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1

Frequency-dependent effects of rupture for the 2004 Parkfield main shock, results from UPSAR  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The frequency-dependent effects of rupture propagation of the Parkfield, California, earthquake (28 September 2004, M6) to the northwest along the San Andreas Fault can be seen in acceleration records at UPSAR (USGS Parkfield Seismic Array) in at least two ways. First, we can see the effects of directivity in the acceleration traces at UPSAR, which is about 11.5 km from the epicenter. Directivity or the seismic equivalent of a Doppler shift has been documented in many cases by comparing short-duration, high-amplitude pulses (P or S) in the forward direction with longer-duration body waves in the backward direction. In this case we detect a change from a relatively large amplitude, coherent, high-frequency signal at the start of rupture to a low-amplitude, low-coherent, low-frequency signal at about the time the rupture front transfers from the forward azimuth to the back azimuth at about 34-36 s (time is UTC and is the seconds after day 272 and 17 h and 15 min. S arrival is just after 30 s) for rays leaving the fault and propagating to UPSAR. The frequency change is obvious in the band about 5 to 30 Hz, which is significantly above the corner frequency of the earthquake (about 0.11 Hz). From kinematic source models, the duration of faulting is about 9.2 s, and the change in frequency is during faulting as the rupture extends to the northwest. Understanding the systematic change in frequency and amplitude of seismic waves in relation to the propagation of the rupture front is important for predicting strong ground motion. Second, we can filter the acceleration records from the array to determine if the low-frequency energy emerges from the same part of the fault as the high-frequency signal (e.g., has the same back azimuth and apparent velocity at UPSAR), an important clue to the dynamics of rupture. Analysis of sources of strong motion (characterized by relatively high frequencies) compared to kinematic slip models (relatively low frequency) for the 11 March 2011 Tohoku earthquake as well as Maule (27 February 2010) and Chi-Chi (20 September 1999) earthquakes show that high- and low-frequency sources do not have the same locations on the fault. In this paper we filter the accelerograms from UPSAR for the 2004 main shock in various passbands and then recompute the cross correlations to determine the vector slowness of the incoming waves. At Parkfield, it appears that for seismic waves with frequencies above 1 Hz, there is no discernible frequency-dependent difference in source position (up to 8 Hz) based on estimates of back azimuth and apparent velocity. However, at lower frequencies, sources appear to be from shallower depths and trail the high frequencies as the rupture proceeds down the fault. This result is greater than one standard deviation of an estimate of error, based on a new method of estimating error that is a measure of how broad the peak in correlation is and an estimate of the variance of the correlation values. These observations can be understood in terms of a rupture front that is more energetic and coherent near the front of rupture (radiating higher frequencies) and less coherent and less energetic (radiating in a lower frequency band) behind the initial rupture front. This result is a qualitative assessment of changes in azimuth and apparent velocity with frequency and time and does not include corrections to find the source location on the fault.

Fletcher, Jon B.

2014-09-01

2

Rupture process of a multiple main shock sequence: analysis of teleseismic, local and field observations of the Tennant Creek, Australia, earthquakes of January 22, 1988  

USGS Publications Warehouse

On January 22, 1988, three large intraplate earthquakes (with MS 6.3, 6.4 and 6.7) occurred within a 12-hour period near Tennant Creek, Australia. Broadband displacement and velocity records of body waves from teleseismically recorded data are analyzed to determine source mechanisms, depths, and complexity of rupture of each of the three main shocks. Hypocenters of an additional 150 foreshocks and aftershocks constrained by local arrival time data and field observations of surface rupture are used to complement the source characteristics of the main shocks. The interpretation of the combined data sets suggests that the overall rupture process involved unusually complicated stress release. Rupture characteristics suggest that substantial slow slip occurred on each of the three fault interfaces that was not accompanied by major energy release. Variation of focal depth and the strong increase of moment and radiated energy with each main shock imply that lateral variations of strength were more important than vertical gradients of shear stress in controlling the progression of rupture. -from Authors

Choy, G.L.; Bowman, J.R.

1990-01-01

3

Shock wave theory for rupture of rubber  

E-print Network

This article presents a theory for the rupture of rubber. Unlike conventional cracks, ruptures in rubber travel faster than the speed of sound, and consist in two oblique shocks that meet at a point. Physical features of rubber needed for this phenomenon include Kelvin dissipation and an increase of toughness as rubber retracts. There are three levels of theoretical description: an approximate continuum theory, an exact analytical solution of a slightly simplified discrete problem, and numerical solution of realistic and fully nonlinear equations of motion.

M. Marder

2004-07-09

4

Aftershock patterns and main shock faulting  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We have compared aftershock patterns following several moderate to large earthquakes with the corresponding distributions of coseismic slip obtained from previous analyses of the recorded strong ground motion and teleseismic waveforms. Our results are consistent with a hypothesis of aftershock occurrence that requires a secondary redistribution of stress following primary failure on the earthquake fault. Aftershocks followng earthquakes examined in this study occur mostly outside of or near the edges of the source areas indicated by the patterns of main shock slip. The spatial distribution of aftershocks reflects either a continuation of slip in the outer regions of the areas of maximum coseismic displacement or the activation of subsidiary faults within the volume surrounding the boundaries of main shock rupture. -from Authors

Mendoza, C.; Hartzell, S.H.

1988-01-01

5

Shock-Wave Theory for Rupture of Rubber  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This Letter presents a theory for the rupture of rubber. Unlike conventional cracks, ruptures in rubber travel faster than the speed of sound and consist of two oblique shocks that meet at a point. Physical features of rubber needed for this phenomenon include Kelvin dissipation and an increase of toughness as rubber retracts. There are three levels of theoretical description: an approximate continuum theory, an exact analytical solution of a slightly simplified discrete problem, and numerical solution of realistic and fully nonlinear equations of motion.

Marder, M.

2005-01-01

6

Ruptured right sinus of Valsalva into main pulmonary artery.  

PubMed

A young adult who presented with congestive heart failure was found to have ruptured aneurysm of right sinus of Valsalva. The aneurysm was opening into the main pulmonary artery, which was demonstrated well by transthoracic and transesophageal echocardiography and confirmed by cardiac catheterization. Aneurysm was repaired followed by aortic valve replacement. PMID:22629032

Mohite, Prashant N; Rohit, Manoj K; Thingnam, Shyam K

2012-04-01

7

Ruptured pulmonary hydatid cyst with anaphylactic shock and pneumothorax.  

PubMed

Hydatid cyst is a disease caused by a parasitic tapeworm, Echinococcus granulosus, and most commonly involves liver and lung. Ruptured pulmonary hydatid cyst can present a diagnostic challenge, and radiograph can be inconclusive. Anaphylactic reaction is a rare complication of ruptured pulmonary hydatid cyst. A 22-year-old male came to our emergency department in shock with symptoms of shortness of breath and altered mental status from the previous day. Radiograph showed a thin-walled circular translucent area in the right upper lung field, which was misdiagnosed as pneumothorax, and an intercostal chest tube was inserted. After 5 days, repeat radiograph revealed a cavity with an air/fluid level. The chest tube was removed and contrast-enhanced computed tomogram showed a cavity with water-lily sign, which suggests ruptured hydatid cyst. Immunoglobin-G enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for Echinococcus was positive. The patient responded well to treatment with crystalloid infusion, supplemental oxygen, and albendazole, and then underwent surgery. Anaphylactic reaction due to rupture of a hydatid cyst is rare, but hydatid disease should be suspected in patients from areas where Echinococcus is endemic. PMID:21333077

Shameem, Mohammad; Akhtar, Jamal; Bhargava, Rakesh; Ahmed, Zuber; Khan, Nafees Ahmad; Baneen, Ummul

2011-06-01

8

Up-dip directivity in near-source during the 2009 L'Aquila main shock  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study we have investigated the directivity associated with the initial up-dip rupture propagation during the 2009 April 6 (Mw 6.1) L'Aquila normal-faulting earthquake. The objective is the understanding of how the peculiar initial behaviour of rupture history during the main shock has affected the near-source recorded ground motions in the L'Aquila town and surrounding areas. We have modelled the observed ground velocities at the closest near-source recording sites by computing synthetic seismograms using a discrete wavenumbers and finite difference approach in the low frequency bandwidth (0.02-0.4 Hz) to avoid site effects contaminations. We use both the rupture model retrieved by inverting ground motion waveforms and continuous high sampling-rate GPS time-series as well as uniform-slip constant-rupture speed models. Our results demonstrate that the initial up-dip rupture propagation, characterizing the first 3 s of the rupture history during the L'Aquila main shock and releasing only ˜25 per cent of total seismic moment, controls the observed ground motions in the near-source. This initial stage of the rupture is characterized by the generation of ground velocity pulses, which we interpret as a forward directivity effect. Our modelling results confirm a heterogeneous distribution of rupture velocity during the initial up-dip rupture propagation, since uniform rupture speed models overestimate up-dip directivity effects in the footwall of the causative fault. The up-dip directivity observed in the near field during the 2009 L'Aquila main shock is that expected for a normal faulting earthquake, but it differs from that inferred from far-field observations that conversely provide evidence of along-strike directivity. This calls for a careful analysis as well as for the realistic inclusion of rupture directivity to predict ground motions in the near source.

Tinti, Elisa; Scognamiglio, Laura; Cirella, Antonella; Cocco, Massimo

2014-09-01

9

Spontaneous adrenal pheochromocytoma rupture complicated by intraperitoneal hemorrhage and shock  

PubMed Central

MEN2A is a hereditary syndrome characterized by medullary thyroid carcinoma, hyperparathyroidism, and pheochromocytoma. Classically patients with a pheochromocytoma initially present with the triad of paroxysmal headaches, palpitations, and diaphoresis accompanied by marked hypertension. However, although reported as a rare presentation, spontaneous hemorrhage within a pheochromocytoma can present as an abdominal catastrophe. Unrecognized, this transformation can rapidly result in death. We report the only documented case of a thirty eight year old gentleman with MEN2A who presented to a community hospital with hemorrhagic shock and peritonitis secondary to an unrecognized hemorrhagic pheochromocytoma. The clinical course is notable for an inability to localize the source of hemorrhage during an initial damage control laparotomy that stabilized the patient sufficiently to allow emergent transfer to our facility, re-exploration for continued hemorrhage and abdominal compartment syndrome, and ultimately angiographic embolization of the left adrenal artery for control of the bleeding. Following recovery from his critical illness and appropriate medical management for pheochromocytoma, he returned for interval bilateral adrenal gland resection, from which his recovery was unremarkable. Our review of the literature highlights the high mortality associated with the undertaking of an operative intervention in the face of an unrecognized functional pheochromocytoma. This reinforces the need for maintaining a high index of suspicion for pheochromocytoma in similar cases. Our case also demonstrates the need for a mutimodal treatment approach that will often be required in these cases. PMID:21843357

2011-01-01

10

The effects of diaphragm rupture and particle loading in contoured shock tubes for vaccine delivery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biological Ballistics, or "Biolistics", is a method by which micro-particle formulations of vaccine can be delivered to human skin or mucosa. A particle acceleration device, the Contoured Shock Tube (CST), has recently been described and characterised experimentally and numerically [2,3,6]. Essentially, the CST comprises a shock tube coupled to a correctly expanded nozzle. The particles are initially retained on a thin diaphragm while the upstream driver section is pressurised with air or helium. Rupture of the diaphragm initiates a classic shock tube flow through the device and consequent nozzle starting process. The design principle of the CST is that the particles be entrained within a quasi-steady, supersonic flow window which is bounded downstream by the nozzle starting process and upstream by the expansion reflected from the driver endwall.

Truong, N. K.; Hardy, M. P.; Kendall, M. A. F.

11

Near-field TEC response to the main shock of the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the first time we have registered near-field TEC response to the WENCHUAN earthquake (EQ) on 12 May 2008. The Wenchuan earthquake (magnitude 7.9) occurred at 06:28:01 UT as the result of motion on a northeast striking reverse fault (thrust fault) on the northwestern margin of the Sichuan Basin. The earthquake reflects tectonic stresses resulting from the convergence of crustal material slowly moving from the high Tibetan Plateau, to the west, against strong crust underlying the Sichuan Basin and southeastern China (http://earthquake.usgs.gov). Firstly we used the simple 3-GPS sites interferometric method D1 for determining the angular characteristics of the wave vector and phase velocity of N-shape shock-acoustic waves (SAW), generated during earthquakes. This method provided an estimation of SAW parameters without a priori information about the site and time of the EQ main shock. But using D1 method doesn't allow us to determine the form of phase front of SAW (plane or the spherical wave front). Therefore we used the quasi-optimum algorithm, QOA, developed by authors. This algorithm realized the coherent summation of the TEC series accounting for selected space-time parameters of disturbance. For each combination of the estimated parameters the normalized criterion function C for the coherent sum of all TEC series and the reference signal were calculated. The largest maximum value Cmax corresponds to the best-fit perturbation parameters. We found that an intensive N-shape SAW with a plane waveform and with half-period of about 200 sec propagated south-eastward with a velocity 600 m/s for distance about 1000 km from epicenter. The wave front of N-shape disturbance was parallel with the earthquake rupture direction (from NE to SW). The main directional lobe of shock-acoustic wave emitter is directed southeastward, i.e. transversely to the rupture. We suppose that the above properties of TEC response are determined by the geodynamics of the WENCHUAN earthquake. No noticeable TEC response on that earthquake was found in far-field regions in South Korea and Japan. Authors are grateful to members of the Crustal Movement Observation Network of China, the Japanese GPS network GEONET and the South Korean GPS array KGN for GPS data used in this paper. The work was supported by the SB RAS collaboration project N 3.24 and the RFBR-GFEN grant N 06-05-39026; by the Japanese Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS); by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (grants 40774090 and 40636032) and the National Important basic Research Project (2006CB806306).

Afraimovich, E. L.; Feng, Ding; Kiryushkin, V. V.; Astafyeva, E. I.; Jin, Shuanggen

2009-04-01

12

Simulation of a main steam line break with steam generator tube rupture using trace  

SciTech Connect

A simulation of the OECD/NEA ROSA-2 Project Test 5 was made with the thermal-hydraulic code TRACE5. Test 5 performed in the Large Scale Test Facility (LSTF) reproduced a Main Steam Line Break (MSLB) with a Steam Generator Tube Rupture (SGTR) in a Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR). The result of these simultaneous breaks is a depressurization in the secondary and primary system in loop B because both systems are connected through the SGTR. Good approximation was obtained between TRACE5 results and experimental data. TRACE5 reproduces qualitatively the phenomena that occur in this transient: primary pressure falls after the break, stagnation of the pressure after the opening of the relief valve of the intact steam generator, the pressure falls after the two openings of the PORV and the recovery of the liquid level in the pressurizer after each closure of the PORV. Furthermore, a sensitivity analysis has been performed to know the effect of varying the High Pressure Injection (HPI) flow rate in both loops on the system pressures evolution. (authors)

Gallardo, S.; Querol, A.; Verdu, G. [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica Y Nuclear, Universitat Politecnica de Valencia, Camino de Vera s/n, 46022, Valencia (Spain)

2012-07-01

13

Death due to neurogenic shock following gastric rupture in an anorexia nervosa patient  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report a case of fatal gastric rupture discovered after death, which developed due to a bulimic attack of a 19-year-old woman suffering from anorexia nervosa. An autopsy revealed an acute gastric dilatation and rupture without commonly observed ischemic damage of gastric wall structures. However, it may be difficult to determine the cause of death despite the marked findings. The

I. Sinicina; H. Pankratz; A. Büttner; G. Mall

2005-01-01

14

Extracorporeal Shock Wave Treatment (ESWT) Improves In Vitro Functional Activities of Ruptured Human Tendon-Derived Tenocytes  

PubMed Central

In vitro models of human tenocytes derived from healthy as well as from ruptured tendons were established, characterized and used at very early passage (P1) to evaluate the effects of Extracorporeal Shock Wave Treatment (ESWT). The molecular analysis of traditional tenocytic markers, including Scleraxis (Scx), Tenomodulin (Tnm), Tenascin-C (Tn-C) and Type I and III Collagens (Col I and Col III), permitted us to detect in our samples the simultaneous expression of all these genes and allowed us to compare their levels of expression in relationship to the source of the cells and treatments. In untreated conditions, higher molecular levels of Scx and Col I in tenocytes from pathological compared to healthy samples have been detected, suggesting – in the cells from injured tendon – the natural trigger of an early differentiation and repairing program, which depends by Scx and requires an increase in collagen expression. When ESWT (at the dose of 0.14 mJ/mm2) was applied to cultured tenocytes explanted from injured source, Scx and Col I were significantly diminished compared to healthy counterpart, indicating that such natural trigger maybe delayed by the treatment, in order to promote cellular repair. Herein, we show for the first time that ESWT enhances in vitro functional activities of ruptured tendon-derived tenocytes, such as proliferation and migration, which could probably contributes to tendon healing in vivo. PMID:23189160

Leone, Laura; Vetrano, Mario; Ranieri, Danilo; Raffa, Salvatore; Vulpiani, Maria Chiara; Ferretti, Andrea; Torrisi, Maria Rosaria; Visco, Vincenzo

2012-01-01

15

Geochemical signals of progressive continental rupture in the Main Ethiopian Rift  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mafic volcanics of the Main Ethiopian Rift record the development of magmatic rift segments during continental extension. The Ethiopian Rift is one arm of a triple junction that formed above a Paleogene mantle plume, concurrent with eruption of flood basalts ca. 30 Ma across northern Ethiopian and Yemen. The geochemistry of Ethiopian Rift lavas thus provides insight into processes associated

T. Furman; J. Bryce; G. Yirgu; D. Ayalew; L. Cooper

2003-01-01

16

The 2009 L'Aquila (central Italy) MW6.3 earthquake: Main shock and aftershocks  

Microsoft Academic Search

A MW 6.3 earthquake struck on April 6, 2009 the Abruzzi region (central Italy) producing vast damage in the L'Aquila town and surroundings. In this paper we present the location and geometry of the fault system as obtained by the analysis of main shock and aftershocks recorded by permanent and temporary networks. The distribution of aftershocks, 712 selected events with

C. Chiarabba; A. Amato; M. Anselmi; P. Baccheschi; I. Bianchi; M. Cattaneo; G. Cecere; L. Chiaraluce; M. G. Ciaccio; P. De Gori; G. De Luca; M. Di Bona; R. Di Stefano; L. Faenza; A. Govoni; L. Improta; F. P. Lucente; A. Marchetti; L. Margheriti; F. Mele; A. Michelini; G. Monachesi; M. Moretti; M. Pastori; N. Piana Agostinetti; D. Piccinini; P. Roselli; D. Seccia; L. Valoroso

2009-01-01

17

Geochemical signals of progressive continental rupture in the Main Ethiopian Rift  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mafic volcanics of the Main Ethiopian Rift record the development of magmatic rift segments during continental extension. The Ethiopian Rift is one arm of a triple junction that formed above a Paleogene mantle plume, concurrent with eruption of flood basalts ca. 30 Ma across northern Ethiopian and Yemen. The geochemistry of Ethiopian Rift lavas thus provides insight into processes associated with the shift from mechanical (lithospheric) to magmatic (asthenospheric) segmentation in the transitional phase of continental rifting. Quaternary basalts from five volcanic centers representing three magmatic segments display along-axis geochemical variations that likely reflect the degree of rifting and magma supply, which increase abruptly with proximity to the highly-extended Afar region. To first order, the geochemical data indicate a decreasing degree of shallow-level fractionation and greater involvement of depleted or plume-like mantle source materials in basalts sampled closer to the Afar. These spatially controlled geochemical signatures observed in contemporaneous basalts are similar to temporal variations documented in southern Ethiopia, where Quaternary lavas indicate a greater degree of crustal extension than those erupted at the onset of plume activity. Primitive Ethiopian Rift basalts have geochemical signatures (e.g., Ce/Pb, La/Nb, Ba/Nb, Ba/Rb, U/Th) that overlap ocean island basalt compositions, suggesting involvement of sub-lithospheric source materials. The estimated depth of melting (65-75 km) is shallower than values obtained for young primitive mafic lavas from the Western Rift and southern Kenya as well as Oligocene Ethiopian flood basalts from the onset of plume-driven activity. Basalts from the Turkana region (N. Kenya) and Erta 'Ale (Danakil depression) reflect melting at shallower levels, corresponding to the greater degree of crustal extension in these provinces. Preliminary Sr and Nd isotopic data trend towards primitive earth values, consistent with values observed previously in central Ethiopia that are associated with moderately high 3He/4He values (<19 RA; Marty et al. 1996) and interpreted as reflecting involvement of a mantle plume. Taken together, these data support a model in which upwelling plume material sampled in central Ethiopia incorporates depleted mantle during ascent beneath the more highly extended portions of the African Rift.

Furman, T.; Bryce, J.; Yirgu, G.; Ayalew, D.; Cooper, L.

2003-04-01

18

Investigation of seismicity after the initiation of a Seismic Electric Signal activity until the main shock  

PubMed Central

The behavior of seismicity in the area candidate to suffer a main shock is investigated after the observation of the Seismic Electric Signal activity until the impending main shock. This is based on the view that the occurrence of earthquakes is a critical phenomenon to which statistical dynamics may be applied. In the present work, analysing the time series of small earthquakes, the concept of natural time ? was used and the results revealed that the approach to criticality itself can be manifested by the probability density function (PDF) of ?1 calculated over an appropriate statistical ensemble. Here, ?1 is the variance ?1(= ??2? ? ???2) resulting from the power spectrum of a function defined as ?(?)=?k=1Npkexp(i??k), where pk is the normalized energy of the k-th small earthquake and ? the natural frequency. This PDF exhibits a maximum at ?1 ? 0.070 a few days before the main shock. Examples are presented, referring to the magnitude 6?7 class earthquakes that occurred in Greece. PMID:18941306

Sarlis, N. V.; Skordas, E. S.; Lazaridou, M. S.; Varotsos, P. A.

2008-01-01

19

Supersonic Rupture of Rubber  

E-print Network

The rupture of rubber differs from conventional fracture. It is supersonic, and the speed is determined by strain levels ahead of the tip rather than total strain energy as for ordinary cracks. Dissipation plays a very important role in allowing the propagation of ruptures, and the back edges of ruptures must toughen as they contract, or the rupture is unstable. This article presents several levels of theoretical description of this phenomenon: first, a numerical procedure capable of incorporating large extensions, dynamics, and bond rupture; second, a simple continuum model that can be solved analytically, and which reproduces several features of elementary shock physics; and third, an analytically solvable discrete model that accurately reproduces numerical and experimental results, and explains the scaling laws that underly this new failure mode. Predictions for rupture speed compare well with experiment.

M Marder

2005-04-24

20

Chapter A. The Loma Prieta, California, Earthquake of October 17, 1989 - Main Shock Characteristics  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The October 17, 1989, Loma Prieta, Calif., earthquake (0004:15.2 G.m.t. October 18; lat 37.036? N., long 121.883? W.; 19-km depth) had a local magnitude (ML) of about 6.7, a surface-wave magnitude (MS) of 7.1, a seismic moment of 2.2x1019 N-m to 3.5x1019 N-m, a source duration of 6 to 15 s, and an average stress drop of at least 50 bars. Slip occurred on a dipping fault surface about 35 km long and was largely confined to a depth of about 7 to 20 km. The slip vector had a large vertical component, and slip was distributed in two main regions situated northwest and southeast of the hypocenter. This slip distribution caused about half of the earthquake's energy to be focused toward the urbanized San Francisco Bay region, while the other half was focused toward the southeast. Had the rupture initiated at the southeast end of the aftershock zone, shaking in the bay region would have been both longer and stronger. These source parameters suggest that the earthquake was not a typical shallow San Andreas-type event but a deeper event on a different fault with a recurrence interval of many hundreds of years. Therefore, the potential for a damaging shallow event on the San Andreas fault in the Santa Cruz Mountains may still exist.

Spudich, Paul, (Edited By)

1996-01-01

21

Main shock and aftershock records of the 1999 Izmit and Duzce, Turkey earthquakes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The August 17, 1999 Izmit (Turkey) earthquake (Mw=7.4) will be remembered as one of the largest earthquakes of recent times that affected a large urban environment (U.S. Geological Survey, 1999). This significant event was followed by many significant aftershocks and another main event (Mw=7.2) that occurred on November 12, 1999 near Duzce (Turkey). The shaking that caused the widespread damage and destruction was recorded by a handful of accelerographs (~30) in the earthquake area operated by different networks. The characteristics of these records show that the recorded peak accelerations, shown in Figure 1, even those from near field stations, are smaller than expected (Çelebi, 1999, 2000). Following this main event, several organizations from Turkey, Japan, France and the USA deployed temporary accelerographs and other aftershock recording hardware. Thus, the number of recording stations in the earthquake affected area was quadrupled (~130). As a result, as seen in Figure 2, smaller magnitude aftershocks yielded larger peak accelerations, indicating that because of the sparse networks, recording of larger motions during the main shock of August 17, 1999 were possibly missed.

Celebi, M.; Akkar, S.; Gulerce, U.; Sanli, A.; Bundock, H.; Salkin, A.

2001-01-01

22

Comparison of main-shock and aftershock fragility curves developed for New Zealand and US buildings  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Seismic risk assessment involves the development of fragility functions to express the relationship between ground motion intensity and damage potential. In evaluating the risk associated with the building inventory in a region, it is essential to capture 'actual' characteristics of the buildings and group them so that 'generic building types' can be generated for further analysis of their damage potential. Variations in building characteristics across regions/countries largely influence the resulting fragility functions, such that building models are unsuitable to be adopted for risk assessment in any other region where a different set of building is present. In this paper, for a given building type (represented in terms of height and structural system), typical New Zealand and US building models are considered to illustrate the differences in structural model parameters and their effects on resulting fragility functions for a set of main-shocks and aftershocks. From this study, the general conclusion is that the methodology and assumptions used to derive basic capacity curve parameters have a considerable influence on fragility curves.

Uma, S.R.; Ryu, H.; Luco, N.; Liel, A.B.; Raghunandan, M.

2011-01-01

23

Shock  

MedlinePLUS

Shock is a life-threatening condition that occurs when the body is not getting enough blood flow. ... Multiple organs can suffer damage as a result. Shock requires immediate medical treatment and can get worse ...

24

Spontaneous rupture of a posttraumatic aneurysm of the axillary artery-a rare cause of hemorrhagic shock in children.  

PubMed

Posttraumatic aneurysms of the axillary artery are extremely scarce. In pediatrics, no similar case has been described. Injuries of axillary artery are often associated with ischemic complications, whereas the bleeding risks are not well documented. We report the case of a 5-year-old boy who was admitted with a scapular pulsatile lump 2 weeks after a domestic accident. During his stay, he suddenly presented a hemorrhagic shock. The patient was immediately admitted to the operating room to undergo surgical hemostasis and was then transferred to intensive care unit to stabilize his vital functions. This case shows the possibility of spontaneous and life-threatening acute bleeding of posttraumatic aneurysms of the axillary artery. PMID:24704582

Saad, Nabil; Bentalha, Aziza; Thar, Abdellatif; Benjelloun, Mohammed Younes; Oulahyane, Rachid; Mossadik, Ahlam; El Koraichi, Alae; El Kettani, Salma

2014-10-01

25

Vibration, acoustic, and shock design and test criteria for components on the Solid Rocket Boosters (SRB), Lightweight External Tank (LWT), and Space Shuttle Main Engines (SSME)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The vibration, acoustics, and shock design and test criteria for components and subassemblies on the space shuttle solid rocket booster (SRB), lightweight tank (LWT), and main engines (SSME) are presented. Specifications for transportation, handling, and acceptance testing are also provided.

1984-01-01

26

Phenomena identification and ranking tables for Westinghouse AP600 small break loss-of-coolant accident, main steam line break, and steam generator tube rupture scenarios  

SciTech Connect

This report revision incorporates new experimental evidence regarding AP600 behavior during small break loss-of-coolant accidents. This report documents the results of Phenomena Identification and Ranking Table (PIRT) efforts for the Westinghouse AP600 reactor. The purpose of this PIRT is to identify important phenomena so that they may be addressed in both the experimental programs and the RELAP5/MOD3 systems analysis computer code. In Revision of this report, the responses of AP600 during small break loss-of-coolant accident, main steam line break, and steam generator tube rupture accident scenarios were evaluated by a committee of thermal-hydraulic experts. Committee membership included Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory staff and recognized thermal-hydraulic experts from outside of the laboratory. Each of the accident scenarios was subdivided into separate, sequential periods or phases. Within each phase, the plant behavior is controlled by, at most, a few thermal-hydraulic processes. The committee identified the phenomena influencing those processes, and ranked & influences as being of high, medium, low, or insignificant importance. The primary product of this effort is a series of tables, one for each phase of each accident scenario, describing the thermal-hydraulic phenomena judged by the committee to be important, and the relative ranking of that importance. The rationales for the phenomena selected and their rankings are provided. This document issue incorporates an update of the small break loss-of-coolant accident portion of the report. This revision is the result of the release of experimental evidence from AP600-related integral test facilities (ROSA/AP600, OSU, and SPES) and thermal-hydraulic expert review. The activities associated with this update were performed during the period from June 1995 through November 1996. 8 refs., 26 figs., 42 tabs.

Wilson, G.E.; Fletcher, C.D.; Davis, C.B. [and others

1997-06-01

27

Shock.  

PubMed

Critically ill patients with undifferentiated shock are complex and challenging cases in the ED. A systematic approach to assessment and management is essential to prevent unnecessary morbidity and mortality. The simplified, systematic approach described in this article focuses on determining the presence of problems with cardiac function (the pump), intravascular volume (the tank), or systemic vascular resistance (the pipes). With this approach, the emergency physician can detect life-threatening conditions and implement time-sensitive therapy. PMID:25441032

Wacker, David A; Winters, Michael E

2014-11-01

28

Neonatal splenic rupture: an unusual manifestation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neonatal splenic rupture is relatively rare [4] and is usually associated with a traumatic delivery [3]. The clinical manifestation are those of hemorrhage and hypovolemic shock. We present two unusual cases of spontaneous neonatal splenic rupture whose initial clinical manifestation was a hematocele of the scrotal sac. The clinical presentation, diagnostic approach, and management of such cases is discussed with

David Bader; Jorge G. Mogilner; Anna Berger; Samuel Eldar; Daniel Reich; Leonardo Siplovich

1993-01-01

29

Rupture distribution of the 1977 western Argentina earthquake  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Teleseismic P and SH body waves are used in a finite-fault, waveform inversion for the rupture history of the 23 November 1977 western Argentina earthquake. This double event consists of a smaller foreshock (M0 = 5.3 ?? 1026 dyn-cm) followed about 20 s later by a larger main shock (M0 = 1.5 ?? 1027 dyn-cm). Our analysis indicates that these two events occurred on different fault segments: with the foreshock having a strike, dip, and average rake of 345??, 45??E, and 50??, and the main shock 10??, 45??E, and 80??, respectively. The foreshock initiated at a depth of 17 km and propagated updip and to the north. The main shock initiated at the southern end of the foreshock zone at a depth of 25 to 30 km, and propagated updip and unilaterally to the south. The north-south separation of the centroids of the moment release for the foreshock and main shock is about 60 km. The apparent triggering of the main shock by the foreshock is similar to other earthquakes that have involved the failure of multiple fault segments, such as the 1992 Landers, California, earthquake. Such occurrences argue against the use of individual, mapped, surface fault or fault-segment lengths in the determination of the size and frequency of future earthquakes.

Langer, C.J.; Hartzell, S.

1996-01-01

30

Fine structure of the landers fault zone: Segmentation and the rupture process  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Observations and modeling of 3- to 6-hertz seismic shear waves trapped within the fault zone of the 1992 Landers earthquake series allow the fine structure and continuity of the zone to be evaluated. The fault, to a depth of at least 12 kilometers, is marked by a zone 100 to 200 meters wide where shear velocity is reduced by 30 to 50 percent. This zone forms a seismic waveguide that extends along the southern 30 kilometers of the Landers rupture surface and ends at the fault bend about 18 kilometers north of the main shock epicenter. Another fault plane waveguide, disconnected from the first, exists along the northern rupture surface. These observations, in conjunction with surface slip, detailed seismicity patterns, and the progression of rupture along the fault, suggest that several simple rupture planes were involved in the Landers earthquake and that the inferred rupture front hesitated or slowed at the location where the rupture jumped from one to the next plane. Reduction in rupture velocity can tentatively be attributed to fault plane complexity, and variations in moment release can be attributed to variations in available energy.

Li, Y.-G.; Vidale, J.E.; Aki, K.; Marone, C.J.; Lee, W.H.K.

1994-01-01

31

Shock, diaschisis and von Monakow.  

PubMed

The concept of shock apparently emerged in the middle of the 18th century (Whyett) as an occurrence observed experimentally after spinal cord transection, and identified as "shock" phenomenon one century later (Hall). The concept was extended (Brown-Séquard) and it was suggested that brain lesions caused functional rupture in regions distant from the injured one ("action à distance"). The term "diaschisis" (von Monakow), proposed as a new modality of shock, had its concept broadened, underpinned by observations of patients, aiming at distinguishing between symptoms of focal brain lesions and transitory effects they produced, attributable to depression of distant parts of the brain connected to the injured area. Presently, diaschisis is related mainly to cerebrovascular lesions and classified according to the connection fibers involved, as proposed by von Monakow. Depression of metabolism and blood flow in regions anatomically separated, but related by connections with the lesion, allows observing diaschisis with neuroimaging. PMID:23857617

Engelhardt, Eliasz; Gomes, Marleide da Mota

2013-07-01

32

The 1997 Umbria-Marche, Italy, earthquake sequence: a first look at the main shocks and aftershocks  

Microsoft Academic Search

A long sequence of earthquakes, six with magnitudes between 5 and 6, struck Central Italy starting on September 26, 1997, causing severe damages and loss of human lives. The seismogenic structure consists of a NW-SE elongated fault zone extending for about 40 km. The focal mechanisms of the largest shocks reveal normal faulting with NE-SW extension perpendicular to the trend

A. Amato; R. Azzara; C. Chiarabba; G. B. Cimini; M. Cocco; M. Di Bona; L. Margheriti; S. Mazza; F. Mele; G. Selvaggi; A. Basili; E. Boschi; F. Courboulex; A. Deschamps; S. Gaffet; G. Bittarelli; L. Chiaraluce; D. Piccinini; M. Ripepe

1998-01-01

33

Pre- and postseismic slow slip surrounding the 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake rupture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Slow (aseismic) slip that accommodates part of the long-term plate motion on subduction megathrusts is thought to be strongly related to the occurrence of large earthquakes on the same fault zone. However, the temporal evolution and spatial distribution of the aseismic slip before major earthquakes and of accelerated postseismic afterslip are largely unconstrained. We estimate cumulative offsets of small repeating earthquakes that are interpreted to reflect the in situ aseismic slip history on the subduction zone offshore northeastern Japan. These data reveal contrasting aseismic slip patterns between the coseismic rupture area of the Mw 9.0 Tohoku-oki earthquake and surrounding portions of the subduction thrust. The rupture area is characterised by low and variable slip rates before 2008, and the slip stopped almost completely after the earthquake. The region surrounding the rupture area exhibited higher aseismic fault slip rates before the earthquake and clear postseismic slip of up to 1.6 m within 9 months following the main shock. The frictional fault properties and complete relief of ambient stress in the central rupture zone of the main shock probably control the observed distribution. The postseismic slip shows a more abrupt increase in the region closer to the source, suggesting outwards propagation of afterslip. Small but distinct increases in the slip rate in the ~3 yr before the earthquake near the area of large coseismic slip suggests preseismic unfastening of the locked area in the last stage of the earthquake cycle.

Uchida, Naoki; Matsuzawa, Toru

2013-07-01

34

Rupture progression along discontinuous oblique fault sets: implications for the Karadere rupture segment of the 1999 Izmit earthquake, and future rupture in the Sea of Marmara  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large earthquakes in strike-slip regimes commonly rupture fault segments that are oblique to each other in both strike and dip. This was the case during the 1999 Izmit earthquake, which mainly ruptured E–W-striking right-lateral faults but also ruptured the N60°E-striking Karadere fault at the eastern end of the main rupture. It will also likely be so for any future large

Jordan R. Muller; Atilla Aydin

2004-01-01

35

Do buried-rupture earthquakes trigger less landslides than surface-rupture earthquakes for reverse faults?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gorum et al. (2013, Geomorphology 184, 127-138) carried out a study on inventory compilation and statistical analyses of landslides triggered by the 2010 Mw 7.0 Haiti earthquake. They revealed that spatial distribution patterns of these landslides were mainly controlled by complex rupture mechanism and topography. They also suggested that blind-rupture earthquakes trigger fewer landslides than surface-rupture earthquakes on thrust reverse faults. Although a few lines of evidence indicate that buried-rupture earthquakes might trigger fewer landslides than surface-rupture earthquakes on reverse faults, more careful comparisons and analyses indicate that it is not always true. Instead, some cases show that a buried-rupture earthquake can trigger a larger quantity of landslides that are distributed in a larger area, whereas surface-rupture earthquakes can trigger larger but a fewer landslides distributed in a smaller area.

Xu, Chong

2014-07-01

36

Self-Rupturing Hermetic Valve  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

For commercial, military, and aerospace applications, low-cost, small, reliable, and lightweight gas and liquid hermetically sealed valves with post initiation on/off capability are highly desirable for pressurized systems. Applications include remote fire suppression, single-use system-pressurization systems, spacecraft propellant systems, and in situ instruments. Current pyrotechnic- activated rupture disk hermetic valves were designed for physically larger systems and are heavy and integrate poorly with portable equipment, aircraft, and small spacecraft and instrument systems. Additionally, current pyrotechnically activated systems impart high g-force shock loads to surrounding components and structures, which increase the risk of damage and can require additional mitigation. The disclosed mechanism addresses the need for producing a hermetically sealed micro-isolation valve for low and high pressure for commercial, aerospace, and spacecraft applications. High-precision electrical discharge machining (EDM) parts allow for the machining of mated parts with gaps less than a thousandth of an inch. These high-precision parts are used to support against pressure and extrusion, a thin hermetically welded diaphragm. This diaphragm ruptures from a pressure differential when the support is removed and/or when the plunger is forced against the diaphragm. With the addition of conventional seals to the plunger and a two-way actuator, a derivative of this design would allow nonhermetic use as an on/off or metering valve after the initial rupturing of the hermetic sealing disk. In addition, in a single-use hermetically sealed isolation valve, the valve can be activated without the use of potential leak-inducing valve body penetrations. One implementation of this technology is a high-pressure, high-flow-rate rupture valve that is self-rupturing, which is advantageous for high-pressure applications such as gas isolation valves. Once initiated, this technology is self-energizing and requires low force compared to current pyrotechnic-based burst disk hermetic valves. This is a novel design for producing a single-use, self-rupturing, hermetically sealed valve for isolation of pressurized gas and/or liquids. This design can also be applied for single-use disposable valves for chemical instruments. A welded foil diaphragm is fully supported by two mated surfaces that are machined to micron accuracies using EDM. To open the valve, one of the surfaces is moved relative to the other to (a) remove the support creating an unsupported diaphragm that ruptures due to over pressure, and/or (b) produce tension in the diaphragm and rupture it.

Tucker, Curtis E., Jr.; Sherrit, Stewart

2011-01-01

37

Kinematic Seismic Rupture Parameters from a Doppler Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The radiation emitted from extended seismic sources, mainly when the rupture spreads in preferred directions, presents spectral deviations as a function of the observation location. This aspect, unobserved to point sources, and named as directivity, are manifested by an increase in the frequency and amplitude of seismic waves when the rupture occurs in the direction of the seismic station and a decrease in the frequency and amplitude if it occurs in the opposite direction. The model of directivity that supports the method is a Doppler analysis based on a kinematic source model of rupture and wave propagation through a structural medium with spherical symmetry [1]. A unilateral rupture can be viewed as a sequence of shocks produced along certain paths on the fault. According this model, the seismic record at any point on the Earth's surface contains a signature of the rupture process that originated the recorded waveform. Calculating the rupture direction and velocity by a general Doppler equation, - the goal of this work - using a dataset of common time-delays read from waveforms recorded at different distances around the epicenter, requires the normalization of measures to a standard value of slowness. This normalization involves a non-linear inversion that we solve numerically using an iterative least-squares approach. The evaluation of the performance of this technique was done through a set of synthetic and real applications. We present the application of the method at four real case studies, the following earthquakes: Arequipa, Peru (Mw = 8.4, June 23, 2001); Denali, AK, USA (Mw = 7.8; November 3, 2002); Zemmouri-Boumerdes, Algeria (Mw = 6.8, May 21, 2003); and Sumatra, Indonesia (Mw = 9.3, December 26, 2004). The results obtained from the dataset of the four earthquakes agreed, in general, with the values presented by other authors using different methods and data. [1] Caldeira B., Bezzeghoud M, Borges JF, 2009; DIRDOP: a directivity approach to determining the seismic rupture velocity vector. J Seismology, DOI 10.1007/s10950-009-9183-x

Caldeira, Bento; Bezzeghoud, Mourad; Borges, José F.

2010-05-01

38

Dynamic rupture activation of backthrust fault branching  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We perform dynamic rupture simulations to investigate the possible reactivation of backthrust branches triggered by ruptures along a main thrust fault. Simulations with slip-weakening fault friction and uniform initial stress show that fast propagation speed or long propagation distance of the main rupture promotes reactivation of backthrust over a range of branch angles. The latter condition may occur separately from the former if rupture speed is limited by an increasing slip-weakening distance towards the junction direction. The results suggest a trade-off between the amplitude and duration of the dynamic stress near the main rupture front for backthrust reactivation. Termination of the main rupture by a barrier can provide enhanced loading amplitude and duration along a backthrust rooted near the barrier, facilitating its reactivation especially with a high frictional resistance. The free surface and depth-dependent initial stress can have several additional effects. The sign of the triggered motion along the backthrust can be reversed from thrust to normal if a deeply nucleated main rupture breaks the free surface, while it is preserved as thrust if the main rupture is terminated by a barrier at depth. The numerical results are discussed in relation to several recent megathrust earthquakes in Sumatra, Chile, and Japan, and related topics such as branch feedbacks to the main fault. The dynamic view on backthrust fault branching provided by the study fills a gap not covered by quasi-static models or observations. A specific examined case of antithetic fault branching may be useful for indicating a barrier-like behavior along the main fault.

Xu, Shiqing; Fukuyama, Eiichi; Ben-Zion, Yehuda; Ampuero, Jean-Paul

2015-03-01

39

Spatial relation between main earthquake slip and its aftershock distribution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We examine where aftershocks occur relative to the spatial distribution of the main shock slip using data from several recent large earthquakes. No universal relation between high- and low-moment regions and high or low aftershock occurrence, or vice versa, is found. We generally find that few, and usually the smaller, aftershocks occur in the high-slip regions of the fault, a notable exception to this being the great 1996 Biak, Indonesia, subduction zone earthquake. In all cases, aftershocks occur on favorably oriented planes of weakness in regions of increased postseismic stress. Generally, they are clustered at both ends of faults, but examples where aftershocks occur only at one end or where there is no clustering at the ends are found. Aftershock clusters are also found at the edge of unbroken barriers, and regions of rapid transition from high to low slip, within the main fault area. We identify examples of geometrical and inhomogeneous barriers and sharp and dull stress concentrations. Rupture in the main shock is generally found to nucleate in the region of low slip or at the edge of high-slip regions, the 1996 Biak earthquake again being the only exception, nucleating in a very high slip region. Off-fault aftershocks are found for all earthquakes in this study, and they sometimes rupture the nodal plane conjugate to the main shock fault plane.

Das, S.; Henry, C.

2003-09-01

40

Toward resolving stable high-resolution kinematic rupture models of large earthquakes by joint inversion of seismic, geodetic and tsunami observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this thesis, I summarize the research that I have done at UC Santa Cruz involving my development of joint inversion approaches using hr-GPS, teleseismic body and surface waves, regional seismic, campaign GPS, InSAR and tsunami datasets, to investigate the kinematic rupture patterns of large earthquakes. In eight different studies of rupture models of the 2011 Tohoku earthquake, 2012 Indo-Australia earthquake, 2012 Costa Rica earthquake, 2013 Craig earthquake, 2010 Mentawai earthquake, 2013 Pakistan earthquake, 2010 Chile earthquake and 2014 Iquique earthquake, I adopted each available dataset progressively in my joint inversion algorithm, so that in my current approach I can model all of the types of datasets simultaneously. As noted in this thesis, the teleseismic datasets provide good temporal resolution of the rupture process, while geodetic datasets have good spatial resolution. Tsunami datasets have good spatial resolution of slip near the trench. The joint inversion combines the advantage of each dataset, yielding stable and high- resolution rupture models with detailed spatial and temporal information. Resolving a robust and detailed rupture model helps us to understand co-seismic rupture properties, such as depth dependent energy release patterns, super-shear rupture, and tsunami excitation. Comparing the inter-seismic locking pattern and post-seismic stress release pattern with the co-seismic rupture model helps to investigate the locking and releasing behavior of the fault plane through the earthquake cycle, the stress release level of large earthquakes and the relationship between the main shock ruptures, aftershocks and non-seismogenic deformation.

Yue, Han

41

Ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm diagnosed through non-contrast MRI  

PubMed Central

Rupture of an aneurysm is a rare complication although it is considered a common cause of death. Some of these patients present with the classic triad of symptoms such as abdominal pain, pulsatile abdominal mass and shock. Most symptoms are misleading and will only present as vague abdominal pain. Here we describe one such patient with an unusual presentation of a misleading abdominal mass which was eventually diagnosed as a ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm after an emergency MRI. PMID:25003065

Chatra, Priyank S

2013-01-01

42

Extraneural rupture of intraneural ganglion cysts.  

