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1

Frequency-dependent effects of rupture for the 2004 Parkfield main shock, results from UPSAR  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

frequency-dependent effects of rupture propagation of the Parkfield, California, earthquake (28 September 2004, M6) to the northwest along the San Andreas Fault can be seen in acceleration records at UPSAR (USGS Parkfield Seismic Array) in at least two ways. First, we can see the effects of directivity in the acceleration traces at UPSAR, which is about 11.5 km from the epicenter. Directivity or the seismic equivalent of a Doppler shift has been documented in many cases by comparing short-duration, high-amplitude pulses (P or S) in the forward direction with longer-duration body waves in the backward direction. In this case we detect a change from a relatively large amplitude, coherent, high-frequency signal at the start of rupture to a low-amplitude, low-coherent, low-frequency signal at about the time the rupture front transfers from the forward azimuth to the back azimuth at about 34-36 s (time is UTC and is the seconds after day 272 and 17 h and 15 min. S arrival is just after 30 s) for rays leaving the fault and propagating to UPSAR. The frequency change is obvious in the band about 5 to 30 Hz, which is significantly above the corner frequency of the earthquake (about 0.11 Hz). From kinematic source models, the duration of faulting is about 9.2 s, and the change in frequency is during faulting as the rupture extends to the northwest. Understanding the systematic change in frequency and amplitude of seismic waves in relation to the propagation of the rupture front is important for predicting strong ground motion. Second, we can filter the acceleration records from the array to determine if the low-frequency energy emerges from the same part of the fault as the high-frequency signal (e.g., has the same back azimuth and apparent velocity at UPSAR), an important clue to the dynamics of rupture. Analysis of sources of strong motion (characterized by relatively high frequencies) compared to kinematic slip models (relatively low frequency) for the 11 March 2011 Tohoku earthquake as well as Maule (27 February 2010) and Chi-Chi (20 September 1999) earthquakes show that high- and low-frequency sources do not have the same locations on the fault. In this paper we filter the accelerograms from UPSAR for the 2004 main shock in various passbands and then recompute the cross correlations to determine the vector slowness of the incoming waves. At Parkfield, it appears that for seismic waves with frequencies above 1 Hz, there is no discernible frequency-dependent difference in source position (up to 8 Hz) based on estimates of back azimuth and apparent velocity. However, at lower frequencies, sources appear to be from shallower depths and trail the high frequencies as the rupture proceeds down the fault. This result is greater than one standard deviation of an estimate of error, based on a new method of estimating error that is a measure of how broad the peak in correlation is and an estimate of the variance of the correlation values. These observations can be understood in terms of a rupture front that is more energetic and coherent near the front of rupture (radiating higher frequencies) and less coherent and less energetic (radiating in a lower frequency band) behind the initial rupture front. This result is a qualitative assessment of changes in azimuth and apparent velocity with frequency and time and does not include corrections to find the source location on the fault.

Fletcher, Jon B.

2014-09-01

2

Rupture process of a multiple main shock sequence: analysis of teleseismic, local and field observations of the Tennant Creek, Australia, earthquakes of January 22, 1988  

USGS Publications Warehouse

On January 22, 1988, three large intraplate earthquakes (with MS 6.3, 6.4 and 6.7) occurred within a 12-hour period near Tennant Creek, Australia. Broadband displacement and velocity records of body waves from teleseismically recorded data are analyzed to determine source mechanisms, depths, and complexity of rupture of each of the three main shocks. Hypocenters of an additional 150 foreshocks and aftershocks constrained by local arrival time data and field observations of surface rupture are used to complement the source characteristics of the main shocks. The interpretation of the combined data sets suggests that the overall rupture process involved unusually complicated stress release. Rupture characteristics suggest that substantial slow slip occurred on each of the three fault interfaces that was not accompanied by major energy release. Variation of focal depth and the strong increase of moment and radiated energy with each main shock imply that lateral variations of strength were more important than vertical gradients of shear stress in controlling the progression of rupture. -from Authors

Choy, G.L.; Bowman, J.R.

1990-01-01

3

Aftershock patterns and main shock faulting  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We have compared aftershock patterns following several moderate to large earthquakes with the corresponding distributions of coseismic slip obtained from previous analyses of the recorded strong ground motion and teleseismic waveforms. Our results are consistent with a hypothesis of aftershock occurrence that requires a secondary redistribution of stress following primary failure on the earthquake fault. Aftershocks followng earthquakes examined in this study occur mostly outside of or near the edges of the source areas indicated by the patterns of main shock slip. The spatial distribution of aftershocks reflects either a continuation of slip in the outer regions of the areas of maximum coseismic displacement or the activation of subsidiary faults within the volume surrounding the boundaries of main shock rupture. -from Authors

Mendoza, C.; Hartzell, S.H.

1988-01-01

4

Up-dip directivity in near-source during the 2009 L'Aquila main shock  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study we have investigated the directivity associated with the initial up-dip rupture propagation during the 2009 April 6 (Mw 6.1) L'Aquila normal-faulting earthquake. The objective is the understanding of how the peculiar initial behaviour of rupture history during the main shock has affected the near-source recorded ground motions in the L'Aquila town and surrounding areas. We have modelled the observed ground velocities at the closest near-source recording sites by computing synthetic seismograms using a discrete wavenumbers and finite difference approach in the low frequency bandwidth (0.02-0.4 Hz) to avoid site effects contaminations. We use both the rupture model retrieved by inverting ground motion waveforms and continuous high sampling-rate GPS time-series as well as uniform-slip constant-rupture speed models. Our results demonstrate that the initial up-dip rupture propagation, characterizing the first 3 s of the rupture history during the L'Aquila main shock and releasing only ˜25 per cent of total seismic moment, controls the observed ground motions in the near-source. This initial stage of the rupture is characterized by the generation of ground velocity pulses, which we interpret as a forward directivity effect. Our modelling results confirm a heterogeneous distribution of rupture velocity during the initial up-dip rupture propagation, since uniform rupture speed models overestimate up-dip directivity effects in the footwall of the causative fault. The up-dip directivity observed in the near field during the 2009 L'Aquila main shock is that expected for a normal faulting earthquake, but it differs from that inferred from far-field observations that conversely provide evidence of along-strike directivity. This calls for a careful analysis as well as for the realistic inclusion of rupture directivity to predict ground motions in the near source.

Tinti, Elisa; Scognamiglio, Laura; Cirella, Antonella; Cocco, Massimo

2014-09-01

5

MitraClip for papillary muscle rupture in patient with cardiogenic shock.  

PubMed

We report the successful use of the MitraClip device (Abbott Vascular, Santa Clara, CA) in a 68-year-old man with posterolateral ST-elevation myocardial infarction complicated by papillary muscle rupture and cardiogenic shock. PMID:25442448

Wolff, Rafael; Cohen, Gideon; Peterson, Carly; Wong, Sophia; Hockman, Edgar; Lo, Jonathan; Strauss, Bradley H; Cohen, Eric A

2014-11-01

6

Thermal-hydraulic analyses of pressurized-thermal-shock-induced vessel ruptures. [PWR  

SciTech Connect

A severe overcooling transient was postulated to produce vessel wall temperatures below the nil-ductility transition temperature which in conjunction with system repressurization, led to vessel rupture at the core midplane. Such transients are referred to as pressurized-thermal-shock transients. A wide range of vessel rupture sizes were investigated to assess the emergency system's ability to cool the fuel rods. Ruptures greater than approximately 0.015 m/sup 2/ produced flows greater than those of the emergency system and resulted in core uncovery and subsequent core damage.

Dobranich, D.

1982-05-01

7

Rupture of undiagnosed embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma after shock wave lithotripsy in an 11-year-old girl  

PubMed Central

We present a case of a rupture of an undiagnosed embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma after shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) in an 11-year-old girl. Although SWL is generally regarded as safe, careful imaging before SWL is important to prevent life-threatening complications in children. PMID:25485021

Shin, Yu Seob; Kim, Young Gon; Jang, Kyu Yun; Choi, Hwang; Kim, Hyung Jin

2014-01-01

8

Rupture of undiagnosed embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma after shock wave lithotripsy in an 11-year-old girl.  

PubMed

We present a case of a rupture of an undiagnosed embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma after shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) in an 11-year-old girl. Although SWL is generally regarded as safe, careful imaging before SWL is important to prevent life-threatening complications in children. PMID:25485021

Shin, Yu Seob; Kim, Young Gon; Jang, Kyu Yun; Choi, Hwang; Kim, Hyung Jin

2014-11-01

9

[Anaphylactic shock caused by rupture of hydatid cysts].  

PubMed

A case of anaphylactic shock in a Maroccan man with hydatid cysts in the liver is described. Attention is drawn to the increased prevalence of hydatid disease among immigrants from South European countries, the Middle East and Africa. Medicinal treatment of hydatosis in cases with risk of spread is mentioned. PMID:2734882

Magnussen, P; Thorsen, S

1989-05-01

10

Improvements in the simulation of a main steam line break with steam generator tube rupture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The result of simultaneous Main Steam Line Break (MSLB) and a Steam Generator Tube Rupture (SGTR) in a Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) is a depressurization in the secondary and primary system because both systems are connected through the SGTR. The OECD/NEA ROSA-2 Test 5 performed in the Large Scale Test Facility (LSTF) reproduces these simultaneous breaks in a Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR). A simulation of this Test 5 was made with the thermal-hydraulic code TRACE5. Some discrepancies found, such as an underestimation of SG-A secondary pressure during the depressurization and overestimation of the primary pressure drop after the first Power Operated Relief Valve (PORV) opening can be improved increasing the nodalization of the Upper Head in the pressure vessel and meeting the actual fluid conditions of Upper Head during the transient.

Gallardo, Sergio; Querol, Andrea; Verdú, Gumersindo

2014-06-01

11

Shock-Wave Theory for Rupture of Rubber Center for Nonlinear Dynamics and Department of Physics, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712, USA  

E-print Network

of Buehler, Abraham, and Gao [7]. In their calculations, this behavior is produced by a rise in sound speedShock-Wave Theory for Rupture of Rubber M. Marder Center for Nonlinear Dynamics and Department January 2005) This Letter presents a theory for the rupture of rubber. Unlike conventional cracks

Texas at Austin. University of

12

Simulation of a main steam line break with steam generator tube rupture using trace  

SciTech Connect

A simulation of the OECD/NEA ROSA-2 Project Test 5 was made with the thermal-hydraulic code TRACE5. Test 5 performed in the Large Scale Test Facility (LSTF) reproduced a Main Steam Line Break (MSLB) with a Steam Generator Tube Rupture (SGTR) in a Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR). The result of these simultaneous breaks is a depressurization in the secondary and primary system in loop B because both systems are connected through the SGTR. Good approximation was obtained between TRACE5 results and experimental data. TRACE5 reproduces qualitatively the phenomena that occur in this transient: primary pressure falls after the break, stagnation of the pressure after the opening of the relief valve of the intact steam generator, the pressure falls after the two openings of the PORV and the recovery of the liquid level in the pressurizer after each closure of the PORV. Furthermore, a sensitivity analysis has been performed to know the effect of varying the High Pressure Injection (HPI) flow rate in both loops on the system pressures evolution. (authors)

Gallardo, S.; Querol, A.; Verdu, G. [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica Y Nuclear, Universitat Politecnica de Valencia, Camino de Vera s/n, 46022, Valencia (Spain)

2012-07-01

13

Spontaneous rupture of uterine varicose veins: a rare cause for obstetric shock.  

PubMed

Spontaneous rupture of uterine surface varicose veins is rare but may result in serious complication of pregnancy, as it is associated with high perinatal and maternal mortality. We report a 24-year-old primigravida who presented with this rare condition mimicking placenta abruption, which was successfully managed. A review of reported cases was performed. PMID:24888950

Lim, Pei Shan; Ng, Soon Pheng; Shafiee, Mohammad Nasir; Kampan, Nirmala; Jamil, Muhammad Abdul

2014-06-01

14

Extracorporeal Shock Wave Treatment (ESWT) Improves In Vitro Functional Activities of Ruptured Human Tendon-Derived Tenocytes  

PubMed Central

In vitro models of human tenocytes derived from healthy as well as from ruptured tendons were established, characterized and used at very early passage (P1) to evaluate the effects of Extracorporeal Shock Wave Treatment (ESWT). The molecular analysis of traditional tenocytic markers, including Scleraxis (Scx), Tenomodulin (Tnm), Tenascin-C (Tn-C) and Type I and III Collagens (Col I and Col III), permitted us to detect in our samples the simultaneous expression of all these genes and allowed us to compare their levels of expression in relationship to the source of the cells and treatments. In untreated conditions, higher molecular levels of Scx and Col I in tenocytes from pathological compared to healthy samples have been detected, suggesting – in the cells from injured tendon – the natural trigger of an early differentiation and repairing program, which depends by Scx and requires an increase in collagen expression. When ESWT (at the dose of 0.14 mJ/mm2) was applied to cultured tenocytes explanted from injured source, Scx and Col I were significantly diminished compared to healthy counterpart, indicating that such natural trigger maybe delayed by the treatment, in order to promote cellular repair. Herein, we show for the first time that ESWT enhances in vitro functional activities of ruptured tendon-derived tenocytes, such as proliferation and migration, which could probably contributes to tendon healing in vivo. PMID:23189160

Leone, Laura; Vetrano, Mario; Ranieri, Danilo; Raffa, Salvatore; Vulpiani, Maria Chiara; Ferretti, Andrea; Torrisi, Maria Rosaria; Visco, Vincenzo

2012-01-01

15

Septic shock with tension fecothorax as a delayed presentation of a gunshot diaphragmatic rupture  

PubMed Central

Diaphragmatic rupture (DR) after thoracoabdominal trauma has a reported rate of 0.8% to 5% and up to 30% of diaphragmatic hernias are accompanied with delayed diagnosis. The DR occurs after high-energy blunt or penetrating (stab or gunshot wounds) trauma. The purpose of this article is to analyze the DR, its clinical presentation, complications and possible causes of the delay in diagnosis, whilst recording a rare interesting case. A 44-year old moribund male with a fifteen years history of paraplegia, came to the emergency department with a clinical presentation of extremely severe respiratory distress. Chest X-ray showed the colon present in the left hemithorax. The onset of symptoms was 48 hours before, resulting in hemodynamic instability and severe sepsis condition. Emergency left thoracotomy and laparotomy were carried out. A rupture of the left hemidiaphragm was found as well as intrathoracic presence of colon, incarcerated and perforated, feces and omentum, also incarcerated and necrotic. There were dense adhesions between the ectopic viscera and the thoracic structures. The necrotic parts of the colon and the omentum were mobilized, and then resected. The viable parts of the colon were laboriously reintroduced into the intraperitoneal cavity. We conclude that early diagnosis is crucial to the morbidity and mortality after DR. The course and the kinetic energy of bullets determine the extent of the wound and the size of the DR. The diagnosis of rupture of the diaphragm after penetrating trauma is sometimes difficult and delay can lead to life threatening complications. PMID:24255791

Papachristos, Ioannis C.; Daliakopoulos, Stavros I.; Chatzoulis, Kostas; Lampridis, Savvas; Svarnas, Grigorios; Katsiadramis, Ioannis

2013-01-01

16

Rupture process of the great 1963 Kurile Islands earthquake sequence: Asperity interaction and multiple event rupture  

Microsoft Academic Search

The great Kurile Islands underthrusting earthquake (Mw=8.5) of October 13, 1963, was accompanied by a large foreshock and an aftershock. This sequence allows us to investigate the rupture process and faul heterogeneities along a subduction zone. We have characterized the rupture process of the main shock event by deconvolving long-period P wave seismograms from azimuthally well-distributed stations to obtain source

Susan L. Beck; Larry J. Ruff

1987-01-01

17

Earthquake source parameters for the 2010 January Haiti main shock and aftershock sequence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Previous analyses of geological and geodetic data suggest that the obliquely compressive relative motion across the Caribbean-North America plate boundary in Hispaniola is accommodated through strain partitioning between near-vertical transcurrent faults on land and low-angle thrust faults offshore. In the Dominican Republic, earthquake focal-mechanism geometries generally support this interpretation. Little information has been available about patterns of seismic strain release in Haiti, however, due to the small numbers of moderate-to-large earthquakes occurring in western Hispaniola during the modern instrumental era. Here, we analyse the damaging MW = 7.0 earthquake that occurred near Port au Prince on 2010 January 12 and aftershocks occurring in the four months following this event, to obtain centroid-moment-tensor (CMT) solutions for 50 earthquakes with magnitudes as small as MW = 4.0. While the 2010 January main shock exhibited primarily strike-slip motion on a steeply dipping nodal plane (strike=250°, dip=71° and rake=22°), we find that nearly all of the aftershocks show reverse-faulting motion, typically on high-angle (30°-45°) nodal planes. Two small aftershocks (MW 4.5 and 4.6), located very close to the main shock epicentre, show strike-slip faulting with geometries similar to the main shock. One aftershock located off the south coast of Haiti shows low-angle thrust faulting. We also examine earthquakes occurring in this region from 1977-2009 successful analysis of four such events provides evidence for both strike-slip and reverse faulting. The pattern of seismic strain release in southern Haiti thus indicates that partitioning of plate motion between transcurrent and reverse structures extends far west within Hispaniola. While we see limited evidence for low-angle underthrusting offshore, most reverse motion appears to occur on high-angle fault structures adjacent to the Enriquillo fault. Our results highlight the need to incorporate seismogenic slip on compressional structures into hazard assessments for southern Haiti.

Nettles, Meredith; Hjörleifsdóttir, Vala

2010-10-01

18

Main shock and aftershock records of the 1999 Izmit and Duzce, Turkey earthquakes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The August 17, 1999 Izmit (Turkey) earthquake (Mw=7.4) will be remembered as one of the largest earthquakes of recent times that affected a large urban environment (U.S. Geological Survey, 1999). This significant event was followed by many significant aftershocks and another main event (Mw=7.2) that occurred on November 12, 1999 near Duzce (Turkey). The shaking that caused the widespread damage and destruction was recorded by a handful of accelerographs (~30) in the earthquake area operated by different networks. The characteristics of these records show that the recorded peak accelerations, shown in Figure 1, even those from near field stations, are smaller than expected (Çelebi, 1999, 2000). Following this main event, several organizations from Turkey, Japan, France and the USA deployed temporary accelerographs and other aftershock recording hardware. Thus, the number of recording stations in the earthquake affected area was quadrupled (~130). As a result, as seen in Figure 2, smaller magnitude aftershocks yielded larger peak accelerations, indicating that because of the sparse networks, recording of larger motions during the main shock of August 17, 1999 were possibly missed.

Celebi, M.; Akkar, S.; Gulerce, U.; Sanli, A.; Bundock, H.; Salkin, A.

2001-01-01

19

Supersonic Rupture of Rubber  

E-print Network

The rupture of rubber differs from conventional fracture. It is supersonic, and the speed is determined by strain levels ahead of the tip rather than total strain energy as for ordinary cracks. Dissipation plays a very important role in allowing the propagation of ruptures, and the back edges of ruptures must toughen as they contract, or the rupture is unstable. This article presents several levels of theoretical description of this phenomenon: first, a numerical procedure capable of incorporating large extensions, dynamics, and bond rupture; second, a simple continuum model that can be solved analytically, and which reproduces several features of elementary shock physics; and third, an analytically solvable discrete model that accurately reproduces numerical and experimental results, and explains the scaling laws that underly this new failure mode. Predictions for rupture speed compare well with experiment.

M Marder

2005-04-24

20

Comparison of main-shock and aftershock fragility curves developed for New Zealand and US buildings  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Seismic risk assessment involves the development of fragility functions to express the relationship between ground motion intensity and damage potential. In evaluating the risk associated with the building inventory in a region, it is essential to capture 'actual' characteristics of the buildings and group them so that 'generic building types' can be generated for further analysis of their damage potential. Variations in building characteristics across regions/countries largely influence the resulting fragility functions, such that building models are unsuitable to be adopted for risk assessment in any other region where a different set of building is present. In this paper, for a given building type (represented in terms of height and structural system), typical New Zealand and US building models are considered to illustrate the differences in structural model parameters and their effects on resulting fragility functions for a set of main-shocks and aftershocks. From this study, the general conclusion is that the methodology and assumptions used to derive basic capacity curve parameters have a considerable influence on fragility curves.

Uma, S.R.; Ryu, H.; Luco, N.; Liel, A.B.; Raghunandan, M.

2011-01-01

21

A Case of Life-threatening Hemorrhagic Shock Due to Spontaneous Rupture of a Leg Varicose Vein  

PubMed Central

We report a case of massive, life-threatening from a varicose lesion of the right lower extremity. An 81-year-old lady was brought to the emergency room at our hospital because of massive bleeding from her right leg. She had had high ligation of the right saphenous vein at another hospital 2 years ago. After hemostat and transfusion, she recovered from hemorrhagic shock. Three-dimensional enhanced computed tomography angiography revealed a residual right great saphenous vein and recurrent varicose lesion. We performed high ligation of the great saphenous vein and closed all of the residual perforators. The patient was discharged hospital 10 days after the surgery and experienced no bleeding episodes within 8 months after the surgery. Certain high ligation and elimination of perforators of the great saphenous vein in surgery for varicose vein of leg is necessary to prevent lethal bleeding.

Shimada, Yasuyuki

2012-01-01

22

Rupture Velocities of Small Earthquakes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Whether the rupture process of small earthquakes differs from those of large earthquakes has been a long- standing question in seismology. Recent proposals as to whether and how the physics of rupture may change with earthquake size have sparked interest in the energy budget, which depends strongly on the rupture velocity (Vr). Small earthquake rupture velocities have proved difficult to determine due to the strong attenuation of high-frequency waves. We analyze P and S waves of small earthquakes to detect rupture directivity and constrain Vr. We apply the projected Landweber deconvolution (PLD) method to a data set of 30 earthquakes 3.6main shocks and obtain the relative source time functions (RSTF). The EGF approach removes the effects of complex structure between the earthquakes and the stations. Variation in RSTFs with azimuth yields estimates of Vr for 6 earthquakes from 0.4 to 0.9?. Our results are broadly consistent with those of Yamada and Mori (JGR, 2005) and McGuire (BSSA, 2004). We now explore the implications of the range in Vr for static stress drop (??), and the ratio of radiated energy to seismic moment, which are interrelated. Kanamori and Rivera (BSSA, 2004) discuss how Vr and ?? must change with earthquake moment, if the ratio of energy to moment ? increases with moment, as has been suggested by various studies. There is currently no consensus that such a change in this ratio truly occurs. The increase in the energy-to- moment ratio is controlled by the relation between moment and corner frequency, which has moment inversely proportional to corner frequency raised to the power (3 + ?). Data compiled in Kanamori and Rivera suggests ? of 0.5. Then Vr of 0.4 to 0.9? for M3 events require that ?? of M3 events range from 1 to 0.1 respectively, of that of M7 events. More constraints on rupture velocities of small earthquakes will help to resolve possible changes in the energy budget, and thus earthquake physics, with earthquake size.

Tomic, J.; Houston, H.

2006-12-01

23

Phenomena identification and ranking tables for Westinghouse AP600 small break loss-of-coolant accident, main steam line break, and steam generator tube rupture scenarios  

SciTech Connect

This report revision incorporates new experimental evidence regarding AP600 behavior during small break loss-of-coolant accidents. This report documents the results of Phenomena Identification and Ranking Table (PIRT) efforts for the Westinghouse AP600 reactor. The purpose of this PIRT is to identify important phenomena so that they may be addressed in both the experimental programs and the RELAP5/MOD3 systems analysis computer code. In Revision of this report, the responses of AP600 during small break loss-of-coolant accident, main steam line break, and steam generator tube rupture accident scenarios were evaluated by a committee of thermal-hydraulic experts. Committee membership included Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory staff and recognized thermal-hydraulic experts from outside of the laboratory. Each of the accident scenarios was subdivided into separate, sequential periods or phases. Within each phase, the plant behavior is controlled by, at most, a few thermal-hydraulic processes. The committee identified the phenomena influencing those processes, and ranked & influences as being of high, medium, low, or insignificant importance. The primary product of this effort is a series of tables, one for each phase of each accident scenario, describing the thermal-hydraulic phenomena judged by the committee to be important, and the relative ranking of that importance. The rationales for the phenomena selected and their rankings are provided. This document issue incorporates an update of the small break loss-of-coolant accident portion of the report. This revision is the result of the release of experimental evidence from AP600-related integral test facilities (ROSA/AP600, OSU, and SPES) and thermal-hydraulic expert review. The activities associated with this update were performed during the period from June 1995 through November 1996. 8 refs., 26 figs., 42 tabs.

Wilson, G.E.; Fletcher, C.D.; Davis, C.B. [and others

1997-06-01

24

Awake extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) as bridge to recovery after left main coronary artery occlusion: a promising concept of haemodynamic support in cardiogenic shock.  

PubMed

Cardiogenic shock following acute myocardial infarction is associated with high mortality rate. Different management concepts including fluid management, inotropic support, intra aortic balloon counterpulsation (IABP) and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) mainly in mechanically ventilated patients have been used as cornerstones of management. However, success rates have been disappointing. Few reports suggested that ECMO when performed under circumvention of mechanical ventilation, may offer some survival benefits. We herein present our experience with the use of veno-arterial ECMO as bridge to recovery in an awake and spontaneously breathing patient after left main coronary artery occlusion complicated by cardiogenic shock. PMID:25043583

Alozie, Anthony; Kische, Stephan; Birken, Thomas; Kaminski, Alexander; Westphal, Bernd; Nöldge-Schomburg, Gabriele; Ince, Hüseyin; Steinhoff, Gustav

2014-10-01

25

Rupture distribution of the 1977 western Argentina earthquake  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Teleseismic P and SH body waves are used in a finite-fault, waveform inversion for the rupture history of the 23 November 1977 western Argentina earthquake. This double event consists of a smaller foreshock (M0 = 5.3 ?? 1026 dyn-cm) followed about 20 s later by a larger main shock (M0 = 1.5 ?? 1027 dyn-cm). Our analysis indicates that these two events occurred on different fault segments: with the foreshock having a strike, dip, and average rake of 345??, 45??E, and 50??, and the main shock 10??, 45??E, and 80??, respectively. The foreshock initiated at a depth of 17 km and propagated updip and to the north. The main shock initiated at the southern end of the foreshock zone at a depth of 25 to 30 km, and propagated updip and unilaterally to the south. The north-south separation of the centroids of the moment release for the foreshock and main shock is about 60 km. The apparent triggering of the main shock by the foreshock is similar to other earthquakes that have involved the failure of multiple fault segments, such as the 1992 Landers, California, earthquake. Such occurrences argue against the use of individual, mapped, surface fault or fault-segment lengths in the determination of the size and frequency of future earthquakes.

Langer, C.J.; Hartzell, S.

1996-01-01

26

[Coronary artery embolism from ruptured plaque in the left main trunks with difficulty in detection of culprit lesion: a case report].  

PubMed

A 60-year-old man complained of severe chest pain and was emergently admitted to our hospital with a dignosis of anterior acute myocardial infarction. Emergent coronary angiography revealed significant stenosis in segment 7 and filling defect in segment 11 without flow delay. Haziness was observed in segment 5. Coronary thromboembolism was suspected, but the embolic source or culprit lesion was hard to detect. Intravascular ultrasonography detected ruptured plaque with lipid pooling in segment 5. Stent implantation for segment 5 was performed successfully and the patient had an excellent clinical course. Coronary thromboembolism is rare and intravascular ultrasonography may be useful to detect the culprit lesion. PMID:15801276

Fujimoto, Takatomi; Takase, Eiji; Fukuhara, Shinya; Takami, Yasuhiro; Yamamoto, Kazuo; Soeda, Tsunenari; Nishida, Taku; Morimoto, Atsushi

2005-03-01

27

Identical Aftershocks from the Main Rupture Zone 10 Months After the Mw=7.6 September 5, 2012, Nicoya, Costa Rica, Earthquake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over a two weeks period and as part of a Keck Geology Consortium summer research project, we installed a dense broad band seismic array directly over the rupture zone of the Nicoya, September 5th, 2012, Mw=7.6 earthquake. The network consisted of 5 Trillium compact seismometers and Taurus digitizers from Nanometrics, defining a triangular area of ~20 km per side. Also located within this area are 3 stations of the Nicoya permanent broadband network. One side of the triangular area, along the west coast of the Nicoya peninsula, is parallel to the trench and the apex lies 15 km landward. The plate interface and rupture zone of the Nicoya 2012 earthquake are located 16 km below the trench-parallel side and 25 km below the apex of this triangular footprint. Station spacing ranged from 3 to 14 km. This dense array operated from July 2nd to July 17th, 2013. On June 23rd, eight days before we installed this array, an Mw=5.4 aftershock (one of the only 5 aftershocks of the Nicoya Mw=7.6 earthquake with magnitudes above 5.0) occurred directly beneath the area of our temporary network. Preliminary analysis of the data shows that we recorded several identical aftershocks with magnitudes below 1.0 that locate some 18 km below our network. We will present detailed locations of these small aftershocks and their relationship with the June 23rd, 2013 aftershock and the September 5th, 2012, mainshock.

Protti, M.; Alfaro-Diaz, R.; Brenn, G. R.; Fasola, S.; Murillo, A.; Marshall, J. S.; Gardner, T. W.

2013-12-01

28

Fine structure of the landers fault zone: Segmentation and the rupture process  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Observations and modeling of 3- to 6-hertz seismic shear waves trapped within the fault zone of the 1992 Landers earthquake series allow the fine structure and continuity of the zone to be evaluated. The fault, to a depth of at least 12 kilometers, is marked by a zone 100 to 200 meters wide where shear velocity is reduced by 30 to 50 percent. This zone forms a seismic waveguide that extends along the southern 30 kilometers of the Landers rupture surface and ends at the fault bend about 18 kilometers north of the main shock epicenter. Another fault plane waveguide, disconnected from the first, exists along the northern rupture surface. These observations, in conjunction with surface slip, detailed seismicity patterns, and the progression of rupture along the fault, suggest that several simple rupture planes were involved in the Landers earthquake and that the inferred rupture front hesitated or slowed at the location where the rupture jumped from one to the next plane. Reduction in rupture velocity can tentatively be attributed to fault plane complexity, and variations in moment release can be attributed to variations in available energy.

Li, Y.-G.; Vidale, J.E.; Aki, K.; Marone, C.J.; Lee, W.H.K.

1994-01-01

29

Early second trimester uterine scar rupture.  

PubMed

Spontaneous uterine scar rupture can be lethal in pregnant women. A spontaneous uterine scar rupture in the early mid-trimester is rare and difficult to diagnose. This is a case of a 30-year-old woman (G2P1L1) at 19 weeks of gestation and having undergone a previous caesarean section presented with acute abdomen in shock. Laparotomy revealed a uterine scar rupture, which was resutured after evacuation of products of conception. This case merits that the uterine rupture should be considered as a differential diagnosis in pregnant women presenting with acute abdomen. In this case, although there was uterine rupture in the second trimester and a complete placental separation, fetus was alive which is quite unusual in patients presenting with rupture uterus. PMID:24326433

Bharatnur, Sunanda; Hebbar, Shripad; Shyamala, G

2013-01-01

30

The 1997 Umbria-Marche, Italy, earthquake sequence: a first look at the main shocks and aftershocks  

Microsoft Academic Search

A long sequence of earthquakes, six with magnitudes between 5 and 6, struck Central Italy starting on September 26, 1997, causing severe damages and loss of human lives. The seismogenic structure consists of a NW-SE elongated fault zone extending for about 40 km. The focal mechanisms of the largest shocks reveal normal faulting with NE-SW extension perpendicular to the trend

A. Amato; R. Azzara; C. Chiarabba; G. B. Cimini; M. Cocco; M. Di Bona; L. Margheriti; S. Mazza; F. Mele; G. Selvaggi; A. Basili; E. Boschi; F. Courboulex; A. Deschamps; S. Gaffet; G. Bittarelli; L. Chiaraluce; D. Piccinini; M. Ripepe

1998-01-01

31

Mapping the rupture process of moderate earthquakes by inverting accelerograms  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We present a waveform inversion method that uses recordings of small events as Green's functions to map the rupture growth of moderate earthquakes. The method fits P and S waveforms from many stations simultaneously in an iterative procedure to estimate the subevent rupture time and amplitude relative to the Green's function event. We invert the accelerograms written by two moderate Parkfield earthquakes using smaller events as Green's functions. The first earthquake (M = 4.6) occurred on November 14, 1993, at a depth of 11 km under Middle Mountain, in the assumed preparation zone for the next Parkfield main shock. The second earthquake (M = 4.7) occurred on December 20, 1994, some 6 km to the southeast, at a depth of 9 km on a section of the San Andreas fault with no previous microseismicity and little inferred coseismic slip in the 1966 Parkfield earthquake. The inversion results are strikingly different for the two events. The average stress release in the 1993 event was 50 bars, distributed over a geometrically complex area of 0.9 km2. The average stress release in the 1994 event was only 6 bars, distributed over a roughly elliptical area of 20 km2. The ruptures of both events appear to grow spasmodically into relatively complex shapes: the inversion only constrains the ruptures to grow more slowly than the S wave velocity but does not use smoothness constraints. Copyright 1999 by the American Geophysical Union.

Hellweg, M.; Boatwright, J.

1999-01-01

32

Rupture directivity of small earthquakes at Parkfield  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

