span class="hlt">rupture</span> simulations in a half-space earth. For more realistic layered or 3D earth models, we should also consider the effects of apparent supersonic <span class="hlt">rupture</span>, i.e., the deep <span class="hlt">rupture</span> is still in a speed slower than the local shear velocity, but faster than the near surface S or even the P wave velocity. The apparent super-shear <span class="hlt">rupture</span> could excite the mach effect, but how large it is has not yet been quantitatively addressed. In this study, we explore this possibility by performing numerical simulations for pure strike-slip <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> on a vertical fault inside various layered earth models.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Barrows, M. B.; Shao, G.; Ji, C.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">358</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009SPIE.7163E..19S"> <span id="translatedtitle">Computational model of retinal photocoagulation and <span class="hlt">rupture</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In patterned scanning laser photocoagulation, shorter duration (< 20 ms) pulses help reduce thermal damage beyond the photoreceptor layer, decrease treatment time and minimize pain. However, safe therapeutic window (defined as the ratio of <span class="hlt">rupture</span> threshold power to that of light coagulation) decreases for shorter exposures. To quantify the extent of thermal damage in the retina, and maximize the therapeutic window, we developed a computational model of retinal photocoagulation and <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. Model parameters were adjusted to match measured thresholds of vaporization, coagulation, and retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) damage. Computed lesion width agreed with histological measurements in a wide range of pulse durations and power. Application of ring-shaped beam profile was predicted to double the therapeutic window width for exposures in the range of 1 - 10 ms.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sramek, Christopher; Paulus, Yannis M.; Nomoto, Hiroyuki; Huie, Phil; Palanker, Daniel</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">359</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.mainememory.net/"> <span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">Maine</span> Memory Network</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Once you have visited <span class="hlt">Maine</span>, it is most certainly not a place that you will soon forget. This website is designed to make sure longtime residents and visitors alike will not forget this tranquil state, as it brings together a very wide range of historical documents and memories from around the state. The site itself was created by the <span class="hlt">Maine</span> Historical Society, and is supported by monies from the Institute of Museum and Library Services and several other partners. Within the site, visitors can search for historical items and documents, view thematic online exhibits, and learn about how the site may be used effectively in classroom settings. One particularly fine exhibit is the one that offers some visual documentation of rural Aroostook County around the year 1900. In this exhibit, visitors can experience the dense forests and rugged terrain that dominate the landscape of this part of <span class="hlt">Maine</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">360</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5819301"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Main</span> sequence mass loss</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">It has been hypothesized that variable stars may experience mass loss, driven, at least in part, by oscillations. The class of stars we are discussing here are the delta Scuti variables. These are variable stars with masses between about 1.2 and 2.25 M/sub theta/, lying on or very near the <span class="hlt">main</span> sequence. According to this theory, high rotation rates enhance the rate of mass loss, so <span class="hlt">main</span> sequence stars born in this mass range would have a range of mass loss rates, depending on their initial rotation velocity and the amplitude of the oscillations. The stars would evolve rapidly down the <span class="hlt">main</span> sequence until (at about 1.25 M/sub theta/) a surface convection zone began to form. The presence of this convective region would slow the rotation, perhaps allowing magnetic braking to occur, and thus sharply reduce the mass loss rate. 7 refs.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Brunish, W.M.; Guzik, J.A.; Willson, L.A.; Bowen, G.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1987-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> 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showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">361</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/60433983"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Rupture</span> disc. [LMFBR intermediate heat transport system</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The intermediate heat transport system for a sodium-cooled fast breeder reactor includes a device for rapidly draining the sodium therefrom should a sodium-water reaction occur within the system. This device includes a <span class="hlt">rupturable</span> member in a drain line in the system and means for cutting a large opening therein and for positively removing the sheared-out portion from the opening cut</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1977-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">362</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/46502154"> <span id="translatedtitle">On the short time creep <span class="hlt">rupture</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Short time tensile creep <span class="hlt">rupture</span> tests were made on 7 mil lamp filament wire and on 7 mil undoped tungsten wire in the temperature\\u000a range 2500 to 3100 K. Steady-state creep rate was described by an expression having the form: ? =AD?\\/E)m whereA is a constant,D is the self-diffusion coefficient, ? is the creep stress,E is the elastic modulus, andm</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">J. W. Pugh</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1973-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">363</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9244805"> <span id="translatedtitle">Fatigue <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of wallaby tail tendons.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Wallaby tail tendons fail after repeated application of stresses much lower than would be needed to break them in a single pull. We show that this a fatigue phenomenon, distinct from the creep <span class="hlt">rupture</span> that occurs after prolonged application of a constant stress. The two phenomena are disctinguished by experiments in which tensile stress is cycled at different frequencies, ranging from 1 to 50 Hz. PMID:9244805</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wang, X T; Ker, R F; Alexander, R M</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1995-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">364</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/86168152phh41134.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Blunt traumatic abdominal aortic <span class="hlt">rupture</span>: CT imaging</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Blunt abdominal aortic trauma is a rare but potentially lethal event. It is commonly associated with high-speed motor vehicle\\u000a accidents. Intimal flap, thrombosis, and pseudoaneurysm of the abdominal aorta are the more common findings. We present a\\u000a case of blunt abdominal aortic trauma in which CT disclosed free aortic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> with intraabdominal bleeding and a huge retroperitoneal\\u000a hematoma, an extremely</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gaetano Nucifora; Fjoralba Hysko; Annarosa Vasciaveo</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">365</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/47936851"> <span id="translatedtitle">Treatment of <span class="hlt">Ruptured</span> Intracranial Aneurysm: Our Approach</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">There have been revolutionary developments in surgical clipping and endovascular coiling for the treatment of <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> aneurysms.\\u000a Surgical clipping as a treatment modality has been developed since the past 100 years. Endovascular coiling of intracranial\\u000a aneurysms is a technique that has been available for the past 10 years and widely accepted throughout the world. Guglielmi\\u000a detachable coil treatment is becoming</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yoko Kato; Hirotoshi Sano; Minoru Yoneda; Sadayoshi Watanabe; Shamsul Alam; Khandelwal Prashant; Shamson Sharad Rajamani; Tetsuo Kanno</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">366</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999AcMSn..15...97H"> <span id="translatedtitle">Oxyhydrogen combustion and detonation driven <span class="hlt">shock</span> tube</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The performance of combustion driver ignited by multi-spark plugs distributed along axial direction has been analysed and tested. An improved ignition method with three circumferential equidistributed ignitors at <span class="hlt">main</span> diaphragm has been presented, by which the produced incident <span class="hlt">shock</span> waves have higher repeatability, and better steadiness in the pressure, temperature and velocity fields of flow behind the incidence <span class="hlt">shock</span>, and thus meets the requirements of aerodynamic experiment. The attachment of a damping section at the end of the driver can eliminate the high reflection pressure produced by detonation wave, and the backward detonation driver can be employed to generate high enthalpy and high density test flow. The incident <span class="hlt">shock</span> wave produced by this method is well repeated and with weak attenuation. The reflection wave caused by the contracted section at the <span class="hlt">main</span> diaphragm will weaken the unfavorable effect of rarefaction wave behind the detonation wave, which indicates that the forward detonation driver can be applied in the practice. For incident <span class="hlt">shock</span> wave of identical strength, the initial pressure of the forward detonation driver is about 1 order of magnitude lower than that of backward detonation.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hongru, Yu</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">367</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21608792"> <span id="translatedtitle">Liver Hydatid Cyst with Transdiaphragmatic <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> and Lung Hydatid Cyst <span class="hlt">Ruptured</span> into Bronchi and Pleural Space</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The aim of this case study is to present effectiveness of percutaneous drainage as a treatment option of <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> lung and liver hydatid cysts. A 65-year-old male patient was admitted with complicated liver and lung hydatid cysts. A liver hydatid cyst had <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> transdiaphragmatically, and a lung hydatid cyst had <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> both into bronchi and pleural space. The patient could not undergo surgery because of decreased respiratory function. Both cysts were drained percutaneously using oral albendazole. Povidone-iodine was used to treat the liver cyst after closure of the diaphragmatic <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. The drainage was considered successful, and the patient had no recurrence of signs and symptoms. Clinical, laboratory, and radiologic recovery was observed during 2.5 months of catheterization. The patient was asymptomatic after catheter drainage. No recurrence was detected during 86 months of follow-up. For inoperable patients with <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> liver and lung hydatid cysts, percutaneous drainage with oral albendazole is an alternative treatment option to surgery. The percutaneous approach can be life-saving in such cases.