PubMed

Rupture of simple (extraneural) cysts such as popliteal cysts (Baker's cysts) is a well-known occurrence. The purpose of this report is to introduce the similar occurrence of extraneural rupture of peroneal and tibial intraneural cysts in the knee region, describe the associated magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings, and identify risk factors. There was MRI evidence of rupture in 20 of 38 intraneural cases reviewed, mainly in the region of the fibular head and popliteal fossa. Ruptured intraneural cysts and simple cysts share these MRI findings: T2 hyperintense fluid within surrounding intermuscular fascial planes and enhancement with intravenous contrast consistent with inflammation. The mean maximal diameter of the ruptured intraneural cysts was statistically significantly smaller than that of the unruptured cysts. The authors believe that extraneural rupture of an intraneural cyst is due to increased intraarticular pressures transmitted within the cyst and/or elevated extrinsic pressure delivered to the cyst, such as by trauma, akin to the etiology of rupture of extraneural ganglion cysts. PMID:21838077

Shahid, Kameron R; Hébert-Blouin, Marie-Noëlle; Amrami, Kimberly K; Spinner, Robert J

2011-01-01

43

Rupture process at the beginning of the 2007 Chuetsu-oki, Niigata, Japan, earthquake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The rupture process at the beginning stage of the 2007 Chuetsu-oki, Niigata, Japan, earthquake (MW 6.6) is investigated by analyzing P-wave records from local strong-motion stations. The P-wave portion of the near-source strong-motion records shows about 2 s of small but increasing amplitude arrival (so-called "initial rupture phase") followed by the onset of the main energy release ("main rupture phase"). Two issues are addressed in this paper: (1) where the initial rupture process occurred and (2) where the seismic energy corresponding to the main rupture phase was released at the primary stage of the main rupture. The first issue is addressed by locating the main rupture onset position, and the second issue is then approached by introducing a method for mapping the wave energy onto plausible fault planes. Eventually, the following were revealed. The rupture initiated and propagated on the NW-dipping plane, which is a nodal plane of the focal mechanism solution. At 2.1 s after rupture initiation the subsequent main rupture started at a position of approximately 4 km away, southwestward and updipward from the hypocenter. The main rupture at this stage has two possible rupture planes: the same plane as the initial rupture plane, and the conjugated plane, which shares the main rupture onset point with the initial rupture plane. Although it is difficult to determine which plane was actually ruptured at the primary stage of the main rupture, we found that the possible areas radiating strong wave energy on the two possible planes, which could correspond to the first asperity of this earthquake, are located between the hypocenter and the Kashiwazaki-Kariwa nuclear power plant.

Takenaka, H.; Yamamoto, Y.; Yamasaki, H.

2009-02-01

44

ANL/ALCF/ESP-13/8 Using Multi-scale Dynamic Rupture Models to  

E-print Network

under contract DE-AC02-06CH11357. The Laboratory's main facility is outside Chicago, at 9700 South Cass seismic hazard results, including a state-wide extended earthquake rupture forecast with rupture

Kemner, Ken

45

Improved results of surgical management of postinfarction ventricular septal rupture.  

PubMed

Fifty-five patients had surgical repair of postinfarction ventricular septal rupture in Massachusetts General Hospital from 1968 through 1981. In patients operated more than three weeks after infarction, hospital survival has been 93% (14/15). Before 1975 in patients operated less than three weeks after infarction, hospital survival was 41% (7/17). In this same era patents operated for septal rupture with cardiogenic shock present before operation had a hospital survival rate of only 27% (3/11). Before 1975 patients with cardiogenic shock were supported with intra-aortic balloon pumping (IABP) and vasopressors, and operation deferred pending hemodynamic stabilization. Before 1975 patients with anterior septal rupture had a hospital survival rate of 64% (9/14), while patients with posterior septal rupture had a hospital survival rate of only 38% (5/13). This difference in survival according to the location of septal rupture occurred despite comparable numbers of patients in each group requiring early operation, as well as incidence of cardiogenic shock. Since January 1, 1975 patients operated less than three weeks after infarction have had an overall hospital survival rate of 70% (16/23). Of the 10 most recent patients operated early, nine are survivors. In patients with anterior defects 85% (11/13) survived, while in patients with posterior defects 67% survived (10/15). In patients operated with cardiogenic shock present before operation, survival has been 67% (10/15). Changes in management leading to improved results include (1) immediate operation for patients with cardiogenic shock, (2) cold cardioplegic protection of the myocardium, and (3) prosthetic replacement of posterior left ventricular free wall defect, after infarctectomy and septal repair, in patients with posterior septal rupture. PMID:7114934

Daggett, W M; Buckley, M J; Akins, C W; Leinbach, R C; Gold, H K; Block, P C; Austen, W G

1982-09-01

46

Rupture of the diaphragm  

PubMed Central

Christiansen, L. A., Stage, P., Bille Brahe, E., and Bertelsen, S. (1974).Thorax, 29, 559-563. Rupture of the diaphragm. A 23-year series of 25 patients with rupture of the diaphragm is presented. Symptoms, diagnostic procedures, and treatment are mentioned. A high index of suspicion of the diagnosis of ruptured diaphragm is most important in patients with a history of trauma. Familiarity with the signs on the plain chest film is important. Furthermore, we advocate an additional examination, that is diagnostic pneumoperitoneum, in all cases of suspected rupture of the diaphragm. If doubt still exists, we consider the final diagnostic procedure of choice to be exploratory thoracotomy until proof of the complete reliability of diagnostic pneumoperitoneum has been established. Images PMID:4428456

Christiansen, L. A.; Stage, P.; Bille Brahe, E.; Bertelsen, S.

1974-01-01

47

Achilles tendon rupture - aftercare  

MedlinePLUS

Managing Your: Achilles Tendon Rupture. In: Ferri FF, ed. Ferri's Clinical Advisor 2015 . 1st ed. Philadelphia, PA: Mosby Elsevier; 2014: appendix V. Sokolove PE, Barnes DK. Extensor and Flexor Tendon Injuries ...

48

Physiopathology of shock  

PubMed Central

Shock syndromes are of three types: cardiogenic, hemorrhagic and inflammatory. Hemorrhagic shock has its initial deranged macro-hemodynamic variables in the blood volume and venous return. In cardiogenic shock there is a primary pump failure that has cardiac output/mean arterial pressure as initial deranged variables. In Inflammatory Shock it is the microcirculation that is mainly affected, while the initial deranged macrocirculation variable is the total peripheral resistance hit by systemic inflammatory response. PMID:21769210

Bonanno, Fabrizio Giuseppe

2011-01-01

49

Placenta Accreta Causing Uterine Rupture in Second Trimester of Pregnancy after in vitro Fertilization: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

Background Placenta accreta is a rare obstetrical condition that mainly occurs in the third trimester leading to life-threatening complications. Hereby, a case of uterine rupture due to placenta accreta occuring in the second trimester is presented. Case Presentation A forty-year old patient who conceived after in vitro fertilization treatment (oocyte donation and embryo transfer) presented in emergency department in the nineteen weeks of gestation with acute abdominal pain, heamoperitoneum and fetal death. Emergency laprotomy showed uterine rupture along with placenta accreta for which the patient underwent subtotal hysterectomy. Conclusion Although, an uncommon occurrence, physicians in assisted reproductive techniques (ART) clinics should consider placenta accreta in gravid patients who present with acute abdominal pain and shock, considering the fact that they usually have associated high risk factors for abnormal placentation. PMID:23926525

Dahiya, Priya; Nayar, Kanad D.; Gulati, Amar J.S.; Dahiya, Kiran

2012-01-01

50

New Empirical Relationships among Magnitude, Rupture Length, Rupture Width, Rupture Area, and Surface Displacement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Source parameters for historical earthquakes worldwide are com- piled to develop a series of empirical relationships among moment magnitude (M), surface rupture length, subsurface rupture length, downdip rupture width, rupture area, and maximum and average displacement per event. The resulting data base is a significant update of previous compilations and includes the ad- ditional source parameters of seismic moment, moment

Donald L. Wells; Kevin J. Coppersmith

1994-01-01

51

Achilles Tendon Rupture  

PubMed Central

Context: Achilles tendon (AT) rupture in athletes is increasing in incidence and accounts for one of the most devastating sports injuries because of the threat to alter or end a career. Despite the magnitude of this injury, reliable risk assessment has not been clearly defined, and prevention strategies have been limited. The purpose of this review is to identify potential intrinsic and extrinsic risk factors for AT rupture in aerial and ground athletes stated in the current literature. Evidence Acquisition: A MEDLINE search was conducted on AT rupture, or “injury” and “risk factors” and “athletes” from 1980 to 2011. Emphasis was placed on epidemiology, etiology, and review articles focusing on the risk for lower extremity injury in runners and gymnasts. Thirty articles were reviewed, and 22 were included in this assessment. Results: Aerial and ground athletes share many intrinsic risk factors for AT rupture, including overuse and degeneration of the tendon as well as anatomical variations that mechanically put an athlete at risk. Older athletes, athletes atypical in size for their sport, high tensile loads, leg dominance, and fatigue also may increase risk. Aerial athletes tend to have more extrinsic factors that play a role in this injury due to the varying landing surfaces from heights and technical maneuvers performed at various skill levels. Conclusion: Risk assessment for AT rupture in aerial and ground athletes is multivariable and difficult in terms of developing prevention strategies. Quantitative measures of individual risk factors may help identify major contributors to injury. PMID:24427410

Wertz, Jess; Galli, Melissa; Borchers, James R.

2013-01-01

52

Neonatal bladder rupture.  

PubMed

Neonatal bladder rupture is rare as a complication of bladder obstruction due to abnormal anatomy or iatrogenic cause such as umbilical catheterization. The present study describes the case of a 27-day old infant with ascites due to bladder perforation secondary to bladder wall necrosis as a result of severe urinary tract infection. The baby was treated aggressively with antibiotics and underwent successful surgical repair of the perforation. PMID:19205633

Tran, Hoang; Nguyen, Ngoc; Nguyen, Tap

2009-04-01

53

Rupture of renal transplant.  

PubMed

Background. Rupture of renal allograft is a rare and serious complication of transplantation that is usually attributed to acute rejection, acute tubular necrosis, or renal vein thrombosis. Case Presentation. LD, a 26-year-old male with established renal failure, underwent deceased donor transplantation using kidney from a 50-year-old donor with acute kidney injury (Cr 430?mmol/L). LD had a stormy posttransplant recovery and required exploration immediately for significant bleeding. On day three after transplant, he developed pain/graft swelling and another significant haemorrhage with cardiovascular compromise which did not respond to aggressive resuscitation. At reexploration, the renal allograft was found to have a longitudinal rupture and was removed. Histology showed features of type IIa Banff 97 acute vascular rejection, moderate arteriosclerosis, and acute tubular necrosis. Conclusion. Possible ways of avoiding allograft rupture include use of well-matched, good quality kidneys; reducing or managing risk factors that would predispose to delayed graft function; ensuring a technically satisfactory transplant procedure with short cold and warm ischemia times; and avoiding large donor-recipient age gradients. PMID:25685589

Baker, Shona; Popescu, Maria; Akoh, Jacob A

2015-01-01

54

Rupture of Renal Transplant  

PubMed Central

Background. Rupture of renal allograft is a rare and serious complication of transplantation that is usually attributed to acute rejection, acute tubular necrosis, or renal vein thrombosis. Case Presentation. LD, a 26-year-old male with established renal failure, underwent deceased donor transplantation using kidney from a 50-year-old donor with acute kidney injury (Cr 430?mmol/L). LD had a stormy posttransplant recovery and required exploration immediately for significant bleeding. On day three after transplant, he developed pain/graft swelling and another significant haemorrhage with cardiovascular compromise which did not respond to aggressive resuscitation. At reexploration, the renal allograft was found to have a longitudinal rupture and was removed. Histology showed features of type IIa Banff 97 acute vascular rejection, moderate arteriosclerosis, and acute tubular necrosis. Conclusion. Possible ways of avoiding allograft rupture include use of well-matched, good quality kidneys; reducing or managing risk factors that would predispose to delayed graft function; ensuring a technically satisfactory transplant procedure with short cold and warm ischemia times; and avoiding large donor-recipient age gradients. PMID:25685589

Baker, Shona; Popescu, Maria; Akoh, Jacob A.

2015-01-01

55

Fracture morphology of tensile cracks and rupture velocity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Desiccation cracks in starch-water mixtures are studied with respect to morphological features, mainly plumose structures, on their faces. Specimens have diameters of 50-100 mm and thicknesses of 2-40 mm. Structures similar to those on joints in rocks are found. Rupture velocities are measured from videos and estimated from photos. Rupture covers the range from spontaneously nucleating, dynamic cracks with velocities of 100-200 mm/s to quasi-static cracks with velocities of 0.1 mm/s and less. Plumose lines give the rupture direction, and their relation to rupture velocity is similar to the relation between seismic rays and seismic wave velocity. A ray-tracing method from seismology is used to calculate plumose lines for depth-dependent rupture velocity. Moreover, an inverse method, based on finite difference travel times and conjugate gradients, is developed to invert a set of measured plumose directions into a rupture-velocity distribution which can also depend on the horizontal coordinate on the rupture surface. The main results of this paper are as follows. (1) Plumose lines can successfully be inverted into relative rupture velocity. (2) In thin starch layers (thickness less than 0.2 times diameter), rupture velocity decreases from top to bottom by a factor of 2-5, following a decrease of tensile stress due to the increase in water concentration. (3) Horizontal variation of rupture velocity reflects horizontal variation of stress, including stress relaxation due to the propagating crack, and ranges from dynamic to quasi-static velocities. (4) In thick starch layers (thickness about 0.5 times diameter), rupture is predominantly quasi-static. (5) Starch cracks sometimes have a fringe zone where topographic amplitudes are higher and rupture velocities lower than on the main part of the crack; this probably also applies to joints in rocks and their fringe zones. (6) Starch-water mixtures at rupture have a Poisson ratio close to 0.5. Cracks in starch are closest to subsidence or diagenesis joints in sedimentary rocks.

Müller, Gerhard; Dahm, Torsten

2000-01-01

56

Acoustic-Friction Networks and the Evolution of Precursor Rupture Fronts in Laboratory Earthquakes  

PubMed Central

The evolution of shear rupture fronts in laboratory earthquakes is analysed with the corresponding functional networks, constructed over acoustic emission friction-patterns. We show that the mesoscopic characteristics of functional networks carry the characteristic time for each phase of the rupture evolution. The classified rupture fronts in network states–obtained from a saw-cut fault and natural faulted Westerly granite - show a clear separation into three main groups, indicating different states of rupture fronts. With respect to the scaling of local ruptures' durations with the networks' parameters, we show that the gap in the classified fronts could be related to the possibility of a separation between slow and regular fronts.

Ghaffari, H. O.; Young, R. P.

2013-01-01

57

Progression of spontaneous in-plane shear faults from sub-Rayleigh to compressional wave rupture speeds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate numerically the passage of spontaneous, dynamic in-plane shear ruptures from initiation to their final rupture speed, using very fine grids. By carrying out more than 120 simulations, we identify two different mechanisms controlling supershear transition. For relatively weaker faults, the rupture speed always passes smoothly and continuously through the range of speeds between the Rayleigh and shear wave speeds (the formerly considered forbidden zone of rupture speeds). This, however, occurs in a very short time, before the ruptures reach the compressional wave speed. The very short time spent in this range of speeds may explain why a jump over these speeds was seen in some earlier numerical and experimental studies and confirms that this speed range is an unstable range, as predicted analytically for steady state, singular cracks. On the other hand, for relatively stronger faults, we find that a daughter rupture is initiated by the main (mother) rupture, ahead of it. The mother rupture continues to propagate at sub-Rayleigh speed and eventually merges with the daughter rupture, whose speed jumps over the Rayleigh to shear wave speed range. We find that this daughter rupture is essentially a "pseudorupture," in that the two sides of the fault are already separated, but the rupture has negligible slip and slip velocity. After the mother rupture merges with it, the slip, the slip velocity, and the rupture speed become dominated by those of the mother rupture. The results are independent of grid sizes and of methods used to nucleate the initial rupture.

Liu, Chao; Bizzarri, Andrea; Das, Shamita

2014-11-01

58

Effects of Pre-Stress State and Rupture Velocity on Dynamic Fault Branching  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider a mode II rupture which propagates along a planar main fault and encounters an intersection with a branching fault that makes an angle with the main fault. Within a formulation that allows the failure path to be dynamically self-chosen, we study the following questions: Does the rupture start along the branch? Does it continue? Which side is most favored for branching, the extensional or compressional? Does rupture continue on the main fault too? What path is finally self-chosen? Failure in the modeling is described by a slip-weakening law for which the peak and residual strength, and strength at any particular amount of slip, is proportional to normal stress. We use the elastodynamic boundary integral equation method to allow simulations of rupture along the branched fault system. Our results show that dynamic stresses around the rupturing fault tip, which increase with rupture velocity at locations off the main fault plane, relative to those on it, could initiate rupture on a branching fault. As suggested by prior work [Poliakov, Dmowska and Rice, 2002, http://esag.harvard.edu/dmowska/PDR.pdf], whether a branching rupture, once begun, can be continued to a larger scale depends on principal stress directions in the pre-stress state and on rupture velocity. The most favored side for rupture transferring on a branching fault switches from the extensional side to the compressive side as we consider progressively shallower angles of the direction of maximum pre-compression with the main fault. Simultaneous rupturing on both faults is usually difficult for a narrow branching angle due to strong stress interaction between faults, which discourages rupture continuation on the other side. However, it can be activated by enhanced dynamic stressing when the rupture velocity is very near the limiting velocity (Rayleigh wave velocity for mode II). It can also be activated when the branching angle is wide because of decreasing stress interaction between faults. Natural examples seem consistent with the simulations we present.

Kame, N.; Rice, J. R.; Dmowska, R.

2002-12-01

59

DIFFUSIVE SHOCK ACCELERATION AT COSMOLOGICAL SHOCK WAVES  

SciTech Connect

We reexamine nonlinear diffusive shock acceleration (DSA) at cosmological shocks in the large-scale structure of the universe, incorporating wave-particle interactions that are expected to operate in collisionless shocks. Adopting simple phenomenological models for magnetic field amplification (MFA) by cosmic-ray (CR) streaming instabilities and Alfvenic drift, we perform kinetic DSA simulations for a wide range of sonic and Alfvenic Mach numbers and evaluate the CR injection fraction and acceleration efficiency. In our DSA model, the CR acceleration efficiency is determined mainly by the sonic Mach number M{sub s} , while the MFA factor depends on the Alfvenic Mach number and the degree of shock modification by CRs. We show that at strong CR modified shocks, if scattering centers drift with an effective Alfven speed in the amplified magnetic field, the CR energy spectrum is steepened and the acceleration efficiency is reduced significantly, compared to the cases without such effects. As a result, the postshock CR pressure saturates roughly at {approx}20% of the shock ram pressure for strong shocks with M{sub s} {approx}> 10. In the test-particle regime (M{sub s} {approx}< 3), it is expected that the magnetic field is not amplified and the Alfvenic drift effects are insignificant, although relevant plasma physical processes at low Mach number shocks remain largely uncertain.

Kang, Hyesung [Department of Earth Sciences, Pusan National University, Pusan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Earth Sciences, Pusan National University, Pusan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of); Ryu, Dongsu, E-mail: kang@uju.es.pusan.ac.kr, E-mail: ryu@canopus.cnu.ac.kr [Department of Astronomy and Space Science, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Astronomy and Space Science, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of)

2013-02-10

60

Ruptured Intracranial Dermoid Cyst Associated with Rupture of Cerebral Aneurysm  

PubMed Central

Many tumors have been reported to coexist with cerebral aneurysm. However, intracranial dermoid cysts associated with cerebral aneurysm are very rare. We report a case in which rupture of a cerebral aneurysm resulted in a ruptured dermoid cyst. We present this interesting case and review current literature about the relationship between tumors and aneurysm formation. PMID:22259693

Kim, Ki Hong

2011-01-01

61

Spontaneous rupture of hepatic hemangiomas: A review of the literature  

PubMed Central

Hepatic hemangiomas are congenital vascular malformations, considered the most common benign mesenchymal hepatic tumors, composed of masses of blood vessels that are atypical or irregular in arrangement and size. Hepatic hemangiomas can be divided into two major groups: capillary hemangiomas and cavernous hemangiomas These tumors most frequently affect females (80%) and adults in their fourth and fifth decades of life. Most cases are asymptomatic although a few patients may present with a wide variety of clinical symptoms, with spontaneous or traumatic rupture being the most severe complication. In cases of spontaneous rupture, clinical manifestations consist of sudden abdominal pain, and anemia secondary to a haemoperitoneum. Disseminated intravascular coagulopathy can also occur. Haemodynamic instability and signs of hypovolemic shock appear in about one third of cases. As the size of the hemangioma increases, so does the chance of rupture. Imaging studies used in the diagnosis of hepatic hemangiomas include ultrasonography, dynamic contrast-enchanced computed tomography scanning, magnetic resonance imaging, hepatic arteriography, digital subtraction angiography, and nuclear medicine studies. In most cases hepatic hemangiomas are asymptomatic and should be followed up by means of periodic radiological examination. Surgery should be restricted to specific situations. Absolute indications for surgery are spontaneous or traumatic rupture with hemoperitoneum, intratumoral bleeding and consumptive coagulopathy (Kassabach-Merrit syndrome). In a patient presenting with acute abdominal pain due to unknown abdominal disease, spontaneous rupture of a hepatic tumor such as a hemangioma should be considered as a rare differential diagnosis. PMID:21191518

Jr, Marcelo AF Ribeiro; Papaiordanou, Francine; Gonçalves, Juliana M; Chaib, Eleazar

2010-01-01

62

Structure in Radiating Shocks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The basic radiative shock experiment is a shock launched into a gas of high-atomic-number material at high velocities, which fulfills the conditions for radiative losses to collapse the post-shock material to over 20 times the initial gas density. This has been accomplished using the OMEGA Laser Facility by illuminating a Be ablator for 1 ns with a total of 4 kJ, launching the requisite shock, faster than 100 km/sec, into a polyimide shock tube filled with Xe. The experiments have lateral dimensions of 600 ?m and axial dimensions of 2-3 mm, and are diagnosed by x-ray backlighting. Repeatable structure beyond the one-dimensional picture of a shock as a planar discontinuity was discovered in the experimental data. One form this took was that of radial boundary effects near the tube walls, extended approximately seventy microns into the system. The cause of this effect - low density wall material which is heated by radiation transport ahead of the shock, launching a new converging shock ahead of the main shock - is apparently unique to high-energy-density experiments. Another form of structure is the appearance of small-scale perturbations in the post-shock layer, modulating the shock and material interfaces and creating regions of enhanced and diminished aerial density within the layer. The authors have applied an instability theory, a variation of the Vishniac instability of decelerating shocks, to describe the growth of these perturbations. We have also applied Bayesian statistical methods to better understand the uncertainties associated with measuring shocked layer thickness in the presence of tilt. Collaborators: R. P. Drake, H. F. Robey, C. C. Kuranz, C. M. Huntington, M. J. Grosskopf, D. C. Marion.

Doss, Forrest

2010-11-01

63

Long-term accelerating foreshock activity may indicate the occurrence time of a strong shock in the Western Hellenic Arc  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the decades prior to the occurrence of the 1899 ( Ms = 6.6) and 1947 ( Ms = 7.0) main shocks in the Western Hellenic Arc (WHA) the rate of occurrence of foreshocks ( Ms ? 5.2) within a radius of 100 km around the epicenters can generally be said to have accelerated. After a long period of very low foreshock activity (stage I), the process culminates in a final rapid acceleration of foreshocks some months before the main shocks (stage II), while the last two months are quiescent (stage III). These three stages are in good correspondence with the three stages of crustal deformation and several precursors to the main shock as predicted by the dilatancy model. The data fit very well power law equations similar to those found for short-term foreshocks of ordinary earthquakes and those associated with the creation of artificial lakes. The position of the rupture zones of past WHA strong shocks implies that the eastern part of the segment is the most probable location for the next strong shock in the arc. A process of accelerating seismic activity, similar to that which preceded the 1899 and 1947 shocks, has been under way since 1966 around this part of the segment. A comparison between changes in the power law curves for the earlier earthquakes and the one now expected, indicates that the latter is now 3-8 months "overdue". Assuming that the long-term accelerating foreshock activity is a seismotectonic peculiarity of the WHA segment, I suggest that the preparation of the next rupture in the WHA has entered a highly mature stage, and that there will very probably be an earthquake in this area within the next few months.

Papadopoulos, Gerassimos A.

1988-09-01

64

Mycotic Aneurysm of the Celiac Trunk: From Early CT Sign to Rupture  

SciTech Connect

We present a case of the rapid development and rupture of a mycotic celiac trunk aneurysm. Initiallyon multislice computed tomography (ms-CT) there was a normal celiac trunk with minimal haziness of the surrounding fat. Only 2 weeks later the patient went into hypovolemic shock due to a ruptured celiac aneurysm. Although aneurysms of the visceral arteries are rare, they are of major clinical importance as they carry a life-threatening risk of rupture. This case illustrates the use of ms-CT in detecting and evaluating visceral aneurysms, in order to prevent emergency operation.

Serafino, Gianpiero, E-mail: serafinog@mcrz.nl; Vroegindeweij, Dammis; Boks, Simone [Medical Centre Rijnmond-Zuid, Department of Radiology (Netherlands); Harst, Erwin van der [Medical Centre Rijnmond-Zuid, Department of Vascular Surgery (Netherlands)

2005-06-15

65

Multi-fluid Dynamics for Supersonic Jet-and-Crossflows and Liquid Plug Rupture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multi-fluid dynamics simulations require appropriate numerical treatments based on the main flow characteristics, such as flow speed, turbulence, thermodynamic state, and time and length scales. In this thesis, two distinct problems are investigated: supersonic jet and crossflow interactions; and liquid plug propagation and rupture in an airway. Gaseous non-reactive ethylene jet and air crossflow simulation represents essential physics for fuel injection in SCRAMJET engines. The regime is highly unsteady, involving shocks, turbulent mixing, and large-scale vortical structures. An eddy-viscosity-based multi-scale turbulence model is proposed to resolve turbulent structures consistent with grid resolution and turbulence length scales. Predictions of the time-averaged fuel concentration from the multi-scale model is improved over Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes models originally derived from stationary flow. The response to the multi-scale model alone is, however, limited, in cases where the vortical structures are small and scattered thus requiring prohibitively expensive grids in order to resolve the flow field accurately. Statistical information related to turbulent fluctuations is utilized to estimate an effective turbulent Schmidt number, which is shown to be highly varying in space. Accordingly, an adaptive turbulent Schmidt number approach is proposed, by allowing the resolved field to adaptively influence the value of turbulent Schmidt number in the multi-scale turbulence model. The proposed model estimates a time-averaged turbulent Schmidt number adapted to the computed flowfield, instead of the constant value common to the eddy-viscosity-based Navier-Stokes models. This approach is assessed using a grid-refinement study for the normal injection case, and tested with 30 degree injection, showing improved results over the constant turbulent Schmidt model both in mean and variance of fuel concentration predictions. For the incompressible liquid plug propagation and rupture study, numerical simulations are conducted using an Eulerian-Lagrangian approach with a continuous-interface method. A reconstruction scheme is developed to allow topological changes during plug rupture by altering the connectivity information of the interface mesh. Rupture time is shown to be delayed as the initial precursor film thickness increases. During the plug rupture process, a sudden increase of mechanical stresses on the tube wall is recorded, which can cause tissue damage.

Hassan, Ezeldin A.

66

Spontaneous rupture of the oesophagus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnosis, management and outcome of patients with spontaneous rupture of the oesophagus in a single centre. Methods: Between October 1993 and May 2007, 51 consecutive patients with spontaneous oesophageal rupture were evaluated with contrast radiology and flexible endoscopy. Patients with limited contamination who fulfilled specific criteria were managed by a

S. M. Griffin; P. J. Lamb; J. Shenfine; D. L. Richardson; D. Karat; N. Hayes

2008-01-01

67

Plantar Fascia Ruptures in Athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To educate sports medicine practitioners as to length of time for an athlete to return to activity after sustaining a rupture of the plantar fascia.Methods: Athletic patients sustaining plantar fascia ruptures and subsequent treatment were reviewed. Diagnosis was based on clinical findings, although radiographic studies were done. Patients were treated for 2 to 3 weeks with a below-knee or

Amol Saxena; Brian Fullem

2004-01-01

68

[Rupture of the left bronchus during intubation by Carlens tube].  

PubMed

The authors report a case of left main bronchus rupture following endotracheal intubation with a Carlens double-lumen tube. The bronchus rupture occurred during a cure of gastro-oesophageal-reflux and resection of oesophageal diverticula through a left thoracotomy. The patient was a 65-year-old woman treated with corticosteroids for an Addison's disease. The weakness of the bronchial wall initiated by the steroid hormones was an important factor contributing to the perforation. There is also a higher risk of rupture during oesophageal surgery because of surgical dissection and stretch on the tracheobronchial airway. This case demonstrates that such a complication can occur without ventilatory failure. A rupture must be recognized and treated surgically very rapidly. Recommendations regarding the use of double-lumen endotracheal tubes are reviewed in order to decrease the occurrence of such a complication. PMID:8092569

Boulanger, V; Papion, H; Jusserand, J; Testart, J; Winckler, C

1994-01-01

69

Ruptured thought: rupture as a critical attitude to nursing research.  

PubMed

In this paper, we introduce the notion of ‘rupture’ from the French philosopher Michel Foucault, whose studies of discourse and governmentality have become prominent within nursing research during the last 25 years. We argue that a rupture perspective can be helpful for identifying and maintaining a critical potential within nursing research. The paper begins by introducing rupture as an inheritance from the French epistemological tradition. It then describes how rupture appears in Foucault's works, as both an overall philosophical approach and as an analytic tool in his historical studies. Two examples of analytical applications of rupture are elaborated. In the first example, rupture has inspired us to make an effort to seek alternatives to mainstream conceptions of the phenomenon under study. In the second example, inspired by Foucault's work on discontinuity, we construct a framework for historical epochs in nursing history. The paper concludes by discussing the potential of the notion of rupture as a response to the methodological concerns regarding the use of Foucault-inspired discourse analysis within nursing research. We agree with the critique of Cheek that the critical potential of discourse analysis is at risk of being undermined by research that tends to convert the approach into a fixed method. PMID:24741691

Beedholm, Kirsten; Lomborg, Kirsten; Frederiksen, Kirsten

2014-04-01

70

Anaphylactic Shock During Pulmonary Hydatid Cyst Surgery  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Hydatid cyst is a parasitic disease caused by a tapeworm Echinococcusgranulosus. Humans are accidental hosts and infected after digestion of foods contaminated to fecal matter of definite hosts. The most affected organs are liver and lungs. Rupture of cyst (spontaneous rupture or rupture due to trauma or surgery) can cause anaphylactic reactions. Even considered as a rare event during anesthesia, it can be life threatening with the manifestations of severe hypotension and circulatory shock. Thus, immediate and proper treatment is necessary . Case Presentation: We report a case of anaphylactic shock during surgery of pulmonary Hydatid cyst in a 42 year old woman and its management. Conclusions: During the surgery of hydatid cyst, any hemodynamic instability should raise the suspension of anaphylaxis and early resuscitation should be instituted. PMID:25237636

Marashi, Shaqayeq; Hosseini, Vahideh Sadat; Saliminia, Alireza; Yaghooti, Amirabbas

2014-01-01

71

The rupture process of the Manjil, Iran earthquake of 20 june 1990 and implications for intraplate strike-slip earthquakes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In terms of seismically radiated energy or moment release, the earthquake of 20 January 1990 in the Manjil Basin-Alborz Mountain region of Iran is the second largest strike-slip earthquake to have occurred in an intracontinental setting in the past decade. It caused enormous loss of life and the virtual destruction of several cities. Despite a very large meizoseismal area, the identification of the causative faults has been hampered by the lack of reliable earthquake locations and conflicting field reports of surface displacement. Using broadband data from global networks of digitally recording seismographs, we analyse broadband seismic waveforms to derive characteristics of the rupture process. Complexities in waveforms generated by the earthquake indicate that the main shock consisted of a tiny precursory subevent followed in the next 20 seconds by a series of four major subevents with depths ranging from 10 to 15 km. The focal mechanisms of the major subevents, which are predominantly strike-slip, have a common nodal plane striking about 285??-295??. Based on the coincidence of this strike with the dominant tectonic fabric of the region we presume that the EW striking planes are the fault planes. The first major subevent nucleated slightly south of the initial precursor. The second subevent occurred northwest of the initial precursor. The last two subevents moved progressively southeastward of the first subevent in a direction collinear with the predominant strike of the fault planes. The offsets in the relative locations and the temporal delays of the rupture subevents indicate heterogeneous distribution of fracture strength and the involvement of multiple faults. The spatial distribution of teleseismic aftershocks, which at first appears uncorrelated with meizoseismal contours, can be decomposed into stages. The initial activity, being within and on the periphery of the rupture zone, correlates in shape and length with meizoseismal lines. In the second stage of activity the aftershock zone expands and appears to cluster about the geomorphic and geologic features several tens of kilometres from the rupture zone. The activity is interpreted as a regional response to quasistatic stress migration along zones of tectonic weakness. The radiated energy of the main shock and the estimate of seismic moment yields an apparent stress of 20 bars. High apparent stress may be typical of strike slip earthquakes occurring in intracontinental environments undergoing continental collision.

Choy, G.L.; Zednik, J.

1997-01-01

72

Steam generator tube rupture study  

E-print Network

This report describes our investigation of steam generator behavior during a postulated tube rupture accident. Our study was performed using the steam generator, thermal-hydraulic analysis code THERMIT-UTSG. The purpose ...

Free, Scott Thomas

1986-01-01

73

Laboratory investigation of the radiative energy transfer during rupture nucleation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Triaxial compression experiments were performed on several materials (Glass, Granite, Basalt, Sandstone, Marble and Gypsum) at confining pressures ranging from 10 to 100MPa, and from room temperature to 70 degrees C. During each of these experiments, acoustic waves radiated from damage accumulation and fast crack propagation were continuously monitored thanks to a fast acoustic recorder, which enables to obtain continuous acoustogram of rupture nucleation and propagation, without the limitations of former trigger systems. In our experiments, rupture does not need to be slowed down, and the transition from quasi-static nucleation to dynamic propagation has now been systematically investigated.Comparing each material, three main observation can be drawn : - First, the amount of damage accumulation before the dynamic rupture propagation varies from material to material, and also depends on the pressure and temperature conditions. For instance, glass, granites and sandstones are typically materials where the nucleation involves a large amount of cracking prior to rupture. In contrast, rupture in basalt at low confinement is not preceded by any damage accumulation. Finally, pre-rupture damage accumulation can also be purely aseismic, which is the case of marble for instance. - Second, the brittle-ductile transition does not exactly overlaps the aseismic-seismic transition, at least in the conditions at which we performed our experiments. For example, marble deforms plastically beyond 50MPa, and although the deformation is ductile, a large amount of crack accumulates in the rock, which tends to make it unstable. In the same way, acoustic emissions decrease in gypsum with increasing pressure and temperatures. - Finally, the time during which rupture propagates depends largely on the rheology. For instance, and in the case of ductile failures such as in marble, dislocation and twin accumulation is such that cracks propagation steps are small and/or slow, and thus the radiated energy release rate remains small at early stages of rupture and increases with rupture speed. Put together, our observations clearly highlight the dependence of the radiated acoustic (and microseismic?) energy during rupture nucleation and early stages of crack propagation not only on the rupture propagation speed and the slip velocity but most importantly on the rock’s lithology and rheology.

Schubnel, A. J.; Brantut, N.; Ougier-Simonin, A.; Adelinet, M.; Fortin, J.; Gueguen, Y.

2009-12-01

74

Acoustic investigation of rupture nucleation in the Laboratory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Triaxial compression experiments were performed on several materials (Glass, Granite, Basalt, Sandstone, Marble and Gypsum) at confining pressures ranging from 10 to 100MPa, and from room temperature to 70 degrees C. During each of these experiments, acoustic waves radiated from damage accumulation and fast crack propagation were continuously monitored thanks to a fast acoustic recorder, which enables to obtain continuous acoustogram of rupture nucleation and propagation, without the limitations of former trigger systems. In our experiments, rupture does not need to be slowed down, and the transition from quasi-static nucleation to dynamic propagation has now been systematically investigated.Comparing each material, three main observation can be drawn : - First, the amount of damage accumulation before the dynamic rupture propagation varies from material to material, and also depends on the pressure and temperature conditions. For instance, glass, granites and sandstones are typically materials where the nucleation involves a large amount of cracking prior to rupture. In contrast, rupture in basalt at low confinement is not preceded by any damage accumulation. Finally, pre-rupture damage accumulation can also be purely aseismic, which is the case of marble for instance. - Second, the brittle-ductile transition does not exactly overlaps the aseismic-seismic transition, at least in the conditions at which we performed our experiments. For example, marble deforms plastically beyond 50MPa, and although the deformation is ductile, a large amount of crack accumulates in the rock, which tends to make it unstable. In the same way, acoustic emissions decrease in gypsum with increasing pressure and temperatures. - Finally, the time during which rupture propagates depends largely on the rheology. For instance, and in the case of ductile failures such as in marble, dislocation and twin accumulation is such that cracks propagation steps are small and/or slow, and thus the radiated energy release rate remains small at early stages of rupture and increases with rupture speed. Put together, our observations clearly highlight the dependence of the radiated acoustic (and microseismic?) energy during rupture nucleation and early stages of crack propagation not only on the rupture propagation speed and the slip velocity but most importantly on the rock's lithology and rheology.

Schubnel, Alexandre; Brantut, Nicolas; Ougier-Simonin, Audrey; Adeliner, Mathilde; Fortin, Jerome; Gueguen, Yves

2010-05-01

75

Spontaneous rupture of intercostal artery after severe cough.  

PubMed

Pleural or abdominal hematomas induced by spontaneous rupture of intercostal artery are very rare but can often cause fatal problems leading to hypovolemic shock. Spontaneous rupture of intercostal artery mostly occurs in association with neurofibromatosis type 1, coarctation of aorta, or trauma. In the absence of these conditions, there are very few cases. We report a 39-year-old man who complained of left flank pain after severe cough for a few days. His final diagnosis was hematoma of the left lateral abdominal wall induced by rupture of the left 11th intercostal artery. He was treated immediately by transarterial embolization. Without any serious problems during hospitalization, he was discharged. This case indicates that, in generally healthy individuals, even mild physical force such as cough can lead to rupture of the intercostal artery. Although it is very rare, injury to the intercostal artery should be considered when patients complain of unexplained chest pain, abdominal pain, or flank pain after strong cough or sneezing. PMID:25085284

Jang, Jee Yong; Lim, Yong Su; Woo, Jae Hyug; Jang, Jae Ho

2015-01-01

76

Seismotectonic, rupture process, and earthquake-hazard aspects of the 2003 December 26 Bam, Iran, earthquake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The catastrophic 2003 Mw 6.6 Bam earthquake in southern Iran attracted much attention, and has been studied with an abundance of observations from synthetic aperture radar, teleseismic seismology, aftershock studies, strong ground motion, geomorphology, remote sensing and surface field work. Many reports have focused on the details of one or other data type, producing interpretations that either conflict with other data or leave questions unanswered. This paper is an attempt to look at all the available data types together, to produce a coherent picture of the coseismic faulting in 2003 and to examine its consequences for active tectonics and continuing seismic hazard in the region. We conclude that more than 80 per cent of the moment release in the main shock occurred on a near-vertical right-lateral strike-slip fault extending from the city of Bam southwards for about 15km, with slip of up to 2 m but mostly restricted to the depth range 2-7km. Analysis of the strong ground motion record at Bam is consistent with this view, and indicates that the extreme damage in the city can be attributed, at least in part, to the enhancement of ground motion in Bam because of its position at the end of the northward-propagating rupture. Little of the slip in the main shock reached the Earth's surface and, more importantly, aftershocks reveal that ~12 km vertical extent of a deeper part of the fault system remained unruptured beneath the coseismic rupture plane, at depths of 8-20km. This may represent a substantial remaining seismic hazard to the reconstructed city of Bam. We believe that some oblique-reverse slip (up to 2m, and less than 20 per cent of the released seismic moment) occurred at a restricted depth of 5-7km on a blind west-dipping fault that projects to the surface at the Bam-Baravat escarpment, an asymmetric anticline ridge that is the most prominent geomorphological feature in the area. This fault did not rupture significantly at shallow levels in 2003, and it may also represent a continuing seismic hazard. Widespread distributed surface ruptures north of the city are apparently unrelated to substantial slip at depth, and may be the result of enhanced ground motion related to northward propagation of the rupture. The faulting at Bam may be in the early stages of a spatial separation (`partitioning') between the reverse and strike-slip components of an oblique convergence across the zone. Such a separation is common on the continents, though in this case the slip vectors between the two faults differ only by ~20° as a substantial strike-slip component remains on the oblique-reverse fault. The Bam earthquake is one in a series of large earthquakes involving faulting along the western edge of the Lut desert. In addition to the unruptured parts of the faults near Bam itself, continuing and substantial hazard is represented by unruptured neighbouring faults, particularly blind thrusts along the Jebel Barez mountains to the south and strike-slip faulting at Sarvestan to the west.

Jackson, J.; Bouchon, M.; Fielding, E.; Funning, G.; Ghorashi, M.; Hatzfeld, D.; Nazari, H.; Parsons, B.; Priestley, K.; Talebian, M.; Tatar, M.; Walker, R.; Wright, T.

2006-09-01

77

Ruptured Aneurysm of Intercostal Arteriovenous Malformation Associated With Neurofibromatosis Type 1: A Case Report  

SciTech Connect

Intercostal arteriovenous malformations (AVM) are rare, with most being secondary to trauma or iatrogenic therapeutic procedures. Only one case of presumably congenital AVM has been reported. Here we report the first case of a ruptured aneurysm of intercostal AVM associated with neurofibromatosis type 1 in a 32-year-old woman who experienced hypovolemic shock caused by massive hemothorax.

Kim, Hyung Jun; Seon, Hyun Ju, E-mail: sunaura@hanmail.net; Choi, Song; Jang, Nam Kyu [Chonnam National University Hospital, Department of Radiology (Korea, Republic of)

2011-02-15

78

Spontaneous rupture of uterine vein in twin pregnancy.  

PubMed

Objective. Aim of our study is to present a case of a twin pregnancy following invitro fertilization cycle complicated with hemoperitoneum at third trimester. Case. A 26-year-old nulliparous pregnant woman at 32 weeks of gestation with twin pregnancy following invitro fertilization cycle complained of abdominal pain. After 48 hours of admission, laparotomy was performed with indications of aggravated abdominal pain and decreased hemoglobin levels. Utero-ovarian vein branch rupture was detected on the right posterior side of uterus and bleeding was stopped by suturing the vein. Etiopathogenesis of the present case still remains unclear. Conclusion. Spontaneous rupture of the uterine vessels during pregnancy is a rare complication and may lead to maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. Diagnosis and treatment are based on the clinical symptoms of acute abdominal pain and laboratory tests of hypovolemic shock signs. PMID:24455353

Doger, Emek; Cakiroglu, Yigit; Yildirim Kopuk, Sule; Akar, Bertan; Caliskan, Eray; Yucesoy, Gulseren

2013-01-01

79

Spontaneous Rupture of Uterine Vein in Twin Pregnancy  

PubMed Central

Objective. Aim of our study is to present a case of a twin pregnancy following invitro fertilization cycle complicated with hemoperitoneum at third trimester. Case. A 26-year-old nulliparous pregnant woman at 32 weeks of gestation with twin pregnancy following invitro fertilization cycle complained of abdominal pain. After 48 hours of admission, laparotomy was performed with indications of aggravated abdominal pain and decreased hemoglobin levels. Utero-ovarian vein branch rupture was detected on the right posterior side of uterus and bleeding was stopped by suturing the vein. Etiopathogenesis of the present case still remains unclear. Conclusion. Spontaneous rupture of the uterine vessels during pregnancy is a rare complication and may lead to maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. Diagnosis and treatment are based on the clinical symptoms of acute abdominal pain and laboratory tests of hypovolemic shock signs. PMID:24455353

Doger, Emek; Cakiroglu, Yigit; Yildirim Kopuk, Sule; Akar, Bertan; Caliskan, Eray; Yucesoy, Gulseren

2013-01-01

80

Esophageal rupture due to Sengstaken-Blakemore tube misplacement  

PubMed Central

The author presents three cases of esophageal rupture during the treatment of massive esophageal variceal bleeding with Sengstaken-Blakemore (SB) tube. In each case, simple auscultation was used to guide SB tube insertion, with chest radiograph obtained only after complete inflation of the gastric balloon. Two patients died of hemorrhagic shock and one died of mediastinitis. The author suggests that confirmation of SB tube placement by auscultation alone may not be adequate. Routine chest radiographs should be obtained before and after full inflation of the gastric balloon to confirm tube position and to detect tube dislocation. PMID:16425437

Chong, Chee-Fah

2005-01-01

81

Spontaneous Forniceal Rupture in Pregnancy  

PubMed Central

Forniceal rupture is a rare event in pregnancy. We report a case of a 26-year-old primigravid woman who experienced a forniceal rupture at 23 weeks of gestation with no inciting cause except for pregnancy. Pregnancy is associated with ureteral compression due to increase in pelvic vasculature with the right ureter more dilated due to anatomic reasons. Hormones such as prostaglandins and progesterone render the ureter more distensible to allow for pressure build-up and an obstructive picture at the collecting system. We will discuss physiologic changes in pregnancies that predispose to this uncommon phenomenon and the most up-to-date management strategies. PMID:25648411

Upputalla, Roshni; Moore, Robert M.; Jim, Belinda

2015-01-01

82

Prehistoric ruptures of the Gurvan Bulag fault, Gobi Altay, Mongolia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The 1957 Gobi Altay M8.3 earthquake in southern Mongolia was associated with the simultaneous rupture of several faults, including the Gurvan Bulag reverse fault, which is located about 25 km south of the main strike-slip Bogd fault. Our study of paleoseismic excavations across the Gurvan Bulag fault suggests that the penultimate surface rupture occurred after 6.0 ka, most likely between 2.6 and 4.4 ka, and a possible earlier rupture occurred after 7.3 ka. Our interpretation of the stratigraphic relations in one of the exposures suggests that at least five earthquakes have generated surface rupture of the Gurvan Bulag fault since the abandonment of an ancient alluvial fan surface. Luminescence dating of sediment associated with this surface indicates that it formed either 26.6 ?? 2.1 ka or 16.1 ?? 2.0 ka. These data imply that the recurrence intervals for surface faulting on the Gurvan Bulag and Bogd faults are similar, on the order of several thousands of years, but that the penultimate surface ruptures of the two faults did not occur during the same earthquake.