main</span>">AbstractTheoretical modeling of strike-slip <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> along a bimaterial interface suggests that earthquakes initiating on the interface will have a preferred <span class="hlt">rupture</span> direction. We test this model with 450 small earthquakes (2 < M < 5) from Parkfield, California, to look for evidence of consistent <span class="hlt">rupture</span> directivity along the San Andreas Fault. We analyze azimuthal variations in earthquake source spectra after applying an iterative correction for wave propagation effects. Our approach avoids directly modeling source spectra because these models generally assume symmetric <span class="hlt">rupture</span>; instead, we look for azimuthal variations in the amplitudes of the source spectra over specified frequency bands. Our overall results show similar proportions of events exhibiting characteristics of <span class="hlt">rupture</span> directivity toward either the southeast or northwest. However, the proportion of events with southeast <span class="hlt">rupture</span> directivity increases as we limit the data set to larger magnitudes, with 70% of the 46 events M > 3 exhibiting southeast <span class="hlt">rupture</span> characteristics. Some spatial and temporal variability in <span class="hlt">rupture</span> directivity is also apparent. We observe a higher proportion of northwest directivity <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> following the 2004 M 6 Parkfield earthquake, which <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> toward the northwest. Our results are generally consistent with the preferred southeast <span class="hlt">rupture</span> directivity model but suggest that directivity is likely due to several contributing factors.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kane, Deborah L.; Shearer, Peter M.; Goertz-Allmann, Bettina P.; Vernon, Frank L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">33</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://quake.wr.usgs.gov/~spudich/pdfs_for_web_page/Spudich&CranswickBSSA1984.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">DIRECT OBSERVATION OF <span class="hlt">RUPTURE</span> PROPAGATION DURING THE 1979 IMPERIAL VALLEY EARTHQUAKE USING A SHORT BASELINE ACCELEROMETER ARRAY</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The 1979 Imperial Valley, California, earthquake (Ms -- 6.9) was recorded on the El Centre differential array, a 213-m-long linear array of 5 three-component digital accelerometers 5.6 km from the nearest tectonic surface <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. Although absolute time was not recorded on the array elements, a relative time base was established using the <span class="hlt">main</span> <span class="hlt">shock</span> hypocentral P wave and the P</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">PAUL SPUDICH; EDWARD CRANSWICK</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1984-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">34</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014Geomo.216...53X"> <span id="translatedtitle">Do buried-<span class="hlt">rupture</span> earthquakes trigger less landslides than surface-<span class="hlt">rupture</span> earthquakes for reverse faults?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Gorum et al. (2013, Geomorphology 184, 127-138) carried out a study on inventory compilation and statistical analyses of landslides triggered by the 2010 Mw 7.0 Haiti earthquake. They revealed that spatial distribution patterns of these landslides were <span class="hlt">mainly</span> controlled by complex <span class="hlt">rupture</span> mechanism and topography. They also suggested that blind-<span class="hlt">rupture</span> earthquakes trigger fewer landslides than surface-<span class="hlt">rupture</span> earthquakes on thrust reverse faults. Although a few lines of evidence indicate that buried-<span class="hlt">rupture</span> earthquakes might trigger fewer landslides than surface-<span class="hlt">rupture</span> earthquakes on reverse faults, more careful comparisons and analyses indicate that it is not always true. Instead, some cases show that a buried-<span class="hlt">rupture</span> earthquake can trigger a larger quantity of landslides that are distributed in a larger area, whereas surface-<span class="hlt">rupture</span> earthquakes can trigger larger but a fewer landslides distributed in a smaller area.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Xu, Chong</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">35</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20120000814&hterms=blimp&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Dblimp"> <span id="translatedtitle">Self-<span class="hlt">Rupturing</span> Hermetic Valve</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">For commercial, military, and aerospace applications, low-cost, small, reliable, and lightweight gas and liquid hermetically sealed valves with post initiation on/off capability are highly desirable for pressurized systems. Applications include remote fire suppression, single-use system-pressurization systems, spacecraft propellant systems, and in situ instruments. Current pyrotechnic- activated <span class="hlt">rupture</span> disk hermetic valves were designed for physically larger systems and are heavy and integrate poorly with portable equipment, aircraft, and small spacecraft and instrument systems. Additionally, current pyrotechnically activated systems impart high g-force <span class="hlt">shock</span> loads to surrounding components and structures, which increase the risk of damage and can require additional mitigation. The disclosed mechanism addresses the need for producing a hermetically sealed micro-isolation valve for low and high pressure for commercial, aerospace, and spacecraft applications. High-precision electrical discharge machining (EDM) parts allow for the machining of mated parts with gaps less than a thousandth of an inch. These high-precision parts are used to support against pressure and extrusion, a thin hermetically welded diaphragm. This diaphragm <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> from a pressure differential when the support is removed and/or when the plunger is forced against the diaphragm. With the addition of conventional seals to the plunger and a two-way actuator, a derivative of this design would allow nonhermetic use as an on/off or metering valve after the initial <span class="hlt">rupturing</span> of the hermetic sealing disk. In addition, in a single-use hermetically sealed isolation valve, the valve can be activated without the use of potential leak-inducing valve body penetrations. One implementation of this technology is a high-pressure, high-flow-rate <span class="hlt">rupture</span> valve that is self-<span class="hlt">rupturing</span>, which is advantageous for high-pressure applications such as gas isolation valves. Once initiated, this technology is self-energizing and requires low force compared to current pyrotechnic-based burst disk hermetic valves. This is a novel design for producing a single-use, self-<span class="hlt">rupturing</span>, hermetically sealed valve for isolation of pressurized gas and/or liquids. This design can also be applied for single-use disposable valves for chemical instruments. A welded foil diaphragm is fully supported by two mated surfaces that are machined to micron accuracies using EDM. To open the valve, one of the surfaces is moved relative to the other to (a) remove the support creating an unsupported diaphragm that <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> due to over pressure, and/or (b) produce tension in the diaphragm and <span class="hlt">rupture</span> it.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Tucker, Curtis E., Jr.; Sherrit, Stewart</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">36</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12.2567C"> <span id="translatedtitle">Kinematic Seismic <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> Parameters from a Doppler Analysis</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The radiation emitted from extended seismic sources, <span class="hlt">mainly</span> when the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> spreads in preferred directions, presents spectral deviations as a function of the observation location. This aspect, unobserved to point sources, and named as directivity, are manifested by an increase in the frequency and amplitude of seismic waves when the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> occurs in the direction of the seismic station and a decrease in the frequency and amplitude if it occurs in the opposite direction. The model of directivity that supports the method is a Doppler analysis based on a kinematic source model of <span class="hlt">rupture</span> and wave propagation through a structural medium with spherical symmetry [1]. A unilateral <span class="hlt">rupture</span> can be viewed as a sequence of <span class="hlt">shocks</span> produced along certain paths on the fault. According this model, the seismic record at any point on the Earth's surface contains a signature of the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> process that originated the recorded waveform. Calculating the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> direction and velocity by a general Doppler equation, - the goal of this work - using a dataset of common time-delays read from waveforms recorded at different distances around the epicenter, requires the normalization of measures to a standard value of slowness. This normalization involves a non-linear inversion that we solve numerically using an iterative least-squares approach. The evaluation of the performance of this technique was done through a set of synthetic and real applications. We present the application of the method at four real case studies, the following earthquakes: Arequipa, Peru (Mw = 8.4, June 23, 2001); Denali, AK, USA (Mw = 7.8; November 3, 2002); Zemmouri-Boumerdes, Algeria (Mw = 6.8, May 21, 2003); and Sumatra, Indonesia (Mw = 9.3, December 26, 2004). The results obtained from the dataset of the four earthquakes agreed, in general, with the values presented by other authors using different methods and data. [1] Caldeira B., Bezzeghoud M, Borges JF, 2009; DIRDOP: a directivity approach to determining the seismic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> velocity vector. J Seismology, DOI 10.1007/s10950-009-9183-x</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Caldeira, Bento; Bezzeghoud, Mourad; Borges, José F.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">37</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002JSeis...6..329J"> <span id="translatedtitle">An emendation of elastic rebound theory: <span class="hlt">Main</span> <span class="hlt">rupture</span> and adjacent belt of right-lateral distortion detected by Viaduct at Kayna?li, Turkey 12 November 1999 Düzce Earthquake</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The fault trace of the 12 November 1999 earthquake in theDüzce-Bolu region in Anatolia crossed the alignment of a 2.4 kmviaduct in Kaynali that had been carefully surveyed. The builders of theviaduct, the ASTALDI-BAYINDIR Co., resurveyed the viaduct after theearthquake. We repeated the survey for approximately one kilometre of theeastern end of the viaduct and obtained essentially identical results. Thoughit was unfortunate that the earthquake damaged the new structure, the piersdid produce a very rare record of ground deformation of an earthquake.In effect, the viaduct was a giant strain gage that yielded reliable data aboutground movement and distortion near a fault. This paper describes thesurvey data and their evaluation leading to convincing evidence that (a) thefault trace must be considered, not as a fault line or plane, but as a faultzone with a finite width and that (b) the structural damage within the zonewas caused, not primarily by ground acceleration, but by ground distortion.Along the right-lateral fault at Kaynali, the fault zone consists ofright-lateral movement at the <span class="hlt">main</span> trace, a zone of right-lateral distortionnear the trace, bounded by left-lateral distortion. The 12 November 1999event in Turkey, like the ground deformation and fracturing at Landers,California (Johnson et al., 1994, 1996), thus affirmed a forgottenconclusion from the studies by Lawson (1908), Gilbert and Reid (1910)of the 1906 San Francisco earthquake that earthquake <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> typicallyoccur throughout zones or belts, rather than along linear traces or planes.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Johnson, Arvid M.; Johnson, Kaj M.; Durdella, Joe; et al.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">38</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3531040"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Ruptured</span> rudimentary horn at 22 weeks</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Rudimentary horn is a developmental anomaly of the uterus. Pregnancy in a non-communicating rudimentary horn is very difficult to diagnose before it <span class="hlt">ruptures</span>. A case of undiagnosed rudimentary horn pregnancy at 22 weeks presented to Nizwa regional referral hospital in <span class="hlt">shock</span> with features of acute abdomen. Chances of <span class="hlt">rupture</span> in first or second trimester are increased with catastrophic haemorrhage leading to increased maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. Management of such cases is a challenge till today due to diagnostic dilemma. Expertise in ultrasonography and early resort to surgical management is life saving in such cases. PMID:23293421</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Dhar, Hansa</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">39</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3015800"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Ruptured</span> Spleen Following Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background: Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is generally a safe and well-accepted procedure. However, in a small percentage of patients, it is associated with complications, such as bleeding and injury to the bile duct and other viscera. Splenic injury as a result of laparoscopic surgery has been reported only in the context of direct trauma, for example due to retraction in hand-assisted urologic surgery. To date, there have been no reported cases of patients requiring splenectomy following laparoscopic cholecystectomy. We report an unusual case of <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> spleen presenting less than 28 days following “uncomplicated” laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Results: A 52-year-old female presented to our Accident and Emergency department 3 weeks following “uncomplicated” laparoscopic cholecystectomy, complaining of severe left upper quadrant pain radiating to the left shoulder tip. Clinical examination revealed a patient in hypovolemic <span class="hlt">shock</span>, with localized left upper quadrant peritonism. Abdominal computed tomography supported a diagnosis of splenic <span class="hlt">rupture</span>, and the patient required an emergency splenectomy. Discussion: Splenic injury rarely complicates laparoscopic cholecystectomy. We postulate that either congenital or posttraumatic adhesions of the parietal peritoneum to the spleen may have caused the capsule to tear away from the spleen when the pneumoperitoneum was established, resulting in subcapsular hematoma and subsequent <span class="hlt">rupture</span> in this patient. Videoscopic assessment of the spleen at the end of laparoscopic cholecystectomy might be a worthwhile exercise to aid early recognition and management in such cases. PMID:17651581</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Leff, Daniel; Nortley, Mei; Melly, Lucy</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">40</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/doepatents/biblio/874840"> <span id="translatedtitle">Glass <span class="hlt">rupture</span> disk</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A frangible <span class="hlt">rupture</span> disk and mounting apparatus for use in blocking fluid flow, generally in a fluid conducting conduit such as a well casing, a well tubing string or other conduits within subterranean boreholes. The disk can also be utilized in above-surface pipes or tanks where temporary and controllable fluid blockage is required. The frangible <span class="hlt">rupture</span> disk is made from a pre-stressed glass with controllable <span class="hlt">rupture</span> properties wherein the strength distribution has a standard deviation less than approximately 5% from the mean strength. The frangible <span class="hlt">rupture</span> disk has controllable operating pressures and <span class="hlt">rupture</span> pressures.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Glass, S. Jill (Albuquerque, NM); Nicolaysen, Scott D. (Albuquerque, NM); Beauchamp, Edwin K. (Albuquerque, NM)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> 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onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">41</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFM.U23A0028S"> <span id="translatedtitle">Fast Determination of Moment Tensors and <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> History: Application to the April 6th 2009, L’Aquila Earthquake</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">On April 6th 2009, a magnitude Mw=6.3 earthquake struck the Abruzzi region in central Italy. Despite its moderate size, the earthquake caused 293 fatalities and partially destroyed the city of L’Aquila and many villages in its surroundings. The <span class="hlt">main</span> <span class="hlt">shock</span> was preceded by an earthquake swarm, which started at the end of 2008. The largest earthquakes of the swarm occurred on 2009/03/30 (ML=4.1), and on 2009/04/05 (ML=3.9). To date, almost 7,000 aftershocks with ML>1.5 have been recorded by the INGV seismic network and three featured ML larger than 5.0. In this study, we present the results of the fast source parameters determination procedure adopted at the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV) using the 2009 L’Aquila earthquake as a case study. The <span class="hlt">main</span> task of this procedure is the fast calculation of source parameters within the first 24 hours after an earthquake. We apply a time domain moment tensor (TDMT) technique to compute the focal mechanisms of all the ML? 3.9 earthquakes by inverting broadband records of the Italian national seismic network. All events show normal faulting in agreement with the tectonic setting of the area. The preferred <span class="hlt">main</span> <span class="hlt">shock</span> moment tensor solution inferred is: strike 139°, dip 48°, rake -77° and Mw= 6.1. Using the <span class="hlt">main</span> <span class="hlt">shock</span> moment tensor to constrain the fault geometry, we invert the strong motion data provided by the Rete Accelerometrica Nazionale (RAN) and the MedNet station AQU to image the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> history. The inferred model is representative of a rapid finite-fault solution to be used immediately after an earthquake to get a preliminary interpretation of ground shaking. The proposed <span class="hlt">rupture</span> history highlights several relevant features. First, we have identified the SW dipping plane as the <span class="hlt">main</span> <span class="hlt">shock</span> <span class="hlt">rupture</span> plane and the existence of <span class="hlt">rupture</span> directivity associated with both the up-dip and SE along-strike propagation. Second, the inferred <span class="hlt">rupture</span> velocity, constant all over the fault plane, is relatively low (2.2 km/s). Third, the rapid solution is able to identify the position on the fault plane where most of the energy is radiated, although the position and the amplitude of slip patches are not well constrained.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Scognamiglio, L.; Tinti, E.; Michelini, A.; Dreger, D. S.; Cirella, A.; Cocco, M.; Faenza, L.; Mazza, S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">42</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PhDT........28Y"> <span id="translatedtitle">Toward resolving stable high-resolution kinematic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> models of large earthquakes by joint inversion of seismic, geodetic and tsunami observations</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this thesis, I summarize the research that I have done at UC Santa Cruz involving my development of joint inversion approaches using hr-GPS, teleseismic body and surface waves, regional seismic, campaign GPS, InSAR and tsunami datasets, to investigate the kinematic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> patterns of large earthquakes. In eight different studies of <span class="hlt">rupture</span> models of the 2011 Tohoku earthquake, 2012 Indo-Australia earthquake, 2012 Costa Rica earthquake, 2013 Craig earthquake, 2010 Mentawai earthquake, 2013 Pakistan earthquake, 2010 Chile earthquake and 2014 Iquique earthquake, I adopted each available dataset progressively in my joint inversion algorithm, so that in my current approach I can model all of the types of datasets simultaneously. As noted in this thesis, the teleseismic datasets provide good temporal resolution of the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> process, while geodetic datasets have good spatial resolution. Tsunami datasets have good spatial resolution of slip near the trench. The joint inversion combines the advantage of each dataset, yielding stable and high- resolution <span class="hlt">rupture</span> models with detailed spatial and temporal information. Resolving a robust and detailed <span class="hlt">rupture</span> model helps us to understand co-seismic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> properties, such as depth dependent energy release patterns, super-shear <span class="hlt">rupture</span>, and tsunami excitation. Comparing the inter-seismic locking pattern and post-seismic stress release pattern with the co-seismic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> model helps to investigate the locking and releasing behavior of the fault plane through the earthquake cycle, the stress release level of large earthquakes and the relationship between the <span class="hlt">main</span> <span class="hlt">shock</span> <span class="hlt">ruptures</span>, aftershocks and non-seismogenic deformation.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yue, Han</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">43</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70016902"> <span id="translatedtitle">High-frequency spectral falloff of earthquakes, fractal dimension of complex <span class="hlt">rupture</span>, b value, and the scaling of strength on faults</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The high-frequency falloff ??-y of earthquake displacement spectra and the b value of aftershock sequences are attributed to the character of spatially varying strength along fault zones. I assume that the high frequency energy of a <span class="hlt">main</span> <span class="hlt">shock</span> is produced by a self-similar distribution of subevents, where the number of subevents with radii greater than R is proportional to R-D, D being the fractal dimension. In the model, an earthquake is composed of a hierarchical set of smaller earthquakes. The static stress drop is parameterized to be proportional to R??, and strength is assumed to be proportional to static stress drop. I find that a distribution of subevents with D = 2 and stress drop independent of seismic moment (?? = 0) produces a <span class="hlt">main</span> <span class="hlt">shock</span> with an ??-2 falloff, if the subevent areas fill the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> area of the <span class="hlt">main</span> <span class="hlt">shock</span>. By equating subevents to "islands' of high stress of a random, self-similar stress field on a fault, I relate D to the scaling of strength on a fault, such that D = 2 - ??. Thus D = 2 corresponds to constant stress drop scaling (?? = 0) and scale-invariant fault strength. A self-similar model of aftershock <span class="hlt">rupture</span> zones on a fault is used to determine the relationship between the b value, the size distribution of aftershock <span class="hlt">rupture</span> zones, and the scaling of strength on a fault. -from Author</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Frankel, A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1991-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">44</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22019211"> <span id="translatedtitle">Left <span class="hlt">main</span> coronary artery transradial rescue percutaneous coronary intervention for acute myocardial infarction complicated by cardiogenic <span class="hlt">shock</span> with Impella ventricular mechanical support.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Mechanical ventricular assist support and especially Impella device that is implanted via femoral access are considered a cornerstone in the therapeutic arsenal of the management of cardiogenic <span class="hlt">shock</span>. Indeed, the potent antithrombotic agents administered during acute coronary syndromes constitute potential bleeding risk factors. Transradial interventions are nowadays widely used in ST-elevation myocardial infarction patients. However, some operators feel uncomfortable with the transradial approach when facing cardiogenic <span class="hlt">shock</span>. We report a case of transradial rescue percutaneous intervention for cardiogenic <span class="hlt">shock</span> in a young man with support of an Impella device via femoral access. PMID:22019211</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Dahdouh, Ziad; Roule, Vincent; Lognoné, Thérèse; Sabatier, Rémi; Grollier, Gilles</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">45</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4080494"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Ruptured</span> abdominal aortic aneurysm diagnosed through non-contrast MRI</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Rupture</span> of an aneurysm is a rare complication although it is considered a common cause of death. Some of these patients present with the classic triad of symptoms such as abdominal pain, pulsatile abdominal mass and <span class="hlt">shock</span>. Most symptoms are misleading and will only present as vague abdominal pain. Here we describe one such patient with an unusual presentation of a misleading abdominal mass which was eventually diagnosed as a <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> abdominal aortic aneurysm after an emergency MRI. PMID:25003065</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Chatra, Priyank S</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">46</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999EP%26S...51.1319K"> <span id="translatedtitle">Source <span class="hlt">rupture</span> process of the Papua New Guinea earthquake of July 17, 1998 inferred from teleseismic body waves</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A large earthquake (Ms7.1) occurred off northwest coast of Papua New Guinea (PNG), and a massive tsunami attacked villages to cause a devastating damage. In an attempt to ascertain the tsunami source, we investigate the source <span class="hlt">rupture</span> process using teleseismic data at IRIS network as well as local data at Jayapura, Irian Jaya, station. The source parameters obtained are: (strike, dip, slip) = (301°, 86°, 91°); the seismic moment =4.3 × 1019 Nm (Mw=7.0); the duration of <span class="hlt">main</span> <span class="hlt">rupture</span> =19 s; the centroid depth = 20 ± 5 km; the extent of <span class="hlt">rupture</span> along the fault strike =40 km; the average dislocation =1.8 m; the stress drop =7.3 MPa. The tsunami magnitude Mtdetermined from tide-gage data at long distance is 7.5, significantly larger than Ms, so that the PNG earthquake is characterized as a tsunami earthquake. Tsunami earthquakes might have been caused by slow <span class="hlt">rupture</span>, submarine landslide, and high-angle dip-slip. Our teleseisimic analysis precludes the first two candidates and favors the third one as a source of the present earthquake, although it does not necessarily exclude the possibility of an aseismic landslide induced by the <span class="hlt">main</span> <span class="hlt">shock</span> or its aftershocks.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kikuchi, M.; Yamanaka, Y.; Abe, K.; Morita, Y.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">47</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12.5421G"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Rupture</span> process of the 2000 and 2008 Ölfus (Iceland) earthquakes</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We have studied the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> process of three earthquakes occurred in 2000 (17-06, Mw=6.5 and 21-06, Mw=6.4) and 2008 (29-05, Mw=6.2) in Iceland, with epicentres very close. We have estimated focal mechanism from inversion of body waves at teleseismic distances (30°-90°) using the algorithm developed by Kikuchi and Kanamori for a kinematic source. In a second step, the slip distribution over the fault-plane has been estimated. The <span class="hlt">rupture</span> velocity and direction of the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> have been estimated from Rayleigh waves using the directivity function. The obtained results show similar focal mechanism for the three earthquakes corresponding to strike-slip motion. The <span class="hlt">rupture</span> plane is oriented in all cases in NS direction, which agrees with tectonics of the area. The slip distribution obtained for the three <span class="hlt">shocks</span>, shows a single process that starts at shallow depth (5 to 7 km), with the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> propagating to the south and parallel to the surface. The <span class="hlt">rupture</span> velocity estimated from body waves and Rayleigh waves is very low: 1.5 km/s. In order to confirm these low values, we have estimated the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> process using strong motion data recorded by Icelandic Strong-Motion Network. Accelerograms were converted to displacement by double integration and filtered. We have carried out a kinematic inversion of these data in order to constraint the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> velocity.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Girona, Társilo; Pro, Carmen; Buforn, Elisa; Peyrat, Sophie; Sigbjörnsson, Ragnar</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">48</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.3842L"> <span id="translatedtitle">Coseismic Fault Slip <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> from the Joint Inversion of Teleseismic, Local Strong-Motion and CGPS Related to the 2010 Jia-Shian Earthquake in Southwestern Taiwan</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Jia-Shian earthquake (Mw=6.3) occurred on 04th March 2010 in the southwestern Taiwan. We used the waveforms of teleseismics to identify the strike, dip and rake of focal mechanism are 311/33/37. Furthermore, we explored the strike, dip and rake are 316/40/44 on the first pulse of the teleseismic P wave. We also took account of the Continuous Global Positioning System (CGPS) data for the coseismic offset. The maximum horizontal and vertical (uplift) of coseismic offsets at the surface are 29.8mm± 1.0mm and 30.6mm± 5.1mm, respectively at station GS51. Moreover, the space and time distribution of slip during the coseismic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> was modeled by the joint inversion, which includes the CGPS coseismic offset, the teleseismic, and near field seismic records. We identified the faults geometry and reconstructed the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> process of coseismic faults slip. The initial <span class="hlt">rupture</span> was generated on the northwest - southeast trending fault and propagated to the northeast - southwest trending structure after 5 s of <span class="hlt">main</span> <span class="hlt">shock</span>. Their strike, dip and rake are 311/33/37 and 020/25/108, respectively. The average slip of <span class="hlt">rupture</span> was 20.1 cm, with the maximum slip of 50.4 cm. The <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of the seismic moment was 4.0 × 10 ^ 25 dyne-cm in 30 s of duration time.The slip <span class="hlt">rupture</span> constrained the synthetic data quite well, especially for the CGPS coseismic offset. We inferred the Jia-Shian earthquake took place on blind fault and the northeast - southwest trending structure was activated following the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> on <span class="hlt">main</span> northwest - southeast trending fault.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lin, Kuan-Chuan; Delouis, Bertrand; Hu, Jyr-Ching; Nocquet, Jean-Mathieu; Mozziconacci, Laetitia; Bethoux, Nicole</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">49</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20538732"> <span id="translatedtitle">Stent grafting a <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> para-anastomotic iliac aneurysm.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this case report, we present an 83-year-old man with a <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> para-anastomotic aneurysm who underwent a stent graft in spite of his condition of acute <span class="hlt">shock</span>. Our patient presented at the emergency room (ER) with acute abdominal pain. Shortly after arrival, he collapsed because of a <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> para-anastomotic aneurysm after the previous aorto-bi-iliac aneurysm repair in 1984. He was charged with a cardiac history that made him unsuitable for surgery. We chose for resuscitation followed by inflation of an aortic balloon that made the patient hemodynamically stable. He then underwent iliac stent grafting and was discharged from the hospital at 22 days after the procedure. The mortality rate of patients with a <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> para-anastomotic aortic aneurysm arriving at hospital ranges from 32% to 70%. Endovascular stent placement for <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> iliac aneurysmal arteries can be a safe treatment in selected patients. PMID:20538732</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Menke, Vivianda; Castenmiller, Peter H; Versteijlen, Rob J; Van der Laan, Lijckle</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">50</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3752187"> <span id="translatedtitle">Achilles Tendon <span class="hlt">Rupture</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Context: Achilles tendon (AT) <span class="hlt">rupture</span> in athletes is increasing in incidence and accounts for one of the most devastating sports injuries because of the threat to alter or end a career. Despite the magnitude of this injury, reliable risk assessment has not been clearly defined, and prevention strategies have been limited. The purpose of this review is to identify potential intrinsic and extrinsic risk factors for AT <span class="hlt">rupture</span> in aerial and ground athletes stated in the current literature. Evidence Acquisition: A MEDLINE search was conducted on AT <span class="hlt">rupture</span>, or “injury” and “risk factors” and “athletes” from 1980 to 2011. Emphasis was placed on epidemiology, etiology, and review articles focusing on the risk for lower extremity injury in runners and gymnasts. Thirty articles were reviewed, and 22 were included in this assessment. Results: Aerial and ground athletes share many intrinsic risk factors for AT <span class="hlt">rupture</span>, including overuse and degeneration of the tendon as well as anatomical variations that mechanically put an athlete at risk. Older athletes, athletes atypical in size for their sport, high tensile loads, leg dominance, and fatigue also may increase risk. Aerial athletes tend to have more extrinsic factors that play a role in this injury due to the varying landing surfaces from heights and technical maneuvers performed at various skill levels. Conclusion: Risk assessment for AT <span class="hlt">rupture</span> in aerial and ground athletes is multivariable and difficult in terms of developing prevention strategies. Quantitative measures of individual risk factors may help identify major contributors to injury. PMID:24427410</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wertz, Jess; Galli, Melissa; Borchers, James R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">51</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10818980"> <span id="translatedtitle">Partial <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of the distal biceps tendon.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Partial <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of the distal biceps tendon is a relatively rare event, and various degrees of partial tendon tears have been reported. In the current study four patients with partial atraumatic distal biceps tendon tears (mean age, 59 years; range, 40-82 years) are reported. In all four patients, a common clinical pattern emerged. Pain at the insertion of the distal biceps tendon in the radius unrelated to any traumatic event was the <span class="hlt">main</span> symptom. In all patients the diagnosis was based on magnetic resonance imaging or computed tomography imaging. In three of four patients the partial <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of the tendon caused a significant bursalike lesion. The typical appearance was a partially <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> biceps tendon, with contrast enhancement signaling the degree of degeneration, tenosynovitis, and soft tissue swelling extending along the tendon semicircular to the proximal radius. In three patients, conservative treatment was successful. Only one patient needed surgery, with reinsertion of the tendon resulting in total functional recovery. PMID:10818980</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Dürr, H R; Stäbler, A; Pfahler, M; Matzko, M; Refior, H J</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2000-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">52</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24386587"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Ruptured</span> common femoral artery aneurysm or abdominal aortic aneurysm?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We encountered a patient with a large retroperitoneal hematoma due to <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of a common femoral artery aneurysm. A 77-year-old man was transferred to our hospital with left groin pain and <span class="hlt">shock</span>. Computed tomography demonstrated a large retroperitoneal hematoma involving the left iliofemoral segment with extravasation of contrast into the left groin from a <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> left common femoral artery aneurysm. The patient also had an abdominal aortic aneurysm. Reconstruction of the common femoral artery with a graft was performed successfully. The patient had an uneventful postoperative course and subsequently underwent Y-graft replacement of the abdominal aortic aneurysm. PMID:24386587</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Niino, Tetsuya; Unosawa, Satoshi; Kimura, Haruka</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">53</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.6684C"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Rupture</span> velocity inferred from near-field differential ground motion</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The velocity of the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> propagation is a fundamental source parameter that strongly affects ground motion. It is commonly assessed from kinematic inversion of strong-motion or teleseismic data, sometimes combined with InSar and/or GPS data. The obtained <span class="hlt">rupture</span> velocity remains inevitably affected by uncertainties, <span class="hlt">mainly</span> due to imperfect knowledge of the earth structure and tradeoffs between different source parameters. In this study we show how the analysis of differential ground-motion may help constraining the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> velocity, without a priori information about the earth velocity structure. Our analysis is based on synthetic ground-motion simulations (0-2 Hz) for vertical strike-slip earthquakes propagating unilaterally at a fixed <span class="hlt">rupture</span> velocity in a homogeneous elastic medium covered with a 1 km-thick low velocity layer (shear wave velocity equal to 1 km/s). We show that when the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> reaches the bottom of the shallow layer, the phase velocity of transverse waves measured in the forward <span class="hlt">rupture</span> direction up to a few <span class="hlt">rupture</span> lengths is equal to the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> velocity, for a large range of frequencies. The comparison with the phase velocity obtained for a point source then enables to retrieve the value of the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> velocity. The phase velocity is simply computed from the ratio between the ground velocity and the shear strain or the rotation about a vertical axis. This study points out the utility of setting up dense arrays at the vicinity of major faults to retrieve <span class="hlt">rupture</span> features such as the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> velocity.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Causse, Mathieu; Cornou, Cécile; Bécasse, Julie; Bouchon, Michel</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">54</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22167787"> <span id="translatedtitle">DIFFUSIVE <span class="hlt">SHOCK</span> ACCELERATION AT COSMOLOGICAL <span class="hlt">SHOCK</span> WAVES</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We reexamine nonlinear diffusive <span class="hlt">shock</span> acceleration (DSA) at cosmological <span class="hlt">shocks</span> in the large-scale structure of the universe, incorporating wave-particle interactions that are expected to operate in collisionless <span class="hlt">shocks</span>. Adopting simple phenomenological models for magnetic field amplification (MFA) by cosmic-ray (CR) streaming instabilities and Alfvenic drift, we perform kinetic DSA simulations for a wide range of sonic and Alfvenic Mach numbers and evaluate the CR injection fraction and acceleration efficiency. In our DSA model, the CR acceleration efficiency is determined <span class="hlt">mainly</span> by the sonic Mach number M{sub s} , while the MFA factor depends on the Alfvenic Mach number and the degree of <span class="hlt">shock</span> modification by CRs. We show that at strong CR modified <span class="hlt">shocks</span>, if scattering centers drift with an effective Alfven speed in the amplified magnetic field, the CR energy spectrum is steepened and the acceleration efficiency is reduced significantly, compared to the cases without such effects. As a result, the postshock CR pressure saturates roughly at {approx}20% of the <span class="hlt">shock</span> ram pressure for strong <span class="hlt">shocks</span> with M{sub s} {approx}> 10. In the test-particle regime (M{sub s} {approx}< 3), it is expected that the magnetic field is not amplified and the Alfvenic drift effects are insignificant, although relevant plasma physical processes at low Mach number <span class="hlt">shocks</span> remain largely uncertain.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kang, Hyesung [Department of Earth Sciences, Pusan National University, Pusan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Earth Sciences, Pusan National University, Pusan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of); Ryu, Dongsu, E-mail: kang@uju.es.pusan.ac.kr, E-mail: ryu@canopus.cnu.ac.kr [Department of Astronomy and Space Science, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Astronomy and Space Science, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-02-10</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">55</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20000025313&hterms=ionizing+wave&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dionizing%2Bwave"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Shock</span> Wave Dynamics in Weakly Ionized Plasmas</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">An investigation of the dynamics of <span class="hlt">shock</span> waves in weakly ionized argon plasmas has been performed using a pressure <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> <span class="hlt">shock</span> tube. The velocity of the <span class="hlt">shock</span> is observed to increase when the <span class="hlt">shock</span> traverses the plasma. The observed increases cannot be accounted for by thermal effects alone. Possible mechanisms that could explain the anomalous behavior include a vibrational/translational relaxation in the nonequilibrium plasma, electron diffusion across the <span class="hlt">shock</span> front resulting from high electron mobility, and the propagation of ion-acoustic waves generated at the <span class="hlt">shock</span> front. Using a turbulence model based on reduced kinetic theory, analysis of the observed results suggest a role for turbulence in anomalous <span class="hlt">shock</span> dynamics in weakly ionized media and plasma-induced hypersonic drag reduction.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Johnson, Joseph A., III</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">56</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013SPIE.8923E..1CL"> <span id="translatedtitle">Laser measurements of bacterial endospore destruction from <span class="hlt">shock</span> waves</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The effects of <span class="hlt">shock</span> waves on bioaerosols containing endospores were measured by combined laser absorption and scattering. Experiments were conducted in the Stanford aerosol <span class="hlt">shock</span> tube for post-<span class="hlt">shock</span> temperatures ranging from 400 K to 1100 K. Laser intensity measurements through the test section of the <span class="hlt">shock</span> tube at wavelengths of 266 and 665 nm provided real-time monitoring of the morphological changes (includes changes in shape, structure and optical properties) in the endospores. Scatter of the visible light measured the integrity of endospore structure, while absorption of the UV light provided a measure of biochemicals released when endospores <span class="hlt">ruptured</span>. For post-<span class="hlt">shock</span> temperatures above 750 K the structural breakdown of Bacillus atrophaeus (BA) endospores was observed. A simple theoretical model using laser extinction is presented for determining the fraction of endospores that are <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> by the <span class="hlt">shock</span> waves. In addition, mechanisms of endospore mortality preceding their disintegration due to <span class="hlt">shock</span> waves are discussed.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lappas, Petros P.; McCartt, A. Daniel; Gates, Sean D.; Jeffries, Jay B.; Hanson, Ronald K.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">57</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20623295"> <span id="translatedtitle">Massive retroperitoneal haemorrhage after extracorporeal <span class="hlt">shock</span> wave lithotripsy (ESWL).</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A 76-year-old male suffering from nephrolithiasis developed a <span class="hlt">shock</span> syndrome 5 days after extracorporal <span class="hlt">shock</span> wave lithotripsy (ESWL). CT scan of the abdomen showed massive haemorrhage around the right kidney. Although nephrectomy was performed immediately, the haemorrhage could not be controlled. Numerous units of erythrocytes were transfused, but the patient died. The autopsy revealed massive retroperitoneal haemorrhage around the right kidney. The kidney showed a subcapsular haematoma and a <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of the capsule. The right renal artery was dissected. The inferior vena cava was lacerated. Accordingly, a hemorrhagic <span class="hlt">shock</span> as the cause of death was determined, which might <span class="hlt">mainly</span> have resulted from the laceration of the inferior vena cava due to ESWL. ESWL seems to be a relatively non-invasive modality, but one of its severe complications is perirenal hematoma. The injuries of the blood vessels might have been caused by excessive <span class="hlt">shock</span> waves. Subsequently, anticoagulation therapy had been resumed 3 days after EWSL, which might have triggered the haemorrhage. Physicians should note that a haemorrhage after an ESWL can occur and they should pay attention to the postoperative management in aged individuals especially when they are under anticoagulation therapy. PMID:20623295</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Inoue, Hiromasa; Kamphausen, Thomas; Bajanowski, Thomas; Trübner, Kurt</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">58</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1342521"> <span id="translatedtitle">Blunt traumatic pericardial <span class="hlt">rupture</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A 28-year-old man presented with left chest, head and limb injuries following a road traffic accident (RTA). Increasing haemodynamic instability necessitated an emergency left thoracotomy at which a complete <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of the pericardium and herniation of the heart was found. After repair, the patient made an uneventful post-operative recovery. The aetiology, investigation and management of this rare injury is discussed. Images Fig. 1 PMID:7640832</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Levine, A J; Collins, F J</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1995-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">59</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4320787"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Rupture</span> of Renal Transplant</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background. <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> of renal allograft is a rare and serious complication of transplantation that is usually attributed to acute rejection, acute tubular necrosis, or renal vein thrombosis. Case Presentation. LD, a 26-year-old male with established renal failure, underwent deceased donor transplantation using kidney from a 50-year-old donor with acute kidney injury (Cr 430?mmol/L). LD had a stormy posttransplant recovery and required exploration immediately for significant bleeding. On day three after transplant, he developed pain/graft swelling and another significant haemorrhage with cardiovascular compromise which did not respond to aggressive resuscitation. At reexploration, the renal allograft was found to have a longitudinal <span class="hlt">rupture</span> and was removed. Histology showed features of type IIa Banff 97 acute vascular rejection, moderate arteriosclerosis, and acute tubular necrosis. Conclusion. Possible ways of avoiding allograft <span class="hlt">rupture</span> include use of well-matched, good quality kidneys; reducing or managing risk factors that would predispose to delayed graft function; ensuring a technically satisfactory transplant procedure with short cold and warm ischemia times; and avoiding large donor-recipient age gradients.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Baker, Shona; Popescu, Maria; Akoh, Jacob A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2015-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">60</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004AGUFM.S42B..07M"> <span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">rupture</span> process of the 2003 Tokachi-Oki earthquake using 1-Hz GPS data and its afterslip history inferred from GPS data.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We analyzed GPS data to infer the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> process of and afterslip distribution following the 2003 Tokachi-Oki earthquake. Firstly, we processed 1-Hz GPS data with kinematic GPS analysis [Larson et al., 2003] for 90 minutes (approximately 45 minutes before and after the quake) to obtain the displacement waveform. Then we inverted those waveform to infer the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> process of the <span class="hlt">main</span> <span class="hlt">shock</span> using multi time window inversion method. We use the Freq-Wavenumber (FK) codes developed by Zhu and Rivera [2003] to calculate the green's function. We find the slip is not significant in the epicenter. The <span class="hlt">rupture</span> propagated downdip, and maximum slip as large as ˜ 9 m is found ˜ 50 km downdip. This result is consistent with those inferred from teleseismic and strong motion inversions. Secondly, we processed postseismic daily GPS data with precise point positioning, and inverted the time series with the Network Inversion Filter [Segall and Matthews, 1997]. It is notable that afterslip is absent in the area where the complementary spatial pattern of coseismic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> and afterslip may indicate along strike spatial variations of frictional properties, although other interpretations can not be ruled out. We calculated shear stress change due to afterslip in the direction of plate convergence. The stress change follows a quasi-linear trend with log of slip-rate, suggestive of a decay back to steady-state slip on a velocity strengthening fault.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Miyazaki, S.; Larson, K. M.; Choi, K.; Segall, P.; Hikima, K.; Koketsu, K.; Bodin, P.; Haase, J.; Gordon, E.; Fukuda, J.; Kato, T.; Yamagiwa, A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' 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src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">61</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.S53G..01R"> <span id="translatedtitle">Persistency of <span class="hlt">rupture</span> directivity in moderate-magnitude earthquakes in Italy: Implications for seismic hazard</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A simple method based on the EGF deconvolution in the frequency domain is applied to detect the occurrence of unilateral <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> in recent damaging earthquakes in Italy. The spectral ratio between event pairs with different magnitudes at individual stations shows large azimuthal variations above corner frequency when the target event is affected by source directivity and the EGF is not or vice versa. The analysis is applied to seismograms and accelerograms recorded during the seismic sequence following the 20 May 2012, Mw 5.6 <span class="hlt">main</span> <span class="hlt">shock</span> in Emilia, northern Italy, the 6 April 2009, Mw 6.1 earthquake of L'Aquila, central Italy, and the 26 September 1997, Mw 5.7 and 6.0 <span class="hlt">shocks</span> in Umbria-Marche, central Italy. Events of each seismic sequence are selected as having consistent focal mechanisms, and the station selection obeys to the constraint of a similar source-to-receiver path for the event pairs. The analyzed data set of L'Aquila consists of 962 broad-band seismograms relative to 69 normal-faulting earthquakes (3.3 ? MW ? 6.1, according to Herrmann et al., 2011), stations are selected in the distance range 100 to 250 km to minimize differences in propagation paths. The seismogram analysis reveals that a strong along-strike (toward SE) source directivity characterized all of the three Mw > 5.0 <span class="hlt">shocks</span>. Source directivity was also persistent up to the smallest magnitudes: 65% of earthquakes under study showed evidence of directivity toward SE whereas only one (Mw 3.7) event showed directivity in the opposite direction. Also the Mw 5.6 <span class="hlt">main</span> <span class="hlt">shock</span> of the 20 May 2012 in Emilia result in large azimuthal spectral variations indicating unilateral <span class="hlt">rupture</span> propagation toward SE. According to the reconstructed geometry of the trust-fault plane, the inferred directivity direction suggests top-down <span class="hlt">rupture</span> propagation. The analysis over the Emilia aftershock sequence is in progress. The third seismic sequence, dated 1997-1998, occurred in the northern Apennines and, similarly to L'Aquila faults, was characterized by normal-faulting earthquakes with strike substantially parallel to the Apennine trend. Although the amount of data is not as abundant as for the most recent earthquakes, the available data were already object of previous studies indicating unilateral <span class="hlt">rupture</span> propagation in several of the strongest (5.5 < Mw < 6.0) <span class="hlt">shocks</span>. We show that the effect of directivity is particularly significant in intermontane basins where long-period (T > 1 sec) ground motions are amplified by soft sediments and the combination of local amplification with source directivity causes exceedance of spectral ordinates at those periods up to more than 2 standard deviations from the expected values of commonly used GMPEs for soft sites. These results arise a concern in terms of seismic hazard because source directivity is found to be recurrent feature in the Apennines. Moreover, the predominant fault strike and intermontane basins are both aligned along the Apennine chain offering a condition potentially favorable to extra-amplifications at periods relevant to seismic risk.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rovelli, A.; Calderoni, G.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">62</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JGRB..119.8331L"> <span id="translatedtitle">Progression of spontaneous in-plane shear faults from sub-Rayleigh to compressional wave <span class="hlt">rupture</span> speeds</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">investigate numerically the passage of spontaneous, dynamic in-plane shear <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> from initiation to their final <span class="hlt">rupture</span> speed, using very fine grids. By carrying out more than 120 simulations, we identify two different mechanisms controlling supershear transition. For relatively weaker faults, the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> speed always passes smoothly and continuously through the range of speeds between the Rayleigh and shear wave speeds (the formerly considered forbidden zone of <span class="hlt">rupture</span> speeds). This, however, occurs in a very short time, before the <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> reach the compressional wave speed. The very short time spent in this range of speeds may explain why a jump over these speeds was seen in some earlier numerical and experimental studies and confirms that this speed range is an unstable range, as predicted analytically for steady state, singular cracks. On the other hand, for relatively stronger faults, we find that a daughter <span class="hlt">rupture</span> is initiated by the <span class="hlt">main</span> (mother) <span class="hlt">rupture</span>, ahead of it. The mother <span class="hlt">rupture</span> continues to propagate at sub-Rayleigh speed and eventually merges with the daughter <span class="hlt">rupture</span>, whose speed jumps over the Rayleigh to shear wave speed range. We find that this daughter <span class="hlt">rupture</span> is essentially a "pseudorupture," in that the two sides of the fault are already separated, but the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> has negligible slip and slip velocity. After the mother <span class="hlt">rupture</span> merges with it, the slip, the slip velocity, and the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> speed become dominated by those of the mother <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. The results are independent of grid sizes and of methods used to nucleate the initial <span class="hlt">rupture</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Liu, Chao; Bizzarri, Andrea; Das, Shamita</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">63</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24854899"> <span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of a single liquid aluminium alloy film.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The present study is based on the idea of understanding the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of films in metal foams by studying free standing metallic films as a model system. Liquid dynamics, the velocity of the <span class="hlt">rupturing</span> material as well as the behaviour of ceramic particles inside the melt were analysed optically ex situ and by synchrotron X-ray radiography in situ. It was found that the resistance of films to <span class="hlt">rupture</span> is <span class="hlt">mainly</span> based on the interaction between solid particles and an immobile oxide skin, the formation of which depends on the oxygen content of the surrounding atmosphere and the presence of magnesium. PMID:24854899</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Heim, K; García-Moreno, F; Vinod Kumar, G S; Rack, A; Banhart, J</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-07-14</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">64</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5024132"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Rupture</span> of the right hemidiaphragm due to blunt trauma</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Five cases of right-sided <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of the diaphragm are reviewed. Orthopedic injury, head injury, and <span class="hlt">shock</span> were the most common associated findings. Apparent elevation of the right hemidiaphragm was seen initially in all cases, but two were misdiagnosed. An algorithm that includes modified peritoneal lavage, CT scan with contrast, and intraperitoneal Tc sulfur colloid is suggested for patients with suspected right diaphragmatic trauma.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Leaman, P.L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1983-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">65</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002AGUFMNG21B0936K"> <span id="translatedtitle">Effects of Pre-Stress State and <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> Velocity on Dynamic Fault Branching</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We consider a mode II <span class="hlt">rupture</span> which propagates along a planar <span class="hlt">main</span> fault and encounters an intersection with a branching fault that makes an angle with the <span class="hlt">main</span> fault. Within a formulation that allows the failure path to be dynamically self-chosen, we study the following questions: Does the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> start along the branch? Does it continue? Which side is most favored for branching, the extensional or compressional? Does <span class="hlt">rupture</span> continue on the <span class="hlt">main</span> fault too? What path is finally self-chosen? Failure in the modeling is described by a slip-weakening law for which the peak and residual strength, and strength at any particular amount of slip, is proportional to normal stress. We use the elastodynamic boundary integral equation method to allow simulations of <span class="hlt">rupture</span> along the branched fault system. Our results show that dynamic stresses around the <span class="hlt">rupturing</span> fault tip, which increase with <span class="hlt">rupture</span> velocity at locations off the <span class="hlt">main</span> fault plane, relative to those on it, could initiate <span class="hlt">rupture</span> on a branching fault. As suggested by prior work [Poliakov, Dmowska and Rice, 2002, http://esag.harvard.edu/dmowska/PDR.pdf], whether a branching <span class="hlt">rupture</span>, once begun, can be continued to a larger scale depends on principal stress directions in the pre-stress state and on <span class="hlt">rupture</span> velocity. The most favored side for <span class="hlt">rupture</span> transferring on a branching fault switches from the extensional side to the compressive side as we consider progressively shallower angles of the direction of maximum pre-compression with the <span class="hlt">main</span> fault. Simultaneous <span class="hlt">rupturing</span> on both faults is usually difficult for a narrow branching angle due to strong stress interaction between faults, which discourages <span class="hlt">rupture</span> continuation on the other side. However, it can be activated by enhanced dynamic stressing when the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> velocity is very near the limiting velocity (Rayleigh wave velocity for mode II). It can also be activated when the branching angle is wide because of decreasing stress interaction between faults. Natural examples seem consistent with the simulations we present.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kame, N.; Rice, J. R.; Dmowska, R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">66</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/48945341"> <span id="translatedtitle">Effects of mesoscopic-scale fault structure on dynamic earthquake <span class="hlt">ruptures</span>: Dynamic formation of geometrical complexity of earthquake faults</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">We develop a new hierarchical earthquake <span class="hlt">rupture</span> model that takes into account mesoscopic-scale fault structure; shear branches nucleated on the <span class="hlt">main</span> fault are specifically assumed as an example of mesoscopic-scale fault structure. We numerically investigate dynamic formation of fault geometry and its effects on dynamic earthquake <span class="hlt">rupture</span> process based on this <span class="hlt">rupture</span> model. As long as the length of the</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ryosuke Ando; Teruo Yamashita</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">67</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21191518"> <span id="translatedtitle">Spontaneous <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of hepatic hemangiomas: A review of the literature.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Hepatic hemangiomas are congenital vascular malformations, considered the most common benign mesenchymal hepatic tumors, composed of masses of blood vessels that are atypical or irregular in arrangement and size. Hepatic hemangiomas can be divided into two major groups: capillary hemangiomas and cavernous hemangiomas These tumors most frequently affect females (80%) and adults in their fourth and fifth decades of life. Most cases are asymptomatic although a few patients may present with a wide variety of clinical symptoms, with spontaneous or traumatic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> being the most severe complication. In cases of spontaneous <span class="hlt">rupture</span>, clinical manifestations consist of sudden abdominal pain, and anemia secondary to a haemoperitoneum. Disseminated intravascular coagulopathy can also occur. Haemodynamic instability and signs of hypovolemic <span class="hlt">shock</span> appear in about one third of cases. As the size of the hemangioma increases, so does the chance of <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. Imaging studies used in the diagnosis of hepatic hemangiomas include ultrasonography, dynamic contrast-enchanced computed tomography scanning, magnetic resonance imaging, hepatic arteriography, digital subtraction angiography, and nuclear medicine studies. In most cases hepatic hemangiomas are asymptomatic and should be followed up by means of periodic radiological examination. Surgery should be restricted to specific situations. Absolute indications for surgery are spontaneous or traumatic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> with hemoperitoneum, intratumoral bleeding and consumptive coagulopathy (Kassabach-Merrit syndrome). In a patient presenting with acute abdominal pain due to unknown abdominal disease, spontaneous <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of a hepatic tumor such as a hemangioma should be considered as a rare differential diagnosis. PMID:21191518</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jr, Marcelo Af Ribeiro; Papaiordanou, Francine; Gonçalves, Juliana M; Chaib, Eleazar</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-12-27</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">68</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3010512"> <span id="translatedtitle">Spontaneous <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of hepatic hemangiomas: A review of the literature</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Hepatic hemangiomas are congenital vascular malformations, considered the most common benign mesenchymal hepatic tumors, composed of masses of blood vessels that are atypical or irregular in arrangement and size. Hepatic hemangiomas can be divided into two major groups: capillary hemangiomas and cavernous hemangiomas These tumors most frequently affect females (80%) and adults in their fourth and fifth decades of life. Most cases are asymptomatic although a few patients may present with a wide variety of clinical symptoms, with spontaneous or traumatic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> being the most severe complication. In cases of spontaneous <span class="hlt">rupture</span>, clinical manifestations consist of sudden abdominal pain, and anemia secondary to a haemoperitoneum. Disseminated intravascular coagulopathy can also occur. Haemodynamic instability and signs of hypovolemic <span class="hlt">shock</span> appear in about one third of cases. As the size of the hemangioma increases, so does the chance of <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. Imaging studies used in the diagnosis of hepatic hemangiomas include ultrasonography, dynamic contrast-enchanced computed tomography scanning, magnetic resonance imaging, hepatic arteriography, digital subtraction angiography, and nuclear medicine studies. In most cases hepatic hemangiomas are asymptomatic and should be followed up by means of periodic radiological examination. Surgery should be restricted to specific situations. Absolute indications for surgery are spontaneous or traumatic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> with hemoperitoneum, intratumoral bleeding and consumptive coagulopathy (Kassabach-Merrit syndrome). In a patient presenting with acute abdominal pain due to unknown abdominal disease, spontaneous <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of a hepatic tumor such as a hemangioma should be considered as a rare differential diagnosis. PMID:21191518</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jr, Marcelo AF Ribeiro; Papaiordanou, Francine; Gonçalves, Juliana M; Chaib, Eleazar</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">69</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15999241"> <span id="translatedtitle">Mycotic aneurysm of the celiac trunk: from early CT sign to <span class="hlt">rupture</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We present a case of the rapid development and <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of a mycotic celiac trunk aneurysm. Initially on multislice computed tomography (ms-CT) there was a normal celiac trunk with minimal haziness of the surrounding fat. Only 2 weeks later the patient went into hypovolemic <span class="hlt">shock</span> due to a <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> celiac aneurysm. Although aneurysms of the visceral arteries are rare, they are of major clinical importance as they carry a life-threatening risk of <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. This case illustrates the use of ms-CT in detecting and evaluating visceral aneurysms, in order to prevent emergency operation. PMID:15999241</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Serafino, Gianpiero; Vroegindeweij, Dammis; Boks, Simone; van der Harst, Erwin</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">70</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21091355"> <span id="translatedtitle">Mycotic Aneurysm of the Celiac Trunk: From Early CT Sign to <span class="hlt">Rupture</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We present a case of the rapid development and <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of a mycotic celiac trunk aneurysm. Initiallyon multislice computed tomography (ms-CT) there was a normal celiac trunk with minimal haziness of the surrounding fat. Only 2 weeks later the patient went into hypovolemic <span class="hlt">shock</span> due to a <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> celiac aneurysm. Although aneurysms of the visceral arteries are rare, they are of major clinical importance as they carry a life-threatening risk of <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. This case illustrates the use of ms-CT in detecting and evaluating visceral aneurysms, in order to prevent emergency operation.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Serafino, Gianpiero, E-mail: serafinog@mcrz.nl; Vroegindeweij, Dammis; Boks, Simone [Medical Centre Rijnmond-Zuid, Department of Radiology (Netherlands); Harst, Erwin van der [Medical Centre Rijnmond-Zuid, Department of Vascular Surgery (Netherlands)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-06-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">71</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2673472"> <span id="translatedtitle">Hemoperitoneum in a Cirrhotic Patient Due to <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> of Retroperitoneal Varix</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of retroperitoneal varices is a rare and catastrophic complication of portal hypertension. We describe a case of this nature, the first in Brazilian medical literature, and also reviewing all previous 34 cases. We systematically analyzed all therapeutic approach and propose a management algorithm for diagnosis and treatment of this lethal condition. The majority of the patients presented with abdominal pain, distention and hypotension, and developed hemorrhagic <span class="hlt">shock</span>. <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> of retroperitoneal varices can be properly managed if an early diagnosis is made and surgery is performed promptly, which is the only effective treatment. Arteriography should be used when the suspicion is of <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of hepatocellular carcinoma. PMID:19404409</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sincos, Igor Rafael; Mulatti, Grace; Mulatti, Sheila; Sincos, Ilana Cristina; Belczak, Sergio Q.; Zamboni, Valdir</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">72</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012PhDT.......104H"> <span id="translatedtitle">Multi-fluid Dynamics for Supersonic Jet-and-Crossflows and Liquid Plug <span class="hlt">Rupture</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Multi-fluid dynamics simulations require appropriate numerical treatments based on the <span class="hlt">main</span> flow characteristics, such as flow speed, turbulence, thermodynamic state, and time and length scales. In this thesis, two distinct problems are investigated: supersonic jet and crossflow interactions; and liquid plug propagation and <span class="hlt">rupture</span> in an airway. Gaseous non-reactive ethylene jet and air crossflow simulation represents essential physics for fuel injection in SCRAMJET engines. The regime is highly unsteady, involving <span class="hlt">shocks</span>, turbulent mixing, and large-scale vortical structures. An eddy-viscosity-based multi-scale turbulence model is proposed to resolve turbulent structures consistent with grid resolution and turbulence length scales. Predictions of the time-averaged fuel concentration from the multi-scale model is improved over Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes models originally derived from stationary flow. The response to the multi-scale model alone is, however, limited, in cases where the vortical structures are small and scattered thus requiring prohibitively expensive grids in order to resolve the flow field accurately. Statistical information related to turbulent fluctuations is utilized to estimate an effective turbulent Schmidt number, which is shown to be highly varying in space. Accordingly, an adaptive turbulent Schmidt number approach is proposed, by allowing the resolved field to adaptively influence the value of turbulent Schmidt number in the multi-scale turbulence model. The proposed model estimates a time-averaged turbulent Schmidt number adapted to the computed flowfield, instead of the constant value common to the eddy-viscosity-based Navier-Stokes models. This approach is assessed using a grid-refinement study for the normal injection case, and tested with 30 degree injection, showing improved results over the constant turbulent Schmidt model both in mean and variance of fuel concentration predictions. For the incompressible liquid plug propagation and <span class="hlt">rupture</span> study, numerical simulations are conducted using an Eulerian-Lagrangian approach with a continuous-interface method. A reconstruction scheme is developed to allow topological changes during plug <span class="hlt">rupture</span> by altering the connectivity information of the interface mesh. <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> time is shown to be delayed as the initial precursor film thickness increases. During the plug <span class="hlt">rupture</span> process, a sudden increase of mechanical stresses on the tube wall is recorded, which can cause tissue damage.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hassan, Ezeldin A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">73</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2561678"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Ruptured</span> Spleen as a Differential Diagnosis in <span class="hlt">Ruptured</span> Tubal Pregnancy</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Two cases of traumatic biphasic or secondary splenic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> are presented to demonstrate the clinical picture of an entity the obstetrician-gynecologist will be encountering more commonly in the future. The signs and symptoms of this condition figured prominently in the differential diagnosis of <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> tubal pregnancy. PMID:6737489</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Weekes, Leroy R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1984-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">74</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10182628"> <span id="translatedtitle">RBMK pressure tube <span class="hlt">rupture</span> assessment</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Russian RBMK reactor core design consists of multiple parallel pressure tube channels that contain Zr clad, UO{sub 2} fuel pin bundles. These parallel channels are contained within graphite moderator blocks which are, in turn, contained within a sealed core cavity. Current safety evaluation efforts of the RBMK reactors have been concentrating in the area of tube <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> within the core cavity and, in particular, multiple tube <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> that could threaten the reactor core integrity. Tube <span class="hlt">rupture</span> events result in a pressurization of the reactor core cavity. The original design overpressure for the cavity region was based on a single tube <span class="hlt">rupture</span>, resulting in considerable margin to the top plate lift pressure. The top plate lift pressure is 3.1 bar, and a single tube <span class="hlt">rupture</span> would result in approximately 1.4 bar. RBMK plant specific cavity pressure relief designs provide for between three and in simultaneous tube <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> before exceeding the top plate lift pressure. Thus, current safety evaluations have begun to examine the potential for multiple tube <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> that could exceed the current cavity pressure relief designs. One such scenario being examined is a partial <span class="hlt">rupture</span> in a group distribution header that results in stagnated (low) flow to up to 40 pressure tubes. The subsequent fuel heatup in these reduced flow tubes could result in multiple tube <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> beyond the design relief capacity of the core cavity. This paper examines several key issues in evaluating this transient, including: (1) the effects of low flow, (2) the effects of axial peaking, and (3) the effects of radial peaking, all relative to the time to tube <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. These issues each play a significant role in attempting to evaluate the likelihood and severity of multiple tube <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> for a partial group distribution header break.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Schmitt, B.E.; Tsiklauri, G.V.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1994-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">75</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.agu.org/journals/jb/jb0711/2007JB005027/2007JB005027.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Role of fault branches in earthquake <span class="hlt">rupture</span> dynamics</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">We analyze earthquake <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> propagating along a straight “<span class="hlt">main</span>” fault and encountering a finite-length branch fault. Such intersections are often observed in natural fault systems. The predicted effects of the interaction with the branch that we report can be remarkable; they can strongly perturb the propagation velocity on the <span class="hlt">main</span> fault and, in some cases, even arrest that propagation. Earlier</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Harsha S. Bhat; Marion Olives; Renata Dmowska; James R. Rice</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">76</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/52929383"> <span id="translatedtitle">Role of fault branches in earthquake <span class="hlt">rupture</span> dynamics</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">We analyze earthquake <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> propagating along a straight ``<span class="hlt">main</span>'' fault and encountering a finite-length branch fault. Such intersections are often observed in natural fault systems. The predicted effects of the interaction with the branch that we report can be remarkable; they can strongly perturb the propagation velocity on the <span class="hlt">main</span> fault and, in some cases, even arrest that propagation. Earlier</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Harsha S. Bhat; Marion Olives; Renata Dmowska; James R. Rice</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">77</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24359675"> <span id="translatedtitle">Modeling <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of growing aneurysms.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Growth and <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of aneurysms are driven by micro-structural alterations of the arterial wall yet precise mechanisms underlying the process remain to be uncovered. In the present work we examine a scenario when the aneurysm evolution is dominated by turnover of collagen fibers. In the latter case it is natural to hypothesize that <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of individual fibers (or their bonds) causes the overall aneurysm <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. We examine this hypothesis in computer simulations of growing aneurysms in which constitutive equations describe both collagen evolution and failure. Failure is enforced in constitutive equations by limiting strain energy that can be accumulated in a fiber. Within the proposed theoretical framework we find a range of parameters that lead to the aneurysm <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. We conclude in a qualitative agreement with clinical observations that some aneurysms will <span class="hlt">rupture</span> while others will not. PMID:24359675</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Balakhovsky, K; Jabareen, M; Volokh, K Y</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">78</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24741691"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Ruptured</span> thought: <span class="hlt">rupture</span> as a critical attitude to nursing research.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this paper, we introduce the notion of ‘<span class="hlt">rupture</span>’ from the French philosopher Michel Foucault, whose studies of discourse and governmentality have become prominent within nursing research during the last 25 years. We argue that a <span class="hlt">rupture</span> perspective can be helpful for identifying and maintaining a critical potential within nursing research. The paper begins by introducing <span class="hlt">rupture</span> as an inheritance from the French epistemological tradition. It then describes how <span class="hlt">rupture</span> appears in Foucault's works, as both an overall philosophical approach and as an analytic tool in his historical studies. Two examples of analytical applications of <span class="hlt">rupture</span> are elaborated. In the first example, <span class="hlt">rupture</span> has inspired us to make an effort to seek alternatives to mainstream conceptions of the phenomenon under study. In the second example, inspired by Foucault's work on discontinuity, we construct a framework for historical epochs in nursing history. The paper concludes by discussing the potential of the notion of <span class="hlt">rupture</span> as a response to the methodological concerns regarding the use of Foucault-inspired discourse analysis within nursing research. We agree with the critique of Cheek that the critical potential of discourse analysis is at risk of being undermined by research that tends to convert the approach into a fixed method. PMID:24741691</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Beedholm, Kirsten; Lomborg, Kirsten; Frederiksen, Kirsten</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">79</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://voyager.jpl.nasa.gov/pdf/Voys97-10.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">"Pre-Acceleration of Anomalous Cosmic Ray Ions at Recurrent Solar Wind <span class="hlt">Shocks</span>" Interstellar pickup ions and solar wind ions are two <span class="hlt">main</span> sources of anomalous cosmic ray (ACR) ions. An important</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">"Pre-Acceleration of Anomalous Cosmic Ray Ions at Recurrent Solar Wind <span class="hlt">Shocks</span>" Interstellar pickup unresolved theoretical issue is how such low-energy seed ions are pre-accelerated to energies sufficiently high that they are readily injected and accelerated to ACR energies at the termination <span class="hlt">shock</span></p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Christian, Eric</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">80</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70019403"> <span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">rupture</span> process of the Manjil, Iran earthquake of 20 june 1990 and implications for intraplate strike-slip earthquakes</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In terms of seismically radiated energy or moment release, the earthquake of 20 January 1990 in the Manjil Basin-Alborz Mountain region of Iran is the second largest strike-slip earthquake to have occurred in an intracontinental setting in the past decade. It caused enormous loss of life and the virtual destruction of several cities. Despite a very large meizoseismal area, the identification of the causative faults has been hampered by the lack of reliable earthquake locations and conflicting field reports of surface displacement. Using broadband data from global networks of digitally recording seismographs, we analyse broadband seismic waveforms to derive characteristics of the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> process. Complexities in waveforms generated by the earthquake indicate that the <span class="hlt">main</span> <span class="hlt">shock</span> consisted of a tiny precursory subevent followed in the next 20 seconds by a series of four major subevents with depths ranging from 10 to 15 km. The focal mechanisms of the major subevents, which are predominantly strike-slip, have a common nodal plane striking about 285??-295??. Based on the coincidence of this strike with the dominant tectonic fabric of the region we presume that the EW striking planes are the fault planes. The first major subevent nucleated slightly south of the initial precursor. The second subevent occurred northwest of the initial precursor. The last two subevents moved progressively southeastward of the first subevent in a direction collinear with the predominant strike of the fault planes. The offsets in the relative locations and the temporal delays of the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> subevents indicate heterogeneous distribution of fracture strength and the involvement of multiple faults. The spatial distribution of teleseismic aftershocks, which at first appears uncorrelated with meizoseismal contours, can be decomposed into stages. The initial activity, being within and on the periphery of the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> zone, correlates in shape and length with meizoseismal lines. In the second stage of activity the aftershock zone expands and appears to cluster about the geomorphic and geologic features several tens of kilometres from the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> zone. The activity is interpreted as a regional response to quasistatic stress migration along zones of tectonic weakness. The radiated energy of the <span class="hlt">main</span> <span class="hlt">shock</span> and the estimate of seismic moment yields an apparent stress of 20 bars. High apparent stress may be typical of strike slip earthquakes occurring in intracontinental environments undergoing continental collision.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Choy, G.L.; Zednik, J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a 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showDiv("page_6");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">81</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005PhRvL..94d5501N"> <span id="translatedtitle">Creep <span class="hlt">Ruptures</span> in Heterogeneous Materials</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We present creep experiments on fiber composite materials with different controlled heterogeneity. All samples exhibit a power-law relaxation of the strain rate in the primary creep regime (Andrade's law) followed by a power-law acceleration up to <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. We discover that the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> time is proportional to the duration of the primary creep regime, showing the interplay between the two regimes and offering a method of <span class="hlt">rupture</span> prediction. These experimental results are rationalized by a mean-field model of representative elements with nonlinear viscoelastic rheology and with a large heterogeneity of strengths.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Nechad, H.; Helmstetter, A.; El Guerjouma, R.; Sornette, D.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">82</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012PhRvE..85c1905B"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Rupture</span> of a biomembrane under dynamic surface tension</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">How long will a fluid membrane vesicle stressed with a steady ramp of micropipette last before <span class="hlt">rupture</span>? Or conversely, how high should the surface tension be to <span class="hlt">rupture</span> such a membrane? To answer these challenging questions we developed a theoretical framework that allows for the description and reproduction of dynamic tension spectroscopy (DTS) observations. The kinetics of the membrane <span class="hlt">rupture</span> under ramps of surface tension is described as a succession of an initial pore formation followed by the Brownian process of the pore radius crossing the time-dependent energy barrier. We present the formalism and a derive (formal) analytical expression of the survival probability describing the fate of the membrane under DTS conditions. Using numerical simulations for the membrane prepared in an initial state with a given distribution of times for pore nucleation, we study the membrane lifetime (or inverse of <span class="hlt">rupture</span> rate) and distribution of membrane surface tension at <span class="hlt">rupture</span> as a function of membrane characteristics like pore nucleation rate, the energy barrier to failure, and tension loading rate. It is found that simulations reproduce the <span class="hlt">main</span> features of DTS experiments, particularly the pore nucleation and pore-size diffusion-controlled limits of membrane <span class="hlt">rupture</span> dynamics. This approach can be adapted and applied to processes of permeation and pore opening in membranes (electroporation, membrane disruption by antimicrobial peptides, vesicle fusion).