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ar Latin-Small-Letter-Dotless-I bas, Bilgin Kadri, E-mail: bilginaribas@hotmail.com; Dingil, Guerbuez [A.Y. Ankara Oncology Training and Research Hospital, Department of Radiology (Turkey); Koeroglu, Mert [Sueleyman Demirel University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology (Turkey); Uenguel, Uemit; Zaral Latin-Small-Letter-Dotless-I , Aliye Ceylan [A.Y. Ankara Oncology Training and Research Hospital, Department of Radiology (Turkey)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-02-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">368</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..1411282H"> <span id="translatedtitle">On foreshock dynamics in <span class="hlt">shock-shock</span> interaction</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">On August 10, 1998, an interplanetary (IP) <span class="hlt">shock</span> hit the bow <span class="hlt">shock</span> of the Earth. The quasi-radial interplanetary magnetic field configuration and the advantageously located spacecraft made it possible to analyze in detail the dynamics of different plasma regions as the <span class="hlt">shocks</span> approached each other. The spacecraft formed a magentic connection to the IP <span class="hlt">shock</span> 6-7 hours before it crossed the near-Earth space. ACE near the L1 point was magnetically connected to the oblique IP <span class="hlt">shock</span> only. Wind, located at X ~ 78RE, magnetically scanned the quasi-perpendicular flank of the bow <span class="hlt">shock</span>. Closer to the Earth, Geotail was moving in and out of the ion foreshock of the bow <span class="hlt">shock</span>, while Interball was deeper inside it. In the present study we analyze the magnetic fluctuations, the different particle populations and the IP <span class="hlt">shock</span> front structure in these locations. The observations show that the IP <span class="hlt">shock</span> had a turbulent foreshock as well, with the power in the magnetic fluctuations increasing as the <span class="hlt">shock</span> approached. However, the energy density of the energetic particles was higher still. In addition, we find that the increase in the energetic particles due to acceleration in the <span class="hlt">shock-shock</span> interaction resulted in a significant decrease of the magnetic field strenght in the foreshock of the Earth. We suggest that modification of the IP <span class="hlt">shock</span> front in the Earth's foreshock was also caused by the increased levels of suprathermal and energetic particles.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hietala, H.; Andréeová, K.; Vainio, R.; Koskinen, H. E. J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">369</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21897194"> <span id="translatedtitle">Bladder <span class="hlt">rupture</span> after intentional medication overdose.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We report the case of a 51-year-old woman who had a medical history of diabetes, depression with past suicide attempts, and suicidal ideation. She was found unresponsive in a motel with multiple bottles of medicines (melatonin, carisoprodol, ativan, and clonazepam) and an unopened bottle of wine. She was transported to the local hospital and treated for benzodiazepine toxicity and aspiration pneumonitis.The decedent gradually became more alert and was extubated 3 days after hospital admission. The decedent was reportedly getting up to use the restroom when she became tachypneic and diaphoretic and complained of generalized body pain. Her condition quickly declined, and she was pronounced deceased. A postmortem examination revealed an acute bladder <span class="hlt">rupture</span> and soft tissue hemorrhage.A review of the literature reveals that isolated bladder <span class="hlt">rupture</span> after minimal or no trauma in association with alcohol or drug ingestion is an infrequently reported, but recognized, injury. The diagnosis of bladder <span class="hlt">rupture</span> should be considered in a patient with lower abdominal pain, even without a history of trauma. A history of voiding or bladder dysfunction should increase the suspicion for this injury. If suspected, a retrograde cystogram should be obtained promptly. Failure to consider and recognize this injury may lead to significant morbidity. PMID:21897194</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Huston, Butch; Mills, Kelly; Froloff, Victor; McGee, Michael</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">370</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009JBO....14c4007S"> <span id="translatedtitle">Dynamics of retinal photocoagulation and <span class="hlt">rupture</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In laser retinal photocoagulation, short (<20 ms) pulses have been found to reduce thermal damage to the inner retina, decrease treatment time, and minimize pain. However, the safe therapeutic window (defined as the ratio of power for producing a <span class="hlt">rupture</span> to that of mild coagulation) decreases with shorter exposures. To quantify the extent of retinal heating and maximize the therapeutic window, a computational model of millisecond retinal photocoagulation and <span class="hlt">rupture</span> was developed. Optical attenuation of 532-nm laser light in ocular tissues was measured, including retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) pigmentation and cell-size variability. Threshold powers for vaporization and RPE damage were measured with pulse durations ranging from 1 to 200 ms. A finite element model of retinal heating inferred that vaporization (<span class="hlt">rupture</span>) takes place at 180-190°C. RPE damage was accurately described by the Arrhenius model with activation energy of 340 kJ/mol. Computed photocoagulation lesion width increased logarithmically with pulse duration, in agreement with histological findings. The model will allow for the optimization of beam parameters to increase the width of the therapeutic window for short exposures.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sramek, Christopher; Paulus, Yannis; Nomoto, Hiroyuki; Huie, Phil; Brown, Jefferson; Palanker, Daniel</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">371</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21288526"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Rupture</span> of plasma membrane under tension.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We present a study on the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> behavior of single NIH 3T3 mouse fibroblasts under tension using micropipette aspiration. Membrane <span class="hlt">rupture</span> was characterized by breaking and formation of an enclosed membrane linked to a tether at the cell apex. Three different <span class="hlt">rupture</span> modes, namely: single break, initial multiple breaks, and continuous multiple breaks, were observed under similar loading condition. The measured mean tensile strengths of plasma membrane were 3.83 ± 1.94 and 3.98 ± 1.54mN/m for control cells and cells labeled with TubulinTracker, respectively. The tensile strength data was described by Weibull distribution. For the control cells, the Weibull modulus and characteristic strength were 1.86 and 4.40 mN/m, respectively; for cells labeled with TubulinTracker, the Weibull modulus and characteristic strength were 2.68 and 4.48 mN/m, respectively. Based on the experimental data, the estimated average transmembrane proteins-lipid cleavage strength was 2.64 ± 0.64 mN/m. From the random sampling of volume ratio of transmembrane proteins in cell membrane, we concluded that the Weibull characteristic of plasma membrane strength was likely to be originated from the variation in transmembrane proteins-lipid interactions. PMID:21288526</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Tan, Samuel Chun Wei; Yang, Tianyi; Gong, Yingxue; Liao, Kin</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">372</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JInst...7C2002E"> <span id="translatedtitle">Single Event Gate <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> in EMCCD technology</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The high electric fields (typically 3 MV/cm2 interpoly field) utilised in Electron Multiplying Charged Coupled Devices (EMCCDs) reveal a potential vulnerability from Single Event Phenomena (SEP), in particular Single Event Gate <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> (SEGR). SEGR is where a conduction path between two conductive areas of the CCD is produced, causing device failure. If EMCCDs are to be used for space applications the susceptibility to these events needs to be explored. A positive result from such an investigation can increase the technology readiness level of the device moving it another step closer to being used in space. Testing undertaken at the CYClotron of LOuvain la NEuve (CYCLONE), using the Heavy Ion Facility (HIF), conclusively showed EMCCD technology to have resilience to heavy ions that surpassed initial expectations. The simulations undertaken prior to experiment suggested gate <span class="hlt">rupture</span> would occur at 20-40 MeV cm2/mg, however Linear Energy Transfers (LETs) greater than 100 MeV cm2/mg proved to not cause a <span class="hlt">rupture</span> event. Within the radiation belts heavy ions with an LET greater than 60 MeV cm2/mg are not very common when compared to the fluxes used at the HIF. Possible reasons for this result are discussed in this work, leading to a conclusion that EMCCD technology is a secure choice for space flight.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Evagora, A. M.; Murray, N. J.; Holland, A. D.; Burt, D.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">373</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8079227"> <span id="translatedtitle">[Premature <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of fetal membranes and chorioamnionitis].</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The article presents a survey of preterm <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of the amniotic membranes at term (more than 1 hour prior to uterine contractions) and preterm (< 37 weeks). The diagnosis of <span class="hlt">rupture</span> can be suspected from the history alone in 90% of the cases, and confirmed by inspection. In doubtful cases the pH in fluid from the posterior fornix of the vagina is determined and microscopy is performed. Amniotic fluid is alkaline. Microscopy of a dried specimen shows "ferning" when amniotic fluid is present (crystallization test). Staining with Nil blue will reveal orange foetal cells in fresh specimens, usually only late in pregnancy (after the 38 week). The crystallization test is useful, however, in all three trimesters. The cause of membrane <span class="hlt">rupture</span> and of chorioamnionitis may be infection. Chorioamnionitis is a serious clinical condition, but can be subclinical and may occur with intact membranes. It can lead to preterm delivery. It is important that chorioamnionitis be diagnosed (maternal fever, tachycardia, uterine contractions, abdominal pain, foul smelling vaginal discharge and elevated C-reactive protein). The condition is treated with antibiotics and labour must be induced. PMID:8079227</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Haram, K; Daugaard, H O</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1994-05-10</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">374</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23159478"> <span id="translatedtitle">Technique of supraceliac balloon control of the aorta during endovascular repair of <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> abdominal aortic aneurysms.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Endovascular aneurysm repair is being used increasingly to treat <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> abdominal aortic aneurysms (RAAAs). Approximately 25% of RAAAs undergo complete circulatory collapse before or during the procedure. Patient survival depends on obtaining and maintaining supraceliac balloon control until the endograft is fully deployed. This is accomplished with a sheath-supported compliant balloon inserted via the groin contralateral to the side to be used for insertion of the endograft <span class="hlt">main</span> body. After the <span class="hlt">main</span> body is fully deployed, a second balloon is placed within the endograft, and the first balloon is removed so that extension limbs can be placed in the contralateral side. A third balloon can be placed via the contralateral side and ipsilateral extensions deployed as necessary. This technique of supraceliac balloon control is important to achieving good outcomes with RAAAs. In addition to minimizing blood loss, this technique minimizes visceral ischemia and maintains aortic control until the aneurysm <span class="hlt">rupture</span> site is fully excluded. PMID:23159478</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Berland, Todd L; Veith, Frank J; Cayne, Neal S; Mehta, Manish; Mayer, Dieter; Lachat, Mario</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-11-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">375</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/eimsapi.dispdetail?deid=142565"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">MAINE</span> SCHOOLS AND LIBRARIES</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p class="result-summary">SCHLIB shows point locations of libraries and educational institutions in <span class="hlt">Maine</span> at 1:24,000 scale. Colleges, universities, technical colleges, high schools, middle schools, elementary schools, kindergarten/sub-primary and other special schools are included. The data was developed...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">376</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.maine.gov/doc/nrimc/mgs/pubs/online/bedrock/bd-newbury-neck-sidebar.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Newbury Neck Quadrangle, <span class="hlt">Maine</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Ellsworth Schist has been deformed at least three times, steeply inclined faults approximately parallel to the length of Patten Bay producing a highly contorted rock structure. In the <span class="hlt">main</span> stage of (Photo 9). The orientation of these minor faults suggests that an old fault deformation, wet sediments together with the interlayered volcanic trace may lie beneath Patten Bay. Another</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Douglas N. Reusch; John P. Hogan; Robert G. Marvinney; Susan S. Tolman; Robert D. Tucker; Henry N. Berry</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">377</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=DE84000482"> <span id="translatedtitle">Alternative <span class="hlt">Shock</span> Characterizations for Consistent <span class="hlt">Shock</span>-Test Specification.