Prentice, C.S.; Kendrick, K.; Berryman, K.; Bayasgalan, A.; Ritz, J.F.; Spencer, J.Q.

2002-01-01

83

46 CFR 64.61 - Rupture disc.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MARINE PORTABLE TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Pressure Relief Devices and Vacuum Relief Devices for MPTs § 64.61 Rupture disc. If a rupture disc is the only pressure relief device on the tank,...

2010-10-01

84

46 CFR 64.61 - Rupture disc.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MARINE PORTABLE TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Pressure Relief Devices and Vacuum Relief Devices for MPTs § 64.61 Rupture disc. If a rupture disc is the only pressure relief device on the tank,...

2012-10-01

85

46 CFR 64.61 - Rupture disc.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MARINE PORTABLE TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Pressure Relief Devices and Vacuum Relief Devices for MPTs § 64.61 Rupture disc. If a rupture disc is the only pressure relief device on the tank,...

2011-10-01

86

46 CFR 64.61 - Rupture disc.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MARINE PORTABLE TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Pressure Relief Devices and Vacuum Relief Devices for MPTs § 64.61 Rupture disc. If a rupture disc is the only pressure relief device on the tank,...

2014-10-01

87

46 CFR 64.61 - Rupture disc.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MARINE PORTABLE TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Pressure Relief Devices and Vacuum Relief Devices for MPTs § 64.61 Rupture disc. If a rupture disc is the only pressure relief device on the tank,...

2013-10-01

88

Spontaneous splenic rupture and Anisakis appendicitis presenting as abdominal pain: a case report  

PubMed Central

Introduction Anisakidosis, human infection with nematodes of the family Anisakidae, is caused most commonly by Anisakis simplex. Acquired by the consumption of raw or undercooked marine fish or squid, anisakidosis occurs where such dietary customs are practiced, including Japan, the coastal regions of Europe and the United States. Rupture of the spleen is a relatively common complication of trauma and many systemic disorders affecting the reticuloendothelial system, including infections and neoplasias. A rare subtype of rupture occurring spontaneously and arising from a normal spleen has been recognized as a distinct clinicopathologic entity. Herein we discuss the case of a woman who presented to our institution with appendicitis secondary to Anisakis and spontaneous spleen rupture. Case presentation We report the case of a 53-year-old Caucasian woman who presented with hemorrhagic shock and abdominal pain and was subsequently found to have spontaneous spleen rupture and appendicitis secondary to Anisakis simplex. She underwent open surgical resection of the splenic rupture and the appendicitis without any significant postoperative complications. Histopathologic examination revealed appendicitis secondary to Anisakis simplex and splenic rupture of undetermined etiology. Conclusions To the best of our knowledge, this report is the first of a woman with the diagnosis of spontaneous spleen rupture and appendicitis secondary to Anisakis simplex. Digestive anisakiasis may present as an acute abdomen. Emergency physicians should know and consider this diagnosis in patients with ileitis or colitis, especially if an antecedent of raw or undercooked fish ingestion is present. Spontaneous rupture of the spleen is an extremely rare event. Increased awareness of this condition will enhance early diagnosis and effective treatment. Further research is required to identify the possible risk factors associated with spontaneous rupture of the spleen. PMID:22524971

2012-01-01

89

Quadriceps Tendon Rupture due to Postepileptic Convulsion  

PubMed Central

We present a case of quadriceps tendon (QT) rupture. QT ruptures can occur in all ages. The cause is mostly traumatic in origin. Spontaneous ruptures that are thought to result from predisposing conditions are rare. Post-convulsion QT ruptures lacking traumas in their history can be overlooked in clinical examinations. This should be born in mind by the attending physician, as early diagnosis and treatment of the condition can lead to satisfactory outcomes. PMID:24944977

Erkut, Adem; Guvercin, Yilmaz; Sahin, Rifat; Keskin, Davut

2014-01-01

90

Distal biceps and triceps ruptures.  

PubMed

Biceps and triceps tendon ruptures are rather uncommon injuries and are most commonly diagnosed clinically. Magnetic resonance imaging can help the clinician to differentiate an incomplete tear and define any degeneration of the tendon. Surgical anatomical repair is typically performed in acute complete ruptures whereas nonoperative treatment can be used for partial ruptures, as well as for patients unfit for surgery. Single incision techniques are associated with a higher rate of nerve injuries, while double incision repairs have a higher prevalence of heterotopic ossification. Although various fixation methods have been applied including bone tunnels, interference screws, suture anchors, cortical button fixation, the current evidence does not support the superiority of one method over the other. A well-planned postoperative rehabilitation programme is essential for a good final outcome. As better fixation devices are being used, more aggressive rehabilitation programmes have been applied. Epidemiology, clinical evaluation, diagnosis, surgical and conservative management of these injuries are presented in this review along with the authors' preferred technique for the anatomical repair of acute complete ruptures. PMID:23352149

Kokkalis, Zinon T; Ballas, Efstathios G; Mavrogenis, Andreas F; Soucacos, Panayotis N

2013-03-01

91

NPR fuel rupture monitor system tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fuel rupture monitoring system at the New Production Reactor (NPR) has the following features and innovations which are not present on the rupture monitors at the other Hanford reactors: (1) each process tube is individually monitored for a fuel element rupture, (2) the electronics of the system are completely transistorized, and (3) the process water is monitored for gross

1964-01-01

92

A Retrospective Analysis of Ruptured Breast Implants  

PubMed Central

Background Rupture is an important complication of breast implants. Before cohesive gel silicone implants, rupture rates of both saline and silicone breast implants were over 10%. Through an analysis of ruptured implants, we can determine the various factors related to ruptured implants. Methods We performed a retrospective review of 72 implants that were removed for implant rupture between 2005 and 2014 at a single institution. The following data were collected: type of implants (saline or silicone), duration of implantation, type of implant shell, degree of capsular contracture, associated symptoms, cause of rupture, diagnostic tools, and management. Results Forty-five Saline implants and 27 silicone implants were used. Rupture was diagnosed at a mean of 5.6 and 12 years after insertion of saline and silicone implants, respectively. There was no association between shell type and risk of rupture. Spontaneous was the most common reason for the rupture. Rupture management was implant change (39 case), microfat graft (2 case), removal only (14 case), and follow-up loss (17 case). Conclusions Saline implants have a shorter average duration of rupture, but diagnosis is easier and safer, leading to fewer complications. Previous-generation silicone implants required frequent follow-up observation, and it is recommended that they be changed to a cohesive gel implant before hidden rupture occurs. PMID:25396188

Baek, Woo Yeol; Lew, Dae Hyun

2014-01-01

93

Ruptured Retroperitoneal Node Presenting as Hemoperitoneum-An Unusual Presentation of testicular tumour.  

PubMed

Herewith we are reporting an unusual presentation of testicular tumour. The patient is a 37 years old gentleman diagnosed with Stage III seminoma post orchidectomy on chemotherapy and had spontaneous rupture of retroperitoneal nodal mass and presented with hemoperitoneum and hypovolemic shock. He was successfully salvaged by aggressive resuscitation, emergency laparotomy and resection of ruptured nodal mass and is presently disease free. This article is aimed at highlighting this unusual presentation and complication of advanced testicular tumour and the need for aggressive surgery even in the so called hopeless situations. The need for multidisciplinary care in the cure of advanced testicular care is once again reemphasized. PMID:25419079

Chandrasekhar, Senthil Kumar Azhisoor; Kathiresan, Narayanaswamy

2014-09-01

94

Slip compensation at fault damage zones along earthquake surface ruptures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Surface ruptures associated with earthquake faulting commonly comprise a number of segments, and the discontinuities form tip and linking damage zones, which are deformed regions consisting of secondary features. Stress transferring or releasing, when seismic waves pass through the discontinuities, could produce different slip features depending on rupture propagation or termination. Thus, slip patterns at fault damage zones can be one of the key factors to understand fault kinematics, fault evolution and, hence, earthquake hazard. In some previous studies (e.g. Peacock and Sanderson, 1991; Kim and Sanderson, 2005), slip distribution along faults to understand the connectivity or maturity of segmented faults system have commonly been analyzed based on only the main slip components (dip-slip or strike-slip). Secondary slip components, however, are sometimes dominant at fault damage zones, such as linkage and tip zones. In this study, therefore, we examine slip changes between both main and secondary slip components along unilaterally propagated coseismic strike-slip ruptures. Horizontal and vertical components of slip and the slip compensation patterns at tip and linking damage zones are various from slip deficit (decrease in both slip components) through slip compensation (increase of vertical slip with horizontal slip decrease) to slip neutral. Front and back tip zones, which are classified depending on main propagation direction of earthquake ruptures, show different slip patterns; slip compensation is observed at the frontal tip whilst slip deficit occurs at the back tip zone. Average values of the two slip components and their compensative patterns at linking damage zones are closely related with the ratio of length to width (L/W) of linkage geometry; the horizontal slip is proportional to the ratio of L/W, whilst the vertical slip shows little dependence on the value L/W. When the L/W is greater than ~2, average values of two slip components are almost similar to those of the main traces. In contrast, when the L/W < 2, the vertical slip is either increased or decreased as the horizontal slip is decreased, depending on the maturity of the linking zone. Thus, we argue that slip patterns at linking damage zones may be controlled by the LW-ratio of linking damage zones and hence structural maturities of the segmented fault systems. In conclusion, slip patterns at fault damage zones along earthquake surface ruptures are various depending on the maturity of linkage zones and/or the rupture propagation direction. Therefore, the consideration of slip compensation as well as damage structures along surface ruptures must be very useful to understand fault evolution and, hence, to assess seismic hazards around active fault systems.

Choi, J.; Kim, Y.

2013-12-01

95

Complex rupture during the 12 January 2010 Haiti earthquake  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Initially, the devastating Mw 7.0, 12 January 2010 Haiti earthquake seemed to involve straightforward accommodation of oblique relative motion between the Caribbean and North American plates along the Enriquillog-Plantain Garden fault zone. Here, we combine seismological observations, geologic field data and space geodetic measurements to show that, instead, the rupture process may have involved slip on multiple faults. Primary surface deformation was driven by rupture on blind thrust faults with only minor, deep, lateral slip along or near the main Enriquillog-Plantain Garden fault zone; thus the event only partially relieved centuries of accumulated left-lateral strain on a small part of the plate-boundary system. Together with the predominance of shallow off-fault thrusting, the lack of surface deformation implies that remaining shallow shear strain will be released in future surface-rupturing earthquakes on the Enriquillog-Plantain Garden fault zone, as occurred in inferred Holocene and probable historic events. We suggest that the geological signature of this earthquakeg-broad warping and coastal deformation rather than surface rupture along the main fault zoneg-will not be easily recognized by standard palaeoseismic studies. We conclude that similarly complex earthquakes in tectonic environments that accommodate both translation and convergenceg-such as the San Andreas fault through the Transverse Ranges of Californiag-may be missing from the prehistoric earthquake record. ?? 2010 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

Hayes, G.P.; Briggs, R.W.; Sladen, A.; Fielding, E.J.; Prentice, C.; Hudnut, K.; Mann, P.; Taylor, F.W.; Crone, A.J.; Gold, R.; Ito, T.; Simons, M.

2010-01-01

96

Models for earthquake rupture propagation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The basic processes associated with earthquake rupture propagation are poorly understood. In particular the crack-tip problem is singular when considered in terms of a stress-intensity factor. We introduce the Barenblatt cohesive zone to remove this singularity and consider a uniformly propagating, mode III crack that bisects a strip. Downstream of the crack tip we consider both a stress-free condition and a viscous resistance on the crack surface. The technique of matched asymptotic expansions is used to obtain solutions. However, with a stress-free boundary condition a Griffith energy balance for the initiation of rupture in terms of cohesive forces is obtained but the solution does not determine a rupture speed. The available elastic energy must be greater than the energy required to break the cohesive bond. With a viscous resistance to slip on the crack surface, the tip singularity associated with the outer solution is reduced from {1}/{2} to a smaller value and a velocity of crack propagation is found. The rupture initiation criterion is unaffected by the viscosity while, as the viscous or cohesive forces are decreased, the rupture velocity increases towards the shear-wave velocity. Our results are similar to those obtained by Nakanishi [Nakanishi, H., 1994. Continuum model of mode-III crack propagation with surface friction. Phys. Rev. E49, 5412-5419.] applying a Wiener-Hopf technique to a related problem. We believe that our solution provides an explanation for the observation of Heaton (slip) pulses during earthquakes. We suggest that there are two slip-mode regimes during an earthquake rupture. In the immediate vicinity of the crack tip, slip velocities are very small and cohesive forces dominate. This is the regime that has been studied experimentally in the laboratory; plastic deformation of the surfaces and gouge dominate and the drop in the frictional stress is small. At higher slip velocities, away from the crack tip, there is a second frictional mode with low frictional stresses. This may be due to the fluidization of the granular fault gauge and provides a rational basis for a transition from cohesion to viscous resistance on the crack surface. As the driving stress drops the slip velocity decreases, there is a return to the cohesive mode and the fault locks and heals.

Morgan, J. D.; Turcotte, D. L.; Ockendon, J. R.

1997-08-01

97

Spontaneous rupture of the ureter.  

PubMed

Spontaneous rupture of the ureter is a very rare condition and usually results from ureteral obstruction by a calculus. Only theoretical mecha nisms have been proposed and no possible explanation has yet been reported in the literature. Intravenous contrast-enhanced computed tomography is the most informative study with high sensitivity. Treatment should be individualised, and depends on the state of the patient. Minimally invasive endourological procedures with double-J catheter placement and percutaneous drainage offer excellent results. Conservative management with analgesics and antibiotic coverage may be an alternative to surgery. Herein, we present a case of spontaneous rupture of the proximal ureter with no evidence of an underlying pathological condition. PMID:25715862

Eken, A; Akbas, T; Arpaci, T

2015-02-01

98

Piezoelectric Polymer Shock Gauges  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The science and technology of piezoelectric materials has long been dominated by the availability of specific materials with particular properties. Piezoelectric PVDF (Poly(vinylidene fluoride)) polymer and copolymers of PVDF with trifluoroethylene have shown that they have the potential for new shock-wave sensors. Since 1981 and until 1995, the piezoelectric response of PVDF has been studied in a cooperative effort with Francois Bauer of ISL, France, R.A. Graham of Sandia National Laboratories and L.M. Lee of the Ktech Corporation of Albuquerque. Among the known piezoelectric polymers, the PVDF plays an important role in measuring mechanical and physical state of matter under shock loading. The present paper presents the history of the development of the PVDF shock gauge. After 24 years of research in this area, main relevant results and data obtained are summarized as well as some of original applications of the PVDF gauges.

Bauer, François

2005-07-01

99

Septic shock  

MedlinePLUS

Septic shock has a high death rate. The death rate depends on the patient's age and overall health, the cause of the infection, how many organs have failed, and how quickly and aggressively medical therapy is started.

100

Compound earthquakes on a bimaterial interface and implications for rupture mechanics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Earthquake ruptures on the San Andreas Fault are affected by the material contrast across the fault. Previous observations of microearthquakes at the northern end of the creeping section have found strong signals of asymmetry in both rupture directivity (preferential propagation to the SE), and aftershock asymmetry (many more to the NW, on timescales from 10 s to 9 hr). To understand the aftershock asymmetry, Rubin & Ampuero simulated slip-weakening ruptures on a bimaterial interface and observed differences in the timescales for the two edges to experience their peak stress after being slowed by barriers. This is suggestive of the possibility of asymmetry of subevents in compound earthquakes. A second possible source of subevent asymmetry is that when slowed by barriers, a significant tensile stress pulse is predicted to propagate in the SE but not the NW direction. To study the possible asymmetry of subevent distribution, we search for compound events using an empirical Green's function method. Three sections on the northern San Andreas and part of the Calaveras faults were selected where the events have high spatial density and similar focal mechanisms. About 677 candidate compound events were identified in a 28 869-event catalogue from 1984 to 2009. Most delays between the two subevents cluster around the shear wave transit time over the subevent separation, although with considerable scatter. For subevents on the San Andreas Fault separated by 0.7-2 times the estimated radius of the first subevent (the same spatial separation found to exhibit strong asymmetry of longer term aftershocks), nearly twice as many second subevents occurred to the SE of the first than to the NW. This asymmetry of second subevent distribution is not present on the Calaveras Fault, which does not have a significant across-fault contrast in wave speed in this region. One interpretation is that the extra SE subevents on the San Andreas Fault are representative of the events `missing'from the `longer term'(10 s-9 hr) aftershock population because they became part of the main shock.

Wang, Enning; Rubin, Allan M.; Ampuero, Jean-Paul

2014-05-01

101

[Hemorrhagic shock].  

PubMed

Shock is a life threatening condition. The management of an hemorrhagic shock, whether traumatic or not, requires early identification of the bleeding source and adequate hemodynamic support. The diagnosis accuracy is based on clinical, hemodynamic, radiologic and biochemical findings which also allow appraisal of the treatment efficiency. Treatment should be goal-oriented with rapid hemorrhage control by surgery, interventional radiology or drug support. Circulatory resuscitation is aimed to restore adequate tissue perfusion and oxygenation and should be closely monitored. PMID:25199225

Megevand, Bérangère; Celi, Julien; Niquille, Marc

2014-08-13

102

Shock waves in cosmic space and planetary materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shock waves can be produced in the Earth's atmosphere and near vacuum of cosmic space as ``collision (as shock metamorphism)'' and ``collisionless (as plasma)'' shock events, respectively. Collisionless shock forms when the ``solar wind'' hits the ``magnetic fields'' of all the planets and comets which were found by many spacecrafts and Voyager missions as intense Alfven plasma waves. Main causes

Y. Miura; T. Kato

1993-01-01

103

Influence of initial stress and rupture initiation parameters on forbidden zone rupture propagation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Well established theoretical and numerical results of 2-D ruptures have been accepted for years to limit the speed of mode II cracks to be below the Rayleigh velocity or above the shear wave speed. However, recent work has numerically produced rupture speeds in this so-called `forbidden zone', that is the region of rupture velocities between the Rayleigh wave speed and the shear wave speed, for 3-D simulations. We verify that finding here and further examine the dependence of that behaviour on initial stress and rupture initiation parameters. Using a 3-D finite element model for dynamic rupture propagation, numerical experiments were performed for different initial stress conditions as well as different size initiation patches and forced rupture velocities. It is shown that the initial stress on the fault has a strong influence on the resulting rupture, specifically with regards to the distance at which the rupture transitions to supershear speeds, the maximum rupture velocity attained on the fault, and how rapidly the rupture passes through the forbidden zone. It is also demonstrated that for the same initial stress, increasing the size of the nucleation patch or the speed of forced rupture can artificially increase the gradient of the rupture velocity within the forbidden zone. This suggests that the rupture is uniquely predetermined by the stress state and material properties of the fault and surrounding medium in these models.

Payne, R. M.; Duan, B.

2015-04-01

104

Source rupture process of the 12 January 2010 Port-au-Prince (Haiti, Mw7.0) earthquake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Haiti earthquake occurred on tuesday, January 12, 2010 at 21:53:10 UTC. Its epicenter was at 18.46 degrees North, 72.53 degrees West, about 25 km WSW of Haiti's capital, Port-au-Prince. The earthquake was relatively shallow (H=13 km, U.S. Geological Survey) and thus had greater intensity and destructiveness. The earthquake occurred along the tectonic boundary between Caribbean and North America plate. This plate boundary is dominated by left-lateral strike slip motion and compression with 2 cm/year of slip velocity eastward with respect to the North America plate. The moment magnitude was measured to be 7.0 (U.S. Geological Survey) and 7.1 (Harvard Centroid-Moment-Tensor (CMT). More than 10 aftershocks ranging from 5.0 to 5.9 in magnitude (none of magnitude larger than 6.0) struck the area in hours following the main shock. Most of these aftershocks have occurred to the West of the mainshock in the Mirogoane Lakes region and its distribution suggests that the length of the rupture was around 70 km. The Harvard Centroid Moment Tensor (CMT) mechanism solution indicates lefth-lateral strike slip movement with a fault plane trending toward (strike = 251o ; dip = 70o; rake = 28o). In order to obtain the spatiotemporal slip distribution of a finite rupture model we have used teleseismic body wave and the Kikuchi and Kanamori's method [1]. Rupture velocity was constrained by using the directivity effect determined from a set of waveforms well recorded at regional and teleseismic distances [2]. Finally, we compared a map of aftershocks with the Coulomb stress changes caused by the event in the region [3]. [1]- Kikuchi, M., and Kanamori, H., 1982, Inversion of complex body waves: Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am., v. 72, p. 491-506. [2] Caldeira B., Bezzeghoud M, Borges JF, 2009; DIRDOP: a directivity approach to determining the seismic rupture velocity vector. J Seismology, DOI 10.1007/s10950-009-9183-x (http://www.springerlink.com/content/xp524g2225628773/) [3] -King, G. C. P., Stein, R. S. y Lin, J, 1994, Static stress changes and the triggering of earthquakes. Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am. 84,935-953.

Borges, José; Caldeira, Bento; Bezzeghoud, Mourad; Santos, Rúben

2010-05-01

105

Premonitory activity, rupture speed, radiation pattern and energy budget during stick-slip experiment in Westerly granite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since the proposal by Brace and Byerlee [1966] that the mechanism of stick-slip is similar to earthquakes mechanics, many experimental studies have been conducted in order to improve the understanding of earthquakes. Here we report macroscopic stick-slip events in saw-cut Westerly granite samples deformed under controlled upper crustal stress conditions in the laboratory. Experiments were conducted under triaxial loading (?1>?2=?3) at confining pressures (?3) ranging from 10 to 100 MPa. The angle between the fault plane and the maximum stress (?1) was imposed to be equal to 30°. Usual a dual gain system, a high frequency acoustic monitoring array recorded particles acceleration during macroscopic stick-slip events and premonitory background microseismicity. Here, we show that the macroscopic friction coefficient of the fault plane continuously increases with normal stress. At low friction (?<0.6), no background seismicity is recorded. At higher friction however, premonitory activity is systematically observed. An abrupt increase is observed in the second prior to the main shock and the cumulative moment release rate of the premonitory follows Omori's law. These results suggest that the macroscopic friction also controls the intensity of the premonitory activity in our experiments. In these conditions, Passelègue et al. 2013 have shown that supershear ruptures were achievable, at high normal stress. Here, we show that the high frequency content of the particles acceleration spectra also increases with the initial normal stress. The appearance of a peak around 0.1 MHz corresponds to the propagation of a conic wavefront at supershear velocities. In addition, a second high frequency peak, centered around 0.3MHz, appears with increasing cumulative number of stick-slip events. This high frequency radiation could be related to the gouge production and off-fault damage during rupture propagation. For the first time, we also record the stress drop dynamically, and show that the dynamic stress drop, measured locally close to the fault plane, is almost total ?<0.15 in the breakdown zone, while the strength recovery to values of ?>0.4 takes a few tens of microseconds only. Our measurements are consistent with flash heating, while stress drops measured at higher normal stress generally reveal a second frictionnal drop, consistent with the onset of melting, which was confirmed by our post-mortem microstructural analysis. Relationships between initial friction, rupture velocities, high frequency radiation and stress drop suggest that at high normal stress (i.e. at supershear velocities), the rupture processes become more dispersive. This result seems in agreement with seismological observations

Schubnel, A.; Passelègue, F. X.; Nielsen, S. B.; Bhat, H.; Madariaga, R. I.

2013-12-01

106

Investigation of cryogenic rupture disc design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Rupture disc designs of both the active (command actuated) and passive (pressure ruptured) types were evaluated for performance characteristics at cryogenic temperatures and for capability to operate in a variety of cryogens, including gaseous and liquid fluorine. The test results, coupled with information from literature and industry searches, were used to establish a statement of design criteria and recommended practices for application of rupture discs to cryogenic rocket propellant feed and vent systems.

Keough, J. B.; Oldland, A. H.

1973-01-01

107

Neck curve polynomials in neck rupture model  

SciTech Connect

The Neck Rupture Model is a model that explains the scission process which has smallest radius in liquid drop at certain position. Old fashion of rupture position is determined randomly so that has been called as Random Neck Rupture Model (RNRM). The neck curve polynomials have been employed in the Neck Rupture Model for calculation the fission yield of neutron induced fission reaction of {sup 280}X{sub 90} with changing of order of polynomials as well as temperature. The neck curve polynomials approximation shows the important effects in shaping of fission yield curve.

Kurniadi, Rizal; Perkasa, Yudha S.; Waris, Abdul [Nuclear Physics and Biophysics Research Division, Department of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jalan Ganesa 10 Bandung 40132 (Indonesia)

2012-06-06

108

MAINE AQUIFERS  

EPA Science Inventory

AQFRS24 contains polygons of significant aquifers in Maine (glacial deposits that are a significant ground water resource) mapped at a scale 1:24,000. This statewide coverage was derived from aquifer boundaries delineated and digitized by the Maine Geological Survey from data com...

109

[Neurogenic shock].  

PubMed

The neurogenic shock is a common complication of spinal cord injury, especially when localized at the cervical level. Characterized by a vasoplegia (hypotension) and bradycardia, the neurogenic shock is secondary to the damage of the sympathetic nervous system. The clinical presentation often includes tetraplegia, with or without respiratory failure. Early treatment aims to minimize the occurrence of secondary spinal cord lesions resulting from systemic ischemic injuries. Medical management consists in a standardized ABCDE approach, in order to stabilize vital functions and immobilize the spine. The hospital care includes performing imaging, further measures of neuro-resuscitation, and coordinated surgical assessment and treatment of any other injury. PMID:25199226

Meister, Rafael; Pasquier, Mathieu; Clerc, David; Carron, Pierre-Nicolas

2014-08-13

110

Intramyocardial Dissection following Postinfarction Ventricular Wall Rupture Contained by Surrounding Postoperative Adhesions  

PubMed Central

Introduction. Dissection of the myocardium is a rare form of cardiac rupture, caused by a hemorrhagic dissection among the spiral myocardial fibers, its diagnosis is rarely established before the operation or death, and extremely few cases have been reported in the literature and none of these cases seem to have a history of previous cardiac surgery which makes our report unique. Case Presentation. A 61-year-old female patient was admitted into the emergency room with complaints of progressive chest pain for 2 days. She had a history of second time prosthetic aortic valve replacement and was under anticoagulation therapy. She was diagnosed with an acute inferoposterior myocardial infarction and underwent emergency coronary angiography revealing spontaneous recanalization of the right coronary artery. During the follow-up, she developed cardiogenic shock and a new occurring systolic ejection murmur. Transthoracic echocardiography showed a left ventricular free wall rupture; then, she was taken in for emergency surgery. During the operation, a rupture zone and a wide intramyocardial dissecting area were detected. Intraventricular patch repair technic with autologous pericardial patch was used to exclude the ruptured area. Following the warming period, despite adequate hemostasis, hemorrhage around suture lines progressively increased, leading to the patient's death. Conclusion. Pericardial adhesions might contain left ventricular rupture leading to intramyocardial dissection. PMID:25874153

Ercan, Abdulkadir; Gurbuz, Orcun; Kumtepe, Gencehan; Ozkan, Hakan; Karal, Ilker Hasan; Velioglu, Yusuf; Ener, Serdar

2015-01-01

111

Quadriceps and patellar tendon ruptures.  

PubMed

The diagnosis of quadriceps and patellar tendon ruptures requires a high index of suspicion and thorough history-taking to assess for medical comorbidities that may predispose patients to tendon degeneration. Radiographic assessment with plain films supplemented by ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging when the work-up is equivocal further aids diagnosis; however, advanced imaging is often unnecessary in patients with functional extensor mechanism deficits. Acute repair is preferred, and transpatellar bone tunnels serve as the primary form of fixation when the tendon rupture occurs at the patellar insertion, with or without augmentation depending on surgeon preference. Chronic tears and disruptions following total knee arthroplasty are special cases requiring reconstructions with allograft, synthetic mesh, or autograft. Rehabilitation protocols generally allow immediate weight-bearing with the knee locked in extension and crutch support. Limited arc motion is started early with active flexion and passive extension and then advanced progressively, followed by full active range of motion and strengthening. Complications are few but include quadriceps atrophy, knee stiffness, and rerupture. Outcomes are excellent if repair is done acutely, with poorer outcomes associated with delayed repair. PMID:23955186

Lee, Dennis; Stinner, Daniel; Mir, Hassan

2013-10-01

112

Analysis of supershear transition regimes in rupture experiments: the effect of nucleation conditions and friction parameters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider the effect of the rupture initiation procedure on supershear transition of Mode II ruptures on interfaces governed by linear slip-weakening friction. Our study is motivated by recent experiments, which demonstrated the transition of spontaneous ruptures from sub-Rayleigh to supershear speeds in the laboratory. In these works the experiments were analysed using the Burridge-Andrews model of supershear transition, in which a supershear daughter crack is nucleated in front of the main mother rupture. It was concluded that the critical slip of the linear slip-weakening formulation needs to be pressure-dependent for a good match with experiments. However, the dynamic rupture initiation mechanism in the experiments was conceptually different from the quasi-static one adopted in the numerical work used for comparison. Here, our goal is to determine the effect of the nucleation by numerically modelling the experiments using a rupture initiation procedure that captures the dynamic nature of the wire explosion mechanism used in the experiments. We find parameter regimes that match the experimentally observed transition distances for the entire range of experimental conditions. Our simulations show that the dynamic rupture initiation procedure significantly affects the resulting transition distances, shortening them by about 30-50 per cent compared to those predicted through the quasi-static rupture initiation process. Moreover, for some cases, the dynamic initiation procedure changes the very mode of transition, causing a direct supershear transition at the tip of the main rupture instead of the mother-daughter mechanism. We find reasonable parameter regimes which match experimentally determined transition distances with both direct supershear transition at the rupture tip and the Burridge-Andrews (mother-daughter) mechanism, using both pressure-independent and pressure-dependent critical slip. The results show that there are trade-offs between the parameters of the rupture initiation procedure and the properties of interface friction. This underscores the importance of quantifying experimental parameters for proper interpretation of the experiments and highlights the importance of the rupture initiation procedure, in simulations of both experiments and real-life earthquake events.

Lu, Xiao; Lapusta, Nadia; Rosakis, Ares J.

2009-05-01

113

Shock Waves  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web page explains the physics of sonic shock waves. Text and animations describe and illustrate the wavefronts of sound from a moving point source for the cases of motion equal to, less than, and greater than the speed of sound. This is part of a large collection of physics animations.

114

The 58th Shock and Vibration Symposium, volume 1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The proceedings of the 58th Shock and Vibration Symposium, held in Huntsville, Alabama, October 13 to 15, 1987 are given. Mechanical shock, dynamic analysis, space shuttle main engine vibration, isolation and damping, and analytical methods are discussed.

Pilkey, Walter D. (compiler); Pilkey, Barbara F. (compiler)

1987-01-01

115

Fractal avalanche ruptures in biological membranes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bilayer membranes envelope cells as well as organelles, and constitute the most ubiquitous biological material found in all branches of the phylogenetic tree. Cell membrane rupture is an important biological process, and substantial rupture rates are found in skeletal and cardiac muscle cells under a mechanical load. Rupture can also be induced by processes such as cell death, and active cell membrane repair mechanisms are essential to preserve cell integrity. Pore formation in cell membranes is also at the heart of many biomedical applications such as in drug, gene and short interfering RNA delivery. Membrane rupture dynamics has been studied in bilayer vesicles under tensile stress, which consistently produce circular pores. We observed very different rupture mechanics in bilayer membranes spreading on solid supports: in one instance fingering instabilities were seen resulting in floral-like pores and in another, the rupture proceeded in a series of rapid avalanches causing fractal membrane fragmentation. The intermittent character of rupture evolution and the broad distribution in avalanche sizes is consistent with crackling-noise dynamics. Such noisy dynamics appear in fracture of solid disordered materials, in dislocation avalanches in plastic deformations and domain wall magnetization avalanches. We also observed similar fractal rupture mechanics in spreading cell membranes.

Gözen, Irep; Dommersnes, Paul; Czolkos, Ilja; Jesorka, Aldo; Lobovkina, Tatsiana; Orwar, Owe

2010-11-01

116

Ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm after endovascular repair  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The purpose of this study was to present the experience with aneurysm rupture after deployment of Guidant\\/EVT (Guidant) endografts and review previously reported cases with other devices. Methods: Records from Guidant\\/EVT clinical trials and postmarket approval databases from February 1993 to August 2000 were analyzed to identify patients with rupture and to extract pertinent data. Previously reported cases were

Victor M. Bernhard; R. Scott Mitchell; Jon S. Matsumura; David C. Brewster; Maria Decker; Patrick Lamparello; Dieter Raithel; Jack Collin

2002-01-01

117

Free wall rupture after arterial switch operation.  

PubMed

A neonate underwent arterial switch operation, supported on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for 3 days. Two weeks later, a pseudoaneurysm was seen on an echocardiogram, and a free wall rupture was suggested. Prompt surgery was performed, a free wall rupture assessed, and a patch with BioGlue was applied successfully. One year later, the child is in good condition. PMID:25468102

Gil-Jaurena, Juan-Miguel; Aroca, Ángel; Pérez-Caballero, Ramón; Pita, Ana

2014-12-01

118

Spontaneous intraventricular rupture of craniopharyngioma cyst  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUNDRupture of a cystic craniopharyngioma is a rare phenomenon. The rupture of the cyst causes decompression of the adjacent neural structures resulting in spontaneous improvement of the visual symptoms or level of sensorium. The leakage of its contents into the subarachnoid space gives rise to meningismus. We report an extremely rare phenomenon of an intraventricular rupture of a cystic craniopharyngioma,

Vaijayantee Kulkarni; Roy Thomas Daniel; Ramachandra Pranatartiharan

2000-01-01

119

Rupture Velocity of Plane Strain Shear Cracks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Propagation of plane strain shear cracks is calculated numerically by using finite difference equations with second-order accuracy. The rupture model, in which stress drops gradually as slip increases, combines two different rupture criteria: (1) slip begins at a finite stress level; (2) finite energy is absorbed per unit area as the crack advances. Solutions for this model are nonsingular. In

D. J. Andrews

1976-01-01

120

Detonation Shock Radius Experiments.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A previous passover experiment [1] was designed to create a complex detonation transient used in validating a reduced, asymptotically derived description of detonation shock dynamics (DSD). An underlying question remained on determining the location of the initial detonation shock radius to start the DSD simulation with respect to the dynamical response of the initiation system coupling's to the main charge. This paper concentrates on determining the initial shock radius required of such DSD governed problems. `Cut-back' experiments of PBX-9501 were conducted using an initiation system that sought to optimize the transferred detonation to the desired constant radius, hemispherical shape. Streak camera techniques captured the breakout on three of the prism's surfaces for time-of-arrival data. The paper includes comparisons to simulations using constant volume explosion and high pressure hot spots. The results of the experiments and simulation efforts provide fundamental design considerations for actual explosive systems and verify necessary conditions from which the asymptotic theory of DSD may apply. [1] Lambert, D., Stewart, D. Scott and Yoo, S. and Wescott, B., ``Experimental Validation of Detonation Shock Dynamics in Condensed Explosives. J. of Fluid Mechs., Vol. 546, pp.227-253 (2006).

Lambert, David; Debes, Joshua; Stewart, Scott; Yoo, Sunhee

2007-06-01

121

Isolated rupture of the superficial vein of the penis  

PubMed Central

Penile emergencies are rare but when they do occur, prompt diagnosis and treatment are warranted. Emergent conditions of the male genitalia are mainly traumatic, vascular or infectious. Penile emergencies are usually caused by trauma to the penis, during sexual intercourse or manipulation of an erect penis during masturbation. One of the traumatic vascular penile emergencies is superficial penile dorsal vein rupture. This is a rare condition, with just a few reported cases. It is usually taken into differential diagnosis with the other acute penile injuries that present, such as acute penile edema or ecchymosis. We report a case of 59-year-old male with a superficial penile dorsal vein rupture which occurred during manipulation of the erect penis. PMID:24940469

Eken, Alper; Acil, Meltem; Arpaci, Taner

2014-01-01

122

When hepatoma rupture happens in situs inversus totalis: side matters.  

PubMed

The authors reported a 73-year-old alcoholic man with previously-unrecognized situs inversus totalis suffering from left upper quadrant pain. Acute myocardial infarction was diagnosed and coronary angioplasty was performed immediately. However, the massive bleeding from the previously-unfound hepatomas caused hypovolemic shock and fatal outcome. Situs inversus totalis is a rare congenital anomaly with a complete mirror image of the thoracic and abdominal organs. Although being considered a benign entity, it would disturb diagnosis-making of the visceral diseases owing to the altered anatomy. To our knowledge, the coexistence of the coronary artery disease and ruptured hepatomas in situs inversus totalis, as in our patient, is never described. Recognition of any situs anomalies in time is the key to avoid misdiagnosis, inappropriate managements, and unwanted consequences. PMID:25296948

Pan, Ming-Sung; Shiao, Chih-Chung; Chang, Yu-Ming

2014-10-01

123

Twin ruptures grew to build up the giant 2011 Tohoku, Japan, earthquake  

PubMed Central

The 2011 Tohoku megathrust earthquake had an unexpected size for the region. To image the earthquake rupture in detail, we applied a novel backprojection technique to waveforms from local accelerometer networks. The earthquake began as a small-size twin rupture, slowly propagating mainly updip and triggering the break of a larger-size asperity at shallower depths, resulting in up to 50?m slip and causing high-amplitude tsunami waves. For a long time the rupture remained in a 100–150?km wide slab segment delimited by oceanic fractures, before propagating further to the southwest. The occurrence of large slip at shallow depths likely favored the propagation across contiguous slab segments and contributed to build up a giant earthquake. The lateral variations in the slab geometry may act as geometrical or mechanical barriers finally controlling the earthquake rupture nucleation, evolution and arrest. PMID:23050093

Maercklin, Nils; Festa, Gaetano; Colombelli, Simona; Zollo, Aldo

2012-01-01

124

Twin ruptures grew to build up the giant 2011 Tohoku, Japan, earthquake.  

PubMed

The 2011 Tohoku megathrust earthquake had an unexpected size for the region. To image the earthquake rupture in detail, we applied a novel backprojection technique to waveforms from local accelerometer networks. The earthquake began as a small-size twin rupture, slowly propagating mainly updip and triggering the break of a larger-size asperity at shallower depths, resulting in up to 50 m slip and causing high-amplitude tsunami waves. For a long time the rupture remained in a 100-150 km wide slab segment delimited by oceanic fractures, before propagating further to the southwest. The occurrence of large slip at shallow depths likely favored the propagation across contiguous slab segments and contributed to build up a giant earthquake. The lateral variations in the slab geometry may act as geometrical or mechanical barriers finally controlling the earthquake rupture nucleation, evolution and arrest. PMID:23050093

Maercklin, Nils; Festa, Gaetano; Colombelli, Simona; Zollo, Aldo

2012-01-01

125

Complex rupture mechanism and topography control symmetry of mass-wasting pattern, 2010 Haiti earthquake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 12 January 2010 Mw 7.0 Haiti earthquake occurred in a complex deformation zone at the boundary between the North American and Caribbean plates. Combined geodetic, geological and seismological data posited that surface deformation was driven by rupture on the Léogâne blind thrust fault, while part of the rupture occurred as deep lateral slip on the Enriquillo-Plantain Garden Fault (EPGF). The earthquake triggered > 4490 landslides, mainly shallow, disrupted rock falls, debris-soil falls and slides, and a few lateral spreads, over an area of ~ 2150 km2. The regional distribution of these slope failures defies those of most similar earthquake-triggered landslide episodes reported previously. Most of the coseismic landslides did not proliferate in the hanging wall of the main rupture, but clustered instead at the junction of the blind Léogâne and EPGF ruptures, where topographic relief and hillslope steepness are above average. Also, low-relief areas subjected to high coseismic uplift were prone to lesser hanging wall slope instability than previous studies would suggest. We argue that a combined effect of complex rupture dynamics and topography primarily control this previously rarely documented landslide pattern. Compared to recent thrust fault-earthquakes of similar magnitudes elsewhere, we conclude that lower static stress drop, mean fault displacement, and blind ruptures of the 2010 Haiti earthquake resulted in fewer, smaller, and more symmetrically distributed landslides than previous studies would suggest. Our findings caution against overly relying on across-the-board models of slope stability response to seismic ground shaking.

Gorum, Tolga; van Westen, Cees J.; Korup, Oliver; van der Meijde, Mark; Fan, Xuanmei; van der Meer, Freek D.

2013-02-01

126

Stress-based aftershock forecasts made within 24 h postmain shock: Expected north San Francisco Bay area seismicity changes after the 2014 M = 6.0 West Napa earthquake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We calculate stress changes resulting from the M = 6.0 West Napa earthquake on north San Francisco Bay area faults. The earthquake ruptured within a series of long faults that pose significant hazard to the Bay area, and we are thus concerned with potential increases in the probability of a large earthquake through stress transfer. We conduct this exercise as a prospective test because the skill of stress-based aftershock forecasting methodology is inconclusive. We apply three methods: (1) generalized mapping of regional Coulomb stress change, (2) stress changes resolved on Uniform California Earthquake Rupture Forecast faults, and (3) a mapped rate/state aftershock forecast. All calculations were completed within 24 h after the main shock and were made without benefit of known aftershocks, which will be used to evaluative the prospective forecast. All methods suggest that we should expect heightened seismicity on parts of the southern Rodgers Creek, northern Hayward, and Green Valley faults.

Parsons, Tom; Segou, Margaret; Sevilgen, Volkan; Milner, Kevin; Field, Edward; Toda, Shinji; Stein, Ross S.

2014-12-01

127

MAINE HYDROGRAPHY  

EPA Science Inventory

Hydronet_me24 and Hydropoly_me24 depict Maine's hydrography data, based on 8-digit hydrological unit codes (HUC's) at the 1:24,000 scale. Some New Hampshire and New Brunswick hydrography data are also included. The NHD hydrography data was compiled from previous ArcIn...

128

Maine Ingredients  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article features Maine Learning Technology Initiative (MLTI), the nation's first-ever statewide 1-to-1 laptop program which marks its seventh birthday by expanding into high schools, providing an occasion to celebrate--and to examine the components of its success. The plan to put laptops into the hands of every teacher and student in grades 7…

Waters, John K.

2009-01-01

129

Main Winners.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents the main winners of a competition which judged the most outstanding learning environments at educational institutions nationwide. Jurors spent 2 days reviewing projects, focusing on concepts and ideas that made them exceptional. The top K-12 honor went to Century High School, Sykesville, Maryland. The higher education honor went to Wright…

American School & University, 2003

2003-01-01

130

Chondrule Destruction in Nebular Shocks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chondrules are millimeter-sized silicate spherules ubiquitous in primitive meteorites, but whose origin remains mysterious. One of the main proposed mechanisms for producing them is melting of solids in shock waves in the gaseous protoplanetary disk. However, evidence is mounting that chondrule-forming regions were enriched in solids well above solar abundances. Given the high velocities involved in shock models, destructive collisions would be expected between differently sized grains after passage of the shock front as a result of differential drag. We investigate the probability and outcome of collisions of particles behind a one-dimensional shock using analytic methods as well as a full integration of the coupled mass, momentum, energy, and radiation equations. Destruction of protochondrules seems unavoidable for solid/gas ratios epsilon >~ 0.1, and possibly even for solar abundances because of "sandblasting" by finer dust. A flow with epsilon >~ 10 requires much smaller shock velocities (~2 versus 8 km s-1) in order to achieve chondrule-melting temperatures, and radiation trapping allows slow cooling of the shocked fragments. Initial destruction would still be extensive; although re-assembly of millimeter-sized particles would naturally occur by grain sticking afterward, the compositional heterogeneity of chondrules may be difficult to reproduce. We finally note that solids passing through small-scale bow shocks around few kilometer-sized planetesimals might experience partial melting and yet escape fragmentation.

Jacquet, Emmanuel; Thompson, Christopher

2014-12-01

131

STS-93 SSME Nozzle Tube Rupture Investigation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

STS-93 was launched on July 23, 1999. There was an anomaly at the end of the launch in that the main engines shut down 0.16 second early because sensors detected a low level of oxidizer in the LOX tank (actually the duct from the tank to the vehicle). This resulted in a cutoff velocity for the vehicle that was 16 ft/sec low. It should have been 25872 ft/sec. The OMS engines were subsequently used to achieve the proper orbit. An investigation was immediately initiated into the cause of this LOX tank low level cutoff. It was noticed during the launch that the turbine temperatures for Main Engine 3 (E2019) were approximately 100 F higher than the preflight prediction. Linear Engine Model matching of the data indicated that a nozzle leak best fit the data. Post launch review of the data showed, that at approximately five seconds into the start, numerous parameters indicated small anomalous shifts. These shifts were all consistent with a rupture of nozzle tubes. Post launch review of the films showed that just after Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) ignition and just prior to liftoff a streak is seen in the exhaust plume of E2019. Just after liftoff the streak can be seen emanating from the nozzle wall. This photo confirmed that a leak was coming from the nozzle tubes. Based on the photo, the axial location of the leak was estimated to be 28 in. from the aft end of the nozzle and in line with nozzle coolant feed line #1. The streak continued to be visible during the launch.