</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bicout, D. J.; Kats, E.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">83</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/31071140"> <span id="translatedtitle">Partial ACL <span class="hlt">rupture</span>: an MR diagnosis?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Purpose. We sought to clarify the ability of magnetic resonance imaging (MR) to show partial ante- rior cruciate ligament (ACL) <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> and to allow dis- tinction of partial from complete ACL <span class="hlt">ruptures</span>. Materials and methods. Eighty-eight patients were stud- ied by arthroscopy and MR (36 with normal ACLs, 21 with partial ACL <span class="hlt">ruptures</span>, and 31 with complete ACL <span class="hlt">ruptures</span>). MR</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lawrence Yao; Amilcare Gentili; Leonard Petrus; Joong K. Lee</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1995-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">84</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/j807nwk54q087637.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">EARTHQUAKE <span class="hlt">RUPTURES</span> ON ROUGH FAULTS</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">\\u000a Natural fault surfaces exhibit roughness at all scales, with root-mean-square height fluctuations of order 10??3 to 10??2 times the profile length. We study earthquake <span class="hlt">rupture</span> propagation on such faults, using strongly rate-weakening fault friction\\u000a and off-fault plasticity. Inelastic deformation bounds stresses to reasonable values and prevents fault opening. Stress perturbations\\u000a induced by slip on rough faults cause irregular <span class="hlt">rupture</span> propagation</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Eric M. Dunham; Jeremy E. Kozdon; David Belanger; Lin Cong</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">85</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007PApGe.164.1881B"> <span id="translatedtitle">Interaction of a Dynamic <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> on a Fault Plane with Short Frictionless Fault Branches</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Spontaneous bilateral mode II shear <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> were nucleated on faults in photoelastic Homalite plates loaded in uniaxial compression. <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> velocities were measured and the interaction between the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> front and short fault branches was observed using high-speed digital photography. Fault branches were formed by machining slits of varying lengths that intersected the fault plane over a range of angles. These branches were frictionless because they did not close under static loading prior to shear <span class="hlt">rupture</span> nucleation. Three types of behavior were observed. First, the velocity of both <span class="hlt">rupture</span> fronts was unaffected when the fault branches were oriented 45° to the <span class="hlt">main</span> slip surface and the length of the branches were less than or equal to ~0.75 R 0* (where R 0* is the slip-weakening distance in the limit of low <span class="hlt">rupture</span> speed and an infinitely long slip-pulse). Second, <span class="hlt">rupture</span> propagation stopped at the branch on the compressive side of the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> tip but was unaffected by the branch on the tensile side when the branches were ~1.5 R 0* in length and remained oriented 45° to the principle slip surface. Third, branches on the tensile side of the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> tip nucleated tensile ``wing tip'' extensions when the branches were oriented at 70° to the interface. Third, when the branches were oriented at 70° to the interface, branches on the tensile side of the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> tip nucleated tensile ``wing-crack'' extensions. We explain these observations using a model in which the initial uniaxial load produces stress concentrations at the tips of the branches, which perturb the initial stress field on the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> plane. These stress perturbations affect both the resolved shear stress driving the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> and the fault-normal stress that controls the fault strength, and together they explain the observed changes in <span class="hlt">rupture</span> speed.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Biegel, Ronald L.; Sammis, Charles G.; Rosakis, Ares J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">86</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3880742"> <span id="translatedtitle">Spontaneous <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> of Uterine Vein in Twin Pregnancy</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Objective. Aim of our study is to present a case of a twin pregnancy following invitro fertilization cycle complicated with hemoperitoneum at third trimester. Case. A 26-year-old nulliparous pregnant woman at 32 weeks of gestation with twin pregnancy following invitro fertilization cycle complained of abdominal pain. After 48 hours of admission, laparotomy was performed with indications of aggravated abdominal pain and decreased hemoglobin levels. Utero-ovarian vein branch <span class="hlt">rupture</span> was detected on the right posterior side of uterus and bleeding was stopped by suturing the vein. Etiopathogenesis of the present case still remains unclear. Conclusion. Spontaneous <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of the uterine vessels during pregnancy is a rare complication and may lead to maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. Diagnosis and treatment are based on the clinical symptoms of acute abdominal pain and laboratory tests of hypovolemic <span class="hlt">shock</span> signs. PMID:24455353</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Doger, Emek; Cakiroglu, Yigit; Yildirim Kopuk, Sule; Akar, Bertan; Caliskan, Eray; Yucesoy, Gulseren</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">87</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24455353"> <span id="translatedtitle">Spontaneous <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of uterine vein in twin pregnancy.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Objective. Aim of our study is to present a case of a twin pregnancy following invitro fertilization cycle complicated with hemoperitoneum at third trimester. Case. A 26-year-old nulliparous pregnant woman at 32 weeks of gestation with twin pregnancy following invitro fertilization cycle complained of abdominal pain. After 48 hours of admission, laparotomy was performed with indications of aggravated abdominal pain and decreased hemoglobin levels. Utero-ovarian vein branch <span class="hlt">rupture</span> was detected on the right posterior side of uterus and bleeding was stopped by suturing the vein. Etiopathogenesis of the present case still remains unclear. Conclusion. Spontaneous <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of the uterine vessels during pregnancy is a rare complication and may lead to maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. Diagnosis and treatment are based on the clinical symptoms of acute abdominal pain and laboratory tests of hypovolemic <span class="hlt">shock</span> signs. PMID:24455353</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Doger, Emek; Cakiroglu, Yigit; Yildirim Kopuk, Sule; Akar, Bertan; Caliskan, Eray; Yucesoy, Gulseren</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">88</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22564877"> <span id="translatedtitle">Splenic artery aneurysm <span class="hlt">rupture</span>: a rare but fatal cause for peripartum collapse.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Splenic artery aneurysm (SAA) is the most common (60%) of all visceral artery aneurysms. The majority of these cases are asymptomatic, but the presentation of their <span class="hlt">rupture</span> can vary from abdominal/chest pain to cardiovascular collapse (Sadat U, Dar O, Walsh S, Varty K. Splenic artery aneurysms in pregnancy-a systematic review. Int J Surg. 2008;6(3):261-265.). Although rare, the mortality associated with the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> is as high as 25% (De Vries JE, Schattenkerk ME, Malt RA. Complications of splenic artery aneurysm other than intraperitoneal <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. Surgery. 1982;91(2):200-204; Caillouette JC, Merchant EB: <span class="hlt">Ruptured</span> splenic artery aneurysm in pregnancy. Twelfth reported case with maternal and fetal survival. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1993;168(6 Pt 1):1810-1811) and increases to 75% among pregnant women with a concomitant fetal mortality of 95% (O'Grady JP, Day EJ, Toole AL, et al. Splenic artery aneurysm <span class="hlt">rupture</span> in pregnancy. A review and case report. Obstet Gynecol. 1977; 50(5):627-630). Because of such high maternal and fetal mortality prompt management of SAAs is of utmost importance. We are presenting a case of a 35-year-old woman with a missed <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> SAA who after an emergent cesarean section went into profound <span class="hlt">shock</span> and was unable to be resuscitated. This case illustrates the importance of considering the diagnosis of SAA <span class="hlt">rupture</span> in hemodynamically unstable peripartum females. PMID:22564877</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Khurana, Jasjit; Spinello, Irene M</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">89</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004AGUFM.S32B..08V"> <span id="translatedtitle">Spectral Element simulation of <span class="hlt">rupture</span> dynamics on curvilinear faults</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Numerical simulation of fault <span class="hlt">rupturing</span> process requires today the resolution of several time and space scales, to capture the nucleation, the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> front propagation, and the short wave radiation associated with heterogeneous fault systems of complexgeometries. Two classes of methods are usually used in seismology: finite differences and boundary integral equations. Classical mixed formulation of finite differences suffers from smoothing and smearing of the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> front due to the inherent interpolation of staggered schemes. Although if extensions to curved faults have recently been proposed (Cruz-Atienza and Virieux, 2004), using Saenger's stencils, up to now applications of FD methods have been mostly restricted to planar faults. On the other hand, boundary integral equations (Andrews, 1976; Fukuyama and Madariaga, 2000) have been shown to accurately model 3D curvilinear fault segments but are is restricted to homogeneous or layered elastic media. A important issue, still be correctly resolved is the physics of the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> propagation when reaching the surface. In this framework, Spectral Element method, combining both the geometrical flexibility of finite elements and convergence rate of high-order spectral methods is an attractive tool for numerical simulation of earthquake dynamic <span class="hlt">rupturing</span> on realistic fault segments in complex geological media. We present numerical simulations of 2D inplane dynamic faulting using the SE method. The results are discussed paying a special attention to the sub- to super-shear transition for both planar and non planar faults, to the influence of different frictional laws on the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> propagation and to the influence of layered geolgical media both on the dynamics of the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> process and the short wave radiation. On going work on two <span class="hlt">main</span> extensions will be discussed : interactions as the faulting process reach the surface and 3D geometries of faults.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Vilotte, J.; Festa, G.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">90</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUSMSH32A..01B"> <span id="translatedtitle">STEREO Observations of Interplanetary <span class="hlt">Shocks</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">STEREO observations have been very valuable to study the characteristics of interplanetary (IP) <span class="hlt">shocks</span>. These <span class="hlt">shocks</span> can be driven in the heliosphere by fast interplanetary coronal mass ejections (CME) and by solar wind stream interaction (SI). In this work we will discuss the properties of IP <span class="hlt">shocks</span> and the upstream and downstream regions associated to them. These regions are perturbed due to <span class="hlt">shock</span> effects. Upstream from the <span class="hlt">shock</span> a foreshock can develop and be permeated by suprathermal ions and electromagnetic waves. Downstream the plasma is heated and compressed. In this region the magnetic field is also very perturbed. <span class="hlt">Shocks</span> play a very important role in particle acceleration. During the years 2007-2010 STEREO observed around 80 IP forward <span class="hlt">shocks</span> driven by stream interactions, and 19 <span class="hlt">shocks</span> driven by ICMEs. Most of the SI <span class="hlt">shocks</span> were locally quasi-perpendicular (?Bn >45°) with only 20 quasi-parallel (?Bn < 45°) <span class="hlt">shocks</span>. In all cases the Mach number was moderate with values 1.1< Mms < 3.8, and the plasma beta reached values up to 29. During the same years the <span class="hlt">shocks</span> driven by ICMEs have Mach numbers 1.2-4, and plasma beta up to 15. Observations upstream from the <span class="hlt">shocks</span> have revealed a variety of waves, including whistlers and low frequency fluctuations. Upstream whistler waves may be generated at the <span class="hlt">shock</span> and upstream ultra low frequency (ULF) waves can be driven locally by ion instabilities. In contrast to planetary bow <span class="hlt">shocks</span>, most of the waves upstream of the quasi-parallel forward SI <span class="hlt">shocks</span> observed to date by STEREO are <span class="hlt">mainly</span> transverse and no steepening occurs. Another difference with Earth's bow <span class="hlt">shock</span> is the fact that many locally quasi-perpendicular <span class="hlt">shocks</span> can be accompanied by wave and ion foreshocks. This indicates that at an earlier time the geometry of the <span class="hlt">shock</span> was quasi-parallel. The downstream wave spectra can be formed by both, locally generated perturbations, and <span class="hlt">shock</span> transmitted waves. Downstream fluctuations associated with quasi-parallel <span class="hlt">shocks</span> tend to have larger amplitudes than waves downstream of quasi-perpendicular <span class="hlt">shocks</span>. Proton foreshocks of <span class="hlt">shocks</span> driven by stream interactions have extensions dr ?0.05 AU. This is smaller than foreshock extensions for ICME driven <span class="hlt">shocks</span> (dr ? 0.1 AU). The difference in foreshock extensions is related to the fact that ICME driven <span class="hlt">shocks</span> are formed closer to the Sun and therefore begin to accelerate particles very early in their existence, while stream interaction <span class="hlt">shocks</span> form at ~1 AU and have been producing suprathermal particles for a shorter time. It is possible that stronger <span class="hlt">shocks</span> driven by fast ICMEs are observed in the following months as the solar cycle of activity reaches maximum. Stronger IP <span class="hlt">shocks</span> may be able to drive more complex foreshocks, where steepened waves such as shocklets may be present.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Blanco-Cano, X.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">91</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19390451"> <span id="translatedtitle">Non-popliteal synovial <span class="hlt">rupture</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> popliteal synovial cyst is a common complication of chronic knee arthritis. In contrast, non-popliteal synovial <span class="hlt">rupture</span> is less well recognized and may present a diagnostic dilemma. We report an 81-year-old woman who presented with chest wall pain and ecchymosis. Ultrasonography of the shoulder region readily diagnosed a dissecting parasynovial cyst. She developed the unusual complication of contralateral recurrence. Literature review revealed a small but important set of non-popliteal synovial <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> in the regions of the shoulder, elbow, wrist, spine, hip, knee, and ankle. Local swelling, inflammation, ecchymosis, and nerve impingement may mimic other conditions. Awareness of the clinical presentations and a high index of suspicion are required to avoid diagnostic confusion. Management data are limited to case reports of arthrocentesis, injection, and very rarely, surgery. PMID:19390451</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sit, Michelle; Higgs, Jay B</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">92</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22120413"> <span id="translatedtitle">Collective osmotic <span class="hlt">shock</span> in ordered materials.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Osmotic <span class="hlt">shock</span> in a vesicle or cell is the stress build-up and subsequent <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of the phospholipid membrane that occurs when a relatively high concentration of salt is unable to cross the membrane and instead an inflow of water alleviates the salt concentration gradient. This is a well-known failure mechanism for cells and vesicles (for example, hypotonic <span class="hlt">shock</span>) and metal alloys (for example, hydrogen embrittlement). We propose the concept of collective osmotic <span class="hlt">shock</span>, whereby a coordinated explosive fracture resulting from multiplexing the singular effects of osmotic <span class="hlt">shock</span> at discrete sites within an ordered material results in regular bicontinuous structures. The concept is demonstrated here using self-assembled block copolymer micelles, yet it is applicable to organized heterogeneous materials where a minority component can be selectively degraded and solvated whilst ensconced in a matrix capable of plastic deformation. We discuss the application of these self-supported, perforated multilayer materials in photonics, nanofiltration and optoelectronics. PMID:22120413</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zavala-Rivera, Paul; Channon, Kevin; Nguyen, Vincent; Sivaniah, Easan; Kabra, Dinesh; Friend, Richard H; Nataraj, S K; Al-Muhtaseb, Shaheen A; Hexemer, Alexander; Calvo, Mauricio E; Miguez, Hernan</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">93</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012NatMa..11...53Z"> <span id="translatedtitle">Collective osmotic <span class="hlt">shock</span> in ordered materials</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Osmotic <span class="hlt">shock</span> in a vesicle or cell is the stress build-up and subsequent <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of the phospholipid membrane that occurs when a relatively high concentration of salt is unable to cross the membrane and instead an inflow of water alleviates the salt concentration gradient. This is a well-known failure mechanism for cells and vesicles (for example, hypotonic <span class="hlt">shock</span>) and metal alloys (for example, hydrogen embrittlement). We propose the concept of collective osmotic <span class="hlt">shock</span>, whereby a coordinated explosive fracture resulting from multiplexing the singular effects of osmotic <span class="hlt">shock</span> at discrete sites within an ordered material results in regular bicontinuous structures. The concept is demonstrated here using self-assembled block copolymer micelles, yet it is applicable to organized heterogeneous materials where a minority component can be selectively degraded and solvated whilst ensconced in a matrix capable of plastic deformation. We discuss the application of these self-supported, perforated multilayer materials in photonics, nanofiltration and optoelectronics.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zavala-Rivera, Paul; Channon, Kevin; Nguyen, Vincent; Sivaniah, Easan; Kabra, Dinesh; Friend, Richard H.; Nataraj, S. K.; Al-Muhtaseb, Shaheen A.; Hexemer, Alexander; Calvo, Mauricio E.; Miguez, Hernan</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">94</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1705609"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Ruptures</span> of the rotator cuff.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Through the use of improved diagnostic techniques, including arthrography and arthroscopy, <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> of the rotator cuff that previously might not have been recognized are now being identified more frequently. In most cases the symptoms are relatively mild and respond satisfactorily to rest and therapy. Occasionally, however, there is severe, persistent disability despite treatment. These <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> require surgical repair. In such cases the data obtained from special investigations help the surgeon select the appropriate surgical approach and repair technique. An imaginative program of physiotherapy before and after the operation contributes greatly to a satisfactory result. Images FIG. 3 FIG. 4 FIG. 5 FIG. 6 FIG. 7 PMID:7437980</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ha'eri, G B</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1980-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">95</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4306212"> <span id="translatedtitle">Spontaneous Forniceal <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> in Pregnancy</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Forniceal <span class="hlt">rupture</span> is a rare event in pregnancy. We report a case of a 26-year-old primigravid woman who experienced a forniceal <span class="hlt">rupture</span> at 23 weeks of gestation with no inciting cause except for pregnancy. Pregnancy is associated with ureteral compression due to increase in pelvic vasculature with the right ureter more dilated due to anatomic reasons. Hormones such as prostaglandins and progesterone render the ureter more distensible to allow for pressure build-up and an obstructive picture at the collecting system. We will discuss physiologic changes in pregnancies that predispose to this uncommon phenomenon and the most up-to-date management strategies. PMID:25648411</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Upputalla, Roshni; Moore, Robert M.; Jim, Belinda</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2015-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">96</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24902970"> <span id="translatedtitle">Mechanisms of plaque formation and <span class="hlt">rupture</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Atherosclerosis causes clinical disease through luminal narrowing or by precipitating thrombi that obstruct blood flow to the heart (coronary heart disease), brain (ischemic stroke), or lower extremities (peripheral vascular disease). The most common of these manifestations is coronary heart disease, including stable angina pectoris and the acute coronary syndromes. Atherosclerosis is a lipoprotein-driven disease that leads to plaque formation at specific sites of the arterial tree through intimal inflammation, necrosis, fibrosis, and calcification. After decades of indolent progression, such plaques may suddenly cause life-threatening coronary thrombosis presenting as an acute coronary syndrome. Most often, the culprit morphology is plaque <span class="hlt">rupture</span> with exposure of highly thrombogenic, red cell-rich necrotic core material. The permissive structural requirement for this to occur is an extremely thin fibrous cap, and thus, <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> occur <span class="hlt">mainly</span> among lesions defined as thin-cap fibroatheromas. Also common are thrombi forming on lesions without <span class="hlt">rupture</span> (plaque erosion), most often on pathological intimal thickening or fibroatheromas. However, the mechanisms involved in plaque erosion remain largely unknown, although coronary spasm is suspected. The calcified nodule has been suggested as a rare cause of coronary thrombosis in highly calcified and tortious arteries in older individuals. To characterize the severity and prognosis of plaques, several terms are used. Plaque burden denotes the extent of disease, whereas plaque activity is an ambiguous term, which may refer to one of several processes that characterize progression. Plaque vulnerability describes the short-term risk of precipitating symptomatic thrombosis. In this review, we discuss mechanisms of atherosclerotic plaque initiation and progression; how plaques suddenly precipitate life-threatening thrombi; and the concepts of plaque burden, activity, and vulnerability. PMID:24902970</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bentzon, Jacob Fog; Otsuka, Fumiyuki; Virmani, Renu; Falk, Erling</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">97</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4061405"> <span id="translatedtitle">Quadriceps Tendon <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> due to Postepileptic Convulsion</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We present a case of quadriceps tendon (QT) <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. QT <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> can occur in all ages. The cause is mostly traumatic in origin. Spontaneous <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> that are thought to result from predisposing conditions are rare. Post-convulsion QT <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> lacking traumas in their history can be overlooked in clinical examinations. This should be born in mind by the attending physician, as early diagnosis and treatment of the condition can lead to satisfactory outcomes. PMID:24944977</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Erkut, Adem; Guvercin, Yilmaz; Sahin, Rifat; Keskin, Davut</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">98</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/48951185"> <span id="translatedtitle">A theoretical model for fragmentation of viscous bubbly magmas in <span class="hlt">shock</span> tubes</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A coupled model for one-dimensional time-dependent compressible flow and bubble expansion is developed to investigate fragmentation mechanisms of viscous bubbly magmas in <span class="hlt">shock</span> tubes. Initially a bubbly magma at a high pressure is separated from air at the atmospheric pressure by a diaphragm. As the diaphragm is <span class="hlt">ruptured</span>, a <span class="hlt">shock</span> wave propagates into the air, and a rarefaction wave propagates</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">T. Koyaguchi; N. K. Mitani</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">99</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.agu.org/journals/gl/gl0821/2008GL035577/2008GL035577.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Heterogeneous <span class="hlt">rupture</span> on homogenous faults: Three-dimensional spontaneous <span class="hlt">rupture</span> simulations with thermal pressurization</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">To understand role of fluid on earthquake <span class="hlt">rupture</span> processes, we investigated effects of thermal pressurization on spatial variation of dynamic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> by computing spontaneous <span class="hlt">rupture</span> propagation on a rectangular fault. We found thermal pressurization can cause heterogeneity of <span class="hlt">rupture</span> even on a fault of uniform properties. On drained faults, tractions drop linearly with increasing slip in the same way everywhere.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yumi Urata; Keiko Kuge; Yuko Kase</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">100</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003AGUFM.S52A0116Z"> <span id="translatedtitle">Dynamic <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> Process of the 1999 Chi-Chi Earthquake</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Earthquake source dynamics provides key elements for the prediction of strong ground motion and for understanding the physics of earthquake processes. This research investigates the characteristics of dynamic source <span class="hlt">rupture</span> process of the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake by using a 3D finite difference method with variable grid spacing. A new algorithm is proposed to deal with a non-planar fault model. This approach does not require aligning the fault plane to the finite-difference grid for implementation of FDM and provide a method to deal with a more realistically irregular geometry fault model. We apply this approach to the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake with a curved fault surface and rebuild the dynamic source <span class="hlt">rupture</span> process for this larger earthquake. Our results show that for the Chi-Chi earthquake, the behaviors of the most of the subfaults followed a slip-weakening friction law during <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. And the distributions of the dynamic source parameters estimated from the kinematic results are quite heterogeneous. For the dynamic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> process, this study reveals the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> propagation jumping phenomenon which is difficult to be simulated in kinematic modeling. That is when the propagation front encountered a zone with a high strength excess, the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> would pause to accumulate more energy to break it. Meanwhile, if there are low strength excess zones around the barrier, the propagation front would jump over the barrier to break the low strength excess zones and leave the high strength barrier unbroken. Such phenomenon of the high strength excess barriers intend to delay the propagation front can be seen clearly in the dynamic model. Using a thick fault zone model, the dynamic model discovers that the slip on the hanging-wall side is larger than that on the food-wall side and the northern parts have the longer source duration that the southern parts and these northern parts have an extreme large slip. Based on the dynamic source <span class="hlt">rupture</span> model, the strong ground motions near the fault surface breaks are simulated in frequency range of 0.05 to 0.5 Hz. In general, the synthetic velocity waveforms agree well with the observed records for most stations. The dynamic source model successfully simulates the distinctive velocity pulse for the stations in the forward <span class="hlt">rupture</span> direction. Also our dynamic source model successfully reproduced the waveforms as well as the distinctive velocity pulses for the station nearby or on the fault surface breaks. These results demonstrate that our dynamic source model can reproduce the <span class="hlt">main</span> features of long period ground motions; hence, lead us to a better understanding on the source <span class="hlt">rupture</span> process of the Chi-Chi earthquake.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zhang, W.; Iwata, T.; Irikura, K.; Pitarka, A.; Sekiguchi, H.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img 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</div> </div> </div><!-- page_5 div --> <div id="page_6" class="hiddenDiv"> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return 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href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">101</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23352149"> <span id="translatedtitle">Distal biceps and triceps <span class="hlt">ruptures</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Biceps and triceps tendon <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> are rather uncommon injuries and are most commonly diagnosed clinically. Magnetic resonance imaging can help the clinician to differentiate an incomplete tear and define any degeneration of the tendon. Surgical anatomical repair is typically performed in acute complete <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> whereas nonoperative treatment can be used for partial <span class="hlt">ruptures</span>, as well as for patients unfit for surgery. Single incision techniques are associated with a higher rate of nerve injuries, while double incision repairs have a higher prevalence of heterotopic ossification. Although various fixation methods have been applied including bone tunnels, interference screws, suture anchors, cortical button fixation, the current evidence does not support the superiority of one method over the other. A well-planned postoperative rehabilitation programme is essential for a good final outcome. As better fixation devices are being used, more aggressive rehabilitation programmes have been applied. Epidemiology, clinical evaluation, diagnosis, surgical and conservative management of these injuries are presented in this review along with the authors' preferred technique for the anatomical repair of acute complete <span class="hlt">ruptures</span>. PMID:23352149</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kokkalis, Zinon T; Ballas, Efstathios G; Mavrogenis, Andreas F; Soucacos, Panayotis N</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">102</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24617176"> <span id="translatedtitle">A rare cause of intraabdominal hematoma: <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of mesenteric artery branch aneurysm.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Superior mesenteric artery (SMA) aneurysm is the third most common splanchnic artery aneurysm. Unlike other splanchnic artery aneurysm, isolated aneurysms of the SMA branches are rare. They are usually asymptomatic and difficult to detect until they <span class="hlt">rupture</span> and cause abdominal pain and hypovolemic <span class="hlt">shock</span>. Thus, most cases are diagnosed after the occurrence of complications. In this report, we described a 76-year-old woman who had two saccular aneurysms in the superior mesenteric arterial branch(es). One of them was <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> and partly thrombosed. The patient had acute renal failure secondary to massive intraabdominal hemorrhage. PMID:24617176</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gunduz, Y; Sipahi, S; Kara, R; Tamer, A</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">103</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4228218"> <span id="translatedtitle">A Retrospective Analysis of <span class="hlt">Ruptured</span> Breast Implants</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> is an important complication of breast implants. Before cohesive gel silicone implants, <span class="hlt">rupture</span> rates of both saline and silicone breast implants were over 10%. Through an analysis of <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> implants, we can determine the various factors related to <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> implants. Methods We performed a retrospective review of 72 implants that were removed for implant <span class="hlt">rupture</span> between 2005 and 2014 at a single institution. The following data were collected: type of implants (saline or silicone), duration of implantation, type of implant shell, degree of capsular contracture, associated symptoms, cause of <span class="hlt">rupture</span>, diagnostic tools, and management. Results Forty-five Saline implants and 27 silicone implants were used. <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> was diagnosed at a mean of 5.6 and 12 years after insertion of saline and silicone implants, respectively. There was no association between shell type and risk of <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. Spontaneous was the most common reason for the <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> management was implant change (39 case), microfat graft (2 case), removal only (14 case), and follow-up loss (17 case). Conclusions Saline implants have a shorter average duration of <span class="hlt">rupture</span>, but diagnosis is easier and safer, leading to fewer complications. Previous-generation silicone implants required frequent follow-up observation, and it is recommended that they be changed to a cohesive gel implant before hidden <span class="hlt">rupture</span> occurs. PMID:25396188</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Baek, Woo Yeol; Lew, Dae Hyun</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">104</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19860000362&hterms=beverage&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dbeverage"> <span id="translatedtitle">Centrally-<span class="hlt">Rupturing</span> Squib-Closure Disks</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Rupture</span>-disk design makes squib action more predictable. In new design, center of <span class="hlt">rupture</span> disk contains cruciform indentation in which thickness reduced to about 0.5 mil (0.013 mm). Reduces strength of center of <span class="hlt">rupture</span> disk in same manner as that of pull tabs on beverage cans; therefore, disk will fail predictably in center.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Richter, R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1986-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">105</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24637031"> <span id="translatedtitle">[Aneurysmal <span class="hlt">rupture</span> complicating aortitis: a case report].</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Tropical aortitis is a rare and poorly described aortic disease, sometimes confounded with Takayasu's disease, <span class="hlt">mainly</span> in people from Africa. In this case report, the panaortic aneurysmal disease in a young woman from Haiti, first diagnosed after a work-up on renovascular hypertension, would appear to approach this particular arterial disease with no clinical, radiological or biological argument for an infectious etiology. The initially suspected diagnosis of Takayasu's disease had to be rethought because of the presence of several saccular aneurysms extending from the aortic arch to the infrarenal aorta, rarely described in Takayasu's aortitis. Expert opinions from vascular surgeons and clinicians tagged this aortic disease as similar to tropical aortitis which remained asymptomatic for more than a decade. Hypertension was managed with successful balloon angioplasty of the left renal artery stenosis and anti-hypertensive combination therapy. Surgical management of the extended aortic aneurysms was not proposed because of the stability and asymptomatic nature of the aneurysmal disease and the high risk of surgical morbidity and mortality. More than ten years after diagnosis, the course was marked with inaugural and sudden-onset chest pain concomitant with contained <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of the descending thoracic aortic aneurysm. This case report underlines the persistent risk of aneurysmal <span class="hlt">rupture</span> and the importance of an anatomopathological study for the diagnosis of complex aortic disease. PMID:24637031</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yannoutsos, A; Mercier, O; Messas, E; Safar, M E; Blacher, J</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">106</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JAESc..48...31S"> <span id="translatedtitle">A new insight into crustal heterogeneity beneath the 2001 Bhuj earthquake region of Northwest India and its implications for <span class="hlt">rupture</span> initiations</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The seismic characteristics of the 2001 Bhuj earthquake (Mw 7.6) has been examined from the proxy indicators, relative size distribution (3D b-value mapping) and seismic tomography using a new data set to understand the role of crustal heterogeneities in <span class="hlt">rupture</span> initiations of the 2001 Bhuj earthquake of the Gujarat (India), one of the disastrous Indian earthquakes of the new millennium. The aftershocks sequence recorded by 22 seismograph stations of Gujarat Seismic Network (GSNet) during the period from 2006 to 2009, encompassing approximately 80 km × 70 km <span class="hlt">rupture</span> area had revealed clustering of aftershocks at depth of 5-35 km, which is seismogenic layer responsible for the occurrence of continued aftershocks activity in the study region. The 3D b-value mapping estimated from a total of 3850 precisely located aftershocks with magnitude of completeness Mc ? 2.7 shows that a high b-value region is sandwiched within the <span class="hlt">main</span> <span class="hlt">shock</span> hypocenter at the depth of 20-25 km and low b-value region above and below of the 2001 Bhuj <span class="hlt">main</span> <span class="hlt">shock</span> hypocenter. Estimates of 3-D seismic velocity (Vp; Vs) and Poisson's ratio (?) structure beneath the region demonstrated a very close correspondence with the b-value mapping that supports the similar physicochemical processes of retaining fluids within the fractured rock matrix beneath the 2001 Bhuj mainshock hypocenter. The overall b-value is estimated close to 1.0 which reveals that seismogenesis is related to crustal heterogeneity, which, in turn also supported by low-Vs and high-? structures. The high b-value and high-? anomaly at the depth of 20-25 km indicate the presence of highly fractured heterogeneous rock matrix with fluid intrusions into it at deeper depth beneath the <span class="hlt">main</span> <span class="hlt">shock</span> hypocenter region. Low b-value and high-Vp in the region is observed towards the north-east and north-west of the <span class="hlt">main</span> <span class="hlt">shock</span> that might be an indication of the existence of relatively competent rock masses with negligible volume of cracks that may have contained over-pressurized fluids without molten rocks.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Singh, A. P.; Mishra, O. P.; Yadav, R. B. S.; Kumar, Dinesh</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">107</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23855369"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Rupture</span> of renal artery aneurysm during the early post-partum period.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Rupture</span> of renal artery aneurysm associated with pregnancy is an uncommon condition. It is known that almost all previously reported cases have occurred during pregnancy. We experienced a case of <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of renal artery aneurysm during the early post-partum period which was diagnosed by computed tomography and treated by angiographic embolization. To our knowledge, only two cases of <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of renal artery aneurysm during the post-partum period have been reported in the English-language published work. An early diagnosis of <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of renal artery aneurysm during the post-partum period is very challenging because the clinical symptoms of this condition are acute abdominal, flank or back pain, which are relatively common signs caused by more common post-partum complications. However, <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of renal artery aneurysm is a life-threatening emergency condition requiring prompt diagnosis and treatment. The possibility of a <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of renal artery aneurysm should be considered in any pregnant women with symptoms of an acute abdomen with hemorrhagic <span class="hlt">shock</span>. PMID:23855369</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Nakamura, Ryo; Koyama, Shinsuke; Maeda, Munehiro; Kobayashi, Masaki; Tanaka, Yusuke; Kubota, Satoshi; Isobe, Masanori; Shiki, Yasuhiko</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">108</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3723224"> <span id="translatedtitle">Liver Hydatid Cyst <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> Into the Peritoneal Cavity After Abdominal Trauma: Case Report and Literature Review</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The aim of this study was to review the literature regarding the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of hydatid cysts into the abdominal cavity after trauma. We present both a new case of hydatid cyst <span class="hlt">rupture</span> that occurred after blunt abdominal trauma and a literature review of studies published in the English language about hydatid cyst <span class="hlt">rupture</span> after trauma; studies were accessed from PubMed, Google Scholar, EBSCO, EMBASE, and MEDLINE databases. We identified 22 articles published between 2000 and 2011 about hydatid cyst <span class="hlt">rupture</span> after trauma. Of these, 5 articles were excluded because of insufficient data, duplication, or absence of intra-abdominal dissemination. The other 17 studies included 68 patients (38 males and 30 females) aged 8 to 76 years who had a <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> hydatid cyst detected after trauma. The most common trauma included traffic accidents and falls. Despite optimal surgical and antihelmintic therapy, 7 patients developed recurrence. Complications included biliary fistula in 5 patients, incisional hernia in 2 patients, and gastrocutaneous fistula in 1 patient. Death occurred from intraoperative anaphylactic <span class="hlt">shock</span> in 1 patient and gastrointestinal bleeding and pulmonary failure in 1 patient. <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> of a hydatid cyst into the peritoneal cavity is rare and challenging for the surgeon. This condition is included in the differential diagnosis of the acute abdomen in endemic areas, especially in young patients. PMID:23113853</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yilmaz, Mehmet; Akbulut, Sami; Kahraman, Aysegul; Yilmaz, Sezai</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">109</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70037689"> <span id="translatedtitle">Complex <span class="hlt">rupture</span> during the 12 January 2010 Haiti earthquake</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Initially, the devastating Mw 7.0, 12 January 2010 Haiti earthquake seemed to involve straightforward accommodation of oblique relative motion between the Caribbean and North American plates along the Enriquillog-Plantain Garden fault zone. Here, we combine seismological observations, geologic field data and space geodetic measurements to show that, instead, the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> process may have involved slip on multiple faults. Primary surface deformation was driven by <span class="hlt">rupture</span> on blind thrust faults with only minor, deep, lateral slip along or near the <span class="hlt">main</span> Enriquillog-Plantain Garden fault zone; thus the event only partially relieved centuries of accumulated left-lateral strain on a small part of the plate-boundary system. Together with the predominance of shallow off-fault thrusting, the lack of surface deformation implies that remaining shallow shear strain will be released in future surface-<span class="hlt">rupturing</span> earthquakes on the Enriquillog-Plantain Garden fault zone, as occurred in inferred Holocene and probable historic events. We suggest that the geological signature of this earthquakeg-broad warping and coastal deformation rather than surface <span class="hlt">rupture</span> along the <span class="hlt">main</span> fault zoneg-will not be easily recognized by standard palaeoseismic studies. We conclude that similarly complex earthquakes in tectonic environments that accommodate both translation and convergenceg-such as the San Andreas fault through the Transverse Ranges of Californiag-may be missing from the prehistoric earthquake record. ?? 2010 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hayes, G.P.; Briggs, R.W.; Sladen, A.; Fielding, E.J.; Prentice, C.; Hudnut, K.; Mann, P.; Taylor, F.W.; Crone, A.J.; Gold, R.; Ito, T.; Simons, M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">110</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22047814"> <span id="translatedtitle">PARTICLE ACCELERATION IN <span class="hlt">SHOCK-SHOCK</span> INTERACTION: MODEL TO DATA COMPARISON</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Shock-shock</span> interaction is a well-established particle acceleration mechanism in astrophysical and space plasmas, but difficult to study observationally. Recently, the interplanetary <span class="hlt">shock</span> collision with the bow <span class="hlt">shock</span> of the Earth on 1998 August 10 was identified as one of the rare events where detailed in situ observations of the different acceleration phases can be made. Due to the advantageous spacecraft and magnetic field configurations, in 2011, Hietala et al. were able to distinguish the seed population and its reacceleration at the bow <span class="hlt">shock</span>, as well as the Fermi acceleration of particles trapped between the <span class="hlt">shocks</span>. They also interpreted their results as being the first in situ evidence of the release of particles from the trap as the two <span class="hlt">shocks</span> collided. In the present study we use a global 2.5D test-particle simulation to further study particle acceleration in this event. We concentrate on the last phases of the <span class="hlt">shock-shock</span> interaction, when the <span class="hlt">shocks</span> approach and pass through each other. The simulation results verify that the <span class="hlt">main</span> features of the measurements can be explained by <span class="hlt">shock-shock</span> interaction in this magnetic geometry, and are in agreement with the previous interpretation of particle release. <span class="hlt">Shock-shock</span> collisions of this type occur commonly in many astrophysical locations such as stellar coronae, planetary and cometary bow <span class="hlt">shocks</span>, and the distant heliosphere.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hietala, H.; Vainio, R. [Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 64, 00014 Helsinki (Finland); Sandroos, A., E-mail: heli.hietala@helsinki.fi [Finnish Meteorological Institute, P.O. Box 503, 00101 Helsinki (Finland)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-05-20</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">111</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24862178"> <span id="translatedtitle">Epidemiology of Achilles tendon <span class="hlt">ruptures</span>: Increasing incidence over a 33-year period.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We investigated the epidemiology of total Achilles tendon <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> and complication rates after operative and nonoperative treatments over a 33-year period in Oulu, Finland. Patients with Achilles tendon <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> from 1979 to 2011 in Oulu were identified from hospital patient records. Demographic data, treatment method, and complications were collected retrospectively from medical records. Overall and sex- and age-specific incidence rates were calculated with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). The overall incidence per 100?000 person-years increased from 2.1 (95% CI 0.3-7.7) in 1979 to 21.5 (95% CI 14.6-30.6) in 2011. The incidence increased in all age groups. The mean annual increase in incidence was 2.4% (95% CI 1.3-4.7) higher for non-sports-related <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> than for sports-related <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> (P?=?0.036). The incidence of sports-related <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> increased during the second 11-year period whereas the incidence of non-sports-related <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> increased steadily over the entire study period. Infection was four times more common after operative treatment compared with nonoperative treatment, re-<span class="hlt">rupture</span> rates were similar. The incidence of Achilles tendon <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> increased in all age groups over a 33-year period. Increases were <span class="hlt">mainly</span> due to sports-related injuries in the second 11-year period and non-sports-related injuries in the last 11-year period. PMID:24862178</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lantto, I; Heikkinen, J; Flinkkilä, T; Ohtonen, P; Leppilahti, J</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2015-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">112</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17108963"> <span id="translatedtitle">Predicting the endpoints of earthquake <span class="hlt">ruptures</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The active fault traces on which earthquakes occur are generally not continuous, and are commonly composed of segments that are separated by discontinuities that appear as steps in map-view. Stress concentrations resulting from slip at such discontinuities may slow or stop <span class="hlt">rupture</span> propagation and hence play a controlling role in limiting the length of earthquake <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. Here I examine the mapped surface <span class="hlt">rupture</span> traces of 22 historical strike-slip earthquakes with <span class="hlt">rupture</span> lengths ranging between 10 and 420 km. I show that about two-thirds of the endpoints of strike-slip earthquake <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> are associated with fault steps or the termini of active fault traces, and that there exists a limiting dimension of fault step (3-4 km) above which earthquake <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> do not propagate and below which <span class="hlt">rupture</span> propagation ceases only about 40 per cent of the time. The results are of practical importance to seismic hazard analysis where effort is spent attempting to place limits on the probable length of future earthquakes on mapped active faults. Physical insight to the dynamics of the earthquake <span class="hlt">rupture</span> process is further gained with the observation that the limiting dimension appears to be largely independent of the earthquake <span class="hlt">rupture</span> length. It follows that the magnitude of stress changes and the volume affected by those stress changes at the driving edge of laterally propagating <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> are largely similar and invariable during the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> process regardless of the distance an event has propagated or will propagate. PMID:17108963</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wesnousky, Steven G</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-11-16</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">113</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.T51C2483M"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Rupture</span> propagation speed during earthquake faulting reproduced by large-scale biaxial friction experiments</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Earthquakes are generated by unstable frictional slip along pre-existing faults. Both laboratory experiments and numerical simulations have shown that the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> process involves an initial quasi-static phase, a subsequent accelerating phase and a <span class="hlt">main</span> dynamic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> phase. During the <span class="hlt">main</span> phase, the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> front propagates at either subshear or supershear velocity, which affects the seismic wave radiation pattern. An examination on what controls the speed is crucial for improvement of earthquake hazard mitigation. Thus We conducted stick-slip experiments on meter-scale Indian gabbro rocks to observe the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> process of the unstable periodic slip events and to measure the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> speed along the fault. The simulated fault plane is 1.5m in length and 0.1m in width and ground by #200-300. The fault is applied at a constant normal stress of 6.7MPa and sheared parallel to the longitudinal direction of the fault at a slip rate of 0.1mm/s and up to a displacement of 40cm. The long, narrow fault geometry leads to in-plane shear <span class="hlt">rupture</span> (mode II). in which the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> front propagates in the direction of slip, which mimics large strike-slip earthquake faulting. Compressional-(Vp) and shear-(Vs) wave velocities of the rock sample are calculated to be 6.92km/s and 3.62km/s, respectively, based on the elastic properties (Young's modulus, 103GPa; Poisson's ratio, 0.331; Shear modulus, 38GPa). 32 biaxial strain gauges for shear strain and 16 single-axis strain gauges for normal strain were attached along the longitudinal direction of the fault at intervals of 5cm and 10cm, respectively. The local strain data were recorded at a sampling rate of 1MHz within 16 bit resolution. Load calls attached outside the fault plane measured the whole normal and shear forces applied on the fault plane, which was recorded by the same recording system. We have confirmed that the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> process of unstable slip events consistsing of 1) an initial quasi-static phase where the slipped area spread on the fault at velocities of less than 10 m/s, 2) an accelerating phase where the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> propagation accelerates up to 100 m/s, and 3) a <span class="hlt">main</span> <span class="hlt">rupture</span> phase where the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> propagates dynamically at elastic wave velocities. These <span class="hlt">rupture</span> nucleation process is consistent with those reported in previous studies. However, between 2) and 3) , we sometimes observed a discontinuity of <span class="hlt">rupture</span> propagation in space and time, which is inconsistent with [Ohnaka & Shen, 1999]. Next, we estimated the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> velocity of the <span class="hlt">main</span> <span class="hlt">rupture</span> phase from spatial-temporal variation in local shear strain associated with the dynamic stress reduction induced by fault slip. While several slip events showed the subshear <span class="hlt">rupture</span> propagation similar to regular natural earthquakes, some were faster than Vs. Such supershear <span class="hlt">rupture</span> propagation has been studied theoretically in 1970's, and reported for large strike-slip faulting earthquakes. Except for Passelègue et al. [2013], however, few laboratory experiments on rocks have confirmed the presence and this study has reproduced supershear <span class="hlt">rupture</span> events along meter-scale fault during stick-slip experiments. We shall discuss the relationship between the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> propagation speed and the stress heterogeneity along the fault monitored by based on the a dense array of local strain gauges.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mizoguchi, K.; Fukuyama, E.; Yamashita, F.; Takizawa, S.; Kawakata, H.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">114</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20352593"> <span id="translatedtitle">Splenic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> following endoscopic polypectomy.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A 70-year-old man presented with two medium-sized colon polyps at the office of a gastroenterologist. After endoscopic polypectomy in a hospital, the patient was admitted to another hospital because of collapse and increasing abdominal pain. CT scan revealed hematoperitoneum and splenic subcapsular hematoma. Laparotomy with splenectomy was performed because of extended splenic <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. The postoperative course was unremarkable except late wound dehiscence. PMID:20352593</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wiedmann, M W; Kater, F; Böhm, B</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">115</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EaSci..27..257Z"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Rupture</span> pattern of the Oct 23, 2011 Van-Merkez, Eastern Turkey earthquake</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">High-frequency <span class="hlt">rupture</span> process of the Oct 23, 2011 Van-Merkez earthquake is imaged by back-projection method using high-quality teleseismic P wave data from the US Array, and prestack Kirchhoff migration using P wave data from a subarray of global seismic networks. The <span class="hlt">rupture</span> model with two asperities is confirmed by previous two methods. In low-frequency imaging, a large asperity derived from the migration method corresponds to the second one from the high-frequency P waves. The consistency of the locations of asperities from datasets with different frequency bands indicates that there is possible insignificance of the frequency-dependent feature for the earthquake. The resultant images illustrate the spatial and temporal evolution of the <span class="hlt">rupture</span>, which <span class="hlt">mainly</span> propagated WSW over a length of 33 km during the first 18 s, accompanying with bursts of two asperities at 3 and 11-13 s. The <span class="hlt">rupture</span> direction is confirmed by the S wave corner frequency variations of strong ground accelerations. The <span class="hlt">rupture</span> fronts are <span class="hlt">mainly</span> located at the updip of the causative fault. Based on polarities of the P waveforms and focal mechanisms of the mainshock and aftershocks, the failure of these two asperities is determined to have occurred on a reverse fault with a dip angle of 47°. Hence, the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> pattern of the 2011 Van-Merkez earthquake was dominated by a unilateral <span class="hlt">rupture</span> toward the west-southwest direction.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zhang, Hao; Ge, Zengxi</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">116</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70036276"> <span id="translatedtitle">Ground motion hazard from supershear <span class="hlt">rupture</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">An idealized <span class="hlt">rupture</span>, propagating smoothly near a terminal <span class="hlt">rupture</span> velocity, radiates energy that is focused into a beam. For <span class="hlt">rupture</span> velocity less than the S-wave speed, radiated energy is concentrated in a beam of intense fault-normal velocity near the projection of the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> trace. Although confined to a narrow range of azimuths, this beam diverges and attenuates. For <span class="hlt">rupture</span> velocity greater than the S-wave speed, radiated energy is concentrated in Mach waves forming a pair of beams propagating obliquely away from the fault. These beams do not attenuate until diffraction becomes effective at large distance. Events with supershear and sub-Rayleigh <span class="hlt">rupture</span> velocity are compared in 2D plane-strain calculations with equal stress drop, fracture energy, and <span class="hlt">rupture</span> length; only static friction is changed to determine the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> velocity. Peak velocity in the sub-Rayleigh case near the termination of <span class="hlt">rupture</span> is larger than peak velocity in the Mach wave in the supershear case. The occurrence of supershear <span class="hlt">rupture</span> propagation reduces the most intense peak ground velocity near the fault, but it increases peak velocity within a beam at greater distances. ?? 2010.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Andrews, D.J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">117</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AIPC.1481..488Z"> <span id="translatedtitle">Modification of the edge wave in <span class="hlt">shock</span> wave lithotripsy</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">To reduce the bubble cavitation and the consequent vascular injury of <span class="hlt">shock</span> wave lithotripsy (SWL), a new method was devised to modify the diffraction wave generated at the aperture of a Dornier HM-3 lithotripter. Subsequently, the duration of the tensile wave was shortened significantly (3.2±0.54 ?s vs. 5.83±0.56 ?s). However, the amplitude and duration of the compressive wave of LSW between these two groups as well as the -6 dB beam width and the amplitude of the tensile wave are almost unchanged. The suppression on bubble cavitation was confirmed using the passive cavitation technique. At the lithotripter focus, while 30 <span class="hlt">shocks</span> can cause <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of blood vessel phantom using the HM-3 lithotripter at 20 kV; no <span class="hlt">rupture</span> could be found after 300 <span class="hlt">shocks</span> with the edge extender. On the other hand, after 200 <span class="hlt">shocks</span> the HM-3 lithotripter at 20 kV can achieve a stone fragmentation of 50.4±2.0% on plaster-of-Paris stone phantom, which is comparable to that of using the edge extender (46.8±4.1%, p=0.005). Altogether, the modification on the diffraction wave at the lithotripter aperture can significantly reduce the bubble cavitation activities. As a result, potential for vessel <span class="hlt">rupture</span> in <span class="hlt">shock</span> wave lithotripsy is expected.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zhou, Yufeng</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">118</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.T51C2480S"> <span id="translatedtitle">Premonitory activity, <span class="hlt">rupture</span> speed, radiation pattern and energy budget during stick-slip experiment in Westerly granite</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Since the proposal by Brace and Byerlee [1966] that the mechanism of stick-slip is similar to earthquakes mechanics, many experimental studies have been conducted in order to improve the understanding of earthquakes. Here we report macroscopic stick-slip events in saw-cut Westerly granite samples deformed under controlled upper crustal stress conditions in the laboratory. Experiments were conducted under triaxial loading (?1>?2=?3) at confining pressures (?3) ranging from 10 to 100 MPa. The angle between the fault plane and the maximum stress (?1) was imposed to be equal to 30°. Usual a dual gain system, a high frequency acoustic monitoring array recorded particles acceleration during macroscopic stick-slip events and premonitory background microseismicity. Here, we show that the macroscopic friction coefficient of the fault plane continuously increases with normal stress. At low friction (?<0.6), no background seismicity is recorded. At higher friction however, premonitory activity is systematically observed. An abrupt increase is observed in the second prior to the <span class="hlt">main</span> <span class="hlt">shock</span> and the cumulative moment release rate of the premonitory follows Omori's law. These results suggest that the macroscopic friction also controls the intensity of the premonitory activity in our experiments. In these conditions, Passelègue et al. 2013 have shown that supershear <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> were achievable, at high normal stress. Here, we show that the high frequency content of the particles acceleration spectra also increases with the initial normal stress. The appearance of a peak around 0.1 MHz corresponds to the propagation of a conic wavefront at supershear velocities. In addition, a second high frequency peak, centered around 0.3MHz, appears with increasing cumulative number of stick-slip events. This high frequency radiation could be related to the gouge production and off-fault damage during <span class="hlt">rupture</span> propagation. For the first time, we also record the stress drop dynamically, and show that the dynamic stress drop, measured locally close to the fault plane, is almost total ?<0.15 in the breakdown zone, while the strength recovery to values of ?>0.4 takes a few tens of microseconds only. Our measurements are consistent with flash heating, while stress drops measured at higher normal stress generally reveal a second frictionnal drop, consistent with the onset of melting, which was confirmed by our post-mortem microstructural analysis. Relationships between initial friction, <span class="hlt">rupture</span> velocities, high frequency radiation and stress drop suggest that at high normal stress (i.e. at supershear velocities), the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> processes become more dispersive. This result seems in agreement with seismological observations</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Schubnel, A.; Passelègue, F. X.; Nielsen, S. B.; Bhat, H.; Madariaga, R. I.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">119</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007APS..SHK.H4005L"> <span id="translatedtitle">Detonation <span class="hlt">Shock</span> Radius Experiments.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A previous passover experiment [1] was designed to create a complex detonation transient used in validating a reduced, asymptotically derived description of detonation <span class="hlt">shock</span> dynamics (DSD). An underlying question remained on determining the location of the initial detonation <span class="hlt">shock</span> radius to start the DSD simulation with respect to the dynamical response of the initiation system coupling's to the <span class="hlt">main</span> charge. This paper concentrates on determining the initial <span class="hlt">shock</span> radius required of such DSD governed problems. `Cut-back' experiments of PBX-9501 were conducted using an initiation system that sought to optimize the transferred detonation to the desired constant radius, hemispherical shape. Streak camera techniques captured the breakout on three of the prism's surfaces for time-of-arrival data. The paper includes comparisons to simulations using constant volume explosion and high pressure hot spots. The results of the experiments and simulation efforts provide fundamental design considerations for actual explosive systems and verify necessary conditions from which the asymptotic theory of DSD may apply. [1] Lambert, D., Stewart, D. Scott and Yoo, S. and Wescott, B., ``Experimental Validation of Detonation <span class="hlt">Shock</span> Dynamics in Condensed Explosives. J. of Fluid Mechs., Vol. 546, pp.227-253 (2006).</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lambert, David; Debes, Joshua; Stewart, Scott; Yoo, Sunhee</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">120</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5650827"> <span id="translatedtitle">58th <span class="hlt">Shock</span> and Vibration Symposium, volume 1</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The proceedings of the 58th <span class="hlt">Shock</span> and Vibration Symposium, held in Huntsville, Alabama, October 13 to 15, 1987 are given. Mechanical <span class="hlt">shock</span>, dynamic analysis, space shuttle <span class="hlt">main</span> engine vibration, isolation and damping, and analytical methods are discussed.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Pilkey, W.D.; Pilkey, B.F.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1987-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> 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href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">121</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3522472"> <span id="translatedtitle">Spontaneous renal allograft <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. Clinical and pathological patterns.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Rupture</span> of an allografted kidney occurred in five patients 5-17 days after transplantation. In one patient the microscopic pathological changes corresponded with the nodose polyarteritis pattern. In four patients interstitial rejection nephritis with severe haemorrhage and haematoma was found. It is suggested that the bleeding is due to peristatic hyperaemia and defects in the inner elastic membranes. In one case multifocal necrotizing arteriopathy was the <span class="hlt">main</span> pathogenetic factor. PMID:3522472</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Schwartz, A; Podzimek, A; Valenta, J; Klecka, J; Opatrný, K</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1986-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">122</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25158840"> <span id="translatedtitle">Severe anaphylactic choc revealing vascular <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of a liver hydatid cyst observed in an emergency unit in Tunis (Tunisia).</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Anaphylactic <span class="hlt">shock</span> is an exceptional mode of revelation of a liver hydatid cyst and it is in almost all cases secondary to an intraperitoneal <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. The spread of hydatid cyst content into the bloodstream is even more exceptional. We report the case of a 36 years-an old woman who presented a severe anaphylactic <span class="hlt">shock</span> preceded by abdominal pain. Abdominal CT showed a liver hydatid cyst with a vascular communication. Operative findings confirmed the imaging data. The spread of hydatid cyst content into the bloodstream poses a double challenge as regards the management of the anaphylactic <span class="hlt">shock</span>, and for the perioperative precautions. PMID:25158840</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Daldoul, S</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">123</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1986swst.proc..683S"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Shock</span> wave reflections in dusty gas</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Shock</span> wave reflections in a dusty gas are studied by means of a vertical <span class="hlt">shock</span> tube, where two cases are considered. In the first case the reflection of a dusty gas <span class="hlt">shock</span> wave at the closed end of a <span class="hlt">shock</span> tube is investigated and the effects of the relaxation phenomena on the pressure history and the <span class="hlt">shock</span> wave propagation are shown. In the second case the pressure history of transmitted and reflected <span class="hlt">shock</span> wave is measured in a sudden area constriction. In both cases the influence of Mach number and loading ratio is investigated. Numerical calculations are <span class="hlt">mainly</span> made using the piecewise-linear-method which is applied to one- and two-dimensional <span class="hlt">shock</span> wave proapgation in a dusty gas.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sommerfeld, M.; Selzer, M.; Groenig, H.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">124</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23157060"> <span id="translatedtitle">Spontaneous <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of splenic hemangioma in puerperium.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Atraumatic splenic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> is a rare clinical entity and in the absence of trauma, the diagnosis and treatment are often delayed. In this article the authors discuss a case of a 45-year-old woman, gravida 5, para 4, with spontaneous splenic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> on her second postpartum day. The <span class="hlt">rupture</span> was related to a splenic hemangioma that is a vascular malformation and the most common neoplasm of the spleen. Despite the fact that hemangiomas are the most common primary neoplasms of the spleen, only few cases of splenic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> have been described in pregnancy or puerperium. However, spontaneous splenic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> is a rare event and the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> should be suspected in woman with unexplained abdominal pain or with clear signs of haemorrhage. PMID:23157060</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Carta, G; D'Alfonso, A; Nallbani, A; Palermo, P; Franchi, V; Patacchiola, F</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">125</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4205863"> <span id="translatedtitle">Delayed aortic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> following perforating trauma</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The immediate death rate for aortic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> caused by pointed and sharp-edged instruments is very high; however, delayed aortic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> following the trauma is rarely reported. A patient who had an upper abdominal stab wound was sent to our hospital, and an emergency exploratory laparotomy was performed. No traumatic aortic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> was found at that time. However, on the fifth day after surgery, aortic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> occurred, and a large retroperitoneal hematoma was formed. The patient eventually died. Aortic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> was confirmed by a second emergency exploratory laparotomy and the autopsy. The information from exploratory laparotomies, post-operative observations and treatments, medical imaging reports, and reasons for delayed aortic <span class="hlt">rupture</span>, as well as the underlying pathophysiological processes, are discussed in this case report. PMID:25405156</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yang, Xuefei; Xia, Ligang</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">126</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19730014827&hterms=sigma+nickel&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3D%257Bsigma%257D5%2Bnickel"> <span id="translatedtitle">Investigation of cryogenic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> disc design</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Rupture</span> disc designs of both the active (command actuated) and passive (pressure <span class="hlt">ruptured</span>) types were evaluated for performance characteristics at cryogenic temperatures and for capability to operate in a variety of cryogens, including gaseous and liquid fluorine. The test results, coupled with information from literature and industry searches, were used to establish a statement of design criteria and recommended practices for application of <span class="hlt">rupture</span> discs to cryogenic rocket propellant feed and vent systems.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Keough, J. B.; Oldland, A. H.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1973-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">127</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/55514236"> <span id="translatedtitle">Quantifying uncertainty in earthquake <span class="hlt">rupture</span> models</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Using dynamic and kinematic models, we analyze the ability of GPS and strong-motion data to recover the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> history of earthquakes. By analyzing the near-source ground-motion generated by earthquake <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> through barriers and asperities, we determine that both the prestress and yield stress of a frictional inhomogeneity can be recovered. In addition, we find that models with constraints on <span class="hlt">rupture</span></p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Morgan T. Page</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">128</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ApJ...797...30J"> <span id="translatedtitle">Chondrule Destruction in Nebular <span class="hlt">Shocks</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Chondrules are millimeter-sized silicate spherules ubiquitous in primitive meteorites, but whose origin remains mysterious. One of the <span class="hlt">main</span> proposed mechanisms for producing them is melting of solids in <span class="hlt">shock</span> waves in the gaseous protoplanetary disk. However, evidence is mounting that chondrule-forming regions were enriched in solids well above solar abundances. Given the high velocities involved in <span class="hlt">shock</span> models, destructive collisions would be expected between differently sized grains after passage of the <span class="hlt">shock</span> front as a result of differential drag. We investigate the probability and outcome of collisions of particles behind a one-dimensional <span class="hlt">shock</span> using analytic methods as well as a full integration of the coupled mass, momentum, energy, and radiation equations. Destruction of protochondrules seems unavoidable for solid/gas ratios epsilon >~ 0.1, and possibly even for solar abundances because of "sandblasting" by finer dust. A flow with epsilon >~ 10 requires much smaller <span class="hlt">shock</span> velocities (~2 versus 8 km s–1) in order to achieve chondrule-melting temperatures, and radiation trapping allows slow cooling of the <span class="hlt">shocked</span> fragments. Initial destruction would still be extensive; although re-assembly of millimeter-sized particles would naturally occur by grain sticking afterward, the compositional heterogeneity of chondrules may be difficult to reproduce. We finally note that solids passing through small-scale bow <span class="hlt">shocks</span> around few kilometer-sized planetesimals might experience partial melting and yet escape fragmentation.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jacquet, Emmanuel; Thompson, Christopher</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">129</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=laptop&pg=6&id=EJ867162"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Maine</span> Ingredients</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This article features <span class="hlt">Maine</span> Learning Technology Initiative (MLTI), the nation's first-ever statewide 1-to-1 laptop program which marks its seventh birthday by expanding into high schools, providing an occasion to celebrate--and to examine the components of its success. The plan to put laptops into the hands of every teacher and student in grades 7…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Waters, John K.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">130</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/eimsapi.dispdetail?deid=142555"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">MAINE</span> HYDROGRAPHY</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Hydronet_me24 and Hydropoly_me24 depict <span class="hlt">Maine</span>'s hydrography data, based on 8-digit hydrological unit codes (HUC's) at the 1:24,000 scale. Some New Hampshire and New Brunswick hydrography data are also included. The NHD hydrography data was compiled from previous ArcIn...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">131</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/eimsapi.dispdetail?deid=142573"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">MAINE</span> WOODLOTS</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p class="result-summary">MEOWN250 describes industrial, non-industrial, and public woodlot ownership in <span class="hlt">Maine</span> at 1:250,000 scale. Industrial owners are those having at least one primary wood processing facility. Non-industrial owners are those with no primary wood processing facility. Public ownership...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">132</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/60547390"> <span id="translatedtitle">Plane <span class="hlt">Shock</span> Generator Explosive Lens: PH 13-8 Mo stainless steel versus 4340 steel <span class="hlt">shock</span> wave separators and LX13 versus PBX9501 explosive particle velocity-time profiles</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Sandia National Laboratories is currently involved in the optimization of a Plane <span class="hlt">Shock</span> Generator Explosive Lens (PSGEL). This PSGEL component is designed to generate a planar <span class="hlt">shock</span> wave transmitted to perform a function through a steel bulkhead without <span class="hlt">rupturing</span> or destroying the integrity of the bulkhead. The PSGEL component consists of a detonator, explosive, brass cone and tamper housing. The</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Vigil</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1993-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">133</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22004171"> <span id="translatedtitle">Neck curve polynomials in neck <span class="hlt">rupture</span> model</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Neck <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> Model is a model that explains the scission process which has smallest radius in liquid drop at certain position. Old fashion of <span class="hlt">rupture</span> position is determined randomly so that has been called as Random Neck <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> Model (RNRM). The neck curve polynomials have been employed in the Neck <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> Model for calculation the fission yield of neutron induced fission reaction of {sup 280}X{sub 90} with changing of order of polynomials as well as temperature. The neck curve polynomials approximation shows the important effects in shaping of fission yield curve.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kurniadi, Rizal; Perkasa, Yudha S.; Waris, Abdul [Nuclear Physics and Biophysics Research Division, Department of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jalan Ganesa 10 Bandung 40132 (Indonesia)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-06-06</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">134</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25199188"> <span id="translatedtitle">Spontaneous <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of uterine leiomyoma during labour.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Uterine <span class="hlt">rupture</span> in labour requires an emergency caesarean section. In women with a uterine scar, either from gynaecological surgery or from a previous caesarean section, it is well documented that the risk of <span class="hlt">rupture</span> is higher than in those without. Spontaneous uterine <span class="hlt">rupture</span> in a uterus with fibroids during pregnancy or labour is extremely rare. We present a case of a 33-year-old, unbooked pregnant woman from Nigeria who had a uterine <span class="hlt">rupture</span> secondary to fibroids. She required an emergency caesarean section in labour. The fibroids were not removed. Her baby was born alive and in good condition and she made an uneventful recovery. PMID:25199188</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ramskill, Nikki; Hameed, Aisha; Beebeejaun, Yusuf</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">135</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23707180"> <span id="translatedtitle">Acute achilles tendon <span class="hlt">rupture</span> in athletes.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The incidence of AT <span class="hlt">rupture</span> has increased in recent decades. AT <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> frequently occur in the third or fourth decade of life in sedentary individuals who play sport occasionally. <span class="hlt">Ruptures</span> also occur in elite athletes. Clinical examination must be followed by imaging. Conservative management and early mobilization can achieve excellent results, but the rerupture rate is not acceptable for the management of young, active, or athletic individuals. Open surgery is the most common option for AT <span class="hlt">ruptures</span>, but there are risks of superficial skin breakdown and wound problems. These problems can be prevented with percutaneous repair. PMID:23707180</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Longo, Umile Giuseppe; Petrillo, Stefano; Maffulli, Nicola; Denaro, Vincenzo</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">136</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014GeoRL..41.8792P"> <span id="translatedtitle">Stress-based aftershock forecasts made within 24 h postmain <span class="hlt">shock</span>: Expected north San Francisco Bay area seismicity changes after the 2014 M = 6.0 West Napa earthquake</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">calculate stress changes resulting from the M = 6.0 West Napa earthquake on north San Francisco Bay area faults. The earthquake <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> within a series of long faults that pose significant hazard to the Bay area, and we are thus concerned with potential increases in the probability of a large earthquake through stress transfer. We conduct this exercise as a prospective test because the skill of stress-based aftershock forecasting methodology is inconclusive. We apply three methods: (1) generalized mapping of regional Coulomb stress change, (2) stress changes resolved on Uniform California Earthquake <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> Forecast faults, and (3) a mapped rate/state aftershock forecast. All calculations were completed within 24 h after the <span class="hlt">main</span> <span class="hlt">shock</span> and were made without benefit of known aftershocks, which will be used to evaluative the prospective forecast. All methods suggest that we should expect heightened seismicity on parts of the southern Rodgers Creek, northern Hayward, and Green Valley faults.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Parsons, Tom; Segou, Margaret; Sevilgen, Volkan; Milner, Kevin; Field, Edward; Toda, Shinji; Stein, Ross S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">137</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.T53D2621W"> <span id="translatedtitle">Investigation on the temporal change in attenuation within <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> fault zone of the 1999 Mw7.3 Chi-Chi, Taiwan earthquake</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A decrease in Qs two years following the Chi-Chi <span class="hlt">main</span> <span class="hlt">shock</span> was revealed by tomography images and an analysis of single-path Qs near the Chelungpu Fault. A synthetic test was carried out accordingly, and suggested little influence to the results from different data distribution in different time period. Qs values within the hanging wall were determined to be 157, which is significantly lower than the values of 238 and 289 prior to and two years after the <span class="hlt">main</span> <span class="hlt">shock</span>, respectively. Similar values using a signal-path Qs analysis from the events within the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> fault zone with the corresponding Qs values of 158, 247 and 318 were obtained, respectively. The reduction in Qs, 89, was close to the Qs change obtained using tomography images. By comparing the 1% Vs reduction revealed during the analysis of repeating earthquakes, the amount of Qs reduction was concluded to be significant, and, thus, suggesting both a reduction in Vs and Qs within the fault zone following the Chi-Chi earthquake. Images of Qs tomography across the Chelungpu Fault with three data periods, (a) 1991 to 19 September 1999; (b) 20 September 1999 to 31 December 2001; and (c) 2002 to 2007. Plots showing the estimated Qs of the signal-path analysis (a) A yearly plot from 1994 to 2003; (b) a daily plot for one month following the Chi-Chi earthquake; (c) a hourly zooming plot.