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Mechanical <span class="hlt">shock</span> environments must be characterized in the most complete manner possible if they are to be successfully simulated in the <span class="hlt">shock</span> test laboratory. The objective of the research described in this paper is to evaluate three methods of analyzing...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">T. J. Baca</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1983-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">378</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1995PhDT.......106H"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Investigation of a Fluid Piston <span class="hlt">Shock</span> Tunnel Concept for the Production of Hypersonic Flows.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A theoretical investigation of a hypersonic facility concept called the "fluid piston <span class="hlt">shock</span> tunnel" has been performed. The analysis utilizes an advanced quasi-one -dimensional computational code developed as part of the research. The details of the formulation are presented. Attributes of the formulation include high pressure, high temperature thermodynamics, area change, friction effects, and radiative heat transfer. The computational model discretely tracks <span class="hlt">shock</span> and contact surface discontinuities and their interactions. The developed software represents an advancement over current <span class="hlt">shock</span>-capturing quasi-one-dimensional formulations. The fluid piston <span class="hlt">shock</span> tunnel concept utilizes a cold reservoir upstream of the driver section of a conventional <span class="hlt">shock</span> tunnel. The reservoir delays the reflected expansion from primary diaphragm <span class="hlt">rupture</span> which produces a steadier test environment and allows the use of air as a driver section gas thus eliminating molecular contamination issues. The effect of reservoir geometry, the nozzle starting process, and the effect of friction and radiation on performance are presented. The fluid piston <span class="hlt">shock</span> tunnel concept produces 2.5 to 4.5 km/s flows with test times of at least 40ms with nozzle exit diameters of at least 1.5m. This performance represents an order-of-magnitude increase in test time over current <span class="hlt">shock</span> tunnel facilities that will meet the future ground testing needs of emerging hypersonic systems.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hedlund, Eric Roland</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1995-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">379</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011APS..DFD.LA011P"> <span id="translatedtitle">Analysis and Development of a Quick Acting Diaphragm-less <span class="hlt">Shock</span> Tube Driver</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This work discusses the construction and performance characteristics of a diaphragmless <span class="hlt">shock</span> tube driver. <span class="hlt">Shock</span> waves play integral roles in many industrial, medical and scientific environments, consequently it is important to observe the behaviour of these waves and how they interact with their surroundings. The diaphragmless <span class="hlt">shock</span> tube provides a quick and effective means of producing <span class="hlt">shock</span> waves in gases. The major advantages compared to conventional diaphragms include, minimal downtime between repeated experiments, opening times comparable to those of conventional diaphragms and infinitely adjustable opening pressure without the use of various diaphragm thicknesses. Moreover, the diaphragmless design also eliminates fragments that are carried downstream of the <span class="hlt">shock</span> tube once the conventional diaphragm is <span class="hlt">ruptured</span>. The design utilized in this work is built on that of Downey et al. [M.S. Downey, T.J. Cloete, A.D.B.Yates, <span class="hlt">Shock</span> Waves 21(4): 315-319, 2011] and is improved in order to obtain faster opening times leading to stronger <span class="hlt">shock</span> formation. Furthermore in depth numerical analysis using the commercial CFD package Fluent is carried out to validate experimental data for driven pressures and opening times as a function of driver pressure.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Portaro, Rocco; Ng, Hoi Dick</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">380</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12476975"> <span id="translatedtitle">Tandem <span class="hlt">shock</span> wave cavitation enhancement for extracorporeal lithotripsy.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Extracorporeal <span class="hlt">shock</span> wave lithotripsy (ESWL) has been successful for more than twenty years in treating patients with kidney stones. Hundreds of underwater <span class="hlt">shock</span> waves are generated outside the patient's body and focused on the kidney stone. Stones fracture <span class="hlt">mainly</span> due to spalling, cavitation and layer separation. Cavitation bubbles are produced in the vicinity of the stone by the tensile phase of each <span class="hlt">shock</span> wave. Bubbles expand, stabilize and finally collapse violently, creating stone-damaging secondary <span class="hlt">shock</span> waves and microjets. Bubble collapse can be intensified by sending a second <span class="hlt">shock</span> wave a few hundred microseconds after the first. A novel method of generating two piezoelectrically generated <span class="hlt">shock</span> waves with an adjustable time delay between 50 and 950 micros is described and tested. The objective is to enhance cavitation-induced damage to kidney stones during ESWL in order to reduce treatment time. In vitro kidney stone model fragmentation efficiency and pressure measurements were compared with those for a standard ESWL system. Results indicate that fragmentation efficiency was significantly enhanced at a <span class="hlt">shock</span> wave delay of about 400 and 250 micros using rectangular and spherical stone phantoms, respectively. The system presented here could be installed in clinical devices at relatively low cost, without the need for a second <span class="hlt">shock</span> wave generator. PMID:12476975</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Loske, Achim M; Prieto, Fernando E; Fernandez, Francisco; van Cauwelaert, Javier</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-11-21</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return 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title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">381</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002PMB....47.3945L"> <span id="translatedtitle">Tandem <span class="hlt">shock</span> wave cavitation enhancement for extracorporeal lithotripsy</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Extracorporeal <span class="hlt">shock</span> wave lithotripsy (ESWL) has been successful for more than twenty years in treating patients with kidney stones. Hundreds of underwater <span class="hlt">shock</span> waves are generated outside the patient's body and focused on the kidney stone. Stones fracture <span class="hlt">mainly</span> due to spalling, cavitation and layer separation. Cavitation bubbles are produced in the vicinity of the stone by the tensile phase of each <span class="hlt">shock</span> wave. Bubbles expand, stabilize and finally collapse violently, creating stone-damaging secondary <span class="hlt">shock</span> waves and microjets. Bubble collapse can be intensified by sending a second <span class="hlt">shock</span> wave a few hundred microseconds after the first. A novel method of generating two piezoelectrically generated <span class="hlt">shock</span> waves with an adjustable time delay between 50 and 950 µs is described and tested. The objective is to enhance cavitation-induced damage to kidney stones during ESWL in order to reduce treatment time. In vitro kidney stone model fragmentation efficiency and pressure measurements were compared with those for a standard ESWL system. Results indicate that fragmentation efficiency was significantly enhanced at a <span class="hlt">shock</span> wave delay of about 400 and 250 µs using rectangular and spherical stone phantoms, respectively. The system presented here could be installed in clinical devices at relatively low cost, without the need for a second <span class="hlt">shock</span> wave generator.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Loske, Achim M.; Prieto, Fernando E.; Fernández, Francisco; van Cauwelaert, Javier</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">382</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23015276"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Rupture</span> of multiple receptor-ligand bonds: bimodal distribution of bond <span class="hlt">rupture</span> force.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Monte Carlo simulation of the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of multiple receptor-ligand bonds between two PMN cells suspended in a Newtonian fluid is performed. In the presence of a hydrodynamic drag force acting on two PMN cells the interplay of multiple receptor-ligand bonds between these cells leads to a bimodal distribution of the bond <span class="hlt">rupture</span> force at certain loading rates. Specifically, it is found that the interplay of multiple bonds between two PMN cells in the presence of hydrodynamic drag force acting on these cells modifies the bond energy landscape in such a way as to lead to a bimodal distribution of the bond <span class="hlt">rupture</span> force where a low force peak switches to a high force peak as the loading rate is increased progressively, characteristics of two-state systems. PMID:23015276</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gupta, V K</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-09-27</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">383</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/48811042"> <span id="translatedtitle">Fundamentals of collisionless <span class="hlt">shocks</span> for astrophysical application, 2. Relativistic <span class="hlt">shocks</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this concise review of the recent developments in relativistic <span class="hlt">shock</span> theory in the Universe we restrict ourselves to <span class="hlt">shocks</span>\\u000a that do not exhibit quantum effects. On the other hand, emphasis is given to the formation of <span class="hlt">shocks</span> under both non-magnetised\\u000a and magnetised conditions. We only briefly discuss particle acceleration in relativistic <span class="hlt">shocks</span> where much of the results\\u000a are still</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">A. M. Bykov; R. A. Treumann</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">384</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21537912"> <span id="translatedtitle">Oblique radiative <span class="hlt">shocks</span>, including their interactions with nonradiative polytropic <span class="hlt">shocks</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A theory of <span class="hlt">shocks</span> dominated by radiation energy flux in optically mixed thin-upstream thick-downstream systems, in which the temperature immediately ahead and some short distance behind the <span class="hlt">shock</span> front are equilibrated by radiation transport, is presented. This theory is applied to determine properties of the normal and oblique radiative <span class="hlt">shock</span>, followed by applications to interactions when radiative and polytropic <span class="hlt">shocks</span> are present in the same system. Comparison with experimental data is presented.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Doss, F. W.; Drake, R. P.; Myra, E. S. [Department of Atmospheric, Oceanic, and Space Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-2143 (United States)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-05-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">385</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15783977"> <span id="translatedtitle">Thermal diffusion <span class="hlt">shock</span> waves.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Ludwig-Soret effect or thermal diffusion, which refers to the separation of liquid mixtures in a temperature gradient, is governed by a nonlinear, partial differential equation in space and time. It is shown here that the solution to the nonlinear differential equation for a binary mixture predicts the existence of <span class="hlt">shock</span> waves completely analogous to fluid <span class="hlt">shocks</span> and obeys an expression for the <span class="hlt">shock</span> velocity that is an exact analogue of the Rankine-Hugoniot relations. Direct measurements of the time dependent, spatial absorption profile of a suspension of nanometer sized particles subjected to a sinusoidal temperature field generated by a pair of continuous laser beams, as well as self-diffraction experiments, show motion of the particles in agreement with the predictions of nonlinear theory. PMID:15783977</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Danworaphong, Sorasak; Craig, Walter; Gusev, Vitalyi; Diebold, Gerald J</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-03-10</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">386</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999PhRvL..83.1183B"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Shocks</span> in Inertial Dewetting</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We present the first observation of a <span class="hlt">shock</span> in the fast dewetting of a water film (thickness e) from hydrophobic glass. The film dewets by the nucleation and growth of a dry patch (velocity V), surrounded by a rim which collects the liquid. The velocity of dewetting V\\(e\\) follows the Culik law for the bursting of soap films, with a driving force including both capillarity and gravity. The profile of the rim is measured by the deflection of a laser beam. The <span class="hlt">shock</span> is observed when the rim surfs on the immobile film at velocities V*>ge, the velocity of gravity waves ( g = gravitational acceleration) in shallow water. Ripples emitted in front of the rim give us a signature of the <span class="hlt">shock</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Buguin, A.; Vovelle, L.; Brochard-Wyart, F.