Romine, W. Dennis

1999-01-01

132

Role of geometric complexities and off-fault damage in dynamic rupture propagation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To analyze the effect of fault branches on dynamic rupture propagation we numerically simulated the observed dynamic slip transfer from the Denali to Totschunda faults during the Mw 7.9, November 3, 2002, Denali fault earthquake, Alaska and show that the theory and methodology of Poliakov et al. [2002] and Kame et al. [2003] is valid for the 2002 Denali fault event. To understand the effect of fault branch length on dynamic rupture propagation we analyze earthquake ruptures propagating along a straight "main" fault and encountering a finite-length branch fault. We show finite branches have the tendency of stopping or re-nucleating rupture on the main fault depending on their length in addition to the parameters singled out by Kame et al. [2003]. We also illustrate branch-related complexities in rupture velocity and slip evolution. We illustrate the effect of backward branches (branches at obtuse angle to the main fault with the same sense of slip as the main fault) and propose a mechanism of backward branching. As a field example we simulate numerically, using a two-dimensional elastodynamic boundary integral equation formulation incorporating slip-weakening rupture, the backward branching phenomenon observed during the Landers 1992 earthquake. To characterize the effect of supershear ruptures on off-fault materials we extend a model of a two-dimensional self-healing slip pulse, propagating dynamically in steady-state with slip-weakening failure criterion, to the supershear regime and show that there exists a non-attenuating stress field behind the Mach front which radiates high stresses arbitrarily far from the fault (practically this would be limited to distances comparable to the depth of the seismogenic zone). We apply this model to study damage features induced during the 2001 Kokoxili (Kunlun) event in Tibet. We also study the 3D effects of supershear ruptures by simulating bilateral ruptures on a finite-width vertical strike-slip fault breaking the surface of an elastic half-space, and focus on the wavefield in the near-source region. We provide numerical evidence for the existence of Rayleigh Mach fronts, in addition to shear Mach fronts. We conclude that radiating Mach waves of three-dimensional supershear ruptures do transmit large-amplitude ground motions and stresses far from the fault. The amplitudes along the shear Mach front would be moderated at distances greater than the fault width by decay with distance due to geometrical spreading. However, in an ideally elastic material, we do not expect any geometrical attenuation along the Rayleigh Mach front.

Bhat, Harsha Suresh

2007-12-01

133

The 6 July 2011 (Mw 7.6) Normal-Faulting Kermadec Trench Earthquake: Rupture Process and Aftershock Sequence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On 6 July 2011, a large normal-faulting earthquake occurred along the Kermadec Trench in the southwestern Pacific Ocean (USGS source parameters: Ms 7.4, mb 7.0, 19:03:16.74 UTC, 29.312°S, 176.204°W, hypocentral depth 20 km; GCMT Mw 7.6, centroid depth 22.7 km). Typically, normal-faulting earthquakes of this magnitude occur in the outer-rise or outer trench-slope and are preceded by a larger thrust event that abruptly relaxes the stresses in the subducting plate and allows shallow intraplate extensional faulting to occur. This event occurred seaward of the region considered to be the most strongly seismically coupled portion of the Kermadec-Tonga arc. The down-dip megathrust fault in this region had a large Mw 7.9 thrust event on 14 January 1976, but the largest recent thrust event was an Mw 7.0 event on 29 September 2008. This extensional event may be considered an unusually large aftershock, but if the down-dip region is largely strongly coupled it is not clear why the event is so large. The 2011 event is also notable because all of the aftershocks within a few degrees of the main shock large enough to have GCMT solutions are thrust events on the plate boundary. The 2009 Samoa Mw 8.1 outer slope extensional event is also distinctive for having triggered extensive thrust faulting aftershocks, but that portion of the subduction zone does not appear to be strongly coupled down-dip. Since most outer rise normal-faulting earthquakes occur in the upper portion of the subducting plate where bending stresses are the greatest, determining the depth extent of rupture for the Kermadec event is of interest. We will present an analysis of the body-wave signals, rupture process and aftershock characteristics for this unusual event.

Todd, E.; Lay, T.

2011-12-01

134

Device sizing for transcatheter closure of ruptured sinus of Valsalva as per echocardiography color Doppler turbulent flow jet diameter.  

PubMed

Rupture of sinus of Valsalva (SV) is a rare occurrence with a wide spectrum of presentation, ranging from an asymptomatic murmur to cardiogenic shock or even sudden cardiac death. We hereby report a case which was successfully closed by transcatheter technique. In this case, ruptured SV was entered from the aorta, an arteriovenous loop was created and device was implanted using a venous approach. The procedure was safe, effective and uncomplicated, obviating the need for surgery. In this case, the authors report for the first time the use of echo color Doppler turbulent flow jet diameter as a reference value for sizing the device. PMID:24610635

Ahmed, Khurshid; Munawar, Muhammad; Chakraborty, Rabin; Hartono, Beny; Yusri, Achmad

2015-01-01

135

Spontaneous ruptured dissection of the right common iliac artery in a patient with classic ehlers-danlos syndrome phenotype.  

PubMed

Unlike vascular Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS), classic EDS is rarely associated with vascular manifestation. We report the case of a 39-year-old man who presented with acute abdominal pain. At the time of presentation, the patient was in hypovolemic shock, and computed tomography angiogram demonstrated common iliac artery dissection with rupture. He underwent an attempted endovascular repair that was converted to an open repair of a ruptured right common iliac artery dissection. Subsequent genetic testing revealed a substitution of arginine for cysteine in type I collagen, COL1A1 exon 14 c.934C>T mutation, consistent with a rare variant of classic EDS. PMID:25597651

Gaines, Rick; Tinkle, Brad T; Halandras, Pegge M; Al-Nouri, Omar; Crisostomo, Paul; Cho, Jae S

2015-04-01

136

Triggered slip on the Ismetpasa segment of 1944 Bolu-Gerede surface rupture by the 1999 Izmit earthquake, North Anatolian Fault, Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

The surface rupture associated with the 1944 Bolu-Gerede earthquake (Ms 7.3) is a 185 km-long strand between the Lake Abant and town of Bayramoren at the western central part of the North Anatolian Fault. The rupture was subdivided into 5 main geometrical segments and a maximum right lateral displacement of 6 m was measured along the rupture zone during the

A. Dogan; H. Kondo; O. Emre; Y. Awata; S. Ozalp

2003-01-01

137

Piezoelectric Polymer Shock Gauges  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The science and technology of piezoelectric materials has long been dominated by the availability of specific materials with particular properties. Piezoelectric PVDF (Poly(vinylidene fluoride) polymer and copolymers of PVDF with trifluoroethylene have shown to have the potential for new shock-wave sensors. Since 1981 through 1995, the piezoelectric response of PVDF was studied in a cooperative effort with François Bauer of ISL, France, R.A. Graham of Sandia National Laboratories and L.M. Lee of Ktech Corporation, Albuquerque. Among the known piezoelectric polymers, the PVDF plays an important role in measuring mechanical and physical state of matter under shock loading. The present paper presents the history of the development of the PVDF gauge. After 24 years of research in this area, main relevant results and data obtained are summarized as well as some original applications of the PVDF gauges.

Bauer, F.

2006-07-01

138

Metrics for comparing dynamic earthquake rupture simulations  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Earthquakes are complex events that involve a myriad of interactions among multiple geologic features and processes. One of the tools that is available to assist with their study is computer simulation, particularly dynamic rupture simulation. A dynamic rupture simulation is a numerical model of the physical processes that occur during an earthquake. Starting with the fault geometry, friction constitutive law, initial stress conditions, and assumptions about the condition and response of the near?fault rocks, a dynamic earthquake rupture simulation calculates the evolution of fault slip and stress over time as part of the elastodynamic numerical solution (? see the simulation description in the electronic supplement to this article). The complexity of the computations in a dynamic rupture simulation make it challenging to verify that the computer code is operating as intended, because there are no exact analytic solutions against which these codes’ results can be directly compared. One approach for checking if dynamic rupture computer codes are working satisfactorily is to compare each code’s results with the results of other dynamic rupture codes running the same earthquake simulation benchmark. To perform such a comparison consistently, it is necessary to have quantitative metrics. In this paper, we present a new method for quantitatively comparing the results of dynamic earthquake rupture computer simulation codes.

Barall, Michael; Harris, Ruth A.

2014-01-01

139

Age at intracranial aneurysm rupture among generations  

PubMed Central

Background: Previous studies have reported intracranial aneurysm (IA) occurring at young ages in subsequent generations. These studies did not correct for duration of follow-up. Second-generation members who would have their ruptured IA late in life may not be detected due to shorter follow-up time than the first generation. We examined families in which ruptured IA occurred in two consecutive generations for the hypothesis that the second generation (F1) was more likely to have a rupture at a younger age than the older generation (F0). Methods: The Familial Intracranial Aneurysm (FIA) Study is a multicenter, international study recruiting families of ruptured and unruptured IA. All available family members are interviewed. Cox proportional hazards regression models and Kaplan-Meier curves were used to examine differences by generation. Results: Although we found that the F1 generation was more likely to have an aneurysm rupture at a younger age than the F0 generation, we found that this was largely because of a lack of follow-up time in the F1 generation. The F1 generation had 50% the rupture rate of the prior generation. When analyzed by Kaplan-Meier curves, we found a tendency to have a slightly later rupture rate in the F1 generation once time to follow-up was included in the analysis model. Conclusions: Families of ruptured intracranial aneurysm (IA) do not appear to demonstrate “anticipation.” Our finding suggests that genetic epidemiology of ruptured IA should examine all types of variations such as single base-pair changes, deletions, insertions, and other variations that do not demonstrate anticipation. GLOSSARY FIA = familial intracranial aneurysm; IA = intracranial aneurysm; SAH = subarachnoid hemorrhage. PMID:19237697

Woo, D; Hornung, R; Sauerbeck, L; Brown, R; Meissner, I; Huston, J; Foroud, T; Broderick, J

2009-01-01

140

Thyroid rupture secondary to blunt neck trauma.  

PubMed

Rupture of the thyroid gland is uncommon in cases of blunt neck trauma. We report a case of thyroid rupture after a motor vehicle accident in a patient without a preexisting goiter. He presented with a painful anterior neck swelling associated with dysphagia and hoarseness of voice. Computed tomographic scans showed lacerations of the right thyroid lobe and isthmus with features suggestive of slow active bleeding. Neck exploration was subsequently performed, and a ruptured right thyroid lobe was found with ongoing venous hemorrhage. A right hemithyroidectomy was performed, and the patient recovered without complications. PMID:23399341

Sow, Yih-Liang; Aziz, Nora Abdul; Ng, Khoon-Leong

2013-04-01

141

CT diagnosis of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm  

SciTech Connect

Abdominal computed tomography was performed in six patients with suspected ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm but in whom an alternate clinical diagnosis was seriously considered. In each patient, a large aortic aneurysm was demonstrated in association with a retroperitoneal accumulation of high-density blood. The retroperitoneal blood was primarily confined to the extracapsular perinephric space. In four of the six patients, a focal area of the aortic wall was indistinct on the side of the retroperitoneal hemorrhage at the presumed site of rupture. Five of the six patients underwent emergency surgery, which confirmed the site of aneurysm, presence of rupture and the location of fresh retroperitoneal blood.

Rosen, A.; Korobkin, M.; Silverman, P.M.; Moore, A.V. Jr.; Dunnick, N.R.

1984-08-01

142

Material Parameters for Creep Rupture of Austenitic Stainless Steel Foils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Creep rupture properties of austenitic stainless steel foil, 347SS, used in compact recuperators have been evaluated at 700 °C in the stress range of 54-221 MPa to establish the baseline behavior for its extended use. Creep curves of the foil show that the primary creep stage is brief and creep life is dominated by tertiary creep deformation with rupture lives in the range of 10-2000 h. Results are compared with properties of bulk specimens tested at 98 and 162 MPa. Thin foil 347SS specimens were found to have higher creep rates and higher rupture ductility than their bulk specimen counterparts. Power law relationship was obtained between the minimum creep rate and the applied stress with stress exponent value, n = 5.7. The value of the stress exponent is indicative of the rate-controlling deformation mechanism associated with dislocation creep. Nucleation of voids mainly occurred at second-phase particles (chromium-rich M23C6 carbides) that are present in the metal matrix by decohesion of the particle-matrix interface. The improvement in strength is attributed to the precipitation of fine niobium carbides in the matrix that act as obstacles to the movement of dislocations.

Osman, H.; Borhana, A.; Tamin, M. N.

2014-08-01

143

Rupture Synchronicity in Complex Fault Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While most investigators would agree that the timing of large earthquakes within a fault system depends on stress-mediated interactions among its elements, much of the debate relevant to time-dependent forecasting has been centered on single-fault concepts, such as characteristic earthquake behavior. We propose to broaden this discussion by quantifying the multi-fault concept of rupture synchronicity. We consider a finite set of small, fault-spanning volumes {Vk} within a fault system of arbitrary (fractal) complexity. We let Ck be the catalog of length tmax comprising Nk discrete times {ti(k)} that mark when the kth volume participates in a rupture of magnitude > M. The main object of our analysis is the complete set of event time differences {?ij(kk') = ti(k) - tj(k')}, which we take to be a random process with an expected density function ?kk'(t). When k = k', we call this function the auto-catalog density function (ACDF); when k ? k', we call it the cross-catalog density function (CCDF). The roles of the ACDF and CCDF in synchronicity theory are similar to those of autocorrelation and cross-correlation functions in time-series analysis. For a renewal process, the ACDF can be written in terms of convolutions of the interevent-time distribution, and many of its properties (e.g., large-t asymptote) can be derived analytically. The interesting information in the CCDF, like that in the ACDF, is concentrated near t = 0. If two catalogs are completely asynchronous, the CCDF collapses to an asymptote given by the harmonic mean of the ACDF asymptotes. Synchronicity can therefore be characterized by the variability of the CCDF about this asymptote. The brevity of instrumental catalogs makes the identification of synchronicity at large M difficult, but we will illustrate potentially interesting behaviors through the analysis of a million-year California catalog generated by the earthquake simulator, RSQSim (Deiterich & Richards-Dinger, 2010), which we sampled at a dozen fault-spanning volumes. At the magnitude threshold M = 7, the ACDF can be well fit by renewal models with fairly small aperiodicity parameters (? < 0.2) for all fault volumes but one (on the San Jacinto fault). At interseismic (Reid) time scales, we observe pairs of fault segments that are tightly locked, such as the Cholame and Carrizo sections of the San Andreas Fault (SAF), where the CCDF and two ACDFs are nearly equal; segments out of phase (Carrizo-SAF/Coachella-SAF and Coachella-SAF/San Jacinto), where the CCDF variation is an odd function of time; and segments where events are in phase with integer ratios of recurrence times (2:1 synchronicity of Coachella-SAF/Mojave-SAF and Carrizo-SAF/Mojave-SAF). At near-seismic (Omori) time scales, we observe various modes of clustering, triggering, and shadowing in RSQSim catalogs; e.g., events on Mojave-SAF trigger Garlock events, and events on Coachella-SAF shut down events on San Jacinto. Therefore, despite its geometrical complexity and multiplicity of time scales, the RSQSim model of the San Andreas fault system exhibits a variety of synchronous behaviors that increase the predictability of large ruptures within the system. A key question for earthquake forecasting is whether the real San Andreas system is equally, or much less, synchronous.

Milner, K. R.; Jordan, T. H.

2013-12-01

144

Changing Views of the Biomechanics of Vulnerable Plaque Rupture, a Review  

PubMed Central

This review examines changing perspectives on the biomechanics of vulnerable plaque rupture over the past 25 years from the first FEA showing that the presence of a lipid pool significantly increases the local tissue stress in the atheroma cap to the latest imaging and 3D FEA studies revealing numerous microcalcifications in the cap proper and a new paradigm for cap rupture. The first part of the review summarizes studies describing the role of the fibrous cap thickness, tissue properties and lesion geometry as main determinants of the risk of rupture. Advantages and limitations of current imaging technologies for assessment of vulnerable plaques are also discussed. However, the basic paradoxes as to why ruptures frequently did not coincide with location of PCS and why caps > 65 ?m thickness could rupture at tissue stresses significantly below the 300 kPa critical threshold still remained unresolved. The second part of the review describes recent studies in the role of microcalcifications, their origin, shape and clustering in explaining these unresolved issues including the actual mechanism of rupture due to the explosive growth of tiny voids (cavitation) in locals regions of high stress concentration between closely spaced microinclusions oriented along their tensile axis. PMID:23842694

Cardoso, Luis; Weinbaum, Sheldon

2013-01-01

145

Describing Soils: Calibration Tool for Teaching Soil Rupture Resistance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Rupture resistance is a measure of the strength of a soil to withstand an applied stress or resist deformation. In soil survey, during routine soil descriptions, rupture resistance is described for each horizon or layer in the soil profile. The lower portion of the rupture resistance classes are assigned based on rupture between thumb and…

Seybold, C. A.; Harms, D. S.; Grossman, R. B.

2009-01-01

146

Plantaris rupture: why is it important?  

PubMed Central

Plantaris muscle is accessory plantar flexor of calf, a vestigial muscle of triceps surae complex. Its importance lies in the fact that its rupture cans mimic deep vein thrombosis (DVT). Sometimes when there is rupture of Achilles tendon, intact plantaris can still cause plantar flexion at ankle presenting a confusing picture. We present one such case of plantaris rupture confused by radiology resident with DVT. A 51-year-old man had a feeling as if kicked in back of calf along with a snapping sound and severe pain while playing tennis. On seeing fluid between muscle plane and a hypoechoic structure radiology resident labelled it DVT. MRI suggested ruptured plantaris as fluid and muscle stump were seen between gastronemius and soleus. Patient was treated conservatively with rest, ice compression and elevated leg and showed significant reduction in pain and swelling. PMID:23345486

Rohilla, Seema; Jain, Nitin; Yadav, Rohtas

2013-01-01

147

Acute Iliac Artery Rupture: Endovascular Treatment  

SciTech Connect

The authors present 7 patients who suffered iliac artery rupture over a 2 year period. In 5 patients, the rupture was iatrogenic: 4 cases were secondary to balloon angioplasty for iliac artery stenosis and 1 occurred during coronary angioplasty. In the last 2 patients, the rupture was secondary to iliac artery mycotic aneurysm. Direct placement of a stent-graft was performed in all cases, which was dilated until extravasation was controlled. Placement of the stent-graft was successful in all the cases, without any complications. The techniques used, results, and mid-term follow-up are presented. In conclusion, endovascular placement of a stent-graft is a quick, minimally invasive, efficient, and safe method for emergency treatment of acute iliac artery rupture, with satisfactory short- and mid-term results.

Chatziioannou, A.; Mourikis, D.; Katsimilis, J.; Skiadas, V., E-mail: bill_skiadas@yahoo.gr; Koutoulidis, V.; Katsenis, K.; Vlahos, L. [University of Athens, Radiology Department, Areteion Hospital (Greece)

2007-04-15

148

Localized shocks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study products of precursors of spatially local operators, , where W x ( t) = e - iHt W x e iHt . Using chaotic spin-chain numerics and gauge/gravity duality, we show that a single precursor fills a spatial region that grows linearly in t. In a lattice system, products of such operators can be represented using tensor networks. In gauge/gravity duality, they are related to Einstein-Rosen bridges supported by localized shock waves. We find a geometrical correspondence between these two descriptions, generalizing earlier work in the spatially homogeneous case.

Roberts, Daniel A.; Stanford, Douglas; Susskind, Leonard

2015-03-01

149

Localized shocks  

E-print Network

We study products of precursors of spatially local operators, $W_{x_{n}}(t_{n}) ... W_{x_1}(t_1)$, where $W_x(t) = e^{-iHt} W_x e^{iHt}$. Using chaotic spin-chain numerics and gauge/gravity duality, we show that a single precursor fills a spatial region that grows linearly in $t$. In a lattice system, products of such operators can be represented using tensor networks. In gauge/gravity duality, they are related to Einstein-Rosen bridges supported by localized shock waves. We find a geometrical correspondence between these two descriptions, generalizing earlier work in the spatially homogeneous case.

Roberts, Daniel A; Susskind, Leonard

2014-01-01

150

Localized shocks  

E-print Network

We study products of precursors of spatially local operators, $W_{x_{n}}(t_{n}) ... W_{x_1}(t_1)$, where $W_x(t) = e^{-iHt} W_x e^{iHt}$. Using chaotic spin-chain numerics and gauge/gravity duality, we show that a single precursor fills a spatial region that grows linearly in $t$. In a lattice system, products of such operators can be represented using tensor networks. In gauge/gravity duality, they are related to Einstein-Rosen bridges supported by localized shock waves. We find a geometrical correspondence between these two descriptions, generalizing earlier work in the spatially homogeneous case.

Daniel A. Roberts; Douglas Stanford; Leonard Susskind

2015-02-11

151

Multiple shocks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using gauge/gravity duality, we explore a class of states of two CFTs with a large degree of entanglement, but with very weak local two-sided correlation. These states are constructed by perturbing the thermofield double state with thermal-scale operators that are local at different times. Acting on the dual black hole geometry, these perturbations create an intersecting network of shock waves, supporting a very long wormhole. Chaotic CFT dynamics and the associated fast scrambling time play an essential role in determining the qualitative features of the resulting geometries.

Shenker, Stephen H.; Stanford, Douglas

2014-12-01

152

Creep-rupture reliability analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A probabilistic approach to the correlation and extrapolation of creep-rupture data is presented. Time temperature parameters (TTP) are used to correlate the data, and an analytical expression for the master curve is developed. The expression provides a simple model for the statistical distribution of strength and fits neatly into a probabilistic design format. The analysis focuses on the Larson-Miller and on the Manson-Haferd parameters, but it can be applied to any of the TTP's. A method is developed for evaluating material dependent constants for TTP's. It is shown that optimized constants can provide a significant improvement in the correlation of the data, thereby reducing modelling error. Attempts were made to quantify the performance of the proposed method in predicting long term behavior. Uncertainty in predicting long term behavior from short term tests was derived for several sets of data. Examples are presented which illustrate the theory and demonstrate the application of state of the art reliability methods to the design of components under creep.

Peralta-Duran, A.; Wirsching, P. H.

1984-01-01

153

A piston-actuated shock-tube, with laser-Schlieren diagnostics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The essential construction features of a piston actuated shock tube are described, and its advantages relative to the conventional use of diaphragm ruptures for shock initiation are listed. Typical operational parameters are presented to illustrate the levels of reproducibility achieved. Tests with He and N2 drivers into about 99 percent Ar covered shock speeds from 1.539 +/- 0.002-0.8143 +/- 0.002 mm/microsec, corresponding to 2390-847 K incident shock temperatures. Application of this tube for recording postshock front density gradients of the endoergic dissociation of ethane and the exoergic condensation of iron atoms via the laser-Schlieren technique is described.

Hurst, S. M.; Bauer, S. H.

1993-01-01

154

Woman Health; Uterus Rupture, Its Complications and Management in Teaching Hospital Bannu, Pakistan  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Objectives: To evaluate risk factors, management, maternal and fetal outcomes of ruptured uterus at Women and Children Teaching Hospital Bannu, Pakistan. Study design: The prospective observational study was designed from January 2009 to December 2009. A total 64 patients were found with ruptured uterus evaluated in Women and Children Teaching Hospital Bannu, Pakistan. The aim of the study was to evaluate risk factors, management, maternal and fetal outcomes. Results: Frequency of ruptured uterus in hospital was found in 9/ 1000 deliveries, higher than most other studies. Amongst etiological factors the most important were great multiparity 27 (42.2%), injudicious use of Oxytocin 33 (51.6%), obstructed labour 8 (12.5%) and previous caesarean section 12 (18.8%). Of the total number of patients, 49 (76.6%) underwent abdominal hysterectomy (either subtotal or total), 3.1% of them needed bladder repair and 15.6% underwent repair of uterus. 5 (7.8%) died either due to irreversible shock or disseminated intravascular coagulation, 4% of patients had incontinence of urine, 53 (82.8%) of cases delivered dead babies and 9 (14.1%) had severe birth asphyxia needing neonatal intensive care. Conclusion: Uterine rupture is amongst the preventable obstetric complication that carries severe risks both to the mother as to the baby. Health education of people, training and supervision of health personal may reduce incidence especially in remote areas. PMID:23118819

QAZI, Qudsia; AKHTAR, Zubaida; KHAN, Kamran; KHAN, Amer Hayat

2012-01-01

155

Observation and Control of Shock Waves in Individual Nanoplasmas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using an apparatus that images the momentum distribution of individual, isolated 100-nm-scale plasmas, we make the first experimental observation of shock waves in nanoplasmas. We demonstrate that the introduction of a heating pulse prior to the main laser pulse increases the intensity of the shock wave, producing a strong burst of quasimonoenergetic ions with an energy spread of less than 15%. Numerical hydrodynamic calculations confirm the appearance of accelerating shock waves and provide a mechanism for the generation and control of these shock waves. This observation of distinct shock waves in dense plasmas enables the control, study, and exploitation of nanoscale shock phenomena with tabletop-scale lasers.

Hickstein, Daniel D.; Dollar, Franklin; Gaffney, Jim A.; Foord, Mark E.; Petrov, George M.; Palm, Brett B.; Keister, K. Ellen; Ellis, Jennifer L.; Ding, Chengyuan; Libby, Stephen B.; Jimenez, Jose L.; Kapteyn, Henry C.; Murnane, Margaret M.; Xiong, Wei

2014-03-01

156

The Diffusive Shock Acceleration Myth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is generally accepted that diffusive shock acceleration (DSA) is the dominant mechanism for particle acceleration at shocks. This is despite the overwhelming observational evidence that is contrary to predictions of DSA models. For example, our most recent survey of hourly-averaged, spin-averaged proton distribution functions around 61 locally observed shocks in 2001 at 1 AU found that in 21 cases no particles were accelerated. Spectral indices (? ) of suprathermal tails on the velocity distributions around the 40 shocks that did accelerate particles, showed none of the DSA-predicted correlations of ? with the shock compression ratio and the shock normal to magnetic field angle. Here we will present ACE/SWICS observations of three sets of 72 consecutive one-hour averaged velocity distributions (in each of 8 SWICS spin sectors). Each set includes passage of one or more shocks or strong compression regions. All spectra were properly transformed to the solar wind frame using the detailed, updated SWICS forward model, taking into account the hourly-averaged directions of the solar wind flow, the magnetic field and the ACE spin axis (http://www.srl.caltech.edu/ACE/ASC/). The suprathermal tails are observed to be a combination of locally accelerated and remote tails. The local tails are power laws. The remote tails are also power laws with rollovers at higher energies. When local tails are weak (as is the case especially upstream of strong shocks or compression regions) the remote tails also have a rollover at low energies due to modulation (transport effects). Among our main findings are that (1) the spectral indices of both the local and remote tails are -5 within the uncertainties of the measurements, as predicted by our pump acceleration mechanism, and (2) the velocity distributions are anisotropic with the perpendicular (to the magnetic field) pressure greater than the parallel pressure.

Gloeckler, G.; Fisk, L. A.

2012-12-01

157

Spontaneous common iliac arteries rupture in Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type IV: report of two cases and review of the literature.  

PubMed Central

Two patients with previously undiagnosed Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type IV (EDS IV) presented acutely with clinical features suggestive of hypovolemic shock. Emergency laparotomies in both of them revealed spontaneous rupture of the common iliac arteries. The clinical features, operative findings, surgical approach, outcome and implications are discussed. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:11320937

Habib, K.; Memon, M. A.; Reid, D. A.; Fairbrother, B. J.

2001-01-01

158

The Great 1933 Sanriku-oki Earthquake: Possible Compound Rupture of Outer Trench Slope and Triggered Interplate Seismicity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 1933 Sanriku-oki earthquake offshore northern Honshu, Japan (Mw8.4) is the largest earthquake that occurred outer-rise/outer-trench-slope region. The spatial extent of the aftershocks and possibility of a triggered seismicity was estimated by using modern relocation method and velocity structure. Land-station based hypocenter determination by using 3D velocity structure was firstly applied to the off-Sanriku, near-trench region where systematic hypocenter shifts are recognized in the previous studies. The improvement of hypocenter locations near the trench were confirmed by examinations of recent earthquakes that are accurately located based on OBS data. The earthquakes after the 1933 Sanriku-oki earthquake are located about 200 km long region under the outer trench slope that is separated from the aftershock seismicity under the inner trench slope. The outer-trench-slope earthquakes are shallow (depth <=50km) and has V-shape distribution in the trench-normal cross-section. The aftershock distribution suggests shallow rupture area and possibly a compound rupture for the 1933 main shock. We found the V-shaped compound rupture model explains better the polarity of Tsunami waves at the Sanriku coast than a single west dipping fault. This indicates that the whole lithosphere is probably not under deviatoric tension at the time of the 1933 earthquake. The occurrence of aftershocks both in outer- and inner trench slope regions was confirmed by the investigation of dominant wave frequency which is seen in the recent precisely located earthquakes in the two regions (Gamage et al., 2009). The earthquakes under the inner trench slope were shallow (depth <=30km) and located where recent activity of interplate thrust earthquakes is high. This suggests the deformation of the 1933 outer-rise earthquake triggered the interplate earthquakes. Recent (2001-2012) seismicity around the source area by the same method show the seismicity at the outer trench-slope region of northern Honshu can be divided into several groups of earthquakes along the trench; one group roughly corresponds to the aftershock region of the 1933 earthquake. Comparison of the 1933 rupture dimension based on our relocations with the morphologies of fault scarps in the outer trench slope suggest that the rupture was limited by the region where fault scarps are trench parallel and cross cutting seafloor spreading fabric. These suggest bending and structural segmentation largely controls the horizontal and vertical extent of the fault. The re-examined aftershock distribution in this study provides a constraint on the stress state of the subducting plate and water supply to deep earth. They also suggest triggered of interplate seismicity that imply the outer rise /outer trench slope earthquake is closely involved in the earthquake cycle of interplate earthquake.

Uchida, N.; Kirby, S. H.; Umino, N.; Hino, R.; Okal, E. A.

2013-12-01

159

A case of abdominal apoplexy because of the rupture of the short gastric vessel.  

PubMed

Abdominal apoplexy or idiopathic spontaneous intraperitoneal haemorrhage is defined as the presence of free blood within the peritoneal cavity. Non-traumatic and non-iatrogenic causes may cause abdominal apoplexy. It has a variable clinical presentation, with abdominal pain being an early and non-specific symptom. We report a rare case of a 23-year-old male with abdominal apoplexy because of rupture of the short gastric artery. He presented to our department with abdominal pain. Later, he developed signs of shock, and was found to have haemoperitoneum on laparotomy. We ligated the short gastric artery, which was the bleeding source, and he had an uneventful postoperative course. We also review the literature on existing cases of short gastric vessel rupture. PMID:25759171

Osunkunle, Olaoluwakitan A; Al-Shoek, Ihsan

2015-01-01

160

A case of abdominal apoplexy because of the rupture of the short gastric vessel  

PubMed Central

Abdominal apoplexy or idiopathic spontaneous intraperitoneal haemorrhage is defined as the presence of free blood within the peritoneal cavity. Non-traumatic and non-iatrogenic causes may cause abdominal apoplexy. It has a variable clinical presentation, with abdominal pain being an early and non-specific symptom. We report a rare case of a 23-year-old male with abdominal apoplexy because of rupture of the short gastric artery. He presented to our department with abdominal pain. Later, he developed signs of shock, and was found to have haemoperitoneum on laparotomy. We ligated the short gastric artery, which was the bleeding source, and he had an uneventful postoperative course. We also review the literature on existing cases of short gastric vessel rupture. PMID:25759171

Osunkunle, Olaoluwakitan A.; Al-Shoek, Ihsan

2015-01-01

161

Kinematic Rupture Process Of Karakocan-Elazig Earthquake, Eastern Turkey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An earthquake (Mw=5.9) hit Elazig in the eastern part of Turkey on March 8, 2010 at 02:32 (GMT). It is located midway between the provincial capital of Elaz?? and Bingöl with coordinates reported as 38o48.42N and 40o5.99E by Bogazici University Kandilli Observatory and Earthquake Research Institute (KOERI). Source characterization and slip history were estimated the main and four moderate size earthquake almost at the same location. The earthquake occurred at one of the tectonically very active East Anatolian Fault zone starts at the Karl?ova triple junction, where it meets the North Anatolian fault to the NE. Multi time-window linear waveform inversion technique (MTWIT) was applied to strong ground motion (SGM) data. Theoretical Green's functions between subfaults and stations were calculated by a Discrete Wave Number Method (DWNM) using 1-D velocity structure. Inversion technique used in this study yields a non unique solution. Therefore various rupture models have been tried until both observed and synthetic data were matched. Results show simple patterns in slip distributions. Maximum slip is 0.78 and seismic moment is 1.435E+25 dyne.cm from the kinematic rupture process of the strike slip faulting. In this study, we searched a stable 1-D crustal velocity model with low RMS misfit to construct the theoretical Green's function between each sub-fault and each station among the 4 different models. These are Preliminary Reference Earth Model (PREM; Dziewonski and Anderson, 1981), International Association of Seismology and the Physics of the Earth's Interior (IASP91) (Kennett and Engdahl, 1991), Kandilli Observatory and Earthquake Research Institute (KOERI) earthquake location model, explosion model (Gurbuz, 2004). We have collected previous studies Rebollar et al., (2001), Ichinose et al., (1997), Abdel-Fattah (2002), Somerville et al., (1999), Wells and Coppersmith (1994) on source information of moderate size earthquakes occurred worldwide and compared with our results. Results were compared with those of similar size earthquakes around the world and a new empirical relationship was proposed between seismic moment and rupture area. We expect our findings provide usefull information to resolving rupture mechanisms and triggering of the events in Eastern Anatoion Region. Key Words: Rupture Process, Elazig Earthquake, Eastern Turkey

Bekler, F. N.; Ozel, N. M.; Tanircan, G. B.

2012-04-01

162

General Considerations of Ruptured Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm: Ruptured Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm  

PubMed Central

Although development of surgical technique and critical care, ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm still carries a high mortality. In order to obtain good results, various efforts have been attempted. This paper reviews initial management of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm and discuss the key point open surgical repair and endovascular aneurysm repair. PMID:25705591

Lee, Chung Won; Bae, Miju; Chung, Sung Woon

2015-01-01

163

Violent Reactions from Non-Shock Stimuli  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most reactions are thermally initiated, whether from direct heating or dissipation of energy from mechanical, shock, or electrical stimuli. For other than prompt shock initiation, the reaction must spread through porosity or over large surface area to become more violent than just rupturing any confinement. While burning rates are important, high-strain mechanical properties are nearly so, either by reducing existing porosity or generating additional surface area through fracture. In studies of deflagration-to-detonation transition (DDT), it has been shown that reaction violence is reduced if the binder is softened, either by raising the initial temperature or adding a solvent. In studies of cavity collapse in explosives, those with soft rubber binders will deform and undergo mild reaction whereas those with stiff binders will fracture and generate additional surface area for a violent event.

Sandusky, H. W.; Granholm, R. H.

2007-12-01

164

Main Report  

PubMed Central

Background: States vary widely in their use of newborn screening tests, with some mandating screening for as few as three conditions and others mandating as many as 43 conditions, including varying numbers of the 40+ conditions that can be detected by tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). There has been no national guidance on the best candidate conditions for newborn screening since the National Academy of Sciences report of 19751 and the United States Congress Office of Technology Assessment report of 1988,2 despite rapid developments since then in genetics, in screening technologies, and in some treatments. Objectives: In 2002, the Maternal and Child Health Bureau (MCHB) of the Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) of the United States Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) commissioned the American College of Medical Genetics (ACMG) to: Conduct an analysis of the scientific literature on the effectiveness of newborn screening.Gather expert opinion to delineate the best evidence for screening for specified conditions and develop recommendations focused on newborn screening, including but not limited to the development of a uniform condition panel.Consider other components of the newborn screening system that are critical to achieving the expected outcomes in those screened. Methods: A group of experts in various areas of subspecialty medicine and primary care, health policy, law, public health, and consumers worked with a steering committee and several expert work groups, using a two-tiered approach to assess and rank conditions. A first step was developing a set of principles to guide the analysis. This was followed by developing criteria by which conditions could be evaluated, and then identifying the conditions to be evaluated. A large and broadly representative group of experts was asked to provide their opinions on the extent to which particular conditions met the selected criteria, relying on supporting evidence and references from the scientific literature. The criteria were distributed among three main categories for each condition: The availability and characteristics of the screening test;The availability and complexity of diagnostic services; andThe availability and efficacy of treatments related to the conditions. A survey process utilizing a data collection instrument was used to gather expert opinion on the conditions in the first tier of the assessment. The data collection format and survey provided the opportunity to quantify expert opinion and to obtain the views of a diverse set of interest groups (necessary due to the subjective nature of some of the criteria). Statistical analysis of data produced a score for each condition, which determined its ranking and initial placement in one of three categories (high scoring, moderately scoring, or low scoring/absence of a newborn screening test). In the second tier of these analyses, the evidence base related to each condition was assessed in depth (e.g., via systematic reviews of reference lists including MedLine, PubMed and others; books; Internet searches; professional guidelines; clinical evidence; and cost/economic evidence and modeling). The fact sheets reflecting these analyses were evaluated by at least two acknowledged experts for each condition. These experts assessed the data and the associated references related to each criterion and provided corrections where appropriate, assigned a value to the level of evidence and the quality of the studies that established the evidence base, and determined whether there were significant variances from the survey data. Survey results were subsequently realigned with the evidence obtained from the scientific literature during the second-tier analysis for all objective criteria, based on input from at least three acknowledged experts in each condition. The information from these two tiers of assessment was then considered with regard to the overriding principles and other technology or condition-specific recommendations. On the basis of this information, conditions were assigned to one of thr

2006-01-01

165

Experimental investigation of shock metamorphic effects in a metapelitic granulite: The importance of shock impedance contrast between components  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