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wang, Y.; Ma, K.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">138</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005JGRB..11011303I"> <span id="translatedtitle">Earthquakes as multiscale dynamic <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> with heterogeneous fracture surface energy</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We propose a model of the wide-scale growth of dynamic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> during an earthquake, based on our multiscale simulation of a planar crack in a three-dimensional homogeneous elastic space. A simple slip-weakening law governs the fracture/friction processes, and its characteristic parameters, slip-weakening distance and fracture surface energy, have multiscale heterogeneous distributions. We consider a set of randomly distributed circular patches, whose diameter is proportional to the fracture surface energy. Each patch represents an asperity between irregular fault surfaces, and the size-number relation of the patches obeys power law statistics. We assess <span class="hlt">rupture</span> propagation from a small instability using a boundary integral equation method with a renormalization technique. Although most events stop shortly after their initiation, some grow, triggering neighboring patches of similar size. Small and large events show statistically self-similar properties of <span class="hlt">rupture</span> growth and stop spontaneously without requiring a special stopping mechanism. The <span class="hlt">rupture</span> velocity locally exceeds the shear wave speed but globally remains subshear speed due to the increase of the average fracture energy as the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> grows. The relation between size and frequency of events is a power law, which is explained by the triggering probability between patches. As a consequence of statistically self-similar random triggering growth, we observe a distinct "<span class="hlt">main</span> phase" in seismic waves similar to those of natural earthquakes, but we cannot estimate the final size of the event from the initial part of the seismic waves. If this is true for the real earthquakes, predicting the size of a future earthquake would be quite difficult.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ide, Satoshi; Aochi, Hideo</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">139</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JThSc..22..511D"> <span id="translatedtitle">Flow control effect on unsteadiness of <span class="hlt">shock</span> wave induced separation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In usual cases of significant pressure gradients and strong <span class="hlt">shocks</span>, the front <span class="hlt">shock</span> takes a fixed location along the wall, at which separation starts. Usually the rear <span class="hlt">shock</span> is responding to vortex sheding by its deflection angle. In consequence <span class="hlt">main</span> <span class="hlt">shock</span> and rear <span class="hlt">shocks</span> are moving whilst front <span class="hlt">shock</span> is stable. The goal of the measurements presented here is to find out how the ?-foot behaves during <span class="hlt">shock</span> oscillations in the case when front <span class="hlt">shock</span> is not fixed by the pressure gradient. Unsteady <span class="hlt">shock</span> behaviour is also investigated when air jet vortex generators (AJVG) are used. Counteraction of the separation is directly related to the influence on unsteady processes in the <span class="hlt">shock</span> wave induced separation.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Doerffer, Piotr; Telega, Janusz</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">140</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AIPC..845.1183B"> <span id="translatedtitle">Piezoelectric Polymer <span class="hlt">Shock</span> Gauges</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The science and technology of piezoelectric materials has long been dominated by the availability of specific materials with particular properties. Piezoelectric PVDF (Poly(vinylidene fluoride) polymer and copolymers of PVDF with trifluoroethylene have shown to have the potential for new <span class="hlt">shock</span>-wave sensors. Since 1981 through 1995, the piezoelectric response of PVDF was studied in a cooperative effort with François Bauer of ISL, France, R.A. Graham of Sandia National Laboratories and L.M. Lee of Ktech Corporation, Albuquerque. Among the known piezoelectric polymers, the PVDF plays an important role in measuring mechanical and physical state of matter under <span class="hlt">shock</span> loading. The present paper presents the history of the development of the PVDF gauge. After 24 years of research in this area, <span class="hlt">main</span> relevant results and data obtained are summarized as well as some original applications of the PVDF gauges.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bauer, F.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" 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onclick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">141</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22117748"> <span id="translatedtitle">Uterine prolapse with associated <span class="hlt">rupture</span> in a Podengo bitch.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A case of uterine prolapse coexisting with uterine horn <span class="hlt">rupture</span> in a 3-year-old Portuguese Podengo bitch, which is an uncommon occurrence, is described. The female was presented with a history of recent parturition, with delivery of four healthy puppies that were normally tended and nursed. The situation developed after an uneventfully pregnancy, and no direct causative factor was identified. The duration of the prolapse was unknown, but considered to be recent because of the swollen reddish appearance of the tubular everted mass. No foetus was found in the uterus or the abdominal cavity. The female was presented in good physical condition, without signs of <span class="hlt">shock</span> or haemorrhage. During surgical treatment, the uterus was replaced to its normal position followed by ovary-hysterectomy at 12 h from admittance. PMID:22117748</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Payan-Carreira, R; Albuquerque, C; Abreu, H; Maltez, L</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">142</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PApGe.tmp...91W"> <span id="translatedtitle">Investigation of the Temporal Change in Attenuation Within the <span class="hlt">Ruptured</span> Fault Zone of the 1999 Mw7.3 Chi-Chi, Taiwan Earthquake</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A decrease in Q s values within the hanging wall of the <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> Chelungpu fault two years following the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake was revealed by Q s tomography images and an analysis of single-path Q s. The synthetic and sensitivity tests of the Q s determination were carried out accordingly to justify the temporal variation. A Q s value within the hanging wall above the hypocenter was determined to be 157 ± 18 two years following the Chi-Chi earthquake, which is significantly lower than the Q s tomography values of 238 ± 17 and 289 ± 13 prior to and two years after the <span class="hlt">main</span> <span class="hlt">shock</span>, respectively. Similar values using a signal-path Q s analysis from events within the <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> fault zone to stations along the fault were obtained. The corresponding Q s values were 247 ± 85 prior to the Chi-Chi earthquake. After the earthquake we obtained Q s values of 158 ± 75 and 318 ± 80 for 2 years following and 2 years after the earthquake, respectively. Considering the two independent methods in determination of Q s, the reduction in Q s by 89 two years following the Chi-Chi earthquake in both methods is significant. Along with 1 % V s reduction revealed by the analysis of repeating earthquakes our studies suggested possible reduction both in V s and Q s values within the fault zone after the Chi-Chi earthquake. Temporal changes in Q s after the Chi-Chi earthquake imply variations of pore-fluid saturation in the <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> fault zone. The reduction in Q s two years following the Chi-Chi earthquake indicates high pore-fluid saturation within the fractured fault zone due to the postseismic fluid redistribution.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wang, Yu-Ju; Ma, Kuo-Fong</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">143</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.S44A..07I"> <span id="translatedtitle">Historical seismicity and dynamic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> process of the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A number of studies have documented the complex <span class="hlt">rupture</span> process of the Mw9.0 March 11, 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake, which is characterized by different stages of <span class="hlt">rupture</span>, including a large delayed slip near the trench and multiple high-frequency <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> along the down-dip edge of the seismogenic zone. In this study, a multiscale circular patch model was used to represent the spatial heterogeneity of fracture energy inferred on the plate interface, with spontaneous dynamic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> simulated by solving the elasto-dynamic equation with a slip-weakening friction law. Historical seismicity, recorded over the past 100 years, was used to determine the spatial heterogeneity of seismic events, with an additional large patch used to model large slip movements near the trench. Dynamic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> processes qualitatively consistent with observations were successfully modeled during this study, although slight adjustments, including the introduction of foreshock-related stress concentrations, were needed to accomplish this. Failure of the shallow largest patch, representing the <span class="hlt">main</span> <span class="hlt">rupture</span> stage, was only achieved by a dynamic nucleation process comprising cascading <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> within small and moderately sized patches near the down-dip edge of the seismogenic zone; this failure was followed by successive <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> along the down-dip edge of the zone. This study confirms that a free surface significantly increases fault slip and released seismic moment during an earthquake. In addition, we found that the largest patch occupies the area where the b-value of the Gutenberg-Richter magnitude-frequency relationship is much smaller than 1, while the hypocenter corresponds to a local maximum b-value of about 1.5. This research also suggests that seismicity catalogues can be used to constrain the spatial segmentation of plate boundaries and to predict the dynamic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> processes of future earthquakes.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ide, S.; Aochi, H.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">144</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013Tectp.600....1I"> <span id="translatedtitle">Historical seismicity and dynamic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> process of the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A number of studies have documented the complex <span class="hlt">rupture</span> process of the Mw9.0 March 11, 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake, which is characterized by different stages of <span class="hlt">rupture</span>, including a large delayed slip near the trench and multiple high-frequency <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> along the down-dip edge of the seismogenic zone. In this study, a multiscale circular patch model was used to represent the spatial heterogeneity of fracture energy inferred on the plate interface, with spontaneous dynamic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> simulated by solving the elasto-dynamic equation with a slip-weakening friction law. Historical seismicity, recorded over the past 100 years, was used to determine the spatial heterogeneity of seismic events, with an additional large patch used to model large slip movements near the trench. Dynamic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> processes qualitatively consistent with observations were successfully modeled during this study, although slight adjustments, including the introduction of foreshock-related stress concentrations, were needed to accomplish this. The delayed failure of the shallow largest patch, representing the <span class="hlt">main</span> <span class="hlt">rupture</span> stage, was only achieved by a dynamic nucleation process comprising cascading <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> within small and moderately sized patches near the down-dip edge of the seismogenic zone; this failure was followed by successive <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> along the down-dip edge of the zone. This study confirms that a free surface significantly increases fault slip and released seismic moment during an earthquake. In addition, we found that the largest patch occupies the area where the b-value of the Gutenberg-Richter magnitude-frequency relationship is much smaller than 1, while the hypocenter corresponds to a local maximum b-value of about 1.5. This research also suggests that seismicity catalogs can be used to constrain the spatial segmentation of plate boundaries and to propose possible scenarios for the dynamic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> processes of future earthquakes.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ide, Satoshi; Aochi, Hideo</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">145</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4039606"> <span id="translatedtitle">Isolated <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of the superficial vein of the penis</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Penile emergencies are rare but when they do occur, prompt diagnosis and treatment are warranted. Emergent conditions of the male genitalia are <span class="hlt">mainly</span> traumatic, vascular or infectious. Penile emergencies are usually caused by trauma to the penis, during sexual intercourse or manipulation of an erect penis during masturbation. One of the traumatic vascular penile emergencies is superficial penile dorsal vein <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. This is a rare condition, with just a few reported cases. It is usually taken into differential diagnosis with the other acute penile injuries that present, such as acute penile edema or ecchymosis. We report a case of 59-year-old male with a superficial penile dorsal vein <span class="hlt">rupture</span> which occurred during manipulation of the erect penis. PMID:24940469</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Eken, Alper; Acil, Meltem; Arpaci, Taner</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">146</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/28948520"> <span id="translatedtitle">Surgical repair of Achilles tendon <span class="hlt">ruptures</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">We evaluated the surgical results of 42 consecutive patients with spontaneous <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of the Achilles ten don treated from 1973 to 1984 to determine the causes of <span class="hlt">rupture</span> and to evaluate our treatment methods. Patients were divided into early and late repair groups and their charts reviewed to determine common clinical features. A new method of repair with early functional</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">James L. Beskin; Richard A. Sanders; Stephen C. Hunter; Jack C. Hughston</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1987-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">147</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/54098453"> <span id="translatedtitle">Predicting the endpoints of earthquake <span class="hlt">ruptures</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The active fault traces on which earthquakes occur are generally not continuous, and are commonly composed of segments that are separated by discontinuities that appear as steps in map-view. Stress concentrations resulting from slip at such discontinuities may slow or stop <span class="hlt">rupture</span> propagation and hence play a controlling role in limiting the length of earthquake <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. Here I examine the</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Steven G. Wesnousky</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">148</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JHEP...12..046S"> <span id="translatedtitle">Multiple <span class="hlt">shocks</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Using gauge/gravity duality, we explore a class of states of two CFTs with a large degree of entanglement, but with very weak local two-sided correlation. These states are constructed by perturbing the thermofield double state with thermal-scale operators that are local at different times. Acting on the dual black hole geometry, these perturbations create an intersecting network of <span class="hlt">shock</span> waves, supporting a very long wormhole. Chaotic CFT dynamics and the associated fast scrambling time play an essential role in determining the qualitative features of the resulting geometries.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Shenker, Stephen H.; Stanford, Douglas</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">149</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19843435"> <span id="translatedtitle">Achilles tendon <span class="hlt">rupture</span> in athletes.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Achilles tendon <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> commonly affect middle-aged athletes and can result in considerable functional impairment. While the cause is multifactorial, the greatest risk is present for athletes involved in sports that involve sudden acceleration and deceleration. A thorough history and physical examination can accurately yield a diagnosis, but when question remains, magnetic resonance imaging is superior to ultrasound-guided evaluation. The best evidence available suggests that operative treatment has a lower rate of rerupture, a higher rate of return to the same level of sport participation, and a higher complication rate, if an open technique is used. Percutaneous methods of fixation have lower complication rates without an increase in the rate of rerupture when compared with open methods. Augmentation of an Achilles tendon repair has demonstrated no clinical benefit. Rehabilitation with early mobilization leads to improved patient-reported outcomes. PMID:19843435</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Deangelis, Joseph P; Wilson, Kristina M; Cox, Charles L; Diamond, Alex B; Thomson, A Brian</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">150</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2777620"> <span id="translatedtitle">[Surgery of traumatic aortic <span class="hlt">rupture</span>].</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This report describes the clinical presentation, diagnosis, surgery and results of patients with acute traumatic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of the aorta in a series of 21 consecutive patients. Direct cross-clamping without additional methods of spinal cord protection was used in 18/21 patients (86%). Direct suture was possible in 12/21 patients (60%). In the remaining patients, the repair was carried out by interposition of a Dacron graft. Overall mortality was 7/21 patients (33%). However, in 3 patients with severe polytrauma irreversible brain damage was the cause of death whereas 2 patients died from septicemia and myocardial infarction, respectively. No paraplegia nor paraparesis occurred in the surviving patients which were operated by direct cross-clamping of the aorta and rapid reanastomosis without additional methods of spinal cord protection. PMID:2777620</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">von Segesser, L; Schneider, K; Siebenmann, R; Glinz, W; Turina, M</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1989-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">151</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24702383"> <span id="translatedtitle">Observation and control of <span class="hlt">shock</span> waves in individual nanoplasmas.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Using an apparatus that images the momentum distribution of individual, isolated 100-nm-scale plasmas, we make the first experimental observation of <span class="hlt">shock</span> waves in nanoplasmas. We demonstrate that the introduction of a heating pulse prior to the <span class="hlt">main</span> laser pulse increases the intensity of the <span class="hlt">shock</span> wave, producing a strong burst of quasimonoenergetic ions with an energy spread of less than 15%. Numerical hydrodynamic calculations confirm the appearance of accelerating <span class="hlt">shock</span> waves and provide a mechanism for the generation and control of these <span class="hlt">shock</span> waves. This observation of distinct <span class="hlt">shock</span> waves in dense plasmas enables the control, study, and exploitation of nanoscale <span class="hlt">shock</span> phenomena with tabletop-scale lasers. PMID:24702383</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hickstein, Daniel D; Dollar, Franklin; Gaffney, Jim A; Foord, Mark E; Petrov, George M; Palm, Brett B; Keister, K Ellen; Ellis, Jennifer L; Ding, Chengyuan; Libby, Stephen B; Jimenez, Jose L; Kapteyn, Henry C; Murnane, Margaret M; Xiong, Wei</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-03-21</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">152</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMSH24A..05G"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Diffusive <span class="hlt">Shock</span> Acceleration Myth</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">It is generally accepted that diffusive <span class="hlt">shock</span> acceleration (DSA) is the dominant mechanism for particle acceleration at <span class="hlt">shocks</span>. This is despite the overwhelming observational evidence that is contrary to predictions of DSA models. For example, our most recent survey of hourly-averaged, spin-averaged proton distribution functions around 61 locally observed <span class="hlt">shocks</span> in 2001 at 1 AU found that in 21 cases no particles were accelerated. Spectral indices (? ) of suprathermal tails on the velocity distributions around the 40 <span class="hlt">shocks</span> that did accelerate particles, showed none of the DSA-predicted correlations of ? with the <span class="hlt">shock</span> compression ratio and the <span class="hlt">shock</span> normal to magnetic field angle. Here we will present ACE/SWICS observations of three sets of 72 consecutive one-hour averaged velocity distributions (in each of 8 SWICS spin sectors). Each set includes passage of one or more <span class="hlt">shocks</span> or strong compression regions. All spectra were properly transformed to the solar wind frame using the detailed, updated SWICS forward model, taking into account the hourly-averaged directions of the solar wind flow, the magnetic field and the ACE spin axis (http://www.srl.caltech.edu/ACE/ASC/). The suprathermal tails are observed to be a combination of locally accelerated and remote tails. The local tails are power laws. The remote tails are also power laws with rollovers at higher energies. When local tails are weak (as is the case especially upstream of strong <span class="hlt">shocks</span> or compression regions) the remote tails also have a rollover at low energies due to modulation (transport effects). Among our <span class="hlt">main</span> findings are that (1) the spectral indices of both the local and remote tails are -5 within the uncertainties of the measurements, as predicted by our pump acceleration mechanism, and (2) the velocity distributions are anisotropic with the perpendicular (to the magnetic field) pressure greater than the parallel pressure.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gloeckler, G.; Fisk, L. A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">153</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005AGUFM.S43A1056H"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Rupture</span> Dynamics: Effect of Small Size Strength Heterogeneity on Earthquake Size, Slip Distribution and <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> Velocity.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Geological data and kinematic inversions of seismological data show that the overall shapes of slip profile along strike present long linear slopes (Manighetti et al., J. Geophys. R, 2005). <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> dynamics of a homogeneous friction properties fault do not lead to such slip distribution. We tried to retrieve this feature using a direct modelling of earthquake <span class="hlt">rupture</span>, performing 3D simulations with spontaneous <span class="hlt">rupture</span> initiation, dynamic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> propagation, and finally, self <span class="hlt">rupture</span> arrest (without a priori knowledge of the final size of the event). This last characteristic was obtained by imposing fault resistance to be infinite on some randomly sized and localized small patches. We found that small size heterogeneities, which cannot be identified by kinematic inversions using low frequency signal and hence only describing large-scale properties of earthquakes, might have a great influence on the characteristics of the <span class="hlt">rupture</span>: -For statistically identical random realizations of barrier distribution, we obtain a great variability of event size, with a majority of small events and a few realizations leading to the entire fault <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. -The arrest of the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> by the distributed barrier leads, in general, final slip distribution to decay almost linearly from the zone of maximum slip. -Whereas, on an homogeneous model, one could observe a jump from subshear to supershear <span class="hlt">rupture</span> propagation velocity, with small barriers but the same slip-weakening law parameters (stress drop, strength excess & Dc), the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> can keep propagating at subshear velocities.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hok, S.; Campillo, M.; Cotton, F.; Manighetti, I.; Favreau, P.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">154</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70137547"> <span id="translatedtitle">Metrics for comparing dynamic earthquake <span class="hlt">rupture</span> simulations</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Earthquakes are complex events that involve a myriad of interactions among multiple geologic features and processes. One of the tools that is available to assist with their study is computer simulation, particularly dynamic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> simulation. A dynamic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> simulation is a numerical model of the physical processes that occur during an earthquake. Starting with the fault geometry, friction constitutive law, initial stress conditions, and assumptions about the condition and response of the near?fault rocks, a dynamic earthquake <span class="hlt">rupture</span> simulation calculates the evolution of fault slip and stress over time as part of the elastodynamic numerical solution (? see the simulation description in the electronic supplement to this article). The complexity of the computations in a dynamic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> simulation make it challenging to verify that the computer code is operating as intended, because there are no exact analytic solutions against which these codes’ results can be directly compared. One approach for checking if dynamic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> computer codes are working satisfactorily is to compare each code’s results with the results of other dynamic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> codes running the same earthquake simulation benchmark. To perform such a comparison consistently, it is necessary to have quantitative metrics. In this paper, we present a new method for quantitatively comparing the results of dynamic earthquake <span class="hlt">rupture</span> computer simulation codes.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Barall, Michael; Harris, Ruth A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">155</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010Tectp.493..263B"> <span id="translatedtitle">The effect of asymmetric damage on dynamic shear <span class="hlt">rupture</span> propagation II: With mismatch in bulk elasticity</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We investigate asymmetric <span class="hlt">rupture</span> propagation on an interface that combines a bulk elastic mismatch with a contrast in off-fault damage. Mode II <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> propagating on the interface between thermally <span class="hlt">shocked</span> (damaged) Homalite and polycarbonate plates were studied using high-speed photographs of the photoelastic fringes. The anelastic asymmetry introduced by damage is defined by 'T' and 'C' directions depending on whether the tensile or compressive lobe of the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> tip stress concentration lies on the damaged side of the fault. The elastic asymmetry is commonly defined by '+' and '-' directions where '+' is the direction of displacement of the more compliant material. Since damaged Homalite is stiffer than polycarbonate, the propagation directions in our experiments were 'T+' and 'C-'. Theoretical and numerical studies predict that a shear <span class="hlt">rupture</span> on an elastic bimaterial interfaces propagates in the '+' direction at the generalized Rayleigh wave speed or in some numerical cases at the P-wave speed of the stiffer material, Pfast. We present the first experimental evidence for propagation at Pfast in the '+' direction for the bimaterial system undamaged Homalite in contact with polycarbonate. In the '-' direction, both theory and experiments find <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> in elastic bimaterials propagate either at sub-shear speed or at the P-wave speed of the softer material, Pslow, depending on the loading conditions. We observe that the off-fault damage effect dominates the elastic bimaterial effect in dynamic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> propagation. In the 'C-' direction the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> propagates at sub-shear to supershear speeds, as in undamaged bimaterial systems, reaching a maximum speed of Pslow. In the 'T+' direction however the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> propagates at sub-shear speeds or comes to a complete stop due to increased damaged activation (slip and opening along micro-cracks) which results in a reduction in stored elastic potential energy and energy dissipation. Biegel et al. (2010-this issue) found similar results for propagation on the interface between Homalite and damaged Homalite where <span class="hlt">rupture</span> speeds were slowed or even stopped in the 'T-' direction but were almost unaffected in the 'C+' direction.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bhat, H. S.; Biegel, R. L.; Rosakis, A. J.; Sammis, C. G.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">156</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25031169"> <span id="translatedtitle">Pathologic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of the spleen in a patient with acute myelogenous leukemia and leukostasis.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Rupture</span> of the spleen can be classified as spontaneous, traumatic, or pathologic. Pathologic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> has been reported in infectious diseases such as infectious mononucleosis, and hematologic malignancies such as acute and chronic leukemias. Splenomegaly is considered the most relevant factor that predisposes to splenic <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. A 66-year-old man with acute myeloid leukemia evolved from an unclassified myeloproliferative neoplasm, complaining of fatigue and mild upper left abdominal pain. He was pale and presented fever and tachypnea. Laboratory analyses showed hemoglobin 8.3g/dL, white blood cell count 278×10(9)/L, platelet count 367×10(9)/L, activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) ratio 2.10, and international normalized ratio (INR) 1.60. A blood smear showed 62% of myeloblasts. The immunophenotype of the blasts was positive for CD117, HLA-DR, CD13, CD56, CD64, CD11c and CD14. Lactate dehydrogenase was 2384U/L and creatinine 2.4mg/dL (normal range: 0.7-1.6mg/dL). Two sessions of leukapheresis were performed. At the end of the second session, the patient presented hemodynamic instability that culminated in circulatory <span class="hlt">shock</span> and death. The post-mortem examination revealed infiltration of the vessels of the lungs, heart, and liver, and massive infiltration of the spleen by leukemic blasts. Blood volume in the peritoneal cavity was 500mL. Acute leukemia is a rare cause of splenic <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. Male gender, old age and splenomegaly are factors associated with this condition. As the patient had leukostasis, we hypothesize that this, associated with other factors such as lung and heart leukemic infiltration, had a role in inducing splenic <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. Finally, we do not believe that leukapheresis in itself contributed to splenic <span class="hlt">rupture</span>, as it is essentially atraumatic. PMID:25031169</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">De Santis, Gil Cunha; Oliveira, Luciana Correa; Ramos, Aline Fernanda; da Silva, Nataly Dantas Fortes; Falcão, Roberto Passetto</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">157</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4207916"> <span id="translatedtitle">Pathologic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of the spleen in a patient with acute myelogenous leukemia and leukostasis</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Rupture</span> of the spleen can be classified as spontaneous, traumatic, or pathologic. Pathologic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> has been reported in infectious diseases such as infectious mononucleosis, and hematologic malignancies such as acute and chronic leukemias. Splenomegaly is considered the most relevant factor that predisposes to splenic <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. A 66-year-old man with acute myeloid leukemia evolved from an unclassified myeloproliferative neoplasm, complaining of fatigue and mild upper left abdominal pain. He was pale and presented fever and tachypnea. Laboratory analyses showed hemoglobin 8.3 g/dL, white blood cell count 278 × 109/L, platelet count 367 × 109/L, activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) ratio 2.10, and international normalized ratio (INR) 1.60. A blood smear showed 62% of myeloblasts. The immunophenotype of the blasts was positive for CD117, HLA-DR, CD13, CD56, CD64, CD11c and CD14. Lactate dehydrogenase was 2384 U/L and creatinine 2.4 mg/dL (normal range: 0.7–1.6 mg/dL). Two sessions of leukapheresis were performed. At the end of the second session, the patient presented hemodynamic instability that culminated in circulatory <span class="hlt">shock</span> and death. The post-mortem examination revealed infiltration of the vessels of the lungs, heart, and liver, and massive infiltration of the spleen by leukemic blasts. Blood volume in the peritoneal cavity was 500 mL. Acute leukemia is a rare cause of splenic <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. Male gender, old age and splenomegaly are factors associated with this condition. As the patient had leukostasis, we hypothesize that this, associated with other factors such as lung and heart leukemic infiltration, had a role in inducing splenic <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. Finally, we do not believe that leukapheresis in itself contributed to splenic <span class="hlt">rupture</span>, as it is essentially atraumatic. PMID:25031169</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">De Santis, Gil Cunha; Oliveira, Luciana Correa; Ramos, Aline Fernanda; da Silva, Nataly Dantas Fortes; Falcão, Roberto Passetto</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">158</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JMEP...23.2858O"> <span id="translatedtitle">Material Parameters for Creep <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> of Austenitic Stainless Steel Foils</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Creep <span class="hlt">rupture</span> properties of austenitic stainless steel foil, 347SS, used in compact recuperators have been evaluated at 700 °C in the stress range of 54-221 MPa to establish the baseline behavior for its extended use. Creep curves of the foil show that the primary creep stage is brief and creep life is dominated by tertiary creep deformation with <span class="hlt">rupture</span> lives in the range of 10-2000 h. Results are compared with properties of bulk specimens tested at 98 and 162 MPa. Thin foil 347SS specimens were found to have higher creep rates and higher <span class="hlt">rupture</span> ductility than their bulk specimen counterparts. Power law relationship was obtained between the minimum creep rate and the applied stress with stress exponent value, n = 5.7. The value of the stress exponent is indicative of the rate-controlling deformation mechanism associated with dislocation creep. Nucleation of voids <span class="hlt">mainly</span> occurred at second-phase particles (chromium-rich M23C6 carbides) that are present in the metal matrix by decohesion of the particle-matrix interface. The improvement in strength is attributed to the precipitation of fine niobium carbides in the matrix that act as obstacles to the movement of dislocations.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Osman, H.; Borhana, A.; Tamin, M. N.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">159</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24730200"> <span id="translatedtitle">[Treatment of anterior cruciate ligament <span class="hlt">rupture</span>].</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Anterior cruciate ligament <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of the knee is a common knee injury associated with sports and exercise. The injury typically arises when the foot is tightly locked against the floor or ground, whereby a sudden change of direction combined with the slowed motion causes a rotary motion of the upper part of the tibia and a force <span class="hlt">rupturing</span> the cruciate ligament. Approximately 30% of the injuries take place during a situation of direct contact. The instability of the knee due to the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> may be strongly invalidizing. In such case surgical therapy is required, if appropriate conservative treatment does not lead to a good result. PMID:24730200</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Suomalainen, Piia; Sillanpää, Petri; Järvelä, Timo</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">160</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3109899"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Main</span> Report</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background: States vary widely in their use of newborn screening tests, with some mandating screening for as few as three conditions and others mandating as many as 43 conditions, including varying numbers of the 40+ conditions that can be detected by tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). There has been no national guidance on the best candidate conditions for newborn screening since the National Academy of Sciences report of 19751 and the United States Congress Office of Technology Assessment report of 1988,2 despite rapid developments since then in genetics, in screening technologies, and in some treatments. Objectives: In 2002, the Maternal and Child Health Bureau (MCHB) of the Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) of the United States Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) commissioned the American College of Medical Genetics (ACMG) to: Conduct an analysis of the scientific literature on the effectiveness of newborn screening.Gather expert opinion to delineate the best evidence for screening for specified conditions and develop recommendations focused on newborn screening, including but not limited to the development of a uniform condition panel.Consider other components of the newborn screening system that are critical to achieving the expected outcomes in those screened. Methods: A group of experts in various areas of subspecialty medicine and primary care, health policy, law, public health, and consumers worked with a steering committee and several expert work groups, using a two-tiered approach to assess and rank conditions. A first step was developing a set of principles to guide the analysis. This was followed by developing criteria by which conditions could be evaluated, and then identifying the conditions to be evaluated. A large and broadly representative group of experts was asked to provide their opinions on the extent to which particular conditions met the selected criteria, relying on supporting evidence and references from the scientific literature. The criteria were distributed among three <span class="hlt">main</span> categories for each condition: The availability and characteristics of the screening test;The availability and complexity of diagnostic services; andThe availability and efficacy of treatments related to the conditions. A survey process utilizing a data collection instrument was used to gather expert opinion on the conditions in the first tier of the assessment. The data collection format and survey provided the opportunity to quantify expert opinion and to obtain the views of a diverse set of interest groups (necessary due to the subjective nature of some of the criteria). Statistical analysis of data produced a score for each condition, which determined its ranking and initial placement in one of three categories (high scoring, moderately scoring, or low scoring/absence of a newborn screening test). In the second tier of these analyses, the evidence base related to each condition was assessed in depth (e.g., via systematic reviews of reference lists including MedLine, PubMed and others; books; Internet searches; professional guidelines; clinical evidence; and cost/economic evidence and modeling). The fact sheets reflecting these analyses were evaluated by at least two acknowledged experts for each condition. These experts assessed the data and the associated references related to each criterion and provided corrections where appropriate, assigned a value to the level of evidence and the quality of the studies that established the evidence base, and determined whether there were significant variances from the survey data. Survey results were subsequently realigned with the evidence obtained from the scientific literature during the second-tier analysis for all objective criteria, based on input from at least three acknowledged experts in each condition. The information from these two tiers of assessment was then considered with regard to the overriding principles and other technology or condition-specific recommendations. On the basis of this information, conditions were assigned to one of thr</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' 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src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">161</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4209555"> <span id="translatedtitle">Risk factor analysis of perioperative mortality after <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> bleeding in hepatocellular carcinoma</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">AIM: To discuss strategies and prognosis for the emergency treatment of <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> bleeding in primary hepatocellular carcinoma. METHODS: The retrospective analysis was performed by examining the emergency treatment experiences of 60 cases of <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> bleeding in primary hepatocellular carcinoma. The treatment methods included surgical tumour resection, transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) and non-surgical treatment. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify the risk factors that impacted 30-d mortality in the research groups. RESULTS: The 30-d mortality of all patients was 28.3% (n = 17). The univariate analysis showed that Child-Pugh C level liver function, <span class="hlt">shock</span>, massive blood transfusion and large tumour volume were risk factors that influenced 30-d mortality. The multivariate analysis showed that <span class="hlt">shock</span> and massive blood transfusion were independent risk factors that impacted the 30-d mortality of surgical resection. As for the TAE patients, larger tumour volume was a risk factor towards prognosis. CONCLUSION: Radical resection and TAE therapy would achieve better results in carefully selected <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> hepatocellular tumours. PMID:25356052</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lin, Hao-Ming; Lei, Li-Ming; Zhu, Jie; Li, Guo-Lin; Min, Jun</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">162</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25427212"> <span id="translatedtitle">Mechanism of lens capsular <span class="hlt">rupture</span> following blunt trauma: a finite element study.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Blunt impact on the eye could results in lens capsular <span class="hlt">rupture</span> that allows foreign substances to enter into the lens and leads to cataract formation. This paper aimed to investigate the mechanism of lens capsular <span class="hlt">rupture</span> using finite element (FE) method. A FE model of the human eye was developed to simulate dynamic response of the lens capsule to a BB (a standard 4.5-mm-diameter pellet) impact. Sensitivity studies were conducted to evaluate the effect of the parameters on capsular <span class="hlt">rupture</span>, including the impact velocity, the elastic modulus of the lens, the thickness and the elastic modulus of the lens capsule. The results indicated that the lens was subjected to anterior compression and posterior intension when the eye was stricken by a BB pellet. The strain on the posterior capsule (0.392) was almost twice as much as that on the anterior capsule (0.207) at an impact velocity of 20 m/s. The strain on the capsule was proportional to the impact velocity, while the capsular strain showed no significant change when the lens modulus elastic varied with age. The findings confirmed that blunt traumatic capsular <span class="hlt">rupture</span> is the result of shockwave propagation throughout the eye. The posterior capsule is subjected to greater tension in blunt trauma, which is the <span class="hlt">main</span> cause that <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> are more commonly found on the posterior capsule than the anterior capsule. Also, thinner thickness and lower elastic modulus would contribute to the posterior capsular <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. PMID:25427212</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Liu, Xiaoyu; Wang, Lizhen; Du, Chengfei; Li, Deyu; Fan, Yubo</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2015-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">163</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23842694"> <span id="translatedtitle">Changing views of the biomechanics of vulnerable plaque <span class="hlt">rupture</span>: a review.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This review examines changing perspectives on the biomechanics of vulnerable plaque <span class="hlt">rupture</span> over the past 25 years from the first finite element analyses (FEA) showing that the presence of a lipid pool significantly increases the local tissue stress in the atheroma cap to the latest imaging and 3D FEA studies revealing numerous microcalcifications in the cap proper and a new paradigm for cap <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. The first part of the review summarizes studies describing the role of the fibrous cap thickness, tissue properties, and lesion geometry as <span class="hlt">main</span> determinants of the risk of <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. Advantages and limitations of current imaging technologies for assessment of vulnerable plaques are also discussed. However, the basic paradoxes as to why <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> frequently did not coincide with location of PCS and why caps >65 ?m thickness could <span class="hlt">rupture</span> at tissue stresses significantly below the 300 kPa critical threshold still remained unresolved. The second part of the review describes recent studies in the role of microcalcifications, their origin, shape, and clustering in explaining these unresolved issues including the actual mechanism of <span class="hlt">rupture</span> due to the explosive growth of tiny voids (cavitation) in local regions of high stress concentration between closely spaced microinclusions oriented along their tensile axis. PMID:23842694</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Cardoso, Luis; Weinbaum, Sheldon</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">164</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.S51B2375M"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Rupture</span> Synchronicity in Complex Fault Systems</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">While most investigators would agree that the timing of large earthquakes within a fault system depends on stress-mediated interactions among its elements, much of the debate relevant to time-dependent forecasting has been centered on single-fault concepts, such as characteristic earthquake behavior. We propose to broaden this discussion by quantifying the multi-fault concept of <span class="hlt">rupture</span> synchronicity. We consider a finite set of small, fault-spanning volumes {Vk} within a fault system of arbitrary (fractal) complexity. We let Ck be the catalog of length tmax comprising Nk discrete times {ti(k)} that mark when the kth volume participates in a <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of magnitude > M. The <span class="hlt">main</span> object of our analysis is the complete set of event time differences {?ij(kk') = ti(k) - tj(k')}, which we take to be a random process with an expected density function ?kk'(t). When k = k', we call this function the auto-catalog density function (ACDF); when k ? k', we call it the cross-catalog density function (CCDF). The roles of the ACDF and CCDF in synchronicity theory are similar to those of autocorrelation and cross-correlation functions in time-series analysis. For a renewal process, the ACDF can be written in terms of convolutions of the interevent-time distribution, and many of its properties (e.g., large-t asymptote) can be derived analytically. The interesting information in the CCDF, like that in the ACDF, is concentrated near t = 0. If two catalogs are completely asynchronous, the CCDF collapses to an asymptote given by the harmonic mean of the ACDF asymptotes. Synchronicity can therefore be characterized by the variability of the CCDF about this asymptote. The brevity of instrumental catalogs makes the identification of synchronicity at large M difficult, but we will illustrate potentially interesting behaviors through the analysis of a million-year California catalog generated by the earthquake simulator, RSQSim (Deiterich & Richards-Dinger, 2010), which we sampled at a dozen fault-spanning volumes. At the magnitude threshold M = 7, the ACDF can be well fit by renewal models with fairly small aperiodicity parameters (? < 0.2) for all fault volumes but one (on the San Jacinto fault). At interseismic (Reid) time scales, we observe pairs of fault segments that are tightly locked, such as the Cholame and Carrizo sections of the San Andreas Fault (SAF), where the CCDF and two ACDFs are nearly equal; segments out of phase (Carrizo-SAF/Coachella-SAF and Coachella-SAF/San Jacinto), where the CCDF variation is an odd function of time; and segments where events are in phase with integer ratios of recurrence times (2:1 synchronicity of Coachella-SAF/Mojave-SAF and Carrizo-SAF/Mojave-SAF). At near-seismic (Omori) time scales, we observe various modes of clustering, triggering, and shadowing in RSQSim catalogs; e.g., events on Mojave-SAF trigger Garlock events, and events on Coachella-SAF shut down events on San Jacinto. Therefore, despite its geometrical complexity and multiplicity of time scales, the RSQSim model of the San Andreas fault system exhibits a variety of synchronous behaviors that increase the predictability of large <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> within the system. A key question for earthquake forecasting is whether the real San Andreas system is equally, or much less, synchronous.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Milner, K. R.; Jordan, T. H.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">165</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=stress+AND+resistance+AND+resource&id=EJ826517"> <span id="translatedtitle">Describing Soils: Calibration Tool for Teaching Soil <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> Resistance</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Rupture</span> resistance is a measure of the strength of a soil to withstand an applied stress or resist deformation. In soil survey, during routine soil descriptions, <span class="hlt">rupture</span> resistance is described for each horizon or layer in the soil profile. The lower portion of the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> resistance classes are assigned based on <span class="hlt">rupture</span> between thumb and…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Seybold, C. A.; Harms, D. S.; Grossman, R. B.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">166</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/250991"> <span id="translatedtitle">Mathematical simulation of the RBMK reactor pressure tubes <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> during accidents: Computer code and verification</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The multiple <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of the pressure tubes is the most dangerous accident of the channel reactors. There are about 2,000 channels in the RBMK. There exist two potential scenarios: (1) the case of accident when a group of channels becomes overheated; and (2) the case of accident with a <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of one tube and <span class="hlt">shock</span> loads on several adjacent channels. The described model considers the prediction technique for potential <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> according to the first scenario. The probabilistic approach was applied due to existing of substantial scatter and uncertainties in parameters determining pressure tubes deformations and failure in accidents. It was founded on the randomization of the deterministic solution for pressure tube-graphite system deformation and <span class="hlt">rupture</span> for varied values of chosen chance characters. The mathematical model for the deterministic solution considers the deformation of the system consisting of the pressure tube from the zirconium alloy containing 2.5% of niobium, graphite hard contact rings and graphite blocks. It was solved the common plane strain boundary task. Tube deformation includes three stages: tube deformation until the radial clearance between the tube and graphite disappears; tube deformation with metal flow into the vertical clearance in hard contact rings slits after disappearing of the radial clearance; deformation of the pressure tube-graphite system after closure of the radial clearance up to graphite failure. The mathematical model for the 1st scenario is described. The approach for code verification is also described.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Tkachev, V.V.; Zheltukhin, K.K. [Russian Research Center Kurchatov Inst., Moscow (Russian Federation). Inst. Nuclear Reactors</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1996-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">167</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3604295"> <span id="translatedtitle">Plantaris <span class="hlt">rupture</span>: why is it important?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Plantaris muscle is accessory plantar flexor of calf, a vestigial muscle of triceps surae complex. Its importance lies in the fact that its <span class="hlt">rupture</span> cans mimic deep vein thrombosis (DVT). Sometimes when there is <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of Achilles tendon, intact plantaris can still cause plantar flexion at ankle presenting a confusing picture. We present one such case of plantaris <span class="hlt">rupture</span> confused by radiology resident with DVT. A 51-year-old man had a feeling as if kicked in back of calf along with a snapping sound and severe pain while playing tennis. On seeing fluid between muscle plane and a hypoechoic structure radiology resident labelled it DVT. MRI suggested <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> plantaris as fluid and muscle stump were seen between gastronemius and soleus. Patient was treated conservatively with rest, ice compression and elevated leg and showed significant reduction in pain and swelling. PMID:23345486</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rohilla, Seema; Jain, Nitin; Yadav, Rohtas</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">168</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/343749"> <span id="translatedtitle">Renal allograft <span class="hlt">rupture</span> with iliofemoral thrombophlebitis.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Spontaneous <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of a renal allograft in the early posttransplant period is associated with tachycardia, hypotension, oliguria, swelling, pain, a falling hematocrit level, and tenderness at the transplant site. Occasionally, the <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> allograft can be saved by control of the hemorrhage. Deep vein thrombophlebitis, a common occurrence after prolonged surgery and cortocosteroid therapy, is less common in renal allograft transplantation, but may be associated with renal vein thrombosis. The simultaneous occurrence of deep vein thrombophlebitis, renal vein thrombosis, and allograft <span class="hlt">rupture</span> contraindicates anticoagulent therapy. We present a patient in whom ipsilateral deep vein thrombophlebitis developed eight days after a cadaveric renal allograft, followed in two days by hypotension, a falling hematocrit level, oliguria, and a painfall mass at the allograft site. Surgical exploration revealed a <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> allograft with iliofemoral and renal vein thrombosis and profuse hemorrhage. A transplant nephrectomy was performed. PMID:343749</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Goldman, M H; Leapman, S B; Handy, R D; Best, D W</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1978-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">169</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21091032"> <span id="translatedtitle">Acute Iliac Artery <span class="hlt">Rupture</span>: Endovascular Treatment</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The authors present 7 patients who suffered iliac artery <span class="hlt">rupture</span> over a 2 year period. In 5 patients, the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> was iatrogenic: 4 cases were secondary to balloon angioplasty for iliac artery stenosis and 1 occurred during coronary angioplasty. In the last 2 patients, the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> was secondary to iliac artery mycotic aneurysm. Direct placement of a stent-graft was performed in all cases, which was dilated until extravasation was controlled. Placement of the stent-graft was successful in all the cases, without any complications. The techniques used, results, and mid-term follow-up are presented. In conclusion, endovascular placement of a stent-graft is a quick, minimally invasive, efficient, and safe method for emergency treatment of acute iliac artery <span class="hlt">rupture</span>, with satisfactory short- and mid-term results.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Chatziioannou, A.; Mourikis, D.; Katsimilis, J.; Skiadas, V., E-mail: bill_skiadas@yahoo.gr; Koutoulidis, V.; Katsenis, K.; Vlahos, L. [University of Athens, Radiology Department, Areteion Hospital (Greece)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-04-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">170</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002EGSGA..27.1177P"> <span id="translatedtitle">Finite <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> Process of Izmit (turkey) Earthquake</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">rupture</span> process of the Izmit (Turkey) earthquake of 17 August 1999 (Mw=7.6), have been analysed using the wave form of P and S waves and the directivity function of Rayleigh waves recorded at teleseismic distances. The source model is a unilateral rectangular fault of finite dimensions (Haskell model). Initial values of orientation and sense <span class="hlt">rupture</span>, fault length and <span class="hlt">rupture</span> velocity have been obtained from first motion of P wave and directivity function of Rayleigh waves. Depth and focal mechanism have been obtained from wave form of P and SH waves using a finite dimension source. The obtained solution is a strike slip mechanism with fault orientation : strike 270z, dip 80z and rake -180z, focal depth 10 km, fault length 120 km, <span class="hlt">rupture</span> velocity 3 km/s and seismic moment 1.66 x 10^20 Nm. This solution agrees with the North Anatolia Fault tectonics.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Pro, C.; Buforn, E.; Udias, A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">171</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2503357"> <span id="translatedtitle">Spontaneous common iliac arteries <span class="hlt">rupture</span> in Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type IV: report of two cases and review of the literature.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Two patients with previously undiagnosed Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type IV (EDS IV) presented acutely with clinical features suggestive of hypovolemic <span class="hlt">shock</span>. Emergency laparotomies in both of them revealed spontaneous <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of the common iliac arteries. The clinical features, operative findings, surgical approach, outcome and implications are discussed. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:11320937</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Habib, K.; Memon, M. A.; Reid, D. A.; Fairbrother, B. J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">172</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/34631161"> <span id="translatedtitle">Cognitive Frames in Psychology: Demarcations and <span class="hlt">Ruptures</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">As there seems to be a recurrent feeling of crisis in psychology, its present state is analyzed in this article. The author\\u000a believes that in addition to the traditional manifestations that have dogged psychology since it emerged as an independent\\u000a science some new features of the crisis have emerged. Three fundamental “<span class="hlt">ruptures</span>” are identified: the “horizontal” <span class="hlt">rupture</span>\\u000a between various schools</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Andrey V. Yurevich</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">173</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010PhSS...52.1155Z"> <span id="translatedtitle">Emission of negative and positive ions at <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of polymers</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The emission of negative and positive ions at <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of polymers has been recorded under high vacuum. The time characteristics of the emission have been investigated with a time resolution up to 1 ?s by varying the sizes and the tension rate of poly(ethylene terephthalate), poly(caprolactam), poly(vinylidene fluoride), polyimide, and poly(tetrafluoroethylene) specimens. The kinetics of emission at the last stages of the tension is associated with the specific features of the intergrowth of the <span class="hlt">main</span> crack in polymers of different types. Possible mechanisms of ion emission have been discussed.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zakrevski?, V. A.; Pakhotin, V. A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">174</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.T41D..03X"> <span id="translatedtitle">Fault barriers favor activation of backthrusts near segment ends of megathrust <span class="hlt">ruptures</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Increasing evidence indicates that backthrusts may become active during or after megathrust <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> in subduction zones, such as in Chile and Sumatra areas (Melnick et al., 2012; Singh et al., 2011). Previous studies on relevant mechanisms <span class="hlt">mainly</span> focused on the interaction between forethrusts and the megathrust. Here we aim to investigate through dynamic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> simulations how backthrusts may be activated by megathrust <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> in subduction zone environment. Assuming a single backthrust branch, our preliminary results show that the activation of backthrust is difficult if the megathrust <span class="hlt">rupture</span> can easily pass through the fault junction, owing to a quickly established stress shadow zone in the wake of the megathrust <span class="hlt">rupture</span> front. In contrast, if the megathrust <span class="hlt">rupture</span> is arrested or delayed around the junction, a resultant backward stress lobe of the type discussed by Xu and Ben-Zion (2013) can load the backthrust over a considerable amount of time and facilitates <span class="hlt">rupture</span> activation along the backthrust. A number of candidates can serve to arrest or delay megathrust <span class="hlt">ruptures</span>, such as the velocity-strengthening frictional behavior and off-fault weak materials in the shallow portion of subduction zones, fault bend or ramp, and subducted seamount. Moreover, these features are also found capable of generating backthrusts during the long-term quasi-static process, which provide pre-existing weakness to be reactivated by later dynamic <span class="hlt">ruptures</span>. Our results agree, from a different point of view, with the study based on the critical taper theory (Cubas et al., 2013) that an increase of friction towards the trench favors the activation of backthrusts near the up-dip limit of megathrust <span class="hlt">ruptures</span>. The results highlight the role of fault geometric or strength heterogeneities in controlling the strain partitioning on and off the <span class="hlt">main</span> fault plane. Accordingly, activated backthrusts may be treated as markers that reflect the limits of seismogenic zones, and thus may be used to characterize segmentation of subduction zones. Backthrusts can contribute, like forethrusts, to local tsunami generation, intra-plate seismicity, etc., and should be examined in further detail in future studies.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Xu, S.; Fukuyama, E.; Ben-Zion, Y.; Ampuero, J. P.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">175</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19990071173&hterms=transmitted+wavefront&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dtransmitted%2Bwavefront"> <span id="translatedtitle">Analysis of Unsteady Flow Phenomena: <span class="hlt">Shock</span> - Vortex and <span class="hlt">Shock</span> - Boundary Layer Interactions</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The interaction of <span class="hlt">shock</span> waves with vortices has received much attention in the past, <span class="hlt">mainly</span> because <span class="hlt">shock</span>-vortex interaction closely models the interaction of a <span class="hlt">shock</span> wave with the coherent structures of a turbulent flow-field, and is a key feature in the broad-band <span class="hlt">shock</span> noise for supersonic jets in off-project conditions. Chu and Kovasznay have shown that a weak disturbance in a viscous heat conducting fluid can be decomposed as the sum of three basic modes, namely acoustic, vortical and entropy mode; the interaction of any of these modes with a <span class="hlt">shock</span> wave gives rise to all three disturbance modes downstream of the <span class="hlt">shock</span>. The vortical mode is important since it constitutes the basis of the coherent structures that have been observed to dominate turbulence for low- to moderate-flow speed. Hollingsworth et al. have experimentally investigated the interaction of a cylindrical <span class="hlt">shock</span>-induced starting vortex with a plane normal <span class="hlt">shock</span>, and have shown that the interaction generates a cylindrical acoustic pulse that exhibits a quadrupolar structure consisting of four alternate compression and expansion regions centered around the transmitted vortex. The investigations of Hollingsworth and Richards have been extended by Dosanjh and Weeks that have analyzed the interaction of a columnar spiral vortex with a normal <span class="hlt">shock</span> wave, thus obtaining quantitative measurements and confirming the generation of a progressive cylindrical wavefront of alternate compression-expansion nature. Naumann and Hermanns' have experimentally addressed the non-linear aspects of <span class="hlt">shock</span>-vortex interaction, and have shown that the interaction causes both a diffraction and a reflection of the <span class="hlt">shock</span> with a pattern consisting of either a regular-or a Mach-reflection depending on the <span class="hlt">shock</span> and the vortex strengths. An attempt to theoretically explain the production of sound from the <span class="hlt">shock</span>-vortex interaction was carried out by Ribner. Pao and Salas have numerically studied two-dimensional <span class="hlt">shock</span>-vortex interactions.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Grasso, Francesco</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">176</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4189090"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Ruptured</span> spontaneous splenic artery aneurysm: A case report and review of the literature</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">INTRODUCTION Splenic artery aneurysm is a rare condition, however, potentially fatal. The importance of splenic artery aneurysm lies in the risk for <span class="hlt">rupture</span> and life threatening hemorrhage. PRESENTATION OF CASE This is a case of a <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> splenic artery aneurysm in a 58-year-old lady. She presented with hypovolemic <span class="hlt">shock</span> and intra-peritoneal bleeding. Diagnosis was confirmed by CT angiography and she was managed by operative ligation of the aneurysm with splenectomy and distal pancreatectomy. DISCUSSION The literature pointed the presence of some risk factors correlating to the development of splenic artery aneurysm. In this article we discuss a rare case of spontaneous (idiopathic) splenic artery aneurysm and review the literature of this challenging surgical condition. CONCLUSION Splenic artery aneurysm needs prompt diagnosis and management to achieve a favorable outcome, high index of suspicion is needed to make the diagnosis in the absence of known risk factors. PMID:25240215</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Abdulrahman, Aisha; Shabkah, Alaa; Hassanain, Mazen; Aljiffry, Murad</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">177</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012ShWav..22..287H"> <span id="translatedtitle">The effects that changes in the diaphragm aperture have on the resulting <span class="hlt">shock</span> tube flow</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In a conventional <span class="hlt">shock</span> tube, the driver and the driven sections have similar (if not identical) cross-sectional area and the diaphragm opened area, upon <span class="hlt">rupturing</span>, is practically equal to the tube cross-sectional area. Such geometry results in generating a well-formed <span class="hlt">shock</span> wave in the tube's driven section. The present experimental work checks the effects that changes in the diaphragm <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> area have on the generated <span class="hlt">shock</span> and rarefaction waves. Experiments were conducted in an 80 mm by 80 mm cross section <span class="hlt">shock</span> tube generating incident <span class="hlt">shock</span> waves having Mach numbers within the range from 1.06 to 1.25. In each run, pressure histories were recorded along the driven and the driver sections of the <span class="hlt">shock</span> tube. The recorded pressures reveal that progressive reduction in the diaphragm open space resulted in a weaker <span class="hlt">shock</span> and both longer time and distance until the compression waves generated close to the diaphragm coalesces into a <span class="hlt">shock</span> wave. In addition, reducing the open space of the diaphragm resulted in a significant slow down in the high pressure reduction prevailing in the driver section.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Houas, L.; Biamino, L.; Mariani, C.; Igra, O.; Jourdan, G.; Massol, A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">178</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/54034681"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Rupture</span> Paths in Kappa-Maps: Quantitative Insights on Heterogeneous Earthquake <span class="hlt">Ruptures</span> From Energy Arguments</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Earthquake <span class="hlt">rupture</span> is a notoriously complex process, at all observable scales. Although heterogeneities of strength and initial stress contribute to this <span class="hlt">rupture</span> complexity, a systematic approach to quantify their effect has not yet been attempted. For instance, little is known about the relation between the final size of an earthquake and the statistical properties of initial strength excess fields. Canonical</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">J. Ampuero; J. Ripperger; M. Mai</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">179</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014CTGeo...3....1B"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Shock</span> Structures in The Morasko Meteorite - Preliminary SEM Data</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper is a preliminary review of <span class="hlt">main</span> <span class="hlt">shock</span> deformations in the Morasko meteorite. Three <span class="hlt">main</span> types of metamorphism structures occur in the investigated material: (i) brittle, (ii) plastic and (iii) thermal. Their interpretation may indicate, that Morasko meteorite reveals several stages of <span class="hlt">shock</span>, eg.: extraterrestrial collisions and fall on the Earth.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Brachaniec, Tomasz</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">180</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24253241"> <span id="translatedtitle">Management of severe bleeding in a <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> extrauterine pregnancy: a theragnostic approach.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Haemoperitoneum due to <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> extrauterine pregnancy is a complication that may occur in the first trimester of pregnancy, but massive haemorrhage with severe <span class="hlt">shock</span> is rare. When severe bleeding does occur, timely diagnosis and rapid haemostatic treatment are vital. We present the case of a 37-year-old woman with severe bleeding and <span class="hlt">shock</span> due to <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> extrauterine pregnancy.Management of the patient consisted of emergency laparotomy, red blood cell transfusion and targeted haemostatic therapy guided by rotational thromboelastometry using the fibrin-based clotting (FIBTEM) assay, (activation with tissue factor with addition of the platelet inhibitor cytochalasin D). As severe hypofibrinogenaemia was apparent, indicated by a FIBTEM maximum clot firmness (MCF) that was not measurable (i.e.?<?2?mm) and a plasma fibrinogen level of 0.17?g/l, the patient was treated with 4?g fibrinogen concentrate. Tranexamic acid (1?g) was also administered.Rapid restoration of haemostasis was indicated by the improvement of thromboelastometric parameters (FIBTEM MCF 16?mm) and, later, laboratory coagulation tests (plasma fibrinogen 2.75?g/l), along with cessation of bleeding. No fresh frozen plasma (FFP) was administered. Surgery was successfully completed, and the patient was subsequently discharged 5 days after admission with no further complications. Haemorrhage in extrauterine pregnancy is commonly managed using autologous blood transfusion (via cell salvage) and homologous plasma transfusion. In this case of severe bleeding and <span class="hlt">shock</span> due to <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> extrauterine pregnancy, thromboelastometry-guided administration of fibrinogen concentrate enabled rapid restoration of haemostasis, complete avoidance of FFP transfusion and resulted in a successful outcome. PMID:24253241</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Grassetto, Alberto; Fullin, Giorgio; Cerri, Gianluca; Simioni, Paolo; Spiezia, Luca; Maggiolo, Carlo</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> 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class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return 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title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">181</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012cosp...39.1744S"> <span id="translatedtitle">Earth's bow <span class="hlt">shock</span>: Power aspects.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The process of energy transfer from the solar wind into the magnetosphere, or rather, to convecting magnetospheric plasma, appears to be rather complicated. The bow <span class="hlt">shock</span> front is the <span class="hlt">main</span> converter of solar wind kinetic energy into electromagnetic energy [Ponomarev, Sedykh, J. of Atm. Solar-Terr. Phys. V. 68. 2006; Ponomarev, Sedykh et al., Geomagn. and Aeron., 2009]. Solar wind undergoes significant changes in its parameters during its passing through the bow <span class="hlt">shock</span> front. Indeed, at the bow point, when crossing the front, the magnetic field tangential component and magnetic energy density increase by factors of almost 4 and approximately 15, respectively. In describing the bow <span class="hlt">shock</span>, we followed [Whang, 1987; Ponomarev et al., 2006]. A jump of the magnetic field tangential component when crossing the bow <span class="hlt">shock</span> front means that the front carries an electric current. It is possible to show that electric current is diverging in this layer, that is the front is the generator of the current. Since plasma with magnetic field passes through the bow <span class="hlt">shock</span> front, electric field arises in the front reference system. Thus, the bow <span class="hlt">shock</span> front is a source of electric power. The direction of electric current behind the bow <span class="hlt">shock</span> front depends on the sign of the IMF Bz-component. It is this current which sets convection in motion. Energetically, this external current is necessary for maintaining convection of plasma in the inhomogeneous system (geomagnetosphere). The generator at the bow <span class="hlt">shock</span> front can be a sufficient source of power for supplying energy to substorm processes [Sedykh, Sun and Geosphere, 2011]. The sign of power does not depend on the IMF sign, and energy flux is always directed into the magnetosphere. The magnitude of the power is different and is realized in different regions of the magnetosphere depending on the IMF direction. When the Bz-component is negative, the electric convection field is larger, with the anticonvection field being smaller, than for the same absolute magnitude of the positive IMF Bz-component. Therefore in the first case, the energy dissipates primarily in the auroral zone, while in the second case it does in the polar cap. Electric current from the generator at bow <span class="hlt">shock</span>, changing its sign when the Bz component changes its direction, cannot enter the magnetosphere during the first stage, because a plasma pressure gradient corresponding to the previous value of the electric current is still present there. Only after some time, when the new convection system has restructured the plasma pressure, the current of new direction can enter the magnetosphere.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sedykh, Pavel</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">182</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3510519"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Rupture</span> of echinococcal cysts: diagnosis, classification, and clinical implications.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The authors classify <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of echinococcal cysts into three types: contained, communicating, and direct. Contained <span class="hlt">rupture</span> occurs when only the parasitic endocyst <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> and the cyst contents are confined within the host-derived pericyst. When cyst contents escape via biliary or bronchial radicles that are incorporated in the pericyst, the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> is communicating. Direct <span class="hlt">rupture</span> occurs when both the endocyst and the pericyst tear, spilling cyst contents directly into the peritoneal or pleural cavities or occasionally into other structures. Communicating and direct forms have more serious clinical implications than contained <span class="hlt">rupture</span>, but even contained <span class="hlt">rupture</span> should have prompt surgical attention to prevent it from developing into one of the other forms. Untreated communicating <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of a liver cyst can lead to obstruction of the biliary system with a 50% mortality rate. Direct <span class="hlt">rupture</span> may cause anaphylaxis, and it should be managed surgically, possibly with adjunctive treatment with antihelminthic drugs to decrease the possibility of metastatic hydatosis. PMID:3510519</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lewall, D B; McCorkell, S J</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1986-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">183</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://arxiv.org/pdf/astro-ph/0509686v1"> <span id="translatedtitle">Particle Acceleration at High-$?$ <span class="hlt">Shock</span> Waves</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">First-order Fermi acceleration processes at ultrarelativistic <span class="hlt">shocks</span> are studied with Monte Carlo simulations. The accelerated particle spectra are obtained by integrating the exact particle trajectories in a turbulent magnetic field near the <span class="hlt">shock</span>, with a few ``realistic'' features of the field structure included. We show that the <span class="hlt">main</span> acceleration process at oblique <span class="hlt">shocks</span> is the particle compression at the <span class="hlt">shock</span>. Formation of energetic spectral tails is possible in a limited energy range for highly perturbed magnetic fields. Cut-offs in the spectra occur at low energies in the resonance range considered. We relate this feature to the structure of the magnetic field downstream of the <span class="hlt">shock</span>, where field compression produces effectively 2D turbulence in which cross-field diffusion is very small. Because of the field compression downstream, the acceleration process is inefficient also in parallel high-$\\gamma$ <span class="hlt">shocks</span> for larger turbulence amplitudes, and features observed in oblique <span class="hlt">shocks</span> are recovered. For small-amplitude perturbations, particle spectra are formed in a wide energy range and modifications of the acceleration process due to the existence of long-wave perturbations are observed. The critical turbulence amplitude for efficient acceleration at parallel <span class="hlt">shocks</span> decreases with <span class="hlt">shock</span> Lorentz factor. We also study the influence of strong short-wave perturbations downstream of the <span class="hlt">shock</span> on the particle acceleration processes. The spectral indices obtained do not converge to the ``universal'' value . Our results indicate inefficiency of the first-order Fermi process to generate high-energy cosmic rays at ultrarelativistic <span class="hlt">shocks</span> with the considered perturbed magnetic field structures.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jacek Niemiec</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-09-22</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">184</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4299364"> <span id="translatedtitle">Emergency endovascular management of the common femoral artery <span class="hlt">rupture</span> due to radiotherapy for scrotal carcinoma</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We describe the case of a 72-year-old man with massive hemorrhage and <span class="hlt">shock</span> resulting from <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of the left common femoral artery as a complication of radiotherapy in the groin for cancer of the scrotum. This complication is extremely rare, presents dramatically, and is usually fatal. The patient was successfully treated with a stent graft deployment in order to achieve immediate hemostasis maintaining blood flow to the leg. Open surgery is not ideal in those cases especially when there is extensive tumor involvement of the groin causing altered anatomy and increasing the risk of re-bleeding. PMID:25610613</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Merola, Giovanni; del Guercio, Luca; Sodo, Maurizio; Maria Giribono, Anna; Bracale, Umberto</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2015-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">185</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25610613"> <span id="translatedtitle">Emergency endovascular management of the common femoral artery <span class="hlt">rupture</span> due to radiotherapy for scrotal carcinoma.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We describe the case of a 72-year-old man with massive hemorrhage and <span class="hlt">shock</span> resulting from <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of the left common femoral artery as a complication of radiotherapy in the groin for cancer of the scrotum. This complication is extremely rare, presents dramatically, and is usually fatal. The patient was successfully treated with a stent graft deployment in order to achieve immediate hemostasis maintaining blood flow to the leg. Open surgery is not ideal in those cases especially when there is extensive tumor involvement of the groin causing altered anatomy and increasing the risk of re-bleeding. PMID:25610613</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bracale, Umberto Marcello; Merola, Giovanni; Del Guercio, Luca; Sodo, Maurizio; Giribono, Anna Maria; Bracale, Umberto</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2015-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">186</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.9854C"> <span id="translatedtitle">Analytic Study of Three-Dimensional <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> Propagation in Strike-Slip Faulting with Analogue Models</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Strike-slip faults are high angle (or nearly vertical) fractures where the blocks have moved along strike way (nearly horizontal). Overburden soil profiles across <span class="hlt">main</span> faults of Strike-slip faults have revealed the palm and tulip structure characteristics. McCalpin (2005) has trace <span class="hlt">rupture</span> propagation on overburden soil surface. In this study, we used different offset of slip sandbox model profiles to study the evolution of three-dimensional <span class="hlt">rupture</span> propagation by strike -slip faulting. In strike-slip faults model, type of <span class="hlt">rupture</span> propagation and width of shear zone (W) are primary affecting by depth of overburden layer (H), distances of fault slip (Sy). There are few research to trace of three-dimensional <span class="hlt">rupture</span> behavior and propagation. Therefore, in this simplified sandbox model, investigate <span class="hlt">rupture</span> propagation and shear zone with profiles across <span class="hlt">main</span> faults when formation are affecting by depth of overburden layer and distances of fault slip. The investigators at the model included width of shear zone, length of <span class="hlt">rupture</span> (L), angle of <span class="hlt">rupture</span> (?) and space of <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. The surface results was follow the literature that the evolution sequence of failure envelope was R-faults, P-faults and Y-faults which are parallel to the basement fault. Comparison surface and profiles structure which were curved faces and cross each other to define 3-D <span class="hlt">rupture</span> and width of shear zone. We found that an increase in fault slip could result in a greater width of shear zone, and proposed a W/H versus Sy/H relationship. Deformation of shear zone showed a similar trend as in the literature that the increase of fault slip resulted in the increase of W, however, the increasing trend became opposite after a peak (when Sy/H was 1) value of W was reached (small than 1.5). The results showed that the W width is limited at a constant value in 3-D models by strike-slip faulting. In conclusion, this study helps evaluate the extensions of the shear zone influenced regions for strike-slip faults.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Chan, Pei-Chen; Chu, Sheng-Shin; Lin, Ming-Lang</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">187</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.me.umn.edu/education/courses/me8381/LeeAnnRev2000.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">BIOPHYSICAL INJURY MECHANISMS IN ELECTRICAL <span class="hlt">SHOCK</span> TRAUMA</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">? Abstract Electrical <span class="hlt">shock</span> trauma,tends to produce,a very complex,pattern of in- jury, <span class="hlt">mainly</span> because of the multiple modes of frequency-dependent tissue-field interac- tions. Historically, Joule heating was thought to be the only cause of electrical injuries to tissue by commercial-frequency electrical <span class="hlt">shocks</span>. In the last 15 years, biomedical engineering research has improved,the understanding,of the underlying biophysical in- jury mechanisms. Besides</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Raphael C. Lee; Dajun Zhang; Jurgen Hannig</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2000-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">188</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19950046210&hterms=neptune&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Dneptune"> <span id="translatedtitle">Neptune inbound bow <span class="hlt">shock</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Voyager 2 crossed the inbound or upstream Neptunian bow <span class="hlt">shock</span> at 1430 spacecraft event time on August 24 in 1989 (Belcher et al., 1989). The plasma and magnetic field measurements allow us to study the solar wind interaction with the outermost gas giant. To fully utilize all of the spacecraft observations, an improved nonlinear least squares, 'Rankine-Hugoniot' magnetohydrodynamic <span class="hlt">shock</span>-fitting technique has been developed (Szabo, 1994). This technique is applied to the Neptunian data set. We find that the upstream bow <span class="hlt">shock</span> normal points nearly exactly toward the Sun consistent with any reasonable large-scale model of the bow <span class="hlt">shock</span> for a near subsolar crossing. The <span class="hlt">shock</span> was moving outward with a speed of 14 +/- 12 km/s. The <span class="hlt">shock</span> can be characterized as a low beta, high Mach number, strong quasi-perpendicular <span class="hlt">shock</span>. Finally, the <span class="hlt">shock</span> microstructure features are resolved and found to scale well with theoretical expectations.