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">387</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://windowsonmaine.library.umaine.edu/"> <span id="translatedtitle">Windows on <span class="hlt">Maine</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Created with funds provided by the Institute of Museum and Library Services (IMLS), Windows on <span class="hlt">Maine</span> contains interesting and informative programs and video clips from <span class="hlt">Maine</span> Public Broadcasting and other partners. On their homepage, visitors can use their interactive map and timeline to locate video clips of interest, and they can also search the entire collection for specific items. Visitors can also use the subject category menu to look over 25 different headings, including "earth sciences", "land disputes", and "Penobscot tribe". The map feature is a real pip, and visitors can customize their search by location and date, and it's a great way to learn about different regions, including Aroostook County (also known as "the County") and Downeast. Also, many of the videos also have additional resources attached to them, such as railroad timetables, historic photographs, and so on.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">388</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2770476"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Main</span> roads to melanoma</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The characterization of the molecular mechanisms involved in development and progression of melanoma could be helpful to identify the molecular profiles underlying aggressiveness, clinical behavior, and response to therapy as well as to better classify the subsets of melanoma patients with different prognosis and/or clinical outcome. Actually, some aspects regarding the <span class="hlt">main</span> molecular changes responsible for the onset as well as the progression of melanoma toward a more aggressive phenotype have been described. Genes and molecules which control either cell proliferation, apoptosis, or cell senescence have been implicated. Here we provided an overview of the <span class="hlt">main</span> molecular changes underlying the pathogenesis of melanoma. All evidence clearly indicates the existence of a complex molecular machinery that provides checks and balances in normal melanocytes. Progression from normal melanocytes to malignant metastatic cells in melanoma patients is the result of a combination of down- or up-regulation of various effectors acting on different molecular pathways.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Palmieri, Giuseppe; Capone, Mariaelena; Ascierto, Maria Libera; Gentilcore, Giusy; Stroncek, David F; Casula, Milena; Sini, Maria Cristina; Palla, Marco; Mozzillo, Nicola; Ascierto, Paolo A</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">389</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://sunshine.chpc.utah.edu/labs/star_life/starlife_sequence.html"> <span id="translatedtitle">Stars <span class="hlt">main</span> sequence</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">What happens during most of a star's life? This activity page, part of an interactive laboratory series for grades 8-12, introduces students to the <span class="hlt">main</span> sequence phase of a star's existence. This phase is where a star lives out the majority of its life. In an interactive lab activity, students predict the length of the <span class="hlt">main</span> sequence for four different stars. The predictions can be printed for later evaluation. Students view diagrams that compare the size and color of stars to human lives, and equilibrium within a star is stressed. Finally, students choose between two hypotheses about the length of life of a star. Students write a one- to three-sentence explanation for their hypotheses. The correct answer is provided. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">University of Utah. Astrophysics Science Project Integrating Research and Education (ASPIRE)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">390</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70017387"> <span id="translatedtitle">Impact-<span class="hlt">shocked</span> zircons: discovery of <span class="hlt">shock</span>-induced textures reflecting increasing degrees of <span class="hlt">shock</span> metamorphism</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Textural effects specifically characteristic of <span class="hlt">shock</span> metamorphism in zircons from impact environments have not been reported previously. However, planar deformation features (PDF) due to <span class="hlt">shock</span> metamorphism are well documented in quartz and other mineral grains from these same environments. An etching technique was developed that allows SEM visualization of PDF and other probable <span class="hlt">shock</span>-induced textural features, such as granular (polycrystalline) texture, in zircons from a variety of impact <span class="hlt">shock</span> environments. These textural features in <span class="hlt">shocked</span> zircons from K/T boundary distal ejecta form a series related to increasing degrees of <span class="hlt">shock</span> that should correlate with proportionate resetting of the UPb isotopic system. ?? 1993.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bohor, B. F.; Betterton, W. J.; Krogh, T. E.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1993-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">391</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/760513"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Maine</span> coast winds</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">Maine</span> Coast Winds Project was proposed for four possible turbine locations. Significant progress has been made at the prime location, with a lease-power purchase contract for ten years for the installation of turbine equipment having been obtained. Most of the site planning and permitting have been completed. It is expect that the turbine will be installed in early May. The other three locations are less suitable for the project, and new locations are being considered.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Avery, Richard</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2000-01-28</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">392</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998PhDT.........4P"> <span id="translatedtitle">Spectral Properties of Relativistic <span class="hlt">Shocks</span> in Gamma-Ray Bursts</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The origin of Gamma Ray Bursts (GRB) is still embedded in mystery. There is, however, good evidence that, irrespective of the trigger mechanism and the progenitor's identity, GRBs involve ultra-relativistic flows. It has been suggested that such outflows develop <span class="hlt">shocks</span> due to their deceleration by the surrounding medium (external <span class="hlt">shocks</span>) and, possibly, due to variability within the flow (internal <span class="hlt">shocks</span>). Such <span class="hlt">shocks</span> are believed to act as particle accelerators and magnetic field amplifiers. In this thesis, we study the spectral properties of external and internal <span class="hlt">shocks</span>. We employ an extensive parameterization of the uncertain physical processes (electron injection and acceleration, magnetic field amplification) in the <span class="hlt">shocks</span> and calculate the time averaged spectra that result from synchrotron emission and its inverse Compton scattered counterpart. Overall, the resulting spectra share the defining properties of the observed ones: they are non-thermal, they show a break (whose value is not fixed by the model), and spectral slopes in the range that was revealed by fitting BATSE spectra. The hardness-duration anti-correlation and the brightness-hardness correlation are properties inherent to the model spectra (both in external and internal <span class="hlt">shocks</span>). The spectra are, in general, very broad and counterparts in higher and lower frequencies are predicted. Behaviors such as X-ray deficiency and occasional X-ray excess are common. We discuss the broad-band properties of the spectra and the spectral differences between internal and external <span class="hlt">shocks</span> bursts. We also examine the spectral properties arising from the deceleration of an unsteady wind that results in hard and delayed emission from external <span class="hlt">shocks</span> following the <span class="hlt">main</span> burst from internal ones. We conduct a parameter search in order to identify the environments external <span class="hlt">shock</span> bursts take place in, as well as the radiative properties of the <span class="hlt">shocks</span>. Internal <span class="hlt">shocks</span> are semi-relativistic (v?0.6c), but one of the external <span class="hlt">shocks</span> is ultra-relativistic (v ~ > 0.99995c). The properties of very relativistic <span class="hlt">shocks</span> are poorly understood. Our parameter space covers a wide range of values intended to describe these <span class="hlt">shocks</span>' capabilities as these are suggested by the spectral properties of GRBs.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Papathanassiou, Hariklia</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1998-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">393</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/55448717"> <span id="translatedtitle">Analytical solutions of hypersonic type IV <span class="hlt">shock</span> - <span class="hlt">shock</span> interactions</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">An analytical model has been developed to predict the effects of a type IV <span class="hlt">shock</span> interaction at high Mach numbers. This interaction occurs when an impinging oblique <span class="hlt">shock</span> wave intersects the most normal portion of a detached bow <span class="hlt">shock</span>. The flowfield which develops is complicated and contains an embedded jet of supersonic flow, which may be unsteady. The jet impinges</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Michael John Frame</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1998-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">394</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6230849"> <span id="translatedtitle">Mechanism of functional residual capacity increase in haemorrhagic <span class="hlt">shock</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Shock</span> was elicited in anaesthetized dogs by maintaining a haemorrhagic hypotension of 4 kPa until 30 per cent spontaneous refusion, followed by total reinfusion. Functional residual capacity (FRC) and minute ventilation increased considerably similarly to our previous experiments. Lactate content in both the external intercostal and the biceps femoris muscles increased significantly in advanced <span class="hlt">shock</span>. The expiratory external abdominal oblique muscle showed electromyographic signs of fatigue. At the height of the FRC changes tonic contraction of the external intercostal muscle could be demonstrated electron microscopically. This tonic contraction is the <span class="hlt">main</span> factor in the large FRC rise in late <span class="hlt">shock</span> forming the basis of a hitherto unknown vicious circle. PMID:6230849</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Nagy, S; Hantos, Z; Deavers, S I; Tóth, I; Klebniczki, J; Adamicza, A</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1983-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">395</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=N8210448"> <span id="translatedtitle">Applications of Mechanical <span class="hlt">Shock</span> Spectra. Application of <span class="hlt">Shock</span> Spectra in <span class="hlt">Shock</span>-Testing and Mechanical Design of Electronic Equipment as Well as Description of Environments.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The relationship between <span class="hlt">shock</span> environment, <span class="hlt">shock</span> test specification, and <span class="hlt">shock</span> design of equipment is treated in terms of <span class="hlt">shock</span> spectra. Those <span class="hlt">shock</span> characteristics which are important in causing damage to structures are emphasized. <span class="hlt">Shock</span> testing by clas...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">B. B. Petersen</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1981-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">396</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23566590"> <span id="translatedtitle">[Traumatic neurogenic <span class="hlt">shock</span>].