main">Abstract-Shock</span> recovery experiments were performed at 12.5, 25, 34, 40, and 56 GPa at 25 °C, and at 18 and 25 GPa at 400 °C, on a high-grade, migmatitic, garnet-cordierite metapelite from the Etivé aureole, Scotland. Objectives for this study were to (1) characterize <span class="hlt">shock</span> effects in a complex polymineralic rock with a significant proportion of hydrous ferromagnesian minerals, both as a function of variable <span class="hlt">shock</span> pressure and preshock temperature, and (2) to explore the effects of <span class="hlt">shock</span> impedance contrast between component minerals on the respective abundances and distribution of these features. At any <span class="hlt">shock</span> pressure, the order of decreasing intensity of <span class="hlt">shock</span> metamorphic effects in component phases is: cordierite (Crd)?biotite (Bt)?plagioclase (Pl)?K-feldspar (Kfs)?quartz (Qtz)?garnet (Grt)?orthopyroxene (Opx). Samples <span class="hlt">shocked</span> to pressures below 40 GPa (25 °C) were typically characterized by marked heterogeneous distribution of <span class="hlt">shock</span> effects on both intragranular and intergranular scales. <span class="hlt">Shock</span> heterogeneity is <span class="hlt">mainly</span> attributed to <span class="hlt">shock</span> impedance contrast between contiguous phases, and manifests as <span class="hlt">shock</span> amplification locally where <span class="hlt">shock</span> impedance contrast is greatest, and <span class="hlt">shock</span> suppression where impedance contrast is least. The heterogeneous distribution of <span class="hlt">shock</span> metamorphic effects in both experiments and natural rocks is a signature of extreme disequilibrium at the submillimeter scale. The heterogeneous distribution of <span class="hlt">shock</span> metamorphic effects mitigates against the use of <span class="hlt">shock</span> effects in minerals exclusively as regional <span class="hlt">shock</span> pressure barometers, and ought to be augmented by additional constraints on <span class="hlt">shock</span> pressure from numerical models.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ogilvie, Paula; Gibson, Roger L.; Reimold, W. Uwe; Deutsch, Alexander; Hornemann, Ulrich</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">166</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ldeo.columbia.edu/~shaw/publications/Shaw13b.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Appendix E--Evaluation of Magnitude-Scaling Relationships and Depth of <span class="hlt">Rupture</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Appendix E--Evaluation of Magnitude-Scaling Relationships and Depth of <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> By Bruce E. Shaw1 Group on California Earthquake Probabilities, 2008), magnitude-area scaling relations were one of Recommendations A thorough study was made of the two <span class="hlt">main</span> uses of magnitude-area relations: to calculate</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Shaw, Bruce E.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">167</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://hal.inria.fr/docs/00/24/57/64/PDF/ajp-rphysap_1988_23_3_213_0.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Analyse micromcanique de la <span class="hlt">rupture</span> des composites cramiques P. Prs, L. Anquez et J. Jamet</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The fracture mechanic analysis of a basic ceramic-ceramic composite (filament + coating) is based on two <span class="hlt">main</span> of the matrix explain the non linear behaviour of such composites. They are discussed in relation213 Analyse micromécanique de la <span class="hlt">rupture</span> des composites céramiques P. Pérès, L. Anquez et J. Jamet</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Boyer, Edmond</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">168</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23622472"> <span id="translatedtitle">Acoustic levels of heavy truck tire <span class="hlt">ruptures</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Transportation vehicles, whether they are passenger vehicles or heavy trucks and transport vehicles, rely upon rubber tires to negotiate the roadways and surfaces on which they are driven. These tires have the potential of sudden <span class="hlt">rupture</span> resulting from various causes including but not limited to over-pressurization, sidewall failures, or punctures from roadway debris. These <span class="hlt">rupture</span> events can and do occur while the vehicles are stationary (e.g., during servicing) or are being driven, and often occur without notice. While the phenomenon of sudden tire failure has been documented for several decades, the potential bodily injury which can occur when an individual is in close proximity to such a sudden <span class="hlt">rupture</span> has only more recently been documented. Aside from anecdotal mention in case studies, there has been little quantitative information available on the acoustic levels during these failures. Our study provides measured acoustic levels as a function of distance for such catastrophic tire failures. PMID:23622472</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wood, Matthew; Woodruff, William</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">169</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4299364"> <span id="translatedtitle">Emergency endovascular management of the common femoral artery <span class="hlt">rupture</span> due to radiotherapy for scrotal carcinoma</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We describe the case of a 72-year-old man with massive hemorrhage and <span class="hlt">shock</span> resulting from <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of the left common femoral artery as a complication of radiotherapy in the groin for cancer of the scrotum. This complication is extremely rare, presents dramatically, and is usually fatal. The patient was successfully treated with a stent graft deployment in order to achieve immediate hemostasis maintaining blood flow to the leg. Open surgery is not ideal in those cases especially when there is extensive tumor involvement of the groin causing altered anatomy and increasing the risk of re-bleeding. PMID:25610613</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Merola, Giovanni; del Guercio, Luca; Sodo, Maurizio; Maria Giribono, Anna; Bracale, Umberto</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2015-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">170</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.9854C"> <span id="translatedtitle">Analytic Study of Three-Dimensional <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> Propagation in Strike-Slip Faulting with Analogue Models</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Strike-slip faults are high angle (or nearly vertical) fractures where the blocks have moved along strike way (nearly horizontal). Overburden soil profiles across <span class="hlt">main</span> faults of Strike-slip faults have revealed the palm and tulip structure characteristics. McCalpin (2005) has trace <span class="hlt">rupture</span> propagation on overburden soil surface. In this study, we used different offset of slip sandbox model profiles to study the evolution of three-dimensional <span class="hlt">rupture</span> propagation by strike -slip faulting. In strike-slip faults model, type of <span class="hlt">rupture</span> propagation and width of shear zone (W) are primary affecting by depth of overburden layer (H), distances of fault slip (Sy). There are few research to trace of three-dimensional <span class="hlt">rupture</span> behavior and propagation. Therefore, in this simplified sandbox model, investigate <span class="hlt">rupture</span> propagation and shear zone with profiles across <span class="hlt">main</span> faults when formation are affecting by depth of overburden layer and distances of fault slip. The investigators at the model included width of shear zone, length of <span class="hlt">rupture</span> (L), angle of <span class="hlt">rupture</span> (?) and space of <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. The surface results was follow the literature that the evolution sequence of failure envelope was R-faults, P-faults and Y-faults which are parallel to the basement fault. Comparison surface and profiles structure which were curved faces and cross each other to define 3-D <span class="hlt">rupture</span> and width of shear zone. We found that an increase in fault slip could result in a greater width of shear zone, and proposed a W/H versus Sy/H relationship. Deformation of shear zone showed a similar trend as in the literature that the increase of fault slip resulted in the increase of W, however, the increasing trend became opposite after a peak (when Sy/H was 1) value of W was reached (small than 1.5). The results showed that the W width is limited at a constant value in 3-D models by strike-slip faulting. In conclusion, this study helps evaluate the extensions of the shear zone influenced regions for strike-slip faults.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Chan, Pei-Chen; Chu, Sheng-Shin; Lin, Ming-Lang</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">171</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10191106"> <span id="translatedtitle">Consequences of expansion joint bellows <span class="hlt">rupture</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Expansion joints are used in piping systems to accommodate pipe deflections during service and to facilitate fitup. Typically, the expansion joint bellows is the thinnest part of the pressure boundary, bellows <span class="hlt">rupture</span> frequencies are typically several orders of magnitude higher than pipe <span class="hlt">rupture</span> frequencies. This paper reviews an effort to estimate the flow rates associated with bellows <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. The Level I PRA (probabilistic risk assessment) for the Savannah River Site production reactors made the bounding assumption that bellows <span class="hlt">rupture</span> would produce the maximum possible leakage - that of a double-ended guillotine break (DEGB). This assumption resulted in predictions of flooding of the reactor building with a high conditional probability that a Loss of Pumping Accident and core melting would follow. This paper describes analyses that were performed to develop a realistic break area and leak rate resulting from bellows <span class="hlt">rupture</span> and therefore reduce the impact that bellows <span class="hlt">rupture</span> can have on the estimated total core melt frequency. In the event of a 360 degree circumferential break of the bellows the resulting two sections will separate to the point where the force from the internal pressure acting to push the bellows open is just balanced by the spring force of the bellows itself. For the bellows addressed in this analysis, the equilibrium separation distance is 0.7 inches with normal pump lineup. The opening area is influenced by any initial compression or extension due to installation alignment, and by any operational displacements such as thermal expansion of the adjoining pipe. The influence of such factors is considered and the impact on the flooding rate and, hence, core melt frequency is reviewed.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Daugherty, W.L.; Miller, R.F.; Cramer, D.S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1992-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">172</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6862348"> <span id="translatedtitle">Consequences of expansion joint bellows <span class="hlt">rupture</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Expansion joints are used in piping systems to accommodate pipe deflections during service and to facilitate fitup. Typically, the expansion joint bellows is the thinnest part of the pressure boundary, bellows <span class="hlt">rupture</span> frequencies are typically several orders of magnitude higher than pipe <span class="hlt">rupture</span> frequencies. This paper reviews an effort to estimate the flow rates associated with bellows <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. The Level I PRA (probabilistic risk assessment) for the Savannah River Site production reactors made the bounding assumption that bellows <span class="hlt">rupture</span> would produce the maximum possible leakage - that of a double-ended guillotine break (DEGB). This assumption resulted in predictions of flooding of the reactor building with a high conditional probability that a Loss of Pumping Accident and core melting would follow. This paper describes analyses that were performed to develop a realistic break area and leak rate resulting from bellows <span class="hlt">rupture</span> and therefore reduce the impact that bellows <span class="hlt">rupture</span> can have on the estimated total core melt frequency. In the event of a 360 degree circumferential break of the bellows the resulting two sections will separate to the point where the force from the internal pressure acting to push the bellows open is just balanced by the spring force of the bellows itself. For the bellows addressed in this analysis, the equilibrium separation distance is 0.7 inches with normal pump lineup. The opening area is influenced by any initial compression or extension due to installation alignment, and by any operational displacements such as thermal expansion of the adjoining pipe. The influence of such factors is considered and the impact on the flooding rate and, hence, core melt frequency is reviewed.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Daugherty, W.L.; Miller, R.F.; Cramer, D.S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1992-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">173</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4387153"> <span id="translatedtitle">Thoracic Outlet Syndrome Following Breast Implant <span class="hlt">Rupture</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Summary: We present a patient with bilateral breast implant <span class="hlt">rupture</span> who developed severe locoregional silicone granulomatous lymphadenopathy. Poly Implant Prothese silicone implants had been used for bilateral breast augmentation 5 years prior. Extracapsular implant <span class="hlt">rupture</span> and bilateral axillary lymphadenopathy indicated explantation, capsulectomy, and selective lymph node excision. Histology demonstrated silicone lymphadenopathy with no evidence of malignancy. Over the subsequent 12 months, she developed progressive locoregional lymphadenopathy involving bilateral cervical, axillary, and internal mammary groups, resulting in bilateral thoracic outlet syndrome. We report the unusual presentation, progression, and the ultimate surgical management of this patient. PMID:25878942</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Caplash, Yugesh; Giri, Pratyush; Kearney, Daniel; Wagstaff, Marcus</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2015-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">174</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006EP%26S...58.1587U"> <span id="translatedtitle">Revisiting the three M~7 Miyagi-oki earthquakes in the 1930s: possible seismogenic slip on asperities that were re-<span class="hlt">ruptured</span> during the 1978 M=7.4 Miyagi-oki earthquake</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Hypocenters of <span class="hlt">main</span> <span class="hlt">shocks</span> and aftershocks of the 1933 M=7.1, 1936 M=7.4, 1937 M=7.1 and 1978 M=7.4 Miyagi-oki earthquakes are relocated using S-P times reported in the Seismological Bulletin of the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) and those re-read from original smoked-paper seismograms observed at the Mizusawa station of the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ) and the Mukaiyama station of Tohoku University. In order to reduce the error caused by inaccuracies of the arrival times and the small number of seismic observation stations, we determined the hypocenters by using a grid search method that assumed that the events occurred at the boundary between the subducting Pacific plate and the overriding plate. The <span class="hlt">main</span> <span class="hlt">shock</span> epicenters of these four earthquakes were determined to be close to each other, while the distributions of their aftershocks seem to disperse on the upper boundary of the Pacific plate. These distributions show that aftershock areas of the 1933, 1936 and 1937 events partly overlap with that of the 1978 event and occupy its easternmost, central and westernmost portions, respectively. This result suggests that the 1933, 1936 and 1937 events possibly <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> a part of the source area of the 1978 event, i.e., its eastern, central and western portions, respectively.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Umino, N.; Kono, T.; Okada, T.; Nakajima, J.; Matsuzawa, T.; Uchida, N.; Hasegawa, A.; Tamura, Y.; Aoki, G.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">175</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://escholarship.org/uc/item/8246h4g5?query=seismic+AND+mapping"> <span id="translatedtitle">Earthquake Early Warning and the Physics of Earthquake <span class="hlt">Rupture</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">mapping or other) data, and (c) inversions incorporating both seismic andseismic, teleseismic, trilateration, leveling, GPS, InSAR, surface <span class="hlt">rupture</span> mapping,<span class="hlt">rupture</span> mapping and other data. In other words, “seismic”</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wurman, Gilead</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">176</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EP%26S...66..101T"> <span id="translatedtitle">Source <span class="hlt">rupture</span> process of the 2011 Fukushima-ken Hamadori earthquake: how did the two subparallel faults <span class="hlt">rupture</span>?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The 2011 Fukushima-ken Hamadori earthquake (MW 6.6) occurred about a month after the 2011 Great Tohoku earthquake (MW 9.0), and it is thought to have been induced by the 2011 Tohoku earthquake. After the 2011 Hamadori earthquake, two subparallel faults (the Itozawa and Yunodake faults) were identified by field surveys. The hypocenter was located nearby the Itozawa fault, and it is probable that the Itozawa fault <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> before the Yunodake fault <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. Here, we estimated the source <span class="hlt">rupture</span> process of the 2011 Hamadori earthquake using a model with two subparallel faults based on strong motion data. The <span class="hlt">rupture</span> starting point and <span class="hlt">rupture</span> delay time of the Yunodake fault were determined based on Akaike's Bayesian Information Criterion (ABIC). The results show that the Yunodake fault started to <span class="hlt">rupture</span> from the northern deep point 4.5 s after the Itozawa fault started to <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. The estimated slip distribution in the shallow part is consistent with the surface slip distribution identified by field surveys. Time-dependent Coulomb failure function changes (?CFF) were calculated using the stress change from the Itozawa fault <span class="hlt">rupture</span> in order to evaluate the effect of the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> on the Yunodake fault. The ?CFF is positive at the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> starting point of the Yunodake fault 4.5 s after the Itozawa fault started to <span class="hlt">rupture</span>; therefore, it is concluded that during the 2011 Hamadori earthquake, the Yunodake fault <span class="hlt">rupture</span> was triggered by the Itozawa fault <span class="hlt">rupture</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Tanaka, Miho; Asano, Kimiyuki; Iwata, Tomotaka; Kubo, Hisahiko</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">177</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AAS...21813405D"> <span id="translatedtitle">Radiative <span class="hlt">Shock</span> Waves In Emerging <span class="hlt">Shocks</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In laboratory experiments we produce radiative <span class="hlt">shock</span> waves having dense, thin shells. These <span class="hlt">shocks</span> are similar to <span class="hlt">shocks</span> emerging from optically thick environments in astrophysics in that they are strongly radiative with optically thick <span class="hlt">shocked</span> layers and optically thin or intermediate downstream layers through which radiation readily escapes. Examples include <span class="hlt">shocks</span> breaking out of a Type II supernova (SN) and the radiative reverse <span class="hlt">shock</span> during the early phases of the SN remnant produced by a red supergiant star. We produce these <span class="hlt">shocks</span> by driving a low-Z plasma piston (Be) at > 100 km/s into Xe gas at 1.1 atm. pressure. The <span class="hlt">shocked</span> Xe collapses to > 20 times its initial density. Measurements of structure by radiography and temperature by several methods confirm that the <span class="hlt">shock</span> wave is strongly radiative. We observe small-scale perturbations in the post-<span class="hlt">shock</span> layer, modulating the <span class="hlt">shock</span> and material interfaces. We describe a variation of the Vishniac instability theory of decelerating <span class="hlt">shocks</span> and an analysis of associated scaling relations to account for the growth of these perturbations, identify how they scale to astrophysical systems such as SN 1993J, and consider possible future experiments. Collaborators in this work have included H.F. Robey, J.P. Hughes, C.C. Kuranz, C.M. Huntington, S.H. Glenzer, T. Doeppner, D.H. Froula, M.J. Grosskopf, and D.C. Marion ________________________________ * Supported by the US DOE NNSA under the Predictive Sci. Academic Alliance Program by grant DE-FC52-08NA28616, the Stewardship Sci. Academic Alliances program by grant DE-FG52-04NA00064, and the Nat. Laser User Facility by grant DE-FG03-00SF22021.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Drake, R. Paul; Doss, F.; Visco, A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">178</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014CTGeo...3....1B"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Shock</span> Structures in The Morasko Meteorite - Preliminary SEM Data</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper is a preliminary review of <span class="hlt">main</span> <span class="hlt">shock</span> deformations in the Morasko meteorite. Three <span class="hlt">main</span> types of metamorphism structures occur in the investigated material: (i) brittle, (ii) plastic and (iii) thermal. Their interpretation may indicate, that Morasko meteorite reveals several stages of <span class="hlt">shock</span>, eg.: extraterrestrial collisions and fall on the Earth</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Brachaniec, Tomasz</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">179</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/32014625"> <span id="translatedtitle">Progress in the treatment of <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> abdominal aortic aneurysm</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This report summarizes the clinical, pathological, and surgical aspects of <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> abdominal aortic aneurysm. The significant\\u000a risk of <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of these aneurysms is well documented. Although large aneurysms are more prone to <span class="hlt">rupture</span>, the risk of <span class="hlt">rupture</span>\\u000a of small aneurysms less than 4 cm in diameter is well established. While most aneurysms are a result of atherosclerosis, a\\u000a small number</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gerald M. Lawrie; E. Stanley Crawford; George C. Morris; Jimmy F. Howell</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1980-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">180</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25362341"> <span id="translatedtitle">Star polymers <span class="hlt">rupture</span> induced by constant forces.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this work, we study the breakage process of an unknotted three-arm star-shaped polymer when it is pulled from its free ends by a constant force. The star polymer configuration is described through an array of monomers coupled by anharmonic bonds, while the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> process is tracked in three-dimensional space by means of Langevin Molecular Dynamics simulations. The interaction between monomers is described by a Morse potential, while a Weeks-Chandler-Anderson energetic contribution accounts for the excluded volume interaction. We explore the effect of the molecular architecture on the distributions of <span class="hlt">rupture</span> times over a broad interval of pulling forces and star configurations. It was found that the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> time distribution of the individual star arms is strongly affected by the star configuration imposed by the pulling forces and the length of the arms. We also observed that for large pulling forces the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> time distributions resemble the dominant features observed for linear polymer chains. The model introduced here provides the basic ingredients to describe the effects of tensile forces on stress-induced degradation of branched macromolecules and polymer networks. PMID:25362341</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">García, N A; Febbo, M; Vega, D A; Milchev, A</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-10-28</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> 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onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">181</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3727204"> <span id="translatedtitle">Surgical Resection of <span class="hlt">Ruptured</span> Fibrolamellar Hepatocellular Carcinoma</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma (FLH) is a rare primary tumor of the liver, which typically arises from noncirrhotic livers and affects patients below the age of 35. We report on a 29-year-old male patient who presented with a <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> FLH and was treated with surgical resection. Options for treatment and review of the management are described. PMID:23956918</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Minutolo, Vincenzo; Licciardello, Alessio; Arena, Manuel; Minutolo, Orazio; Lanteri, Raffaele; Arena, Goffredo</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">182</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21675627"> <span id="translatedtitle">Laparoscopic splenectomy for atraumatic splenic <span class="hlt">rupture</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A traumatic splenic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> (ASR) is a rare clinical entity. Several underlying benign and malignant conditions have been described as a leading cause. We report on a case of ASR in a 41-year-old man treated with laparoscopic splenectomy. Considering ASR as a life-threatening condition, a prompt diagnosis can be life saving. PMID:21675627</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Grossi, Ugo; Crucitti, Antonio; D'Amato, Gerardo; Mazzari, Andrea; Tomaiuolo, Pasquina M C; Cavicchioni, Camillo; Bellantone, Rocco</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">183</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://gallery.usgs.gov/photos/09_28_2010_otk7Nay4LH_09_28_2010_1"> <span id="translatedtitle">Surface <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> in Northwest Saudi Arabia</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://gallery.usgs.gov/">USGS Multimedia Gallery</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Wendy McCausland of the USGS Volcano Disaster Assistance Program and Hani Zahran of the Saudi Geological Survey view the southern end of the surface fault <span class="hlt">rupture</span> caused by a M5.4 earthquake in the Saudi Arabian desert on May 19, 2009. The ground displacements in the soft sediments of the foreground...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">184</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.data.scec.org/Module/s1act03.html"> <span id="translatedtitle">What Is an Earthquake?: <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> Models</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this activity, the learner will watch three animations based on actual data from fault <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> from the two largest Southern California earthquakes in the 1990s: Landers (1992) and Northridge (1994). In Section 3, the learner will discover more about how such data is collected and analyzed.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">185</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.agu.org/journals/jb/v077/i011/JB077i011p02087/JB077i011p02087.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Rupture</span> Zones of Large South American Earthquakes and Some Predictions</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This study attempts to forecast likely locations for large shallow South American earthquakes in the near future by examining the past space-time pattern of occurrence of large (M _ 7.7) earthquakes, the lateral extent of their <span class="hlt">rupture</span> zones, and, where possible, the direction of <span class="hlt">rupture</span> propagation. <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> zones of large shallow earthquakes generally abut and do not overlap. Patterns of</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">John A. Kelleher</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1972-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">186</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4268758"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Ruptured</span> rectal duplication with urogenital abnormality: Unusual presentation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Rectal duplication (RD) accounts for 5% of alimentary tract duplication. A varied presentation and associated anomalies have been described in the literature. Antenatal <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of the RD is very rare. We present an unusual case of a <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> RD associated with urogenital abnormalities in newborn male. We are discussing diagnosis, embryology, management and literature review of <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> RD. PMID:25552833</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Solanki, Shailesh; Babu, M Narendra; Jadhav, Vinay; Shankar, Gowri; Santhanakrishnan, Ramesh</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2015-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">187</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/46497545"> <span id="translatedtitle">Creep and <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of an ods alloy with high stress <span class="hlt">rupture</span> ductility</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The creep and stress <span class="hlt">rupture</span> properties of an oxide (Y2O3) dispersion strengthened nickel-base alloy, which also is strengthened by ?? precipitates, was studied at 760 °C and 1093\\u000a °C. At both temperatures the alloy YDNiCrAl exhibits unusually high stress <span class="hlt">rupture</span> ductility as measured by both elongation\\u000a and reduction in area. Failure was transgranular, and different modes of failure were observed</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mona E. McAlarney; Richard M. Arons; Tim E. Howson; John K. Tien; Sanford Baranow</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1982-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">188</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/52710661"> <span id="translatedtitle">Creep and <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of an ods alloy with high stress <span class="hlt">rupture</span> ductility</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The creep and stress <span class="hlt">rupture</span> properties of an oxide (Y2O3) dispersion strengthened nickel-base alloy, which also is strengthened by gamma' precipitates, was studied at 760 °C and 1093 °C. At both temperatures the alloy YDNiCrAl exhibits unusually high stress <span class="hlt">rupture</span> ductility as measured by both elongation and reduction in area. Failure was transgranular, and different modes of failure were observed</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mona E. McAlarney; Richard M. Arons; Tim E. Howson; John K. Tien; Sanford Baranow</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1982-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">189</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFM.S51C1444L"> <span id="translatedtitle">Stress triggering in en echelon thrust <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> and related tear faults: The 2003 M=6.9 Zemmouri, Algeria, earthquake and fault interactions</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The contractional tectonics of northern Algeria is characterized by a series of en echelon thrust faults of moderate lengths (Meghraoui et al., 2000). This tectonic deformation pattern is similar in geometry to other continental thrust fault systems, such as the Coalinga-Kettleman Hills faults in central California, but differs significantly from that of subduction zones, where thrust segments are often more geometrically continuous along the strike of subduction zones. In this study we first illustrate the essential features of stress interaction between earthquakes occurring on en echelon thrust faults and adjacent tear faults. Our model results reveal that earthquakes on en echelon thrust segments could significantly promote strike-slip motion on the intervening tear faults. Furthermore, if the source earthquake has mixed thrust and strike-slip components, the resultant stress increases on the tear faults are even greater. Thus, tear faults may play an important role in stress transfer between adjacent thrust segments. We next examine the stress transferred by the 2003 M=6.9 Zemmouri quake to nearby thrust and strike-slip faults in northern Algeria. Mahsas et al. (2008) illustrated that the observed afterslip in 2003-2005 appears to be concentrated at the upper parts of the 2003 Zemmouri <span class="hlt">rupture</span> surface. Our calculations support the hypothesis that a significant portion (more than 75%) of the observed afterslip area might have experienced Coulomb stress increases during the Zemmouri <span class="hlt">main</span> <span class="hlt">shock</span>. Calculations further reveal that the majority (more than 90%) of the 30 best-relocated aftershocks as determined by Ayadi et al. (2008) also sustained Coulomb stress increases on at least one of their nodal planes. Finally, we calculated that the Zemmouri <span class="hlt">main</span> <span class="hlt">shock</span> brought the Coulomb stress 1 bar closer to failure on the adjacent Boumerdes reverse fault and 0.5 bars closer on the right-lateral Thenia faults that bound the Mitidja basin. Both of these faults experienced aftershocks during the first three months of the Zemmouri sequence. The East Sahel and Larbaa faults, which lie farther to the west, are calculated to have sustained weak 0.1-bar stress increases, and show no associated aftershocks. Together these results illustrate that while an en echelon geometry tends to limit the maximum size of earthquakes on individual thrust segments, the strong interaction between <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> on the thrust segments and adjacent strike-slip tear faults is an essential feature of such a contractional plate boundary.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lin, J.; Stein, R. S.; Meghraoui, M.; Toda, S.; Ayadi, A.; Dorbath, C.; Belabbes, S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">190</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3229812"> <span id="translatedtitle">Posterior communicating artery aneurysm <span class="hlt">rupture</span> mimicking apoplexy</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background: Cerebral aneurysm <span class="hlt">rupture</span> can lead to devastating neurological complications and present a complex problem to treat. We report a unique case of a <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> posterior communicating artery (PCoA) aneurysm presenting with sudden and complete vision loss. Case Description: A 39-year-old man presented with the acute onset of severe headache and complete bilateral vision loss. The patient described headaches for several months prior to presentation. However, prior to the day of presentation, he had no visual disturbance. A CT angiogram (CTA) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain revealed a 1.6-cm, non-contrast enhancing suprasellar mass, eccentric to the left side, consistent with hemorrhagic mass. There was no obvious aneurysm or vascular malformation. The sella tursica was normal in appearance. The patient was taken for an immediate endoscopic endonasal transtuberculum approach for optic nerve decompression. Hematoma without an associated tumor was encountered and partially evacuated before aborting with resultant partial improvement in vision. A subsequent cerebral angiogram revealed an irregularly shaped, postero-laterally pointing, 2.5-mm left PCoA aneurysm. The patient was then taken for open clipping of the <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> aneurysm. A large, fibrinous capsule was found over the superolateral aspect of the aneurysm. The <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> aneurysm was secured with clips and the surrounding hematoma was evacuated. Conclusion: In the immediate postoperative period, the patient regained vision in the nasal field of his right eye. This case illustrates a unique presentation of a <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> PCoA aneurysm, and thus must be considered in the differential diagnosis of a suprasellar hemorrhage resulting in visual loss in absence of a recognizable associated tumor. PMID:22145088</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bonfield, Christopher M.; Gardner, Paul A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">191</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20070019695&hterms=blu&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dblu"> <span id="translatedtitle">Strain Measurement Using FBG on COPV in Stress <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> Test</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">White Sands Test Facility (WSTF) was requested to perform ambient temperature hydrostatic pressurization testing of a Space Transportation System (STS) 40-in. Kevlar Composite Overwrapped Pressure Vessel (COPV). The 40-in. vessel was of the same design and approximate age as the STS <span class="hlt">Main</span> Propulsion System (MPS) and Orbiter Maneuvering System (OMS) vessels. The NASA Engineering Safety Center (NESC) assembled a team of experts and conducted an assessment that involved a review of national Kevlar COPY data. During the review, the STS COPVs were found to be beyond their original certification of ten years. The team observed that the likelihood of STS COPV Stress <span class="hlt">rupture</span>, a catastrophic burst before leak failure mode, was greater than previously believed. Consequently, a detailed assessment of remaining stress <span class="hlt">rupture</span> life became necessary. Prior to STS-114, a certification deviation was written for two flights of OV-103 (Discovery) and OV-104 (Atlantis) per rationale that was based on an extensive review of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories, COPV data, and revisions to the STS COPV stress levels. In order to obtain flight rationale to extend the certification deviation through the end of the Program, the Orbiter Project Office has directed an interagency COPV team to conduct further testing and analysis to investigate conservatism in the stress <span class="hlt">rupture</span> model and evaluate material age degradation. Additional analysis of stress <span class="hlt">rupture</span> life requires understanding the fiber stresses including stress that occurs due to thru-wall composite compression in COPV components. Data must be obtained at both zero gauge pressure (pre-stress) and at the component operating pressure so that this phenomenon can be properly evaluated. The zero gauge pressure stresses are predominantly a result of the autofrettage process used during vessel manufacture. Determining these pre-stresses and the constitutive behavior of the overwrap at pressure will provide necessary information to better predict the remaining life of the STS COPVs. The primary test objective is obtaining data to verify the hypothesis of a radially oriented thru-thickness stress-riser in the COPV composite whose magnitude is a function of the applied pressure and the load history. The anticipated load dependent response follows from the constitutive behavior of the composite overwrap so data to quantify its nonlinear and time dependent response will be sought. The objective of the Fiber Braggs Gratings (FBGs) were to advance the state-of-the-art by developing techniques using FBG sensors that are capable of assessing stress-<span class="hlt">rupture</span> degradation in Kevlar COPVs in a health monitoring mode (1). Moreover, they sought to answer questions of how embedded sensors affect overall integrity of the structure. And lastly, they sought to provide an important link in the overall stress <span class="hlt">rupture</span> study that will help close the loop on the COPV fabrication process. NDE inspection methods will be used from start to finish and FBG will be an integral link within the overall chain.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Banks, Curtis; Grant, Joseph</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">192</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23925255"> <span id="translatedtitle">Iatrogenic tracheal <span class="hlt">rupture</span> in a child: case study and review of literature.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Tracheal <span class="hlt">rupture</span> is rare in childhood, and optimal treatment is not clear. A 14-year-old boy was admitted to a local hospital after sudden loss of consciousness. He underwent endotracheal intubation and was referred to our hospital. The patient's history revealed that he had voluntarily inhaled butane gas. The physical examination was consistent with coma and cardiogenic <span class="hlt">shock</span>, and the chest radiograph showed pulmonary edema. The patient was admitted to the intensive care unit, and diuretic and inotropic therapy was started. In the third hour of monitoring of the patient under mechanical ventilation, subcutaneous emphysema and pneumothorax at the right hemithorax were observed without deterioration of the vital functions. Thoracic computed tomography scan findings were consistent with tracheal <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. The patient was monitored conservatively without surgery. On the fifth day of hospitalization, his tube was removed, and he was discharged on the 12th day with a positive prognosis. In this study, a tracheal <span class="hlt">rupture</span> case after endotracheal intubation is presented in which the patient recovered completely with conservative therapy. PMID:23925255</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Paksu, Muhammet Sukru; Kilinc, Ayse Ayzit; Asilioglu, Nazik; Gunaydin, Mithat; Aydin, Turgay; Guzel, Ahmet</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">193</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19950046210&hterms=1430&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3D1430"> <span id="translatedtitle">Neptune inbound bow <span class="hlt">shock</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Voyager 2 crossed the inbound or upstream Neptunian bow <span class="hlt">shock</span> at 1430 spacecraft event time on August 24 in 1989 (Belcher et al., 1989). The plasma and magnetic field measurements allow us to study the solar wind interaction with the outermost gas giant. To fully utilize all of the spacecraft observations, an improved nonlinear least squares, 'Rankine-Hugoniot' magnetohydrodynamic <span class="hlt">shock</span>-fitting technique has been developed (Szabo, 1994). This technique is applied to the Neptunian data set. We find that the upstream bow <span class="hlt">shock</span> normal points nearly exactly toward the Sun consistent with any reasonable large-scale model of the bow <span class="hlt">shock</span> for a near subsolar crossing. The <span class="hlt">shock</span> was moving outward with a speed of 14 +/- 12 km/s. The <span class="hlt">shock</span> can be characterized as a low beta, high Mach number, strong quasi-perpendicular <span class="hlt">shock</span>. Finally, the <span class="hlt">shock</span> microstructure features are resolved and found to scale well with theoretical expectations.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Szabo, Adam; Lepping, Ronald P.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1995-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">194</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/doepatents/biblio/1136636"> <span id="translatedtitle">Biomass <span class="hlt">shock</span> pretreatment</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Methods and apparatus for treating biomass that may include introducing a biomass to a chamber; exposing the biomass in the chamber to a <span class="hlt">shock</span> event to produce a <span class="hlt">shocked</span> biomass; and transferring the <span class="hlt">shocked</span> biomass from the chamber. In some aspects, the method may include pretreating the biomass with a chemical before introducing the biomass to the chamber and/or after transferring <span class="hlt">shocked</span> biomass from the chamber.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Holtzapple, Mark T.; Madison, Maxine Jones; Ramirez, Rocio Sierra; Deimund, Mark A.; Falls, Matthew; Dunkelman, John J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">195</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMNH13B1620O"> <span id="translatedtitle">Establishment of borehole observation system and high resolution seismic studies in the western part of the <span class="hlt">main</span> Marmara Fault in the frame of MARSite Project</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">main</span> objective of this study is to install a multi-parameter borehole system and surface array as close to the <span class="hlt">main</span> Marmara Fault (MMF) in the western Marmara Sea as possible, and measure continuously the evolution of the state of the fault zone surrounding the MMF and to detect any anomaly or change which may occur before earthquakes by making use of the data from the arrays already running in the eastern part of the Marmara Sea. The multi-parameter borehole system will be composed of very wide dynamic range and stable borehole (VBB) broad band seismic sensor, and incorporate 3-D strain meter, tilt meter, and temperature and local hydrostatic pressure measuring devices. The borehole seismic station will use the latest update technologies and design ideas to record 'Earth tides' signals to the smallest magnitude -3 events. Bringing face to face the seismograms of microearthquakes recorded by borehole and surface instruments portrays quite different contents. The shorter recording duration and nearly flat frequency spectrum up to the Nyquist frequencies of borehole records are faced with longer recording duration and rapid decay of spectral amplitudes at higher frequencies of a surface seismogram. The <span class="hlt">main</span> causative of the observed differences are near surface geology effects that mask most of the source related information the seismograms include, and that give rise to scattering, generating longer duration seismograms. In view of these circumstances, studies on microearthquakes employing surface seismograms may bring on misleading results. Particularly, the works on earthquake physics and nucleation process of earthquakes requires elaborate analysis of tiny events. It is obvious from the studies on the nucleation process of the 1999 earthquake that tens of minutes before the major <span class="hlt">rupture</span> initiate noteworthy microearthquake activity happened. The starting point of the 1999 <span class="hlt">rupture</span> was a site of swarm activity noticed a few decades prior the <span class="hlt">main</span> <span class="hlt">shock</span>. Nowadays, analogous case is probable in western Marmara Sea region, prone to a major event in near future where the seismic activity is prevailing along the impending <span class="hlt">rupture</span> zone. Deploying a borehole system eastern end of the Ganos fault zone may yield invaluable data to closely inspect and monitor the last stages of the preparation stage of major <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. Keywords: Borehole seismometer; Ganos fault; microearthquakes; western Marmara</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ozel, A.; Yalcinkaya, E.; Guralp, C. M.; Tunc, S.; Meral Ozel, N.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">196</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005AGUFM.S43A1067E"> <span id="translatedtitle">SORD: A New <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> Dynamics Modeling Code</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We report on our progress in validating our <span class="hlt">rupture</span> dynamics modeling code, capable of dealing with nonplanar faults and surface topography. The method uses a "mimetic" approach to model spontaneous <span class="hlt">rupture</span> on a fault within a 3D isotropic anelastic solid, wherein the equations of motion are approximated with a second order Support-Operator method on a logically rectangular mesh. Grid cells are not required to be parallelepipeds, however, so that non-rectangular meshes can be supported to model complex regions. However, for areas in the mesh which are in fact rectangular, the code uses a streamlined version of the algorithm that takes advantage of the simplifications of the operators in such areas. The fault itself is modeled using a double node technique, and the rheology on the fault surface is modeled through a slip-weakening, frictional, internal boundary condition. The Support Operator <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> Dynamics (SORD) code, was prototyped in MATLAB, and all algorithms have been validated against known (including analytical solutions, eg Kostrov, 1964) solutions or previously validated solutions. This validation effort is conducted in the context of the SCEC Dynamic <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> model validation effort led by R. Archuleta and R. Harris. Absorbing boundaries at the model edges are handled using the perfectly matched layers method (PML) (Olsen & Marcinkovich, 2003). PML is shown to work extremely well on rectangular meshes. We show that our implementation is also effective on non-rectangular meshes under the restriction that the boundary be planar. For validation of the model we use a variety of test cases using two types of meshes: a rectangular mesh and skewed mesh. The skewed mesh amplifies any biases caused by the Support-Operator method on non-rectangular elements. Wave propagation and absorbing boundaries are tested with a spherical wave source. <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> dynamics on a planar fault are tested against (1) a Kostrov analytical solution, (2) data from foam rubber scale models, and (3) numerical results from other types <span class="hlt">rupture</span> dynamics codes. We also test the case of a simple kinked fault that has a known analytical solution. SORD has now been ported to Fortran 95 for multi-processor execution, with parallelization implemented using MPI. This provides a modeling capability on large scale platforms such as the SDSC DataStar machine, the various Teragrid platforms, or the SCEC High-performance computing facility. We will report on progress in validating that version of the code.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ely, G.; Minster, B.; Day, S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">197</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/53940336"> <span id="translatedtitle">Microscale <span class="hlt">shock</span> tube</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This project aims at the simulation, design, fabrication and testing of a microscale <span class="hlt">shock</span> tube. A step by step procedure has been followed to develop the different components of the microscale <span class="hlt">shock</span> tube and then combine them together to realize the final device. The document reports on the numerical simulation of flows in a microscale <span class="hlt">shock</span> tube, the experimental study</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gholamreza Mirshekari</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">198</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/53445823"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Shock</span> wave focusing phenomena</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A review is presented of recent studies of the focusing of concave <span class="hlt">shock</span> waves in gases, fluids and solids by curved boundaries. Various <span class="hlt">shock</span> wave focusing apparatus that have been tested are described, including a detonation chamber, a setup for focusing weak blast waves and a configuration for obtaining time-stepped shadowgraphs of converging cylindrical <span class="hlt">shocks</span>. Sample velocity profile data are</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">H. Groenig</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1986-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">199</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JGRB..119.3133H"> <span id="translatedtitle">Earthquake <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> modulated by waves in damaged fault zones</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Faults are usually surrounded by damaged zones of lower elastic moduli and seismic wave velocities than their host rocks. If the interface between the damaged rocks and host rocks is sharp enough, earthquakes happening inside the fault zone generate reflected waves and head waves, which can interact with earthquake <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> and modulate <span class="hlt">rupture</span> properties such as <span class="hlt">rupture</span> speed, slip rate, and rise time. We find through 2-D dynamic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> simulations the following: (1) Reflected waves can induce multiple slip pulses. The rise time of the primary pulse is controlled by fault zone properties, rather than by frictional properties. (2) Head waves can cause oscillations of <span class="hlt">rupture</span> speed and, in a certain range of fault zone widths, a permanent transition to supershear <span class="hlt">rupture</span> with speeds that would be unstable in homogeneous media. (3) Large attenuation smears the slip rate function and delays the initial acceleration of <span class="hlt">rupture</span> speed but does not affect significantly the rise time or the period of <span class="hlt">rupture</span> speed oscillations. (4) Fault zones cause a rotation of the background stress field and can induce plastic deformations on both extensional and compressional sides of the fault. The plastic deformations are accumulated both inside and outside the fault zone, which indicates a correlation between fault zone development and repeating <span class="hlt">ruptures</span>. Spatially periodic patterns of plastic deformations are formed due to oscillating <span class="hlt">rupture</span> speed, which may leave a permanent signature in the geological record. Our results indicate that damaged fault zones with sharp boundaries promote multiple slip pulses and supershear <span class="hlt">ruptures</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Huang, Yihe; Ampuero, Jean-Paul; Helmberger, Don V.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">200</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/3739640"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Shock</span> metamorphism of ordinary chondrites</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This study proposes a revised petrographic classification of progressive stages of <span class="hlt">shock</span> metamorphism of 26 ordinary chondrites. Six stages of <span class="hlt">shock</span> (S1 to S6) are defined on the basis of <span class="hlt">shock</span> effects in olivine and plagioclase as recognized by thin section microscopy, and the characteristic <span class="hlt">shock</span> effects of each <span class="hlt">shock</span> stage are described. It is concluded that <span class="hlt">shock</span> effects and</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Dieter Stoeffler; Klaus Keil; Edward R. D. Scott</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1991-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' 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href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">201</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/289216"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Shock</span> formation within sonoluminescence bubbles</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A strong case has been made by several authors that sharp, spherically symmetric <span class="hlt">shocks</span> converging on the center of a spherical bubble driven by a strong acoustic field give rise to rapid compression and heating that produces the brief flash of light known as sonoluminescence. The formation of such <span class="hlt">shocks</span> is considered. It is found that, although at the <span class="hlt">main</span> collapse the bubble wall does indeed launch an inwardly-traveling compression wave, and although the subsequent reflection of the wave at the bubble center produces a very rapid temperature peak, the wave is prevented from steepening into a sharp <span class="hlt">shock</span> by an adverse gradient in the sound speed caused by heat transfer. It is shown that the mathematical characteristics of the flow can be prevented from accumulating into a <span class="hlt">shock</span> front by this adverse sound speed gradient. A range of results is presented for a variety of bubble ambient radii and sound field amplitudes suggested by experiments. The time scale of the peak temperature in the bubble is set by the dynamics of the compression wave: this is typically in the range 100{endash}300 ps (FWHM) in concert with recent measurements of the sonoluminescence pulse width. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Vuong, V.Q. [University of California, Irvine, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Irvine, California 92697-3975 (United States)] [University of California, Irvine, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Irvine, California 92697-3975 (United States); Szeri, A.J. [University of California at Berkeley, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Berkeley, California 94720-1740 (United States)] [University of California at Berkeley, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Berkeley, California 94720-1740 (United States); Young, D.A. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)] [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">202</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19860005910&hterms=engine+vibration+cylinder+head&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dengine%2Bvibration%2Bcylinder%2Bhead"> <span id="translatedtitle">Creep <span class="hlt">rupture</span> behavior of Stirling engine materials</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The automotive Stirling engine, being investigated jointly by the Department of Energy and NASA Lewis as an alternate to the internal combustion engine, uses high-pressure hydrogen as the working fluid. The long-term effects of hydrogen on the high temperature strength properties of materials is relatively unknown. This is especially true for the newly developed low-cost iron base alloy NASAUT 4G-A1. This iron-base alloy when tested in air has creep-<span class="hlt">rupture</span> strengths in the directionally solidified condition comparable to the cobalt base alloy HS-31. The equiaxed (investment cast) NASAUT 4G-A1 has superior creep-<span class="hlt">rupture</span> to the equiaxed iron-base alloy XF-818 both in air and 15 MPa hydrogen.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Titran, R. H.; Scheuerman, C. M.; Stephens, J. R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1985-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">203</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25547556"> <span id="translatedtitle">Early diagnosis and management of myocardial <span class="hlt">rupture</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Left ventricular free wall <span class="hlt">rupture</span> is a catastrophic mechanical complication of myocardial infarction. We present an 82-year-old woman with an anterolateral ST segment elevation myocardial infarction treated with thrombolysis. Because of unexplained hypotension, echocardiography was performed and contrast (Definity; Lantheus Medical Imaging) was used to improve visualization. Findings included a small- to moderate-sized circumferential pericardial effusion without frank tamponade, however, there was significant intramyocardial tracking of the contrast into the epicardial space, localized to the mid to apical portion of the anterior septum, consistent with <span class="hlt">rupture</span> or disruption of the wall segment. The patient was promptly taken to the operating room where fresh blood and clots were evacuated from the pericardial space with immediate hemodynamic improvement. The patient underwent successful surgical repair. PMID:25547556</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Liu, Shuangbo; Glavinovic, Tamara; Tam, James W</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2015-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">204</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20140006630&hterms=slow+parallel+plasma+shock&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dslow%2Bparallel%2Bplasma%2Bshock"> <span id="translatedtitle">Whistler Waves Associated with Weak Interplanetary <span class="hlt">Shocks</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We analyze the properties of 98 weak interplanetary <span class="hlt">shocks</span> measured by the dual STEREO spacecraft over approximately 3 years during the past solar minimum. We study the occurrence of whistler waves associated with these <span class="hlt">shocks</span>, which on average are high beta <span class="hlt">shocks</span> (0.2 < Beta < 10). We have compared the waves properties upstream and downstream of the <span class="hlt">shocks</span>. In the upstream region the waves are <span class="hlt">mainly</span> circularly polarized, and in most of the cases (approx. 75%) they propagate almost parallel to the ambient magnetic field (<30 deg.). In contrast, the propagation angle with respect to the <span class="hlt">shock</span> normal varies in a broad range of values (20 deg. to 90 deg.), suggesting that they are not phase standing. We find that the whistler waves can extend up to 100,000 km in the upstream region but in most cases (88%) are contained in a distance within 30,000 km from the <span class="hlt">shock</span>. This corresponds to a larger region with upstream whistlers associated with IP <span class="hlt">shocks</span> than previously reported in the literature. The maximum amplitudes of the waves are observed next to the <span class="hlt">shock</span> interface, and they decrease as the distance to the <span class="hlt">shock</span> increases. In most cases the wave propagation direction becomes more aligned with the magnetic field as the distance to the <span class="hlt">shock</span> increases. These two facts suggest that most of the waves in the upstream region are Landau damping as they move away from the <span class="hlt">shock</span>. From the analysis we also conclude that it is likely that the generation mechanism of the upstream whistler waves is taking place at the <span class="hlt">shock</span> interface. In the downstream region, the waves are irregularly polarized, and the fluctuations are very compressive; that is, the compressive component of the wave clearly dominates over the transverse one. The majority of waves in the downstream region (95%) propagate at oblique angles with respect to the ambient magnetic field (>60 deg.). The wave propagation with respect to the <span class="hlt">shock</span>-normal direction has no preferred direction and varies similarly to the upstream case. It is possible that downstream fluctuations are generated by ion relaxation as suggested in previous hybrid simulation <span class="hlt">shocks</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Velez, J. C. Ramirez; Blanco-Cano, X.; Aguilar-Rodriguez, E.; Russell, C. T.; Kajdic, P.; Jian,, L. K.; Luhmann, J. G.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">205</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5893803"> <span id="translatedtitle">Drill string <span class="hlt">shock</span> absorber</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A telescopic <span class="hlt">shock</span> absorber for use in a drill string includes a resilient arrangement to cushion telescopic contraction and extension of the <span class="hlt">shock</span> absorber in response to <span class="hlt">shock</span> loads and vibrations imparted during drilling. The <span class="hlt">shock</span> absorber operates independently of the drilling fluid pressure conducted through the structure during drilling operations. A dampening system assists in cushioning the <span class="hlt">shock</span> loads and vibrations and the dampening system and resilient arrangement are deactivated when jarring impacts are delivered to the well string by a drilling jar carried therein. The resilient arrangement provides a combination mechanical and hydraulic system for cushioning the impact loads and vibrations encountered.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Anderson, E. A.; Webb, D. D.