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Szabo, Adam; Lepping, Ronald P.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1995-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">189</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18090814"> <span id="translatedtitle">The diagnosis of silicone breast implant <span class="hlt">rupture</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Magnetic resonance imaging of the breast in the diagnosis of silicone breast implant <span class="hlt">rupture</span> is widely accepted to be the imaging study of choice for most women. Magnetic resonance imaging in the detection of silicone implant failure has been shown to have the highest sensitivity and specificity and has the ability to image the entire implant without the use of ionizing radiation. Unfortunately, some women are unable to have a magnetic resonance imaging examination of the breast because of contraindications such as cardiac pacemakers, aneurysm clips, and claustrophobia. Therefore, mammography, ultrasonography, and computed tomography will have roles in the diagnosis of silicone breast implant <span class="hlt">ruptures</span>. This article illustrates the spectrum of imaging appearances of normal silicone gel implants and the appearances of silicone breast implant <span class="hlt">ruptures</span>. PMID:18090814</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gorczyca, David P; Gorczyca, Stephanie M; Gorczyca, Kathryn L</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">190</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23622472"> <span id="translatedtitle">Acoustic levels of heavy truck tire <span class="hlt">ruptures</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Transportation vehicles, whether they are passenger vehicles or heavy trucks and transport vehicles, rely upon rubber tires to negotiate the roadways and surfaces on which they are driven. These tires have the potential of sudden <span class="hlt">rupture</span> resulting from various causes including but not limited to over-pressurization, sidewall failures, or punctures from roadway debris. These <span class="hlt">rupture</span> events can and do occur while the vehicles are stationary (e.g., during servicing) or are being driven, and often occur without notice. While the phenomenon of sudden tire failure has been documented for several decades, the potential bodily injury which can occur when an individual is in close proximity to such a sudden <span class="hlt">rupture</span> has only more recently been documented. Aside from anecdotal mention in case studies, there has been little quantitative information available on the acoustic levels during these failures. Our study provides measured acoustic levels as a function of distance for such catastrophic tire failures. PMID:23622472</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wood, Matthew; Woodruff, William</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">191</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5461408"> <span id="translatedtitle">Component external leakage and <span class="hlt">rupture</span> frequency estimates</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In order to perform detailed internal flooding risk analyses of nuclear power plants, external leakage and <span class="hlt">rupture</span> frequencies are needed for various types of components - piping, valves, pumps, flanges, and others. However, there appears to be no up-to-date, comprehensive source for such frequency estimates. This report attempts to fill that void. Based on a comprehensive search of Licensee Event Reports (LERs) contained in Nuclear Power Experience (NPE), and estimates of component populations and exposure times, component external leakage and <span class="hlt">rupture</span> frequencies were generated. The remainder of this report covers the specifies of the NPE search for external leakage and <span class="hlt">rupture</span> events, analysis of the data, a comparison with frequency estimates from other sources, and a discussion of the results.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Eide, S.A.; Khericha, S.T.; Calley, M.B.; Johnson, D.A.; Marteeny, M.L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1991-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">192</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/doepatents/biblio/1136636"> <span id="translatedtitle">Biomass <span class="hlt">shock</span> pretreatment</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Methods and apparatus for treating biomass that may include introducing a biomass to a chamber; exposing the biomass in the chamber to a <span class="hlt">shock</span> event to produce a <span class="hlt">shocked</span> biomass; and transferring the <span class="hlt">shocked</span> biomass from the chamber. In some aspects, the method may include pretreating the biomass with a chemical before introducing the biomass to the chamber and/or after transferring <span class="hlt">shocked</span> biomass from the chamber.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Holtzapple, Mark T.; Madison, Maxine Jones; Ramirez, Rocio Sierra; Deimund, Mark A.; Falls, Matthew; Dunkelman, John J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">193</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6862348"> <span id="translatedtitle">Consequences of expansion joint bellows <span class="hlt">rupture</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Expansion joints are used in piping systems to accommodate pipe deflections during service and to facilitate fitup. Typically, the expansion joint bellows is the thinnest part of the pressure boundary, bellows <span class="hlt">rupture</span> frequencies are typically several orders of magnitude higher than pipe <span class="hlt">rupture</span> frequencies. This paper reviews an effort to estimate the flow rates associated with bellows <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. The Level I PRA (probabilistic risk assessment) for the Savannah River Site production reactors made the bounding assumption that bellows <span class="hlt">rupture</span> would produce the maximum possible leakage - that of a double-ended guillotine break (DEGB). This assumption resulted in predictions of flooding of the reactor building with a high conditional probability that a Loss of Pumping Accident and core melting would follow. This paper describes analyses that were performed to develop a realistic break area and leak rate resulting from bellows <span class="hlt">rupture</span> and therefore reduce the impact that bellows <span class="hlt">rupture</span> can have on the estimated total core melt frequency. In the event of a 360 degree circumferential break of the bellows the resulting two sections will separate to the point where the force from the internal pressure acting to push the bellows open is just balanced by the spring force of the bellows itself. For the bellows addressed in this analysis, the equilibrium separation distance is 0.7 inches with normal pump lineup. The opening area is influenced by any initial compression or extension due to installation alignment, and by any operational displacements such as thermal expansion of the adjoining pipe. The influence of such factors is considered and the impact on the flooding rate and, hence, core melt frequency is reviewed.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Daugherty, W.L.; Miller, R.F.; Cramer, D.S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1992-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">194</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10191106"> <span id="translatedtitle">Consequences of expansion joint bellows <span class="hlt">rupture</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Expansion joints are used in piping systems to accommodate pipe deflections during service and to facilitate fitup. Typically, the expansion joint bellows is the thinnest part of the pressure boundary, bellows <span class="hlt">rupture</span> frequencies are typically several orders of magnitude higher than pipe <span class="hlt">rupture</span> frequencies. This paper reviews an effort to estimate the flow rates associated with bellows <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. The Level I PRA (probabilistic risk assessment) for the Savannah River Site production reactors made the bounding assumption that bellows <span class="hlt">rupture</span> would produce the maximum possible leakage - that of a double-ended guillotine break (DEGB). This assumption resulted in predictions of flooding of the reactor building with a high conditional probability that a Loss of Pumping Accident and core melting would follow. This paper describes analyses that were performed to develop a realistic break area and leak rate resulting from bellows <span class="hlt">rupture</span> and therefore reduce the impact that bellows <span class="hlt">rupture</span> can have on the estimated total core melt frequency. In the event of a 360 degree circumferential break of the bellows the resulting two sections will separate to the point where the force from the internal pressure acting to push the bellows open is just balanced by the spring force of the bellows itself. For the bellows addressed in this analysis, the equilibrium separation distance is 0.7 inches with normal pump lineup. The opening area is influenced by any initial compression or extension due to installation alignment, and by any operational displacements such as thermal expansion of the adjoining pipe. The influence of such factors is considered and the impact on the flooding rate and, hence, core melt frequency is reviewed.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Daugherty, W.L.; Miller, R.F.; Cramer, D.S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1992-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">195</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/53940336"> <span id="translatedtitle">Microscale <span class="hlt">shock</span> tube</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This project aims at the simulation, design, fabrication and testing of a microscale <span class="hlt">shock</span> tube. A step by step procedure has been followed to develop the different components of the microscale <span class="hlt">shock</span> tube and then combine them together to realize the final device. The document reports on the numerical simulation of flows in a microscale <span class="hlt">shock</span> tube, the experimental study</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gholamreza Mirshekari</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">196</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12038119"> <span id="translatedtitle">[Intrabiliary <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of hepatic hydatid cyst].</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Spontaneous hepatic hydatid cyst <span class="hlt">rupture</span> into the biliary tract is unusual. The authors describe a case of a 62-year-old man with a hepatic hydatid cyst, showing that it is possible to confirm <span class="hlt">rupture</span> into the biliary system with cholangiography-MRI. Surgical treatment remains the best form of management. Endoscopic management is a therapeutic possibility in all cases in which surgery is contraindicated. In the case observed endoscopic sphinctererotomy resolved the biliary obstruction, while the hydatid cyst was treated by transbiliary irrigation with scolicidal solutions and pharmacological therapy. The treatment permitted complete clinical resolution of the hepatic hydatosis. PMID:12038119</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Cucinotta, Eugenio; Palmeri, Renato; Lazzara, Salvatore; Melita, Giuseppinella; Melita, Paolo</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">197</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1797221"> <span id="translatedtitle">Delayed gallbladder <span class="hlt">rupture</span> following percutaneous cholecystostomy.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Percutaneous cholecystostomy has become an accepted therapeutic alternative for high-risk patients with acute cholecystitis. However, some authors have cautioned that patients with gallbladder wall necrosis and gangrene may not be effectively treated by means of percutaneous drainage alone. A case is reported in which gallbladder wall necrosis progressed following technically successful percutaneous drainage. Spontaneous gallbladder <span class="hlt">rupture</span> ensued, necessitating emergent cholecystectomy. Cholecystography 2 weeks following tube placement and 1 week prior to <span class="hlt">rupture</span> showed a markedly abnormal, irregular gallbladder lumen. The authors suggest that follow-up cholecystography may be a useful tool for evaluating patient response to percutaneous cholecystostomy and for determining subsequent patient management. PMID:1797221</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">LaBerge, J M; Gordon, R L; Kerlan, R K; Ring, E J</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1991-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">198</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25110594"> <span id="translatedtitle">Myocardial <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> following Carbon Monoxide Poisoning.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We present the first case of severe cardiotoxicity of carbon monoxide leading to myocardial <span class="hlt">rupture</span> and fatal outcome. 83-year-old woman was hospitalized 4 hours after the fire in her house with no respiratory or cardiac symptoms. After two days, she has suffered sudden collapse leading to cardiac arrest. Postmortem examination revealed intramural haemorrhage with myocardial <span class="hlt">rupture</span> at the apex of the left ventricle. Minimal stenosis was noted in the proximal coronary arteries with no evidence of distal occlusion or any other long-standing heart disease. This case supports recommendations for targeted cardiovascular investigations in cases of CO poisoning. PMID:25110594</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Dragelyt?, Gabija; Plenta, J?ris; Chmieliauskas, Sigitas; Jasulaitis, Algimantas; Raudys, Romas; Jovaiša, Tomas; Badaras, Robertas</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">199</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4119647"> <span id="translatedtitle">Myocardial <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> following Carbon Monoxide Poisoning</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We present the first case of severe cardiotoxicity of carbon monoxide leading to myocardial <span class="hlt">rupture</span> and fatal outcome. 83-year-old woman was hospitalized 4 hours after the fire in her house with no respiratory or cardiac symptoms. After two days, she has suffered sudden collapse leading to cardiac arrest. Postmortem examination revealed intramural haemorrhage with myocardial <span class="hlt">rupture</span> at the apex of the left ventricle. Minimal stenosis was noted in the proximal coronary arteries with no evidence of distal occlusion or any other long-standing heart disease. This case supports recommendations for targeted cardiovascular investigations in cases of CO poisoning. PMID:25110594</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Dragelyt?, Gabija; Plenta, J?ris; Chmieliauskas, Sigitas; Jasulaitis, Algimantas; Raudys, Romas; Jovaiša, Tomas; Badaras, Robertas</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">200</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/3739640"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Shock</span> metamorphism of ordinary chondrites</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This study proposes a revised petrographic classification of progressive stages of <span class="hlt">shock</span> metamorphism of 26 ordinary chondrites. Six stages of <span class="hlt">shock</span> (S1 to S6) are defined on the basis of <span class="hlt">shock</span> effects in olivine and plagioclase as recognized by thin section microscopy, and the characteristic <span class="hlt">shock</span> effects of each <span class="hlt">shock</span> stage are described. It is concluded that <span class="hlt">shock</span> effects and</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Dieter Stoeffler; Klaus Keil; Edward R. D. Scott</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1991-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' 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href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">201</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20140006630&hterms=pro+ana&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3Dpro%2Bana"> <span id="translatedtitle">Whistler Waves Associated with Weak Interplanetary <span class="hlt">Shocks</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We analyze the properties of 98 weak interplanetary <span class="hlt">shocks</span> measured by the dual STEREO spacecraft over approximately 3 years during the past solar minimum. We study the occurrence of whistler waves associated with these <span class="hlt">shocks</span>, which on average are high beta <span class="hlt">shocks</span> (0.2 < Beta < 10). We have compared the waves properties upstream and downstream of the <span class="hlt">shocks</span>. In the upstream region the waves are <span class="hlt">mainly</span> circularly polarized, and in most of the cases (approx. 75%) they propagate almost parallel to the ambient magnetic field (<30 deg.). In contrast, the propagation angle with respect to the <span class="hlt">shock</span> normal varies in a broad range of values (20 deg. to 90 deg.), suggesting that they are not phase standing. We find that the whistler waves can extend up to 100,000 km in the upstream region but in most cases (88%) are contained in a distance within 30,000 km from the <span class="hlt">shock</span>. This corresponds to a larger region with upstream whistlers associated with IP <span class="hlt">shocks</span> than previously reported in the literature. The maximum amplitudes of the waves are observed next to the <span class="hlt">shock</span> interface, and they decrease as the distance to the <span class="hlt">shock</span> increases. In most cases the wave propagation direction becomes more aligned with the magnetic field as the distance to the <span class="hlt">shock</span> increases. These two facts suggest that most of the waves in the upstream region are Landau damping as they move away from the <span class="hlt">shock</span>. From the analysis we also conclude that it is likely that the generation mechanism of the upstream whistler waves is taking place at the <span class="hlt">shock</span> interface. In the downstream region, the waves are irregularly polarized, and the fluctuations are very compressive; that is, the compressive component of the wave clearly dominates over the transverse one. The majority of waves in the downstream region (95%) propagate at oblique angles with respect to the ambient magnetic field (>60 deg.). The wave propagation with respect to the <span class="hlt">shock</span>-normal direction has no preferred direction and varies similarly to the upstream case. It is possible that downstream fluctuations are generated by ion relaxation as suggested in previous hybrid simulation <span class="hlt">shocks</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Velez, J. C. Ramirez; Blanco-Cano, X.; Aguilar-Rodriguez, E.; Russell, C. T.; Kajdic, P.; Jian,, L. K.; Luhmann, J. G.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">202</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009Tectp.471..203L"> <span id="translatedtitle">Co-seismic thrusting <span class="hlt">rupture</span> and slip distribution produced by the 2008 Mw 7.9 Wenchuan earthquake, China</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Field investigations reveal that the Mw 7.9 Wenchuan (China) earthquake of 12 May 2008 produced a 285-km-long surface <span class="hlt">rupture</span> zone, with dominantly thrusting slip accompanied by a right-lateral component along the central-northern segments of the zone, and left-lateral component along the southern segment, along the Longmen Shan Thrust Belt, eastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau. The co-seismic <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> <span class="hlt">mainly</span> occurred along the pre-existing Yingxiu-Beichuan, Guanxian-Anxian, and Qingchuan faults, which are the <span class="hlt">main</span> faults of the Longmen Shan Thrust Belt. The displacements measured in the field are approximately 0.5-6.5 m in the vertical (typically 1-3 m), accompanied by an average left-lateral component of < 2 m along the 50-km-long southernmost segment of the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> zone and an average right-lateral component of < 1 m along the 150-km-long central-northern segments. The maximum thrust slip amount is estimated to be ~ 10 m, accompanied by 9 m of shortening across the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> zone; this finding is consistent with estimates based on seismic data. The <span class="hlt">rupture</span> length and maximum vertical displacement are the largest among all intracontinental thrust-type earthquakes reported to date. Our findings demonstrate that i) the Wenchuan earthquake occurred upon pre-existing active faults of the Longmen Shan Thrust Belt, thereby controlling the spatial distribution of co-seismic surface <span class="hlt">rupture</span> and displacement, and the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> processes of the earthquake; ii) the long <span class="hlt">rupture</span> length and large thrusting slip resulted from compressive stress associated with eastward extrusion of the Tibet Plateau as it accommodates the ongoing penetration of the Indian Plate into the Eurasian Plate; and iii) present-day shortening strain upon the eastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau is mostly released by seismic slip along thrust faults within the Longmen Shan Thrust Belt.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lin, Aiming; Ren, Zhikun; Jia, Dong; Wu, Xiaojun</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">203</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..1110153B"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Rupture</span> tracking with different seismological methods</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Spatial length, time duration, and direction of an earthquake <span class="hlt">rupture</span> are important parameters for an early warning of a potential tsunami. With different seismological methods namely polarization analysis of incoming compressional waves (P-waves), directivity effect, and wavelet transform these parameters are tried to estimate from recordings of broadband three-component-seismometers. One important requirement for a successful tsunami warning is a very fast (real time) investigation of seismograms. For some of the methods a dense station network and especially a wide backazimuthal distribution is necessary. The latter is a premise for the investigation of the directivity effect of an earthquake (in the literature this effect is often compared with a kind of doppler-effect). We show for some earthquakes e.g. Sichuan of May 2008, great Andaman of December 2004, and Pakistan of October 2005, that with a simple integration of regional and teleseismic recordings and subsequently plotting them sorted by the azimuth, stations can easily splitted into stations, from which the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> went away and stations, which lie in the direction of the <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. With this investigation, the question of the direction of the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> can quickly be answered.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bayer, B.; Yuan, X.; Saul, J.; Kind, R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">204</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JChPh.141p4907G"> <span id="translatedtitle">Star polymers <span class="hlt">rupture</span> induced by constant forces</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this work, we study the breakage process of an unknotted three-arm star-shaped polymer when it is pulled from its free ends by a constant force. The star polymer configuration is described through an array of monomers coupled by anharmonic bonds, while the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> process is tracked in three-dimensional space by means of Langevin Molecular Dynamics simulations. The interaction between monomers is described by a Morse potential, while a Weeks-Chandler-Anderson energetic contribution accounts for the excluded volume interaction. We explore the effect of the molecular architecture on the distributions of <span class="hlt">rupture</span> times over a broad interval of pulling forces and star configurations. It was found that the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> time distribution of the individual star arms is strongly affected by the star configuration imposed by the pulling forces and the length of the arms. We also observed that for large pulling forces the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> time distributions resemble the dominant features observed for linear polymer chains. The model introduced here provides the basic ingredients to describe the effects of tensile forces on stress-induced degradation of branched macromolecules and polymer networks.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">García, N. A.; Febbo, M.; Vega, D. A.; Milchev, A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">205</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1030718"> <span id="translatedtitle">D-Zero Cryostat Supplemental <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> Disc</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The common relief and <span class="hlt">rupture</span> disc vent line requires a double disc assembly with vented interspace for accurate disc burst pressures. The first disc must take pump and purge vacuum loading, but be set to operate at 110% of the MAWP, 18.3 psig (ASME code). The available solution is 18.3 psig with a burst tolerance of +/- psig. The interspace should be locally vented by a flow limiting vent valve to decouple the vent line backpressure from the vessel <span class="hlt">rupture</span> disc. The second disc must take the worst case vent line backpressure, the steady state value found in D-Zero engineering note 3740.000-EN-63 with all three cryostats simultaneously venting at the fire condition into the 4-inch x 6-inch and 6-inch x 8-inch sections. This value is less than 2 psid. The maximum <span class="hlt">rupture</span> value for the second disc must be less than the minimum <span class="hlt">rupture</span> value for the first disc less 2 psid i.e. < 16.3.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mulholland, G.T.; /Fermilab</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1987-08-03</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">206</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/26599285"> <span id="translatedtitle">Steam generator tube <span class="hlt">rupture</span> (SGTR) scenarios</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The steam generator tube <span class="hlt">rupture</span> (SGTR) scenarios project was carried out in the EU 5th framework programme in the field of nuclear safety during years 2000–2002. The first objective of the project was to generate a comprehensive database on fission product retention in a steam generator. The second objective was to verify and develop predictive models to support accident management</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">A. Auvinen; J. K. Jokiniemi; A. Lähde; T. Routamo; P. Lundström; H. Tuomisto; J. Dienstbier; S. Güntay; D. Suckow; A. Dehbi; M. Slootman; L. Herranz; V. Peyres; J. Polo</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">207</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2568237"> <span id="translatedtitle">Occult uterine <span class="hlt">rupture</span>: role of ultrasonography.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This article presents a case of occult spontaneous uterine <span class="hlt">rupture</span> complicated by pelvic infection and peritonitis in the postpartum period. Ultrasonography played a primary role in the diagnosis of this complication and clearly demonstrated the uterine wall defect. This finding was confirmed later by computed tomography and by surgery. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:9640909</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Cadet, J. J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1998-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">208</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.data.scec.org/Module/s1act03.html"> <span id="translatedtitle">What Is an Earthquake?: <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> Models</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this activity, the learner will watch three animations based on actual data from fault <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> from the two largest Southern California earthquakes in the 1990s: Landers (1992) and Northridge (1994). In Section 3, the learner will discover more about how such data is collected and analyzed.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">209</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://gallery.usgs.gov/photos/09_28_2010_otk7Nay4LH_09_28_2010_1"> <span id="translatedtitle">Surface <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> in Northwest Saudi Arabia</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://gallery.usgs.gov/">USGS Multimedia Gallery</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Wendy McCausland of the USGS Volcano Disaster Assistance Program and Hani Zahran of the Saudi Geological Survey view the southern end of the surface fault <span class="hlt">rupture</span> caused by a M5.4 earthquake in the Saudi Arabian desert on May 19, 2009. The ground displacements in the soft sediments of the foreground...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-09-28</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">210</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/29864197"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Rupture</span> of the membranes and postpartum infection</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The greatest risk of preterm prelabour <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of membranes (PPROM) is preterm delivery. According to the Perinatal Information System of Slovenia there were 5.92% preterm deliveries in 1994. We studied 809 deliveries of less than 34 weeks of gestation in the Ljubljana Maternity, from 1992 to 1994; 33.7% of these started with PPROM. Risk factors for PPROM were conization, cerclage</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Marjan Pajntar; Ivan Verdenik</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">211</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23889586"> <span id="translatedtitle">Endovascular repair of iatrogenic aortic <span class="hlt">rupture</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) has been used for traumatic and acute spontaneous <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of the descending thoracic aorta with good results. We present the case of a 40-year-old male whose thoracic spinal prosthesis eroded through the descending thoracic aorta; the aortic disruption was successfully managed with emergent deployment of an endovascular stent. PMID:23889586</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lo, Casey; Galvin, Sean D; Barnett, Stephen; Seevanayagam, Siven</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">212</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2728191"> <span id="translatedtitle">Surgical Management of Spontaneous <span class="hlt">Ruptured</span> Hepatocellular Adenoma</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">AIMS Spontaneous <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> hepatocellular adenoma (SRHA) is a rare life-threatening condition that may require surgical treatment to control hemorrhaging and also stabilize the patient. We report a series of emergency surgeries performed at our institution for this condition. METHODS We reviewed medical records and radiology files of 28 patients (from 1989 to 2006) with a proven diagnosis of hepatocellular adenoma (HA). Three (10.7%) of 28 patients had spontaneous <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> hepatocellular adenoma, two of which were associated with intrahepatic hemorrhage while one had intraperitoneal bleeding. Two patients were female and one was male. Both female patients had a background history of oral contraceptive use. Sudden abdominal pain associated with hemodynamic instability occurred in all patients who suffered from spontaneous <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> hepatocellular adenoma. The mean age was 41.6 years old. The preoperative assessment included liver function tests, ultrasonography and computed tomography. RESULTS The surgical approaches were as follows: right hemihepatectomy for controlling intraperitoneal bleeding, and right extended hepatectomy and non-anatomic resection of the liver for intrahepatic hemorrhage. There were no deaths, and the postoperative complications were bile leakage and wound infection (re-operation), as well as intraperitoneal abscess (re-operation) and pleural effusion. CONCLUSION Spontaneous <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> hepatocellular adenoma may be treated by surgery for controlling hemorrhages and stabilizing the patient, and the decision to operate depends upon both the patient’s condition and the expertise of the surgical team. PMID:19690662</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ribeiro Junior, Marcelo Augusto Fontenelle; Chaib, Eleazar; Saad, William Abrão; D’Albuquerque, Luiz Augusto Carneiro; Cecconello, Ivan</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">213</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/51328197"> <span id="translatedtitle">Supershear <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> Transition on Fault Stepovers using Different Friction Parameterizations</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">It is well known that fault stepovers can under some circumstances allow through-going <span class="hlt">rupture</span>, and under other circumstances cause <span class="hlt">rupture</span> termination (e.g., Harris and Day 1993; Kase and Kuge, 1998; Duan and Oglesby, 2006). However, the effect of the stepover on <span class="hlt">rupture</span> velocity has not been investigated, and there has also not been an investigation of how different frictional parameterizations</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">K. J. Ryan; D. D. Oglesby</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">214</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4268758"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Ruptured</span> rectal duplication with urogenital abnormality: Unusual presentation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Rectal duplication (RD) accounts for 5% of alimentary tract duplication. A varied presentation and associated anomalies have been described in the literature. Antenatal <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of the RD is very rare. We present an unusual case of a <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> RD associated with urogenital abnormalities in newborn male. We are discussing diagnosis, embryology, management and literature review of <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> RD. PMID:25552833</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Solanki, Shailesh; Babu, M Narendra; Jadhav, Vinay; Shankar, Gowri; Santhanakrishnan, Ramesh</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2015-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">215</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24014791"> <span id="translatedtitle">Review article: Treatment for Achilles tendon <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> in athletes.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Treatment for Achilles tendon <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> in athletes is controversial. Surgical fixation has lower rates of re-<span class="hlt">rupture</span> and confers increased strength and function, whereas conservative treatment has lower risks of wound complications. We review the literature on the optimal treatment for Achilles tendon <span class="hlt">rupture</span> in athletes. PMID:24014791</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Stavrou, Maria; Seraphim, Andreas; Al-Hadithy, Nawfal; Mordecai, Simon C</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">216</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.agu.org/journals/jb/v077/i011/JB077i011p02087/JB077i011p02087.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Rupture</span> Zones of Large South American Earthquakes and Some Predictions</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This study attempts to forecast likely locations for large shallow South American earthquakes in the near future by examining the past space-time pattern of occurrence of large (M _ 7.7) earthquakes, the lateral extent of their <span class="hlt">rupture</span> zones, and, where possible, the direction of <span class="hlt">rupture</span> propagation. <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> zones of large shallow earthquakes generally abut and do not overlap. Patterns of</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">John A. Kelleher</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1972-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">217</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.seismo.ethz.ch/staff/martin/papers/AGUMonograph_Ampueroetal.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Properties of Dynamic Earthquake <span class="hlt">Ruptures</span> With Heterogeneous Stress Drop</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Earthquake <span class="hlt">rupture</span> is a notoriously complex process, at all observable scales. We introduce a simplified semi-dynamic crack model to investigate the connec - tion between the statistical properties of stress and those of macroscopic source parameters such as <span class="hlt">rupture</span> size, seismic moment, apparent stress drop and radiated energy. <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> initiation is treated consistently with nucleation on a linear slip- weakening</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">J.-P. Ampuero; J. Ripperger</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">218</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010ChPhB..19f0701S"> <span id="translatedtitle">A novel anti-<span class="hlt">shock</span> silicon etching apparatus for solving diaphragm release problems</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper presents a novel anti-<span class="hlt">shock</span> bulk silicon etching apparatus for solving a universal problem which occurs when releasing the diaphragm (e.g. SiNx), that the diaphragm tends to be probably cracked by the impact of heating-induced bubbles, the swirling of heating-induced etchant, dithering of the hand and imbalanced etchant pressure during the wafer being taken out. Through finite element methods, the causes of the diaphragm cracking are analysed. The impact of heating-induced bubbles could be the <span class="hlt">main</span> factor which results in the failure stress of the SiNx diaphragm and the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of it. In order to reduce the four potential effects on the cracking of the released diaphragm, an anti-<span class="hlt">shock</span> bulk silicon etching apparatus is proposed for using during the last etching process of the diaphragm release. That is, the silicon wafer is first put into the regular constant temperature etching apparatus or ultrasonic plus, and when the residual bulk silicon to be etched reaches near the interface of the silicon and SiNx diaphragm, within a distance of 50-80 ?m (the exact value is determined by the thickness, surface area and intensity of the released diaphragm), the wafer is taken out carefully and put into the said anti-<span class="hlt">shock</span> silicon etching apparatus. The wafer's position is at the geometrical centre, also the centre of gravity of the etching vessel. An etchant outlet is built at the bottom. The wafer is etched continuously, and at the same time the etchant flows out of the vessel. Optionally, two symmetrically placed low-power heating resistors are put in the anti-<span class="hlt">shock</span> silicon etching apparatus to quicken the etching process. The heating resistors' power should be low enough to avoid the swirling of the heating-induced etchant and the impact of the heating-induced bubbles on the released diaphragm. According to the experimental results, the released SiNx diaphragm thus treated is unbroken, which proves the practicality of the said anti-<span class="hlt">shock</span> bulk silicon etching apparatus.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Shi, Sha-Li; Chen, Da-Peng; Ou, Yi; Jing, Yu-Peng; Xu, Qiu-Xia; Ye, Tian-Chun</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">219</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013RScI...84g5105Y"> <span id="translatedtitle">A non-diaphragm type small <span class="hlt">shock</span> tube for application to a molecular beam source</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A non-diaphragm type small <span class="hlt">shock</span> tube was developed for application to a molecular beam source, which can generate beams in the energy range from 1 to several electron volts and beams containing dissociated species such as atomic oxygen. Since repetitive high-frequency operation is indispensable for rapid signal acquisition in beam scattering experiments, the dimensions of the <span class="hlt">shock</span> tube were miniaturized to reduce the evacuation time between shots. The designed <span class="hlt">shock</span> tube is 2-4 mm in diameter and can operate at 0.5 Hz. Moreover, a high <span class="hlt">shock</span> Mach number at the tube end is required for high-energy molecular beam generation. To reduce the <span class="hlt">shock</span> attenuation caused by the wall boundary layer, which becomes significant in small-diameter tubes, we developed a high-speed response valve employing the current-loop mechanism. The response time of this mechanism is about 100 ?s, which is shorter than the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> time of conventional diaphragms. We show that the current-loop valve generates <span class="hlt">shock</span> waves with shorter formation distances (about 200-300 mm) than those of conventional <span class="hlt">shock</span> tubes. In addition, the converging geometry efficiently accelerates <span class="hlt">shock</span> wave in the small-diameter tubes. The optimal geometry of the <span class="hlt">shock</span> tube yields <span class="hlt">shock</span> Mach number around 7, which indicates that the translation energy of molecular beams can exceed 1 eV even in the presence of the real gas effect.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yoshimoto, Yuta; Osuka, Kenichi; Miyoshi, Nobuya; Kinefuchi, Ikuya; Takagi, Shu; Matsumoto, Yoichiro</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">220</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20070019695&hterms=health+index+measurement&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dhealth%2Bindex%2Bmeasurement"> <span id="translatedtitle">Strain Measurement Using FBG on COPV in Stress <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> Test</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">White Sands Test Facility (WSTF) was requested to perform ambient temperature hydrostatic pressurization testing of a Space Transportation System (STS) 40-in. Kevlar Composite Overwrapped Pressure Vessel (COPV). The 40-in. vessel was of the same design and approximate age as the STS <span class="hlt">Main</span> Propulsion System (MPS) and Orbiter Maneuvering System (OMS) vessels. The NASA Engineering Safety Center (NESC) assembled a team of experts and conducted an assessment that involved a review of national Kevlar COPY data. During the review, the STS COPVs were found to be beyond their original certification of ten years. The team observed that the likelihood of STS COPV Stress <span class="hlt">rupture</span>, a catastrophic burst before leak failure mode, was greater than previously believed. Consequently, a detailed assessment of remaining stress <span class="hlt">rupture</span> life became necessary. Prior to STS-114, a certification deviation was written for two flights of OV-103 (Discovery) and OV-104 (Atlantis) per rationale that was based on an extensive review of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories, COPV data, and revisions to the STS COPV stress levels. In order to obtain flight rationale to extend the certification deviation through the end of the Program, the Orbiter Project Office has directed an interagency COPV team to conduct further testing and analysis to investigate conservatism in the stress <span class="hlt">rupture</span> model and evaluate material age degradation. Additional analysis of stress <span class="hlt">rupture</span> life requires understanding the fiber stresses including stress that occurs due to thru-wall composite compression in COPV components. Data must be obtained at both zero gauge pressure (pre-stress) and at the component operating pressure so that this phenomenon can be properly evaluated. The zero gauge pressure stresses are predominantly a result of the autofrettage process used during vessel manufacture. Determining these pre-stresses and the constitutive behavior of the overwrap at pressure will provide necessary information to better predict the remaining life of the STS COPVs. The primary test objective is obtaining data to verify the hypothesis of a radially oriented thru-thickness stress-riser in the COPV composite whose magnitude is a function of the applied pressure and the load history. The anticipated load dependent response follows from the constitutive behavior of the composite overwrap so data to quantify its nonlinear and time dependent response will be sought. The objective of the Fiber Braggs Gratings (FBGs) were to advance the state-of-the-art by developing techniques using FBG sensors that are capable of assessing stress-<span class="hlt">rupture</span> degradation in Kevlar COPVs in a health monitoring mode (1). Moreover, they sought to answer questions of how embedded sensors affect overall integrity of the structure. And lastly, they sought to provide an important link in the overall stress <span class="hlt">rupture</span> study that will help close the loop on the COPV fabrication process. NDE inspection methods will be used from start to finish and FBG will be an integral link within the overall chain.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Banks, Curtis; Grant, Joseph</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return 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showDiv("page_13");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">221</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/40448597"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Rupture</span> terminations and size of segment boundaries from historical earthquake <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> in the Basin and Range Province</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The fault-segmentation method is commonly used to estimate the potential earthquake size. Segment boundaries play an important role in arresting earthquake <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> from event to event. In the Basin and Range Province, earthquake <span class="hlt">rupture</span> terminations are commonly associated with structural discontinuities, but not all-structural discontinuities have the capability to terminate an earthquake <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. The size of structural discontinuities with respect</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Peizhen Zhang; Fengying Mao; D. B. Slemmons</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">222</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JGRB..119.3133H"> <span id="translatedtitle">Earthquake <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> modulated by waves in damaged fault zones</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">are usually surrounded by damaged zones of lower elastic moduli and seismic wave velocities than their host rocks. If the interface between the damaged rocks and host rocks is sharp enough, earthquakes happening inside the fault zone generate reflected waves and head waves, which can interact with earthquake <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> and modulate <span class="hlt">rupture</span> properties such as <span class="hlt">rupture</span> speed, slip rate, and rise time. We find through 2-D dynamic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> simulations the following: (1) Reflected waves can induce multiple slip pulses. The rise time of the primary pulse is controlled by fault zone properties, rather than by frictional properties. (2) Head waves can cause oscillations of <span class="hlt">rupture</span> speed and, in a certain range of fault zone widths, a permanent transition to supershear <span class="hlt">rupture</span> with speeds that would be unstable in homogeneous media. (3) Large attenuation smears the slip rate function and delays the initial acceleration of <span class="hlt">rupture</span> speed but does not affect significantly the rise time or the period of <span class="hlt">rupture</span> speed oscillations. (4) Fault zones cause a rotation of the background stress field and can induce plastic deformations on both extensional and compressional sides of the fault. The plastic deformations are accumulated both inside and outside the fault zone, which indicates a correlation between fault zone development and repeating <span class="hlt">ruptures</span>. Spatially periodic patterns of plastic deformations are formed due to oscillating <span class="hlt">rupture</span> speed, which may leave a permanent signature in the geological record. Our results indicate that damaged fault zones with sharp boundaries promote multiple slip pulses and supershear <span class="hlt">ruptures</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Huang, Yihe; Ampuero, Jean-Paul; Helmberger, Don V.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">223</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2359217"> <span id="translatedtitle">[Side effects of extracorporeal <span class="hlt">shock</span>-wave exposure on the kidney in the dogs].</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The effects of extracorporeal <span class="hlt">shock</span>-wave (SW) exposure on the kidney were investigated in dogs using a Dornier kidney lithotriptor HM3. The SW was generated by spark discharge at 20 KV and was focused on the lower part of either kidney. Before and after the exposure of 500 and 1000 shots of SW, the renal blood flow of the affected and contralateral kidney was measured by the microsphere method. The blood flow of the affected kidney decreased, but was comparable to that of the contralateral kidney immediately after the 1000 shots of SW. Renal scintigraphy using 99mTc-DTPA was performed before the exposure of SW, and 30 minutes, 1 week, 2 weeks and 4 weeks after the exposure. The renograms were evaluated by the following parameters: Tmax (time required to reach maximum radioactivity), RAmax ratio (maximum radioactivity of the affected kidney/that of the contralateral kidney) and T1/2 (the half-life of elimination). Tmax was significantly prolonged for the affected kidney 30 minutes after the exposure, while that for the contralateral kidney was shortened. The RAmax ratio was decreased 1 week after the exposure. T1/2 was significantly prolonged 30 minutes after the exposure, which was observed till 2 weeks later. The scintigraphy also showed a slight enlargement of affected site. The histological study showed a hemorrhage in the peritubular space, indicating <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of the peritubular capillaries. In conclusion, the <span class="hlt">main</span> effect of SW exposure on the kidney was the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of the peritubular capillaries, resulting in temporary and reversible deterioration of renal function. PMID:2359217</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Iimori, H; Senjyu, M; Sugimoto, T; Sugimura, K; Yamamoto, K; Kishimoto, T; Maekawa, M</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1990-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">224</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19960001675&hterms=turtle+protection&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3Dturtle%2Bprotection"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Shock</span> tunnel studies of scramjet phenomena 1994</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A new expansion tube facility has been built, and is in the process of being commissioned. It has a bore of 90 mm, and has been designed for peak <span class="hlt">rupture</span> pressures of 100 Mpa. It is configured with multiple sections and diaphragm location stations to give optimized performance over a range of sub and superorbital conditions. It has a compound piston arrangement for a two stage compression, designed to maximize the length of <span class="hlt">shock</span> expansion tube which can be driven within a fixed total facility length. Experiments have been successfully performed with a dummy first stage piston, and a rubber energy absorbing brake. The results agree well with a one-dimensional stress wave model of the piston impacting on the rubber, and codes for piston motion. Strain of the rubber is restricted to approximately 20 percent at which level no damage is to be expected in the buffer material, and none has been observed, indicating that the mechanism will be fully reuseable.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1995-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">225</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3773890"> <span id="translatedtitle">Comparison between Amnisure Placental Alpha Microglobulin-1 Rapid Immunoassay and Standard Diagnostic Methods for Detection of <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> of Membranes</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Objective. To determine the diagnostic accuracy of placental alpha microglobulin-1 assay and standard diagnostic methods for detecting <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of membrane. Study Design. Prospective diagnostic study, between June 2011 to November 2011 at a tertiary centre. Initial evaluation included both the standard diagnostic methods for <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of membranes and placental alpha microglobulin-1 immunoassay. The actual <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of membranes was diagnosed on review of the medical records after delivery (absence of membrane or a positive pad chart). <span class="hlt">Main</span> Outcome Measures. Placental alpha microglobulin-1 immunoassay and standard diagnostic methods for diagnosis of <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of membrane. Results. A total of 211 patients were recruited. At initial presentation, 187 patients (88.6%) had <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> membranes, while 24 patients (11.4%) had intact membranes. Placental alpha microglobulin-1 immunoassay confirmed <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of membranes at initial presentation with a sensitivity of 95.7% (179 of 187), specificity of 100% (24 of 24), positive predictive value of 100% (179 of 179), and negative predictive value of 75.0% (24 of 32). By comparison, the conventional standard diagnostic methods had a sensitivity of 78.1% (146 of 187), specificity of 100% (24 of 24), positive predictive value of 100% (146 of 146), and negative predictive value of 36.9% (24 of 65) in diagnosing <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of membrane. Conclusion. Placental alpha-microglobulin-1 immunoassay is a rapid and accurate method for confirming the diagnosis of <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of membrane. It was superior to conventional standard diagnostic methods (pooling, nitrazine, and ferning), the nitrazine test alone or fern test alone. PMID:24073412</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ng, Beng Kwang; Lim, Pei Shan; Shafiee, Mohamad Nasir; Abdul Ghani, Nur Azurah; Mohamed Ismail, Nor Azlin; Omar, Mohd Hashim; Muhammad Yassin, Muhammad Abdul Jamil</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">226</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20020079123&hterms=hospital+departments&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dhospital%2Bdepartments"> <span id="translatedtitle">Anti-<span class="hlt">Shock</span> Garment</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Ames Research Center developed a prototype pressure suit for hemophiliac children, based on research of astronauts' physiological responses in microgravity. Zoex Corporation picked up the design and patents and developed an anti-<span class="hlt">shock</span> garment for paramedic use. Marketed by Dyna Med, the suit reverses the effect of <span class="hlt">shock</span> on the body's blood distribution by applying counterpressure to the legs and abdomen, returning blood to vital organs and stabilizing body pressure until the patient reaches a hospital. The DMAST (Dyna Med Anti-<span class="hlt">Shock</span> Trousers) employ lower pressure than other <span class="hlt">shock</span> garments, and are non-inflatable.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1996-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">227</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1981AIPC...70..464G"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Shock</span> activation of catalysts</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Scientists in the Soviet Union have demonstrated that high pressure <span class="hlt">shock</span>-wave loading can cause significant improvement in the performance of catalysts. This increased catalytic activity is apparently the result of the <span class="hlt">shock</span>-induced defects, especially vacancies, which act to facilitate atomic migration. We have carried out <span class="hlt">shock</span> activation experiments on a coal-derived pyrite which has been previously used as a catalyst in coal liquefaction studies. The pyrite powder was packed to a density of about 2.0 Mg/m3 in a copper capsule and explosively loaded to a pressure of about 15 GPa in the copper. The starting and <span class="hlt">shock</span>-activated samples were analyzed by x-ray diffraction and magnetization measurements. The diffraction patterns of the <span class="hlt">shock</span>-activated samples were dominated by broadened pyrite lines indicative of a significant increase in crystal defects. The diffraction patterns also showed the presence of pyrrhotite (Fe1-xS) in quantities of a few percent. An iron carbide found in the <span class="hlt">shocked</span> material was apparently formed from carbon originating from either the calcite or organic impurities in the starting material. Magnetic properties of the sample were found to be substantially changed by the <span class="hlt">shock</span> loading. The study has demonstrated that <span class="hlt">shock</span> loading can significantly alter the crystalline order of pyrite and produce measurable quantities of pyrrhotite. The effects of <span class="hlt">shock</span>-activated pyrite on the liquefaction of coal are being assessed by means by tubing reactor experiments.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Graham, R. A.; Morosin, B.; Richards, P. M.; Stohl, F. V.; Granoff, B.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1981-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">228</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25547556"> <span id="translatedtitle">Early diagnosis and management of myocardial <span class="hlt">rupture</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Left ventricular free wall <span class="hlt">rupture</span> is a catastrophic mechanical complication of myocardial infarction. We present an 82-year-old woman with an anterolateral ST segment elevation myocardial infarction treated with thrombolysis. Because of unexplained hypotension, echocardiography was performed and contrast (Definity; Lantheus Medical Imaging) was used to improve visualization. Findings included a small- to moderate-sized circumferential pericardial effusion without frank tamponade, however, there was significant intramyocardial tracking of the contrast into the epicardial space, localized to the mid to apical portion of the anterior septum, consistent with <span class="hlt">rupture</span> or disruption of the wall segment. The patient was promptly taken to the operating room where fresh blood and clots were evacuated from the pericardial space with immediate hemodynamic improvement. The patient underwent successful surgical repair. PMID:25547556</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Liu, Shuangbo; Glavinovic, Tamara; Tam, James W</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2015-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">229</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23109311"> <span id="translatedtitle">Surgical treatment of gastrocnemius muscle <span class="hlt">ruptures</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Rupture</span> of the medial head of the gastrocnemius, known as "tennis leg", typically occurs when the muscle has been overstretched by dorsiflexion of the ankle with full knee extension. The classic clinical presentation is a middle-aged person who complains of sports-related acute pain in the mid portion of the calf, associated with a snapping sensation. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or ultrasound is often required to evaluate patients with this condition. This injury is usually managed non-operatively, surgical treatment rarely being indicated according to published reports. One case of longstanding and one of recent <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of the musculotendinous junction of the medial head of the gastrocnemius that were successfully treated by surgical repair are presented here and the MRI characteristics and indications for surgery are discussed. PMID:23109311</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Cheng, Yu; Yang, Hui-lin; Sun, Zhi-yong; Ni, Li; Zhang, Hong-tao</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">230</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4091436"> <span id="translatedtitle">Spontaneous splenic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> in Plasmodium vivax malaria</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Malaria can present with various clinical symptoms and complications. While a tertian malaria form that is especially prevalent in Korea is characterized by mild clinical progression, occasional splenic complications are known to occur. A 26-year-old Korean male soldier without prior medical history visited The Armed Forces Capital Hospital with left upper quadrant abdominal pain one day ago. Hemostasis under laparoscopic approach was attempted. The operation was converted into laparotomy due to friable splenic tissue and consequently poor hemostasis. Splenectomy was performed. The patient was discharged at postoperative day 17 without complication. While numerous diseases can result in splenic complications, such as splenic <span class="hlt">rupture</span>, malarial infection is known as the most common cause. The incidence of malarial infection in Korea is increasing annually, and there are occasional reports of splenic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> due to the infection, which requires attention. PMID:25025027</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kim, Kwang Min; Bae, Byung Koo</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">231</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19860005910&hterms=Internal+Combustion+Engine&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3D%2528%2528Internal%2BCombustion%2529%2BEngine%2529"> <span id="translatedtitle">Creep <span class="hlt">rupture</span> behavior of Stirling engine materials</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The automotive Stirling engine, being investigated jointly by the Department of Energy and NASA Lewis as an alternate to the internal combustion engine, uses high-pressure hydrogen as the working fluid. The long-term effects of hydrogen on the high temperature strength properties of materials is relatively unknown. This is especially true for the newly developed low-cost iron base alloy NASAUT 4G-A1. This iron-base alloy when tested in air has creep-<span class="hlt">rupture</span> strengths in the directionally solidified condition comparable to the cobalt base alloy HS-31. The equiaxed (investment cast) NASAUT 4G-A1 has superior creep-<span class="hlt">rupture</span> to the equiaxed iron-base alloy XF-818 both in air and 15 MPa hydrogen.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Titran, R. H.; Scheuerman, C. M.; Stephens, J. R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1985-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">232</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/28941058"> <span id="translatedtitle">Surgical treatment of partial Achilles tendon <span class="hlt">rupture</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Fifty-four patients with a total of 58 partial <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> of the Achilles tendon were treated surgically. The postoperative observation time ranged from 8 months to 7 years. Forty-six patients indicated that they were pleased with the results, 8 were satisfied, and 3 were unsatisfied (one died during the interim). Thirty-seven of the 44 patients who had been engaged in competitive</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Tor Finn Denstad; Asbjørn Roaas</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1979-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">233</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19900000179&hterms=burnout&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dburnout"> <span id="translatedtitle">Wrapped Wire Detects <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> Of Pressure Vessel</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Simple, inexpensive technique helps protect against damage caused by continuing operation of equipment after <span class="hlt">rupture</span> or burnout of pressure vessel. Wire wrapped over area on outside of vessel where breakthrough most likely. If wall breaks or burns, so does wire. Current passing through wire ceases, triggering cutoff mechanism stopping flow in vessel to prevent further damage. Applied in other situations in which pipes or vessels fail due to overpressure, overheating, or corrosion.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hunt, James B.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1990-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">234</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/3951965"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Repetition of Large-Earthquake <span class="hlt">Ruptures</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This survey of well-documented repeated fault <span class="hlt">rupture</span> confirms that some faults have exhibited a ``characteristic'' behavior during repeated large earthquakes--that is, the magnitude, distribution, and style of slip on the fault has repeated during two or more consecutive events. In two cases faults exhibit slip functions that vary little from earthquake to earthquake. In one other well-documented case, however, fault</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kerry Sieh</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1996-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">235</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20060024518&hterms=metamorphism&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dmetamorphism"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Shock</span> Metamorphism of the Dhofar 378 Basaltic Shergottite</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Shock</span> metamorphism is one of the most fundamental processes in the history of Martian meteorites, especially shergottites, which affect their mineralogy and chronology. The formation of "maskelynite" from plagioclase and <span class="hlt">shock</span> melts is such major mineralogical effects. Dhofar 378 is one of the recently found desert shergottites that is <span class="hlt">mainly</span> composed of plagioclase and pyroxene. This shergottite is important because of its highly <span class="hlt">shocked</span> nature and unique plagioclase texture, and thus has a great potential for assessing a "<span class="hlt">shock</span>" age of shergottites. We have been working on a combined study of mineralogy and chronology of the same rock chip of Dhofar 378. This abstract reports its mineralogical part.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mikouchi, T.; McKay, G.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">236</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70026606"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Rupture</span> models with dynamically determined breakdown displacement</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The critical breakdown displacement, Dc, in which friction drops to its sliding value, can be made dependent on event size by specifying friction to be a function of variables other than slip. Two such friction laws are examined here. The first is designed to achieve accuracy and smoothness in discrete numerical calculations. Consistent resolution throughout an evolving <span class="hlt">rupture</span> is achieved by specifying friction as a function of elapsed time after peak stress is reached. Such a time-weakening model produces Dc and fracture energy proportional to the square root of distance <span class="hlt">rupture</span> has propagated in the case of uniform stress drop. The second friction law is more physically motivated. Energy loss in a damage zone outside the slip zone has the effect of increasing Dc and limiting peak slip velocity (Andrews, 1976). This article demonstrates a converse effect, that artificially limiting slip velocity on a fault in an elastic medium has a toughening effect, increasing fracture energy and Dc proportionally to <span class="hlt">rupture</span> propagation distance in the case of uniform stress drop. Both the time-weakening and the velocity-toughening models can be used in calculations with heterogeneous stress drop.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Andrews, D.J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">237</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009JBO....14c4007S"> <span id="translatedtitle">Dynamics of retinal photocoagulation and <span class="hlt">rupture</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In laser retinal photocoagulation, short (<20 ms) pulses have been found to reduce thermal damage to the inner retina, decrease treatment time, and minimize pain. However, the safe therapeutic window (defined as the ratio of power for producing a <span class="hlt">rupture</span> to that of mild coagulation) decreases with shorter exposures. To quantify the extent of retinal heating and maximize the therapeutic window, a computational model of millisecond retinal photocoagulation and <span class="hlt">rupture</span> was developed. Optical attenuation of 532-nm laser light in ocular tissues was measured, including retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) pigmentation and cell-size variability. Threshold powers for vaporization and RPE damage were measured with pulse durations ranging from 1 to 200 ms. A finite element model of retinal heating inferred that vaporization (<span class="hlt">rupture</span>) takes place at 180-190°C. RPE damage was accurately described by the Arrhenius model with activation energy of 340 kJ/mol. Computed photocoagulation lesion width increased logarithmically with pulse duration, in agreement with histological findings. The model will allow for the optimization of beam parameters to increase the width of the therapeutic window for short exposures.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sramek, Christopher; Paulus, Yannis; Nomoto, Hiroyuki; Huie, Phil; Brown, Jefferson; Palanker, Daniel</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">238</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JInst...7C2002E"> <span id="translatedtitle">Single Event Gate <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> in EMCCD technology</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The high electric fields (typically 3 MV/cm2 interpoly field) utilised in Electron Multiplying Charged Coupled Devices (EMCCDs) reveal a potential vulnerability from Single Event Phenomena (SEP), in particular Single Event Gate <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> (SEGR). SEGR is where a conduction path between two conductive areas of the CCD is produced, causing device failure. If EMCCDs are to be used for space applications the susceptibility to these events needs to be explored. A positive result from such an investigation can increase the technology readiness level of the device moving it another step closer to being used in space. Testing undertaken at the CYClotron of LOuvain la NEuve (CYCLONE), using the Heavy Ion Facility (HIF), conclusively showed EMCCD technology to have resilience to heavy ions that surpassed initial expectations. The simulations undertaken prior to experiment suggested gate <span class="hlt">rupture</span> would occur at 20-40 MeV cm2/mg, however Linear Energy Transfers (LETs) greater than 100 MeV cm2/mg proved to not cause a <span class="hlt">rupture</span> event. Within the radiation belts heavy ions with an LET greater than 60 MeV cm2/mg are not very common when compared to the fluxes used at the HIF. Possible reasons for this result are discussed in this work, leading to a conclusion that EMCCD technology is a secure choice for space flight.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Evagora, A. M.; Murray, N. J.; Holland, A. D.; Burt, D.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">239</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20506939"> <span id="translatedtitle">Simultaneous reconstruction of quadriceps tendon <span class="hlt">rupture</span> after TKA and neglected Achilles tendon <span class="hlt">rupture</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We report a case of simultaneous reconstruction of a quadriceps tendon <span class="hlt">rupture</span> after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) and neglected Achilles tendon <span class="hlt">rupture</span>, which occurred before TKA with an ipsilateral hamstring autograft. A 64-year-old woman presented with persistent right knee pain. She also had right heel pain and had received multiple steroid injections at the knee joint and heel. On examination, she showed osteoarthritis in the medial and lateral compartments of the knee joint and an Achilles tendon <span class="hlt">rupture</span> in the ipsilateral limb. There was skin dimpling and the proximal portion of tendon was migrated. We performed TKA, and the postoperative course was satisfactory. She returned 3 months postoperatively, however, with skin dimpling around the suprapatellar area and weakness of knee extension. Her ankle symptoms were also aggravated because she could not use the knee joint freely. We performed simultaneous reconstruction of the quadriceps tendon and the Achilles tendon using an ipsilateral hamstring autograft.Hamstring autograft offers a good alternative treatment option for <span class="hlt">rupture</span> repair, particularly with concommitant <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> of multiple sites when primary repair is not possible or the viability of repaired tissue is poor. PMID:20506939</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lee, Yong Seuk; Min, Byoung-Hyun; Han, Kyeong-Jin; Cho, Jae Ho; Han, Seung Hwan; Lee, Doo-Hyung; Oh, Kyung Soo</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">240</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21608792"> <span id="translatedtitle">Liver Hydatid Cyst with Transdiaphragmatic <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> and Lung Hydatid Cyst <span class="hlt">Ruptured</span> into Bronchi and Pleural Space</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The aim of this case study is to present effectiveness of percutaneous drainage as a treatment option of <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> lung and liver hydatid cysts. A 65-year-old male patient was admitted with complicated liver and lung hydatid cysts. A liver hydatid cyst had <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> transdiaphragmatically, and a lung hydatid cyst had <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> both into bronchi and pleural space. The patient could not undergo surgery because of decreased respiratory function. Both cysts were drained percutaneously using oral albendazole. Povidone-iodine was used to treat the liver cyst after closure of the diaphragmatic <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. The drainage was considered successful, and the patient had no recurrence of signs and symptoms. Clinical, laboratory, and radiologic recovery was observed during 2.5 months of catheterization. The patient was asymptomatic after catheter drainage. No recurrence was detected during 86 months of follow-up. For inoperable patients with <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> liver and lung hydatid cysts, percutaneous drainage with oral albendazole is an alternative treatment option to surgery. The percutaneous approach can be life-saving in such cases.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ar Latin-Small-Letter-Dotless-I bas, Bilgin Kadri, E-mail: bilginaribas@hotmail.com; Dingil, Guerbuez [A.Y. Ankara Oncology Training and Research Hospital, Department of Radiology (Turkey); Koeroglu, Mert [Sueleyman Demirel University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology (Turkey); Uenguel, Uemit; Zaral Latin-Small-Letter-Dotless-I , Aliye Ceylan [A.Y. Ankara Oncology Training and Research Hospital, Department of Radiology (Turkey)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-02-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return 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<a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">241</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMSH41B2184B"> <span id="translatedtitle">Interplanetary <span class="hlt">shocks</span> observed by STEREO during 2007-2012</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">STEREO data have been very valuable to study the characteristics of interplanetary (IP) <span class="hlt">shocks</span>. These <span class="hlt">shocks</span> can be driven by fast interplanetary coronal mass ejections (CME) and by solar wind stream interactions (SI). In this work we discuss the properties of IP <span class="hlt">shocks</span> and the upstream and downstream regions associated to them. These regions are perturbed due to <span class="hlt">shock</span> effects. Upstream from the <span class="hlt">shock</span> a foreshock can develop and be permeated by suprathermal ions and electromagnetic waves. Downstream the plasma is heated and compressed. In this region the magnetic field is also very perturbed. <span class="hlt">Shocks</span> play a very important role in particle acceleration. During the years of the extended solar minimum (2007-2010) STEREO observed around 80 IP forward <span class="hlt">shocks</span> driven by stream interactions, and 19 <span class="hlt">shocks</span> driven by ICMEs. Most of the SI <span class="hlt">shocks</span> were locally quasi-perpendicular (?Bn >45°) with only 20 quasi-parallel (?Bn < 45°) <span class="hlt">shocks</span>. In all cases the Mach number was moderate with values 1.1< Mms < 3.8, and the plasma beta reached values up to 29. During the same years the <span class="hlt">shocks</span> driven by ICMEs have Mach numbers 1.2-4, and plasma beta up to 15. Measurements upstream from the <span class="hlt">shocks</span> have revealed a variety of waves, including whistlers and low frequency fluctuations. Upstream whistler waves may be generated at the <span class="hlt">shock</span> and upstream ultra low frequency (ULF) waves can be driven locally by ion instabilities. In contrast to planetary bow <span class="hlt">shocks</span>, most of the waves upstream of the quasi-parallel forward SI <span class="hlt">shocks</span> observed until 2010 by STEREO are <span class="hlt">mainly</span> transverse and no steepening occurs. Another difference with Earth's bow <span class="hlt">shock</span> is the fact that many locally quasi-perpendicular <span class="hlt">shocks</span> can be accompanied by wave and ion foreshocks. This indicates that at an earlier time the geometry of the <span class="hlt">shock</span> was quasi-parallel. The downstream wave spectra can be formed by both, locally generated perturbations, and <span class="hlt">shock</span> transmitted waves. Downstream fluctuations associated with quasi-parallel <span class="hlt">shocks</span> tend to have larger amplitudes than waves downstream of quasi-perpendicular <span class="hlt">shocks</span>. Proton foreshocks of <span class="hlt">shocks</span> driven by stream interactions have extensions dr ?0.05 AU. This is smaller than foreshock extensions for ICME driven <span class="hlt">shocks</span> (dr ? 0.1 AU). The difference in foreshock extensions is related to the fact that ICME driven <span class="hlt">shocks</span> are formed closer to the Sun and therefore begin to accelerate particles very early in their existence, while stream interaction <span class="hlt">shocks</span> form at ~1 AU and have been producing suprathermal particles for a shorter time. During the last two years (2011-2012) the rate of interplanetary <span class="hlt">shock</span> observations increased dramatically with around 140 events. In this work we extend our study to include these IP <span class="hlt">shocks</span> and determine if stronger <span class="hlt">shocks</span> lead to significant changes in wave spectra, <span class="hlt">shock</span> profile and foreshock extensions.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Blanco-Cano, X.; Kajdic, P.; Aguilar-Rodriguez, E.; Russell, C. T.; Jian, L.; Luhmann, J. G.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">242</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24176404"> <span id="translatedtitle">[Extracorporeal <span class="hlt">shock</span> wave lithotripsy].</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Extracorporeal <span class="hlt">shock</span> wave lithotripsy (ESWL) is a treatment of urinary stones with the uses of <span class="hlt">shock</span> wave. The principle of ESWL will be exposed. The ways to localize the stones are then discussed with the mode of anesthesia. One session of ESWL will be presented in details. Contraindications, indications, prerequisit, complications and results will be briefly described. PMID:24176404</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Saussine, C</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">243</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014mcp..book..459K"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Dynamic Quasiperpendicular <span class="hlt">Shock</span>: Cluster Discoveries</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The physics of collisionless <span class="hlt">shocks</span> is a very broad topic which has been studied for more than five decades. However, there are a number of important issues which remain unresolved. The energy repartition amongst particle populations in quasiperpendicular <span class="hlt">shocks</span> is a multi-scale process related to the spatial and temporal structure of the electromagnetic fields within the <span class="hlt">shock</span> layer. The most important processes take place in the close vicinity of the major magnetic transition or ramp region. The distribution of electromagnetic fields in this region determines the characteristics of ion reflection and thus defines the conditions for ion heating and energy dissipation for supercritical <span class="hlt">shocks</span> and also the region where an important part of electron heating takes place. In other words, the ramp region determines the <span class="hlt">main</span> characteristics of energy repartition. All these processes are crucially dependent upon the characteristic spatial scales of the ramp and foot region provided that the <span class="hlt">shock</span> is stationary. The process of <span class="hlt">shock</span> formation consists of the steepening of a large amplitude nonlinear wave. At some point in its evolution the steepening is arrested by processes occurring within the <span class="hlt">shock</span> transition. From the earliest studies of collisionless <span class="hlt">shocks</span> these processes were identified as nonlinearity, dissipation, and dispersion. Their relative role determines the scales of electric and magnetic fields, and so control the characteristics of processes such as ion reflection, electron heating and particle acceleration. The determination of the scales of the electric and magnetic field is one of the key issues in the physics of collisionless <span class="hlt">shocks</span>. Moreover, it is well known that under certain conditions <span class="hlt">shocks</span> manifest a nonstationary dynamic behaviour called reformation. It was suggested that the transition from stationary to nonstationary quasiperiodic dynamics is related to gradients, e.g. scales of the ramp region and its associated whistler waves that form a precursor wave train. This implies that the ramp region should be considered as the source of these waves. All these questions have been studied making use observations from the Cluster satellites. The Cluster project continues to provide a unique viewpoint from which to study the scales of <span class="hlt">shocks</span>. During its lifetime the inter-satellite distance between the Cluster satellites has varied from 100 km to 10000 km allowing scientists to use the data best adapted for the given scientific objective.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Krasnoselskikh, V.; Balikhin, M.; Walker, S. N.; Schwartz, S.; Sundkvist, D.; Lobzin, V.; Gedalin, M.; Bale, S. D.; Mozer, F.; Soucek, J.; Hobara, Y.; Comisel, H.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">244</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/28964611"> <span id="translatedtitle">End-to-End Operative Repair of Achilles Tendon <span class="hlt">Rupture</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">We present the long-term results of operative repair in 23 consecutive patients with Achilles tendon <span class="hlt">ruptures</span>, treated between 1984 and 1991, to evaluate our treat ment method and determine the clinical causes of <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. Fifty-four percent of <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> occurred in peo ple in their 30s; 90% occurred during participation in acceleration-deceleration sports. All but three patients were treated within 1</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jeffery J. Soldatis; Donald B. Goodfellow; John H. Wilber</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">245</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.eri.u-tokyo.ac.jp/kame/publicationPDF/paperPDF/2003KameRiDmJGRpre.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH, VOL. 108, NO. B?, PAGES 119, 2003 Effects of pre-stress state and <span class="hlt">rupture</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">and the direction of maximum compression Smax in a pre-stress field. High Smax angles lead to more ex- tensive of maximum compressive pre-stress with the <span class="hlt">main</span> fault. Simulta- neous <span class="hlt">rupturing</span> on both faults canJOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH, VOL. 108, NO. B?, PAGES 1­19, 2003 Effects of pre-stress state</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kame, Nobuki</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">246</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25156650"> <span id="translatedtitle">Thrombosis formation on atherosclerotic lesions and plaque <span class="hlt">rupture</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Atherosclerosis is a silent chronic vascular pathology that is the cause of the majority of cardiovascular ischaemic events. The evolution of vascular disease involves a combination of endothelial dysfunction, extensive lipid deposition in the intima, exacerbated innate and adaptive immune responses, proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells and remodelling of the extracellular matrix, resulting in the formation of an atherosclerotic plaque. High-risk plaques have a large acellular lipid-rich necrotic core with an overlying thin fibrous cap infiltrated by inflammatory cells and diffuse calcification. The formation of new fragile and leaky vessels that invade the expanding intima contributes to enlarge the necrotic core increasing the vulnerability of the plaque. In addition, biomechanical, haemodynamic and physical factors contribute to plaque destabilization. Upon erosion or <span class="hlt">rupture</span>, these high-risk lipid-rich vulnerable plaques expose vascular structures or necrotic core components to the circulation, which causes the activation of tissue factor and the subsequent formation of a fibrin monolayer (coagulation cascade) and, concomitantly, the recruitment of circulating platelets and inflammatory cells. The interaction between exposed atherosclerotic plaque components, platelet receptors and coagulation factors eventually leads to platelet activation, aggregation and the subsequent formation of a superimposed thrombus (i.e. atherothrombosis) which may compromise the arterial lumen leading to the presentation of acute ischaemic syndromes. In this review, we will describe the progression of the atherosclerotic lesion along with the <span class="hlt">main</span> morphological characteristics that predispose to plaque <span class="hlt">rupture</span>, and discuss the multifaceted mechanisms that drive platelet activation and subsequent thrombus formation. Finally, we will consider the current scientific challenges and future research directions. PMID:25156650</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Badimon, L; Vilahur, G</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">247</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008JFM...603..463B"> <span id="translatedtitle">Unsteady <span class="hlt">shock</span> wave dynamics</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">An experimental study of an oscillating normal <span class="hlt">shock</span> wave subject to unsteady periodic forcing in a parallel-walled duct has been conducted. Measurements of the pressure rise across the <span class="hlt">shock</span> have been taken and the dynamics of unsteady <span class="hlt">shock</span> motion have been analysed from high-speed schlieren video (available with the online version of the paper). A simple analytical and computational study has also been completed. It was found that the <span class="hlt">shock</span> motion caused by variations in back pressure can be predicted with a simple theoretical model. A non-dimensional relationship between the amplitude and frequency of <span class="hlt">shock</span> motion in a diverging duct is outlined, based on the concept of a critical frequency relating the relative importance of geometry and disturbance frequency for <span class="hlt">shock</span> dynamics. The effects of viscosity on the dynamics of unsteady <span class="hlt">shock</span> motion were found to be small in the present study, but it is anticipated that the model will be less applicable in geometries where boundary layer separation is more severe. A movie is available with the online version of the paper.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bruce, P. J. K.; Babinsky, H.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">248</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23464778"> <span id="translatedtitle">Spontaneous diaphragmatic <span class="hlt">rupture</span>: case report and literature review.