</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Traumatic neurogenic <span class="hlt">shock</span> is a rare but serious complication of spinal cord injury. It associates bradycardia and hypotension caused by a medullary trauma. It is life-threatening for the patient and it aggravates the neurological deficit. Strict immobilization and a quick assessment of the gravity of cord injury are necessary as soon as prehospital care has begun. Initial treatment requires vasopressors associated with fluid resuscitation. Steroids are not recommended. Early decompression is recommended for incomplete deficit seen in the first 6 hours. We relate the case of secondary spinal <span class="hlt">shock</span> to a luxation C6/C7 treated in prehospital care. PMID:23566590</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Maurin, O; de Régloix, S; Caballé, D; Arvis, A-M; Perrochon, J-C; Tourtier, J-P</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-04-06</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">397</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/868794"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Shock</span> destruction armor system</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A <span class="hlt">shock</span> destruction armor system is constructed and arranged to destroy the force of impact of a projectile by <span class="hlt">shock</span> hydrodynamics. The armor system is designed to comprise a plurality of superimposed armor plates each preferably having a thickness less than five times the projectile's diameter and are preferably separated one-from-another by a distance at least equal to one-half of the projectile's diameter. The armor plates are effective to hydrodynamically and sequentially destroy the projectile. The armor system is particularly adapted for use on various military vehicles, such as tanks, aircraft and ships.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Froeschner, Kenneth E. (Livermore, CA)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1993-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">398</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/doepatents/details.jsp?query_id=0&page=0&ostiID=868794"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Shock</span> destruction armor system</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A <span class="hlt">shock</span> destruction armor system is constructed and arranged to destroy the force of impact of a projectile by <span class="hlt">shock</span> hydrodynamics. The armor system is designed to comprise a plurality of superimposed armor plates each preferably having a thickness less than five times the projectile's diameter and are preferably separated one-from-another by a distance at least equal to one-half of the projectile's diameter. The armor plates are effective to hydrodynamically and sequentially destroy the projectile. The armor system is particularly adapted for use on various military vehicles, such as tanks, aircraft and ships.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Froeschner, Kenneth E. (Livermore, CA)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1993-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">399</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10211195"> <span id="translatedtitle">The epidemiology of Achilles tendon <span class="hlt">rupture</span> in a Danish county.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The epidemiology of Achilles tendon <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> was examined during the 13-year period 1984-1996 in a Danish county. Five hospitals, serving a population of 220,000 cooperated. There were 718 <span class="hlt">ruptures</span>, 544 men (75.8%) and 174 women (24.2%). The male to female ratio was 3:1. The average age was 42.1 years (3-82) and 62% were between 30-49 years. 74.2% of the <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> were sport-related and 89% of these occurred in ball and racket games. The annual incidence of achilles tendon <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> increased from 18.2/10(5) inhabitants in 1984 to 37.3/10(5) in 1996. The peak incidence in sport-related <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> occurred in the age group 30-49 years, but <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> not related to sport occurred in older patients with a peak incidence in those 50-59 years. PMID:10211195</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Houshian, S; Tscherning, T; Riegels-Nielsen, P</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1998-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">400</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012PhRvL.109s8302S"> <span id="translatedtitle">Measuring Thermal <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> Force Distributions from an Ensemble of Trajectories</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Rupture</span>, bond breaking, or extraction from a deep and narrow potential well requires considerable force while producing minimal displacement. In thermally fluctuating systems, there is not a single force required to achieve <span class="hlt">rupture</span>, but a spectrum, as thermal forces can both augment and inhibit the bond breaking. We demonstrate measurement and interpretation of the distribution of <span class="hlt">rupture</span> forces between pairs of colloidal particles bonded via the van der Waals attraction. The otherwise irreversible bond is broken by pulling the particles apart with optical tweezers. We show that an ensemble of the particle trajectories before, during and after the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> event may be used to produce a high fidelity description of the distribution of <span class="hlt">rupture</span> forces. This analysis is equally suitable for describing <span class="hlt">rupture</span> forces in molecular and biomolecular contexts with a number of measurement techniques.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Swan, J. W.; Shindel, M. M.; Furst, E. M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' 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onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">401</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1996Tectp.258...35C"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Rupture</span> history and seismotectonics of the 1991 Uttarkashi, Himalaya earthquake</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The 19 October 1991 Uttarkashi, India earthquake occurred in the <span class="hlt">main</span> thrust zone of the Himalaya. With a moment magnitude of 6.8, this event is characteristic of the present-day motion on the thrust fault system. We examine this earthquake using different sets of data in order to understand better the faulting process of a major earthquake in the Himalayan region. Firstly, the modeling of the teleseismic records indicates that the mechanism is similar to the published CMT and indicates a shallow (between 10 and 15 km depth) low-angle thrust event. In the vicinity of the source, the earthquake was recorded by a network of accelerometers run by the University of Roorkee. Six three-component accelerometers were triggered within a radius of 60 km. Two of them were very close to the surface projection of the fault. Forward modeling of those records shows that the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> propagated toward the west. This forward modeling gives us the possibility to confirm the epicenter location and to evaluate the timing of the accelerograms. The accelerogram records are inverted to obtain the distribution of slip on the fault plane. The results show a complex <span class="hlt">rupture</span> process. The slip maxima (1.5 m) occurred 10 km west and 15 km southwest of the hypocenter. The slip source function obtained with near-field data is similar to the function obtained from teleseismic records and shows a low moment release at the beginning of the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> and a maximum rate of moment release 4 seconds after. The relation between the slip distribution obtained by inversion, isoseimals, mapped faults and the aftershocks location is then discussed and we finally propose a seismotectonic interpretation of this earthquake. The Uttarkashi earthquake probably occurred along the detachment surface which coincides with the upper surface of the subducting Indian lithosphere. This detachment surface is gently dipping under the Lesser Himalaya and south of the Vaikrita thrust. The Vaikrita thrust marks the line separating the very shallow-dipping detachment (along which big earthquakes like the Uttarkashi earthquake could occur) from the steeper-dipping, aseismic basement thrust. This observation is important for correctly estimating the seismic hazard in the Uttarkashi region.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Cotton, F.; Campillo, M.; Deschamps, A.; Rastogi, B. K.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1996-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">402</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/health-topics/topics/shock/treatment.html"> <span id="translatedtitle">How Is Cardiogenic <span class="hlt">Shock</span> Treated?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePLUS</a></p> <p class="result-summary">... the heart muscle contracts Treat a heart attack Medical Devices Medical devices can help the heart pump and improve blood ... <span class="hlt">shock</span>. Medical Procedures and Surgery Sometimes medicines and medical devices aren't enough to treat cardiogenic <span class="hlt">shock</span>. Medical ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">403</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://geoazur.oca.eu/IMG/pdf/pubCourboulex_GJI99.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Rupture</span> complexity of a moderate intraplate earthquake in the Alps: the 1996 M5 Epagny-Annecy earthquake</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The magnitude 5 Epagny-Annecy earthquake of 1996 July 15 is the largest seismic event to have occurred in the Alps since the introduction of modern digital instrumentation. This strike-slip event was located on the Vuache Fault, near the town of Annecy, in the northern French Alps. The aim of our work was to retrieve the <span class="hlt">main</span> parameters of the <span class="hlt">rupture</span></p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Françoise Courboulex; Nicholas Deichmann; Jean-Christophe Gariel</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">404</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70010791"> <span id="translatedtitle">Maskelynite: Formation by explosive <span class="hlt">shock</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">When high pressure (250 to 300 kilobars) was applied suddenly (<span class="hlt">shock</span>-loading) to gabbro, the plagioclase was transformed to a noncrystalline phase (maskelynite) by a solid-state reaction at a low temperature, while the proxene remained crystalline. The <span class="hlt">shock</span>-loaded gabbro resembles meteorites of the shergottite class; this suggests that the latter formed as a result of <span class="hlt">shock</span>. The <span class="hlt">shock</span>-loading of gabbro at 600 to 800 kilobars raised the temperature above the melting range of the plagioclase.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Milton, D. J.; De Carli, P. S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1963-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">405</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..1211497K"> <span id="translatedtitle">Dynamical <span class="hlt">shock</span>: Theory and observations</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Collisionless <span class="hlt">shock</span> waves in plasmas are usually considered as stationary nonlinear waves that cause irreversible changes of plasma state. However, in the very beginning of the collisionless <span class="hlt">shock</span> physics it was observed experimentally (Morse et al., 1971) and in computer simulations (Biscamp and Welter, 1972) that quasiperpendicular <span class="hlt">shock</span> behavior can be nonstationary. Later it was hypothesized that nonstationary dynamics is typical for high-Mach-number <span class="hlt">shocks</span>. Now it is clear that there exist several types of nonstationary effects. Both computer simulation and experimental observations have shown different manifestations of <span class="hlt">shock</span> front variability, which differ by dimensionality and strength. In general, temporal variations result in spatially inhomogeneous multidimensional <span class="hlt">shock</span> front structure. Relatively weak effects will result in a "vibrating" <span class="hlt">shock</span> front structure resembling that of a stationary <span class="hlt">shock</span> with relatively small variations of the number of reflected ions and wave activity upstream of the <span class="hlt">shock</span>, while strong effects may cause the <span class="hlt">shock</span> front disruption and overturning. In this last case the <span class="hlt">shock</span> front "disappears" and a "new" one is formed in the vicinity of the "old" front, this phenomenon is usually called a reformation. Another feature of quasiperpendicular <span class="hlt">shocks</span> observed experimentally and in simulations is a phenomenon of front rippling, which is essentially multidimensional. The question whether rippling is always related to the <span class="hlt">shock</span> front nonstationarity or it can exist in quasistationary <span class="hlt">shocks</span> is still open. Several spacecraft programs, including multi-spacecraft missions like ISEE, AMPTE and Cluster provided an opportunity to measure spatial scales and characteristic times more carefully. This allowed observing unambiguous manifestations of <span class="hlt">shock</span> front reformation and rippling. We discuss also the observational features of particle distributions associated with the <span class="hlt">shock</span> front reformation.