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1985-11-12</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">206</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015GeoJI.201.1416H"> <span id="translatedtitle">Transient gravity perturbations induced by earthquake <span class="hlt">rupture</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The static and transient deformations produced by earthquakes cause density perturbations which, in turn, generate immediate, long-range perturbations of the Earth's gravity field. Here, an analytical solution is derived for gravity perturbations produced by a point double-couple source in homogeneous, infinite, non-self-gravitating elastic media. The solution features transient gravity perturbations that occur at any distance from the source between the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> onset time and the arrival time of seismic P waves, which are of potential interest for real-time earthquake source studies and early warning. An analytical solution for such prompt gravity perturbations is presented in compact form. We show that it approximates adequately the prompt gravity perturbations generated by strike-slip and dip-slip finite fault <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> in a half-space obtained by numerical simulations based on the spectral element method. Based on the analytical solution, we estimate that the observability of prompt gravity perturbations within 10 s after <span class="hlt">rupture</span> onset by current instruments is severely challenged by the background microseism noise but may be achieved by high-precision gravity strainmeters currently under development. Our analytical results facilitate parametric studies of the expected prompt gravity signals that could be recorded by gravity strainmeters.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Harms, J.; Ampuero, J.-P.; Barsuglia, M.; Chassande-Mottin, E.; Montagner, J.-P.; Somala, S. N.; Whiting, B. F.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2015-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">207</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013RScI...84g5105Y"> <span id="translatedtitle">A non-diaphragm type small <span class="hlt">shock</span> tube for application to a molecular beam source</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A non-diaphragm type small <span class="hlt">shock</span> tube was developed for application to a molecular beam source, which can generate beams in the energy range from 1 to several electron volts and beams containing dissociated species such as atomic oxygen. Since repetitive high-frequency operation is indispensable for rapid signal acquisition in beam scattering experiments, the dimensions of the <span class="hlt">shock</span> tube were miniaturized to reduce the evacuation time between shots. The designed <span class="hlt">shock</span> tube is 2-4 mm in diameter and can operate at 0.5 Hz. Moreover, a high <span class="hlt">shock</span> Mach number at the tube end is required for high-energy molecular beam generation. To reduce the <span class="hlt">shock</span> attenuation caused by the wall boundary layer, which becomes significant in small-diameter tubes, we developed a high-speed response valve employing the current-loop mechanism. The response time of this mechanism is about 100 ?s, which is shorter than the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> time of conventional diaphragms. We show that the current-loop valve generates <span class="hlt">shock</span> waves with shorter formation distances (about 200-300 mm) than those of conventional <span class="hlt">shock</span> tubes. In addition, the converging geometry efficiently accelerates <span class="hlt">shock</span> wave in the small-diameter tubes. The optimal geometry of the <span class="hlt">shock</span> tube yields <span class="hlt">shock</span> Mach number around 7, which indicates that the translation energy of molecular beams can exceed 1 eV even in the presence of the real gas effect.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yoshimoto, Yuta; Osuka, Kenichi; Miyoshi, Nobuya; Kinefuchi, Ikuya; Takagi, Shu; Matsumoto, Yoichiro</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">208</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21608792"> <span id="translatedtitle">Liver Hydatid Cyst with Transdiaphragmatic <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> and Lung Hydatid Cyst <span class="hlt">Ruptured</span> into Bronchi and Pleural Space</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The aim of this case study is to present effectiveness of percutaneous drainage as a treatment option of <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> lung and liver hydatid cysts. A 65-year-old male patient was admitted with complicated liver and lung hydatid cysts. A liver hydatid cyst had <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> transdiaphragmatically, and a lung hydatid cyst had <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> both into bronchi and pleural space. The patient could not undergo surgery because of decreased respiratory function. Both cysts were drained percutaneously using oral albendazole. Povidone-iodine was used to treat the liver cyst after closure of the diaphragmatic <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. The drainage was considered successful, and the patient had no recurrence of signs and symptoms. Clinical, laboratory, and radiologic recovery was observed during 2.5 months of catheterization. The patient was asymptomatic after catheter drainage. No recurrence was detected during 86 months of follow-up. For inoperable patients with <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> liver and lung hydatid cysts, percutaneous drainage with oral albendazole is an alternative treatment option to surgery. The percutaneous approach can be life-saving in such cases.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ar Latin-Small-Letter-Dotless-I bas, Bilgin Kadri, E-mail: bilginaribas@hotmail.com; Dingil, Guerbuez [A.Y. Ankara Oncology Training and Research Hospital, Department of Radiology (Turkey); Koeroglu, Mert [Sueleyman Demirel University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology (Turkey); Uenguel, Uemit; Zaral Latin-Small-Letter-Dotless-I , Aliye Ceylan [A.Y. Ankara Oncology Training and Research Hospital, Department of Radiology (Turkey)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-02-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">209</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005AGUFM.S52A..05A"> <span id="translatedtitle">Comparison Between the <span class="hlt">Ruptures</span> of the 1966 and 2004 Mw6 Parkfield Earthquakes</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Parkfield section of the San Andreas Fault (SAF), California, has been the stage of at least six Mw6 earthquakes in historical time. Bakun and McEvilly (1984) observed that seismograms from the 1922, 1934 and 1966 Parkfield earthquakes were extremely similar. Only identical <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> can generate similar seismic records. Thus Bakun and McEvilly (1984) advanced the concept of characteristic earthquakes - earthquakes of well-defined features (hypocenter, <span class="hlt">rupture</span> area, seismic moment) that would repeat regularly in time. According to their idea, the next Parkfield earthquake was due between 1983 and 1993. As a consequence of this prediction, several geophysical instruments were deployed in the Parkfield region. The most recent Mw6 Parkfield earthquake occurred on September 2004, later than predicted. It <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> the SAF from southeast to northwest, unlike the previous Parkfield Mw6 earthquakes. The 2004 hypocenter also does not coincide with previous Mw6 characteristic Parkfield earthquakes hypocenters. We compute <span class="hlt">rupture</span> models for the two most recent Parkfield earthquakes (1966 and 2004) from the inversion of seismic data. Seismic data for the 2004 event is abundant and covers well the hypocentral region. Seven stations, located 3.5 km to 100 km from the epicenter, recorded the 1966 event. All of these seven stations stay to the south and southeast of the epicenter, thus offering only a partial vision of the <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. We invert this scarce dataset in order to obtain a kinematic model for the 1966 earthquake. Because the inversion yields a non-unique solution, we compare different <span class="hlt">rupture</span> models that explain equally well the data. The study of the variance between different acceptable models provides a good picture of the kinematic model accuracy. We compare the well-resolved slip features of the 1966 and 2004 earthquake. In particular, we investigate whether the 1966 <span class="hlt">rupture</span> broke past the right step on the surface trace of the SAF. We focus on the <span class="hlt">main</span> similarities and differences between the two Mw6 events, in an attempt to understand why the 2004 earthquake did not <span class="hlt">rupture</span> as a characteristic Parkfield earthquake.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Archuleta, R. J.; Custodio, S.; Liu, P.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">210</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009A%26ARv..17..409T"> <span id="translatedtitle">Fundamentals of collisionless <span class="hlt">shocks</span> for astrophysical application, 1. Non-relativistic <span class="hlt">shocks</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A comprehensive review is given of the theory and properties of nonrelativistic <span class="hlt">shocks</span> in hot collisionless plasmas—in view of their possible application in astrophysics. Understanding non-relativistic collisionless <span class="hlt">shocks</span> is an indispensable step towards a general account of collisionless astrophysical <span class="hlt">shocks</span> of high Mach number and of their effects in dissipating flow-energy, in heating matter, in accelerating particles to high—presumably cosmic-ray—energies, and in generating detectable radiation from radio to X-rays. Non-relativistic <span class="hlt">shocks</span> have Alfvénic Mach numbers {{fancyscript{M}}_A? sqrt{m_i/m_e}(?_{pe}/?_{ce})}, where m i / m e is the ion-to-electron mass ratio, and ? pe , ? ce are the electron plasma and cyclotron frequencies, respectively. Though high, the temperatures of such <span class="hlt">shocks</span> are limited (in energy units) to T < m e c 2. This means that particle creation is inhibited, classical theory is applicable, and reaction of radiation on the dynamics of the <span class="hlt">shock</span> can be neglected. The majority of such <span class="hlt">shocks</span> are supercritical, meaning that non-relativistic <span class="hlt">shocks</span> are unable to self-consistently produce sufficient dissipation and, thus, to sustain a stationary <span class="hlt">shock</span> transition. As a consequence, supercritical <span class="hlt">shocks</span> act as efficient particle reflectors. All these <span class="hlt">shocks</span> are microscopically thin, with <span class="hlt">shock</span>-transition width of the order of the ion inertial length ? i = c/ ? pi (with ? pi the ion plasma frequency). The full theory of such <span class="hlt">shocks</span> is developed, and the different possible types of <span class="hlt">shocks</span> are defined. Since all collisionless <span class="hlt">shocks</span> are magnetised, the most important distinction is between quasi-perpendicular and quasi-parallel <span class="hlt">shocks</span>. The former propagate about perpendicularly, the latter roughly parallel to the upstream magnetic field. Their manifestly different behaviours are described in detail. In particular, although both types of <span class="hlt">shocks</span> are non-stationary, they have completely different reformation cycles. From numerical full-particle simulations it becomes evident that, on ion-inertial scales close to the <span class="hlt">shock</span> transition, all quasi-parallel collisionless supercritical <span class="hlt">shocks</span> are locally quasi-perpendicular. This property is of vital importance for the particle dynamics near the quasi-parallel <span class="hlt">shock</span> front. Considerable interest focusses on particle acceleration and the generation of radiation. Radiation from non-relativistic <span class="hlt">shocks</span> results <span class="hlt">mainly</span> in wave-wave interactions among various plasma waves. Non-thermal charged particles can be further accelerated to high energies by a Fermi-like mechanism. The important question is whether the <span class="hlt">shock</span> can pre-accelerate <span class="hlt">shock</span>-reflected particles to sufficiently high energies in order to create the seed-population of the non-thermal particles required by the Fermi mechanism. Based on preliminary full-particle numerical simulations, this question is answered affirmatively. Such simulations provide ample evidence that collisionless <span class="hlt">shocks</span> with high-Mach numbers—even when non-relativistic—could probably by themselves produce the energetic seed-particle population for the Fermi-process.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Treumann, R. A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">211</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AstL...39..393B"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Shock</span> acceleration of solar cosmic rays</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The solar cosmic ray (SCR) acceleration by the <span class="hlt">shocks</span> driven by coronal mass ejections is studied by taking into account the generation of Alfvén waves by accelerated particles. Detailed numerical calculations of the SCR spectra produced during the <span class="hlt">shock</span> propagation through the solar corona have been performed within a quasi-linear approach with a realistic set of coronal parameters. The resultant SCR energy spectrum is shown to include a power-law part N ? ?-? with an index ? = 1.7-3.5 that ends with an exponential tail. The maximum SCR energy lies within the range ? max = 0.01-10 GeV, depending on the <span class="hlt">shock</span> velocity V S = 750-2500 km s-1. The decrease of the <span class="hlt">shock</span> Alfvénic Mach number due to the increase Alfvén velocity with heliocentric distance r leads to the end of the efficient SCR acceleration when the <span class="hlt">shock</span> size reaches R S ? 4 R ?. In this case, the diffusive SCR propagation begins to exceed the <span class="hlt">shock</span> velocity; as a result, SCRs escape intensively from the <span class="hlt">shock</span> vicinity. The self-consistent generation of Alfvén waves by accelerated particles is accompanied by a steepening of the particle spectrum and an increase of their maximum energy. Comparison of the calculated SCR fluxes expected near the Earth's orbit with the available experimental data shows that the theory explains the <span class="hlt">main</span> observed features.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Berezhko, E. G.; Taneev, S. N.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">212</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1982NCimL..35..309L"> <span id="translatedtitle">Relativistic <span class="hlt">shocks</span> in a Synge gas</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">main</span> conclusions of a detailed study of relativistic <span class="hlt">shocks</span> in particle gases at high temperatures are presented. The initial wave pulse was taken to propagate into a uniform static medium, and the hydrodynamical equations were used to evolve the solution forward in time and to study <span class="hlt">shock</span> formation and subsequent damping. It was found that the damping rate is initially an increasing function of the initial velocity amplitude of the wave, but reaches a maximum and then decreases again, tending toward zero in the limit. This confirmed that strong relativistic <span class="hlt">shocks</span> do not damp as quickly as would be indicated by extrapolation of results from weak <span class="hlt">shock</span> theory. Qualitatively similar behavior is found for both the Synge gas and the photon-dominated gas. The latter produces significantly more entropy than the Synge gas, and its profile is far more sharply peaked.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lanza, A.; Motta, S.; Miller, J. C.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1982-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">213</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3022497"> <span id="translatedtitle">Induced Metastable Memory in Heat <span class="hlt">Shock</span> Response</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We studied the dynamics of the Heat <span class="hlt">Shock</span> Response (HSR) mechanism, and the persistence of a injury-protected state in the cell following the <span class="hlt">shocks</span>, known as thermotolerance. A series of double <span class="hlt">shock</span> experiments were performed on Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells, tracking the dynamics of some components of HSR pathway (the Hsp70 protein level and Hsp70 mRNA transcription rate). The <span class="hlt">main</span> features of HSR dynamics were well reproduced by a simplified model of the chemical reaction pathways governing the HSR. In particular, the thermotolerance phenomenon could be well characterized by introducing a <span class="hlt">shock</span>-dependent switch in mRNA halflife, that can be interpreted as a sort of primitive memory at the mRNA level. PMID:19669434</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Remondini, D.; Bernardini, C.; Forni, M.; Bersani, F.; Bacci, M. L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">214</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/55933403"> <span id="translatedtitle">Transpressional <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of an unmapped fault during the 2010 Haiti earthquake</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">On 12 January 2010, a Mw7.0 earthquake struck the Port-au-Prince region of Haiti. The disaster killed more than 200,000 people and caused an estimated $8 billion in damages, about 100% of the country's gross domestic product. The earthquake was initially thought to have <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> the Enriquillo-Plantain Garden fault of the southern peninsula of Haiti, which is one of two <span class="hlt">main</span></p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Eric Calais; Andrew Freed; Glen Mattioli; Falk Amelung; Sigurjón Jónsson; Pamela Jansma; Sang-Hoon Hong; Timothy Dixon; Claude Prépetit; Roberte Momplaisir</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">215</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19960001675&hterms=heat+shock+hs&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dheat%2Bshock%2Bhs"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Shock</span> tunnel studies of scramjet phenomena 1994</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A new expansion tube facility has been built, and is in the process of being commissioned. It has a bore of 90 mm, and has been designed for peak <span class="hlt">rupture</span> pressures of 100 Mpa. It is configured with multiple sections and diaphragm location stations to give optimized performance over a range of sub and superorbital conditions. It has a compound piston arrangement for a two stage compression, designed to maximize the length of <span class="hlt">shock</span> expansion tube which can be driven within a fixed total facility length. Experiments have been successfully performed with a dummy first stage piston, and a rubber energy absorbing brake. The results agree well with a one-dimensional stress wave model of the piston impacting on the rubber, and codes for piston motion. Strain of the rubber is restricted to approximately 20 percent at which level no damage is to be expected in the buffer material, and none has been observed, indicating that the mechanism will be fully reuseable.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1995-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">216</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6987067"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Shock</span> absorber control system</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A <span class="hlt">shock</span> absorber control system is described for controlling a dampening force of a <span class="hlt">shock</span> absorber of a vehicle comprising: setting means for setting a desired dampening force changeable within a predetermined range; drive means for driving the <span class="hlt">shock</span> absorber to change the dampening force of the <span class="hlt">shock</span> absorber linearly; control means for controlling the drive means in accordance with the desired dampening force when the setting of the desired dampening force has been changed; detecting means for detecting an actual dampening force of the <span class="hlt">shock</span> absorber; and correcting means for correcting the dampening force of the <span class="hlt">shock</span> absorber by controlling the drive means in accordance with a difference between the desired dampening force and the detected actual dampening force.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Nakano, Y.; Ohira, M.; Ushida, M.; Miyagawa, T.; Shimodaira, T.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1987-01-13</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">217</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25887167"> <span id="translatedtitle">Femoral pseudoaneurysm <span class="hlt">rupturing</span> into urinary bladder: A rare presentation.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Femoral pseudoaneurysm is a common occurrence in intravenous drug abuser due to repeated trauma to the femoral artery causing arterial leak contained by the surrounding tissue and does not contain all the layers of arterial wall. <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> of these aneurysm to exterior is a common presentation while <span class="hlt">rupture</span> into surrounding structure deemed an emergency surgical attention. Hence, we report an unusual case of <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of femoral pseudoaneurysm into urinary bladder who presented us with history of hematuria and was successfully managed. PMID:25887167</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Shrestha, Kajan Raj; Luitel, Bhoj Raj; Shrestha, Ujma; Shrestha, Uttam Krishna</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2015-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">218</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JPhCS.500n2025N"> <span id="translatedtitle">Controlling blast wave generation in a <span class="hlt">shock</span> tube for biological applications</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">shock</span> tube is a versatile apparatus used in a wide range of scientific research fields. In this case, we are developing a system to use with biological specimens. The process of diaphragm <span class="hlt">rupture</span> is closely linked to the <span class="hlt">shock</span> wave generated. Experiments were performed on an air-driven <span class="hlt">shock</span> tube with Mylar® and aluminium diaphragms of various thicknesses, to control the output. The evolution of <span class="hlt">shock</span> pressure was measured and the diaphragm <span class="hlt">rupture</span> process investigated. Single-diaphragm and double-diaphragm configurations were employed, as were open or closed tube configurations. The arrangement was designed to enable high-speed photography and pressure measurements. Overall, results are highly reproducible, and show that the double-diaphragm system enables a more controllable diaphragm burst pressure. The diaphragm burst pressure was linearly related to its thickness within the range studied. The observed relationship between the diaphragm burst pressure and the generated <span class="hlt">shock</span> pressure presents a noticeable difference compared to the theoretical ideal gas description. Furthermore, the duration of the primary <span class="hlt">shock</span> decreased proportionally with the length of the high-pressure charging volume. Computational modelling of the diaphragm breakage process was carried out using the ANSYS software package.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Nguyen, T.-T. N.; Wilgeroth, J. M.; Proud, W. G.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">219</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25156650"> <span id="translatedtitle">Thrombosis formation on atherosclerotic lesions and plaque <span class="hlt">rupture</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Atherosclerosis is a silent chronic vascular pathology that is the cause of the majority of cardiovascular ischaemic events. The evolution of vascular disease involves a combination of endothelial dysfunction, extensive lipid deposition in the intima, exacerbated innate and adaptive immune responses, proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells and remodelling of the extracellular matrix, resulting in the formation of an atherosclerotic plaque. High-risk plaques have a large acellular lipid-rich necrotic core with an overlying thin fibrous cap infiltrated by inflammatory cells and diffuse calcification. The formation of new fragile and leaky vessels that invade the expanding intima contributes to enlarge the necrotic core increasing the vulnerability of the plaque. In addition, biomechanical, haemodynamic and physical factors contribute to plaque destabilization. Upon erosion or <span class="hlt">rupture</span>, these high-risk lipid-rich vulnerable plaques expose vascular structures or necrotic core components to the circulation, which causes the activation of tissue factor and the subsequent formation of a fibrin monolayer (coagulation cascade) and, concomitantly, the recruitment of circulating platelets and inflammatory cells. The interaction between exposed atherosclerotic plaque components, platelet receptors and coagulation factors eventually leads to platelet activation, aggregation and the subsequent formation of a superimposed thrombus (i.e. atherothrombosis) which may compromise the arterial lumen leading to the presentation of acute ischaemic syndromes. In this review, we will describe the progression of the atherosclerotic lesion along with the <span class="hlt">main</span> morphological characteristics that predispose to plaque <span class="hlt">rupture</span>, and discuss the multifaceted mechanisms that drive platelet activation and subsequent thrombus formation. Finally, we will consider the current scientific challenges and future research directions. PMID:25156650</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Badimon, L; Vilahur, G</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">220</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70021119"> <span id="translatedtitle">Dynamic stress changes during earthquake <span class="hlt">rupture</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We assess two competing dynamic interpretations that have been proposed for the short slip durations characteristic of kinematic earthquake models derived by inversion of earthquake waveform and geodetic data. The first interpretation would require a fault constitutive relationship in which rapid dynamic restrengthening of the fault surface occurs after passage of the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> front, a hypothesized mechanical behavior that has been referred to as "self-healing." The second interpretation would require sufficient spatial heterogeneity of stress drop to permit rapid equilibration of elastic stresses with the residual dynamic friction level, a condition we refer to as "geometrical constraint." These interpretations imply contrasting predictions for the time dependence of the fault-plane shear stresses. We compare these predictions with dynamic shear stress changes for the 1992 Landers (M 7.3), 1994 Northridge (M 6.7), and 1995 Kobe (M 6.9) earthquakes. Stress changes are computed from kinematic slip models of these earthquakes, using a finite-difference method. For each event, static stress drop is highly variable spatially, with high stress-drop patches embedded in a background of low, and largely negative, stress drop. The time histories of stress change show predominantly monotonic stress change after passage of the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> front, settling to a residual level, without significant evidence for dynamic restrengthening. The stress change at the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> front is usually gradual rather than abrupt, probably reflecting the limited resolution inherent in the underlying kinematic inversions. On the basis of this analysis, as well as recent similar results obtained independently for the Kobe and Morgan Hill earthquakes, we conclude that, at the present time, the self-healing hypothesis is unnecessary to explain earthquake kinematics.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Day, S.M.; Yu, G.; Wald, D.J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1998-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" 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showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">221</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1615127E"> <span id="translatedtitle">Capturing Continental <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> Processes in Afar</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Both continental and oceanic rifting processes are highly 3D, but the stability of the along-axis segmentation from rifting to breakup, and its relationship to seafloor spreading remains debated. Three-dimensional models of the interactions of faults and magmatism in time and space are in development, but modelling and observations suggest that magmatic segments may propagate and/or migrate during periods of magmatism. Our ability to discriminate between the various models in large part depends on the quality of data in the ocean-transition zone, or, observations from zones of incipient plate <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. Largely 2D crustal-scale seismic data from magmatic passive margins reveal large magmatic additions to the crust, but the timing of this heat and mass transfer is weakly constrained. Thus, the lack of information on the across rift breadth of the deforming zone at <span class="hlt">rupture</span>, and the relationship between the early rift segmentation and the seafloor spreading segmentation represent fundamental gaps in knowledge. Our study of Earth's youngest magmatic margin, the superbly exposed, tectonically active southern Red Sea, aims to answer the following questions: What are the geometry and kinematics of active fault systems across the 'passive margin' to zone of incipient plate <span class="hlt">rupture</span>? What is the relationship between the initial border fault segmentation, and the breakup zone segmentation? What is the distribution of active deformation and magmatism, and how does it compare to time-averaged strain patterns? We integrate results of recent experiments that suggest widespread replacement of crust and mantle lithosphere beneath the 'passive' margin, and explain the ongoing seismic deformation as a consequence of bending stresses across the ocean-continent transition, with or without a dynamic component.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ebinger, Cynthia; Belachew, Manahloh; Tepp, Gabrielle; Keir, Derek; Ayele, Atalay</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">222</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24679079"> <span id="translatedtitle">Isolated unilateral <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of the alar ligament.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Only 6 cases of isolated unilateral <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of the alar ligament have been previously reported. The authors report a new case and review the literature, morbid anatomy, and pathogenesis of this rare injury. The patient in their case, a 9-year-old girl, fell head first from a height of 5 feet off the ground. She presented with neck pain, a leftward head tilt, and severe limitation of right rotation, extension, and right lateral flexion of the neck. Plain radiographs and CT revealed no fracture but a shift of the dens toward the right lateral mass of C-1. Magnetic resonance imaging of the cervical spine showed signal hyperintensity within the left dens-atlas space on both T1- and T2-weighted sequences and interruption of the expected dark signal representing the left alar ligament, suggestive of its <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. After 12 weeks of immobilization in a Guilford brace, MRI showed lessened dens deviation, and the patient attained full and painless neck motion. Including the patient in this case, the 7 patients with this injury were between 5 and 21 years old, sustained the injury in traffic accidents or falls, presented with marked neck pain, and were treated with external immobilization. All patients had good clinical outcome. The mechanism of injury is hyperflexion with rotation. Isolated unilateral alar ligament <span class="hlt">rupture</span> is a diagnosis made by excluding associated fracture, dislocation, or disruption of other major ligamentous structures in the craniovertebral junction. CT and MRI are essential in establishing the diagnosis. External immobilization is adequate treatment. PMID:24679079</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wong, Sui-To; Ernest, Kimberly; Fan, Grace; Zovickian, John; Pang, Dachling</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">223</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.T43A2632D"> <span id="translatedtitle">Forecasting the <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> Directivity of Large Earthquakes</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Forecasting the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> directivity of large earthquakes is an important problem in probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA), because directivity strongly influences ground motions. We cast this forecasting problem in terms of the conditional hypocenter distribution (CHD), defined to be the probability distribution of a hypocenter given the spatial distribution of fault slip (moment release). The simplest CHD is a uniform distribution for which the hypocenter probability density equals the moment-release probability density. We have compiled samples of CHDs from a global distribution of large earthquakes using three estimation methods: (a) location of hypocenters within the slip distribution from finite-fault inversions, (b) location of hypocenters within early aftershock distributions, and (c) direct inversion for the directivity parameter D, defined in terms of the degree-two polynomial moments of the source space-time function. The data from method (a) are statistically inconsistent with the uniform CHD suggested by McGuire et al. (2002) using method (c). Instead, the data indicate a 'centroid-biased' CHD, in which the expected distance between the hypocenter and the hypocentroid is less than that of a uniform CHD; i.e., the directivities inferred from finite-fault models appear to be closer to bilateral than predicted by the uniform CHD. One source of this discrepancy may be centroid bias in the second-order moments owing to poor localization of the slip in finite-fault inversions. We compare these observational results with CHDs computed from a large set of theoretical <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> in the Southern California fault system produced by the Rate-State Quake simulator (RSQSim) of Dieterich and Richards-Dinger (2010) and discuss the implications for <span class="hlt">rupture</span> dynamics and fault-zone heterogeneities.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Donovan, J. R.; Jordan, T. H.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">224</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17599460"> <span id="translatedtitle">Tendon <span class="hlt">rupture</span> associated with simvastatin/ezetimibe therapy.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A case of spontaneous biceps tendon <span class="hlt">rupture</span> in a physician during therapy with the combination of simvastatin and ezetimibe (Vytorin) is reported. Rechallenge produced tendinopathy in the contralateral biceps tendon that abated with drug discontinuation. Tendon <span class="hlt">rupture</span> generally occurs in injured tendons. Physiological repair of an injured tendon requires degradation and remodeling of the extracellular matrix through matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). Statins are known to inhibit MMPs. It was hypothesized that statins may increase the risk of tendon <span class="hlt">rupture</span> by altering MMP activity. In conclusion, statins may increase the risk of tendon <span class="hlt">rupture</span> by altering MMP activity. PMID:17599460</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Pullatt, Raja C; Gadarla, Mamatha Reddy; Karas, Richard H; Alsheikh-Ali, Alawi A; Thompson, Paul D</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">225</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.data.scec.org/Module/s1act02.html"> <span id="translatedtitle">What Is an Earthquake?: Fault-<span class="hlt">Rupture</span> Analogies</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This activity has two parts: the first part will demonstrate the weaknesses of simple fault models (like block diagrams) in depicting the process of fault <span class="hlt">rupture</span> accurately; and the second part is centered around a fairly simple animation of <span class="hlt">rupture</span> propagation, seen by an oblique map view, that attempts to show more accurately what we should envision when we think about fault <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. This activity provides different analogies for describing the process of fault <span class="hlt">rupture</span>, with attention paid to the strengths and weaknesses of each.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">226</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70024680"> <span id="translatedtitle">Complex earthquake <span class="hlt">rupture</span> and local tsunamis</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In contrast to far-field tsunami amplitudes that are fairly well predicted by the seismic moment of subduction zone earthquakes, there exists significant variation in the scaling of local tsunami amplitude with respect to seismic moment. From a global catalog of tsunami runup observations this variability is greatest for the most frequently occuring tsunamigenic subduction zone earthquakes in the magnitude range of 7 < Mw < 8.5. Variability in local tsunami runup scaling can be ascribed to tsunami source parameters that are independent of seismic moment: variations in the water depth in the source region, the combination of higher slip and lower shear modulus at shallow depth, and <span class="hlt">rupture</span> complexity in the form of heterogeneous slip distribution patterns. The focus of this study is on the effect that <span class="hlt">rupture</span> complexity has on the local tsunami wave field. A wide range of slip distribution patterns are generated using a stochastic, self-affine source model that is consistent with the falloff of far-field seismic displacement spectra at high frequencies. The synthetic slip distributions generated by the stochastic source model are discretized and the vertical displacement fields from point source elastic dislocation expressions are superimposed to compute the coseismic vertical displacement field. For shallow subduction zone earthquakes it is demonstrated that self-affine irregularities of the slip distribution result in significant variations in local tsunami amplitude. The effects of <span class="hlt">rupture</span> complexity are less pronounced for earthquakes at greater depth or along faults with steep dip angles. For a test region along the Pacific coast of central Mexico, peak nearshore tsunami amplitude is calculated for a large number (N = 100) of synthetic slip distribution patterns, all with identical seismic moment (Mw = 8.1). Analysis of the results indicates that for earthquakes of a fixed location, geometry, and seismic moment, peak nearshore tsunami amplitude can vary by a factor of 3 or more. These results indicate that there is substantially more variation in the local tsunami wave field derived from the inherent complexity subduction zone earthquakes than predicted by a simple elastic dislocation model. Probabilistic methods that take into account variability in earthquake <span class="hlt">rupture</span> processes are likely to yield more accurate assessments of tsunami hazards.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Geist, E.L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">227</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/937423"> <span id="translatedtitle">Traumatic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of healed cataract wounds.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Three patients suffered blunt trauma that caused <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of the site of cataract incision three to 12 years after surgery. Epithelial cells were noted in the old cataract would of a 79-year-old white man. The second patient, a 25-year-old black women, had bilateral ocular toxoplasmosis and loss of vitreous humor at the time of lens extraction. The third patient, a 63-year-old white woman, had open-angle glaucoma treated previously with filtering procedures and cyclocryotherapy. The ultimate outcome was poor in each case. PMID:937423</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kass, M A; Lahav, M; Albert, D M</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1976-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">228</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PhRvE..90e2710T"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Rupture</span> of lipid vesicles near solid surfaces</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The behavior of lipid vesicles near solid surfaces, despite its scientific and technological significance, is poorly understood. By simultaneously taking into account (i) the dynamics of spontaneous pore opening and closing in surface bound vesicles; (ii) their volume loss via leakage through the pores; (iii) and the propagation of their contact line, we have developed a simple model that can fully describe the detailed mechanism of and provide the necessary conditions for the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of vesicles and the subsequent formation of supported lipid bilayers. The predictions of the model are in qualitative agreement with many of the experimental observations.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Takáts-Nyeste, Annamária; Derényi, Imre</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">229</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20020079123&hterms=Tuberculosis&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3DTuberculosis"> <span id="translatedtitle">Anti-<span class="hlt">Shock</span> Garment</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Ames Research Center developed a prototype pressure suit for hemophiliac children, based on research of astronauts' physiological responses in microgravity. Zoex Corporation picked up the design and patents and developed an anti-<span class="hlt">shock</span> garment for paramedic use. Marketed by Dyna Med, the suit reverses the effect of <span class="hlt">shock</span> on the body's blood distribution by applying counterpressure to the legs and abdomen, returning blood to vital organs and stabilizing body pressure until the patient reaches a hospital. The DMAST (Dyna Med Anti-<span class="hlt">Shock</span> Trousers) employ lower pressure than other <span class="hlt">shock</span> garments, and are non-inflatable.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1996-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">230</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1057321"> <span id="translatedtitle">Simulations of Turbulent Flows with Strong <span class="hlt">Shocks</span> and Density Variations</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this report, we present the research efforts made by our group at UCLA in the SciDAC project Ã?Â?Ã?¢Ã?Â?Ã?Â?Ã?Â?Ã?Â?Simulations of turbulent flows with strong <span class="hlt">shocks</span> and density variationsÃ?Â?Ã?¢Ã?Â?Ã?Â?Ã?Â?Ã?. We use <span class="hlt">shock</span>-fitting methodologies as an alternative to <span class="hlt">shock</span>-capturing schemes for the problems where a well defined <span class="hlt">shock</span> is present. In past five years, we have focused on development of high-order <span class="hlt">shock</span>-fitting Navier-Stokes solvers for perfect gas flow and thermochemical non-equilibrium flow and simulation of <span class="hlt">shock</span>-turbulence interaction physics for very strong <span class="hlt">shocks</span>. Such simulation has not been possible before because the limitation of conventional <span class="hlt">shock</span> capturing methods. The limitation of <span class="hlt">shock</span> Mach number is removed by using our high-order <span class="hlt">shock</span>-fitting scheme. With the help of DOE and TeraGrid/XSEDE super computing resources, we have obtained new results which show new trends of turbulence statistics behind the <span class="hlt">shock</span> which were not known before. Moreover, we are also developing tools to consider multi-species non-equilibrium flows. The <span class="hlt">main</span> results are in three areas: (1) development of high-order <span class="hlt">shock</span>-fitting scheme for perfect gas flow, (2) Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) of interaction of realistic turbulence with moderate to very strong <span class="hlt">shocks</span> using super computing resources, and (3) development and implementation of models for computation of mutli-species non-quilibrium flows with <span class="hlt">shock</span>-fitting codes.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zhong, Xiaolin</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-12-13</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">231</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010JGRC..11510002W"> <span id="translatedtitle">Effect of shear <span class="hlt">rupture</span> on aggregate scale formation in sea ice</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A discrete element model is used to study shear <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of sea ice under convergent wind stresses. The model includes compressive, tensile, and shear <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of viscous elastic joints connecting floes that move under the action of the wind stresses. The adopted shear <span class="hlt">rupture</span> is governed by Coulomb's criterion. The ice pack is a 400 km long square domain consisting of 4 km size floes. In the standard case with tensile strength 10 times smaller than the compressive strength, under uniaxial compression the failure regime is <span class="hlt">mainly</span> shear <span class="hlt">rupture</span> with the most probable scenario corresponding to that with the minimum failure work. The orientation of cracks delineating formed aggregates is bimodal with the peaks around the angles given by the wing crack theory determining diamond-shaped blocks. The ice block (floe aggregate) size decreases as the wind stress gradient increases since the elastic strain energy grows faster leading to a higher speed of crack propagation. As the tensile strength grows, shear <span class="hlt">rupture</span> becomes harder to attain and compressive failure becomes equally important leading to elongation of blocks perpendicular to the compression direction and the blocks grow larger. In the standard case, as the wind stress confinement ratio increases the failure mode changes at a confinement ratio within 0.2-0.4, which corresponds to the analytical critical confinement ratio of 0.32. Below this value, the cracks are bimodal delineating diamond shape aggregates, while above this value failure becomes isotropic and is determined by small-scale stress anomalies due to irregularities in floe shape.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wilchinsky, Alexander V.; Feltham, Daniel L.; Hopkins, Mark A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">232</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20060024518&hterms=Bischoff&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3DBischoff"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Shock</span> Metamorphism of the Dhofar 378 Basaltic Shergottite</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Shock</span> metamorphism is one of the most fundamental processes in the history of Martian meteorites, especially shergottites, which affect their mineralogy and chronology. The formation of "maskelynite" from plagioclase and <span class="hlt">shock</span> melts is such major mineralogical effects. Dhofar 378 is one of the recently found desert shergottites that is <span class="hlt">mainly</span> composed of plagioclase and pyroxene. This shergottite is important because of its highly <span class="hlt">shocked</span> nature and unique plagioclase texture, and thus has a great potential for assessing a "<span class="hlt">shock</span>" age of shergottites. We have been working on a combined study of mineralogy and chronology of the same rock chip of Dhofar 378. This abstract reports its mineralogical part.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mikouchi, T.; McKay, G.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">233</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008PhDT.......300M"> <span id="translatedtitle">Microscale <span class="hlt">shock</span> tube</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This project aims at the simulation, design, fabrication and testing of a microscale <span class="hlt">shock</span> tube. A step by step procedure has been followed to develop the different components of the microscale <span class="hlt">shock</span> tube and then combine them together to realize the final device. The document reports on the numerical simulation of flows in a microscale <span class="hlt">shock</span> tube, the experimental study of gas flow in microchannels, the design, microfabrication, and the test of a microscale <span class="hlt">shock</span> tube. In the first step, a one-dimensional numerical model for simulation of transport effects at small-scale, appeared in low Reynolds number <span class="hlt">shock</span> tubes is developed. The conservation equations have been integrated in the lateral directions and three-dimensional effects have been introduced as carefully controlled sources of mass, momentum and energy, into the one-dimensional model. The unsteady flow of gas behind the <span class="hlt">shock</span> wave is reduced to a quasi-steady laminar flow solution, similar to the Blasius solution. The resulting one-dimensional equations are solved numerically and the simulations are performed for previously reported low Reynolds number <span class="hlt">shock</span> tube experiments. Good agreement between the <span class="hlt">shock</span> structure simulation and the attenuation due to the boundary layers has been observed. The simulation for predicting the performance of a microscale <span class="hlt">shock</span> tube shows the large attenuation of <span class="hlt">shock</span> wave at low pressure ratios. In the next step the steady flow inside microchannels has been experimentally studied. A set of microchannels with different geometries were fabricated. These microchannels have been used to measure the pressure drop as a function of flow rate in a steady compressible flow. The results of the experiments confirm that the flow inside the microscale <span class="hlt">shock</span> tube follows the laminar model over the experiment's range of Knudsen number. The microscale <span class="hlt">shock</span> tube is fabricated by deposition and patterning of different thin layers of selected materials on the silicon substrate. The direct sensing piezoelectric sensors were fabricated and integrated with microchannels patterned on the substrate. The channels were then covered with another substrate. This <span class="hlt">shock</span> tube is 2000 mum long and it has a 2000 mum wide and 17 mum high rectangular cross section equipped with 5 piezoelectric sensors along the tube. The packaged microscale <span class="hlt">shock</span> tube was installed in an ordinary <span class="hlt">shock</span> tube and <span class="hlt">shock</span> waves with different Mach numbers were directed into the channel. A one-dimensional inviscid calculation as well as viscous simulation using the one-dimensional model have also been performed for the above mentioned geometry. The comparison of results with those of the same geometry for an inviscid flow shows the considerable attenuation of <span class="hlt">shock</span> strength and deceleration of the <span class="hlt">shock</span> wave for both incident and reflected <span class="hlt">shock</span> waves in the channel. The comparison of results with numerically generated results with the one-dimensional model presents good agreement for incident <span class="hlt">shock</span> waves. Keywords. <span class="hlt">Shock</span> wave, <span class="hlt">Shock</span> tube, MEMS, Microfluidic, Piezoelectric sensor, Microchannel, Transport phenomena.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mirshekari, Gholamreza</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">234</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMOS33A1630W"> <span id="translatedtitle">Heterogeneous <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> in the Great Cascadia Earthquake of 1700 Inferred from Coastal Subsidence Estimates</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Abrupt coastal subsidence induced by the great AD 1700 Cascadia earthquake has been estimated from paleoseismic evidence of buried soils and overlying mud and associated tsunamis deposits. These records have been modeled using a rather uniform <span class="hlt">rupture</span> model, a mirror image of the uniform interseismic fault locking based on modern GPS observations. However, as seen in other megathrust earthquakes such as at Sumatra, Chile, and Alaska, the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> must have had multiple patches of concentrated slip. Variable moment release is also seen in the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake in Japan, although there is only one patch. The use of a uniform <span class="hlt">rupture</span> scenario for Cascadia is due <span class="hlt">mainly</span> to the poor resolving power of the previous paleoseismic data. In this work, we invoke recently obtained more precise data from detailed microfossil studies to better constrain the slip distribution. Our 3-D elastic dislocation model allows the fault slip to vary along strike. Along any profile in the dip direction, we assume a bell-shaped slip distribution with the peak value scaling with local <span class="hlt">rupture</span> width, consistent with <span class="hlt">rupture</span> mechanics. We found that the coseismic slip is large in central Cascadia, and areas of high moment release are separated by areas of low moment release. The amount of slip in northern and southern Cascadia is poorly constrained. Although data uncertainties are large, the coastal variable subsidence can be explained with multiple slip patches. For example, there is an area near Alsea Bay, Oregon (about 44.5°N) that, in accordance with the minimum coseismic subsidence estimated by the microfossil data, had very little slip in the 1700 event. This area approximately coincides with a segment boundary previously defined on the basis of gravity anomalies. There is also reported evidence for the presence of a subducting seamount in this area, and the seamount might be responsible for impeding <span class="hlt">rupture</span> during large earthquakes. The nature of this <span class="hlt">rupture</span> barrier and whether it is a persistent feature are important topics of future research. Our results indicate that there is not always a one-to-one correlation between areas of more complete interseismic locking and larger coseismic slip.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wang, P.; Wang, K.; Hawkes, A.; Horton, B. P.; Engelhart, S. E.; Nelson, A. R.; Witter, R. C.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">235</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20070023500&hterms=earthquakes&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dearthquakes"> <span id="translatedtitle">Surface <span class="hlt">Ruptures</span> and Building Damage of the 2003 Bam, Iran, Earthquake Mapped by Satellite Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometric Correlation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We use the interferometric correlation from Envisat synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images to map the details of the surface <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> related to the 26 December 2003 earthquake that devastated Bam, Iran. The <span class="hlt">main</span> strike-slip fault <span class="hlt">rupture</span> south of the city of Bam has a series of four segments with left steps shown by a narrow line of low correlation in the coseismic interferogram. This also has a clear expression in the field because of the net extension across the fault. Just south of the city limits, the surface strain becomes distributed over a width of about 500 m, probably because of a thicker layer of soft sedimentary material.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Fielding, Eric J.; Talebian, M.; Rosen, P. A.; Nazari, H.; Jackson, J. A.; Ghorashi, M.; Walker, R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">236</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25666012"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Ruptured</span> subcapsular hematoma of the liver due to pre-eclampsia presenting as interstitial pregnancy and the role of intra-abdominal packing.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Ruptured</span> subcapsular hematoma of the liver (RSHL) can mimic <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> interstitial pregnancy because each of these conditions occasionally presents at the same gestational period and both do manifest hemodynamic instability. The similarities between the two conditions pose a diagnostic challenge, especially in an unbooked patient. We report a case of an unbooked primigravida, at 21 weeks of gestation, who arrived at a regional hospital with evidence of intra-abdominal bleeding and hypovolemic <span class="hlt">shock</span>. She was diagnosed as potentially having a <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> interstitial pregnancy. During the ensuing emergency laparotomy, RSHL was discovered, the area around the <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> liver capsule was packed with large abdominal swabs, and the patient recovered. This case report illustrates the need to consider RSHL in patients presenting with features of <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> interstitial pregnancy, as this will assist in the planning of intraoperative care. We also describe abdominal packing and highlight the need for this essential surgical intervention to be taught to doctors practising in low-resource settings. PMID:25666012</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ngene, N C; Amin, N; Moodley, J</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2015-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">237</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25150334"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Ruptures</span> of the distal biceps tendon.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Distal biceps <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> occur most commonly in middle-aged males and result from eccentric contraction of the biceps tendon. The injury typically presents with pain and a tearing sensation in the antecubital fossa with resultant weakness in flexion and supination strength. Physical exam maneuvers and diagnostic imaging aid in determining the diagnosis. Nonoperative management is reserved for elderly, low demand patients, while operative intervention is generally pursued for younger patients and can consist of nonanatomic repair to the brachialis or anatomic repair to the radial tuberosity. Anatomic repair through a one-incision or two-incision approach is commonplace, while the nonanatomic repairs are rarely performed. No clear advantage exists in operative management with a one-incision versus two-incision techniques. Chronic <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> present a more difficult situation, and allograft augmentation is often necessary. Common complications after repair include transient nerve palsy, which often resolves, and heterotopic ossification. Despite these possible complications, most studies suggest that better patient outcomes are obtained with operative, anatomic reattachment of the distal biceps tendon. PMID:25150334</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ward, James P; Shreve, Mark C; Youm, Thomas; Strauss, Eric J</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">238</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFMIN41A1351Z"> <span id="translatedtitle">GPU Acceleration of Support Operator <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> Dynamics</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">SORD (Support Operator <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> Dynamics) is an open-source software based on a fourth-order finite-difference method which can simulate 3D elastic wave propagation and spontaneous <span class="hlt">rupture</span> on hexahedral mesh. It can be used for many kinds of surface boundary conditions, including free surface. The original software is developed by Geoffrey Ely from USC and modified by us for acceleration on GPU with NVIDIA CUDA. Our motivation on accelerating SORD on GPU is inspired by new generation GPU’s superior ability on general purpose computing and NVIDIA CUDA’s user-friendly developing environment for academic users. After translating the code from Fortran 95 to CUDA and implementing the transformed CUDA SORD code on the NVIDIA Tesla C1060, we obtained a factor of 6 speedup as compared to the original Fortran 95 version code , which was run on Intel Xeon X5570 2.9GHz. Our 3D wave solutions show explicitly visually in 3D format the different propagating wave fronts associated with the P and S waves according to the appropriate elastic parameter ratios. Because of the limitation of the global memory of NVIDIA Tesla C1060, too many more grid points would slow the calculation. However, by using the new NVIDIA Tesla C2070, which has 6 GBytes global memory, we can increase the simulation data size into 350X350X350.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zhou, Y.; Dong, T.; Yuen, D. A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">239</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011M%26PS...46.1774S"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Shock</span>-induced changes in density and porosity in <span class="hlt">shock</span>-metamorphosed crystalline rocks, Haughton impact structure, Canada</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Shock</span> metamorphism can occur at transient pressures that reach tens of GPa and well over 1000 °C, altering the target material on both megascopic and microscopic scales. This study explores the effects of <span class="hlt">shock</span> metamorphism on crystalline, quartzofeldspathic basement material from the Haughton impact structure on Devon Island, Arctic Canada. <span class="hlt">Shock</span> levels were assigned to samples based on petrographic examination of <span class="hlt">main</span> mineral phases. Conventional <span class="hlt">shock</span> classification schemes proved to incompletely describe the Haughton samples so a modified <span class="hlt">shock</span> classification system is presented. Fifty-two crystalline bedrock samples from the clast-rich impact melt rocks in the crater, and one reference site outside of the crater, were classified using this system. The <span class="hlt">shock</span> levels range from 0 to 7 (according to the new <span class="hlt">shock</span> stage classification proposed here, i.e., stages 0-IV after the Stöffler classification), indicating <span class="hlt">shock</span> pressures ranging from 0 to approximately 80 GPa. The second aspect of this study involved measuring bulk physical characteristics of the <span class="hlt">shocked</span> samples. The bulk density, grain density, and porosity were determined using a water displacement method, a bead displacement method, and a Hepycnometer. Results suggest a nonlinear, negative correlation between density and <span class="hlt">shock</span> level such that densities of crystalline rocks with original densities of approximately 3 g cm-3 are reduced to <1.0 g cm-3 at high <span class="hlt">shock</span> levels. The results also show a positive nonlinear correlation between porosity and <span class="hlt">shock</span> level. These data illustrate the effect of <span class="hlt">shock</span> on the bulk physical characteristics of crystalline rocks, and has implications for assessing the habitability of <span class="hlt">shocked</span> rocks.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Singleton, Alaura C.; Osinski, Gordon R.; McCausland, Phil J. A.; Moser, Desmond E.