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Spontaneous diaphragm <span class="hlt">rupture</span> is extremely rare. Usually a diaphragm <span class="hlt">rupture</span> is trauma induced. We describe a case of an 18-year old patient admitted 2 hours after onset, presenting severe epigastric and left sided chest pain without any trauma history. Upright chest x-ray revealed displaced stomach and colon into the left pleural cavity with a collapsed left lung. Surgery for a left-sided diaphragm <span class="hlt">rupture</span> with stomach, spleen and colon splenic flexure herniation was undertaken. We present a brief review regarding the aetiology, diagnostic and treatment policy of spontaneous diaphragmatic <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. PMID:23464778</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ghidirim, Gh; Mishin, I; Condratsky, E; Zastavnitsky, Gh</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">249</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21276522"> <span id="translatedtitle">Acute and chronic Achilles tendon <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> in athletes.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Achilles tendon is the most injured tendon of athletes in the lower extremities and is the most common tendon to <span class="hlt">rupture</span> spontaneously. Operative repair provides earlier return to sporting activities and lesser rate of rerupture. The general goal is to attempt anastomosis of the acute <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> ends; however, delayed <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> may require more extensive procedures. New surgical approaches, including percutaneous and mini-open techniques, are being introduced to potentially diminish perioperative complications. Advent of early protective range of motion and rehabilitation has shown a potential for earlier return to sporting activities for Achilles <span class="hlt">ruptures</span>. PMID:21276522</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Thompson, Jonathan; Baravarian, Bob</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">250</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.data.scec.org/Module/s1act02.html"> <span id="translatedtitle">What Is an Earthquake?: Fault-<span class="hlt">Rupture</span> Analogies</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This activity has two parts: the first part will demonstrate the weaknesses of simple fault models (like block diagrams) in depicting the process of fault <span class="hlt">rupture</span> accurately; and the second part is centered around a fairly simple animation of <span class="hlt">rupture</span> propagation, seen by an oblique map view, that attempts to show more accurately what we should envision when we think about fault <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. This activity provides different analogies for describing the process of fault <span class="hlt">rupture</span>, with attention paid to the strengths and weaknesses of each.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">251</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/54001169"> <span id="translatedtitle">Ground Motion Simulations of Scenario Earthquake <span class="hlt">Ruptures</span> of the Hayward Fault</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">We compute ground motions in the San Francisco Bay area for a suite of 35 magnitude 6.7--7.2 scenario earthquake <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> involving the Hayward fault. The suite of scenarios encompasses variability in <span class="hlt">rupture</span> length, hypocenter, distribution of slip, <span class="hlt">rupture</span> speed, and rise time. The five <span class="hlt">rupture</span> lengths include the Hayward fault and portions thereof, as well as combined <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of the</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">B. Aagaard; R. Graves; S. Larsen; S. Ma; A. Rodgers; T. Brocher; R. Graymer; R. Harris; J. Lienkaemper; D. Ponce; D. Schwartz; R. Simpson; P. Spudich; D. Dreger; A. Petersson; J. Boatwright</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">252</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/52626305"> <span id="translatedtitle">Fault length, multi-fault <span class="hlt">rupture</span>, and relations to earthquakes in California</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Fault length is used to estimate the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> length of future earthquakes. However, fault length is often poorly defined, and <span class="hlt">rupture</span> often breaks beyond the mapped faults. Furthermore, multiple faults often <span class="hlt">rupture</span> together in a single earthquake. In this work I quantify how to use fault length to infer future <span class="hlt">rupture</span> length. I used observations of previous <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> breaking multiple</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Natanya Maureen Black</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">253</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3182099"> <span id="translatedtitle">Kinetics of Hole Nucleation in Biomembrane <span class="hlt">Rupture</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The core component of a biological membrane is a fluid-lipid bilayer held together by interfacial-hydrophobic and van der Waals interactions, which are balanced for the most part by acyl chain entropy confinement. If biomembranes are subjected to persistent tensions, an unstable (nanoscale) hole will emerge at some time to cause <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. Because of the large energy required to create a hole, thermal activation appears to be requisite for initiating a hole and the activation energy is expected to depend significantly on mechanical tension. Although models exist for the kinetic process of hole nucleation in tense membranes, studies of membrane survival have failed to cover the ranges of tension and lifetime needed to critically examine nucleation theory. Hence, <span class="hlt">rupturing</span> giant (~20 ?m) membrane vesicles ultra-slowly to ultra-quickly with slow to fast ramps of tension, we demonstrate a method to directly quantify kinetic rates at which unstable holes form in fluid membranes, at the same time providing a range of kinetic rates from < 0.01 s?1 to > 100 s?1. Measuring lifetimes of many hundreds of vesicles, each tensed by precision control of micropipet suction, we have determined the rates of failure for vesicles made from several synthetic phospholipids plus 1:1 mixtures of phospho- and sphingo-lipids with cholesterol, all of which represent prominent constituents of eukaryotic cell membranes. Plotted on a logarithmic scale, the failure rates for vesicles are found to rise dramatically with increase of tension. Converting the experimental profiles of kinetic rates into changes of activation energy versus tension, we show that the results closely match expressions for thermal activation derived from a combination of meso-scale theory and molecular-scale simulations of hole formation. Moreover, we demonstrate a generic approach to transform analytical fits of activation energies obtained from <span class="hlt">rupture</span> experiments into energy landscapes characterizing the process hole nucleation along the reaction coordinate defined by hole size. PMID:21966242</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Evans, Evan; Smith, Benjamin A</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">254</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1615127E"> <span id="translatedtitle">Capturing Continental <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> Processes in Afar</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Both continental and oceanic rifting processes are highly 3D, but the stability of the along-axis segmentation from rifting to breakup, and its relationship to seafloor spreading remains debated. Three-dimensional models of the interactions of faults and magmatism in time and space are in development, but modelling and observations suggest that magmatic segments may propagate and/or migrate during periods of magmatism. Our ability to discriminate between the various models in large part depends on the quality of data in the ocean-transition zone, or, observations from zones of incipient plate <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. Largely 2D crustal-scale seismic data from magmatic passive margins reveal large magmatic additions to the crust, but the timing of this heat and mass transfer is weakly constrained. Thus, the lack of information on the across rift breadth of the deforming zone at <span class="hlt">rupture</span>, and the relationship between the early rift segmentation and the seafloor spreading segmentation represent fundamental gaps in knowledge. Our study of Earth's youngest magmatic margin, the superbly exposed, tectonically active southern Red Sea, aims to answer the following questions: What are the geometry and kinematics of active fault systems across the 'passive margin' to zone of incipient plate <span class="hlt">rupture</span>? What is the relationship between the initial border fault segmentation, and the breakup zone segmentation? What is the distribution of active deformation and magmatism, and how does it compare to time-averaged strain patterns? We integrate results of recent experiments that suggest widespread replacement of crust and mantle lithosphere beneath the 'passive' margin, and explain the ongoing seismic deformation as a consequence of bending stresses across the ocean-continent transition, with or without a dynamic component.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ebinger, Cynthia; Belachew, Manahloh; Tepp, Gabrielle; Keir, Derek; Ayele, Atalay</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">255</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24679079"> <span id="translatedtitle">Isolated unilateral <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of the alar ligament.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Only 6 cases of isolated unilateral <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of the alar ligament have been previously reported. The authors report a new case and review the literature, morbid anatomy, and pathogenesis of this rare injury. The patient in their case, a 9-year-old girl, fell head first from a height of 5 feet off the ground. She presented with neck pain, a leftward head tilt, and severe limitation of right rotation, extension, and right lateral flexion of the neck. Plain radiographs and CT revealed no fracture but a shift of the dens toward the right lateral mass of C-1. Magnetic resonance imaging of the cervical spine showed signal hyperintensity within the left dens-atlas space on both T1- and T2-weighted sequences and interruption of the expected dark signal representing the left alar ligament, suggestive of its <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. After 12 weeks of immobilization in a Guilford brace, MRI showed lessened dens deviation, and the patient attained full and painless neck motion. Including the patient in this case, the 7 patients with this injury were between 5 and 21 years old, sustained the injury in traffic accidents or falls, presented with marked neck pain, and were treated with external immobilization. All patients had good clinical outcome. The mechanism of injury is hyperflexion with rotation. Isolated unilateral alar ligament <span class="hlt">rupture</span> is a diagnosis made by excluding associated fracture, dislocation, or disruption of other major ligamentous structures in the craniovertebral junction. CT and MRI are essential in establishing the diagnosis. External immobilization is adequate treatment. PMID:24679079</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wong, Sui-To; Ernest, Kimberly; Fan, Grace; Zovickian, John; Pang, Dachling</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">256</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ShWav..23..317P"> <span id="translatedtitle">Imploding conical <span class="hlt">shock</span> waves</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The behaviour of conical <span class="hlt">shock</span> waves imploding axisymmetrically was first studied numerically by Hornung (J Fluid Mech 409:1-12, 2000) and this prompted a limited experimental investigation into these complex flow patterns by Skews et al. (<span class="hlt">Shock</span> Waves 11:323-326, 2002). Modification of the simulation boundary conditions, resulting in the loss of self-similarity, was necessary to image the flow experimentally. The current tests examine the temporal evolution of these flows utilising a converging conical gap of fixed width fed by a <span class="hlt">shock</span> wave impinging at its entrance, supported by CFD simulations. The effects of gap thickness, angle and incident <span class="hlt">shock</span> strength were investigated. The wave initially diffracts around the outer lip of the gap shedding a vortex which, for strong incident <span class="hlt">shock</span> cases, can contain embedded <span class="hlt">shocks</span>. The converging <span class="hlt">shock</span> at exit reflects on the axis of symmetry with the reflected wave propagating outwards resulting in a triple point developing on the incident wave together with the associated shear layer. This axisymmetric shear layer rolls up into a mushroom-shaped toroidal vortex ring and forward-facing jet. For strong <span class="hlt">shocks</span>, this deforms the Mach disk to the extent of forming a second triple point with the primary <span class="hlt">shock</span> exhibiting a double bulge. Separate features resembling the Richtmeyer-Meshkov and Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities were noted in some tests. Aside from the incident wave curvature, the reflection patterns demonstrated correspond well with the V- and DV-types identified by Hornung although type S was not clearly seen, possibly due to the occlusion of the reflection region by the outer diffraction vortex at these early times. Some additional computational work explicitly exploring the limits of the parameter space for such systems has demonstrated the existence of a possible further reflection type, called vN-type, which is similar to the von Neumann reflection for plane waves. It is recommended that the parameter space be more thoroughly explored experimentally.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Paton, R. T.; Skews, B. W.; Rubidge, S.; Snow, J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">257</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25355741"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Rupture</span> of giant vertebrobasilar aneurysm following flow diversion: mechanical stretch as a potential mechanism for early aneurysm <span class="hlt">rupture</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A patient with a giant symptomatic vertebrobasilar aneurysm was treated by endoscopic third ventriculostomy for obstructive hydrocephalus followed by treatment of the aneurysm by flow diversion using a Pipeline Embolization Device. After an uneventful procedure and initial periprocedural period, the patient experienced an unexpected fatal subarachnoid hemorrhage 1?week later. Autopsy demonstrated extensive subarachnoid hemorrhage and aneurysm <span class="hlt">rupture</span> (linear whole wall <span class="hlt">rupture</span>). The patent Pipeline Embolization Device was in its intended location, as was the persistent coil occlusion of the distal left vertebral artery. The aneurysm appeared to <span class="hlt">rupture</span> in a linear manner and contained a thick large expansile clot that seemed to disrupt or <span class="hlt">rupture</span> the thin aneurysm wall directly opposite the basilar artery/Pipeline Embolization Device. We feel the pattern of aneurysm <span class="hlt">rupture</span> in our patient supports the idea that the combination of flow diversion and the resulting growing intra-aneurysmal thrombus can create a mechanical force with the potential to cause aneurysm <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. PMID:25355741</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Fox, Benjamin; Humphries, William Edward; Doss, Vinodh T; Hoit, Daniel; Elijovich, Lucas; Arthur, Adam S</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">258</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25361560"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Rupture</span> of giant vertebrobasilar aneurysm following flow diversion: mechanical stretch as a potential mechanism for early aneurysm <span class="hlt">rupture</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A patient with a giant symptomatic vertebrobasilar aneurysm was treated by endoscopic third ventriculostomy for obstructive hydrocephalus followed by treatment of the aneurysm by flow diversion using a Pipeline Embolization Device. After an uneventful procedure and initial periprocedural period, the patient experienced an unexpected fatal subarachnoid hemorrhage 1?week later. Autopsy demonstrated extensive subarachnoid hemorrhage and aneurysm <span class="hlt">rupture</span> (linear whole wall <span class="hlt">rupture</span>). The patent Pipeline Embolization Device was in its intended location, as was the persistent coil occlusion of the distal left vertebral artery. The aneurysm appeared to <span class="hlt">rupture</span> in a linear manner and contained a thick large expansile clot that seemed to disrupt or <span class="hlt">rupture</span> the thin aneurysm wall directly opposite the basilar artery/Pipeline Embolization Device. We feel the pattern of aneurysm <span class="hlt">rupture</span> in our patient supports the idea that the combination of flow diversion and the resulting growing intra-aneurysmal thrombus can create a mechanical force with the potential to cause aneurysm <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. PMID:25361560</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Fox, Benjamin; Humphries, William Edward; Doss, Vinodh T; Hoit, Daniel; Elijovich, Lucas; Arthur, Adam S</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-10-31</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">259</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6143109"> <span id="translatedtitle">Comparative yield estimation via <span class="hlt">shock</span> hydrodynamic methods</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Shock</span> TOA (CORRTEX) from recent underground nuclear explosions in saturated tuff were used to estimate yield via the simulated explosion-scaling method. The sensitivity of the derived yield to uncertainties in the measured <span class="hlt">shock</span> Hugoniot, release adiabats, and gas porosity is the <span class="hlt">main</span> focus of this paper. In this method for determining yield, we assume a point-source explosion in an infinite homogeneous material. The rock is formulated using laboratory experiments on core samples, taken prior to the explosion. Results show that increasing gas porosity from 0% to 2% causes a 15% increase in yield per ms/kt{sup 1/3}. 6 refs., 4 figs.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Attia, A.V.; Moran, B.; Glenn, L.A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1991-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">260</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22048747"> <span id="translatedtitle">Anterior cruciate ligament <span class="hlt">rupture</span> in gouty arthritis.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A 34-year-old male presented with right knee instability without any trauma. He had been diagnosed with right knee gouty arthritis 2 years prior. An arthroscopic examination revealed abundant calcific material deposited around the knee joint, including in the ACL tissue, and that the ACL was torn at the femoral attachment site. Treatment involved a synovectomy to remove calcific material, followed by an ACL reconstruction. Histology evaluation revealed gouty arthritis with the presence of tophi in the synovium, soft tissue, and ACL tissue. The case presented here indicates the possibility of pathologic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of the ACL associated with gouty tophus infiltration of that ligament. Level of evidence IV. PMID:22048747</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hwang, Hyun-Jung; Lee, Soon-Hyuck; Han, Seung-Beom; Park, Si-Young; Jeong, Woong-Kyo; Kim, Chul-Hwan; Lee, Dae-Hee</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' 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showDiv("page_15");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">261</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PhRvE..90e2710T"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Rupture</span> of lipid vesicles near solid surfaces</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The behavior of lipid vesicles near solid surfaces, despite its scientific and technological significance, is poorly understood. By simultaneously taking into account (i) the dynamics of spontaneous pore opening and closing in surface bound vesicles; (ii) their volume loss via leakage through the pores; (iii) and the propagation of their contact line, we have developed a simple model that can fully describe the detailed mechanism of and provide the necessary conditions for the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of vesicles and the subsequent formation of supported lipid bilayers. The predictions of the model are in qualitative agreement with many of the experimental observations.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Takáts-Nyeste, Annamária; Derényi, Imre</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">262</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70024680"> <span id="translatedtitle">Complex earthquake <span class="hlt">rupture</span> and local tsunamis</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In contrast to far-field tsunami amplitudes that are fairly well predicted by the seismic moment of subduction zone earthquakes, there exists significant variation in the scaling of local tsunami amplitude with respect to seismic moment. From a global catalog of tsunami runup observations this variability is greatest for the most frequently occuring tsunamigenic subduction zone earthquakes in the magnitude range of 7 < Mw < 8.5. Variability in local tsunami runup scaling can be ascribed to tsunami source parameters that are independent of seismic moment: variations in the water depth in the source region, the combination of higher slip and lower shear modulus at shallow depth, and <span class="hlt">rupture</span> complexity in the form of heterogeneous slip distribution patterns. The focus of this study is on the effect that <span class="hlt">rupture</span> complexity has on the local tsunami wave field. A wide range of slip distribution patterns are generated using a stochastic, self-affine source model that is consistent with the falloff of far-field seismic displacement spectra at high frequencies. The synthetic slip distributions generated by the stochastic source model are discretized and the vertical displacement fields from point source elastic dislocation expressions are superimposed to compute the coseismic vertical displacement field. For shallow subduction zone earthquakes it is demonstrated that self-affine irregularities of the slip distribution result in significant variations in local tsunami amplitude. The effects of <span class="hlt">rupture</span> complexity are less pronounced for earthquakes at greater depth or along faults with steep dip angles. For a test region along the Pacific coast of central Mexico, peak nearshore tsunami amplitude is calculated for a large number (N = 100) of synthetic slip distribution patterns, all with identical seismic moment (Mw = 8.1). Analysis of the results indicates that for earthquakes of a fixed location, geometry, and seismic moment, peak nearshore tsunami amplitude can vary by a factor of 3 or more. These results indicate that there is substantially more variation in the local tsunami wave field derived from the inherent complexity subduction zone earthquakes than predicted by a simple elastic dislocation model. Probabilistic methods that take into account variability in earthquake <span class="hlt">rupture</span> processes are likely to yield more accurate assessments of tsunami hazards.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Geist, E.L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">263</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/831681"> <span id="translatedtitle">Idiopathic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of the iliac vein.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Idiopathic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of large veins is very rare. There has been one report in the Portugese literature of such an instance involving the iliac vein. Our patient was an elderly woman in whom evidence of intra-abdominal hemorrhage developed. There was no clinical evidence of trauma. At laparotomy a large retroperitoneal hematoma secondary to an 8-mm tear in the left common iliac vein was found. The tear occurred adjacent to where the right common iliac artery passes over the vein. Repair was followed by uneventful recovery. Results of the pathological examination showed nonspecific information. PMID:831681</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Brown, L; Sanchez, F; Mannix, H</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1977-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">264</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009PApGe.166.1629S"> <span id="translatedtitle">Effects of Off-fault Damage on Earthquake <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> Propagation: Experimental Studies</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We review the results of a recent series of papers in which the interaction between a dynamic mode II fracture on a fault plane and off-fault damage has been studied using high-speed photography. In these experiments, fracture damage was created in photoelastic Homalite plates by thermal <span class="hlt">shock</span> in liquid nitrogen and <span class="hlt">rupture</span> velocities were measured by imaging fringes at the tips. In this paper we review these experiments and discuss how they might be scaled from lab to field using a recent theoretical model for dynamic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> propagation. Three experimental configurations were investigated: An interface between two damaged Homalite plates, an interface between damaged and undamaged Homalite plates, and the interface between damaged Homalite and undamaged polycarbonate plates. In each case, the velocity was compared with that on a fault between the equivalent undamaged plates at the same load. <span class="hlt">Ruptures</span> on the interface between two damaged Homalite plates travel at sub-Rayleigh velocities indicating that sliding on off-fault fractures dissipates energy, even though no new damage is created. Propagation on the interface between damaged and undamaged Homalite is asymmetric. <span class="hlt">Ruptures</span> propagating in the direction for which the compressional lobe of their crack-tip stress field is in the damage (which we term the ‘C’ direction) are unaffected by the damage. In the opposite ‘T’ direction, the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> velocity is significantly slower than the velocity in undamaged plates at the same load. Specifically, transitions to supershear observed using undamaged plates are not observed in the ‘T’ direction. Propagation on the interface between damaged Homalite and undamaged polycarbonate exhibits the same asymmetry, even though the elastically “favored” ‘+’ direction coincides with the ‘T’ direction in this case. The scaling properties of the interaction between the crack-tip field and pre-existing off-fault damage (i.e., no new damage is created) are explored using an analytic model for a nonsingular slip-weakening shear slip-pulse and verified using the velocity history of a slip pulse measured in the laboratory and a direct laboratory measurement of the interaction range using damage zones of various widths adjacent to the fault.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sammis, Charles G.; Rosakis, Ares J.; Bhat, Harsha S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">265</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.T31E..05G"> <span id="translatedtitle">Characterisation of active faulting and earthquake hazard in the Mongolian Altay Mountains based on previously unknown ancient earthquake surface <span class="hlt">ruptures</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Earthquakes in continental collision zones are typically distributed across a region that may be several thousands of kilometres away from the <span class="hlt">main</span> collisional margin. This far-field deformation is poorly understood in terms of how strain is distributed onto upper crustal faults, particularly because active faults can be difficult to identify in regions where historical seismicity is sparse. The collision between India and Asia forms the most impressive example of active continental deformation on earth, with several zones of faulting and uplift extending across a region over 2500 km wide. The Altay Mountains, in western Mongolia, are at the northern edge of the India-Asia collision zone. Active dextral strike-slip faults in the Altay have produced M 8 earthquakes (such as the 1931 Fu Yun earthquake), and according to GPS measurements, the region accommodates approximately 7 mm/yr of shortening. Surface <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> of pre-historic earthquakes are exceptionally preserved due to the cold and arid climate of the Altay. Observed surface <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> are an effective extension to the historical seismic record, because the size and expression of <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> may reveal important characteristics of the Altay active faults, such as typical earthquake magnitudes and definitive locations of active faults. We present observations of, previously unknown, surface <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> and active faulting from the central Altay. The moment magnitudes of the ancient earthquakes are estimated based on the length of the <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> using classic earthquake scaling laws. The newly discovered <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> are combined with previously described earthquake <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> to estimate the combined strike-slip rates of the Altay faults over the past ~1000 years on the basis of total moment release. This strike-slip rate will be discussed in the context of the modern-day estimates of shortening rate and the implications for the earthquake hazard in western Mongolia.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gregory, L. C.; Walker, R.; Nissen, E.; Mac Niocaill, C.; Gantulga, B.; Amgalan, B.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">266</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20070023500&hterms=earthquake&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dearthquake"> <span id="translatedtitle">Surface <span class="hlt">Ruptures</span> and Building Damage of the 2003 Bam, Iran, Earthquake Mapped by Satellite Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometric Correlation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We use the interferometric correlation from Envisat synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images to map the details of the surface <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> related to the 26 December 2003 earthquake that devastated Bam, Iran. The <span class="hlt">main</span> strike-slip fault <span class="hlt">rupture</span> south of the city of Bam has a series of four segments with left steps shown by a narrow line of low correlation in the coseismic interferogram. This also has a clear expression in the field because of the net extension across the fault. Just south of the city limits, the surface strain becomes distributed over a width of about 500 m, probably because of a thicker layer of soft sedimentary material.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Fielding, Eric J.; Talebian, M.; Rosen, P. A.; Nazari, H.; Jackson, J. A.; Ghorashi, M.; Walker, R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">267</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/41891123"> <span id="translatedtitle">Interplanetary <span class="hlt">shock</span> waves: Recent developments</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Direct and indirect observations of interplanetary <span class="hlt">shock</span> waves have been extended to the study of (i) the <span class="hlt">shock</span> structure itself; (ii) the disturbed solar wind in its wake; (iii) additional discontinuities such as reverse <span class="hlt">shocks</span> and pistons; and (iv) the <span class="hlt">shock</span>'s kinematic behavior. The last item — the trajectory — has benefited by the procedure (suggested by Pintér) of matching</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Murray Dryer</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1975-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">268</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19740033681&hterms=gas+discharge+tube&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dgas%2Bdischarge%2Btube"> <span id="translatedtitle">A composite model for a class of electric-discharge <span class="hlt">shock</span> tubes</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A gasdynamic model is presented and analyzed for a class of <span class="hlt">shock</span> tubes that utilize both Joule heating and electromagnetic forces to produce high-speed <span class="hlt">shock</span> waves. The model consists of several stages of acceleration in which acceleration to sonic conditions is achieved principally through heating, and further acceleration of the supersonic flow is obtained principally through use of electromagnetic forces. The utility of the model results from the fact that it predicts a quasi-steady flow process, mathematical analysis is straightforward, and it is even possible to remove one or more component stages and still have the model related to a possible <span class="hlt">shock</span>-tube flow. Initial experiments have been performed where the electrical discharge configuration and current level were such that Joule heating was the dominant form of energy addition present. These experiments indicate that the predictions of the model dealing with heat addition correspond quite closely to reality. The experimental data together with the theory show that heat addition to the flowing driver gas after diaphragm <span class="hlt">rupture</span> (approach used in the model) is much more effective in producing high-speed <span class="hlt">shock</span> waves than heating the gas in the driver before diaphragm <span class="hlt">rupture</span>, as in the case of the arc-driven <span class="hlt">shock</span> tube.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Elkins, R. T.; Baganoff, D.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1973-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">269</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3872381"> <span id="translatedtitle">Operation for acute postinfarction mitral insufficiency and cardiogenic <span class="hlt">shock</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Since 1973, 11 patients have had emergency valve replacement for severe mitral insufficiency and cardiogenic <span class="hlt">shock</span> within 1 month (mean 10.0 days) of acute myocardial infarction. Mean age was 60 years (range 44 to 71 years). Nine infarcts affected the inferior wall, one patient had a prior myocardial infarction, and only two patients had a history of cardiac symptoms. Ten patients had pulmonary edema, five were oliguric (less than 0.5 ml/kg/hr for 12 hours), four required endotracheal intubation, nine required preoperative intra-aortic balloon support, and three had had a cardiac arrest. Preoperative cardiac index averaged 1.7 L/m2/min even with pharmacologic and circulatory support. Eight patients had cardiac catheterization and nine had echocardiograms. Left ventricular ejection fraction varied from 23% to 83% (mean 51%) and was not prognostic. Five patients had papillary muscle <span class="hlt">rupture</span> and six patients had papillary muscle dysfunction. The mitral valve was replaced with a mechanical prosthesis in all patients. Five had simultaneous coronary artery bypass grafts. Three of five patients with papillary muscle <span class="hlt">rupture</span> and two of six with papillary muscle dysfunction survived hospitalization. Two patients could not be weaned from cardiopulmonary bypass, two patients died within 24 hours of low cardiac output, and two patients died 3 weeks postoperatively of acute tubular necrosis and sepsis following prolonged preoperative cardiogenic <span class="hlt">shock</span>. The interval from onset of <span class="hlt">shock</span> to operative therapy averaged 1.7 days for survivors versus 9.3 days for nonsurvivors. Although the amount of viable left ventricular mass cannot be measured preoperatively, we recommend early operation, before other organ systems fail, for patients having severe mitral insufficiency and cardiogenic <span class="hlt">shock</span> within 30 days of acute myocardial infarction. PMID:3872381</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Tepe, N A; Edmunds, L H</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1985-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">270</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://repository.tamu.edu/handle/1969.1/87185"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Shock</span> Chlorination of Wells</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Shock</span> chlorination is a method of disinfecting a water well. This publication gives complete instructions for chlorinating with bleach or with dry chlorine. It is also available in Spanish as publication L-5441S...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">McFarland, Mark L.; Dozier, Monty</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-06-11</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">271</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930040583&hterms=devries&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Ddevries"> <span id="translatedtitle">Collisionless parallel <span class="hlt">shocks</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Consideration is given to a collisionless parallel <span class="hlt">shock</span> based on solitary-type solutions of the modified derivative nonlinear Schroedinger equation (MDNLS) for parallel Alfven waves. The standard derivative nonlinear Schroedinger equation is generalized in order to include the possible anisotropy of the plasma distribution and higher-order Korteweg-de Vies-type dispersion. Stationary solutions of MDNLS are discussed. The anisotropic nature of 'adiabatic' reflections leads to the asymmetric particle distribution in the upstream as well as in the downstream regions of the <span class="hlt">shock</span>. As a result, nonzero heat flux appears near the front of the <span class="hlt">shock</span>. It is shown that this causes the stochastic behavior of the nonlinear waves, which can significantly contribute to the <span class="hlt">shock</span> thermalization.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Khabibrakhmanov, I. KH.; Galeev, A. A.; Galinskii, V. L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1993-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">272</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006JGRB..111.3307S"> <span id="translatedtitle">Nonlinear thermoporoelastic effects on dynamic earthquake <span class="hlt">rupture</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this study we theoretically examine thermohydraulic effects on dynamic earthquake <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. We first derive the system of governing equations assuming a thermoporoelastic medium and then conduct numerical calculations based on these equations. Nonlinear feedback between changes in temperature, fluid pressure, and fault slip are shown to play an important role in <span class="hlt">rupture</span> dynamics. For example, these feedbacks produce a longer duration of fault slip than that predicted by the classical Griffith crack model assumed in an elastic medium; deviation of our results from those of the Griffith crack model increases with increased thickness of the heated fault zone. The feedback effects also produce slip-weakening behavior and gradual slip onset. The slip-weakening distance increases with increased rate of fluid outflow from the heated fault zone. Our simulations demonstrate that smaller events record smaller static stress drops, consistent with seismological observations. This relationship occurs because ongoing fault slip tends to result in increased fluid pressure. Our simulations also indicate that scaling relationships between small and large earthquakes are complicated by thermohydraulic effects.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Suzuki, Takehito; Yamashita, Teruo</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">273</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25279443"> <span id="translatedtitle">False vs True <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of membranes.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">New medical nomenclature: False <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of membranes or False ROM and Double <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of membranes or Double ROM are being introduced into the English language. A single caregiver found about 1% of term births and 10% of term PROM involved False ROM, in which the chorion breaks while the amnion remains intact. Diagnostically, if meconium or vernix is observed, then both the chorionic and amniotic sacs have broken. In the absence of detection of vernix or meconium, an immediate accurate diagnostic test for False ROM is lacking and differentiating between True ROM from False ROM is possible only after leaking stops, which takes hours to days. The obvious benefit of differentiating between 'True' and 'False' ROM, is that in the case of False ROM, the amnion is intact and ascending infections are likely not at increased risk, although research is lacking as to whether False ROM is associated with an increased rate of ascending infection. Three cases of False ROM are presented and avenues for future research are enumerated. PMID:25279443</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Cohain, J S</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">274</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.T33C2644F"> <span id="translatedtitle">How is a stick slip <span class="hlt">rupture</span> initiated?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We investigated the initiation process of stick slip events that occurred during large scale rock friction experiments conducted on the large scale shaking table at NIED (Fukuyama et al., 2012, AGU Fall meeting). We used a pair of Indian gabbro rock samples stacked vertically and applied normal and shear forces. The sliding area between the samples is 1.5m in length and 0.1m in width. We conducted a sequence of experiments using the same rock sample, and before each experiment we removed gouge particles created during the previous experiment by a brush and a cleaner. Here, we show the experiments under constant slip velocity of 0.1mm/s with constant normal stress of 2.7MPa (LB04-003) or 6.7MPa (LB04-005); the final displacement reached 0.04m. We used 44 acoustic sensors (PZT, vertical mode, 0.5MHz resonance frequency), 32 2-comp strain gouges (SGs) for shear strain and 16 1-comp SGs for normal strain measurements, with 48 0.5MHz dynamic SG amplifiers. We also used a 2MN load cell for shear force measurement and three 0.4MN load cells for vertical forces. Data are recorded continuously at an interval of 10MHz for PZT and 1MHz for other sensors. Just after the shear force applied, many stick slip events (SEs) occurred at an interval of a few seconds. By looking carefully at the PZT and SG array data during an SE, we found that one SE consists of many micro stick slip events (MSEs), which can be grouped into two (the former and the latter). These two groups correspond to the acceleration and deceleration stage of the SE. In LB04-005 (6.7MPa normal stress), a clear nucleation phase can be detected that initiated at a narrow area, propagate slowly (~20m/s) and accelerated. Then, a seismic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> started to propagate at a velocity of ~3km/s (subshear) or ~6.5km/s (supershear). Detailed features are shown in Mizoguchi et al. (this meeting). It should be noted that this seismic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> initiated at a narrow area inside the nucleation zone and sometimes after a certain amount of time; it does not seem a smooth transition process from the acceleration to the seismic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> as proposed in Ohnaka and Shen (1999, JGR). In contrast, under low normal stress case (LB04-003, 2.7MPa), there were no visible nucleation phases but a sequence of foreshocks was observed, which was not dominant in LB04-005. The foreshock slip area was typically around 10cm long. Again, we could not see any visible correlation between the location and preceding time of foreshocks and that of seismic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> initiation. By looking at the fault surface topography that was recorded as photograph images before and after the experiment, in the nucleation zone, grooves are not developed, while outside the nucleation area, grooves are well developed. Grooves are caused by the creation of gouge particles during the sliding. It could be interesting to note that outside the groove, the sliding surface looks very smooth and shiny, indicating that this area was polished but did not create gouge particles. Therefore, we might speculate that this shiny fault area is responsible for the initiation phase and when the stress state becomes critical, seismic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> starts around one of the grooves. And in LB04-003, the shiny area might not support the shear stress so that the foreshock releases the strain around the grooves.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Fukuyama, E.; Mizoguchi, K.; Yamashita, F.; Kawakata, H.; Takizawa, S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">275</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/31797659"> <span id="translatedtitle">Posttraumatic free intraperitoneal <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of liver cystic echinococcosis: a case series and review of literature</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">BackgroundA serious complication of cystic echinococcus (CE) is the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of the cysts. Free intra-abdominal <span class="hlt">rupture</span> occurs in approximately 3.2% of all cases. Posttraumatic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of liver CE is very rare.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gurkan Ozturk; Bulent Aydinli; M. Ilhan Yildirgan; Mahmut Basoglu; S. Selcuk Atamanalp; K. Yalcin Polat; Fatih Alper; Bulent Guvendi; M. Nuran Akcay; Durkaya Oren</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">276</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4231311"> <span id="translatedtitle">Spontaneous second-trimester <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> pregnancy of rudimentary horn: a case report in Yaounde, Cameroon</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Rudimentary uterine horn pregnancy is rare and, to our knowledge, has not been previously reported in Cameroon. We herein report the case of a 22 year old second gravida referred for acute abdominal pain at 17 weeks of gestation. Physical examination revealed hemoperitoneum with hypovolemic <span class="hlt">shock</span>. After resuscitation, an emergency exploratory laparotomy was done and we found hemoperitoneum of 3,500 milliliters, a bicornuate uterus with a <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> right rudimentary communicating horn containing a non viable foetus. There were no other abnormalities. We performed an excision of the rudimentary horn with ipsilateral salpingectomy. Post-operative course was uneventful and the woman was discharged seven days later. This case emphasizes the importance of good antenatal care to avoid complications. PMID:25400853</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Fouelifack, Florent Ymele; Fouogue, Jovanny Tsuala; Messi, John Owoudou; Kamga, Danielle Tiako; Fouedjio, Jeanne Hortence; Sando, Zacharie</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">277</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.S51D..01H"> <span id="translatedtitle">Gap Between Cascadia Megathrust <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> Area and Episodic Tremor and Slip (ETS) Suggests Forearc Mantle Control of ETS</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">rupture</span> area of the Cascadia megathrust and the areal extent of episodic tremor and slip (ETS) are both now quite well constrained. <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> occurs <span class="hlt">mainly</span> offshore whereas ETS lies <span class="hlt">mainly</span> onshore. The gap between the two is approximately 50 km. The timing of when the fault moves within this gap relative to Cascadia earthquake and ETS cycles is not yet known. The megathrust <span class="hlt">rupture</span> area has been constrained in a recent summary by the locked/transition zones defined from geodetic deformation, the seismic-aseismic transition defined by the temperature on the fault interface, the past <span class="hlt">rupture</span> zone estimated from paleoseismic coastal marsh subsidence, the down-dip change in seismic reflection character of the fault interface, and <span class="hlt">rupture</span> area associations with shelf-slope basins. The depths of the ETS tremor have some uncertainties, as illustrated by differences between several location methods, but are quite well determined in map view. The associated slow slip is less well determined in map view; several estimates locate it slightly seaward of the tremor. The megathrust down-dip limit is convincingly constrained by temperature. However, temperature does not appear to control the up-dip position of ETS as it occurs at variable temperatures along the margin. The best explanation appears to be that the ETS up-dip limit corresponds to the forearc mantle corner. Our compilation of the position of this corner gives general agreement, although there is still much uncertainty. ETS therefore may occur only beneath the forearc mantle with forearc serpentinite and talc likely playing a role. Other hot subduction zones where ETS is separated from the megathrust <span class="hlt">rupture</span> area by a gap, such as SW Japan and Mexico, may provide insights into controls on Cascadia ETS occurrence as well as the timing of fault slip within the gap.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hyndman, R. D.; McCrory, P. A.; Wech, A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">278</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/ofr20071437G"> <span id="translatedtitle">Development of Final A-Fault <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> Models for WGCEP/ NSHMP Earthquake Rate Model 2</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This appendix discusses how we compute the magnitude and rate of earthquake <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> for the seven Type-A faults (Elsinore, Garlock, San Jacinto, S. San Andreas, N. San Andreas, Hayward-Rodgers Creek, and Calaveras) in the WGCEP/NSHMP Earthquake Rate Model 2 (referred to as ERM 2. hereafter). By definition, Type-A faults are those that have relatively abundant paleoseismic information (e.g., mean recurrence-interval estimates). The first section below discusses segmentation-based models, where <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> are assumed be confined to one or more identifiable segments. The second section discusses an un-segmented-model option, the third section discusses results and implications, and we end with a discussion of possible future improvements. General background information can be found in the <span class="hlt">main</span> report.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Field, Edward H.; Weldon, Ray J., II; Parsons, Thomas; Wills, Chris J.; Dawson, Timothy E.; Stein, Ross S.; Petersen, Mark D.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">279</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/26173142"> <span id="translatedtitle">Biomechanics of Plaque <span class="hlt">Rupture</span>: Progress, Problems, and New Frontiers</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Plaque <span class="hlt">rupture</span> has become identified as a critical step in the evolution of arterial plaques, especially as clinically significant events occur in critical arteries. It has become common in the past dozen years or so to consider which plaques are vulnerable, even though not yet <span class="hlt">ruptured</span>. Thrombotic events have remained significant, but in a context where they are seen as</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Peter D. Richardson</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">280</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19642345"> <span id="translatedtitle">[Late diagnosed <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of the diaphragm --a case review].</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The authors describe a case of the patient with late diagnosis of the diaphragmatic <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. There was a bowel obstruction found in X-ray scan. After endotracheal intubation was complicated of tension pneumotorax. Laparotomy was found <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of the diaphragm. PMID:19642345</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Simánek, V; Treska, V; Klecka, J; Spidlen, V; Vodicka, J</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' 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src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">281</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2604640"> <span id="translatedtitle">Intracranial aneurysmal <span class="hlt">rupture</span> and ventricular opacification during carotid angiography.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A case of intra-angiography <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of an aneurysm, a rarity, is reported. It was confirmed by CT Scan and autopsy. The aneurysm <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> despite taking all precautions recommended in the literature. This complication may be reduced by the use of non-ionic contrast media and slow flow rate injections. PMID:2604640</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jayakumar, P N; Jain, V K; Rao, T V; Arya, B Y</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1989-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">282</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6577844"> <span id="translatedtitle">Tracheobronchial and oesophageal <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> caused by blunt injury.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">During the period 1968-1982, six patients with tracheobronchial <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> following chest injury were treated in the Royal Newcastle Hospital Intensive Care Unit. In one there was associated oesophageal <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. The management of these patients is described and recommendations regarding management are made. PMID:6577844</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">James, O F; Moore, P G; Gillies, J R</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1983-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">283</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/53072436"> <span id="translatedtitle">Characteristic scales of earthquake <span class="hlt">rupture</span> from numerical models</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Numerical models of earthquake <span class="hlt">rupture</span> are used to investigate characteristic length scales and size distributions of repeated earthquakes on vertical, planar fault segments. The models are based on exact solutions of static three-dimensional (3-D) elasticity. Dynamical <span class="hlt">rupture</span> is approximated by allowing the static stress field to expand from slip motions at a single velocity. To show how the vertical fault</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">M. H. Heimpel</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">284</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/47267936"> <span id="translatedtitle">Survivors of <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> abdominal aortic aneurysm: the iceberg's tip</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">In four and a half years 25 patients in one community suffered a <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> abdominal aortic aneurysm. Eleven died at home, nine died without operation in hospital, and only five had the aneurysm removed. There were four survivors. A further seven patients might have lived had they had a prompt operation. The average operative mortality for <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> aneurysms among series</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">R H Armour</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1977-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">285</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25478398"> <span id="translatedtitle">Management of <span class="hlt">Ruptured</span> Occult Left Hydronephrotic Kidney in 7-Year - old Boy: A Case Report.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Pre-existing, occult, congenital renal anomalies are often discovered during evaluation of children for blunt injury of the kidney and abdomen, presenting with or without haematuria. This is a report of 7-year-old boy; who presented with blunt injury abdomen with haematuria following fall from motorcycle. He had pallor, and features of hypovolumic <span class="hlt">shock</span> and peritonitis. Skiagram of the abdomen showed haziness of the abdomen, without free gas under diaphragm. Ultrasonography (USG) of the abdomen revealed significant hemoperitoneum and gross hydronephrosis of the left kidney, which was undiagnosed previously. Exploratory laparotomy was done for peritonitis and the findings were hemoperitoneum, hematoma at the left mesocolon and left retroperitoneum. Postoperative computed tomography (CT) scan of the abdomen reported left hydronephrosis due to pelvi-ureteric junction (PUJ) obstruction with <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of the renal pelvis. The <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> hydronephrotic kidney was successfully managed by nephrostomy followed by delayed open dismembered Anderson-Hynes pyeloplasty. His postoperative recovery following pyeloplasty was uneventful and he was doing well at follow-up after a month of pyeloplasty. PMID:25478398</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ghritlaharey, Rajendra K; More, Santosh</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">286</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21450310"> <span id="translatedtitle">Percutaneous Treatment of Sac <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> in Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms Previously Excluded with Endovascular Repair (EVAR)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility and effectiveness of percutaneous endovascular repair of <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) previously treated by EVAR. In the last year, two male patients with AAAs, treated 8 and 23 months ago with bifurcated stent-graft, were observed because of lumbar pain and hemorragic <span class="hlt">shock</span>. Multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) showed a retroperitoneal hematoma; in both cases a type III endoleak was detected, in one case associated with a type II endoleak from the iliolumbar artery. The procedures were performed in the theater, in emergency. Type II endoleak was treated with transcatheter superselective glue injection; type III endoleaks were excluded by a stent-graft extension. The procedures were successful in both patients, with immediate hemodynamic stabilization. MDCT after the procedure showed complete exclusion of the aneurysms. In conclusion, endovascular treatment is a safe and feasible option for the treatment of <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> AAAs previously treated by EVAR; this approach allows avoidance of surgical conversion, which is technical very challenging, with a high morbidity and mortality rate.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lagana, Domenico, E-mail: donlaga@gmail.com; Mangini, Monica, E-mail: monica.mangini@tin.it; Fontana, Federico; Nicotera, Paolo; Carrafiello, Gianpaolo; Fugazzola, Carlo [University of Insubria, Vascular and Interventional Radiology, Department of Radiology (Italy)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">287</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4010050"> <span id="translatedtitle">Contained Left Ventricular Free Wall <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> following Myocardial Infarction</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Rupture</span> of the free wall of the left ventricle occurs in approximately 4% of patients with infarcts and accounts for approximately 20% of the total mortality of patients with myocardial infractions. Relatively few cases are diagnosed before death. Several distinct clinical forms of ventricular free wall <span class="hlt">rupture</span> have been identified. Sudden <span class="hlt">rupture</span> with massive hemorrhage into the pericardium is the most common form; in a third of the cases, the course is subacute with slow and sometimes repetitive hemorrhage into the pericardial cavity. Left ventricular pseudoaneurysms generally occur as a consequence of left ventricular free wall <span class="hlt">rupture</span> covered by a portion of pericardium, in contrast to a true aneurysm, which is formed of myocardial tissue. Here, we report a case of contained left ventricular free wall <span class="hlt">rupture</span> following myocardial infarction. PMID:24804119</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Shiyovich, Arthur; Nesher, Lior</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">288</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5528696"> <span id="translatedtitle">Evaluation of high-energy pipe <span class="hlt">rupture</span> experiments: Final report</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Fracture mechanics and thermal hydraulic evaluations of the EPRI high energy pipe <span class="hlt">rupture</span> experiments have been carried out. The purpose of these evaluations was to benchmark analytical methods with prototypical pipe leak and <span class="hlt">rupture</span> behavior. Fracture mechanics predictions were made using methods and materials property data available in the literature. Conditions which were predicted to produce a pipe leak did result in a leak while conditions expected to result in pipe <span class="hlt">rupture</span> did <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. Further, system blowdown following breaching of the pipe wall does not appear to influence the pipe leak or <span class="hlt">rupture</span> behavior except for long axial defects. The thermal hydraulic behavior of the EPRI high energy pipe tests was typical of system blowdowns from an initial subcooled condition. Predictions of vessel depressurization, discharge flow rate from the final crack opening area, and blowdown thrust forces are consistent with observations. 22 refs., 18 figs., 12 tabs.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gerber, T.L.; Kuo, A.Y.; Copeland, J.F.; Abdollahian, D.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1988-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">289</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22007028"> <span id="translatedtitle">Clinical features of early myocardial <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of acute myocardial infarction.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We assessed the clinical features of patients with myocardial <span class="hlt">rupture</span> within 48 to 72 hours, defined as early myocardial <span class="hlt">rupture</span>, after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for ST-segment elevation acute myocardial infarction (STEMI). Six patients (4 men, 66 ± 13 years) with early myocardial <span class="hlt">rupture</span> were identified from 1252 consecutive patients undergoing PCI for STEMI. We evaluated the degree of microvascular reperfusion using thrombolysis in myocardial infarction (TIMI) myocardial perfusion (TMP) grade and a resolution of sum of ST-segment elevation in a 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG). Time from PCI to myocardial <span class="hlt">rupture</span> was 11 ± 7 hours. All patients showed TMP grade 0 or 1 and an increase in sum of ST-segment elevation after PCI (1.9 ± 0.5 vs 2.5 ± 0.7 mV; P = .032), suggesting severely failed reperfusion at the level of microcirculation as the common feature to develop early myocardial <span class="hlt">rupture</span> after PCI for STEMI. PMID:22007028</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Suzuki, Makoto; Enomoto, Daijiro; Seike, Fumiyasu; Fujita, Shimpei; Honda, Kazuo</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">290</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.S53D..05G"> <span id="translatedtitle">Macroscopic Source Properties from Dynamic <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> Styles in Plastic Media</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">High stress concentrations at earthquake <span class="hlt">rupture</span> fronts may generate an inelastic off-fault response at the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> tip, leading to increased energy absorption in the damage zone. Furthermore, the induced asymmetric plastic strain field in in-plane <span class="hlt">rupture</span> modes may produce bimaterial interfaces that can increase radiation efficiency and reduce frictional dissipation. Off-fault inelasticity thus plays an important role for realistic predictions of near-fault ground motion. Guided by our previous studies in the 2D elastic case, we perform <span class="hlt">rupture</span> dynamics simulations including rate-and-state friction and off-fault plasticity to investigate the effects on the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> properties. We quantitatively analyze macroscopic source properties for different <span class="hlt">rupture</span> styles, ranging from cracks to pulses and subshear to supershear <span class="hlt">ruptures</span>, and their transitional mechanisms. The energy dissipation due to off-fault inelasticity modifies the conditions to obtain each <span class="hlt">rupture</span> style and alters macroscopic source properties. We examine apparent fracture energy, <span class="hlt">rupture</span> and healing front speed, peak slip and peak slip velocity, dynamic stress drop and size of the process and plastic zones, slip and plastic seismic moment, and their connection to ground motion. This presentation focuses on the effects of <span class="hlt">rupture</span> style and off-fault plasticity on the resulting ground motion patterns, especially on characteristic slip velocity function signatures and resulting seismic moments. We aim at developing scaling rules for equivalent elastic models, as function of background stress and frictional parameters, that may lead to improved "pseudo-dynamic" source parameterizations for ground-motion calculation. Moreover, our simulations provide quantitative relations between off-fault energy dissipation and macroscopic source properties. These relations might provide a self-consistent theoretical framework for the study of the earthquake energy balance based on observable earthquake source parameters.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gabriel, A.; Ampuero, J. P.; Dalguer, L. A.; Mai, P. M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">291</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999AcMSn..15...97H"> <span id="translatedtitle">Oxyhydrogen combustion and detonation driven <span class="hlt">shock</span> tube</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The performance of combustion driver ignited by multi-spark plugs distributed along axial direction has been analysed and tested. An improved ignition method with three circumferential equidistributed ignitors at <span class="hlt">main</span> diaphragm has been presented, by which the produced incident <span class="hlt">shock</span> waves have higher repeatability, and better steadiness in the pressure, temperature and velocity fields of flow behind the incidence <span class="hlt">shock</span>, and thus meets the requirements of aerodynamic experiment. The attachment of a damping section at the end of the driver can eliminate the high reflection pressure produced by detonation wave, and the backward detonation driver can be employed to generate high enthalpy and high density test flow. The incident <span class="hlt">shock</span> wave produced by this method is well repeated and with weak attenuation. The reflection wave caused by the contracted section at the <span class="hlt">main</span> diaphragm will weaken the unfavorable effect of rarefaction wave behind the detonation wave, which indicates that the forward detonation driver can be applied in the practice. For incident <span class="hlt">shock</span> wave of identical strength, the initial pressure of the forward detonation driver is about 1 order of magnitude lower than that of backward detonation.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hongru, Yu</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">292</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3836932"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Rupture</span> of De Novo Anterior Communicating Artery Aneurysm 8 Days after the Clipping of <span class="hlt">Ruptured</span> Middle Cerebral Artery Aneurysm</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Rapidly developed de novo aneurysm is very rare. We present a rapidly developed and <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> de novo anterior communicating aneurysm 8 days after the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of another aneurysm. This de novo aneurysm was not apparent in the initial 3-dimensional computed tomography and digital subtraction angiography. We reviewed the literature and discussed possible mechanisms for the development of this de novo aneurysm. PMID:24278654</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ha, Sung-Kon; Kim, Sang-Dae; Kim, Se-Hoon</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">293</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19950040873&hterms=Mac&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3DMac"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Shock</span> interactions with magnetized interstellar clouds. 1: Steady <span class="hlt">shocks</span> hitting nonradiative clouds</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We study the interaction of a steady, planar <span class="hlt">shock</span> with a nonradiative, spherical, interstellar cloud threaded by a uniform magnetic field. For strong <span class="hlt">shocks</span>, the sonic Mach number scales out, so two parameters determine the evolution: the ratio of cloud to intercloud density, and the Alfven Mach number. We focus on the case with initial field parallel to the <span class="hlt">shock</span> velocity, though we also present one model with field perpendicular to the velocity. Even with 100 zones per cloud radius, we find that the magnetic field structure converges only at early times. However, we can draw three conclusions from our work. First, our results suggest that the inclusion of a field in equipartition with the preshock medium can prevent the complete destruction of the cloud found in the field-free case recently considered by Klein, McKee, & Colella. Second, the interaction of the <span class="hlt">shock</span> with the cloud can amplify the magnetic field in some regions up to equipartition with the post-<span class="hlt">shock</span> thermal pressure. In the parallel-field case, the <span class="hlt">shock</span> preferentially amplifies the parallel component of the field, creating a 'flux rope,' a linear structure of concentrated magnetic field. The flux rope dominates the volume of amplified field, so that laminar, rather than turbulent, amplification is dominant in this case. Third, the presence of the cloud enhances the production of X-ray and synchrotron emission. The X-ray emission peaks early, during the initial passage of the <span class="hlt">shock</span> over the cloud, while the synchrotron emission peaks later, when the flow sweeps magnetic field onto the axis between the cloud and the <span class="hlt">main</span> <span class="hlt">shock</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Low, Mordecai-Mark Mac; Mckee, Christopher F.; Klein, Richard I.; Stone, James M.; Norman, Michael L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1994-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">294</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://cdsweb.cern.ch/record/1646059"> <span id="translatedtitle">Expansion and <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of charged microcapsules</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We study the deformations of pH-responsive spherical microcapsules -- micrometer-scale liquid drops surrounded by thin, solid shells -- under the influence of electrostatic forces. When exposed to a large concentration of NaOH, the microcapsules become highly charged, and expand isotropically. We find that the extent of this expansion can be understood by coupling electrostatics with shell theory; moreover, the expansion dynamics is well described by Darcy's law for fluid flow through the microcapsule shell. Unexpectedly, however, below a threshold NaOH concentration, the microcapsules begin to disintegrate, and eventually <span class="hlt">rupture</span>; they then expand non-uniformly, ultimately forming large, jellyfish-like structures. Our results highlight the fascinating range of behaviors exhibited by pH-responsive microcapsules, driven by the interplay between electrostatic and mechanical forces.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Datta, Sujit S; Weitz, David A</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">295</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://arxiv.org/pdf/1401.8270v1"> <span id="translatedtitle">Expansion and <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of charged microcapsules</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We study the deformations of pH-responsive spherical microcapsules -- micrometer-scale liquid drops surrounded by thin, solid shells -- under the influence of electrostatic forces. When exposed to a large concentration of NaOH, the microcapsules become highly charged, and expand isotropically. We find that the extent of this expansion can be understood by coupling electrostatics with shell theory; moreover, the expansion dynamics is well described by Darcy's law for fluid flow through the microcapsule shell. Unexpectedly, however, below a threshold NaOH concentration, the microcapsules begin to disintegrate, and eventually <span class="hlt">rupture</span>; they then expand non-uniformly, ultimately forming large, jellyfish-like structures. Our results highlight the fascinating range of behaviors exhibited by pH-responsive microcapsules, driven by the interplay between electrostatic and mechanical forces.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sujit S. Datta; Alireza Abbaspourrad; David A. Weitz</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-31</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">296</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ShWav..24..403B"> <span id="translatedtitle">Analysis of oblique <span class="hlt">shock</span> waves in solids using <span class="hlt">shock</span> polars</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Graphical solutions of <span class="hlt">shock</span> reflections in gases have long been used to gain insight into such phenomena. These <span class="hlt">shock</span> polar solutions provide a simple means of visualizing the complex nonlinear nature of <span class="hlt">shock</span> wave interactions. This methodology, however, is not limited to the treatment of an ideal gas. While the framework can be extended to a completely general equation of state, the emphasis here will be on the description of oblique <span class="hlt">shocks</span> in a hydrodynamic Mie-Gruneisen solid. The oblique <span class="hlt">shock</span> relations for the principal Hugoniot, second <span class="hlt">shock</span> Hugoniot, and release isentrope are presented and used to solve two different <span class="hlt">shock</span> reflection problems. First, the oblique <span class="hlt">shock</span> reflection from an inclined interface is examined using the <span class="hlt">shock</span> polar methodology. Specifically, the <span class="hlt">shock</span> interactions at a copper and beryllium oblique interface are addressed to compare the <span class="hlt">shock</span> polar methodology with a recent study which utilizes a Lagrangian analytical approach in conjunction with numerical simulations. The second problem examined is the so-called Mach lens configuration, which can be used to generate a steady Mach reflection. <span class="hlt">Shock</span> polar solutions are generated for a copper target using various confinements and compared to numerical simulations. Similarly, an iron target is examined in which the resulting polymorphic phase transition can also be described through the <span class="hlt">shock</span> polar methodology.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Brown, J. L.; Ravichandran, G.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">297</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012APS..MARZ43002V"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Shocks</span> in fragile matter</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Non-linear sound is an extreme phenomenon typically observed in solids after violent explosions. But granular media are different. Right when they unjam, these fragile and disordered solids exhibit vanishing elastic moduli and sound speed, so that even tiny mechanical perturbations form supersonic <span class="hlt">shocks</span>. Here, we perform simulations in which two-dimensional jammed granular packings are continuously compressed, and demonstrate that the resulting excitations are strongly nonlinear <span class="hlt">shocks</span>, rather than linear waves. We capture the full dependence of the <span class="hlt">shock</span> speed on pressure and compression speed by a surprisingly simple analytical model. We also treat shear <span class="hlt">shocks</span> within a simplified viscoelastic model of nearly-isostatic random networks comprised of harmonic springs. In this case, anharmonicity does not originate locally from nonlinear interactions between particles, as in granular media; instead, it emerges from the global architecture of the network. As a result, the diverging width of the shear <span class="hlt">shocks</span> bears a nonlinear signature of the diverging isostatic length associated with the loss of rigidity in these floppy networks.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Vitelli, Vincenzo</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">298</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3484817"> <span id="translatedtitle">Abdominal apoplexy: A rare case of spontaneous <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of the superior mesenteric artery in a hypertensive patient</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">INTRODUCTION Spontaneous <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of an intra-abdominal visceral artery is an exceptionally rare and potentially fatal cause of abdominal apoplexy. PRESENTATION OF CASE We present a case of a 54-year-old hypertensive male who developed hypovolemic <span class="hlt">shock</span> in our Emergency Department after presenting with abrupt onset of abdominal pain and diarrhea. Intra-operative findings revealed <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of the superior mesenteric artery with massive hemoperitoneum. The bleeding vessel was ligated and the patient made a full recovery after 3 weeks in the Intensive Care Unit. DISCUSSION High index of suspicion is necessary for early preoperative diagnosis and must be considered in any patient with a history of hypertension presenting with abrupt abdominal pain, signs of peritoneal irritation and unexplained hypovolemic <span class="hlt">shock</span>. Immediate resuscitation and prompt surgical control of bleeding is paramount in patient prognosis. CONCLUSION The seemingly unpredictable nature of abdominal apoplexy must be noted, a precipitating cause in most cases is untraceable and early diagnosis relies solely on awareness of the condition. PMID:23017492</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Badri, Faisal; Packirisamy, Kannan; Aryasinghe, Lasanthi; Al Suwaidi, Mahra</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">299</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19740009843&hterms=Cooperative+Principle&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3DCooperative%2BPrinciple"> <span id="translatedtitle">Principles and application of <span class="hlt">shock</span>-tubes and <span class="hlt">shock</span> tunnels</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The principles, theoretical flow equations, calculation techniques, limitations and practical performance characteristics of basic and high performance <span class="hlt">shock</span> tubes and <span class="hlt">shock</span> tunnels are presented. Selected operating curves are included.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ried, R. C.; Clauss, H. G., Jr.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1963-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">300</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://mynasadata.larc.nasa.gov/lesson-plans/?page_id=474?&passid=100"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Fabled <span class="hlt">Maine</span> Winter</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">No study of <span class="hlt">Maine</span> weather would be complete without analysis of the year of 1816 - the year with no summer in an area from western Pennsylvania and New York, up through Quebec and across to <span class="hlt">Maine</span> and the Canadian maritimes. In this five-unit lesson, students will investigate the causes and effects of the Fabled <span class="hlt">Maine</span> Winter by exploring a variety of data sources. They will locate, graph, and analyze meteorological and climatological data for Portland, <span class="hlt">Maine</span>, for more recent years to try to find one that most closely resembles the fabled <span class="hlt">Maine</span> winter of 1816.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" 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showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">301</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19970005452&hterms=describing+motion&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Ddescribing%2Bmotion"> <span id="translatedtitle">Motion of the Heliospheric Termination <span class="hlt">Shock</span>. 4; MHD Effects</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this paper we generalize earlier gasdynamic analyses of the motion of the heliospheric termination <span class="hlt">shock</span> in response to upstream disturbances to include magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) phenomena. We assume that the termination <span class="hlt">shock</span> is a strong, perpendicular <span class="hlt">shock</span> and that the initial upstream disturbance is a tangential discontinuity. The resulting configuration after the interaction is very similar to that in the gasdynamic models after an interaction with a contact discontinuity or interplanetary <span class="hlt">shock</span>, and for an increase (decrease) in dynamic pressure consists of an outward (inward) propagating termination <span class="hlt">shock</span> and an outward propagating <span class="hlt">shock</span> (MHD rarefaction wave) that carries the signal of the disturbance into the far downstream plasma. The plasma immediately behind the new termination <span class="hlt">shock</span> is separated from the downstream signal by a tangential discontinuity. The results of the model show that the speed of the new termination <span class="hlt">shock</span> depends <span class="hlt">mainly</span> on the magnitude of the change in dynamic pressure and are typically of order -100 km/s, comparable to the results of the gasdynamic models.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Naidu, Kamcilla; Barnes, Aaron</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1994-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">302</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/13256408"> <span id="translatedtitle">New <span class="hlt">Shock</span> Detector for <span class="hlt">Shock</span>-Boundary Layer Interaction</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">\\u000a Standard compact scheme or upwind compact scheme have high order accuracy and high resolution, but cannot capture the <span class="hlt">shock</span>\\u000a which is a discontinuity. This work developed a modified compact scheme by an effective <span class="hlt">shock</span> detector to block compact scheme\\u000a to cross the <span class="hlt">shock</span>, a control function, and an adaptive scheme which uses some WENO flux near the <span class="hlt">shock</span>. The new</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Chaoqun Liu; Maria Oliveira</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">303</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25036206"> <span id="translatedtitle">Perianeurysmal edema as a predictive sign of aneurysmal <span class="hlt">rupture</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Subarachnoid hemorrhage following intracranial aneurysmal <span class="hlt">rupture</span> is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Several factors may affect the probability of <span class="hlt">rupture</span>, such as tobacco and alcohol use; size, shape, and location of the aneurysm; presence of intraluminal thrombus; and even the sex of the patient. However, few data correlate such findings with the timing of aneurysmal <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. The authors report 2 cases of middle-age women with headache and MRI findings of incidental aneurysms. Magnetic resonance imaging showed evidence of surrounding parenchymal edema, and in one case there was a clear increase in edema during follow-up, suggesting a progressive inflammatory process that culminated with <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. These findings raise the possibility that bleb formation and an enlargement of a cerebral aneurysm might be associated with an inflammatory reaction of the aneurysm wall resulting in perianeurysmal edema and subsequent aneurysmal <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. There may be a temporal link between higher degree of edema and higher risk for <span class="hlt">rupture</span>, including risk for immediate <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. PMID:25036206</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Pahl, Felix Hendrik; de Oliveira, Matheus Fernandes; Ferreira, Nelson Paes Fortes Diniz; de Macedo, Leonardo Lopes; Brock, Roger Schmidt; de Souza, Valéria Cardoso</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">304</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMOS11D1674A"> <span id="translatedtitle">Effect of Time-dependent <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> on Tsunami Generation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Differential GPS data from the recent Chile 2009 and Japan 2011 seismic events have unveiled complex time-dependent ground motion dynamics during seismic <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. Current tsunami modeling techniques usually ignore this time-dependent behavior in tsunami sources by assuming an instantaneous initial deformation field. Initial attempts to include time-dependent <span class="hlt">rupture</span> behavior have motivated scientists to simulate this phenomenon as a series of instantaneous changes in the sea-floor. The present study investigates the effect of dynamic ground motion <span class="hlt">rupture</span> on tsunami generation by including the time-dependent initial conditions in the derivation of the linear shallow-water wave equations. We then study the sensitivity of initial water surface deformation to time-dependent seafloor <span class="hlt">rupture</span> by performing a parametric study of varying speed and <span class="hlt">rupture</span> direction, while assuming a monotonic deformation from an initial pre-<span class="hlt">rupture</span> state to a post-<span class="hlt">rupture</span> final state. Numerical results for some selected scenarios are validated by comparing with analytical solutions of the non-homogeneous linear shallow-water equations.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Arcas, D.; Kanoglu, U.; Moore, C. W.; Aydin, B.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">305</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013SSRv..178..535K"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Dynamic Quasiperpendicular <span class="hlt">Shock</span>: Cluster Discoveries</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The physics of collisionless <span class="hlt">shocks</span> is a very broad topic which has been studied for more than five decades. However, there are a number of important issues which remain unresolved. The energy repartition amongst particle populations in quasiperpendicular <span class="hlt">shocks</span> is a multi-scale process related to the spatial and temporal structure of the electromagnetic fields within the <span class="hlt">shock</span> layer. The most important processes take place in the close vicinity of the major magnetic transition or ramp region. The distribution of electromagnetic fields in this region determines the characteristics of ion reflection and thus defines the conditions for ion heating and energy dissipation for supercritical <span class="hlt">shocks</span> and also the region where an important part of electron heating takes place. In other words, the ramp region determines the <span class="hlt">main</span> characteristics of energy repartition. All these processes are crucially dependent upon the characteristic spatial scales of the ramp and foot region provided that the <span class="hlt">shock</span> is stationary. The process of <span class="hlt">shock</span> formation consists of the steepening of a large amplitude nonlinear wave. At some point in its evolution the steepening is arrested by processes occurring within the <span class="hlt">shock</span> transition. From the earliest studies of collisionless <span class="hlt">shocks</span> these processes were identified as nonlinearity, dissipation, and dispersion. Their relative role determines the scales of electric and magnetic fields, and so control the characteristics of processes such as ion reflection, electron heating and particle acceleration. The determination of the scales of the electric and magnetic field is one of the key issues in the physics of collisionless <span class="hlt">shocks</span>. Moreover, it is well known that under certain conditions <span class="hlt">shocks</span> manifest a nonstationary dynamic behaviour called reformation. It was suggested that the transition from stationary to nonstationary quasiperiodic dynamics is related to gradients, e.g. scales of the ramp region and its associated whistler waves that form a precursor wave train. This implies that the ramp region should be considered as the source of these waves. All these questions have been studied making use observations from the Cluster satellites. The Cluster project continues to provide a unique viewpoint from which to study the scales of <span class="hlt">shocks</span>. During its lifetime the inter-satellite distance between the Cluster satellites has varied from 100 km to 10000 km allowing scientists to use the data best adapted for the given scientific objective. The purpose of this review is to address a subset of unresolved problems in collisionless <span class="hlt">shock</span> physics from experimental point of view making use multi-point observations onboard Cluster satellites. The problems we address are determination of scales of fields and of a scale of electron heating, identification of energy source of precursor wave train, an estimate of the role of anomalous resistivity in energy dissipation process by means of measuring short scale wave fields, and direct observation of reformation process during one single <span class="hlt">shock</span> front crossing.