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Krasnoselskikh, Vladimir; Lobzin, Vasily</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">406</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3350117"> <span id="translatedtitle">Misdiagnosed Uterine <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> of an Advanced Cornual Pregnancy</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Cornual pregnancy is a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge with potential severe consequences if uterine <span class="hlt">rupture</span> occurs with following massive intraabdominal bleeding. We report a case of a misdiagnosed <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> cornual pregnancy occurring at 21 weeks of gestation. Ultrasound examination and computer tomography revealed no sign of abnormal pregnancy. The correct diagnosis was first made at emergency laparotomy. Uterine <span class="hlt">rupture</span> should be considered in pregnant women presenting with abdominal pain and haemodynamic instability.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sant, Christian Linus Hastrup; Andersen, Poul Erik</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">407</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/ug8agrq49rqh0a5c.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">MRI of complete <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of the pectoralis major muscle</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Rupture</span> of the pectoralis major muscle is a rare clinical entity. Only few reports have discussed its MRI or CT features.\\u000a We have reviewed the imaging features of four cases of complete <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of the pectoralis major muscle. One case of acute\\u000a injury underwent surgical repair. MRI is useful in delineating the site and extent of the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> in relation</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">K. Ohashi; G. Y. El-Khoury; John P. Albright; David S. Tearse</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1996-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">408</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19318288"> <span id="translatedtitle">[Spontaneous <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of the unscarred uterus during labor. Case report].</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We report a case of spontaneous uterine <span class="hlt">rupture</span> in a 19 year-old patient Gravida 1 para 2 with no past history of uterine surgery. The diagnosis of uterine <span class="hlt">rupture</span>, evoked in the early post-partum in the presence of acute abdominal pain, collapsus and haemoperitoneum on ultrasonography, was confirmed by laparotomy. Treatment consisted in hysterorrhaphy. The etiopathogenesis, clinical and therapeutical aspects of spontaneous unscarred uterine <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> are discussed throughout a literature review. PMID:19318288</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Leung, F; Courtois, L; Aouar, Z; Bourtembourg, A; Eckman, A; Terzibachian, J J; Maillet, R; Riethmuller, D</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-03-21</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">409</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16131683"> <span id="translatedtitle">Bilateral spontaneous <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of Achilles tendons: a case report.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Spontaneous bilateral <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of Achilles tendon is rare. <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> of the Achilles tendon has been described in patients on oral corticosteroid therapy. The sudden dorsiflexion of the plantar-flexed foot is the usual mechanism of injury. Spontaneous bilateral <span class="hlt">rupture</span> is common in the degenerated tendon, which is often seen in patients with long-term corticosteroid therapy. This case is unusual because the patient has never taken steroids. We discuss the mechanism of injury and other probable causes. PMID:16131683</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rao, S K; Navadgi, B C; Vasdev, A</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">410</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/51927880"> <span id="translatedtitle">The 2010 Chile Earthquake - Variations in the <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> Mode</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The magnitude 8.8, February 27, 2010 Chile, that occurred along the south central Nazca\\/South American plate boundary was an underthrusting event with an aftershock length of ~600 km along strike, with a bi-lateral <span class="hlt">rupture</span> that started near Cobquecura and <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> north to Valparaiso and <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> 100 km south of Concepcion. This segment of the south central coast of Chile has</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">S. L. Beck; D. Comte; T. Lay; E. Kiser; M. Ishii</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">411</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/56691856"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Shock</span> Wave Phenomena in Coaxial Plasma Guns</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">In a plasma gun (or a magnetically driven <span class="hlt">shock</span> tube) <span class="hlt">shocks</span> are usually obscured by a luminous front. Using a reflection technique and a pressure probe, the existence of a <span class="hlt">shock</span> wave is confirmed experimentally. For weak <span class="hlt">shocks</span> the luminous front lags definitely behind the <span class="hlt">shock</span> front. For strong <span class="hlt">shocks</span> there is an indication that the two fronts might coincide.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">C. T. Chang</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1961-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">412</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/55049813"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Shock</span> Wave Phenomena in Coaxial Plasma Guns</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">In a plasma gun (or a magnetically driven <span class="hlt">shock</span> tube) <span class="hlt">shocks</span> are usually ; obscured by a luminous front. Using a reflection technique and a pressure probe, ; the existence of a <span class="hlt">shock</span> wave is confirmed experimentally. For weak <span class="hlt">shocks</span> the ; luminous front lags definitely behind the <span class="hlt">shock</span> front. For strong <span class="hlt">shocks</span> there ; is an indication that the</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">C. T. Chang</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1961-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">413</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/2008415"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Shock</span> Graphs and Shape Matching</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Abstract. We have been developing a theory for the generic representation of 2-D shape, where structural descriptions are derived from the <span class="hlt">shocks</span> (singularities) of a curve evolution process, acting on bounding contours. We now apply the theory to the problem of shape matching. The <span class="hlt">shocks</span> are organized into a directed, acyclic <span class="hlt">shock</span> graph, and complexity is managed by attending to</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kaleem Siddiqi; Ali Shokoufandeh; Sven J. Dickinson; Steven W. Zucker</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">414</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.cs.toronto.edu/~sven/Papers/ijcv99.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Shock</span> Graphs and Shape Matching</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">We have been developing a theory for the generic representation of 2-D shape, where structural de- scriptions are derived from the <span class="hlt">shocks</span> (singularities) of a curve evolution process, acting on bounding contours. We now apply the theory to the problem of shape matching. The <span class="hlt">shocks</span> are organized into a directed, acyclic <span class="hlt">shock</span> graph, and complexity is managed by attending to</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kaleem Siddiqit; Ali Shokoufandehs; Sven J. Dickinsons; Steven W. Zuckert</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1998-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">415</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/60296235"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Shock</span> motion of YFNB targets</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">shock</span>-spectrum data obtained on the three YFNB surface targets of Operation Wigwam are examined and compared with two hypotheses as to the relation between parameters of the underwater pressure wave and the <span class="hlt">shock</span> motion in a ship. It was found that the <span class="hlt">shock</span> severity varies approximately in proportion to the theoretical upward velocity (the 'spray-dome velocity') of the free</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Blake</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1956-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">416</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/49599273"> <span id="translatedtitle">Management of <span class="hlt">shock</span> in trauma</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Shock</span> is failure of the circulatory system to provide the organ perfusion and tissue oxygenation required to meet cellular metabolic demands. Traumatic <span class="hlt">shock</span> is most commonly associated with haemorrhage, however the trauma patient may present with non-haemorrhagic <span class="hlt">shock</span>. The ‘lethal triad’ of acute coagulopathy, metabolic acidosis and hypothermia seen in trauma patients is developing the current approach to management of</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jonathan D. Pearson; Jonathan A. Round; Michael Ingram</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">417</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007ragc.conf...11M"> <span id="translatedtitle">On relativistic diffusive <span class="hlt">shock</span> acceleration</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The efficiency of the diffusive particle acceleration in non-relativistic and relativistic astrophysical <span class="hlt">shocks</span> is reviewed and evaluated. We dicsuss the properties of these <span class="hlt">shocks</span> and we present Monte Carlo simulations studying the relativistic <span class="hlt">shocks</span> efficiency in accelerating particles (i.e. protons or electrons) in astrophysical regions such as Super Novae, Active Galactic Nuclei and Gamma Ray Bursts.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Meli, A.; Mastichiadis, A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">418</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011GeoRL..38.8310L"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Rupture</span> directivity of microearthquake sequences near Parkfield, California</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The direction of propagation is an important factor that affects the pattern of ground motion generated by an earthquake. Characterizing factors favoring a potential <span class="hlt">rupture</span> propagation direction is thus an important task. Here we analyze the earthquake directivity of repeating earthquake sequences located on the San Andreas fault near Parkfield, California. All earthquakes of a sequence have very similar waveforms and have overlapping surface <span class="hlt">ruptures</span>. We show that subtle variations of the transfer function between earthquakes of a common sequence can be interpreted as a change of apparent <span class="hlt">rupture</span> duration. Relative apparent <span class="hlt">rupture</span> durations are computed for all pairs of events at all available stations and for each sequence. We invert these measurements to obtain an estimation of the apparent <span class="hlt">rupture</span> duration for each individual event of the sequence relative to a reference event. Variation of apparent <span class="hlt">rupture</span> duration with azimuth attests for the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> directivity. We show that the majority of analyzed microearthquakes presents a <span class="hlt">rupture</span> in the south-east direction. We also show that, on a given repeating sequence, most earthquakes tend to show the same <span class="hlt">rupture</span> direction.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lengliné, O.; Got, J.-L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">419</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AIPC..907.1466Q"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Modulus of <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> from a Mathematical Point of View</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The goal of this work is to present a complete mathematical study about the three-point bending experiments and the modulus of <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of brittle materials. We will present the mathematical model associated to three-point bending experiments and we will use the asymptotic expansion method to obtain a new formula to calculate the modulus of <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. We will compare the modulus of <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of porcelain obtained with the previous formula with that obtained by using the classic theoretical formula. Finally, we will also present one and three-dimensional numerical simulations to compute the modulus of <span class="hlt">rupture</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Quintela, P.; Sánchez, M. T.