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">240</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3935821"> <span id="translatedtitle">Roles of hypertension in the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of intracranial aneurysms</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background and Purpose Systemic hypertension has long been considered as a risk factor of aneurysmal <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. However, a causal link between systemic hypertension and the development of aneurysmal <span class="hlt">rupture</span> has not been established. In this study, using a mouse model of intracranial aneurysm <span class="hlt">rupture</span>, we examined the roles of systemic hypertension in the development of aneurysmal <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. Methods Aneurysms were induced by a combination of deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-salt induced hypertension and a single injection of elastase into the cerebrospinal fluid in mice. Anti-hypertensive treatment was started six days after aneurysm induction. Aneurysmal <span class="hlt">rupture</span> was detected by neurological symptoms and confirmed by the presence of intracranial aneurysm with subarachnoid hemorrhage. Hydralazine (direct vasodilator) or the discontinuation of the DOCA-salt treatment was used to assess the roles of systemic hypertension. Captopril (angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor) or losartan (angiotensin II type 1 receptor antagonist) was used to assess the roles of the local renin-angiotensin system in the vascular wall. Results Normalization of blood pressure by hydralazine significantly reduced the incidence of <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> aneurysms and the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> rate. There was a dose dependent relationship between the reduction of blood pressure and the prevention of aneurysmal <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. Captopril and losartan were able to reduce the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> rates without affecting systemic hypertension induced by DOCA-salt treatment. Conclusions Normalization of blood pressure after aneurysm formation prevented aneurysmal <span class="hlt">rupture</span> in mice. In addition, we found that the inhibition of the local renin-angiotensin system independent from the reduction of blood pressure can prevent aneurysmal <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. PMID:24370755</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Tada, Yoshiteru; Wada, Kosuke; Shimada, Kenji; Makino, Hiroshi; Liang, Elena I.; Murakami, Shoko; Kudo, Mari; Kitazato, Keiko T.; Nagahiro, Shinji; Hashimoto, Tomoki</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" 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id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">241</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/54601567"> <span id="translatedtitle">Attempted Microwave Measurement of Temperature of a <span class="hlt">Shock</span>-Heated Plasma</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Microwave noise radiation offers a simple probeless way of measuring the electron temperature of a hot plasma. The <span class="hlt">main</span> difficulty usually lies in giving a true value to the emissivity. The temperature of the equilibrium region behind <span class="hlt">shocks</span> in argon has been determined from the measurement of the microwave noise emitted by the <span class="hlt">shock</span>-ionized argon in a <span class="hlt">shock</span> tube and</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">T. O. Aro; D. Walsh</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1967-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">242</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6041658"> <span id="translatedtitle">Auxiliary <span class="hlt">shock</span> absorber assembly</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This patent describes an auxiliary <span class="hlt">shock</span> absorber assembly adapted to be secured to the frame of a vehicle and to the vehicle suspension system for providing additional <span class="hlt">shock</span> absorption in the event of the vehicle impacts an irregularity in the roadway. The assembly comprises a <span class="hlt">shock</span> absorber having a piston rod extending from one end and includes means disposed for biasing the piston rod outwardly; means carried by the <span class="hlt">shock</span> absorber for securing the <span class="hlt">shock</span> absorber to the frame of the vehicle such that the piston rod extends downwardly, a first stop member carried by to the piston rod adjacent the end. A second stop member carries by the piston rod and spaced from the first stop member; and a bracket assembly defining means for securing the bracket assembly to the vehicle suspension system and means for slidably receiving the portion of the piston rod disposed between the stop members. The <span class="hlt">shock</span> absorber is secured to the frame of the vehicle and the bracket to the vehicle suspension system with the piston rod slideably through assembly between the stop members. Sufficient upward movement of the vehicle suspension system responds to the vehicle impacting an irregularity in the roadway causing the bracket assembly to abut the second stop member and urge the piston rod into the <span class="hlt">shock</span> absorber providing additional <span class="hlt">shock</span> absorbtion for the vehicle.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hetherington, T.G.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1987-07-07</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">243</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/50229145"> <span id="translatedtitle">Electromagnetic <span class="hlt">shock</span> absorber</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper introduces a novel passive suspension system for ground vehicles. The system is based a flexible electromagnetic <span class="hlt">shock</span> absorber (EMSA). In the proposed system, it is attempted: (a) to select a variable high damping coefficient usable in a car; (b) physical dimensions and the geometry of EMSA not to be very different from mechanical <span class="hlt">shock</span> absorbers; and (c) its</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">S. Mirzaei; S. M. Saghaiannejad; V. Tahani; M. Moallem</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">244</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://rohan.sdsu.edu/~steveday/PUBLISHED/HarrisDay05GRL.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Material contrast does not predict earthquake <span class="hlt">rupture</span> propagation Ruth A. Harris</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Material contrast does not predict earthquake <span class="hlt">rupture</span> propagation direction Ruth A. Harris U) earthquake <span class="hlt">rupture</span> propagation direction can be predicted from the material contrast, and 2) earthquake (2005), Material contrast does not predict earthquake <span class="hlt">rupture</span> propagation direction, Geophys. Res. Lett</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Day, Steven M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">245</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.rosakis.caltech.edu/downloads/pubs/2009/171%20Dynamic%20Path%20Selection.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Dynamic path selection along branched faults: Experiments involving sub-Rayleigh and supershear <span class="hlt">ruptures</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">ruptures</span> Carl-Ernst Rousseau1 and Ares J. Rosakis2 Received 27 October 2008; revised 12 March 2009 of <span class="hlt">rupture</span> propagation along a branch by the Mach cone, when the initial <span class="hlt">rupture</span> is supershear driven</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rosakis, Ares J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">246</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20307450"> <span id="translatedtitle">Achilles tendon <span class="hlt">rupture</span> following coblation for insertional Achilles tendinosis.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Radiofrequency microdebridement for Achilles tendinosis is a relatively new technique. We report a case of Achilles tendon <span class="hlt">rupture</span> in a patient eight weeks after coblation for his right insertional Achilles tendinosis. We believe that this is the first reported case of Achilles tendon <span class="hlt">rupture</span> following this new treatment of radiofrequency microdebridement for chronic Achilles tendinosis. PMID:20307450</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Akhtar, M A; Montgomery, H; Shenolikar, A</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">247</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22632531"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Ruptured</span> diaphragmatic eventration: a rare cause of acute postpartum dyspnea.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Rupture</span> of a maternal diaphragmatic hernia (DH) during pregnancy is a rare but significant complication. We describe a case of a maternal <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> DH, presenting as acute postpartum dyspnea, which required urgent operative repair. We report our surgical strategy and review the key concepts in the multidisciplinary management of this condition. PMID:22632531</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Servais, Elliot L; Stiles, Brendon M; Finnerty, Brendan M; Paul, Subroto</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">248</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/30742595"> <span id="translatedtitle">Achilles tendon <span class="hlt">rupture</span> and sciatica: a possible correlation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The association between Achilles tendon <span class="hlt">rupture</span> and sciatica was investigated by questionnaire in 138 patients who underwent repair of an Achilles tendon <span class="hlt">rupture</span>, and in a group of individuals nominated by the patients, matched for age, sex, and occupation. A total of 102 patients (74%) and 128 peer nominated controls (71%) replied to the questionnaire. Of the 102 respondent patients,</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">N. Maffulli; A. S. Irwin; M. G. Kenward; F. Smith; R. W. Porter</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1998-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">249</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16816956"> <span id="translatedtitle">Splenic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> after diagnostic colonoscopy: a case report.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Colonoscopy is a commonly used diagnostic and therapeutic procedure. Splenic injury or <span class="hlt">rupture</span> after this procedure is rare. We report a case of splenic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> and hematoma in a middle-aged man who presented with symptoms of worsened anemia after diagnostic colonoscopy. PMID:16816956</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zenooz, Navid A; Win, Thomas</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">250</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/12700051"> <span id="translatedtitle">SECONDARY POSTPARTUM HAEMORRHAGE DUE TO <span class="hlt">RUPTURE</span> OF UTERUS</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">We report a very unusual case of secondary postpartum hemorrhage due to uterine <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. Our case was a 23 years old lady who presented with heavy bleeding per vagina and gave his- tory of home delivery. <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> was most probably caused by injudicious use of oxytocic injec- tion by a Traditional Birth Attendant at home. Surprisingly, after recovering completely from</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Amna Memon; Raheel Sikandar; Fatima Memon; Farhana Saeed</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">251</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/47267936"> <span id="translatedtitle">Survivors of <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> abdominal aortic aneurysm: the iceberg's tip</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">In four and a half years 25 patients in one community suffered a <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> abdominal aortic aneurysm. Eleven died at home, nine died without operation in hospital, and only five had the aneurysm removed. There were four survivors. A further seven patients might have lived had they had a prompt operation. The average operative mortality for <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> aneurysms among series</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">R H Armour</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1977-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">252</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/eh60malr2hcbr7g4.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Anterior tibial compartment syndrome following <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of a popliteal cyst</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> popliteal cyst usually results in calf pain and swelling. We report the case of a patient with rheumatoid arthritis\\u000a who developed anterior compartment syndrome of the leg following <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of a popliteal cyst. Since acute compartment syndrome\\u000a requires prompt treatment, clinicians should be aware of this rare complication.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Toshio Ushiyama; Taku Kawasaki; Yoshitaka Matsusue</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">253</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3505939"> <span id="translatedtitle">Cutaneous Silicone Granuloma Mimicking Breast Cancer after <span class="hlt">Ruptured</span> Breast Implant</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Cutaneous manifestations due to migration of silicone from <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> implants are rare. Migrated silicone with cutaneous involvement has been found in the chest wall, abdominal wall, and lower extremities. We describe a case of cutaneous silicone granuloma in the breast exhibiting unusual growth mimicking breast cancer after a <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> implant. PMID:23198167</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">El-Charnoubi, Waseem Asim Ghulam; Foged Henriksen, Trine; Joergen Elberg, Jens</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">254</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://cnls.lanl.gov/~edaub/docs/daubusgs10.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">The physics of strain localization in dynamic earthquake <span class="hlt">rupture</span> simulations</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">) and Jean M. Carlson (UCSB) #12;Goal: improve our understanding of the basic physics of earthquake <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of the physics governing earthquake <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. Why? 2nd Problem: Occur at extreme physical conditions (hard in materials similar to faults: Faults contain granular material (gouge) Very finely crushed, no crystal</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Daub,Eric G.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">255</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/ofr20071437G"> <span id="translatedtitle">Development of Final A-Fault <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> Models for WGCEP/ NSHMP Earthquake Rate Model 2</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This appendix discusses how we compute the magnitude and rate of earthquake <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> for the seven Type-A faults (Elsinore, Garlock, San Jacinto, S. San Andreas, N. San Andreas, Hayward-Rodgers Creek, and Calaveras) in the WGCEP/NSHMP Earthquake Rate Model 2 (referred to as ERM 2. hereafter). By definition, Type-A faults are those that have relatively abundant paleoseismic information (e.g., mean recurrence-interval estimates). The first section below discusses segmentation-based models, where <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> are assumed be confined to one or more identifiable segments. The second section discusses an un-segmented-model option, the third section discusses results and implications, and we end with a discussion of possible future improvements. General background information can be found in the <span class="hlt">main</span> report.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Field, Edward H.; Weldon, Ray J., II; Parsons, Thomas; Wills, Chris J.; Dawson, Timothy E.; Stein, Ross S.; Petersen, Mark D.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">256</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23065487"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Rupture</span> of jejunal varices treated with balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Bleeding from varices arising from outside of the gastroesophageal region is rare. We report a case of <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> jejunal varices, successfully treated with B-RTO. Our patient was a 60-year-old man with alcoholic cirrhosis who had undergone total gastrectomy two years before he visited our clinic with tarry stool and hypotensive <span class="hlt">shock</span>. Results of 3DMDCT clearly showed variceal formation at the jejunal loop around the anastomotic site and abdominal wall as well as the extensive epigastric outflow tract, which finally drained into the left femoral vein. B-RTO was carried out via right femoral approach, using a microcatheter system. The varices disappeared, and the patient remained asymptomatic 18 months after the treatment. PMID:23065487</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Osame, Akinobu; Higashihara, Hideyuki; Urakawa, Hiroshi; Kora, Shinichi; Yoshimitsu, Kengo</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">257</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18081238"> <span id="translatedtitle">Malignant fibrous histiocytoma presenting as hemoperitoneum mimicking hepatocellular carcinoma <span class="hlt">rupture</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH) is a pleomorphic mesenchynal sarcoma. It is uncommonly arises primarily from the intra-peritoneal cavity. Primary peritoneal MFH with tumor bleeding and <span class="hlt">rupture</span> is rare. We describe the imaging features of a 70-year-old patient presenting with <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> hemorrhagic peritoneal MFH at subhepatic area, accompanied by massive hemoperitoneum, mimicking a <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> pedunculated hepatocellular carcinoma. Computed tomography (CT) revealed a large heterogeneous enhanced subhepatic mass with adjacent liver, gallbladder and colon invasion. Tumor hemorrhage and <span class="hlt">rupture</span> complicated with peritoneal seeding and massive bloody ascites were also detected. Angiography showed a hypervascular tumor fed by enlarged right hepatic arteries, cystic artery and omental branches of gastroepiploic artery. The patient underwent laparotomy for tumor resection, but the tumor recurred one month after operation. To our knowledge, the CT appearance of <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> intraperitoneal MFH complicated by hemoperitoneum has not been previously described. PMID:18081238</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Chen, Hsin-Chi; Chen, Chi-Jen; Jeng, Chin-Ming; Yang, Chan-Ming</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-12-21</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">258</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70027315"> <span id="translatedtitle">Material contrast does not predict earthquake <span class="hlt">rupture</span> propagation direction</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Earthquakes often occur on faults that juxtapose different rocks. The result is <span class="hlt">rupture</span> behavior that differs from that of an earthquake occurring on a fault in a homogeneous material. Previous 2D numerical simulations have studied simple cases of earthquake <span class="hlt">rupture</span> propagation where there is a material contrast across a fault and have come to two different conclusions: 1) earthquake <span class="hlt">rupture</span> propagation direction can be predicted from the material contrast, and 2) earthquake <span class="hlt">rupture</span> propagation direction cannot be predicted from the material contrast. In this paper we provide observational evidence from 70 years of earthquakes at Parkfield, CA, and new 3D numerical simulations. Both the observations and the numerical simulations demonstrate that earthquake <span class="hlt">rupture</span> propagation direction is unlikely to be predictable on the basis of a material contrast. Copyright 2005 by the American Geophysical Union.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Harris, R.A.; Day, S.M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">259</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22876065"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Rupture</span> of right hepatic duct into hydatid cyst.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Echinococcal disease can develop anywhere in the human body. The liver represents its most frequent location. Hepatic hydatid cysts may <span class="hlt">rupture</span> into the biliary tract, thorax, peritoneum, viscera, digestive tract or skin. We report a rare case with <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of the right hepatic duct into a hydatid cyst in a woman with known hydatid disease and choledocholithiasis. The increased intra-luminal pressure in the biliary tree caused the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> into the adjacent hydatid cyst. The creation of the fistula between the right hepatic duct and the hydatid cyst decompressed the biliary tree, decreased the bilirubin levels and offered a temporary resolution of the obstructive jaundice. <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> of a hydatid cyst into the biliary tree usually leads to biliary colic, cholangitis and jaundice. However, in case of obstructive jaundice due to choledocholithiasis, it is possible that the cyst may <span class="hlt">rupture</span> by other way around while offering the patient a temporary relief from his symptoms. PMID:22876065</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Michalopoulos, Nickolaos; Laskou, Styliani; Papavramidis, Theodossis S; Pliakos, Ioannis; Kotidis, Eustathios; Kesisoglou, Isaak; Papavramidis, Spiros T</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">260</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3410246"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Rupture</span> of Right Hepatic Duct into Hydatid Cyst</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Echinococcal disease can develop anywhere in the human body. The liver represents its most frequent location. Hepatic hydatid cysts may <span class="hlt">rupture</span> into the biliary tract, thorax, peritoneum, viscera, digestive tract or skin. We report a rare case with <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of the right hepatic duct into a hydatid cyst in a woman with known hydatid disease and choledocholithiasis. The increased intra-luminal pressure in the biliary tree caused the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> into the adjacent hydatid cyst. The creation of the fistula between the right hepatic duct and the hydatid cyst decompressed the biliary tree, decreased the bilirubin levels and offered a temporary resolution of the obstructive jaundice. <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> of a hydatid cyst into the biliary tree usually leads to biliary colic, cholangitis and jaundice. However, in case of obstructive jaundice due to choledocholithiasis, it is possible that the cyst may <span class="hlt">rupture</span> by other way around while offering the patient a temporary relief from his symptoms. PMID:22876065</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Laskou, Styliani; Papavramidis, Theodossis S.; Pliakos, Ioannis; Kotidis, Eustathios; Kesisoglou, Isaak; Papavramidis, Spiros T.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return 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showDiv("page_15");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">261</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2640825"> <span id="translatedtitle">Size and Location of <span class="hlt">Ruptured</span> Intracranial Aneurysms</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Objective The aim of study was to review our patient population to determine whether there is a critical aneurysm size at which the incidence of <span class="hlt">rupture</span> increases and whether there is a correlation between aneurysm size and location. Methods We reviewed charts and radiological findings (computed tomography (CT) scans, angiograms, CT angiography, magnetic resonance angiography) for all patients operated on for intracranial aneurysms in our hospital between September 2002 and May 2004. Of the 336 aneurysms that were reviewed, measurements were obtained from angiograms for 239 <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> aneurysms by a neuroradiologist at the time of diagnosis in our hospital. Results There were 115 male and 221 female patients assessed in this study. The locations of aneurysms were the middle cerebral artery (MCA, 61), anterior communicating artery (ACoA, 66), posterior communicating artery (PCoA, 52), the top of the basilar artery (15), internal carotid artery (ICA) including the cavernous portion (13), anterior choroidal artery (AChA, 7), A1 segment of the anterior cerebral artery (3), A2 segment of the anterior cerebral artery (11), posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA, 8), superior cerebellar artery (SCA, 2), P2 segment of the posterior cerebral artery (1), and the vertebral artery (2). The mean diameter of aneurysms was 5.47±2.536 mm in anterior cerebral artery (ACA), 6.84±3.941 mm in ICA, 7.09±3.652 mm in MCA and 6.21±3.697 mm in vertebrobasilar artery. The ACA aneurysms were smaller than the MCA aneurysms. Aneurysms less than 6 mm in diameter included 37 (60.65%) in patients with aneurysms in the MCA, 43 (65.15%) in patients with aneurysms in the ACoA and 29 (55.76%) in patients with aneurysms in the PCoA. Conclusion <span class="hlt">Ruptured</span> aneurysms in the ACA were smaller than those in the MCA. The most prevalent aneurysm size was 3-6 mm in the MCA (55.73%), 3-6 mm in the ACoA (57.57%) and 4-6 mm in the PCoA (42.30%). The more prevalent size of the aneurysm to treat may differ in accordance with the location of the aneurysm. PMID:19242565</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jung, Yong-Tae; Kim, Moo-Seong; Eun, Choong-Ki; Jang, Sang-Hwan</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">262</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014mcp..book..459K"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Dynamic Quasiperpendicular <span class="hlt">Shock</span>: Cluster Discoveries</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The physics of collisionless <span class="hlt">shocks</span> is a very broad topic which has been studied for more than five decades. However, there are a number of important issues which remain unresolved. The energy repartition amongst particle populations in quasiperpendicular <span class="hlt">shocks</span> is a multi-scale process related to the spatial and temporal structure of the electromagnetic fields within the <span class="hlt">shock</span> layer. The most important processes take place in the close vicinity of the major magnetic transition or ramp region. The distribution of electromagnetic fields in this region determines the characteristics of ion reflection and thus defines the conditions for ion heating and energy dissipation for supercritical <span class="hlt">shocks</span> and also the region where an important part of electron heating takes place. In other words, the ramp region determines the <span class="hlt">main</span> characteristics of energy repartition. All these processes are crucially dependent upon the characteristic spatial scales of the ramp and foot region provided that the <span class="hlt">shock</span> is stationary. The process of <span class="hlt">shock</span> formation consists of the steepening of a large amplitude nonlinear wave. At some point in its evolution the steepening is arrested by processes occurring within the <span class="hlt">shock</span> transition. From the earliest studies of collisionless <span class="hlt">shocks</span> these processes were identified as nonlinearity, dissipation, and dispersion. Their relative role determines the scales of electric and magnetic fields, and so control the characteristics of processes such as ion reflection, electron heating and particle acceleration. The determination of the scales of the electric and magnetic field is one of the key issues in the physics of collisionless <span class="hlt">shocks</span>. Moreover, it is well known that under certain conditions <span class="hlt">shocks</span> manifest a nonstationary dynamic behaviour called reformation. It was suggested that the transition from stationary to nonstationary quasiperiodic dynamics is related to gradients, e.g. scales of the ramp region and its associated whistler waves that form a precursor wave train. This implies that the ramp region should be considered as the source of these waves. All these questions have been studied making use observations from the Cluster satellites. The Cluster project continues to provide a unique viewpoint from which to study the scales of <span class="hlt">shocks</span>. During its lifetime the inter-satellite distance between the Cluster satellites has varied from 100 km to 10000 km allowing scientists to use the data best adapted for the given scientific objective.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Krasnoselskikh, V.; Balikhin, M.; Walker, S. N.; Schwartz, S.; Sundkvist, D.; Lobzin, V.; Gedalin, M.; Bale, S. D.; Mozer, F.; Soucek, J.; Hobara, Y.; Comisel, H.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">263</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3892058"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Ruptured</span> renal arteriovenous malformation successfully treated by catheter embolization: a case report</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background Renal arteriovenous fistula (RAVF) is a comparatively rare malformation. Here, we report a case of <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> RAVF that was successfully treated by catheter embolization. Case presentation An 89-year-old female was transferred to our institution with massive gross hematuria in March 2011. Plain abdominal computed tomography (CT) revealed dilated left renal pelvis with high-density contents. Hematoma was suspected. Subsequent plain abdominal magnetic resonance imaging revealed left hydronephrosis and blood retention in the dilated left renal pelvis. No renal or ureteral cancer was evident. Hematuria was conservatively treated using hemostatic agents but hematuria persisted. Repeated urinary cytology revealed no malignant cells. On day 9, the patient went into septic and/or hemorrhagic <span class="hlt">shock</span>. Fluid and catecholamine infusion, blood transfusion, and antibacterial drugs were rapidly initiated, and the patient’s general condition gradually improved. Contrast-enhanced abdominal CT revealed marked expansion of the hematoma in the renal pelvis and microaneurysms in the segmental arteries of the left kidney. Inflammation improved, and a left double-J stent was inserted. Selective renal angiography revealed RAVF with microaneurysms in the left segmental arteries; therefore, catheter embolization using metallic coils was performed, which resolved hematuria. Conclusion We report a case of <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> renal arteriovenous malformation, which was successfully treated by catheter embolization. PMID:24405847</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">264</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4253216"> <span id="translatedtitle">Management of <span class="hlt">Ruptured</span> Occult Left Hydronephrotic Kidney in 7-Year - old Boy: A Case Report</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Pre-existing, occult, congenital renal anomalies are often discovered during evaluation of children for blunt injury of the kidney and abdomen, presenting with or without haematuria. This is a report of 7-year-old boy; who presented with blunt injury abdomen with haematuria following fall from motorcycle. He had pallor, and features of hypovolumic <span class="hlt">shock</span> and peritonitis. Skiagram of the abdomen showed haziness of the abdomen, without free gas under diaphragm. Ultrasonography (USG) of the abdomen revealed significant hemoperitoneum and gross hydronephrosis of the left kidney, which was undiagnosed previously. Exploratory laparotomy was done for peritonitis and the findings were hemoperitoneum, hematoma at the left mesocolon and left retroperitoneum. Postoperative computed tomography (CT) scan of the abdomen reported left hydronephrosis due to pelvi-ureteric junction (PUJ) obstruction with <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of the renal pelvis. The <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> hydronephrotic kidney was successfully managed by nephrostomy followed by delayed open dismembered Anderson-Hynes pyeloplasty. His postoperative recovery following pyeloplasty was uneventful and he was doing well at follow-up after a month of pyeloplasty. PMID:25478398</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">More, Santosh</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">265</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21450310"> <span id="translatedtitle">Percutaneous Treatment of Sac <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> in Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms Previously Excluded with Endovascular Repair (EVAR)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility and effectiveness of percutaneous endovascular repair of <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) previously treated by EVAR. In the last year, two male patients with AAAs, treated 8 and 23 months ago with bifurcated stent-graft, were observed because of lumbar pain and hemorragic <span class="hlt">shock</span>. Multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) showed a retroperitoneal hematoma; in both cases a type III endoleak was detected, in one case associated with a type II endoleak from the iliolumbar artery. The procedures were performed in the theater, in emergency. Type II endoleak was treated with transcatheter superselective glue injection; type III endoleaks were excluded by a stent-graft extension. The procedures were successful in both patients, with immediate hemodynamic stabilization. MDCT after the procedure showed complete exclusion of the aneurysms. In conclusion, endovascular treatment is a safe and feasible option for the treatment of <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> AAAs previously treated by EVAR; this approach allows avoidance of surgical conversion, which is technical very challenging, with a high morbidity and mortality rate.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lagana, Domenico, E-mail: donlaga@gmail.com; Mangini, Monica, E-mail: monica.mangini@tin.it; Fontana, Federico; Nicotera, Paolo; Carrafiello, Gianpaolo; Fugazzola, Carlo [University of Insubria, Vascular and Interventional Radiology, Department of Radiology (Italy)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">266</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25478398"> <span id="translatedtitle">Management of <span class="hlt">Ruptured</span> Occult Left Hydronephrotic Kidney in 7-Year - old Boy: A Case Report.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Pre-existing, occult, congenital renal anomalies are often discovered during evaluation of children for blunt injury of the kidney and abdomen, presenting with or without haematuria. This is a report of 7-year-old boy; who presented with blunt injury abdomen with haematuria following fall from motorcycle. He had pallor, and features of hypovolumic <span class="hlt">shock</span> and peritonitis. Skiagram of the abdomen showed haziness of the abdomen, without free gas under diaphragm. Ultrasonography (USG) of the abdomen revealed significant hemoperitoneum and gross hydronephrosis of the left kidney, which was undiagnosed previously. Exploratory laparotomy was done for peritonitis and the findings were hemoperitoneum, hematoma at the left mesocolon and left retroperitoneum. Postoperative computed tomography (CT) scan of the abdomen reported left hydronephrosis due to pelvi-ureteric junction (PUJ) obstruction with <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of the renal pelvis. The <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> hydronephrotic kidney was successfully managed by nephrostomy followed by delayed open dismembered Anderson-Hynes pyeloplasty. His postoperative recovery following pyeloplasty was uneventful and he was doing well at follow-up after a month of pyeloplasty. PMID:25478398</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ghritlaharey, Rajendra K; More, Santosh</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">267</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21090653"> <span id="translatedtitle">Endovascular Treatment of <span class="hlt">Ruptured</span> Iliac Aneurysm Previously Treated by Endovascular Means</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A patient with a <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> iliac aneurysm was admitted to the Emergency Department in hypovolemic <span class="hlt">shock</span>. He had previously undergone surgical treatment for an infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm, which was managed with a terminal-terminal Dacron tube graft. Subsequently, he developed two iliac aneurysms, which were treated endovascularly with two wall-grafts in the right and one wall-graft in the left iliac arteries. He suffered chronic renal failure and arterial hypertension. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography showed <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of the right iliac aneurysm and dislocation of the two wall-grafts. He was treated in an emergency situation with the implantation of an iliac endograft that bridged the two wall-grafts, which resulted in hemostasis and stabilization of his condition. Five days later, in an elective surgical situation, he was treated with the implantation of an aorto-uni-iliac endograft combined with a femoral-femoral bypass. He was discharged 5 days later in good condition. At the 4 year follow-up visit, the endoprosthesis remained in place with no evidence of an endoleak. In conclusion, overlapping of endografts should be avoided, if possible. Strict surveillance of the endovascularly treated patient remains mandatory.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Dalainas, Ilias, E-mail: hdlns@freemail.gr; Nano, Giovanni; Stegher, Silvia; Bianchi, Paolo; Malacrida, Giovanni; Tealdi, Domenico G. [Policlinico San Donato, University of Milan, 1st Unit of Vascular Surgery (Italy)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-03-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">268</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19920074170&hterms=piston&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dpiston"> <span id="translatedtitle">A combustion driven <span class="hlt">shock</span> tunnel to complement the free piston <span class="hlt">shock</span> tunnel T5 at GALCIT</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A combustion driven <span class="hlt">shock</span> tunnel was designed and built at GALCIT to supply the hypersonic facility T5 with 'hot' hydrogen for mixing and combustion experiments. This system was chosen over other options for better flexibility and for safety reasons. The <span class="hlt">shock</span> tunnel is described and the overall efficiency of the system is discussed. The biggest challenge in the design was to synchronize the combustion driven <span class="hlt">shock</span> tunnel with T5. To do so, the <span class="hlt">main</span> diaphragm of the combustion driven <span class="hlt">shock</span> tunnel is locally melted by an electrical discharge. This local melting is rapidly followed by the complete collapse of the diaphragm in a very repeatable way. A first set of experiments on supersonic hydrogen transverse jets over a flat plate have just been completed with the system and some of the preliminary results are presented.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Belanger, Jacques; Hornung, Hans G.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1992-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">269</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/33929858"> <span id="translatedtitle">Simultaneous bilateral Achilles tendon <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> associated with statin medication despite regular rock climbing exercise</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Introduction<span class="hlt">Ruptures</span> of the Achilles tendon are common however simultaneous <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> occur less frequently. Eccentric loading exercise programmes have been used to successfully treat Achilles tendinopathy.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Michael R. Carmont; Adrian M. Highland; Christopher M. Blundell; Mark B. Davies</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">270</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25766435"> <span id="translatedtitle">Triceps tendon <span class="hlt">rupture</span>: an uncommon orthopaedic condition.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Triceps tendon disruption is a rare orthopaedic injury that can lead to poor outcomes if misdiagnosed or managed inappropriately. This case report illustrates the importance of early, precise diagnosis of triceps <span class="hlt">rupture</span> by clinical and radiological examination with appropriate management. A weightlifter who had fallen while riding his bike presented with pain, swelling around the posterior aspect of the left arm just above the elbow. Physical examination revealed ecchymosis and weakness in elbow extension. A radiograph of the elbow showed a small fleck of bone proximal to the tip of the olecranon. The patient was initially stabilised. Early intervention in the form of primary tendon repair was performed within 3?days and rehabilitation was started. The patient improved significantly to his best possible functional status with Mayo elbow score of 85. Early intervention was the key to better prognosis. PMID:25766435</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bunshah, Jamshed Jal; Raghuwanshi, Sagar; Sharma, Deepak; Pandita, Aakash</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2015-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">271</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15698332"> <span id="translatedtitle">Multifractal scaling of thermally activated <span class="hlt">rupture</span> processes.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We propose a "multifractal stress activation" model combining thermally activated <span class="hlt">rupture</span> and long memory stress relaxation, which predicts that seismic decay rates after mainshocks follow the Omori law approximately 1/t(p) with exponents p linearly increasing with the magnitude M(L) of the mainshock. We carefully test this prediction on earthquake sequences in the Southern California earthquake catalog: we find power law relaxations of seismic sequences triggered by mainshocks with exponents p increasing with the mainshock magnitude by approximately 0.1-0.15 for each magnitude unit increase, from p(M(L) = 3) approximately 0.6 to p(M(L) = 7) approximately 1.1, in good agreement with the prediction of the multifractal model. PMID:15698332</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sornette, D; Ouillon, G</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-28</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">272</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/50482638"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Shock</span> Protection Using Integrated Nonlinear Spring <span class="hlt">Shock</span> Stops</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper reports the fabrication and testing of integrated nonlinear spring <span class="hlt">shock</span> stops to protect micromachined devices. This approach enables a generic batch micro-packaging technology providing superior <span class="hlt">shock</span> protection over conventional hard <span class="hlt">shock</span> stops, and can be conveniently integrated with micromachined devices without additional fabrication processes and excessive area expansion. These advantages are demonstrated by integrating the nonlinear spring <span class="hlt">shock</span></p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">S. W. Yoon; N. Yazdi; J. Chae; N. C. Perkins; K. Najafi</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">273</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19910053650&hterms=burgers&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dburgers"> <span id="translatedtitle">Alfven <span class="hlt">shock</span> trains</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Cohen-Kulsrud-Burgers equation (CKB) is used to consider the nonlinear evolution of resistive, quasi-parallel Alfven waves subject to a long-wavelength, plane-polarized, monochromatic instability. The instability saturates by nonlinear steepening, which proceeds until the periodic waveform develops an interior scale length comparable to the dissipation length; a fast or an intermediate <span class="hlt">shock</span> then forms. The result is a periodic train of Alfven <span class="hlt">shocks</span> of one or the other type. For propagation strictly parallel to the magnetic field, there will be two <span class="hlt">shocks</span> per instability wavelength. Numerical integration of the time-dependent CKB equation shows that an initial, small-amplitude growing wave asymptotes to a stable, periodic stationary wave whose analytic solution specifies how the type of <span class="hlt">shock</span> embedded in the <span class="hlt">shock</span> train, and the amplitude and speed of the <span class="hlt">shock</span> train, depend on the strength and phase of the instability. Waveforms observed upstream of the earth's bowshock and cometary <span class="hlt">shocks</span> resemble those calculated here.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Malkov, M. A.; Kennel, C. F.; Wu, C. C.; Pellat, R.; Shapiro, V. D.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1991-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">274</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3785560"> <span id="translatedtitle">[New clinical grading in <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> cerebral aneurysm].</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A new clinical grading of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) due to <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> aneurysm, classified by the presence or absence of vomiting, and by the duration of initial unconciousness at the time of bleeding, is proposed. Grade I: headache without vomiting, Grade II: headache, vomiting, and/or loss of consciousness lasting less than one hour, Grade III: loss of consciouness for over one hour. Grade IV: permanent unconsciousness or cerebral herniation signs. Based on the clinical records, 142 cases of <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> cerebral aneurysms directly operated on in phases varying from peracute phase (within 72 hours) to delayed phase (22 days or over) were retrospectively analyzed. They included 99 cases which were operated on under microscope. The Hunt & Hess grading was applied just before surgery. Outcome at the 6 month to 1 year follow-up was rated as good, fair, poor and dead. Correlations between the severity and the outcome were calculated using the chi-square test and the levels of significance were compared with those between the recent Hunt and Hess grading and the outcome. In the total of 142 cases, correlation between the clinical severity and the outcome was significant (P less than 0.0005), whereas correlation between the Hunt & Hess grading and the outcome was not significant. In the analysis of cases classified by the operative timing, the clinical severity showed good correlation in the peracute (within 72 hours after SAH) (P less than 0.05) alone, while Hunt & Hess grading showed correlation in delayed phase alone. Neither of the gradings was significant in the acute phase or subacute phase.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3785560</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sato, J; Masuzawa, H; Shiraishi, K; Kanazawa, I; Kamitani, H</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1986-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">275</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930061501&hterms=piston&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Dpiston"> <span id="translatedtitle">Performance data of the new free-piston <span class="hlt">shock</span> tunnel T5 at GALCIT</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A new free piston <span class="hlt">shock</span> tunnel has been constructed at the Graduate Aeronautical Laboratories at Caltec. Compression tube length is 30 m and diameter 300 mm. <span class="hlt">Shock</span> tube length is 12 m and diameter 90 mm. Piston mass is 150 kg and maximum diaphragm burst pressure is 130 MPa. Special features of this facility are that the pressure in the driver gas is monitored throughout the compression process until well after diaphragm <span class="hlt">rupture</span>, and that the diaphragm burst pressure can be measured dynamically. An analysis of initial performance data including transient behavior of the flow over models is presented.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hornung, H.; Sturtevant, B.; Belanger, J.; Sanderson, S.; Brouillette, M.; Jenkins, M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1992-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">276</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6143109"> <span id="translatedtitle">Comparative yield estimation via <span class="hlt">shock</span> hydrodynamic methods</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Shock</span> TOA (CORRTEX) from recent underground nuclear explosions in saturated tuff were used to estimate yield via the simulated explosion-scaling method. The sensitivity of the derived yield to uncertainties in the measured <span class="hlt">shock</span> Hugoniot, release adiabats, and gas porosity is the <span class="hlt">main</span> focus of this paper. In this method for determining yield, we assume a point-source explosion in an infinite homogeneous material. The rock is formulated using laboratory experiments on core samples, taken prior to the explosion. Results show that increasing gas porosity from 0% to 2% causes a 15% increase in yield per ms/kt{sup 1/3}. 6 refs., 4 figs.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Attia, A.V.; Moran, B.; Glenn, L.A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1991-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">277</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19920022920&hterms=fat+wang&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dfat%2Bwang"> <span id="translatedtitle">Nonlinearly stable compact schemes for <span class="hlt">shock</span> calculations</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The applications of high-order, compact finite difference methods in <span class="hlt">shock</span> calculations are discussed. The <span class="hlt">main</span> concern is to define a local mean which will serve as a reference for introducing a local nonlinear limiting to control spurious numerical oscillations while maintaining the formal accuracy of the scheme. For scalar conservation laws, the resulting schemes can be proven total-variation stable in one space dimension and maximum-norm stable in multiple space dimensions. Numerical examples are shown to verify accuracy and stability of such schemes for problems containing <span class="hlt">shocks</span>. These ideas can also be applied to other implicit schemes such as the continuous Galerkin finite element methods.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Cockburn, Bernardo; Shu, Chi-Wang</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1992-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">278</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ShWav..24..365D"> <span id="translatedtitle">Area change effects on <span class="hlt">shock</span> wave propagation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Experimental testing was conducted for a planar <span class="hlt">shock</span> wave of incident Mach number propagating through one of three compound parabolic profiles of 130, 195 or 260 mm in length, all of which exhibit an 80 % reduction in area. Both high-resolution single shot and low-resolution video were used in a schlieren arrangement. Results showed three <span class="hlt">main</span> types of flow scenarios for propagation through a gradual area reduction, and an optimal net increase of 12.7 % in <span class="hlt">shock</span> Mach number was determined for the longest profile, which is within 5 % of theoretical predictions using Milton's modified Chester-Chisnell-Whitham relation.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Dowse, J.; Skews, B.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">279</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ShWav..23..317P"> <span id="translatedtitle">Imploding conical <span class="hlt">shock</span> waves</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The behaviour of conical <span class="hlt">shock</span> waves imploding axisymmetrically was first studied numerically by Hornung (J Fluid Mech 409:1-12, 2000) and this prompted a limited experimental investigation into these complex flow patterns by Skews et al. (<span class="hlt">Shock</span> Waves 11:323-326, 2002). Modification of the simulation boundary conditions, resulting in the loss of self-similarity, was necessary to image the flow experimentally. The current tests examine the temporal evolution of these flows utilising a converging conical gap of fixed width fed by a <span class="hlt">shock</span> wave impinging at its entrance, supported by CFD simulations. The effects of gap thickness, angle and incident <span class="hlt">shock</span> strength were investigated. The wave initially diffracts around the outer lip of the gap shedding a vortex which, for strong incident <span class="hlt">shock</span> cases, can contain embedded <span class="hlt">shocks</span>. The converging <span class="hlt">shock</span> at exit reflects on the axis of symmetry with the reflected wave propagating outwards resulting in a triple point developing on the incident wave together with the associated shear layer. This axisymmetric shear layer rolls up into a mushroom-shaped toroidal vortex ring and forward-facing jet. For strong <span class="hlt">shocks</span>, this deforms the Mach disk to the extent of forming a second triple point with the primary <span class="hlt">shock</span> exhibiting a double bulge. Separate features resembling the Richtmeyer-Meshkov and Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities were noted in some tests. Aside from the incident wave curvature, the reflection patterns demonstrated correspond well with the V- and DV-types identified by Hornung although type S was not clearly seen, possibly due to the occlusion of the reflection region by the outer diffraction vortex at these early times. Some additional computational work explicitly exploring the limits of the parameter space for such systems has demonstrated the existence of a possible further reflection type, called vN-type, which is similar to the von Neumann reflection for plane waves. It is recommended that the parameter space be more thoroughly explored experimentally.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Paton, R. T.; Skews, B. W.; Rubidge, S.; Snow, J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">280</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19740033681&hterms=speed+class&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Dspeed%2Bclass"> <span id="translatedtitle">A composite model for a class of electric-discharge <span class="hlt">shock</span> tubes</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A gasdynamic model is presented and analyzed for a class of <span class="hlt">shock</span> tubes that utilize both Joule heating and electromagnetic forces to produce high-speed <span class="hlt">shock</span> waves. The model consists of several stages of acceleration in which acceleration to sonic conditions is achieved principally through heating, and further acceleration of the supersonic flow is obtained principally through use of electromagnetic forces. The utility of the model results from the fact that it predicts a quasi-steady flow process, mathematical analysis is straightforward, and it is even possible to remove one or more component stages and still have the model related to a possible <span class="hlt">shock</span>-tube flow. Initial experiments have been performed where the electrical discharge configuration and current level were such that Joule heating was the dominant form of energy addition present. These experiments indicate that the predictions of the model dealing with heat addition correspond quite closely to reality. The experimental data together with the theory show that heat addition to the flowing driver gas after diaphragm <span class="hlt">rupture</span> (approach used in the model) is much more effective in producing high-speed <span class="hlt">shock</span> waves than heating the gas in the driver before diaphragm <span class="hlt">rupture</span>, as in the case of the arc-driven <span class="hlt">shock</span> tube.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Elkins, R. T.; Baganoff, D.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1973-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return 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id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">281</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19820056800&hterms=baranow&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dbaranow"> <span id="translatedtitle">Creep and <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of an ODS alloy with high stress <span class="hlt">rupture</span> ductility. [Oxide Dispersion Strengthened</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The creep and stress <span class="hlt">rupture</span> properties of an oxide (Y2O3) dispersion strengthened nickel-base alloy, which also is strengthened by gamma-prime precipitates, was studied at 760 and 1093 C. At both temperatures, the alloy YDNiCrAl exhibits unusually high stress <span class="hlt">rupture</span> ductility as measured by both elongation and reduction in area. Failure was transgranular, and different modes of failure were observed including crystallographic fracture at intermediate temperatures and tearing or necking almost to a chisel point at higher temperatures. While the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> ductility was high, the creep strength of the alloy was low relative to conventional gamma prime strengthened superalloys in the intermediate temperature range and to ODS alloys in the higher temperature range. These findings are discussed with respect to the alloy composition; the strengthening oxide phases, which are inhomogeneously dispersed; the grain morphology, which is coarse and elongated and exhibits many included grains; and the second phase inclusion particles occurring at grain boundaries and in the matrix. The creep properties, in particular the high stress dependencies and high creep activation energies measured, are discussed with respect to the resisting stress model of creep in particle strengthened alloys.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mcalarney, M. E.; Arsons, R. M.; Howson, T. E.; Tien, J. K.; Baranow, S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1982-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">282</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014RScI...85a5107L"> <span id="translatedtitle">A cylindrical converging <span class="hlt">shock</span> tube for <span class="hlt">shock</span>-interface studies</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A <span class="hlt">shock</span> tube facility for generating a cylindrical converging <span class="hlt">shock</span> wave is developed in this work. Based on the <span class="hlt">shock</span> dynamics theory, a specific wall profile is designed for the test section of the <span class="hlt">shock</span> tube to transfer a planar <span class="hlt">shock</span> into a cylindrical one. The <span class="hlt">shock</span> front in the converging part obtained from experiment presents a perfect circular shape, which proves the feasibility and reliability of the method. The time variations of the <span class="hlt">shock</span> strength obtained from numerical simulation, experiment, and theoretical estimation show the desired converging effect in the <span class="hlt">shock</span> tube test section. Particular emphasis is then placed on the problem of <span class="hlt">shock</span>-interface interaction induced by cylindrical converging <span class="hlt">shock</span> waves. For this purpose, membrane-less gas cylinder is adopted to form the interface between two different fluids while the laser sheet technique to visualize the flow field. The result shows that it is convenient to perform such experiments in this facility.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Luo, Xisheng; Si, Ting; Yang, Jiming; Zhai, Zhigang</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">283</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015A%26A...576A.100F"> <span id="translatedtitle">Entropy generation at multi-fluid magnetohydrodynamic <span class="hlt">shocks</span> with emphasis to the solar wind termination <span class="hlt">shock</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In a series of earlier papers, we developed expressions for ion and electron velocity distribution functions and their velocity moments at the passage over the solar wind termination <span class="hlt">shock</span>. As we have shown there, with the introduction of appropriate particle invariants and the use of Liouville's theorem one can get explicit solutions for the resulting total downstream pressure by adding up from partial pressure contributions of solar wind protons, solar wind electrons and pick-up protons. These expressions are the first step toward delivering the <span class="hlt">main</span> contributions to the total plasma pressure in the downstream plasma flow and consistently determine the <span class="hlt">shock</span> compression ratio. Here we start from these individual fluid pressures downstream of the <span class="hlt">shock</span> and thereafter evaluate for the first time the <span class="hlt">shock</span>-induced entropy production of the different fluids, when they are passing over the <span class="hlt">shock</span> to the downstream side. As shown here, the resulting ion entropy production substantially deviates from earlier calculations using a pseudo-polytropic reaction of the ions to the <span class="hlt">shock</span> compression, with polytropies selected to describe fluid-specific reactions at the <span class="hlt">shock</span> passage similar to those seen by the Voyagers. From these latter models, ion entropy jumps are derived that depend on the pick-up ion abundance, while our calculations deliver an abundance-independent ion entropy production that only depends on the <span class="hlt">shock</span> compression ratio and the tilt angle between the upstream magnetic field and the normal to the <span class="hlt">shock</span> surface. We also show here that the thermodynamically permitted upper limit in the entropy production is only reached when strongly heated electrons are included in the entropy balance.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Fahr, H.-J.; Siewert, M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2015-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">284</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19890040112&hterms=Bischoff&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DBischoff"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Shock</span> effects in meteorites</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The impacts that can occur between objects on intersecting solar system orbits can generate <span class="hlt">shock</span>-induced deformations and transformations, creating new mineral phases or melting old ones. These <span class="hlt">shock</span>-metamorphic effects affect not only the petrography but the chemical and isotopic properties and the ages of primordial meteoritic materials. A fuller understanding of <span class="hlt">shock</span> metamorphism and breccia formation in meteorites will be essential not only in the study of early accretion, differentiation, and regolith-evolution processes, but in the characterization of the primordial composition of the accreted material itself.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Stoeffler, D.; Bischoff, A.; Buchwald, V.; Rubin, A. E.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1988-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">285</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://arxiv.org/pdf/astro-ph/0111380v1"> <span id="translatedtitle">Resolved <span class="hlt">shocks</span> in clumpy media</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We study the structure of <span class="hlt">shocks</span> in clumpy media, using a multifluid formalism. As expected, <span class="hlt">shocks</span> broaden as they weaken: for sufficiently weak <span class="hlt">shocks</span>, no viscous subshock appears in the structure. This has significant implications for the survival of dense clouds in regions overrun by <span class="hlt">shocks</span> in a wide range of astrophysical circumstances, from planetary nebulae to the nuclei of starburst galaxies.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">R. J. R. Williams; J. E. Dyson</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-11-20</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">286</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005AGUFM.S41B0991F"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Rupture</span> geometry of microearthquakes inferred from analysis of multiple events</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Complicated waveforms of some swarm earthquakes in West Bohemia, Central Europe indicate complicated <span class="hlt">rupture</span> history and possible space separation of several subruptures. I obtained the position and timing of the subevents building up the multiple event by waveform modeling with the use of empirical Green's functions. In total 18 multiple events were successfully modeled as double or triple events with separate <span class="hlt">rupture</span> positions. The separation of subsources reached 100 ms in time and 320 m in space. The relative positions of the subevents with respect to the geometry of the fault indicate that most of them occurred very close to the common fault plane that was activated during the swarm. The space-time separation of the subevents corresponds to a speed of 3.0 km/s, a value typical for <span class="hlt">rupture</span> propagation of large earthquakes. The later subevents occur farther than the nominal <span class="hlt">rupture</span> radius of the first subevent, and their mutual distance scales with magnitude. These observations suggest that the analyzed multiple-events share a common fault surface and that their subevents represent individual <span class="hlt">rupture</span> episodes. The angular distribution of the position vectors of later subevents indicates that many of them result from a slip-parallel <span class="hlt">rupture</span> growth, while some of the <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> propagate upwards. The hypocenters of the multiple events are not distributed uniformly on the fault plane; their clustering indicates that some patches of the fault are more likely to generate a stick-slip failure than the others.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Fischer, T.