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Krasnoselskikh, V.; Balikhin, M.; Walker, S. N.; Schwartz, S.; Sundkvist, D.; Lobzin, V.; Gedalin, M.; Bale, S. D.; Mozer, F.; Soucek, J.; Hobara, Y.; Comisel, H.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">306</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014cosp...40E1640K"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Dynamic Quasiperpendicular <span class="hlt">Shock</span>: Cluster Discoveries</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The physics of collisionless <span class="hlt">shocks</span> is a very broad topic which has been studied for more than five decades. However, there are a number of important issues which remain unresolved. The energy repartition amongst particle populations in quasiperpendicular <span class="hlt">shocks</span> is a multi-scale process related to the spatial and temporal structure of the electromagnetic fields within the <span class="hlt">shock</span> layer. The most important processes take place in the close vicinity of the major magnetic transition or ramp region. The distribution of electromagnetic fields in this region determines the characteristics of ion reflection and thus defines the conditions for ion heating and energy dissipation for supercritical <span class="hlt">shocks</span> and also the region where an important part of electron heating takes place. In other words, the ramp region determines the <span class="hlt">main</span> characteristics of energy repartition. All these processes are crucially dependent upon the characteristic spatial scales of the ramp and foot region provided that the <span class="hlt">shock</span> is stationary. The process of <span class="hlt">shock</span> formation consists of the steepening of a large amplitude nonlinear wave. At some point in its evolution the steepening is arrested by processes occurring within the <span class="hlt">shock</span> transition. From the earliest studies of collisionless <span class="hlt">shocks</span> these processes were identified as nonlinearity, dissipation, and dispersion. Their relative role determines the scales of electric and magnetic fields, and so control the characteristics of processes such as ion reflection, electron heating and particle acceleration. The determination of the scales of the electric and magnetic field is one of the key issues in the physics of collisionless <span class="hlt">shocks</span>. Moreover, it is well known that under certain conditions <span class="hlt">shocks</span> manifest a nonstationary dynamic behaviour called reformation. It was suggested that the transition from stationary to nonstationary quasiperiodic dynamics is related to gradients, e.g. scales of the ramp region and its associated whistler waves that form a precursor wave train. This implies that the ramp region should be considered as the source of these waves. All these questions have been studied making use observations from the Cluster satellites. The Cluster project continues to provide a unique viewpoint from which to study the scales of <span class="hlt">shocks</span>. During its lifetime the inter-satellite distance between the Cluster satellites has varied from 100 km to 10000 km allowing scientists to use the data best adapted for the given scientific objective. Our purpose is to address a subset of unresolved problems in collisionless <span class="hlt">shock</span> physics from experimental point of view making usemulti-point observations onboard Cluster satellites. The problems we address are determination of scales of fields and of a scale of electron heating, identification of energy source of precursor wave train, an estimate of the role of anomalous resistivity in energy dissipation process by means of measuring short scale wave fields, and direct observation of reformation process during one single <span class="hlt">shock</span> front crossing.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Krasnoselskikh, Vladimir</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">307</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002AGUFM.S12B1207G"> <span id="translatedtitle">Ground Motion Levels From Deeper Versus Shallower Fault <span class="hlt">Rupture</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Somerville (2000) found a systematic difference in the level of earthquake ground motions for three M 7.2-7.6 earthquakes with large surface <span class="hlt">ruptures</span>, and three M 6.7-7.0 earthquakes on buried faults. He found that the acceleration spectra of the smaller events are much larger than the 1994 UCB code spectrum for soil site conditions in the intermediate period range of 0.5-2.5 seconds, but similar to the UCB code spectrum at longer periods. He pointed out that this is contrary to all current earthquake source models and ground motion spectral scaling with magnitude. We have tested the results by Somerville using dynamic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> modeling. We compare a 45o-dipping, 5 km buried thrust fault to a 30o-dipping thrust fault that breaks the surface in a halfspace model with uniform dynamic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> parameters on the faults. The seismic moments of the two dynamic <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> amount to 3.4 ? 1019 Nm (M 7.0) in the first, and 5.3 ? 1019 Nm (M 7.1) in the latter case. The increased seismic moment for the surface <span class="hlt">rupture</span> is due to the time-dependent normal-stress interaction of the wavefield with the free surface. We find that, compared to those for the buried <span class="hlt">rupture</span>, the surface <span class="hlt">rupture</span> shows larger spectral accelerations for periods between 0.33 and 5 seconds. Thus, our dynamic simulations can not confirm the observations from Somerville (2000), and we conclude that his results are not a first-order dynamic effect related to the depth of burial of the fault. Finally, we test whether dynamic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> modeling can explain the differences by in ground motion levels from a combination of smaller fault areas and larger slip velocities for buried faults relative to those for scenarios with surface <span class="hlt">rupture</span> (Somerville et al., 2002).</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gottschaemmer, E.; Olsen, K. B.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">308</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.6261G"> <span id="translatedtitle">Interaction of dynamic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> with small-scale heterogeneities</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Broadband ground motion simulations, with frequencies up to 10Hz, are important for engineering purposes, in particular for seismic hazard assessment for critical facilities. One problem in such simulations is the generation of high frequency radiation emitted during the dynamic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> process. Ad-hoc kinematic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> characterizations can be tweaked through empirical models to radiate over the desired frequency range, but their physical consistency remains questionable. In contrast, for physically self-consistent dynamic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> modeling, controlled by friction, material parameters and the adopted physical laws, the mechanism that may lead to appropriate high-frequency radiation require heterogeneity in friction, stress, or fault geometry (or even all three quantities) at unknown but small length scales. Dunham at al. (2011) studied dynamic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> propagation on rough faults in 2D, and described how fault roughness excites high-frequency radiation. In our study, we focus on the interaction of the dynamic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> with small-scale heterogeneities on planar faults in 3D. We study effects of the interaction of dynamic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> with 1) small-scale heterogeneities in the medium (that is, randomized 3D wave speed and density variations), and 2) small-scale heterogeneities in the frictional parameters. Our numerical results show significant variations in <span class="hlt">rupture</span> velocity or peak slip velocity if small-scale heterogeneities are present. This indicates that the dynamic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> is sensitive to both types of spatial inhomogeneity. At the same time we observe that the resulting near-source seismic wave fields are not very sensitive to these <span class="hlt">rupture</span> variations, indicating that wavefront healing effects may "simplify" the complex seismic radiation once the waves propagated several wave-lengths away from the fault.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Galis, Martin; Mai, P. Martin</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">309</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19950038162&hterms=zircon&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dzircon"> <span id="translatedtitle">Impact-<span class="hlt">shocked</span> zircons: Discovery of <span class="hlt">shock</span>-induced textures reflecting increasing degrees of <span class="hlt">shock</span> metamorphism</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Textural effects specifically characteristic of <span class="hlt">shock</span> metamorphism in zircons from impact environments have not been reported previously. However, planar deformation features (PDF) due to <span class="hlt">shock</span> metamorphism are well documented in quartz and other mineral grains from these same environments. An etching technique was developed that allows scanning electron microscope (SEM) visualization of PDF and other probable <span class="hlt">shock</span>-induced textural features, such as granular (polycrystalline) texture, in zircons from a variety of impact <span class="hlt">shock</span> environments. These textural features in <span class="hlt">shocked</span> zircons from K/T boundary distal ejecta form a series related to increasing degrees of <span class="hlt">shock</span> that should correlate with proportionate resetting of the U-Pb isotopic system.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bohor, B. F.; Betterton, W. J.; Krogh, T. E.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1993-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">310</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/doepatents/biblio/868794"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Shock</span> destruction armor system</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A <span class="hlt">shock</span> destruction armor system is constructed and arranged to destroy the force of impact of a projectile by <span class="hlt">shock</span> hydrodynamics. The armor system is designed to comprise a plurality of superimposed armor plates each preferably having a thickness less than five times the projectile's diameter and are preferably separated one-from-another by a distance at least equal to one-half of the projectile's diameter. The armor plates are effective to hydrodynamically and sequentially destroy the projectile. The armor system is particularly adapted for use on various military vehicles, such as tanks, aircraft and ships.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Froeschner, Kenneth E. (Livermore, CA)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1993-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">311</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/53704579"> <span id="translatedtitle">Visualization of the <span class="hlt">Shock</span> Front in an Electromagnetic <span class="hlt">Shock</span> Tube</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The shadowgraph and schlieren-interferometer methods were used for the ; visualization of the <span class="hlt">shock</span> front in an electromagnetic <span class="hlt">shock</span> tube. The view ; through the channel was free in a direction vertical to the discharge along the ; whole length of the tube including the spark gap. The schlieren methods permit a ; direct observation of the <span class="hlt">shock</span> front and</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Peter Jeanmaire</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1963-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">312</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.G33A0817S"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Rupture</span> imaging of the 27 February 2010 Mw 8.8 Chilean earthquake from back projection of teleseismic body waves</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We investigated the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> process of the 2010 Mw 8.8 Maule earthquake by back projecting teleseismic body waves energy recorded at several worldwide seismic stations and arrays. This approach, being a signal-processing technique, does not require any a-priori knowledge or assumption on the source (hypocentral location, origin time, <span class="hlt">rupture</span> velocity, fault extent and orientation), and is thus able to provide an independent picture of the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> process, respect to classic inversion schemes. Seismic energy is back projected according to a 1D global velocity model; 3D velocity variations between close stations are taken into account through an iterative time-adjustment based on cross-correlation. The problem has been approached at different scales, ranging from a global, virtual array of worldwide stations to several arrays of different apertures (USArray, Japan, New Zealand, Europe). Signals are band-pass filtered around a central frequency that depends on the station geometry, and ranges between 0.05 Hz for the global array, to ~1 Hz for denser geometries. Optimization schemes have been developed to improve the beam construction and the performances have been assessed with regard to the imaging of the Maule earthquake source. Finally, we investigated the robustness of the images with regards to the frequency band used for filtering. The resulting images show a <span class="hlt">rupture</span> characterized by two <span class="hlt">main</span> asperities: the south slip asperity in the first 60 s, and the north energetic asperity in the late part of the <span class="hlt">rupture</span>, with clear bi-directional propagation. The total duration is of about 100 s. These results have been compared and integrated with the analysis of continuous GPS data, as well as with aftershock locations. All those results provide a very consistent image of the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> and raise questions regarding its actual extension to the north in relation with the 1906 and 1985 Valparaiso earthquakes.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Satriano, C.; Vilotte, J.; Bernard, P.; Shapiro, N. M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">313</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFM.S43C..01F"> <span id="translatedtitle">Scientific Challenges in Developing the Next Uniform California Earthquake <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> Forecast (UCERF3)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Working Group on California Earthquake Probabilities (WGCEP) is in the process of developing the next-generation Uniform California Earthquake <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> Forecast (UCERF version 3). The <span class="hlt">main</span> goals for this future model, which is being developed jointly by the United States Geological Survey, California Geological Survey, and Southern California Earthquake Center, are to include multi-fault <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> and spatial and temporal clustering. While there are broad range of challenges associated with the development, implementation, and use of this model, the intent of this presentation is to give an overview of some of the most pressing scientific issues. These questions can be distilled down as follows: 1) Does every small volume of space exhibit a Gutenberg Richter distribution of nucleations?; 2) What is the average slip distribution of large events, both down dip and along strike?; 3) How do we apply elastic rebound in an un-segmented fault model?; 4) How can we quantify fault-to-fault <span class="hlt">rupture</span> probabilities, especially give uncertainties in fault endpoints?; 5) What constitutes “best available science” with respect to spatial and temporal clustering models?; and 6) What is the explanation for the apparent post-1906 seismicity-rate reduction? Each of these questions will be described and exemplified, together with our current plans for addressing them.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Field, E. H.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">314</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24961578"> <span id="translatedtitle">Is it ever possible to treat left ventricular free wall <span class="hlt">rupture</span> conservatively?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A best evidence topic was written according to a structured protocol. The question addressed was whether conservative or surgical management would result in better outcomes in patients presenting with left ventricular free wall <span class="hlt">rupture</span> (LVFWR) following acute myocardial infarction. Surgical techniques involved were infarctectomy + patch repair, suturing of an overlay patch to the defect, patch-and-glue repair and so on, on or off cardiopulmonary bypass. A total of 210 papers were found using the reported searches, of which 10 represented the best evidence to answer the clinical question. The authors, date, journal, study type, population, <span class="hlt">main</span> outcome measures and results were tabulated. The studies found analysed the outcome related to conservative and surgical approaches plus the effects of cardiopulmonary bypass circuit and systemic heparinization on bleeding around the peri-infarct myocardial tissue in the surgical group. Most of the data available were either case reports or retrospective analysis of the cohort using the 2 techniques and showed that <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> present in different sites and sizes. Patients with a milder form of LVFWR can be managed conservatively, but the irony is that it is difficult to identify these patients, because a small oozing-type <span class="hlt">rupture</span> can increase in size and lead to large defect with sudden arrest of the patient and most probably death. More recently with patch-and-glue techniques, avoiding cardiopulmonary bypass, short- and mid-term survival rates have improved to 60-80% in studies of consecutive patients' series, which illustrates real-life experiences. PMID:24961578</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Nasir, Abdul; Gouda, Mohammad; Khan, Amir; Bose, Amal</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">315</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19790004034&hterms=CuCl2&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3DCuCl2"> <span id="translatedtitle">Shear <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of a directionally solidified eutectic gamma/gamma prime - alpha (Mo) alloy</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Directionally solidified Mo alloys are evaluated to determine the shear <span class="hlt">rupture</span> strength and to possibly improve it by microstructural and heat treatment variations. Bars of the alloy containing nominally 5.7% Al and 33.5% Mo by weight with balance Ni were directionally solidified at rates between 10 and 100 mm per hour in furnaces with thermal gradients at the liquid-solid interface of 250 or 100 C per cm. A limited number of longitudinal shear <span class="hlt">rupture</span> tests were conducted at 760 C and 207 MPa in the as - solidified and in several heat treated conditions. It is shown that shear <span class="hlt">rupture</span> failures are partly transgranular and that resistance to failure is prompted by good fiber alignment and a matrix structure consisting <span class="hlt">mainly</span> of gamma prime. Well aligned as - solidified specimens sustained the shear stress for an average of 81 hours. A simulated coating heat treatment appeared to increase the transformation of gamma to gamma prime and raised the average shear life of aligned specimens to 111 hours. However, heat treatments at 1245 C and especially at 1190 C appeared to be detrimental by causing partial solutioning of the gamma prime, and reducing lives to 47 and 10 hours, respectively.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Harf, F. H.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1978-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">316</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21599415"> <span id="translatedtitle">Minimum energy path to membrane pore formation and <span class="hlt">rupture</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We combine dynamic self-consistent field theory with the string method to calculate the minimum energy path to membrane pore formation and <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. In the regime where nucleation can occur on experimentally relevant time scales, the structure of the critical nucleus is between a solvophilic stalk and a locally thinned membrane. Classical nucleation theory fails to capture these molecular details and significantly overestimates the free energy barrier. Our results suggest that thermally nucleated <span class="hlt">rupture</span> may be an important factor for the low <span class="hlt">rupture</span> strains observed in lipid membranes. PMID:21599415</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ting, Christina L; Appelö, Daniel; Wang, Zhen-Gang</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-04-22</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">317</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3241991"> <span id="translatedtitle">Gastric <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> and Necrosis in Prader-Willi Syndrome</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Hyperphagia and obesity are common features in individuals with Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS). Demographic and cause of death data from individuals with PWS were obtained through a national support organization. Four reports of unexpected mortality due to gastric <span class="hlt">rupture</span> and necrosis were found in 152 reported deaths, accounting for 3% of the causes of mortality. Four additional individuals were suspected to have gastric <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. Vomiting and abdominal pain, although rare in PWS, were frequent findings in this cohort. The physician should consider an emergent evaluation for gastric <span class="hlt">rupture</span> and necrosis in individuals with PWS who present with vomiting and abdominal pain. PMID:17667731</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Stevenson, David A.; Heinemann, Janalee; Angulo, Moris; Butler, Merlin G.; Loker, Jim; Rupe, Norma; Kendell, Patrick; Cassidy, Suzanne B.; Scheimann, Ann</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">318</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1984PhDT.........3Q"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Effects of Friction on the <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> of Earthquake Faults</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The role of friction in the earthquake fault process is studied in this thesis. The frictional breakage criterion on the fault surface is simple. Portions of the fault at rest are held at rest by a static frictional stress. If the local stress at a point on the fault exceeds a static frictional limit, that portion of the fault yields, and subsequent motion is retarded by a dynamic frictional stress. The local, finite, and non-linear character of the boundary conditions on the fault require a model based on finite differences. The model is two-dimensional and scalar, so that calculations may be minimized and the model retain physical meaning. The processes and effects of the genesis and cessation of <span class="hlt">rupture</span> are not considered. A "standard" model with given grid spacing and fixed initial conditions is used for the bulk of the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> simulations. The parameter space of two dimensionless ratios R and S is investigated. R is the ratio of the static frictional limit to the elasticity of the medium and S is the ratio of the difference in the static frictional limit and the applied tectonic stress to the stress drop. It is found that the particle velocities scale with R, and that there are two distinct modes of <span class="hlt">rupture</span> depending on the value of S. For S > S(,c) (where 2.0 < S(,c) < 2.25), the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> is stick-slip, and for S < S(,c) the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> is smooth. The <span class="hlt">rupture</span> speed is found to be a monotonically decreasing function of S, and has a subsonic/supersonic transition around S(,c). The energy flow in the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> region is illustrated for both modes of <span class="hlt">rupture</span> and found to be fundamentally different for the two <span class="hlt">rupture</span> modes. Solitary waves pinned to the fault surface are observed in the stick-slip case. The grid spacing and initial conditions are altered to test the model-dependence of the results. It is found that while the details of the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> are model-dependent, the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> velocity and S(,c) are model-independent, suggesting these results reflect real physical phenomena. These results may help explain variable <span class="hlt">rupture</span> velocity and multiple events in large earthquakes.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Quist, Gregory Matthew</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">319</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17143686"> <span id="translatedtitle">Spontaneous "spaghetti" flexor tendon <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> in the rheumatoid wrist.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A 54-year-old woman who had been treated for rheumatoid arthritis for 12 years developed spontaneous multiple flexor tendon <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> during a 5-month period. Radiography revealed volar subluxation of the lunate bone. Surgery was performed 5 months after the first onset of tendon <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. All eight flexors, except the flexor pollicis longus tendons, had <span class="hlt">ruptured</span>, and the damage resembled spaghetti. Four flexor digitorum profundus tendons were reconstructed by bridge graft using their respective sublimis tendons. Wrist joint fusion and tenolysis were performed 3 months after the first operation. Each finger achieved a good range of motion 2 years and 6 months after the second operation. PMID:17143686</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hashizume, Hiroyuki; Nishida, Keiichiro; Fujiwara, Kazuo; Inoue, Hajime</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">320</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://dspace.mit.edu/handle/1721.1/51815"> <span id="translatedtitle">A Theory of Demand <span class="hlt">Shocks</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper presents a model of business cycles driven by <span class="hlt">shocks</span> to consumer expectations regarding aggregate productivity. Agents are hit by heterogeneous productivity <span class="hlt">shocks</span>, they observe their own productivity and a noisy ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lorenzoni, Guido</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return 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showDiv("page_18");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">321</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19960003341&hterms=Somerville+Mary&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3D%2528Somerville%2BMary%2529"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Shock</span> waves data for minerals</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Shock</span> compression of the materials of planetary interiors yields data which upon comparison with density-pressure and density-sound velocity profiles constrain internal composition and temperature. Other important applications of <span class="hlt">shock</span> wave data and related properties are found in the impact mechanics of terrestrial planets and solid satellites. <span class="hlt">Shock</span> wave equation of state, <span class="hlt">shock</span>-induced dynamic yielding and phase transitions, and <span class="hlt">shock</span> temperature are discussed. In regions where a substantial phase change in the material does not occur, the relationship between the particle velocity, U(sub p), and the <span class="hlt">shock</span> velocity, U(sub s), is given by U(sub s) = C(sub 0) + S U(sub p), where C(sub 0) is the <span class="hlt">shock</span> velocity at infinitesimally small particle velocity, or the ambient pressure bulk sound velocity. Numerical values for the <span class="hlt">shock</span> wave equation of state for minerals and related materials of the solar system are provided.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ahrens, Thomas J.; Johnson, Mary L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1994-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">322</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70010791"> <span id="translatedtitle">Maskelynite: Formation by explosive <span class="hlt">shock</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">When high pressure (250 to 300 kilobars) was applied suddenly (<span class="hlt">shock</span>-loading) to gabbro, the plagioclase was transformed to a noncrystalline phase (maskelynite) by a solid-state reaction at a low temperature, while the proxene remained crystalline. The <span class="hlt">shock</span>-loaded gabbro resembles meteorites of the shergottite class; this suggests that the latter formed as a result of <span class="hlt">shock</span>. The <span class="hlt">shock</span>-loading of gabbro at 600 to 800 kilobars raised the temperature above the melting range of the plagioclase.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Milton, D.J.; De Carli, P. S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1963-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">323</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4307474"> <span id="translatedtitle">Surgical treatment for <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> dural arteriovenous fistula with large intracranial hematoma</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of dural arteriovenous fistula (DAVF) is a serious complication endangering the lives of patients. It is difficult to treat such <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> DAVF with large intracranial hematoma since lacking of early diagnostic methods. Meanwhile, there was no consensus of how to surgically treat these patients in early stage. In this study, we tried to use 4D-CTA to diagnose DAVF and guide surgical treatment. Based on the result of 4D-CTA, we attempted to eliminate DAVF at the same time we removed hematoma. The result was encouraging. 7 patients with <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> DAVF presented as large spontaneous intracranial hemorrhage were included in this research between May, 2010 and August, 2012 in our hospital. 4D-CTA was performed in all cases. All results of 4D-CTA inspections were studied by both neurosurgeon and neuroradiologist. The therapeutic options were evaluated based on the clinical and angiographic results. All fistulas of seven patients were eliminated at the same time the hematoma being evacuated. 4D-CTA was sufficient for detecting and recognizing basic vessel angioarchitecture of DAVF to guide surgical treatment. <span class="hlt">Main</span> arterial supplies, fistula location and CVDs found during surgery are consistent with the results 4D-CTA. All seven cases achieved completely fistula occlusion in operation without new neurological complication. We favor one stage surgical treatment for <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> DAVF with large intracranial hemorrhage. 4D-CTA plays an important role in preoperative emergent inspection for its safety, rapidity and accuracy. However, it still needs further and larger investigations to optimize such treatment methods and to find out other potential risks. PMID:25664027</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ye, Xianwang; Wang, Haifeng; Huang, Yi; Zhou, Shengjun; Gao, Xiang</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">324</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010PMB....55.3777B"> <span id="translatedtitle">In-depth imaging and quantification of degenerative changes associated with Achilles <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> tendons by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The objective of this study was to develop a method based on polarization-sensitive optical coherent tomography (PSOCT) for the imaging and quantification of degenerative changes associated with Achilles tendon <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. Ex vivo PSOCT examinations were performed in 24 patients. The study involved samples from 14 <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> Achilles tendons, 4 tendinopathic Achilles tendons and 6 patellar tendons (collected during total knee replacement) as non-<span class="hlt">ruptured</span> controls. The samples were imaged in both intensity and phase retardation modes within 24 h after surgery, and birefringence was quantified. The samples were fixed and processed for histology immediately after imaging. Slides were assessed twice in a blind manner to provide a semi-quantitative histological score of degeneration. In-depth micro structural imaging was demonstrated. Collagen disorganization and high cellularity were observable by PSOCT as the <span class="hlt">main</span> markers associated with pathological features. Quantitative assessment of birefringence and penetration depth found significant differences between non-<span class="hlt">ruptured</span> and <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> tendons. Microstructure abnormalities were observed in the microstructure of two out of four tendinopathic samples. PSOCT has the potential to explore in situ and in-depth pathological change associated with Achilles tendon <span class="hlt">rupture</span>, and could help to delineate abnormalities in tendinopathic samples in vivo.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bagnaninchi, P. O.; Yang, Y.; Bonesi, M.; Maffulli, G.; Phelan, C.; Meglinski, I.; El Haj, A.; Maffulli, N.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">325</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.T33B2241B"> <span id="translatedtitle">An Experimental and Theoretical Study of Asymmetric Earthquake <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> Propagation Caused by Off-Fault Fracture Damage</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The interaction between a dynamic mode II fracture on a fault plane and off-fault damage has been studied experimentally using high-speed photography and theoretically using finite element numerical simulations. In the experimental studies, fracture damage was created in photoelastic Homalite plates by thermal <span class="hlt">shock</span> in liquid nitrogen and <span class="hlt">rupture</span> velocities were measured by imaging fringes at the tips. Two cases were studied: an interface between damaged and undamaged Homalite plates, and an interface between damaged Homalite and undamaged polycarbonate plates. Propagation on the interface between damaged and undamaged Homalite is asymmetric. A <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> propagating in the direction for which the compressional lobe of its crack-tip stress field is in the damage (which we term the ‘C’ direction) is unaffected by the damage. In the opposite ‘T’ direction, the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> velocity is significantly slower than the velocity in undamaged plates at the same load. Specifically, transitions to supershear observed using undamaged plates are not observed in the ‘T’ direction. Propagation on the interface between damaged Homalite and undamaged polycarbonate exhibits the same asymmetry, even though the elastically “favored” ‘+’ direction coincides with the ‘T’ direction in this case indicating that the effect of damage is stronger than the effect of elastic asymmetry. This asymmetric propagation was also simulated numerically by incorporating the micromechanical damage mechanics formulated by Ashby and Sammis (PAGEOPH, 1990) into the ABAQUS dynamic finite element code. The quasi-static Ashby/Sammis formulation has been improved to include modern concepts of dynamic fracture mechanics, which become important at the high loading rates in the process zone of a propagating <span class="hlt">rupture</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bhat, H.; Sammis, C. G.; Rosakis, A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">326</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/501474"> <span id="translatedtitle">Coherence-Enhancing <span class="hlt">Shock</span> Filters</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Shock</span> lters are based in the idea to apply locally either a dilation or an erosion process, depending on whether the pixel be- longs to the inuence zone of a maximum or a minimum. They create a sharp <span class="hlt">shock</span> between two inuence zones and produce piecewise constant segmentations. In this paper we design specic <span class="hlt">shock</span> lters for the en- hancement</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Joachim Weickert</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">327</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1994AmJPh..62..718M"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Shock</span> simulation with magnetic pucks</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Magnetic pucks on an air table create a two dimensional ``gas.'' The pucks are accelerated around a race track forming a strong <span class="hlt">shock</span> and a rarefaction wave. The <span class="hlt">shock</span> density reaches the limit given by the Rankine Hugoniot equations. A <span class="hlt">shock</span> front instability is observed.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Michaelis, M. M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1994-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">328</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22118610"> <span id="translatedtitle">STEREO interplanetary <span class="hlt">shocks</span> and foreshocks</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We use STEREO data to study <span class="hlt">shocks</span> driven by stream interactions and the waves associated with them. During the years of the extended solar minimum 2007-2010, stream interaction <span class="hlt">shocks</span> have Mach numbers between 1.1-3.8 and {theta}{sub Bn}{approx}20-86 Degree-Sign . We find a variety of waves, including whistlers and low frequency fluctuations. Upstream whistler waves may be generated at the <span class="hlt">shock</span> and upstream ultra low frequency (ULF) waves can be driven locally by ion instabilities. The downstream wave spectra can be formed by both, locally generated perturbations, and <span class="hlt">shock</span> transmitted waves. We find that many quasiperpendicular <span class="hlt">shocks</span> can be accompanied by ULF wave and ion foreshocks, which is in contrast to Earth's bow <span class="hlt">shock</span>. Fluctuations downstream of quasi-parallel <span class="hlt">shocks</span> tend to have larger amplitudes than waves downstream of quasi-perpendicular <span class="hlt">shocks</span>. Proton foreshocks of <span class="hlt">shocks</span> driven by stream interactions have extensions dr {<=}0.05 AU. This is smaller than foreshock extensions for ICME driven <span class="hlt">shocks</span>. The difference in foreshock extensions is related to the fact that ICME driven <span class="hlt">shocks</span> are formed closer to the Sun and therefore begin to accelerate particles very early in their existence, while stream interaction <span class="hlt">shocks</span> form at {approx}1 AU and have been producing suprathermal particles for a shorter time.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Blanco-Cano, X. [Instituto de Geofisica, UNAM, CU, Coyoacan 04510 DF (Mexico); Kajdic, P. [IRAP-University of Toulouse, CNRS, Toulouse (France); Aguilar-Rodriguez, E. [Instituto de Geofisica, UNAM, Morelia (Mexico); Russell, C. T. [ESS and IGPP, University of California, Los Angeles, 603 Charles Young Drive, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Jian, L. K. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD and University of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Luhmann, J. G. [SSL, University of California Berkeley (United States)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-06-13</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">329</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012Tectp.522..243L"> <span id="translatedtitle">Field evidence of <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of the Qingchuan Fault during the 2008 Mw7.9 Wenchuan earthquake, northeastern segment of the Longmen Shan Thrust Belt, China</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Although many studies of the 2008 Mw 7.9 Wenchuan earthquake have described the ground deformation features, <span class="hlt">rupture</span> mechanism, and structural features of the seismogenic fault zone associated with this event, debate remains concerning the total length of the co-seismic surface <span class="hlt">rupture</span> zone and whether the earthquake <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> the Qingchuan Fault in the northeastern segment of the Longmen Shan Thrust Belt (LSTB), China. In this paper, we present new field evidence that the Qingchuan Fault was <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> by the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake and that the total length of the co-seismic surface <span class="hlt">rupture</span> zone is up to 285-300 km. Field investigations reveal that the earthquake produced a ? 60-km-long surface <span class="hlt">rupture</span> zone along the pre-existing Qingchuan Fault, with the offset being <span class="hlt">mainly</span> right-lateral strike-slip and a distinct component of vertical slip. Co-seismic surface <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> are characterized by faults and extensional cracks. Field measurements indicate co-seismic right-lateral strike-slip displacements along the Qingchuan Fault of 0.3-0.6 m and vertical offsets of 0.2-0.5 m, which differs to the displacements observed along the central and southwestern segments of the Wenchuan surface <span class="hlt">rupture</span> zone in the displacement amount and sense. The change in slip sense from thrust-dominated slip in the central and southwestern segments of the LSTB to right-lateral strike-slip-dominated displacement along the Qingchuan Fault (northeastern segment of the LSTB) reflects a change in the orientation of compressive stress along the LSTB, associated with eastward extrusion of the Tibetan Plateau as it accommodates the ongoing penetration of the Indian Plate into the Eurasian Plate.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lin, Aiming; Rao, Gang; Yan, Bing</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">330</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040070724&hterms=swimming+100&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dswimming%2B100"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Shock</span> Absorbing Helmets</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper presents a description of helmets used by football players that offer three times the <span class="hlt">shock</span>-absorbing capacity of earlier types. An interior padding for the helmets, composed of Temper Foam, first used by NASA's Ames Research Center in the design of aircraft seats is described.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1978-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">331</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.dineenandwestcott.com.au/docs/pdf/Adobe%20ASI%20Paper.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Acoustic <span class="hlt">shock</span> injury (ASI)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Conclusion. The potential severity and persistence of ASI symptoms has significant clinical and medico-legal implications. With the rapid growth of call centres around the world, professionals providing tinnitus and hyperacusis therapy are increasingly likely to encounter some or all of the cluster of ASI symptoms in their clients. Background. Acoustic <span class="hlt">shock</span> injury (ASI), occurring as a result of exposure to</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Myriam Westcott</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">332</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/56014119"> <span id="translatedtitle">Geomorphic Signals for Preferred Propagation Direction of Earthquake <span class="hlt">Ruptures</span> on North Anatolian Fault System, TURKEY</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The North Anatolian Fault <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> in a sequence of large earthquakes between 1939 and 1999, generally progressing from east to west. The 1943 and 1944 <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> propagated unilateraly in opposite directions. Preliminary analysis of the geomorphology along these <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> shows distinct differences that may reflect repeated <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> with similar propagation directions. A persistent preferred propagation direction should produce asymmetric damage</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">C. Yildirim; O. Dor; T. Rockwell; O. Emre; Y. Ben-Zion; M. Sisk; T. Duman</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">333</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007APS..SHK.V6001S"> <span id="translatedtitle">Violent Reactions from Non-<span class="hlt">Shock</span> Stimuli</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Most reactions are thermally initiated, whether from direct heating or dissipation of energy from mechanical, <span class="hlt">shock</span>, or electrical stimuli. For other than prompt <span class="hlt">shock</span> initiation, the reaction must be able to spread through porosity or over large surface area to become more violent than just <span class="hlt">rupturing</span> any confinement. While burning rates are important, high-strain mechanical properties are nearly so, either by reducing existing porosity or generating additional surface area through fracture. The first example is deflagration-to-detonation transition (DDT) in porous beds. During the early stages, weak compressive waves ahead of the convective ignition front will reduce porosity, thereby restricting the spread of combustion and the pressure buildup. If, however, pressure increases faster than can be relieved by loss of confinement, coalescing compressive waves can initiate reaction at hot spots from rapid pore collapse. This compressive reaction can drive a shockwave that transits to detonation, the most violent reaction in any scenario. It has been shown that reaction violence is reduced in DDT experiments if the binder is softened, either by raising the initial temperature or adding a solvent. An example of the role of mechanical properties in enhancing reaction violence through fracturing occurs when cavities in projectile fills collapse during acceleration in the gun barrel, which is referred to as setback. Explosives with soft rubber binders will deform and undergo mild reaction from shear heating within the explosive and adiabatic compression of any gas in the cavity. Stiff explosives are similarly ignited, but also fracture and generate additional surface area for a violent event. The last example to be considered is slow cook-off, where thermal damage can increase burning rate as well as provide porosity to enhance the pressure buildup. As reaction spreads from the zone of thermal run-away, an explosive binder that resists breakup will limit the violence.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sandusky, Harold</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">334</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003APS..APR.P3003B"> <span id="translatedtitle">Diffusive <span class="hlt">Shock</span> Acceleration</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The process of diffusive acceleration of charged particles in <span class="hlt">shocked</span> plasmas is widely invoked in astrophysics to account for the ubiquitous presence of signatures of non-thermal relativistic electrons and ions in the universe. This statistical energization mechanism, manifested in turbulent media, was first posited by Enrico Fermi in 1949 to explain the observed cosmic ray population, which exhibits an almost power-law distribution in rigidity. The absence of a momentum scale is a key characteristic of diffusive <span class="hlt">shock</span> acceleration, and astrophysical systems generally only impose scales at the injection (low energy) and loss (high energy) ends of the particle spectrum. The existence of structure in the cosmic ray spectrum (the "knee") at around 3000 TeV has promoted contentions that there are at least two origins for cosmic rays, a galactic one supplying those up to the knee, and perhaps an extragalactic one that can explain even the ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) seen at 1-300 EeV. Accounting for the UHECRs with familiar astrophysical sites of acceleration has historically proven difficult due to the need to assume high magnetic fields in order to reduce the shortest diffusive acceleration timescale, the ion gyroperiod, to meaningful values. Yet active galaxies and gamma-ray bursts remain strong and interesting candidate sources for UHECRs, turning the theoretical focus to relativistic <span class="hlt">shocks</span>. This review summarizes properties of diffusive <span class="hlt">shock</span> acceleration that are salient to the issue of UHECR generation. These include spectral indices, anisotropies, acceleration efficencies and timescales, as functions of the <span class="hlt">shock</span> speed and mean field orientation, and also the degree of field turbulence. Astrophysical sites for UHECR production are also critiqued.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Baring, Matthew</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">335</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.U21B..02B"> <span id="translatedtitle">The 2010 Chile Earthquake - Variations in the <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> Mode</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The magnitude 8.8, February 27, 2010 Chile, that occurred along the south central Nazca/South American plate boundary was an underthrusting event with an aftershock length of ~600 km along strike, with a bi-lateral <span class="hlt">rupture</span> that started near Cobquecura and <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> north to Valparaiso and <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> 100 km south of Concepcion. This segment of the south central coast of Chile has a long record of damaging underthrusting earthquakes dating back to 1570 that based on intensity and tsunami reports show variations in the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> mode between earthquake cycles. In light of the recent 2010 Chile earthquake we review the historic earthquake record along this segment of the subduction zone and compare it to the slip distribution determined during the 2010 mainshock. The 2010 earthquake appears to have failed at least 2 segments of the plate boundary that failed previously in multiple earthquakes with different <span class="hlt">rupture</span> lengths. The southern region of the 2010 <span class="hlt">rupture</span> last failed in 1835, 1751, 1657 and 1570. The northern segment of the 2010 <span class="hlt">rupture</span> last failed in 1928 (Ms=8.0), 1751, and in 1730. The 1751 earthquake probably <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> both the 1928 and 1835 earthquake zones based on intensities and tsunami reports. The 1751 earthquake had intensity 9 in Concepcion, Talcahuano, Chillan, and Talca, and intensity 6 at Valparaiso (Askew and Algermissen, 1985). The northern termination of the 2010 <span class="hlt">rupture</span> appears to end near 33.5°S to ~34°S which coincides with the southern portion of the 1985 (Mw=8.0) zone that previously <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> in 1906 (Ms=8.4). Modeling of teleseismic P, SH and R1 waveforms show a bilateral <span class="hlt">rupture</span> with the largest patch of slip ~ 100 km north and updip of the epicenter with smaller patches of slip to the south and down dip of the epicenter (Lay et al., 2010). As expected the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> velocity is difficult to constrain with teleseismic data. Recent results from back projecting the P-waves recorded using Transportable Array data in the U.S. also show a bilateral <span class="hlt">rupture</span> with the location of the highest slip region north of the epicenter. All of these methods show significant mainshock slip in the 1928 <span class="hlt">rupture</span> zone and lesser amounts of slip in the part of the 1835 <span class="hlt">rupture</span> zone that did not fail in 1928, despite the longer time since 1835. The aftershocks of the 2010 and 1985 earthquakes overlap but the high slip region of the 2010 earthquakes does not appear to overlap significantly with the high slip region of the 1985 earthquake and the latter may have contributed to the termination of the 2010 earthquake. The 2010 Chile earthquake segment along the south central Chile subduction shows large variations in the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> mode in previous earthquakes. What controls the size of the earthquake (i.e. how many segments fail in a given event) is still uncertain but important in understanding the potential hazard of the Chile subduction zone.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Beck, S. L.; Comte, D.; Lay, T.; Kiser, E.; Ishii, M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">336</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9211611"> <span id="translatedtitle">Etiology and pathophysiology of tendon <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> in sports.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Of all spontaneous tendon <span class="hlt">ruptures</span>, complete Achilles tendon tears are most closely associated with sports activities (1-3). Schönbauer (3) reported that 75% of all <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> of the Achilles tendon are related to sports. In Plecko & Passl (2) the number was 60%. In our material of 430 cases, the number of sports-related Achilles <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> was very similar (62%), while only 2% of <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> of other tendons were sports-related (P < 0.001) (1). Also, the majority of Achilles reruptures occurred in sports. The <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> occurred most often in soccer (34%), track and field (16%) and basketball (14%). The distribution of Achilles <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> according to different sports varies considerably from country to country, according to the national sport traditions. For example, in northern and middle Europe, soccer, tennis, track and field, indoor ball games, downhill skiing, and gymnastics are the most common; and in North America, football, basketball, baseball, tennis and downhill skiing dominate the statistics (1, 2, 4). In sports, some Achilles <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> are not spontaneous or degeneration-induced but may occur as a consequence of the remarkably high forces that are involved in the performance (2). <span class="hlt">Ruptures</span> in the high jump or triple jump are good examples. In such cases, failure in the neuromuscular protective mechanisms due to fatigue or disturbed co-ordination can frequently be found. The spontaneous complete <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of the supraspinatus tendon of the rotator cuff does not occur very frequently in sports. Those sports that include high-energy throwing movements, such as American and Finnish baseball, American football, rugby and discuss and javelin throwing, may, however, produce this injury. Partial tears and inflammations of the rotator cuff complex are much more frequent in throwing sports. The complete <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of the proximal long head of the biceps brachii tendon is rare among competitive and recreational athletes. In our material, under 2% of these <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> were associated with sports activities (5). The <span class="hlt">rupture</span> (avulsion) of the distal tendon of the biceps muscle is rare. In sports, gymnastics, body building and weight lifting have been said to be able to produce this injury (6). In general, complete <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> of the quadriceps tendon and the patellar tendon occur most often in older individuals. In our study, the mean age of these patients was 65 years (5). However, these injuries do also occur in younger age groups, especially in athletes. In athletes, the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> most frequently occurs in high-power sports events, such as high jump, basketball and weight lifting, at the age of 15-30 years. A chronic-patellar apicitis (jumper's knee) may predispose <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of the tendon (7). As is the case with the rotator cuff complex, overuse inflammation and partial tears of the quadriceps and patellar tendons are one of the most characteristic athletic injuries. Complete spontaneous <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> of other tendons in sports are rare, although the literature does provide case studies from almost every tendon the human body possesses (8-18). PMID:9211611</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kannus, P; Natri, A</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">337</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4320801"> <span id="translatedtitle">Aneurysmal <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> of a Mesodiverticular Band to a Meckel's Diverticulum</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Aneurysmal <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of a mesodiverticular band has not previously been reported in the clinical literature. We are reporting a case of hemoperitoneum in a 51-year-old male after an aneurysmal <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of a mesodiverticular band. This case demonstrates that in rare instances, a <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of the mesodiverticular band leading to Meckel's diverticulum can lead to significant hemoperitoneum. This is usually caused by a traumatic injury but in our case was apparently caused by an aneurysm of the mesodiverticular artery. Patients with known Meckel's diverticula should be aware of the possibility of <span class="hlt">rupture</span>, as should clinicians treating those with a history of this usually benign congenital abnormality. Rapid surgical intervention is necessary to repair the source of bleeding, as massive blood loss was encountered in this case.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sommerhalder, Christian; Fretwell, Kenneth R.; Salzler, Gregory G.; Creasy, John M.; Robitsek, R. Jonathan; Schubl, Sebastian D.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2015-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">338</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16119282"> <span id="translatedtitle">Surgical treatment options for patella tendon <span class="hlt">rupture</span>, Part I: Acute.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Patella tendon <span class="hlt">rupture</span> is a debilitating injury. Prompt diagnosis and treatment is essential to prevent retraction of the patella with subsequent adhesions and quadriceps contractures. In a young patient with an acute <span class="hlt">rupture</span>, primary repair usually is possible with various methods described to protect the repair. In acute injuries with inadequate tissue, augmentation with hamstring tendons or allograft generally is necessary. Because of the different types of <span class="hlt">rupture</span> and the possibility for poor quality tissue, the surgeon should always be prepared to combine different techniques to obtain tthe best repair. Continuous passive motion generally can be initiated early with a secure repair. In patients with a patella tendon <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> that is promptly diagnosed, securely repaired, and followed closely through their rehabilitation, good results can be expected. PMID:16119282</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Greis, Patrick E; Holmstrom, Michael C; Lahav, Amit</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">339</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011TRACE..10..383O"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Rupture</span> of Cylindrical Ice Model and Tuna Fish during Freezing</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The gape and heave produced on the surface of tuna fish during freezing were confirmed by <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of cylindrical type ice model. The results of experiment were shown as summarized below; 1) in case of restraining the progress of ice formation of model during freezing,any <span class="hlt">rupture</span> was produced at not only slow freezing but also quick freezing. It was the same as tuna fish; 2) in case of closing surface of ice model covered perfectly by outside shell ice during slow freezing,it was not <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> at not only ice model but also tuna fish. On the contrary it was cracked at quick freezing not only ice model but also tuna fish; 3) therefore it was confirmed that the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of tuna fish during freezing had been easy to produce at quick freezing.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ogawa, Yutaka; Uno, Mitsuyo</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">340</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6709557"> <span id="translatedtitle">Occult <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> spleen--two unusual clinical presentations.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Case reports of two patients with occult <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of the spleen are presented. In one, blunt trauma appeared to involve only the neck and upper chest, resulting in two distinct tracheal injuries and no clinical indication of abdominal injury. On the 5th day after injury this patient strangulated an indirect inguinal hernia. At subsequent surgery, a <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> spleen was also found. The second patient gave no history of trauma and presented in cardiac and respiratory failure after a 2-month illness characterized by abdominal pain. On clinical and biochemical assessments, he was considered to have pancreatitis complicated by pseudocyst formation. Laparotomy revealed intra-abdominal haemorrhage and a <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> spleen. The diagnosis and complications of occult <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> spleen are discussed. PMID:6709557</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Moore, P G; Gillies, J G; James, O F; Saltos, N</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1984-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' 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src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">341</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://dspace.mit.edu/handle/1721.1/59743"> <span id="translatedtitle">Controls on earthquake <span class="hlt">rupture</span> and triggering mechanisms in subduction zones</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Large earthquake <span class="hlt">rupture</span> and triggering mechanisms that drive seismicity in subduction zones are investigated in this thesis using a combination of earthquake observations, statistical and physical modeling. A comparison ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Llenos, Andrea Lesley</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">342</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=maine&pg=6&id=EJ783363"> <span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">Maine</span> Event</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this article, the author describes the successful laptop program employed at Mt. Abram High School in Strong, <span class="hlt">Maine</span>. Through the <span class="hlt">Maine</span> Learning Technology Initiative, the school has issued laptops to all 36,000 teachers and students in grades 7-8. This program has helped level the playing field for a student population that is 50 percent to 55…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">McHale, Tom</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">343</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://octopus.gma.org/surfing/weather/index.html"> <span id="translatedtitle">Gulf of <span class="hlt">Maine</span>: Weather</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Lessons and activities from the Gulf of <span class="hlt">Maine</span> Research Institute (formerly Gulf of <span class="hlt">Maine</span> Aquarium), focused on hurricanes, El Nino, fog, and volcanic eruptions. Emphasis on important hurricanes of the past. Resources include lessons, guides for simple experiments, and a student weather network. Downloadable materials and additional webpages also provided.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-08-04</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">344</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/eimsapi.dispdetail?deid=142557"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">MAINE</span> MARINE WORM HABITAT</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p class="result-summary">WORM provides a generalized representation at 1:24,000 scale of commercially harvested marine worm habitat in <span class="hlt">Maine</span>, based on <span class="hlt">Maine</span> Department of Marine Resources data from 1970's. Original maps were created by MDMR and published by USF&WS as part of the ""&quo...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">345</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.fs.fed.us/ne/newtown_square/publications/research_notes/pdfs/scanned/OCR/ne_rn327.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">on Hurricane Island, <span class="hlt">Maine</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">In 1981, a study was initiated to measure the effects of low-level trampling (100 to 200 tramples) on selected vegetation on Hurricane Island, <span class="hlt">Maine</span>. Low levels of trampling are representative of general recreational use patterns on most <span class="hlt">Maine</span> islands. The study was designed to compare percent survival of common island species when subjected to low-level trampling, to observe treadway formation,</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">R. E. Leonard; P. W. Conkling; J. L. McMahon</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">346</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.T43A2617D"> <span id="translatedtitle">3D Dynamic <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> Simulation Across a Complex Fault System: the Mw7.0, 2010, Haiti Earthquake</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Earthquakes <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> sometimes take place on a secondary fault and surprisingly do not activate an adjacent major one. The 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake is a classic case where <span class="hlt">rupture</span> occurred on a blind thrust while the adjacent San Andreas Fault was not triggered during the process. Similar to Loma Prieta, the Mw7.0, January 12 2010, Haiti earthquake also <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> a secondary blind thrust, the Léogâne fault, adjacent to the <span class="hlt">main</span> plate boundary, the Enriquillo Plantain Garden Fault, which did not <span class="hlt">rupture</span> during this event. Aftershock relocalizations delineate the Léogâne <span class="hlt">rupture</span> with two north dipping segments with slightly different dip, where the easternmost segment had mostly dip-slip motion and the westernmost one had mostly strike-slip motion. In addition, an offshore south dipping structure inferred from the aftershocks to the west of the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> zone coincides with the offshore Trois Baies reverse fault, a region of increase in Coulomb stress increase. In this study, we investigate the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> dynamics of the Haiti earthquake in a complex fault system of multiple segments identified by the aftershock relocations. We suppose a background stress regime that is consistent with the type of motion of each fault and with the regional tectonic regime. We initiate a nucleation on the east segment of the Léogâne fault by defining a circular region with a 2 km radius where shear stress is slightly greater than the yield stress. By varying friction on faults and background stress, we find a range of plausible scenarios. In the absence of near-field seismic records of the event, we score the different models against the static deformation field derived from GPS and InSAR at the surface. All the plausible simulations show that the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> propagates from the eastern to the western segment along the Léogâne fault, but not on the Enriquillo fault nor on the Trois Baies fault. The best-fit simulation shows a significant increase of shear stresses on the Trois Baies fault, which might explain observed triggered aftershocks on this fault and small increase of shear stresses on the Enriquillo fault. We also find that a shift to north of about 3 km of the western segment of the Léogâne fault from recent studies provides a better fit to the coseismic InSAR and GPS displacements.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Douilly, R.; Aochi, H.; Calais, E.; Freed, A. M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">347</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.U51B0043G"> <span id="translatedtitle">Dynamic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> modeling of the 2011 M9 Tohoku earthquake with an unstructured 3D spectral element method</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">On March 11th 2011, a Mw 9 earthquake stroke Japan causing 28000 victims and triggering a devastating tsunami that caused severe damage along the Japanese coast. The exceptional amount of data recorded by this earthquake, with thousands of sensors located all over Japan, provides a great opportunity for seismologist and engineers to investigate in detail the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> process in order to better understand the physics of this type of earthquakes and their associated effects, like tsunamis. Here we investigate, by means of dynamic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> simulations, a plausible mechanism to explain key observations about the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> process of the 2011 M9 Tohoku earthquake, including the spatial complementarity between high and low frequency aspects of slip (e.g, Simons et al, Science 2011, Meng et al, GRL 2011). To model the dynamic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of this event, we use a realistic non-planar fault geometry of the megathrust interface, using the unstructured 3D spectral element open source code SPECFEM3D-SESAME, in which we recently implemented the dynamic fault boundary conditions. This implementation follows the principles introduced by Ampuero (2002) and Kaneko et al. (2008) and involves encapsulated modules plugged into the code. Our current implementation provides the possibility of modeling dynamic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> for multiple, non-planar faults governed by slip-weakening friction. We successfully verified the code in several SCEC benchmarks, including a 3D problem with branched faults, as well as modeling the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of subduction megathrust with a splay fault, finding results comparable to published results. Our first set of simulations is aimed at testing if the diversity of <span class="hlt">rupture</span> phenomena during the 2011 M9 Tohoku earthquake (see Ampuero et al in this session) can be overall reproduced by assuming the most basic friction law, linear slip-weakening friction, but prescribing a spatially heterogeneous distribution of the critical slip weakening distance Dc and initial fault stresses. Our initial model is composed of overlapping patches of a range of sizes which Dc correlates with the patch size. By trial-and-error we can determine a range of asperity properties that reproduce the <span class="hlt">main</span> features of this earthquake, such as the multi type of <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> featuring regions of low and high frequency radiation. In particular, a collection of small patches near the bottom of the seismogenic zone that may account for the strong high frequency radiation in that deeper region.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Galvez, P.; Ampuero, J. P.; Dalguer, L. A.; Nissen-Meyer, T.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">348</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUFM.S21B0576B"> <span id="translatedtitle">3D Dynamic Crack <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> by a Finite Volume Method</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Dynamic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of a 3D spontaneous crack of arbitrary shape has been investigated using a Finite Volume (FV) approach. The full domain is decomposed in tetrahedra while the surface on which the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> is supposed to take place is discretized with triangles which are faces of tetrahedra. Because of this meshing strategy, any shape of the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> surface could be designed and is performed once before simulations start. First of all, the elastodynamic equations are described into a pseudo-conservative form for easy application of the FV discretisation. Explicit boundary conditions are given using criteria based on the conservation of discrete energy through the crack surface. Using a stress-threshold criterion, these conditions specify fluxes through those triangles which have suffered <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. On these broken surfaces, stress follows A linear slip-weakening law although other friction laws can be implemented as well. Numerical solutions on a planar fault are achieved for the problem version 3 of the SCEC community dynamic-<span class="hlt">rupture</span> benchmark exercise (Harris and Archuleta, 2004) and compared with those provided by a Finite Difference (FD) technique (Day et al, 2005). Another benchmark problem is also tackled involving a nonplanar curved fault (Cruz-Atienza et al, 2007). Solutions for this difficult exercise are compared with those computed with a Boundary Integral (BI) method (Aochi et al, 2000). In both benchmarck problems, comparisons show that <span class="hlt">rupture</span> fronts are well modelled with a slight delay in time especially along the antiplane direction related to the low-order interpolation of the FV approach which requires further mesh refinement or/and an higher-order interpolation strategy as for Galerkin Discontinuous approach. Slip-rate and shear stress amplitudes are well modelled as well as stopping phases and stress overshoots. We expect this method, which is well adapted to multi-preocessor parallel computing to be competitive with others for solving large scale dynamic <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> scenario of seismic sources in the near future. References : Aochi, H., E. Fukuyama and M. Matsuura, 2000. Spontaneous <span class="hlt">rupture</span> propagation of a non-planar fault in 3D elastic medium, PAGEOPH, 157, 2003-2027. Cruz-Atienza, V.M., J. Virieux, J. and H. Aochi, 3D finite-difference dynamic-<span class="hlt">rupture</span> modeling along nonplanar faults, Geophysics, 72, SM123-SM137. Day, S. M., L.A. Dalguer, N. Lapusta and Y. Liu, 2005, Comparison of finite difference and boundary integral solutions to three-dimensional spontaneous <span class="hlt">rupture</span>: Journal of Geophysical Research, 110, B12307, http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2005JB003813. Harris, R. A. and R. J. Archuleta, 2004, Earthquake <span class="hlt">rupture</span> dynamics: Comparing the numerical simulation methods: EOS, 85, 321.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ben Jemaa, M.; Glinsky-Olivier, N.; Cruz-Atienza, V. M.; Virieux, J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">349</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4255892"> <span id="translatedtitle">Soft, Brown <span class="hlt">Rupture</span>: Clinical Signs and Symptoms Associated with <span class="hlt">Ruptured</span> PIP Breast Implants</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background: Preoperative signs and symptoms of patients with Poly Implant Prothese (PIP) implants could be predictive of device failure. Based on clinical observation and intraoperative findings 4 hypotheses were raised: (1) Preoperative clinical signs including acquired asymmetry, breast enlargement, fullness of the lower pole, decreased mound projection, and change in breast consistency could be indicative of implant <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. (2) Device failure correlates with a low preoperative Baker grade of capsule. (3) Brown-stained implants are more prone to implant failure. (4) The brown gel could be indicative of iodine ingression through a substandard elastomer shell. Methods: Preoperative clinical signs were compared with intraoperative findings for 27 patients undergoing PIP implant explantation. Results: Acquired asymmetry (P = 0.0003), breast enlargement (P = 0.0002), fuller lower pole (P < 0.0001), and loss of lateral projection (P < 0.0001) were all significantly predictive of device failure. Capsule Baker grade was lower preoperatively for <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> implants. The lack of palpable and visible preoperative capsular contracture could be secondary to the elastic nature of the capsular tissue found. Brown implants failed significantly more often than white implants. Analysis of brown gel revealed the presence of iodine, suggesting povidone iodine ingression at implantation. Conclusions: Preoperative signs can be predictive of PIP implant failure. Brown-stained implants are more prone to <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. The presence of iodine in the gel suggests unacceptable permeability of the shell early in the implant’s life span. A noninvasive screening test to detect brown implants in situ could help identify implants at risk of failure in those who elect to keep their implants. PMID:25506532</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Duncan, Robert T.; Feig, Christine; Reintals, Michelle; Hill, Sarah</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">350</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.umaine.edu/folklife/"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Maine</span> Folklife Center</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Located at the University of <span class="hlt">Maine</span>, the <span class="hlt">Maine</span> Folklife Center is committed to documenting and understanding the folklore, folklife, and history of <span class="hlt">Maine</span> and Atlantic Canada. Along with its various scholarly activities, the Center sponsors a number of festivals, lectures, and like-minded programs that encourage appreciation of the diverse cultural traditions within the region. The site will be useful to researchers with a penchant in these fields, as it contains information about the collections, including a rather extensive oral history collection (with work that documenting the cranberry culture of Massachusetts and the traditional music of <span class="hlt">Maine</span>). There is also material on the public programs and exhibits sponsored by the center, and a set of external links that lead to other sites dealing with oral history, folklore, and <span class="hlt">Maine</span>. While the Center's site does not have a great deal of online material for consideration, the center has transcribed the sixth volume of Northeast Folklore (originally published in 1964) and placed them online.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">351</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3826277"> <span id="translatedtitle">Extracellular Matrix Dynamics and Fetal Membrane <span class="hlt">Rupture</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The extracellular matrix (ECM) plays an important role in determining cell and organ function: (1) it is an organizing substrate that provides tissue tensile strength; (2) it anchors cells and influences cell morphology and function via interaction with cell surface receptors; and (3) it is a reservoir for growth factors. Alterations in the content and the composition of the ECM determine its physical and biological properties, including strength and susceptibility to degradation. The ECM components themselves also harbor cryptic matrikines, which when exposed by conformational change or proteolysis have potent effects on cell function, including stimulating the production of cytokines and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). Collectively, these properties of the ECM reflect a dynamic tissue component that influences both tissue form and function. This review illustrates how defects in ECM synthesis and metabolism and the physiological process of ECM turnover contribute to changes in the fetal membranes that precede normal parturition and contribute to the pathological events leading to preterm premature <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of membranes (PPROM). PMID:22267536</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Strauss,, Jerome F.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">352</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3884862"> <span id="translatedtitle">Spontaneous Ureteral <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> Diagnosis and Treatment</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Rupture</span> of the urinary collecting system associated with perinephric or retroperitoneal extravasation of the urine is an unusual condition and it is commonly associated with renal obstructing disease. Perforation could occur at any level from the calix to the bladder but it is usually seen at the fornices and upper ureter. It may lead to several serious consequences including urinoma, abscess formation, urosepsis, infection, and subsequent irreversible renal impairment. We report a case of a 69-year-old woman who presented at the emergency department of our institution with severe abdominal pain. Due to symptomatology worsening, complete laboratory evaluation was performed and the patient underwent abdominal contrast enhanced computed tomography (CT) evaluation which showed contrast agent extravasation outside the excretory system without any evidence of renal calculi at basal acquisition. It was decided to perform a double-J stent placement which was followed by complete healing of the ureter and its removal was performed 8 weeks later. Diagnosis and therapeutic approaches are discussed. PMID:24455381</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Pampana, E.; Altobelli, S.; Morini, M.; Ricci, A.; D'Onofrio, S.; Simonetti, G.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">353</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/230715"> <span id="translatedtitle">Stress-<span class="hlt">rupture</span> strength of alloy 718</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Alloy 718 is the most widely used of the nickel-base superalloys in aerospace applications such as compressor and turbine disks, cases, compressor blades and fasteners in aircraft gas-turbine engines. Since the development of the superalloy by Inco Alloys International over 30 years ago, researchers have made many slight modifications in chemical composition, and have refined process techniques to achieve further improvements in performance. Relatively little information on the effects of phosphorus has been published, and the available information is contradictory. However, phosphorus in superalloys is generally considered detrimental, and by specification is controlled to a low maximum value (0.015% max, for example, in AMS5662 E). This lack of data is the basis of a study by Teledyne Allvac to determine the effects of the interaction of phosphorus, boron, and carbon on the mechanical properties, processing characteristics, and microstructure of Allvac 718. Results show that a significant improvement in stress-<span class="hlt">rupture</span> properties over those of a commercial Alloy 718 material is possible by optimizing phosphorus, boron, and carbon additions.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kennedy, R.L.; Cao, W.D.; Thomas, W.M. [Teledyne Allvac, Monroe, NC (United States)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1996-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">354</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3388513"> <span id="translatedtitle">Size-Dependent <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> Strain of Elastically Stretchable Metal Conductors</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Experiments show that the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> strain of gold conductors on elastomers decreases as the conductors are made long and narrow. <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> is caused by the irreversible coalescence of microcracks into one long crack. A mechanics model identifies a critical crack length ?cr, above which the long crack propagates across the entire conductor width. ?cr depends on the fracture toughness of the gold film and the width of the conductor. The model provides guidance for the design of highly stretchable conductors. PMID:22773917</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Graudejus, O.; Jia, Z.; Li, T.; Wagner, S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">355</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3418044"> <span id="translatedtitle">Intraperitoneal <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> of Hepatic Hydatid Cyst Following Blunt Abdominal Trauma</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Peritonitis due to <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of liver hydatid cyst secondary to blunt abdominal trauma can present with fatal consequences. Timely diagnosis and appropriate surgical management can be life saving. We report a case of <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> liver hydatid cyst in the peritoneal cavity following trauma and its successful operative management in a preadolescent previously asymptomatic boy. Importance of detailed physical examination and early diagnosis by using appropriate radiological investigations is highlighted. PMID:22953304</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Dhua, Anjan Kumar; Sharma, Akshay</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">356</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24882658"> <span id="translatedtitle">Atraumatic splenic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> after coagulopathy owing to a snakebite.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Among the many complications that may follow envenomation by some species of venomous snakes, coagulopathy is common and well known. However, hemoperitoneum induced by coagulopathy after a snakebite is rare. Atraumatic spontaneous splenic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> is also an uncommon and life-threatening condition. Here, we report a case of presumptive envenomation by Gloydius spp. that resulted in atraumatic splenic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> as a probable manifestation of coagulopathy, which has not been previously reported. PMID:24882658</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kang, Changwoo; Kim, Dong Hoon; Kim, Seong Chun; Kim, Dong Seob; Jeong, Chi-Young</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">357</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9595238"> <span id="translatedtitle">Delayed traumatic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of the thoracic aorta into the esophagus.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A case of delayed <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of the thoracic aorta into the esophagus after blunt thoracic injury is reported. It involved a hemodynamically stable 18-year-old male patient without any clinical or radiological signs to indicate aortic injury. Aortoesophageal fistula presented in the fifth post traumatic day, with a sudden dyspnea episode, intraperitoneal hemorrhage and lower gastrointestinal bleeding, due to intraperitoneal and intragastric <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of intramural esophageal hematoma. PMID:9595238</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Komborozos, V A; Belenis, I; Malagari, C; Yannopoulos, P</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1998-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">358</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24347218"> <span id="translatedtitle">Iliopsoas hematoma due to muscular <span class="hlt">rupture</span> following defibrillation.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We describe a 62 year old patient who presented with acute anterior ischemia and subsequently developed an iliopsoas hematoma. The patient was treated surgically due to rapid progression and femoral neuropathy, and the iliopsoas muscle <span class="hlt">rupture</span> was diagnosed intraoperatively. The <span class="hlt">rupture</span> was related to the external electrical defibrillation the patient had on admission. This was a rare case, and we hope the report would help to raise physicians' awareness regarding this complication and treatment. PMID:24347218</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jahollari, Artan; Cavolli, Raif; Tavlasoglu, Murat; Sallahu, Ferat; Muriqi, Shkelzen</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">359</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23161834"> <span id="translatedtitle">Continuous microwire patterns dominated by controllable <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of liquid films.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Controllable microwire patterns are prepared by dominating the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of liquid films. Regular rhombic-shaped micropillar arrays serve as wetting defects to pin or depin liquids, yielding continuous, herringbone, bead-shaped polystyrene microwire patterns or bead arrays. The results provide a deeper understanding of the controllable <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of liquid films and offer a general strategy for the organization of polymers into structures needed for wiring, interconnects, and functional devices for future microfabrication. PMID:23161834</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Xin, Zhiqing; Su, Bin; Wang, Jianjun; Zhang, Xingye; Zhang, Zhiliang; Deng, Mengmeng; Song, Yanlin; Jiang, Lei</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-03-11</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">360</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/55187036"> <span id="translatedtitle">Dynamic Earthquake <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> Modeling With Stochastic Fault Stress</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">We investigate how the evolution of dynamic earthquake <span class="hlt">rupture</span> is controlled by heterogeneous stress distributions on the fault plane. A 3D finite difference code is used to model <span class="hlt">rupture</span> on a single vertical fault plane obeying a slip-weakening friction law. The friction parameters (critical slip-weakening distance, coefficients of friction) are kept homogeneous over the fault plane, whereas the distributions of</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">P. M. Mai; J. Ripperger</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' 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class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">361</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.agu.org/journals/gl/gl0421/2004GL021030/2004GL021030.