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">420</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23464778"> <span id="translatedtitle">Spontaneous diaphragmatic <span class="hlt">rupture</span>: case report and literature review.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Spontaneous diaphragm <span class="hlt">rupture</span> is extremely rare. Usually a diaphragm <span class="hlt">rupture</span> is trauma induced. We describe a case of an 18-year old patient admitted 2 hours after onset, presenting severe epigastric and left sided chest pain without any trauma history. Upright chest x-ray revealed displaced stomach and colon into the left pleural cavity with a collapsed left lung. Surgery for a left-sided diaphragm <span class="hlt">rupture</span> with stomach, spleen and colon splenic flexure herniation was undertaken. We present a brief review regarding the aetiology, diagnostic and treatment policy of spontaneous diaphragmatic <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. PMID:23464778</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ghidirim, Gh; Mishin, I; Condratsky, E; Zastavnitsky, Gh</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' 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src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">421</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.data.scec.org/Module/s1act02.html"> <span id="translatedtitle">What Is an Earthquake?: Fault-<span class="hlt">Rupture</span> Analogies</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This activity has two parts: the first part will demonstrate the weaknesses of simple fault models (like block diagrams) in depicting the process of fault <span class="hlt">rupture</span> accurately; and the second part is centered around a fairly simple animation of <span class="hlt">rupture</span> propagation, seen by an oblique map view, that attempts to show more accurately what we should envision when we think about fault <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. This activity provides different analogies for describing the process of fault <span class="hlt">rupture</span>, with attention paid to the strengths and weaknesses of each.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">422</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/57402562"> <span id="translatedtitle">Regulation of Cyclooxygenase2 Expression by Heat: A Novel Aspect of Heat <span class="hlt">Shock</span> Factor 1 Function in Human Cells</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The heat-<span class="hlt">shock</span> response, a fundamental defense mechanism against proteotoxic stress, is regulated by a family of heat-<span class="hlt">shock</span> transcription factors (HSF). In humans HSF1 is considered the central regulator of heat-induced transcriptional responses. The <span class="hlt">main</span> targets for HSF1 are specific promoter elements (HSE) located upstream of heat-<span class="hlt">shock</span> genes encoding cytoprotective heat-<span class="hlt">shock</span> proteins (HSP) with chaperone function. In addition to its cytoprotective</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Antonio Rossi; Marta Coccia; Edoardo Trotta; Mara Angelini; M. Gabriella Santoro</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">423</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.U51B0042H"> <span id="translatedtitle">Fault Complexity and Dynamic <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> Propagation of Shallow Thrust Faults: Toward the Understanding of the <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> Dynamics of the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We investigated the effects of interaction between the subduction interface and possible subsidiary faults branched off the <span class="hlt">main</span> interface at shallow depth to understand the coseismic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> propagation of the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake. We first built a complex fault network geometry by combining realistic non-planar slab interface geometry with several planar branched faults with various dip angles in the shallow wedge above the subduction interface. Their locations and dip angles are chosen as representative of the possible structures identified in the wedge by various seismic reflection surveys in this area. In addition, we employed a realistic ocean bottom topography from the epicenter region to the trench. To compute interactions between the faults and free surface, we used a Boundary Integral Equation Method developed for modeling dynamic <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> of faults close to the free surface [Hok and Fukuyama, 2011, GJI]. Although the computation was done in 3D, we did not take into account the lateral heterogeneity but focused on the phenomena along the fault dip direction. We assumed the 100km (along dip) x 50km (along strike) fault region overlapped by 125km (along dip) x 100km (along strike) free surface. Before the computation, we constructed a realistic initial stress state on the faults. We considered 3 independent stresses: 1) a horizontal tectonic stress increasing linearly at a rate of 10MPa/km until 3km and being constant (300MPa) below; 2) a lithostatic stress that takes into account water and rock mass density and thickness above the faults; and 3) a slip-deficit stress that is derived from a kinematic slip modeling assuming a fully locked slab interface with an assumption of 8cm/yr background secular slip rate for 1000yrs accumulation time. Pore pressure effect is not considered at this moment. Frictional constitutive parameters both on the plate interface and on the subsidiary faults should be needed. Since we do not have any observational estimates at this moment, we tried several typical distribution of these parameters. Given the initial state of stress and frictional constitutive parameters, the spontaneous <span class="hlt">rupture</span> can be computed. The <span class="hlt">rupture</span> is initiated at the deeper part of the slab interface by overshooting the stress. We observed the evolution of the friction at the junction during the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> and see that for most of the splay faults considered, a joint <span class="hlt">rupture</span> can be triggered. We will show the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> transition from the <span class="hlt">main</span> fault to the subsidiary fault. This transition affect the free surface boundary condition, which will cause different behavior from those for the strike-slip cases. During the Tohoku-Oki earthquake, a large shallow slip was observed which might be an origin of the huge tsunami disaster. Dynamic interactions could have triggered <span class="hlt">rupture</span> on multiple structures in the shallow wedge, which in turn might have enhanced the large displacement observed close to the trench.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hok, S.; Fukuyama, E.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">424</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/51633922"> <span id="translatedtitle">Sandia <span class="hlt">shock</span> compression database</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">An authoritative, updatable, and searchable bibliographic database whose topical area is <span class="hlt">shock</span> compression is currently under development. The database is derived from published scientific articles and reports with current emphasis in the subareas of strength, phase transitions, spall, and stress-volume relations. The content of the cited work is described by keywords which are selected and reviewed by scientific advisors. Keywords</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">C. E. Anderson; J. S. Wilbeck; J. C. Hokanson; J. R. Asay; D. E. Grady; R. A. Graham; M. E. Kipp</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1985-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">425</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/4015173"> <span id="translatedtitle">Toxic <span class="hlt">shock</span> syndrome.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Presenting features and clinical manifestations of six patients with toxic <span class="hlt">shock</span> syndrome are reported. In four of the six cutaneous injury, sometimes trivial, occurred before the onset of symptoms and may have been a causal factor. All six children recovered. The need for early recognition and intensive management in this life threatening condition is discussed. PMID:4015173</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Buchdahl, R; Levin, M; Wilkins, B; Gould, J; Jaffe, P; Matthew, D J; Dillon, M J</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1985-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">426</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/57025827"> <span id="translatedtitle">A <span class="hlt">shocking</span> truth</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">In November 2007, Anna Malofiy awoke in her Southampton, Pa., home to find her husband, Eugene, shaking and unresponsive. She called 911 and attempted cardiopulmonary resuscitation. A few minutes later, a police officer arrived with an automated external defibrillator (AED), the Powerheart model, made by Cardiac Science Corp. By administering an electric <span class="hlt">shock</span>, such devices can save your life if</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mark Harris</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">427</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22tampons%22&id=EJ244779"> <span id="translatedtitle">Update: Toxic <span class="hlt">Shock</span> Syndrome.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">|School health professionals can help reduce the incidence of Toxic <span class="hlt">Shock</span> Syndrome by suggesting that women not use tampons continuously during menses and that tampons should not be left in place for long periods of time. Tampons should be changed every few hours and used intermittently with pads. (JN)|</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Price, James H.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1981-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">428</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=PATENT3194293"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Shock</span> Absorbing Caster Wheel.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The caster wheel assembly has a rubber-like tire which is capable of stretching and deforming in shear to provide <span class="hlt">shock</span> absorption. The tire has an annular ring of metal for distributing loads more uniformly through the wheel and tire.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">R. J. Kindley</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1965-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">429</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=N7418752"> <span id="translatedtitle">Effect of <span class="hlt">Shock</span> Waves.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Studies of the pathogenetic effects of <span class="hlt">shock</span> waves from explosions are reviewed. The characteristics of an air blast are described. The interaction of such a blast on the human body, and the mechanism of resulting damage are investigated with particular a...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">P. I. Burenin</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1974-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">430</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011NJPh...13i5010E"> <span id="translatedtitle">Kinetics of hole nucleation in biomembrane <span class="hlt">rupture</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The core component of a biological membrane is a fluid-lipid bilayer held together by interfacial-hydrophobic and van der Waals interactions, which are balanced for the most part by acyl chain entropy confinement. If biomembranes are subjected to persistent tensions, an unstable (nanoscale) hole will emerge at some time to cause <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. Because of the large energy required to create a hole, thermal activation appears to be requisite for initiating a hole and the activation energy is expected to depend significantly on mechanical tension. Although models exist for the kinetic process of hole nucleation in tense membranes, studies of membrane survival have failed to cover the ranges of tension and lifetime needed to critically examine nucleation theory. Hence, <span class="hlt">rupturing</span> giant (~20 ?m) membrane vesicles ultra-slowly to ultra-quickly with slow to fast ramps of tension, we demonstrate a method to directly quantify kinetic rates at which unstable holes form in fluid membranes, at the same time providing a range of kinetic rates from <0.01 to >100 s-1. Measuring lifetimes of many hundreds of vesicles, each tensed by precision control of micropipette suction, we have determined the rates of failure for vesicles made from several synthetic phospholipids plus 1:1 mixtures of phospho- and sphingo-lipids with cholesterol, all of which represent prominent constituents of eukaryotic cell membranes. Plotted on a logarithmic scale, the failure rates for vesicles are found to rise dramatically with an increase in tension. Converting the experimental profiles of kinetic rates into changes of activation energy versus tension, we show that the results closely match expressions for thermal activation derived from a combination of meso-scale theory and molecular-scale simulations of hole formation. Moreover, we demonstrate a generic approach to transform analytical fits of activation energies obtained from <span class="hlt">rupture</span> experiments into energy landscapes characterizing the process of hole nucleation along the reaction coordinate defined by hole size.