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Slip tapers at the tips of faults and earthquake <span class="hlt">ruptures</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Slip gradients near the tips of earthquake <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> and faults are typically linear. For non-interacting faults or earthquake <span class="hlt">ruptures</span>, tip tapers are scale invariant, and about 1–2 orders of magnitude larger for faults than for earthquakes. For fault tips interacting with other faults, the taper can be as much as a factor of 10 greater than for non-interacting faults. For</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Christopher H. Scholz; Theresa M. Lawler</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">362</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/40031702"> <span id="translatedtitle">Aqueous solvents for extracting glanded cottonseed protein without gland <span class="hlt">rupture</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The presence of pigment glands has thwarted attempts to extract edible cottonseed protein aqueously from glanded seeds or\\u000a gland-rich meals, probably because of the widely held belief that glands <span class="hlt">rupture</span> on contact with aqueous media. We found several\\u000a aqueous salt solutions in which glands did not <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. Glands remained intact in saturated (2m) sodium sulfate, but not in saturated 2m</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">L. L. Muller; T. J. Jacks; T. P. Hensarling</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1976-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">363</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10191115"> <span id="translatedtitle">Weak-<span class="hlt">shock</span> reflection factors</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The purpose of this paper is to compare reflection factors for weak <span class="hlt">shocks</span> from various surfaces, and to focus attention on some unsolved questions. Three different cases are considered: square-wave planar <span class="hlt">shock</span> reflection from wedges; square-wave planar <span class="hlt">shock</span> reflection from cylinders; and spherical blast wave reflection from a planar surface. We restrict ourselves to weak <span class="hlt">shocks</span>. <span class="hlt">Shocks</span> with a Mach number of M{sub O} < 1.56 in air or with an overpressure of {Delta}{sub PI} < 25 psi (1.66 bar) under normal ambient conditions are called weak.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Reichenbach, H. [Ernst Mach Inst., Freiburg (Germany); Kuhl, A.L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., El Segundo, CA (United States)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1993-09-07</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">364</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12366028"> <span id="translatedtitle">Occurrence of finite-time singularities in epidemic models of <span class="hlt">rupture</span>, earthquakes, and starquakes.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We present a new kind of critical stochastic finite-time singularity, relying on the interplay between long-memory and extreme fluctuations. We illustrate it on the well-established epidemic-type aftershock model for aftershocks, based solely on the most solidly documented stylized facts of seismicity (clustering in space and in time and power law Gutenberg-Richter distribution of earthquake energies). This theory accounts for the <span class="hlt">main</span> observations (power law acceleration and discrete scale invariant structure) of critical <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of heterogeneous materials, of the largest sequence of starquakes ever attributed to a neutron star, as well as of earthquake sequences. PMID:12366028</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sornette, D; Helmstetter, A</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">365</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70017559"> <span id="translatedtitle">The temporal distribution of seismic radiation during deep earthquake <span class="hlt">rupture</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The time history of energy release during earthquakes illuminates the process of failure, which remains enigmatic for events deeper than about 100 kilometers. Stacks of teleseismic records from regional arrays for 122 intermediate (depths of 100 to 350 kilometers) and deep (depths of 350 to 700 kilometers) earthquakes show that the temporal pattern of short-period seismic radiation has a systematic variation with depth. On average, for intermediate depth events more radiation is released toward the beginning of the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> than near the end, whereas for deep events radiation is released symmetrically over the duration of the event, with an abrupt beginning and end of <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. These findings suggest a variation in the style of <span class="hlt">rupture</span> related to decreasing fault heterogeneity with depth.The time history of energy release during earthquakes illuminates the process of failure, which remains enigmatic for events deeper than about 100 kilometers. Stacks of teleseismic records from regional arrays for 122 intermediate (depths of 100 to 350 kilometers) and deep (depths of 350 to 700 kilometers) earthquakes show that the temporal pattern of short-period seismic radiation has a systematic variation with depth. On average, for intermediate depth events more radiation is released toward the beginning of the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> than near the end, whereas for deep events radiation is released symmetrically over the duration of the event, with an abrupt beginning and end of <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. These findings suggest a variation in the style of <span class="hlt">rupture</span> related to decreasing fault heterogeneity with depth.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Houston, H.; Vidale, J.E.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1994-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">366</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1991AIPC..217..165S"> <span id="translatedtitle">Short term creep <span class="hlt">rupture</span> predictions for tantalum alloy T-111</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A knowledge of the short term creep <span class="hlt">rupture</span> behavior of Tantalum alloy T-111 is necessary to predict device integrity in the heat source section of Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) at the end of service life, in the event of a fuel fire. High pressures exist in RTGs near the end of service life, these are caused by gas generation resulting from radioactive decay of the nuclear fuel. The internal pressure exerts a significant hoop stress on the T-111 alloy structural containment member. This paper analyses the short term creep behavior (<span class="hlt">rupture</span> times up to ˜2×103 hrs.) of cold worked (CW) T-111 alloy, using the existing data of Stephenson (1967). Corellations for the time to <span class="hlt">rupture</span>, time to 1% strain and minimum creep rate have been obtained from this data using multivariable linear regression analysis. These results are compared to other short term <span class="hlt">rupture</span> data for T-111 alloy. Finally, at the stress/temperature levels relevant to the RTG fuel fire scenario near the end of service life, the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> time correlation for T-111 alloy predicts a <span class="hlt">rupture</span> time of approximately 100 hrs.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Stephens, John J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1991-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">367</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20030111303&hterms=lunar+meteorite+dhofar&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dlunar%2Bmeteorite%2Bdhofar"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Shock</span> Heating and Subsequent Cooling of Basaltic Shergottites: The Cases for QUE94201 and Dhofar 378</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Shock</span> metamorphism is one of the most fundamental processes in the history of Martian meteorites. Especially, shergottites experienced strong <span class="hlt">shock</span> effects (>30 GPa) most likely when they were ejected from Mars. "Maskelynitization" of plagioclase and formation of <span class="hlt">shock</span> melts are major effects due to this severe <span class="hlt">shock</span>. QUE94201 (QUE) and Dhofar 378 (DHO) are basaltic shergottites that are <span class="hlt">mainly</span> composed of pyroxene and plagioclase glass. These two shergottites suffered severe <span class="hlt">shock</span>, which generated abundant impact melt and vesiculated flow textures. In spite of similar degrees of <span class="hlt">shock</span> between two meteorites, they are distinct in several mineralogical aspects. In this abstract, we discuss their differences to understand differences in their <span class="hlt">shock</span> heating and subsequent cooling histories.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mikouchi, T.; McKay, G.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">368</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005AGUFMSH52A..04K"> <span id="translatedtitle">Survey of interplanetary <span class="hlt">shock</span> characteristics</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We report on a comparison of more than one hundred interplanetary <span class="hlt">shocks</span> observed by both the Wind and ACE spacecraft. For each event, we use single spacecraft analysis methods such as the full Rankine-Hugoniot jump relations and the simpler velocity and magnetic coplanarity techniques to determine the <span class="hlt">shock</span> orientation, speed, and assorted mach numbers and angles. We present a comparison of the properties of the <span class="hlt">shocks</span> as a function of the separation between the spacecraft to determine the accuracy of the analysis methods and the non-planarity of IP <span class="hlt">shocks</span>. The accuracy of the derived <span class="hlt">shock</span> parameters and the non-planarity of the <span class="hlt">shock</span> fronts are quantified by comparing the observed <span class="hlt">shock</span> transit time between the spacecraft with predicted transit times calculated from the derived <span class="hlt">shock</span> properties. The average timing errors for a given analysis method is the same using the Wind or ACE dataset; The Ranking-Hugoniot method performs best, with an RMS timing error of two minutes. We have studied the non-planarity of the <span class="hlt">shocks</span> by comparing the implied radius of curvature determined by the difference between the two derived normals with the separation of the spacecraft. The variation is consistent with a five-degree error in <span class="hlt">shock</span> direction and a typical radius of curvature of 0.1-0.3 AU. The <span class="hlt">shock</span> parameters are made available through an online database (1). (1) http://space.mit.edu/home/jck/shockdb/shockdb.html</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kasper, J. C.; Lazarus, A. J.; Szabo, A.; Ogilvie, K. W.; Skoug, R.; Steinberg, J. T.; Smith, C.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">369</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.T13D2637L"> <span id="translatedtitle">300-km-long co-seismic surface <span class="hlt">rupture</span> produced by the 2008 Mw 7.9 Wenchuan earthquake along the active Longmen Shan Thrust Belt, China</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The magnitude (Mw) 7.9 (Ms 8.1) Wenchuan earthquake occurred on 12 May 2008 and <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> active faults of the Longmen Shan Thrust Belt (LSTB), which marks the boundary between the eastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau and the Sichuan Basin. Although many studies of the 2008 Mw 7.9 Wenchuan earthquake have described the ground deformation features, <span class="hlt">rupture</span> mechanism, and structural features of the seismogenic fault zone associated with this event, debate remains concerning the total length of the co-seismic surface <span class="hlt">rupture</span> zone and whether the earthquake <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> the Qingchuan Fault in the northeastern segment of the Longmen Shan Thrust Belt (LSTB), China. Based on our initial fieldwork carried out 2 days after the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake, we reported that the earthquake produced a ~285-km-long surface <span class="hlt">rupture</span> zone along the LSTB, at the eastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau, dominated by thrust slip and right-lateral displacement along the central and northeastern segments of the zone, and by left-lateral displacement along the southeastern segment (Lin et al., 2009, 2010). However, other field-based studies have reported that the total length of the co-seismic surface <span class="hlt">rupture</span> zone is 200-240 km and that the Qingchuan Fault was not <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> by the Wenchuan earthquake (e.g., Liu-Zeng et al., 2009; Xu et al., 2009; Yin, 2010; Zhang et al., 2010). The length of surface <span class="hlt">rupture</span> produced by large, individual earthquakes is a key parameter in assessing the seismic moment, the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> mechanism, the degree of seismic hazard, and the activity of a seismogenic fault, including the recurrence interval of large earthquakes and the long-term slip rate. Therefore, additional work is needed to constrain the length of the co-seismic surface <span class="hlt">rupture</span> and the location of <span class="hlt">rupture</span> termination at the northeastern segment of the LSTB, in order to accurately assess the nature of the seismic hazard in the densely populated Sichuan region of China. In this study, we present new field evidence that the Qingchuan Fault was <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> by the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake and that the total length of the co-seismic surface <span class="hlt">rupture</span> zone is up to 285-300 km. Field investigations reveal that the earthquake produced a ?60-km-long surface <span class="hlt">rupture</span> zone along the pre-existing Qingchuan Fault, northeastern segment of the LSTB, with the offset being <span class="hlt">mainly</span> right-lateral strike-slip and a distinct component of vertical slip. Co-seismic surface <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> are characterized by faults and extensional cracks. Field measurements indicate co-seismic right-lateral strike-slip displacements along the Qingchuan Fault of 0.3-0.6 m and vertical offsets of 0.2-0.5 m, which differs to the displacements observed along the central and southwestern segments of the Wenchuan surface <span class="hlt">rupture</span> zone in the displacement amount and sense. The change in slip sense from thrust-dominated slip in the central and southwestern segments of the LSTB to right-lateral strike-slip-dominated displacement along the Qingchuan Fault reflects a change in the orientation of compressive stress along the LSTB, associated with eastward extrusion of the Tibetan Plateau as it accommodates the ongoing penetration of the Indian Plate into the Eurasian Plate.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lin, A.; Rao, G.; Yan, B.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">370</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=557420"> <span id="translatedtitle">Archaebacterial heat-<span class="hlt">shock</span> proteins</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The response to heat <span class="hlt">shock</span> was examined in seven archaebacterial strains from the genus Halobacterium. Upon heat <span class="hlt">shock</span> each strain preferentially synthesized a limited number of proteins which fell into three narrow mol. wt. ranges. Further examination of the heat-<span class="hlt">shock</span> response in H. volcanii revealed that heat-<span class="hlt">shock</span> protein (hsp) synthesis was greatest at 60°C. Synthesis of hsps at this induction temperature was both rapid and transient. Cells recovered their normal protein synthesis patterns rapidly upon returning to their normal growth temperature following heat <span class="hlt">shock</span>. H. volcanii cells also responded with a `heat <span class="hlt">shock</span>-like' response to salt dilution, a natural environmental stress for these organisms. These results indicate that the heat <span class="hlt">shock</span> or stress response which is charactertistic of eukaryotic and eubacterial cells is also present among members of the archaebacterial genus Halobacterium. ImagesFig. 1.Fig. 2.Fig. 3.Fig. 4.Fig. 5.Fig. 6. PMID:16453513</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Daniels, C.J.; McKee, A.H.Z.; Doolittle, W.F.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1984-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">371</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011NatGe...4..486B"> <span id="translatedtitle">Loading of the San Andreas fault by flood-induced <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of faults beneath the Salton Sea</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The southern San Andreas fault has not experienced a large earthquake for approximately 300 years, yet the previous five earthquakes occurred at ~180-year intervals. Large strike-slip faults are often segmented by lateral stepover zones. Movement on smaller faults within a stepover zone could perturb the <span class="hlt">main</span> fault segments and potentially trigger a large earthquake. The southern San Andreas fault terminates in an extensional stepover zone beneath the Salton Sea--a lake that has experienced periodic flooding and desiccation since the late Holocene. Here we reconstruct the magnitude and timing of fault activity beneath the Salton Sea over several earthquake cycles. We observe coincident timing between flooding events, stepover fault displacement and <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> on the San Andreas fault. Using Coulomb stress models, we show that the combined effect of lake loading, stepover fault movement and increased pore pressure could increase stress on the southern San Andreas fault to levels sufficient to induce failure. We conclude that <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of the stepover faults, caused by periodic flooding of the palaeo-Salton Sea and by tectonic forcing, had the potential to trigger earthquake <span class="hlt">rupture</span> on the southern San Andreas fault. Extensional stepover zones are highly susceptible to rapid stress loading and thus the Salton Sea may be a nucleation point for large <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> on the southern San Andreas fault.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Brothers, Daniel; Kilb, Debi; Luttrell, Karen; Driscoll, Neal; Kent, Graham</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">372</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70036295"> <span id="translatedtitle">Loading of the san andreas fault by flood-induced <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of faults beneath the salton Sea</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The southern San Andreas fault has not experienced a large earthquake for approximately 300 years, yet the previous five earthquakes occurred at ???180-year intervals. Large strike-slip faults are often segmented by lateral stepover zones. A Movement on smaller faults within a stepover zone could perturb the <span class="hlt">main</span> fault segments and potentially trigger a large earthquake. The southern San Andreas fault terminates in an extensional stepover zone beneath the Salton Sea-a lake that has experienced periodic flooding and desiccation since the late Holocene. Here we reconstruct the magnitude and timing of fault activity beneath the Salton Sea over several earthquake cycles. We observe coincident timing between flooding events, stepover fault displacement and <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> on the San Andreas fault. Using Coulomb stress models, we show that the combined effect of lake loading, stepover fault movement and increased pore pressure could increase stress on the southern San Andreas fault to levels sufficient to induce failure. We conclude that <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of the stepover faults, caused by periodic flooding of the palaeo-Salton Sea and by tectonic forcing, had the potential to trigger earthquake <span class="hlt">rupture</span> on the southern San Andreas fault. Extensional stepover zones are highly susceptible to rapid stress loading and thus the Salton Sea may be a nucleation point for large <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> on the southern San Andreas fault. ?? 2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Brothers, D.; Kilb, D.; Luttrell, K.; Driscoll, N.; Kent, G.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">373</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4087921"> <span id="translatedtitle">Structural control on the Tohoku earthquake <span class="hlt">rupture</span> process investigated by 3D FEM, tsunami and geodetic data</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The 2011 Tohoku earthquake (Mw = 9.1) highlighted previously unobserved features for megathrust events, such as the large slip in a relatively limited area and the shallow <span class="hlt">rupture</span> propagation. We use a Finite Element Model (FEM), taking into account the 3D geometrical and structural complexities up to the trench zone, and perform a joint inversion of tsunami and geodetic data to retrieve the earthquake slip distribution. We obtain a close spatial correlation between the <span class="hlt">main</span> deep slip patch and the local seismic velocity anomalies, and large shallow slip extending also to the North coherently with a seismically observed low-frequency radiation. These observations suggest that the friction controlled the <span class="hlt">rupture</span>, initially confining the deeper <span class="hlt">rupture</span> and then driving its propagation up to the trench, where it spreads laterally. These findings are relevant to earthquake and tsunami hazard assessment because they may help to detect regions likely prone to <span class="hlt">rupture</span> along the megathrust, and to constrain the probability of high slip near the trench. Our estimate of ~40?m slip value around the JFAST (Japan Trench Fast Drilling Project) drilling zone contributes to constrain the dynamic shear stress and friction coefficient of the fault obtained by temperature measurements to ~0.68?MPa and ~0.10, respectively. PMID:25005351</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Romano, F.; Trasatti, E.; Lorito, S.; Piromallo, C.; Piatanesi, A.; Ito, Y.; Zhao, D.; Hirata, K.; Lanucara, P.; Cocco, M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">374</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10694437"> <span id="translatedtitle">Caveolin internalization by heat <span class="hlt">shock</span> or hyperosmotic <span class="hlt">shock</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We investigated the cellular localization of caveolin, a landmark protein of caveolae, by indirect immunofluorescence after heat <span class="hlt">shock</span> or hyperosmotic <span class="hlt">shock</span>. Caveolin was internalized to the perinucleus by heat <span class="hlt">shock</span> (43 degrees C) and relocalized in the plasma membrane after recovery of NIH3T3 cells at 37 degrees C for 4 h. The caveolin internalization was also observed after cells were exposed to hyperosmotic <span class="hlt">shock</span>. Caveolin disappeared from detergent-insoluble complexes in the heat-<span class="hlt">shocked</span> cells, but alkaline phosphatase was still there, suggesting that their responses to heat <span class="hlt">shock</span> are quite different even though both of them were enriched in detergent-insoluble complexes of normal cells. Caveolin was internalized by the actin depolymerizer cytochalasin D, but not by the tubulin depolymerizer nocodazole. In addition, cellular exposure to hydrogen peroxide caused caveolin internalization along with disintegrated microfilaments and intact microtubules. Since cellular exposure to heat <span class="hlt">shock</span> showed disintegrated microfilaments but intact microtubules, caveolin internalization might be due to depolymerized microfilaments. When cells were exposed to heat <span class="hlt">shock</span> and allowed to recover for 4 h, actin depolymerization and caveolin internalization were not induced by a second heat <span class="hlt">shock</span>, suggesting that some heat <span class="hlt">shock</span> protein(s) might prevent actin depolymerization and caveolin internalization. PMID:10694437</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kang, Y S; Ko, Y G; Seo, J S</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2000-03-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">375</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010PhDT.........2S"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Shock</span> Acceleration in the Solar Corona</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this thesis acceleration of energetic particles at collisionless <span class="hlt">shock</span> waves in space plasmas is studied using numerical simulations, with an emphasis on physical conditions applicable to the solar corona. The thesis consists of four research articles and an introductory part that summarises the <span class="hlt">main</span> findings reached in the articles and discusses them with respect to theory of diffusive <span class="hlt">shock</span> acceleration and observations. This thesis gives a brief review of observational properties of solar energetic particles and discusses a few open questions that are currently under active research. For example, in a few large gradual solar energetic particle events the heavy ion abundance ratios and average charge states show characteristics at high energies that are typically associated with flare-accelerated particles, i.e. impulsive events. The role of flare-accelerated particles in these and other gradual events has been discussed a lot in the scientific community, and it has been questioned if and how the observed features can be explained in terms of diffusive <span class="hlt">shock</span> acceleration at <span class="hlt">shock</span> waves driven by coronal mass ejections. The most extreme solar energetic particle events are the so-called ground level enhancements where particle receive so high energies that they can penetrate all the way through Earth's atmosphere and increase radiation levels at the surface. It is not known what conditions are required for acceleration into GeV/nuc energies, and the presence of both very fast coronal mass ejections and X-class solar flares makes it difficult to determine what is the role of these two accelerators in ground level enhancements. The theory of diffusive <span class="hlt">shock</span> acceleration is reviewed and its predictions discussed with respect to the observed particle characteristics. We discuss how <span class="hlt">shock</span> waves can be modeled and describe in detail the numerical model developed by the author. The <span class="hlt">main</span> part of this thesis consists of the four scientific articles that are based on results of the numerical <span class="hlt">shock</span> acceleration model developed by the author. The novel feature of this model is that it can handle complex magnetic geometries which are found, for example, near active regions in the solar corona. We show that, according to our simulations, diffusive <span class="hlt">shock</span> acceleration can explain the observed variations in abundance ratios and average charge states, provided that suitable seed particles and magnetic geometry are available for the acceleration process in the solar corona. We also derive an injection threshold for diffusive <span class="hlt">shock</span> acceleration that agrees with our simulation results very well, and which is valid under weakly turbulent conditions. Finally, we show that diffusive <span class="hlt">shock</span> acceleration can produce GeV/nuc energies under suitable coronal conditions, which include the presence of energetic seed particles, a favourable magnetic geometry, and an enhanced level of ambient turbulence.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sandroos, Arto</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">376</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://arxiv.org/pdf/0710.2849v1"> <span id="translatedtitle">NA57 <span class="hlt">main</span> results</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The CERN NA57 experiment was designed to study the production of strange and multi-strange particles in heavy ion collisions at SPS energies; its physics programme is essentially completed. A review of the <span class="hlt">main</span> results is presented.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">G. E. Bruno; for the NA57 Collaboration</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-10-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">377</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2900591"> <span id="translatedtitle">Carotid Atheroma <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> Observed In Vivo and FSI-Predicted Stress Distribution Based on Pre-<span class="hlt">rupture</span> Imaging</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Atherosclerosis at the carotid bifurcation is a major risk factor for stroke. As mechanical forces may impact lesion stability, finite element studies have been conducted on models of diseased vessels to elucidate the effects of lesion characteristics on the stresses within plaque materials. It is hoped that patient-specific biomechanical analyses may serve clinically to assess the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> potential for any particular lesion, allowing better stratification of patients into the most appropriate treatments. Due to a sparsity of in vivo plaque <span class="hlt">rupture</span> data, the relationship between various mechanical descriptors such as stresses or strains and <span class="hlt">rupture</span> vulnerability is incompletely known, and the patient-specific utility of biomechanical analyses is unclear. In this article, we present a comparison between carotid atheroma <span class="hlt">rupture</span> observed in vivo and the plaque stress distribution from fluid–structure interaction analysis based on pre-<span class="hlt">rupture</span> medical imaging. The effects of image resolution are explored and the calculated stress fields are shown to vary by as much as 50% with sub-pixel geometric uncertainty. Within these bounds, we find a region of pronounced elevation in stress within the fibrous plaque layer of the lesion with a location and extent corresponding to that of the observed site of plaque <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. PMID:20232151</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rayz, Vitaliy L.; Soares, Bruno; Wintermark, Max; Mofrad, Mohammad R. K.; Saloner, David</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">378</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://mainemusicbox.library.umaine.edu/"> <span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">Maine</span> Music Box</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Created through a collaboration between the University of <span class="hlt">Maine</span>'s Fogler Library and other <span class="hlt">Maine</span> libraries, The <span class="hlt">Maine</span> Music Box contains hundreds of digitized sheet music scores from five major collections. First-time visitors to the site will want to click on the "About <span class="hlt">Maine</span> Music Box" project as a way of getting started. Here they can check out the "User Information" area, which contains helpful tips on viewing the music and how to best browse the entire database. Additionally, those with a penchant for technical details and information science in general can also learn in copious detail how the database was created for this project. From there, visitors can move straight away into the <span class="hlt">main</span> collection. Visitors can browse the collection by music subject, sheet music cover art, or just type in their own keywords. One of the best ways to look over the collection is to browse around in such areas as "Instructional Violin", "<span class="hlt">Maine</span> Collection" and "Parlor Salon Collection". It's also worth remarking that this site may inspire a sing-a-long, a campfire get-together, or a miniature Chautauqua.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">379</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.icenes2007.org/icenes_proceedings/manuscripts.pdf/Session%207A/TYPICAL%20STEAM.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Typical steam generator tube <span class="hlt">rupture</span> (SGTR) effect on thermo-hydraulic parameters of VVER-1000 primary loop</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">In operation of nuclear power plant, it is very important to evaluate different accident scenarios in actual plant conditions. One of the <span class="hlt">main</span> accidents is (SGTR) steam generator tube <span class="hlt">rupture</span> in the field of nuclear safety. In this research variation of thermo-hydraulics parameters in primary loop under SGTR accident in VVER-1000 nuclear power plant is analyzed by Relap5\\/Mod 3.2 thermo-hydraulics</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">A. Zare; M. R. Nematollahi; K. Hadad; M. A. Mozaffari</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">380</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ewradio.org/program.aspx?ProgramID=4106"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Shock</span> Therapy with Seawater</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This radio broadcast describes a technique called 'salinity <span class="hlt">shock</span>' which is being used to kill plants and animals that ride in ballast water on ships. Oceangoing ships are now dumping their freshwater ballast at sea and taking on a new load of saltwater to kill and flush out stowaway organisms. The clip is 2 minutes in length and may be downloaded in MP3 format.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hoops, Richard</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' 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id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return 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src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">381</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19840020892&hterms=800H&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3D800H"> <span id="translatedtitle">Creep-<span class="hlt">rupture</span> behavior of candidate Stirling engine iron supperalloys in high-pressure hydrogen. Volume 2: Hydrogen creep-<span class="hlt">rupture</span> behavior</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The creep <span class="hlt">rupture</span> behavior of nine iron base and one cobalt base candidate Stirling engine alloys is evaluated. <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> life, minimum creep rate, and time to 1% strain data are analyzed. The 3500 h <span class="hlt">rupture</span> life stress and stress to obtain 1% strain in 3500 h are also estimated.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bhattacharyya, S.; Peterman, W.; Hales, C.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1984-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">382</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PhDT.........3T"> <span id="translatedtitle">Vortex dynamics in <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> and unruptured intracranial aneurysms</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Intracranial aneurysms (IAs) are a potentially devastating pathological dilation of brain arteries that affect 1.5-5 % of the population. Causing around 500 000 deaths per year worldwide, their detection and treatment to prevent <span class="hlt">rupture</span> is critical. Multiple recent studies have tried to find a hemodynamics predictor of aneurysm <span class="hlt">rupture</span>, but concluded with distinct opposite trends using Wall Shear Stress (WSS) based parameters in different clinical datasets. Nevertheless, several research groups tend to converge for now on the fact that the flow patterns and flow dynamics of the <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> aneurysms are complex and unstable. Following this idea, we investigated the vortex properties of both unruptured and <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> cerebral aneurysms. A brief comparison of two Eulerian vortex visualization methods (Q-criterion and lambda 2 method) showed that these approaches gave similar results in our complex aneurysm geometries. We were then able to apply either one of them to a large dataset of 74 patient specific cases of intracranial aneurysms. Those real cases were obtained by 3D angiography, numerical reconstruction of the geometry, and then pulsatile CFD simulation before post-processing with the mentioned vortex visualization tools. First we tested the two Eulerian methods on a few cases to verify their implementation we made as well as compare them with each other. After that, the Q-criterion was selected as method of choice for its more obvious physical meaning (it shows the balance between two characteristics of the flow, its swirling and deformation). Using iso-surfaces of Q, we started by categorizing the patient-specific aneurysms based on the gross topology of the aneurysmal vortices. This approach being unfruitful, we found a new vortex-based characteristic property of <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> aneurysms to stratify the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> risk of IAs that we called the Wall-Kissing Vortices, or WKV. We observed that most <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> aneurysms had a large amount of WKV, which appears to agree with the current hypothesized biological triggers of pathological remodeling of the artery walls. Having a good natural ratio of statuses in our IA cohort (55 unruptured vs. 19 <span class="hlt">ruptured</span>), we were able to test the statistical significance of our predictor to fortify our findings. We also performed a distribution analysis of our cohort with respect to the number of WKV to strengthen the encouraging statistical analysis result; both analyses provided a clear good separation of the status of the aneurysms based on our predictor. Lastly, we constructed a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve to analyze the power different thresholds of WKV had in splitting the data in a binary way (unruptured/<span class="hlt">ruptured</span>). The number of WKV was efficaciously able to stratify the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> status, identifying 84.21 % of the <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> aneurysms (with 25.45 % of false positives, i.e. unruptured IAs tagged as <span class="hlt">ruptured</span>) when using a threshold value of 2. Our novel work undertaken to study the vortex structures in IAs brought to light interesting characteristics of the flow in the aneurysmal sac. We found that there are several distinct categories in which the aneurysm vortex topologies can be put in without relationship to the aneurysm <span class="hlt">rupture</span> status. This first finding was in contradiction with available already-published results. Nonetheless, <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> IAs had a statistically significant larger amount of WKV as opposed to unruptured aneurysms. This new predictor we propose to the community could very well clear a new path among the currently controversial WSS-based parameters. Although it needs to be improved to be more resilient, the first results obtained by the WKV-based parameter are promising when applied to a large dataset of 74 IAs patient-specific transient CFD simulations.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Trylesinski, Gabriel</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">383</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.T13E2436H"> <span id="translatedtitle">Properties of <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> Pulses Induced by Damaged Fault Zones</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Low-velocity fault zones (LVFZ) are found in most mature faults. They are usually 100-400 m wide and have ~20%-60% wave velocity reductions relative to the country rock. To study the effect of LVFZs on earthquake <span class="hlt">rupture</span> and the radiated wavefield, we conduct 2D spectral element simulations of dynamic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> on faults that bisect a LVFZ, considering a range of velocity reductions and widths. Most earthquakes apparently have slip rise times much shorter than their overall <span class="hlt">rupture</span> duration. A number of dynamic mechanisms for such pulse-like <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> have been proposed, including frictional self-healing, fault strength heterogeneities and bimaterial effects. We find that <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> in LVFZs with strong enough wave velocity contrast behave as pulses. These pulses are generated by fault locking induced by waves reflected from the boundaries of the LVFZ. Their rise time is proportional to the wave travel time across the LVFZ. Pure pulse-like <span class="hlt">rupture</span> is favored by high velocity reduction and narrow width of the LVFZ. This mechanism of pulse generation is robust to variations of initial stress, smoothness of the LVFZ structure, <span class="hlt">rupture</span> mode and exclusion of frictional healing. Moreover, we find that LVFZs can generate complex <span class="hlt">rupture</span> patterns. LVFZs with low velocity reduction induce multiple <span class="hlt">rupture</span> fronts involving co-existing pulses and cracks. LVFZs with certain widths can accelerate the transition to supershear <span class="hlt">rupture</span> speed. The LVFZ can also induce repeated nucleation of pulses in front of a crack. These additional effects of LVFZs on dynamic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> can have characteristic signatures on the radiated wavefield and contribute especially to high frequency ground motions. Given the natural existence of LVFZ and the generality of the pulse generation mechanism presented, it seems unlikely for earthquakes to propagate as pure cracks. However, a mixed crack-pulse <span class="hlt">rupture</span> might not be distinguishable from a pure crack <span class="hlt">rupture</span> at the low resolution of current seismological source observations. To further analyze the relation between wavefield and <span class="hlt">rupture</span> healing fronts, we are analyzing the dynamic fault stresses generated by elementary kinematic sources inside a LVFZ. Our goal is to identify which wave phase (such as S or SS) plays the dominant role in the process of pulse generation and. By studying the amplitude and timing of this phase as a function of velocity reduction and width of the LVFZ we can rationalize the effect of fault zone properties on the induced pulses, including their conditions of existence, their rise time and their supershear transition. We will also report on numerical simulations including rate-and-state dependent friction with severe velocity-weakening. Our aims are to assess how frictional self-healing and the LVFZ effect compete to control the properties of pulses, and to identify possible observables that can discriminate between these two mechanisms of pulse generation. We will also investigate if the LVFZ mechanism persists across multiple earthquake cycles, using a recent extension of the spectral element method to longer time scale processes.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Huang, Y.; Ampuero, J. P.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">384</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EPJWC..2601009C"> <span id="translatedtitle">Characterization of <span class="hlt">shocked</span> beryllium</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">While numerous studies have investigated the low-strain-rate constitutive response of beryllium, the combined influence of high strain rate and temperature on the mechanical behavior and microstructure of beryllium has received limited attention over the last 40 years. In the current work, high strain rate tests were conducted using both explosive drive and a gas gun to accelerate the material. Prior studies have focused on tensile loading behavior, or limited conditions of dynamic strain rate and/or temperature. Two constitutive strength (plasticity) models, the Preston-Tonks-Wallace (PTW) and Mechanical Threshold Stress (MTS) models, were calibrated using common quasi-static and Hopkinson bar data. However, simulations with the two models give noticeably different results when compared with the measured experimental wave profiles. The experimental results indicate that, even if fractured by the initial <span class="hlt">shock</span> loading, the Be remains sufficiently intact to support a shear stress following partial release and subsequent <span class="hlt">shock</span> re-loading. Additional "arrested" drive shots were designed and tested to minimize the reflected tensile pulse in the sample. These tests were done to both validate the model and to put large <span class="hlt">shock</span> induced compressive loads into the beryllium sample.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Cady, C. M.; Adams, C. D.; Hull, L. M.; Gray, G. T.; Prime, M. B.; Addessio, F. L.; Wynn, T. A.; Papin, P. A.; Brown, E. N.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">385</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20000108794&hterms=heat+formation&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3Dheat%2Bformation"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Shock</span> Formation of Slow Magnetosonic Waves in Coronal Plumes</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We investigate the height of <span class="hlt">shock</span> formation in coronal plumes for slow magnetosonic waves. The models take into account plume geometric spreading, heat conduction, and radiative damping. The wave parameters as well as the spreading functions of the plumes and the base magnetic field strengths are given by empirical constraints mostly from Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO)/ Ultraviolet Coronograph Spectrometer (UVCS), Extreme Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope (EIT), Michelson Doppler Imager (MDI), and Large Angle Spectrometric Coronagraph (LASCO). Our models show that <span class="hlt">shock</span> formation occurs at relatively low coronal heights, typically within 1.2 RsuN, depending on the model parameters. The <span class="hlt">shock</span> formation is calculated using the well-established wave breaking criterion given by the intersection of C+ characteristics in the space-time plane. Our models show that <span class="hlt">shock</span> heating by slow magnetosonic waves is expected to be relevant at most heights in solar coronal plumes, although such waves are probably not the <span class="hlt">main</span> energy supply mechanism.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Cuntz, Manfred; Suess, Steve; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2000-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">386</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1989GeCoA..53.1117M"> <span id="translatedtitle">Noble gas emplacement in <span class="hlt">shock</span>-produced diamonds</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Amounts of noble gases in <span class="hlt">shock</span>-produced diamonds were considerably higher than those in the raw material graphite, and their elemental ratios were similar to those of air. It is evident that the <span class="hlt">shock</span>-produced diamonds trapped the noble gases, without significant mass fractionation, from the atmosphere during the phase transition. These noble gases were <span class="hlt">mainly</span> released at temperatures within the range of 1700 to 2000 C, suggesting that noble gases were tightly incorporated within the diamonds and were being released during graphitization. A diamond synthesized under hydrostatic pressure was found to have noble gas abundances much lower than those the <span class="hlt">shock</span>-produced diamonds. The elemental abundances ofnoble gases in <span class="hlt">shock</span>-produced diamonds are discussed in relation to those in ureilite diamonds.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Matsuda, Jun-Ichi; Nagao, Keisuke</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1989-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">387</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000PrAeS..36...63K"> <span id="translatedtitle">Aspects of <span class="hlt">shock</span> wave-induced vortex breakdown</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this article, we discuss supersonic vortex breakdown when sufficiently strong streamwise vortices encounter otherwise planar, normal and oblique <span class="hlt">shock</span> fronts as well as solid surfaces placed in their passages. The dramatic destruction of a streamwise vortex during supersonic vortex interactions reveals a vortex breakdown similar in many ways to the well-documented incompressible vortex bursting. The <span class="hlt">main</span> features of supersonic vortex breakdown include formation of a spherically blunt-nosed conical <span class="hlt">shock</span>, and a vortex core, which upon crossing the apex of the conical <span class="hlt">shock</span> expands into a subsonic turbulent conical region. A notable characteristic of the supersonic vortex breakdown is the formation of an entropy-shear layer separating an inner subsonic zone containing the burst structure from the surrounding supersonic flow. Numerical, experimental, and analytical studies of <span class="hlt">shock</span> wave/vortex interactions are discussed and results from wind tunnel studies involving head-on collision of supersonic vortices with solid surfaces are presented.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kalkhoran, Iraj M.; Smart, Michael K.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2000-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">388</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JGRB..118.5530H"> <span id="translatedtitle">Downdip landward limit of Cascadia great earthquake <span class="hlt">rupture</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">paper examines the constraints to the downdip landward limit of <span class="hlt">rupture</span> for the Cascadia great earthquakes off western North America. This limit is a primary control for ground motion hazard at near-coastal cities. The studies also provide information on the physical controls of subduction thrust <span class="hlt">rupture</span> globally. The constraints are (1) "locked/transition" zones from geodetic deformation (GPS, repeated leveling, tide gauges); (2) <span class="hlt">rupture</span> zone from paleoseismic coastal marsh subsidence, "paleogeodesy"; (3) temperature on the thrust for the seismic-aseismic transition; (4) change in thrust seismic reflection character downdip from thin seismic to thick ductile; (5) fore-arc mantle corner aseismic serpentinite and talc overlying the thrust; (6) updip limit of episodic tremor and slip (ETS) slow slip; (7) <span class="hlt">rupture</span> area associations with shelf-slope basins; (8) depth limit for small events on the thrust; and (9) landward limit of earthquakes on the Nootka transform fault zone. The most reliable constraints for the limit of large <span class="hlt">rupture</span> displacement, >10 m, are generally just offshore in agreement with thermal control for this hot subduction zone, but well-offshore central Oregon and near the coast of northern Washington. The limit for 1-2 m <span class="hlt">rupture</span> that can still provide strong shaking is less well estimated 25-50 km farther landward. The fore-arc mantle corner and the updip extent of ETS slow slip are significantly landward from the other constraints. Surprisingly, there is a downdip gap between the best other estimates for the great earthquake <span class="hlt">rupture</span> zone and the ETS slow slip. In this gap, plate convergence may occur as continuous slow creep.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hyndman, R. D.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">389</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3872822"> <span id="translatedtitle">Predictive biomechanical analysis of ascending aortic aneurysm <span class="hlt">rupture</span> potential</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Aortic aneurysm is a leading cause of death in adults, often taking lives without any premonitory signs or symptoms. Adverse clinical outcomes of aortic aneurysm are preventable by elective surgical repair; however, identifying at-risk individuals is difficult. The objective of this study was to perform a predictive biomechanical analysis of ascending aortic aneurysm (AsAA) tissue to assess <span class="hlt">rupture</span> risk on a patient-specific level. AsAA tissues, obtained intra-operatively from 50 patients, were subjected to biaxial mechanical and uniaxial failure tests to obtain their passive elastic mechanical properties. A novel analytical method was developed to predict the AsAA pressure-diameter response as well as the aortic wall yield and failure responses. Our results indicated that the mean predicted AsAA diameter at <span class="hlt">rupture</span> was 5.6 ± 0.7 cm, and the associated blood pressure to induce <span class="hlt">rupture</span> was 579.4 ± 214.8 mmHg. Statistical analysis showed significant positive correlation between aneurysm tissue compliance and predicted risk of <span class="hlt">rupture</span>, where patients with a pressure-strain modulus ?100 kPa may be nearly twice as likely to experience <span class="hlt">rupture</span> than patients with more compliant aortic tissue. The mechanical analysis of pre-dissection patient tissue properties established in this study could predict the “future” onset of yielding and <span class="hlt">rupture</span> in AsAA patients. The analysis results implicate decreased tissue compliance as a risk factor for AsAA <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. The presented methods may serve as a basis for the development of a pre-operative planning tool for AsAA evaluation, a tool currently unavailable. PMID:23948500</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Martin, Caitlin; Sun, Wei; Pham, Thuy; Elefteriades, John</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">390</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3021316"> <span id="translatedtitle">Hemodynamic-Morphologic Discriminants for Intracranial Aneurysm <span class="hlt">Rupture</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background and Purpose To identify significant morphologic and hemodynamic parameters that discriminate intracranial aneurysm (IA) <span class="hlt">rupture</span> status using 3D angiography and computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Methods 119 IAs (38 <span class="hlt">ruptured</span>, 81 unruptured) were analyzed from 3D angiographic images and CFD. Six morphologic and seven hemodynamic parameters were evaluated for significance with respect to <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) analysis identified area under the curve (AUC) and optimal thresholds separating <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> from unruptured aneurysms for each parameter. Significant parameters were examined by multivariate logistic regression analysis in 3 predictive models—morphology only, hemodynamics only, and combined—to identify independent discriminants, and the AUC-ROC of the predicted probability of <span class="hlt">rupture</span> status was compared among these models. Results Morphologic parameters (Size Ratio [SR], Undulation Index, Ellipticity Index, and Nonsphericity Index) and hemodynamic parameters (Average Wall Shear Stress [WSS], Maximum intra-aneurysmal WSS, Low WSS Area, Average Oscillatory Shear Index [OSI], Number of Vortices, and Relative Resident Time) achieved statistical significance (p<0.01). Multivariate logistic regression analysis demonstrated SR to be the only independently significant factor in the morphology model (AUC=0.83, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.75–0.91), whereas WSS and OSI were the only independently significant variables in the hemodynamics model (AUC=0.85, 95% CI 0.78–0.93). The combined model retained all three variables, SR, WSS, and OSI (AUC=0.89, 95% CI 0.82–0.96). Conclusion All three models—morphological (based on SR), hemodynamic (based on WSS and OSI), and combined—discriminate IA <span class="hlt">rupture</span> status with high AUC values. Hemodynamics is as important as morphology in discriminating aneurysm <span class="hlt">rupture</span> status. PMID:21106956</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Xiang, Jianping; Natarajan, Sabareesh K.; Tremmel, Markus; Ma, Ding; Mocco, J; Hopkins, L. Nelson; Siddiqui, Adnan H.; Levy, Elad I.; Meng, Hui</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">391</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22220583"> <span id="translatedtitle">Magnetic ramp scale at supercritical perpendicular collisionless <span class="hlt">shocks</span>: Full particle electromagnetic simulations</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Supercritical perpendicular collisionless <span class="hlt">shocks</span> are known to exhibit foot, ramp, and overshoot structures. The <span class="hlt">shock</span> ramp structure is in a smaller scale in contrast to other microstructures (foot and overshoot) within the <span class="hlt">shock</span> front. One-dimensional full particle simulations of strictly perpendicular <span class="hlt">shocks</span> over wide ranges of ion beta ?{sub i}, Alfvén Mach number M{sub A}, and ion-to-electron mass ratio m{sub i}/m{sub e} are presented to investigate the impact of plasma parameters on the <span class="hlt">shock</span> ramp scale. <span class="hlt">Main</span> results are (1) the ramp scale can be as small as several electron inertial length. (2) The simulations suggest that in a regime below the critical ion beta value, the <span class="hlt">shock</span> front undergoes a periodic self-reformation and the <span class="hlt">shock</span> ramp scale is time-varying. At higher ion beta values, the <span class="hlt">shock</span> front self-reformation is smeared. At still higher ion beta value, the motion of reflected ions is quite diffuse so that they can lead to a quasi-steady <span class="hlt">shock</span> ramp. Throughout the above three conditions, the <span class="hlt">shock</span> ramp thickness increases with ?{sub i}. (3) The increase (decrease) in Mach number and the decrease (increase) in the beta value have almost equivalent impact on the state (i.e., stationary or nonstationary) of the <span class="hlt">shock</span> ramp. Both of front and ramp thicknesses are increased with M{sub A}.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yang, Zhongwei [State Key Laboratory of Space Weather, National Space Science Center, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080 (China) [State Key Laboratory of Space Weather, National Space Science Center, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080 (China); SOA Key Laboratory for Polar Science, Polar Research Institute of China, Shanghai, 200136 (China); Lu, Quanming; Gao, Xinliang; Huang, Can [CAS Key Laboratory of Geospace Environment, Department of Geophysics and Planetary Science, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China)] [CAS Key Laboratory of Geospace Environment, Department of Geophysics and Planetary Science, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Yang, Huigen; Hu, Hongqiao; Han, Desheng [SOA Key Laboratory for Polar Science, Polar Research Institute of China, Shanghai, 200136 (China)] [SOA Key Laboratory for Polar Science, Polar Research Institute of China, Shanghai, 200136 (China); Liu, Ying [State Key Laboratory of Space Weather, National Space Science Center, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080 (China)] [State Key Laboratory of Space Weather, National Space Science Center, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080 (China)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-09-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">392</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/48797586"> <span id="translatedtitle">Diaphragmless <span class="hlt">shock</span> wave generators for industrial applications of <span class="hlt">shock</span> waves</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The prime focus of this study is to design a 50 mm internal diameter diaphragmless <span class="hlt">shock</span> tube that can be used in an industrial\\u000a facility for repeated loading of <span class="hlt">shock</span> waves. The instantaneous rise in pressure and temperature of a medium can be used in\\u000a a variety of industrial applications. We designed, fabricated and tested three different <span class="hlt">shock</span> wave generators of</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">M. S. Hariharan; S. Janardhanraj; S. Saravanan; G. Jagadeesh</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">393</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.S53D..08D"> <span id="translatedtitle">Using Dynamic <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> Models to Explore Physical Controls on the 2011 Mw 9.0 Tohoku-Oki Earthquake <span class="hlt">Rupture</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Seismic and geodetic recordings are routinely used to invert for kinematic source models of large earthquakes, which provide us with detailed images of slip distribution and <span class="hlt">rupture</span> evolution on causative faults. To gain insight into physical conditions that allow a fault to slip and a <span class="hlt">rupture</span> to propagate in the way they did, we can resort to dynamic source models that obey physical laws in continuum mechanics and rock friction. Published kinematic models of the 2011 Mw 9.0 Tohoku-Oki earthquake reveal several features of the <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. These features include 1) high static stress drop with large amounts of slip in a small area, 2) a weak initial phase, down-dip <span class="hlt">rupture</span> for the first 40 seconds, extensive shallow <span class="hlt">rupture</span> during 60 to 70 seconds, and continuing deeper <span class="hlt">rupture</span> lasting more than 100 seconds, and 3) systematically down-dip high-frequency radiation with respect to the hypocenter. In this study, we use spontaneous <span class="hlt">rupture</span> models to explore what physical conditions, including the initial stress state and friction properties on the subducting fault, can reproduce these features, so that we can gain some physical insights into controls on this megathrust earthquake. Dynamic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> simulations of this shallow dipping megathrust faulting at reasonable spatial and temporal resolutions require parallel computing on supercomputers. Our newly parallelized finite element method algorithm EQdyna allows us to simulate a large suite of spontaneous <span class="hlt">rupture</span> models to examine the questions. In model setup, we use depth-dependence principal stresses and take into account variations in pore fluid pressure and frictional properties associated with subducted seafloor features such as seamounts. Our preliminary results suggest followings. First, a high strength and high stress drop patch (probably a subducted seamount or seamout chain) just above the hypocenter on the fault plane can delay up-dip <span class="hlt">rupture</span> and result in a concentrated large slip area. Second, significantly negative stress drop on the shallow portion of the subducting fault associated with the active accretionary prism is needed to reduce the amplitude of shallow slip and to confine shallow slip in a small area near the trench just up-dip of the region of maximum fault slip. Third, heterogeneities in the seismic strength parameter S down-dip of the hypocenter, probably due to both heterogeneous stresses from previous earthquakes and heterogeneous friction properties at the brittle and ductile transition zone, can produce large amounts of high-frequency radiations.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Duan, B.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">394</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.S23B2241R"> <span id="translatedtitle">Complexity of Slow Slip Behind the <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> Front</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Several physical mechanisms have been proposed for generating episodic slow slip, including fault gouge dilatancy at low effective stress, a velocity-weakening/velocity-strengthening transition with increasing slip speed, a fault size that is ``just right'', and appropriate forms of heterogeneity. Each, with various degrees of tuning, appears capable of generating slip speeds, stress drops, recurrence intervals, and migration speeds that are reasonably consistent with observations. In order to distinguish between these mechanisms it will be necessary to throw more observations into the mix. As geodetic data typically lack the necessary temporal and spatial resolution, the most detailed images we have of slow slip to date are inferred from locations of the associated tectonic tremor. In addition to the well-documented along-strike migration speeds of 5-10 km/day, tremor locations have led to the recognition of ``rapid tremor reversals'', that propagate tens of kilometers back in the direction from whence the <span class="hlt">main</span> front came at roughly 10 times the speed [Houston et al., Nat. Geo., 2011], and ``tremor streaks'' that propagate tens of kilometers in the slip direction, roughly ten times faster still [Shelly et al., G-cubed, 2007; Ghosh et al., G-cubed, 2010]. The details of the time, space, and amplitude distribution of tremor behind the slow slip front may provide useful constraints on models of slow slip. If fortunate, I will report on efforts to more fully characterize tremor activity behind the propagating slow front in Cascadia. If less fortunate, I will explore some of the implications of the proposed mechanisms listed above for the behavior of slip speed behind the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> front, along the lines of Rubin [G-cubed, 2011].</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rubin, A. M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">395</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.mainememory.net/"> <span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">Maine</span> Memory Network</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Once you have visited <span class="hlt">Maine</span>, it is most certainly not a place that you will soon forget. This website is designed to make sure longtime residents and visitors alike will not forget this tranquil state, as it brings together a very wide range of historical documents and memories from around the state. The site itself was created by the <span class="hlt">Maine</span> Historical Society, and is supported by monies from the Institute of Museum and Library Services and several other partners. Within the site, visitors can search for historical items and documents, view thematic online exhibits, and learn about how the site may be used effectively in classroom settings. One particularly fine exhibit is the one that offers some visual documentation of rural Aroostook County around the year 1900. In this exhibit, visitors can experience the dense forests and rugged terrain that dominate the landscape of this part of <span class="hlt">Maine</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">396</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://arxiv.org/pdf/astro-ph/0603223v1"> <span id="translatedtitle">Numerical Studies of Diffusive <span class="hlt">Shock</span> Acceleration at Spherical <span class="hlt">Shocks</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We have developed a cosmic ray (CR) <span class="hlt">shock</span> code in one dimensional spherical geometry with which the particle distribution, the gas flow and their nonlinear interaction can be followed numerically in a frame comoving with an expanding <span class="hlt">shock</span>. In order to accommodate a very wide dynamic range of diffusion length scales in the CR <span class="hlt">shock</span> problem, we have incorporated subzone <span class="hlt">shock</span> tracking and adaptive mesh refinement techniques. We find the spatial grid resolution required for numerical convergence is less stringent in this code compared to typical, fixed-grid Eulerian codes. The improved convergence behavior derives from maintaining the <span class="hlt">shock</span> discontinuity inside the same grid zone in the comoving code. That feature improves numerical estimates of the compression rate experienced by CRs crossing the subshock compared to codes that allow the subshock to drift on the grid. Using this code with a Bohm-like diffusion model we have calculated the CR acceleration and the nonlinear feedback at supernova remnant <span class="hlt">shocks</span> during the Sedov-Taylor stage. Similarly to plane-parallel <span class="hlt">shocks</span>, with an adopted thermal leakage injection model, about 10^{-3} of the particles that pass through the <span class="hlt">shock</span> and up to 60 % of the explosion energy are transferred to the CR component. These results are in good agreement with previous nonlinear spherical CR <span class="hlt">shock</span> calculations of Berezhko and collaborators.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hyesung Kang; T. W. Jones</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-03-09</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">397</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.S43C2259K"> <span id="translatedtitle">Dynamic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> scenarios for strong ground motion prediction</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Spontaneous <span class="hlt">rupture</span> models provide physically reasonable <span class="hlt">rupture</span> processes under presumed fault geometry and stress field. We propose that dynamic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> models based on geological or geomorphological data are used as earthquake scenarios for strong ground motion prediction. We apply our method to possible sources of earthquake occurring on the Uemachi fault systems. The Uemachi fault system runs just underneath the western part of Osaka plain, extends about 45 km, and dips 60 degrees to the east. We model the fault geometry from the surface traces and the shape of the Osaka basin-floor. The stress condition is presumed based on slip distributions on the fault. Spatially varied cumulative slip distribution along the strike of the Uemachi fault system was obtained by reflection surveys, borehole data, etc. The borehole data at a site along the fault showed that the vertical slip on the earth's surface due to the last event was between 1.6 to 2.4 m (Sugiyama et al., 2003). Combining these data, we presume an prototype of the slip distribution along strike. The slip distribution along dip is modeled through simulations of spontaneous <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> under vertically depth-dependent stress conditions to realize spontaneously stopping <span class="hlt">rupture</span> near the bottom of the seismogeneic zone. Onto this large-scale heterogeneous slip distribution model, we add fractal heterogeneities in small-scale created from different random numbers. These slip distributions are converted to the distributions of static stress drop. For each stress drop model, some hypocenter locations are assumed. We calculate dynamic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> processes by the finite-difference method (Kase, 2010), assuming the slip-weakening friction law. <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> area and <span class="hlt">rupture</span> time on each point depend on stress model and hypocenter location. Based on these <span class="hlt">rupture</span> scenarios, we simulate lower frequency components of ground motion by the finite-difference method (Pitarka, 1999) excluding the shallow sediment above the engineering basement. Higher frequency components are computed by the stochastic Green's function method (Onishi and Horike, 2000). Effects of the shallow alluvium layers are calculated by 1D multi-reflection theory considering nonlinear effect by equivalent linear technique using a computer code DYNEQ (Yoshida and Suetomi, 1996).</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kase, Y.; Sekiguchi, H.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">398</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.S14A..07G"> <span id="translatedtitle">Near-Source Shaking and Dynamic <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> in Plastic Media</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Recent well recorded earthquakes show a high degree of complexity at the source level that severely affects the resulting ground motion in near and far-field seismic data. In our study, we focus on investigating source-dominated near-field ground motion features from numerical dynamic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> simulations in an elasto-visco-plastic bulk. Our aim is to contribute to a more direct connection from theoretical and computational results to field and seismological observations. Previous work showed that a diversity of <span class="hlt">rupture</span> styles emerges from simulations on faults governed by velocity-and-state-dependent friction with rapid velocity-weakening at high slip rate. For instance, growing pulses lead to re-activation of slip due to gradual stress build-up near the hypocenter, as inferred in some source studies of the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake. Moreover, off-fault energy dissipation implied physical limits on extreme ground motion by limiting peak slip rate and <span class="hlt">rupture</span> velocity. We investigate characteristic features in near-field strong ground motion generated by dynamic in-plane <span class="hlt">rupture</span> simulations. We present effects of plasticity on source process signatures, off-fault damage patterns and ground shaking. Independent of <span class="hlt">rupture</span> style, asymmetric damage patterns across the fault are produced that contribute to the total seismic moment, and even dominantly at high angles between the fault and the maximum principal background stress. The off-fault plastic strain fields induced by transitions between <span class="hlt">rupture</span> styles reveal characteristic signatures of the mechanical source processes during the transition. Comparing different <span class="hlt">rupture</span> styles in elastic and elasto-visco-plastic media to identify signatures of off-fault plasticity, we find varying degrees of alteration of near-field radiation due to plastic energy dissipation. Subshear pulses suffer more peak particle velocity reduction due to plasticity than cracks. Supershear <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> are affected even more. The occurrence of multiple <span class="hlt">rupture</span> fronts affect seismic potency release rate, amplitude spectra, peak particle velocity distributions and near-field seismograms. Our simulations enable us to trace features of source processes in synthetic seismograms, for example exhibiting a re-activation of slip. Such physical models may provide starting points for future investigations of field properties of earthquake source mechanisms and natural fault conditions. In the long-term, our findings may be helpful for seismic hazard analysis and the improvement of seismic source models.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gabriel, A.; Mai, P. M.; Dalguer, L. A.; Ampuero, J. P.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">399</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/55900180"> <span id="translatedtitle">Electromagnetic <span class="hlt">Shock</span> Tube capable of producing a Well-formed <span class="hlt">shock</span> Wave of Low Attenuation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">WHILE present electromagnetic <span class="hlt">shock</span> tubes1,2 will generate very strong <span class="hlt">shock</span> waves frequently and in a simple manner, many designs suffer from pronounced attenuation of the <span class="hlt">shock</span> wave together with the formation of secondary <span class="hlt">shock</span> waves.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">P. R. Smy</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1962-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">400</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25508716"> <span id="translatedtitle">[Near infrared spectrum analysis and meaning of the soil in 512 earthquake surface <span class="hlt">rupture</span> zone in Pingtong, Sichuan].</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Through modern near infrared spectrum, the authors analyzed the yellow soil from the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> zone located in Ping- tong town,Pingwu, Sichuan province. By rapid identification of the characteristic of peak absorption of mineral particles, the result shows that the soil samples <span class="hlt">mainly</span> composed of calcite, dolomite, muscovite, sericite, illite, smectite; talc, tremolite, actinolite, chlorite, etc. And the mineral compositions of the soil is basically the same with the yellow soil in Sichuan region. By analyzing and comparing it was revealed that part of mineral compositions of the soil are in accordance with the characteristics of the rock mineral compositions below the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> zone, indicating that part of the minerals of the soil's evolution is closely related to the rock compositions in this area; and the compositions of the clay mineral in the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> zone is similar to the Ma Lan loess in the north of China, so it is presumed that the clay minerals in these two kinds of soil have the same genetic type. The characteristic of the mineral composition of the soil is in accordance with evolution characteristics of the rocks which is bellow the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> zone, also it was demonstrated that the results of soil minerals near-infrared analysis can effectively analyze the mineral particles in the soil and indicate the pedogenic environment. Therefore, the result shows the feasibility of adopting modern near-infrared spectrum for rapid analysis of mineral particles of the soil and research of geology. Meanwhile, the results can be the foundation of this region's soil mineral analysis, and also provide new ideas and methods for the future research of soil minerals and the earthquake <span class="hlt">rupture</span> zone. PMID:25508716</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yi, Ze-bang; Cao, Jian-jin; Luo, Song-ying; Wang, Zheng-yang; Liao, Yi-peng</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return 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title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">401</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24650079"> <span id="translatedtitle">Achilles tendon <span class="hlt">rupture</span> - treatment and complications: A systematic review.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Achilles tendon <span class="hlt">rupture</span> is a frequent injury with an increasing incidence. Until now, there is no consensus regarding optimal treatment. The aim of this review was to illuminate and summarize randomized controlled trials comparing surgical and non-surgical treatment of Achilles tendon <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> during the last 10 years. Seven articles were found and they were all acceptable according to international quality assessment guidelines. Primary outcomes were re-<span class="hlt">ruptures</span>, other complications, and functional outcomes. There was no significant difference in re-<span class="hlt">ruptures</span> between the two treatments, but a tendency to favoring surgical treatment. Further, one study found an increased risk of soft-tissue-related complications after surgery. Patient satisfaction and time to return to work were significantly different in favor of surgery in one study, and there was also better functional outcome after surgery in some studies. These seven studies indicate that surgical patients have a faster rehabilitation. However, the differences between surgical and non-surgical treatment appear to be subtle and it could mean that rehabilitation is more important, rather than the actual initial treatment. Therefore, further studies will be needed in regard to understanding the interplay between acute surgical or non-surgical treatment, and the rehabilitation regimen for the overall outcome after Achilles tendon <span class="hlt">ruptures</span>. PMID:24650079</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Holm, C; Kjaer, M; Eliasson, P</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2015-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">402</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AcGeo..62.1087M"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Rupture</span> of an evaporating liquid bridge between two grains</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The study examines <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of evaporating liquid bridges between two glass spheres. Evolution of the bridge profile has been recorded with the use of high-speed camera. Geometrical characteristics of the bridge were then used to calculate evolution of the variables during the process: Laplace pressure, capillary force, and surface tension force. For the purpose of reference, the bridge evolution is followed also during kinematic extension. During both processes the diameter of the neck decreases, with an acceleration of about 1-2 ms before the <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. Two distinct <span class="hlt">rupture</span> modes are observed, depending on the bridge aspect ratio. After the <span class="hlt">rupture</span>, the mass of liquid splits, forming two separate oscillating drops attached to the spheres, and a suspended satellite droplet. Just before the <span class="hlt">rupture</span>, an increasing repulsive Laplace pressure, and decreasing negative surface tension force develop. Capillary force follows the trend of the surface tension force, with an accelerating decline. Duration of the whole process and liquid mass stabilization is from 10 to 60 ms.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mielniczuk, Boleslaw; El Youssoufi, Moulay Said; Sabatier, Laurent; Hueckel, Tomasz</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">403</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008JPES....2.1140Y"> <span id="translatedtitle">Creep <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> Properties of Welded Joints of Heat Resistant Steels</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this study, the high-temperature mechanical and creep <span class="hlt">rupture</span> properties of Grade 91/Grade 91 (Mod. 9Cr-Mo) similar welded joints and Grade 91/Inconel 82/SUS304 dissimilar welded joints were examined. The effects of temperature and stress on the failure location in the joints were also investigated. Creep <span class="hlt">rupture</span> tests were conducted at 823, 873, and 923 K; the applied stress ranges were 160-240, 80-160, and 40-80 MPa, respectively. The creep <span class="hlt">rupture</span> strengths of the specimens with welded joints were lower than those of the specimens of the base metal at all temperature levels; in addition, these differences in creep strength increased with temperature. After being subjected to long-term creep <span class="hlt">rupture</span> tests, the fracture type exhibited by the dissimilar welded joints was transformed from Types V and VII to Type IV. It was estimated that the fracture type exhibited by the dissimilar welded joints after 100,000-h <span class="hlt">rupture</span> strength tests at 823 K and 873 K was Type IV fracture.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yamazaki, Masayoshi; Watanabe, Takashi; Hongo, Hiromichi; Tabuchi, Masaaki</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">404</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4275862"> <span id="translatedtitle">Spontaneous ureteric <span class="hlt">rupture</span> secondary to an invasive desmoid tumour</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">INTRODUCTION Spontaneous ureteric <span class="hlt">rupture</span> is a rare entity that presents as an extravasation of urine from the ureter without previous surgery, ureteric manipulation and external trauma of the ureter. We report the case of a desmoid tumour presenting as spontaneous ureteric <span class="hlt">rupture</span> which was managed in our institution. PRESENTATION OF CASE A 28 years old healthy male presented with a four day history of generalised abdominal pain secondary to spontaneous right ureteric <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. Patient was initially managed via insertion of nephrostomy tube and antibiotics. After unsuccessful attempts of retrograde and antegrade ureteric stent insertion, patient was subsequently managed via elective surgical intervention. The excised specimen revealed desmoid tumour as cause of the ureteric <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. DISCUSSION Desmoid tumours are rare benign tumours arising from fascial or musculoaponeurotic structures that do not metastasise, but tend to invade locally. It is often initially managed medically prior to undertaking a definitive surgical intervention. To our knowledge this is the first reported case of ureteric perforation secondary to a desmoid tumour of the mesentery. CONCLUSION Spontaneous <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of the ureter is often misdiagnosed as other conditions. History taking and examination can be unreliable, hence a high level of suspicion and further investigations should be utilised. Once the diagnosis is made, treatment can be individualised based on aetiology. PMID:25460442</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yoon, Peter Daechul; Ahmadi, Nariman; Strahan, Stephen; Wang, Audrey</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">405</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3352434"> <span id="translatedtitle">The prevention of carotid artery <span class="hlt">rupture</span> with isobutyl-2-cyanoacrylate.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Carotid artery exposure and <span class="hlt">rupture</span> is one of the most feared complications of head and neck surgery. The ideal method for preventing <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of an exposed artery should be easy to perform, safe, effective and should spare local and regional flaps for later use in reconstruction. Isobutyl-2-cyanoacrylate (Bucrylate) is a commercially available compound that appears to meet these criteria. Test animals were divided into two groups. The carotid arteries of 12 dogs (group A) were exteriorized bilaterally and coated with Bucrylate unilaterally. Group B (four dogs) underwent the same procedure except that the vessels were bilaterally coated. Wounds were dressed twice daily with moist-to-dry gauze. No antibiotics were given. Nine of the 12 unprotected arteries in group A <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> within 2 weeks, and one unprotected artery <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> on postoperative day (POD) 29. Two dogs healed over both vessels. In group B, three dogs <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> their arteries within 2 weeks. One dog healed over both vessels. Gross and histologic examination of the arteries showed a striking difference between coated and uncoated vessels. We believe that Bucrylate and cyanoacrylate adhesives hold promise in the clinical protection of exposed carotid arteries. PMID:3352434</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Costantino, P D; Atiyah, R A; Mico, A S; Sisson, G A</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1988-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">406</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20110011347&hterms=aggressive&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Daggressive"> <span id="translatedtitle">Composite Overwrapped Pressure Vessels (COPV) Stress <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> Test</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">One of the major concerns for the aging Space Shuttle fleet is the stress <span class="hlt">rupture</span> life of composite overwrapped pressure vessels (COPVs). Stress <span class="hlt">rupture</span> life of a COPV has been defined as the minimum time during which the composite maintains structural integrity considering the combined effects of stress levels and time. To assist in the evaluation of the aging COPVs in the Orbiter fleet an analytical reliability model was developed. The actual data used to construct this model was from testing of COPVs constructed of similar, but not exactly same materials and pressure cycles as used on Orbiter vessels. Since no actual Orbiter COPV stress <span class="hlt">rupture</span> data exists the Space Shuttle Program decided to run a stress <span class="hlt">rupture</span> test to compare to model predictions. Due to availability of spares, the testing was unfortunately limited to one 40" vessel. The stress <span class="hlt">rupture</span> test was performed at maximum operating pressure at an elevated temperature to accelerate aging. The test was performed in two phases. The first phase, 130 F, a moderately accelerated test designed to achieve the midpoint of the model predicted point reliability. The more aggressive second phase, performed at 160 F was designed to determine if the test article will exceed the 95% confidence interval of the model. This paper will discuss the results of this test, it's implications and possible follow-on testing.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Russell, Richard; Flynn, Howard; Forth, Scott; Greene, Nathanael; Kezian, Michael; Varanauski, Don; Yoder, Tommy; Woodworth, Warren</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">407</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3968425"> <span id="translatedtitle">Two Patients with <span class="hlt">Ruptured</span> Posterior Inferior Pancreaticoduodenal Artery Aneurysms Associated with Compression of the Celiac Axis by the Median Arcuate Ligament</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Patients with compression of the celiac axis by the median arcuate ligament may develop aneurysms in the pancreaticoduodenal arcades. We experienced two cases of <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> pancreaticoduodenal artery aneurysm associated with this condition. Both patients presented with abdominal pain and <span class="hlt">shock</span>, and abdominal contrast-enhanced computed tomography showed retroperitoneal hematoma and compression of the celiac axis by the median arcuate ligament. Both patients were successfully treated by coil embolization. Patients with celiac axis compression or stenosis may develop recurrent aneurysms unless revascularization of the celiac axis is performed. Long-term follow-up is required because aneurysms may develop after 10 years or longer. PMID:24719672</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">408</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED032995.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Indian Education in <span class="hlt">Maine</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">Maine</span> Department of Education assumed the responsibility for the education of Indian children living on Indian reservations on July 1, 1966. This report provides information on the present status of the program. Information is provided on number of schools, school enrollment for the 1969-1970 school year, characteristics of the teaching staff,…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Maine State Dept. of Education, Augusta.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">409</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://gallery.usgs.gov/photos/11_22_2013_lPGr37Uii1