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Evans, Evan; Smith, Benjamin A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">431</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3620434"> <span id="translatedtitle">Migraine before <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of intracranial aneurysms</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> of a saccular intracranial aneurysm (SIA) causes thunderclap headache but it remains unclear whether headache in general and migraine in particular are more prevalent in patients with unruptured SIA. Methods In a prospective case–control study 199 consecutive patients with SIA (103 females and 96 males, mean age: 43.2 years) received a semistructured face to face interview focusing on past headaches. All were admitted to hospital mostly because of <span class="hlt">rupture</span> (177) or for unruptured aneurysm (22). In parallel we interviewed 194 blood donors (86 females, 108 males, mean age: 38.4 years). Diagnoses were made according to the International Headache Society criteria. Aneurysms were diagnosed by conventional cerebral angiography. Results During the year before <span class="hlt">rupture</span>, 124 (62.3%) had one or more types of headache. These headaches included: migraine without aura (MO): 78 (39.2%), migraine with aura (MA): 2 (1%), probable migraine (PM): 4 (2%), tension-type headache (TTH): 39 (19.6%), cluster headache (CH): 2 (1%), posttraumatic headaches (PH): 2 (1%). 1-year prevalence of headaches in controls was 32.5% (63 patients out of 194), they included: TTH: 45 (23.1%), MO: 17(8.8%), PH: 1(0.5%). Only the prevalence of MO was significantly higher in patients with SIA (OR 6.7, 95% CI 3.8-11.9, p?<?0.0001). Conclusions Unruptured SIA cause a marked increase in the prevalence of migraine without aura but not in the prevalence of other types of headache.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">432</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23065487"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Rupture</span> of jejunal varices treated with balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Bleeding from varices arising from outside of the gastroesophageal region is rare. We report a case of <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> jejunal varices, successfully treated with B-RTO. Our patient was a 60-year-old man with alcoholic cirrhosis who had undergone total gastrectomy two years before he visited our clinic with tarry stool and hypotensive <span class="hlt">shock</span>. Results of 3DMDCT clearly showed variceal formation at the jejunal loop around the anastomotic site and abdominal wall as well as the extensive epigastric outflow tract, which finally drained into the left femoral vein. B-RTO was carried out via right femoral approach, using a microcatheter system. The varices disappeared, and the patient remained asymptomatic 18 months after the treatment. PMID:23065487</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Osame, Akinobu; Higashihara, Hideyuki; Urakawa, Hiroshi; Kora, Shinichi; Yoshimitsu, Kengo</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-10-12</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">433</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.T54B..08P"> <span id="translatedtitle">Surface <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> Characteristics and <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> Mechanics of the Yushu Earthquake (Ms7.1), 14/04/2010</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">On April 14th 2010, a disastrous earthquake (Ms 7.1) struck Yushu County, Qinghai Province, China, killing thousands of people. This earthquake occurred as a result of sinistral strike-slip faulting on the western segment of the Xianshuihe Fault zone in eastern Tibetan Plateau. Our group conducted scientific investigation in the field on co-seismic surface <span class="hlt">rupture</span> and active tectonics in the epicenter area immediately after the earthquake. Here, we introduce our preliminary results on the surface <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> and <span class="hlt">rupture</span> mechanics of the Yushu Earthquake. The surface <span class="hlt">rupture</span> zone of Yushu earthquake, which is about 49 km-long, consists of 3 discontinuous left stepping <span class="hlt">rupture</span> segments, which are 19 km, 22 km, and about 8 km, respectively, from west to east. Each segment consists of a series of right stepping en-echelon branch <span class="hlt">ruptures</span>. The branch <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> consist of interphase push-up and tension fissures or simply en-echelon tension fissures. The co-seismic displacements had been surveyed with a total station in detail on landmarks such as rivers, gullies, roads, farmlands, wire poles, and fences. The maximum offset measured is 2.3m, located near the Guoyangyansongduo Village. There are 3 offset peaks along the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> zone corresponding to the 3 segments of the surface <span class="hlt">rupture</span> zone. The maximum offsets in the west, central, and east segment <span class="hlt">rupture</span> zones are 1.4m, 2.3m, and 1.6m respectively. The surface <span class="hlt">rupture</span> zone of Yushu earthquake strikes in a 310°NW direction. The fault plane dips to the northeast and the dip angle is about 81°. The <span class="hlt">rupture</span> zone is developed in transtension setting. Tension normal fault developed during the sinistral strike-slip process of the fault. The valley west of Yushu City and the Longbao Lake are both pull-apart basins formed during the transtension activity of the fault.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Pan, J.; Li, H.; Xu, Z.; Li, N.; Wu, F.; Guo, R.; Zhang, W.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">434</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.T21E..03S"> <span id="translatedtitle">Seismic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> propagation beneath potential landslide wedge</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">During 2011 Tohoku earthquake (Mw 9.0), much larger slip and tsunami occurred than expectation at outer-wedge (toe of the trench landward slope) of Japan trench (eg. Ide et al., 2011). Similarly, outer-wedge deformation was pointed out in northern segment of 1986 Meiji-Sanriku earthquake (Ms 7.2), and it was discussed that earthquake-related landslide induced large tsunami (eg. Kanamori, 1972; Tanioka and Satake, 1996). Many landslides and normal faults, potential tsunami genesis, are developed at outer-wedge of Japan trench (Henry et al., 1989). Some steep normal-faults turn to horizon at deep portion, and land sliding may be prevented by basal friction. If seismic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> propagates to basal fault of the outer-wedge, triggered gravity collapse will enlarge deformation of the outer-wedge to cause large tsunamis. It was considered that seismogenic fault locks at deep portion under inner-wedge of the plate subduction zone, and outer-wedge was classified into aseismic zone classically. Seismic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> propagation to outer-wedge is still uncertain. Seismic slip at the outer-wedge was found from the drilled core during IODP Nankai trough seismogenic zone drilling project (NanTroSEIZE) in Nankai trough, southwest Japan. Samples were obtained from the frontal thrust (438 mbsf), which connects the deep plate boundary to the seafloor at the toe of the accretionary wedge, and from a megasplay fault (271 mbsf) that branches from the plate boundary décollement. Higher vitrinite reflectance of 0.57 % and 0.37 % than the host rock of 0.24 % were found at splay and plate boundary faults zones respectively. These correspond with 300-400 °C and > 20°C of host rock. Local high temperature zone less than several cm thick may be caused by frictional shear heat at fault zone (Sakaguchi, et al., 2011). Shear velocity and durations can be estimated from thermal property of the sediment and distribution of the vitrinite anomaly (Hamada et al., 2011). This result shows that seismic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> has been propagated to outer-wedge of the plate subduction zone. Such a <span class="hlt">rupture</span> propagation probably trigger gravity collapse of the outer-wedge.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sakaguchi, A.; Kawamura, K.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">435</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1073757"> <span id="translatedtitle">Embolisation of recently <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> intracranial aneurysms.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Patients with subarachnoid haemorrhage due to the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of aneurysms unsuitable for craniotomy and clipping have been treated by coil embolisation within three weeks. Sixty nine of 75 consecutive patients were successfully treated. Procedure related complications occurred in 10 patients, resulting in permanent neurological deficits in three and one death (4.8%). The Glasgow outcome scores at six weeks were 53 grade 1, seven grade 2, four grade 3, and five grade 5. These results are comparable with surgical series despite a high proportion of aneurysms in the posterior cerebral circulation. Images</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Byrne, J V; Molyneux, A J; Brennan, R P; Renowden, S A</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1995-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">436</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16089834"> <span id="translatedtitle">Anisotropy in <span class="hlt">rupture</span> lines of paper sheets.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We have experimentally investigated the fracture process in paper samples submitted to a uniaxial force. Five types of paper sheets (newsprint, towel, sulfite, silk, and couche papers) were fractured along two orthogonal orientations. In order to characterize the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> lines of the paper sheets we utilized the Hurst exponent. Our results indicate a dependence of the Hurst exponent on the orientation of the paper sheets for samples of newsprint and, probably, towel and silk papers. For the other types of paper the Hurst exponent does not depend on the direction of crack propagation. PMID:16089834</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Menezes-Sobrinho, I L; Couto, M S; Ribeiro, I R B</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-06-22</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">437</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005PhRvE..71f6121M"> <span id="translatedtitle">Anisotropy in <span class="hlt">rupture</span> lines of paper sheets</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We have experimentally investigated the fracture process in paper samples submitted to a uniaxial force. Five types of paper sheets (newsprint, towel, sulfite, silk, and couche papers) were fractured along two orthogonal orientations. In order to characterize the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> lines of the paper sheets we utilized the Hurst exponent. Our results indicate a dependence of the Hurst exponent on the orientation of the paper sheets for samples of newsprint and, probably, towel and silk papers. For the other types of paper the Hurst exponent does not depend on the direction of crack propagation.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Menezes-Sobrinho, I. L.; Couto, M. S.; Ribeiro, I. R. B.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">438</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998APS..DFD..JK04S"> <span id="translatedtitle">Oscillatory Control of <span class="hlt">Shock</span>-induced Separation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A preliminary experimental investigation, aimed at delaying boundary layer separation due to the occurrence of a <span class="hlt">shock</span>-wave-boundary-layer interaction, is reported. The experiment was performed using a NACA 0015 airfoil at high Reynolds number compressible flow conditions in a cryogenic wind tunnel. The <span class="hlt">main</span> objective of this experiment was to delay the occurrence of drag-divergence and more importantly to alleviate the severe unsteadiness associated with <span class="hlt">shock</span>-induced separation (known as ``Buffeting''). Zero-mass-flux oscillatory suction/blowing was introduced through a downstream directed slot located at 10on the upper surface. The effective frequencies were such that generate 1-3 vortices over the airfoil, downstream of the <span class="hlt">shock</span>-wave, even when the excitation was introduced upstream of the <span class="hlt">shock</span>-wave. Wake deficit (associated with drag) and unsteadiness (associated with Buffeting) were significantly reduced. The spectral content of the wake pressure fluctuations shows a decrease throughout the frequency range, but especially at the lower frequencies wh