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">287</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.S41B2448Y"> <span id="translatedtitle">Active Faults of the Northwest Himalaya: Pattern, Rate, and Timing of Surface <span class="hlt">Rupturing</span> Earthquakes</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The 2005 Kashmir earthquake (Mw 7.6) is the only Himalayan earthquake to <span class="hlt">rupture</span> the surface since the 15th to 16th century A.D. when >Mw 8.5 earthquakes <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> the Himalayan Frontal thrust (HFT) in the central Himalaya. Megathrust-type earthquakes like these seem to relieve a majority of the accumulated interseismic strain and concentrate permanent strain across a narrow width at the deformation front (faults within the orogen appear to accommodate little strain). The 2005 within-plate <span class="hlt">rupture</span> in Kashmir may be a clue that a different seismotectonic model applies to the northwest Himalaya where active deformation occurs on faults distributed more than 120 km across the orogen. An asymmetric anticline marks the deformation front in Kashmir where the HFT is inferred to be blind, though ~20 m-high escarpments suggest that unrecognized thrust fault(s) may reach the surface locally. Folded river terraces and dip data also suggest that this frontal fold contains a SW-dipping back thrust. In Pakistan the Salt Range thrust system (SRT) defines the thrust front. New mapping and preliminary OSL dates from deformed Holocene sediments exposed along the westernmost SRT reveal that the fault slips at 1-7 mm/yr and last <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> within the last several thousand years. Within the orogenic wedge to the north of the deformation front, active shortening occurs along a system of surface-<span class="hlt">rupturing</span> reverse faults, extending from the Balakot-Bagh fault (source of the 2005 Kashmir earthquake) to the Reasi fault (RF) in Indian Kashmir to the southeast. One strand of the RF displaces a 350 m-high, 80 ± 6 ka (preliminary OSL age) fluvial terrace, yielding a minimum shortening rate of 3-5 mm/yr. Trenches excavated across the RF nearby reveal a distinct angular unconformity that likely formed during a surface <span class="hlt">rupture</span> ~4500 yrs BP. Farther north, three northeast-dipping reverse faults cut Quaternary terraces on the southwest side of the Kashmir Valley. Trenches expose evidence for at least 2 surface <span class="hlt">rupturing</span> events in the latest Quaternary and a shortening rate of 0.3 to 1.3 mm/yr. The active structures described above can account for 15 to 50% of India-Asia convergence, with up to ~20% of the shortening occurring on structures within the orogenic belt. Seismicity in the NW Himalaya is also broadly distributed but tends to concentrate in several places (e.g., the Indus-Kohistan and Hazara Lower seismic zones). Like in the central Himalaya, the zones of seismicity in the NW Himalaya may locate regions where interseismic strain accumulates, possibly in the middle crust along thrust ramps, and is released during large (>Mw 7.5) events. These relatively infrequent earthquakes likely activate portions (all?) of the plate boundary detachment fault and/or the within-plate fault systems. It may be possible for the region to generate earthquakes as large as >Mw 8.5, taking into account a reasonable average slip value and maximum possible <span class="hlt">rupture</span> area. Recognition of internal surface-<span class="hlt">rupturing</span> reverse faults indicates probabilistic models for seismic hazards in the NW Himalaya ought to account for great earthquakes on the <span class="hlt">Main</span> Himalayan thrust (the basal detachment), moderate earthquakes on upper plate faults, and potentially events in the down-going Indian plate.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yule, J.; Madden, C.; Gavillot, Y.; Hebeler, A.; Meigs, A.; Hussein, A.; Malik, M.; Bhat, M.; Kausar, A.; Ramzan, S.; Sayab, M.; Yeats, R. S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">288</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4088961"> <span id="translatedtitle">Life <span class="hlt">Shocks</span> and Homelessness</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We exploited an exogenous health <span class="hlt">shock</span>—namely, the birth of a child with a severe health condition—to investigate the effect of a life <span class="hlt">shock</span> on homelessness in large cities in the United States as well as the interactive effects of the <span class="hlt">shock</span> with housing market characteristics. We considered a traditional measure of homelessness, two measures of housing instability thought to be precursors to homelessness, and a combined measure that approximates the broadened conceptualization of homelessness under the 2009 Homeless Emergency Assistance and Rapid Transition to Housing Act (2010). We found that the <span class="hlt">shock</span> substantially increases the likelihood of family homelessness, particularly in cities with high housing costs. The findings are consistent with the economic theory of homelessness, which posits that homelessness results from a conjunction of adverse circumstances in which housing markets and individual characteristics collide. PMID:23868747</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Corman, Hope; Noonan, Kelly; Reichman, Nancy E.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">289</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23868747"> <span id="translatedtitle">Life <span class="hlt">shocks</span> and homelessness.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We exploited an exogenous health <span class="hlt">shock</span>-namely, the birth of a child with a severe health condition-to investigate the effect of a life <span class="hlt">shock</span> on homelessness in large cities in the United States as well as the interactive effects of the <span class="hlt">shock</span> with housing market characteristics. We considered a traditional measure of homelessness, two measures of housing instability thought to be precursors to homelessness, and a combined measure that approximates the broadened conceptualization of homelessness under the 2009 Homeless Emergency Assistance and Rapid Transition to Housing Act (2010). We found that the <span class="hlt">shock</span> substantially increases the likelihood of family homelessness, particularly in cities with high housing costs. The findings are consistent with the economic theory of homelessness, which posits that homelessness results from a conjunction of adverse circumstances in which housing markets and individual characteristics collide. PMID:23868747</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Curtis, Marah A; Corman, Hope; Noonan, Kelly; Reichman, Nancy E</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">290</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1358255"> <span id="translatedtitle">Blunt traumatic cardiac <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. A 5-year experience.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Blunt traumatic cardiac <span class="hlt">rupture</span> is associated with a high rate of mortality. A review of the computerized trauma registry (1983 to 1988) identified 32 patients with this injury (ages 19 to 65 years; mean age, 39.5 years; 21 men and 11 women). Twenty-one patients (65.6%) were injured in vehicular crashes, 3 (9.4%) in pedestrian accidents, 3 (9.4%) in motorcycle accidents; 3 (9.4%) sustained crush injury; 1 (3.1%) was injured by a fall; and 1 (3.1%) was kicked in the chest by a horse. Anatomic injuries included right atrial <span class="hlt">rupture</span> (13[40.6%]), left atrial <span class="hlt">rupture</span> (8 [25%]), right ventricular <span class="hlt">rupture</span> (10[31.3%]), left ventricular <span class="hlt">rupture</span> (4[12.5%]), and <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of two cardiac chambers (3 [9.4%]). Diagnosis was made by thoracotomy in all 20 patients presenting in cardiac arrest. In the remaining 12 patients, the diagnosis was established in seven by emergency left anterolateral thoracotomy and in five by subxyphoid pericardial window. Seven of these 12 patients (58.3%) had clinical cardiac tamponade and significant upper torso cyanosis. The mean Injury Severity Score (ISS), Trauma Score (TS), and Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score were 33.8, 13.2, and 14.3, respectively, among survivors and 51.5, 8.3, and 7.0 for nonsurvivors. The overall mortality rate was 81.3% (26 of 32 patients), the only survivors being those presenting with vital signs (6 of 12 patients [50%]). All patients with <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of two cardiac chambers or with ventricular <span class="hlt">rupture</span> died. The mortality rate from myocardial <span class="hlt">rupture</span> is very high. Rapid prehospital transportation, a high index of suspicion, and prompt surgical intervention contribute to survival in these patients. PMID:2256761</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Brathwaite, C E; Rodriguez, A; Turney, S Z; Dunham, C M; Cowley, R</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1990-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">291</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.6261G"> <span id="translatedtitle">Interaction of dynamic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> with small-scale heterogeneities</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Broadband ground motion simulations, with frequencies up to 10Hz, are important for engineering purposes, in particular for seismic hazard assessment for critical facilities. One problem in such simulations is the generation of high frequency radiation emitted during the dynamic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> process. Ad-hoc kinematic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> characterizations can be tweaked through empirical models to radiate over the desired frequency range, but their physical consistency remains questionable. In contrast, for physically self-consistent dynamic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> modeling, controlled by friction, material parameters and the adopted physical laws, the mechanism that may lead to appropriate high-frequency radiation require heterogeneity in friction, stress, or fault geometry (or even all three quantities) at unknown but small length scales. Dunham at al. (2011) studied dynamic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> propagation on rough faults in 2D, and described how fault roughness excites high-frequency radiation. In our study, we focus on the interaction of the dynamic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> with small-scale heterogeneities on planar faults in 3D. We study effects of the interaction of dynamic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> with 1) small-scale heterogeneities in the medium (that is, randomized 3D wave speed and density variations), and 2) small-scale heterogeneities in the frictional parameters. Our numerical results show significant variations in <span class="hlt">rupture</span> velocity or peak slip velocity if small-scale heterogeneities are present. This indicates that the dynamic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> is sensitive to both types of spatial inhomogeneity. At the same time we observe that the resulting near-source seismic wave fields are not very sensitive to these <span class="hlt">rupture</span> variations, indicating that wavefront healing effects may "simplify" the complex seismic radiation once the waves propagated several wave-lengths away from the fault.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Galis, Martin; Mai, P. Martin</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">292</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23683197"> <span id="translatedtitle">Attosecond <span class="hlt">shock</span> waves.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Shock</span>-wave formation is a generic scenario of wave dynamics known in nonlinear acoustics, fluid dynamics, astrophysics, seismology, and detonation physics. Here, we show that, in nonlinear optics, remarkably short, attosecond <span class="hlt">shock</span> transients can be generated through a strongly coupled spatial and temporal dynamics of ultrashort light pulses, suggesting a pulse self-compression scenario whereby multigigawatt attosecond optical waveforms can be synthesized. PMID:23683197</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zhokhov, P A; Zheltikov, A M</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">293</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19890000191&hterms=shock+absorber&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dshock%2Babsorber"> <span id="translatedtitle">"Smart" Electromechanical <span class="hlt">Shock</span> Absorber</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Shock</span>-absorbing apparatus includes electromechanical actuator and digital feedback control circuitry rather than springs and hydraulic damping as in conventional <span class="hlt">shock</span> absorbers. Device not subject to leakage and requires little or no maintenance. Attenuator parameters adjusted in response to sensory feedback and predictive algorithms to obtain desired damping characteristic. Device programmed to decelerate slowly approaching vehicle or other large object according to prescribed damping characteristic.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Stokes, Lebarian; Glenn, Dean C.; Carroll, Monty B.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1989-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">294</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/27060651"> <span id="translatedtitle">Electric <span class="hlt">shock</span> hazard</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A long-standing expert on electric-<span class="hlt">shock</span> hazards summarizes the studies that determined the effective body impedance under varying conditions. He describes perception currents, reaction currents, let-go currents, and fibrillating currents. Turning to means for reducing low-voltage (120-240-volt) hazards, double insulation, <span class="hlt">shock</span> limitation, isolation transformers, and the use of either high frequency or direct current are discussed for various environments. Macroshock is</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Charles F. Dalziel</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1972-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">295</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22419793"> <span id="translatedtitle">TachoSil for postinfarction ventricular free wall <span class="hlt">rupture</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Despite a decline in the last three decades, postinfarction ventricular free wall <span class="hlt">rupture</span> still complicates more than 3% of acute ST-elevation myocardial infarctions and remains a surgical challenge. TachoSil (Nycomed, Zurich, Switzerland) is an equine collagen patch coated with human fibrinogen and human thrombin, which has recently been used for haemostasis in cardiovascular surgery, but its potential usefulness in free wall <span class="hlt">rupture</span> has not been reported. Initial clinical experience with an on-pump sutureless technique without cardioplegia, using wide TachoSil patching to achieve free wall <span class="hlt">rupture</span> repair, has been described. PMID:22419793</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Pocar, Marco; Passolunghi, Davide; Bregasi, Alda; Donatelli, Francesco</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">296</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3352738"> <span id="translatedtitle">TachoSil® for postinfarction ventricular free wall <span class="hlt">rupture</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Despite a decline in the last three decades, postinfarction ventricular free wall <span class="hlt">rupture</span> still complicates more than 3% of acute ST-elevation myocardial infarctions and remains a surgical challenge. TachoSil® (Nycomed, Zurich, Switzerland) is an equine collagen patch coated with human fibrinogen and human thrombin, which has recently been used for haemostasis in cardiovascular surgery, but its potential usefulness in free wall <span class="hlt">rupture</span> has not been reported. Initial clinical experience with an on-pump sutureless technique without cardioplegia, using wide TachoSil® patching to achieve free wall <span class="hlt">rupture</span> repair, has been described. PMID:22419793</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Pocar, Marco; Passolunghi, Davide; Bregasi, Alda; Donatelli, Francesco</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">297</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4378674"> <span id="translatedtitle">Endovascular Treatment of an Aortic Traumatic Double <span class="hlt">Rupture</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Traumatic thoracic aortic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> is a life-threatening condition; aortic isthmus is the most common site of <span class="hlt">rupture</span>, but in rare cases traumatic injury can localize elsewhere, such as at aortic arch or at the level of the diaphragm. In the past few years, endovascular treatment of traumatic aortic injury became a safe procedure, with lower mortality and complication, if compared with open surgery. We report a case of a 40-year-old-man admitted to emergency department after a violent car crash in which an aortic traumatic double <span class="hlt">rupture</span> was successfully treated with two endovascular stent-grafts coverage. PMID:25859315</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Attinà, Domenico; Buia, Francesco; Russo, Vincenzo; Pilato, Emanuele; Lovato, Luigi; Bartolomeo, Roberto Di; Zompatori, Maurizio</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2015-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">298</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23780776"> <span id="translatedtitle">Prophylactic decompression of extensor pollicis longus to prevent <span class="hlt">rupture</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We present a case of a patient with spontaneous <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of right extensor pollicis longus (EPL) tendon, who had also developed left wrist pain and weakness in his left EPL that MRI studies confirmed to be caused by tendinosis. Subsequently, decompression of left EPL and reconstruction of right EPL with palmaris longus tendon graft was undertaken. In this case, decompression of the left EPL tendon led to resolution of the patient's symptoms as well as preventing tendon <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. We advocate the use of ultrasound imaging to evaluate EPL in these cases and prophylactic decompression of EPL tendon to avoid <span class="hlt">rupture</span> in those patients found to have tendinosis. PMID:23780776</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Navaratnam, A V; Ball, S; Eckersley, R</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">299</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19790004034&hterms=Gamma+Gamma+prime+microstructure&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3DGamma%2BGamma%2Bprime%2Bmicrostructure"> <span id="translatedtitle">Shear <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of a directionally solidified eutectic gamma/gamma prime - alpha (Mo) alloy</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Directionally solidified Mo alloys are evaluated to determine the shear <span class="hlt">rupture</span> strength and to possibly improve it by microstructural and heat treatment variations. Bars of the alloy containing nominally 5.7% Al and 33.5% Mo by weight with balance Ni were directionally solidified at rates between 10 and 100 mm per hour in furnaces with thermal gradients at the liquid-solid interface of 250 or 100 C per cm. A limited number of longitudinal shear <span class="hlt">rupture</span> tests were conducted at 760 C and 207 MPa in the as - solidified and in several heat treated conditions. It is shown that shear <span class="hlt">rupture</span> failures are partly transgranular and that resistance to failure is prompted by good fiber alignment and a matrix structure consisting <span class="hlt">mainly</span> of gamma prime. Well aligned as - solidified specimens sustained the shear stress for an average of 81 hours. A simulated coating heat treatment appeared to increase the transformation of gamma to gamma prime and raised the average shear life of aligned specimens to 111 hours. However, heat treatments at 1245 C and especially at 1190 C appeared to be detrimental by causing partial solutioning of the gamma prime, and reducing lives to 47 and 10 hours, respectively.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Harf, F. H.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1978-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">300</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008EEEV....7..147A"> <span id="translatedtitle">Simplified approach for design of raft foundations against fault <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. Part I: free-field</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Over the past few decades, earthquake engineering research <span class="hlt">mainly</span> focused on the effects of strong seismic shaking. After the 1999 earthquakes in Turkey and Taiwan, and thanks to numerous cases where fault <span class="hlt">rupture</span> caused substantial damage to structures, the importance of faulting-induced deformation has re-emerged. This paper, along with its companion (Part II), exploits parametric results of finite element analyses and centrifuge model testing in developing a four-step semi-analytical approach for analysis of dip-slip (normal and thrust) fault <span class="hlt">rupture</span> propagation through sand, its emergence on the ground surface, and its interaction with raft foundations. The present paper (Part I) focuses on the effects of faulting in the absence of a structure (i.e., in the free-field). The semi-analytical approach comprises two-steps: the first deals with the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> path and the estimation of the location of fault outcropping, and the second with the tectonically-induced displacement profile at the ground surface. In both cases, simple mechanical analogues are used to derive simplified semi-analytical expressions. Centrifuge model test data, in combination with parametric results from nonlinear finite element analyses, are utilized for model calibration. The derived semi-analytical expressions are shown to compare reasonably well with more rigorous experimental and theoretical data, thus providing a useful tool for a first estimation of near-fault seismic hazard.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Anastasopoulos, I.; Gerolymos, N.; Gazetas, G.; Bransby, M. F.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' 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onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">301</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFM.S43C..01F"> <span id="translatedtitle">Scientific Challenges in Developing the Next Uniform California Earthquake <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> Forecast (UCERF3)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Working Group on California Earthquake Probabilities (WGCEP) is in the process of developing the next-generation Uniform California Earthquake <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> Forecast (UCERF version 3). The <span class="hlt">main</span> goals for this future model, which is being developed jointly by the United States Geological Survey, California Geological Survey, and Southern California Earthquake Center, are to include multi-fault <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> and spatial and temporal clustering. While there are broad range of challenges associated with the development, implementation, and use of this model, the intent of this presentation is to give an overview of some of the most pressing scientific issues. These questions can be distilled down as follows: 1) Does every small volume of space exhibit a Gutenberg Richter distribution of nucleations?; 2) What is the average slip distribution of large events, both down dip and along strike?; 3) How do we apply elastic rebound in an un-segmented fault model?; 4) How can we quantify fault-to-fault <span class="hlt">rupture</span> probabilities, especially give uncertainties in fault endpoints?; 5) What constitutes “best available science” with respect to spatial and temporal clustering models?; and 6) What is the explanation for the apparent post-1906 seismicity-rate reduction? Each of these questions will be described and exemplified, together with our current plans for addressing them.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Field, E. H.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">302</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70018433"> <span id="translatedtitle">Calculation of earthquake <span class="hlt">rupture</span> histories using a hybrid global search algorithm: Application to the 1992 Landers, California, earthquake</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A method is presented for the simultaneous calculation of slip amplitudes and <span class="hlt">rupture</span> times for a finite fault using a hybrid global search algorithm. The method we use combines simulated annealing with the downhill simplex method to produce a more efficient search algorithm then either of the two constituent parts. This formulation has advantages over traditional iterative or linearized approaches to the problem because it is able to escape local minima in its search through model space for the global optimum. We apply this global search method to the calculation of the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> history for the Landers, California, earthquake. The <span class="hlt">rupture</span> is modeled using three separate finite-fault planes to represent the three <span class="hlt">main</span> fault segments that failed during this earthquake. Both the slip amplitude and the time of slip are calculated for a grid work of subfaults. The data used consist of digital, teleseismic P and SH body waves. Long-period, broadband, and short-period records are utilized to obtain a wideband characterization of the source. The results of the global search inversion are compared with a more traditional linear-least-squares inversion for only slip amplitudes. We use a multi-time-window linear analysis to relax the constraints on <span class="hlt">rupture</span> time and rise time in the least-squares inversion. Both inversions produce similar slip distributions, although the linear-least-squares solution has a 10% larger moment (7.3 ?? 1026 dyne-cm compared with 6.6 ?? 1026 dyne-cm). Both inversions fit the data equally well and point out the importance of (1) using a parameterization with sufficient spatial and temporal flexibility to encompass likely complexities in the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> process, (2) including suitable physically based constraints on the inversion to reduce instabilities in the solution, and (3) focusing on those robust <span class="hlt">rupture</span> characteristics that rise above the details of the parameterization and data set.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hartzell, S.; Liu, P.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1996-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">303</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19900051716&hterms=transpiration&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dtranspiration"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Shock/shock</span> interference on a transpiration cooled hemispherical model</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Experimental results are presented which show the effectiveness of transpiration cooling in reducing the peak heat flux caused by an impinging <span class="hlt">shock</span> on a bow <span class="hlt">shock</span> of a hemispherical model. The 12-inch diameter hemispherical transpiration model with helium coolant was tested in the Calspan 48-inch Hypersonic <span class="hlt">Shock</span> Tunnel at nominal Mach 12.1 and freestream unit Reynolds number of 0.33 x 10 to the 6th/ft. An incident <span class="hlt">shock</span> wave, generated by a blunt flat-plate <span class="hlt">shock</span> generator inclined at 10 deg to the freestream, intersected the bow <span class="hlt">shock</span> of the model to produce <span class="hlt">shock/shock</span> interference. The stagnation heat flux without coolant or <span class="hlt">shock/shock</span> interference was about 1.6 times a smooth surface laminar prediction due to effective roughness of the coolant ejection slots. A coolant mass flux 31 percent of the freestream mass flux reduced the stagnation heat flux to zero without <span class="hlt">shock/shock</span> interference. However, for the same coolant mass flux and with <span class="hlt">shock/shock</span> interference the peak heat flux was only reduced 8.3 percent, even though the total integrated heat load was reduced.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Nowak, Robert J.; Wieting, Allan R.; Holden, Michael S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1990-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">304</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.T31E..08S"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Bear River Fault Zone, Wyoming and Utah: Complex <span class="hlt">Ruptures</span> on a Young Normal Fault</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Bear River fault zone (BRFZ), a set of normal fault scarps located in the Rocky Mountains at the eastern margin of Basin and Range extension, is a rare example of a nascent surface-<span class="hlt">rupturing</span> fault. Paleoseismic investigations (West, 1994; this study) indicate that the entire neotectonic history of the BRFZ may consist of two large surface-faulting events in the late Holocene. We have estimated a maximum per-event vertical displacement of 6-6.5 m at the south end of the fault where it abuts the north flank of the east-west-trending Uinta Mountains. However, large hanging-wall depressions resulting from back rotation, which front scarps that locally exceed 15 m in height, are prevalent along the <span class="hlt">main</span> trace, obscuring the net displacement and its along-strike distribution. The modest length (~35 km) of the BRFZ indicates <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> with a large displacement-to-length ratio, which implies earthquakes with a high static stress drop. The BRFZ is one of several immature (low cumulative displacement) normal faults in the Rocky Mountain region that appear to produce high-stress drop earthquakes. West (1992) interpreted the BRFZ as an extensionally reactivated ramp of the late Cretaceous-early Tertiary Hogsback thrust. LiDAR data on the southern section of the fault and Google Earth imagery show that these young <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> are more extensive than currently mapped, with newly identified large (>10m) antithetic scarps and footwall graben. The scarps of the BRFZ extend across a 2.5-5.0 km-wide zone, making this the widest and most complex Holocene surface <span class="hlt">rupture</span> in the Intermountain West. The broad distribution of Late Holocene scarps is consistent with reactivation of shallow bedrock structures but the overall geometry of the BRFZ at depth and its extent into the seismogenic zone are uncertain.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Schwartz, D. P.; Hecker, S.; Haproff, P.; Beukelman, G.; Erickson, B.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">305</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4307474"> <span id="translatedtitle">Surgical treatment for <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> dural arteriovenous fistula with large intracranial hematoma</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of dural arteriovenous fistula (DAVF) is a serious complication endangering the lives of patients. It is difficult to treat such <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> DAVF with large intracranial hematoma since lacking of early diagnostic methods. Meanwhile, there was no consensus of how to surgically treat these patients in early stage. In this study, we tried to use 4D-CTA to diagnose DAVF and guide surgical treatment. Based on the result of 4D-CTA, we attempted to eliminate DAVF at the same time we removed hematoma. The result was encouraging. 7 patients with <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> DAVF presented as large spontaneous intracranial hemorrhage were included in this research between May, 2010 and August, 2012 in our hospital. 4D-CTA was performed in all cases. All results of 4D-CTA inspections were studied by both neurosurgeon and neuroradiologist. The therapeutic options were evaluated based on the clinical and angiographic results. All fistulas of seven patients were eliminated at the same time the hematoma being evacuated. 4D-CTA was sufficient for detecting and recognizing basic vessel angioarchitecture of DAVF to guide surgical treatment. <span class="hlt">Main</span> arterial supplies, fistula location and CVDs found during surgery are consistent with the results 4D-CTA. All seven cases achieved completely fistula occlusion in operation without new neurological complication. We favor one stage surgical treatment for <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> DAVF with large intracranial hemorrhage. 4D-CTA plays an important role in preoperative emergent inspection for its safety, rapidity and accuracy. However, it still needs further and larger investigations to optimize such treatment methods and to find out other potential risks. PMID:25664027</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ye, Xianwang; Wang, Haifeng; Huang, Yi; Zhou, Shengjun; Gao, Xiang</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">306</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JGRA..119.2388M"> <span id="translatedtitle">Simulations of pickup ion mediated quasi-perpendicular <span class="hlt">shocks</span>: Implications for the heliospheric termination <span class="hlt">shock</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The microstructure of the heliospheric termination <span class="hlt">shock</span> and the accompanied local acceleration processes of both ions and electrons are investigated by utilizing one-dimensional full particle-in-cell simulations for a variety of parameters. The relative pickup ion density is assumed to be 20-30%. The magnetic field and the <span class="hlt">shock</span> potential profiles exhibit significant differences, since the former mostly reflects the dynamics of solar wind ions, whereas the latter is <span class="hlt">mainly</span> sustained by the bulk motion of the reflected pickup ions in the extended foot. The discrepancy between the magnetic field profile and the potential profile increases with Alfvén Mach number. Most of the downstream thermal energy is gained by the pickup ions, while some heating of the solar wind ions and electrons occurs through the modified two-stream instability excited in the extended foot. Self-reformation can occur when the relative pickup ion density is 20% but is blurred when it becomes as large as 30%. Reformation is also suppressed if the local solar wind ion temperature in the extended foot is high, which can either be due to heating by the modified two-stream instability or is already determined by the solar wind temperature far upstream. In all runs presented in this study no evidence for <span class="hlt">shock</span> surfing acceleration of pickup ions could be found. Nonthermal particle acceleration occurs for oblique <span class="hlt">shocks</span>. Electron (pickup ion) <span class="hlt">shock</span> drift acceleration is evidenced when the <span class="hlt">shock</span> angle is below 80° (60°).</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Matsukiyo, Shuichi; Scholer, Manfred</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">307</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://arxiv.org/pdf/1503.07774.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Ion-acoustic <span class="hlt">shocks</span> with reflected ions: modeling and PIC simulations</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Non-relativistic collisionless <span class="hlt">shock</span> waves are widespread in space and astrophysical plasmas and are known as efficient particle accelerators. However, our understanding of collisionless <span class="hlt">shocks</span>, including their structure and the mechanisms whereby they accelerate particles remains incomplete. We present here the results of numerical modeling of an ion-acoustic collisionless <span class="hlt">shock</span> based on one-dimensional (1D) kinetic approximation both for electrons and ions with a real mass ratio. Special emphasis is made on the <span class="hlt">shock</span>-reflected ions as the <span class="hlt">main</span> driver of <span class="hlt">shock</span> dissipation. The reflection efficiency, velocity distribution of reflected particles and the <span class="hlt">shock</span> electrostatic structure are studied in terms of the <span class="hlt">shock</span> parameters. Applications to particle acceleration in geophysical and astrophysical <span class="hlt">shocks</span> are discussed.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Liseykina, T; Vshivkov, V; Malkov, M</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2015-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">308</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21476414"> <span id="translatedtitle">Spherical and cylindrical imploding and exploding <span class="hlt">shock</span> waves in plasma system dominated by pair production</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The propagation of ion acoustic <span class="hlt">shock</span> waves in cylindrical and spherical geometries has been investigated. The plasma system consists of cold ions, Boltzmannian electrons and positrons. Spherical, cylindrical Korteweg-de Vries-Burger equations have been derived by reductive perturbation technique and their <span class="hlt">shock</span> behavior is studied by employing finite difference method. Our <span class="hlt">main</span> emphasis is on the behavior of <span class="hlt">shock</span> as it moves toward and away from center of spherical and cylindrical geometries. It is noticed, that the <span class="hlt">shock</span> wave strength and steepness accrues with time as it moves toward the center and <span class="hlt">shock</span> enervates as it moves away from center. The strength of <span class="hlt">shock</span> in spherical geometry is found to dominate over <span class="hlt">shock</span> strength in cylindrical geometry. Positron concentration, kinematic viscosity are also found to have significant effect on the <span class="hlt">shock</span> structure and propagation. The results may have relevance in the inertial confinement fusion plasmas.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">ul Haq, Muhammad Noaman [Optics Laboratories, P.O. Box 1021, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Saeed, R.; Shah, Asif [Theoretical Plasma Physics Division, PINSTECH, P.O. Nilore, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-08-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">309</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/56014119"> <span id="translatedtitle">Geomorphic Signals for Preferred Propagation Direction of Earthquake <span class="hlt">Ruptures</span> on North Anatolian Fault System, TURKEY</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The North Anatolian Fault <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> in a sequence of large earthquakes between 1939 and 1999, generally progressing from east to west. The 1943 and 1944 <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> propagated unilateraly in opposite directions. Preliminary analysis of the geomorphology along these <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> shows distinct differences that may reflect repeated <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> with similar propagation directions. A persistent preferred propagation direction should produce asymmetric damage</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">C. Yildirim; O. Dor; T. Rockwell; O. Emre; Y. Ben-Zion; M. Sisk; T. Duman</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">310</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18345441"> <span id="translatedtitle">Early surgery for <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> cerebral aneurysms: technical note.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We describe a collection of techniques to be considered in the early clipping of <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> cerebral aneurysms located in the anterior circulation when dealing with the swollen red and scaring brain many times found after craniotomy. PMID:18345441</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sillero, Rafael de Oliveira; Sillero Filho, Valter José; Freire, Sylvio de Barros; Sillero, Valter José</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">311</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JMPSo..61..742L"> <span id="translatedtitle">Stress heterogeneities in earthquake <span class="hlt">rupture</span> experiments with material contrasts</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We investigate significant heterogeneous stresses along bimaterial interfaces in laboratory and numerical experiments. These stresses, partially induced by model or experimental configuration, affect the supershear transition length and <span class="hlt">rupture</span> speed, mode and directivity in uniaxial compression tests and dynamic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> experiments with bimaterial interfaces. Using numerical simulations we show that normal and tangential stresses at the fault are distorted by the different stress-strain relationships of the materials. This distortion leads to altered supershear transition lengths, higher <span class="hlt">rupture</span> potencies and amplifies the preference for <span class="hlt">rupture</span> in the direction of slip of the slower and more compliant material. We demonstrate how this stress-distortion can be decreased in laboratory experiments by using larger specimen samples and in numerical models by using periodic boundary conditions.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Langer, Sebastian; Weatherley, Dion; Olsen-Kettle, Louise; Finzi, Yaron</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">312</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4320801"> <span id="translatedtitle">Aneurysmal <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> of a Mesodiverticular Band to a Meckel's Diverticulum</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Aneurysmal <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of a mesodiverticular band has not previously been reported in the clinical literature. We are reporting a case of hemoperitoneum in a 51-year-old male after an aneurysmal <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of a mesodiverticular band. This case demonstrates that in rare instances, a <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of the mesodiverticular band leading to Meckel's diverticulum can lead to significant hemoperitoneum. This is usually caused by a traumatic injury but in our case was apparently caused by an aneurysm of the mesodiverticular artery. Patients with known Meckel's diverticula should be aware of the possibility of <span class="hlt">rupture</span>, as should clinicians treating those with a history of this usually benign congenital abnormality. Rapid surgical intervention is necessary to repair the source of bleeding, as massive blood loss was encountered in this case. PMID:25688323</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sommerhalder, Christian; Fretwell, Kenneth R.; Salzler, Gregory G.; Creasy, John M.; Robitsek, R. Jonathan; Schubl, Sebastian D.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2015-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">313</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16119282"> <span id="translatedtitle">Surgical treatment options for patella tendon <span class="hlt">rupture</span>, Part I: Acute.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Patella tendon <span class="hlt">rupture</span> is a debilitating injury. Prompt diagnosis and treatment is essential to prevent retraction of the patella with subsequent adhesions and quadriceps contractures. In a young patient with an acute <span class="hlt">rupture</span>, primary repair usually is possible with various methods described to protect the repair. In acute injuries with inadequate tissue, augmentation with hamstring tendons or allograft generally is necessary. Because of the different types of <span class="hlt">rupture</span> and the possibility for poor quality tissue, the surgeon should always be prepared to combine different techniques to obtain tthe best repair. Continuous passive motion generally can be initiated early with a secure repair. In patients with a patella tendon <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> that is promptly diagnosed, securely repaired, and followed closely through their rehabilitation, good results can be expected. PMID:16119282</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Greis, Patrick E; Holmstrom, Michael C; Lahav, Amit</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">314</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011TRACE..10..383O"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Rupture</span> of Cylindrical Ice Model and Tuna Fish during Freezing</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The gape and heave produced on the surface of tuna fish during freezing were confirmed by <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of cylindrical type ice model. The results of experiment were shown as summarized below; 1) in case of restraining the progress of ice formation of model during freezing,any <span class="hlt">rupture</span> was produced at not only slow freezing but also quick freezing. It was the same as tuna fish; 2) in case of closing surface of ice model covered perfectly by outside shell ice during slow freezing,it was not <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> at not only ice model but also tuna fish. On the contrary it was cracked at quick freezing not only ice model but also tuna fish; 3) therefore it was confirmed that the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of tuna fish during freezing had been easy to produce at quick freezing.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ogawa, Yutaka; Uno, Mitsuyo</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">315</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EOSTr..95..484O"> <span id="translatedtitle">Seafloor changes above the Tohoku-Oki earthquake <span class="hlt">rupture</span> zone</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">After a subduction earthquake like the 11 March 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake, Earth's crust continues to deform. Scientists have been monitoring this deformation near the earthquake's <span class="hlt">rupture</span> zone to estimate further seismic hazards.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Orwig, Jessica</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">316</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.dspace.cam.ac.uk/handle/1810/237580"> <span id="translatedtitle">Emergency endovascular repair of <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> visceral artery aneurysms</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Abstract Background Visceral artery aneurysms although rare, have very high mortality if they <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. Case presentation An interesting case of a bleeding inferior pancreaticduodenal artery aneurysm is reported in a young patient who presented...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sadat, Umar; Noor, Nadim; Tang, Tjun Y; Varty, Kevin</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-07-02</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">317</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://dspace.mit.edu/handle/1721.1/59743"> <span id="translatedtitle">Controls on earthquake <span class="hlt">rupture</span> and triggering mechanisms in subduction zones</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Large earthquake <span class="hlt">rupture</span> and triggering mechanisms that drive seismicity in subduction zones are investigated in this thesis using a combination of earthquake observations, statistical and physical modeling. A comparison ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Llenos, Andrea Lesley</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">318</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008APS..APRM15002G"> <span id="translatedtitle">The influence of radiation on <span class="hlt">shocks</span> structure in laboratory astrophysics</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Radiative <span class="hlt">shocks</span> are found in various astrophysical situations such as stellar accretion. Studying such <span class="hlt">shocks</span>, their topology and thermodynamical properties is the starting point to understand their physical properties. This study is now possible with the recent development of large laser facilities which has therefore given a strong impulse to laboratory astrophysics. We present the <span class="hlt">main</span> characteristics of radiative <span class="hlt">shocks</span> obtained in such installations thanks to results obtained in experiments and with our multi-dimensional radiation-hydrodynamics code HERACLES. We focus our discussion on the importance of multi-dimensional radiative transfer effects on the <span class="hlt">shock</span> topology and dynamics. In particular, the importance of the ratio between the photon mean free path and the transverse extension of the <span class="hlt">shock</span>, the possibility to achieve the stationary limit in the laboratory and the angular distribution of the radiative flux which emerge at the walls of the tube are discussed.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gonzalez, Matthias; Audit, Edouard; Stehle, Chantal; Busquet, Michel</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">319</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3884862"> <span id="translatedtitle">Spontaneous Ureteral <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> Diagnosis and Treatment</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Rupture</span> of the urinary collecting system associated with perinephric or retroperitoneal extravasation of the urine is an unusual condition and it is commonly associated with renal obstructing disease. Perforation could occur at any level from the calix to the bladder but it is usually seen at the fornices and upper ureter. It may lead to several serious consequences including urinoma, abscess formation, urosepsis, infection, and subsequent irreversible renal impairment. We report a case of a 69-year-old woman who presented at the emergency department of our institution with severe abdominal pain. Due to symptomatology worsening, complete laboratory evaluation was performed and the patient underwent abdominal contrast enhanced computed tomography (CT) evaluation which showed contrast agent extravasation outside the excretory system without any evidence of renal calculi at basal acquisition. It was decided to perform a double-J stent placement which was followed by complete healing of the ureter and its removal was performed 8 weeks later. Diagnosis and therapeutic approaches are discussed. PMID:24455381</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Pampana, E.; Altobelli, S.; Morini, M.; Ricci, A.; D'Onofrio, S.; Simonetti, G.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">320</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25835789"> <span id="translatedtitle">A viscoelastic model for axonal microtubule <span class="hlt">rupture</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Axon is an important part of the neuronal cells and axonal microtubules are bundles in axons. In axons, microtubules are coated with microtubule-associated protein tau, a natively unfolded filamentous protein in the central nervous system. These proteins are responsible for cross-linking axonal microtubule bundles. Through complimentary dimerization with other tau proteins, bridges are formed between nearby microtubules creating bundles. Formation of bundles of microtubules causes their transverse reinforcement and has been shown to enhance their ability to bear compressive loads. Though microtubules are conventionally regarded as bearing compressive loads, in certain circumstances during traumatic brain injuries, they are placed in tension. In our model, microtubule bundles were formed from a large number of discrete masses. We employed Standard Linear Solid model (SLS), a viscoelastic model, to computationally simulate microtubules. In this study, we investigated the dynamic responses of two dimensional axonal microtubules under suddenly applied end forces by implementing discrete masses connected to their neighboring masses with a Standard Linear Solid unit. We also investigated the effect of the applied force rate and magnitude on the deformation of bundles. Under tension, a microtubule fiber may <span class="hlt">rupture</span> as a result of a sudden force. Using the developed model, we could predict the critical regions of the axonal microtubule bundles in the presence of varying end forces. We finally analyzed the nature of microtubular failure under varying mechanical stresses. PMID:25835789</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Shamloo, Amir; Manuchehrfar, Farid; Rafii-Tabar, Hashem</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2015-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' 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src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">321</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6706674"> <span id="translatedtitle">Determination of closure disk <span class="hlt">rupture</span> parameters</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The necessity of decoupling strain rate from burn rate effects for tests designed to characterize closure disks is discussed. A method for simulating the high rates of pressure increase to which closure disks are subjected and which does not employ pyrotechnic material as a means of pressurization is presented. It consists of slowly pressurizing both sides of a closure disk to a high pressure and then rapidly releasing the pressure from one side of the disk. Means of rapidly releasing gas from the downstream side of the closure disk and measuring the pressure differential across the closure disk are discussed in detail. Rates of pressure decrease as high as 335,000,000 psi/sec downstream from the closure disk have been attained. Baseline disks slotted by wire EDM failed at an average pressure differential of 10,150 psi. Disks slotted by chemical etching exhibited a higher burst pressure differential and greater variability. Glass-ceramic closure disks had the lowest average burst pressure and highest variability. An increase in the diameter of a closure disk was found to lower the pressure differential required to <span class="hlt">rupture</span> the disk. Burst pressure was found to increase linearly with the thickness of the web in the slot. 5 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Merten, C.W.; Robinson, M.A. (EG and G Mound Applied Technologies, Miamisburg, OH (USA)); Evans, N.A. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA))</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1990-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">322</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5926280"> <span id="translatedtitle">Creep and creep <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of rock salt</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A fundamental review is given of creep properties and flow processes of experimentally and naturally deformed rocksalt as background pertinent to waste repository design. Deformational behavior of halite single crystals is discussed first, followed by a brief treatment of experimentally deformed artifically prepared halite aggregates. The results of recent extensive quasi-static compression and creep tests on natural aggregates, especially on southeastern New Mexico bedded salt and on Avery Island domal salt, are then reviewed in some detail. The mechanical behavior of these two very different rocksalts is remarkably similar, an observation that provides some confidence to extrapolations of the results to repository condition. The relatively scarce data for accelerating creep and creep-<span class="hlt">rupture</span> of rocksalt are reviewed, followed by a general treatment of relevant experiments and observations from the Project Salt Vault demonstration. The question of brine migration is then discussed and pertinent observations from flow of rocksalt glaciers and diapirs are reviewed briefly. Recommendations are made for additional fundamental research in various areas and it is concluded, on the basis of all available information, that dry domal salt deposits would provide nearly ideal media for radioactive waste repositories.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Carter, N.L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1983-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">323</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5764540"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Shock</span> recovery experiments: An assessment</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Systematic <span class="hlt">shock</span> recovery experiments, in which microstructural and mechanical property effects are characterized quantitatively, constitute an important means of increasing our understanding of <span class="hlt">shock</span> processes. Through studies of the effects of variations in metallurgical and <span class="hlt">shock</span> loading parameters on structure/property relationships, the micromechanisms of <span class="hlt">shock</span> deformation, and how they differ from conventional strain rate processes, are beginning to emerge. This paper will highlight the state-of-the-art in <span class="hlt">shock</span> recovery of metallic and ceramic materials. Techniques will be described which are utilized to ''soft'' recover <span class="hlt">shock</span>-loaded metallic samples possessing low residual strain; crucial to accurate ''post-mortem'' metallurgical investigations of the influence of <span class="hlt">shock</span> loading on material behavior. Illustrations of the influence of <span class="hlt">shock</span> assembly design on the structure/property relationships in <span class="hlt">shock</span>-recovered copper samples including such issues as residual strain and contact stresses, and their consequences are discussed. <span class="hlt">Shock</span> recovery techniques used on brittle materials will be reviewed and discussed in light of recent experimental results. Finally, <span class="hlt">shock</span> recovery structure/property results and VISAR data on the /alpha/--/omega/ <span class="hlt">shock</span>-induced phase transition in titanium will be used to illustrate the beneficial link between <span class="hlt">shock</span> recovery and ''real-time'' <span class="hlt">shock</span> data. 26 refs., 3 figs.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gray, G.T. III</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1989-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">324</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.U51B0035V"> <span id="translatedtitle">Preliminary analysis of the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> process of 11 March 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The great 11 March 2011 Off the Pacific Coast of Tohoku earthquake (Mw 9.1) <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> a ~ 200 km wide mega-thrust fault, with average displacement of ~15-20 m. The earthquake triggered a large devastating tsunami as well as strong ground motion along the east Honshu coastline. Seismic activity in this area is characterized by a number of large earthquakes with Mw ~7.2-7.9 along the down-dip portion of the mega-thrust seaward of Miyagi prefecture, with only few events of magnitude greater than 8 in last hundred years. This region was also recognized to have had a large tsunami earthquake in 869 with a source area estimated further offshore. The <span class="hlt">rupture</span> process of the Tohoku-Oki earthquake is investigated here combining teleseismic short period P-waves back-projection imaging and broadband P-wave finite fault inversions, together with a preliminary broadband analysis of the Kik-net strong motion recordings across Japan. The <span class="hlt">main</span> features of the Tohoku-Oki <span class="hlt">rupture</span> process imaged by the short period (1s) back-projection are: an initial 70-80s radiation phase eastward of the epicenter, with a slow (~1-1.5 km/s) along-dip <span class="hlt">rupture</span> propagation; a short radiation phase northward of the epicenter; and ultimately a southward radiation phase with a relatively faster <span class="hlt">rupture</span> propagation. These features are robust and consistent using both the North American and European arrays configurations. At lower periods, the back-projection analysis reveals a shift in the radiation centroid seaward toward the trench. In contrast, the broadband (1-200s) P-waves finite fault inversion exhibits a quite complementary image with a first long period radiation phase up-dip of the epicenter followed by down-dip late southwestward radiation phase that remains however poorly constraint. The robustness and the resolution of both the back-projection and the finite fault inversion analysis are carefully assessed through bootstrap analysis, and the analysis of some of the <span class="hlt">main</span> foreshocks and aftershocks. In particular, the largest aftershock (Mw > 7.9) that occurred off Ibaraki in the southeast termination of the <span class="hlt">main</span> <span class="hlt">rupture</span> is analyzed combining teleseismic back-projection and broadband strong motion analysis. This large aftershock raises important questions with regard to the understanding of the seismic hazard in the Tokyo area. Those results evidence a frequency dependent <span class="hlt">rupture</span> process. with a down-dip short period radiation and a long period up-dip radiation producing large slip and most of the long period moment release. The down-dip short period radiation, with a weakly coherent slip distribution, is shown to be consistent with the complexity of the Kik-net strong motion recordings. The up-dip long period radiation, with a large coherent and compact slip distribution, is consistent with the tsunami source and the long period CMT analysis. This underlines the importance of an along dip and along strike segmentation. Finally, discussions are drawn based on a comparison Tohoku-Oki earthquake and the recent 2010 Maule earthquake in Central Chile, in the light of the 2007 Tocopilla earthquake in North Chile.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Vilotte, J.; Satriano, C.; Dionicio, V.; Lancieri, M.; Bernard, P.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">325</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/5258763703505510.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Rupture</span> of the pectoralis major muscle: Surgical treatment in athletes</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Pectoralis major tendon <span class="hlt">rupture</span> is a relatively rare injury, resulting from violent, eccentric contraction of the muscle.\\u000a Over 50% of these injuries occur in athletes, classically in weight-lifters during the ‘bench press’ manoeuvre. We present\\u000a 13 cases of distal <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of the pectoralis major muscle in athletes. All patients underwent open surgical repair. Magnetic\\u000a resonance imaging was used to confirm</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">R. G. Kakwani; J. J. Matthews; K. M. Kumar; A. Pimpalnerkar; N. Mohtadi</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">326</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/29591053"> <span id="translatedtitle">Early radiographic features in patients with anterior cruciate ligament <span class="hlt">rupture</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">OBJECTIVETo determine, in a preliminary cross sectional study of patients with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> knees, which of the radiographic features—subchondral cortical plate thickness, trabecular sclerosis, and osteophytosis—appears before or in association with changes in joint space width (JSW) as a surrogate for articular cartilage thickness in patients with <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> knees.METHODS19 patients (14 men), mean (95% CI) age 28.7</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">J C Buckland-Wright; J A Lynch; B Dave</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2000-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">327</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/57120086"> <span id="translatedtitle">Patellar Tendon <span class="hlt">Ruptures</span> in National Football League Players</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background: Although knee injuries are common among professional football players, <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> of the patellar tendon are relatively rare. Predisposing factors, mechanisms of injury, treatment guidelines, and recovery expectations are not well established in high-level athletes.Hypothesis: Professional football players with isolated <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of the patellar tendon treated with timely surgical repair will return to their sport.Study Design: Case series; Level of</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Martin Boublik; Theodore Schlegel; Ryan Koonce; James Genuario; Charles Lind; David Hamming</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">328</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23161834"> <span id="translatedtitle">Continuous microwire patterns dominated by controllable <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of liquid films.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Controllable microwire patterns are prepared by dominating the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of liquid films. Regular rhombic-shaped micropillar arrays serve as wetting defects to pin or depin liquids, yielding continuous, herringbone, bead-shaped polystyrene microwire patterns or bead arrays. The results provide a deeper understanding of the controllable <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of liquid films and offer a general strategy for the organization of polymers into structures needed for wiring, interconnects, and functional devices for future microfabrication. PMID:23161834</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Xin, Zhiqing; Su, Bin; Wang, Jianjun; Zhang, Xingye; Zhang, Zhiliang; Deng, Mengmeng; Song, Yanlin; Jiang, Lei</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-03-11</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">329</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3352606"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Rupture</span> of Plantaris Muscle - A Mimic: MRI Findings</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Calf muscle trauma commonly involves the gastrocnemius and soleus muscles. Plantaris muscle is a vestigial muscle coursing through the calf. Similar clinical features may be seen with injury to the plantaris muscle. It can also mimic other conditions like deep vein thrombosis, <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of Baker's cyst, and tumors. MRI is helpful in identifying and characterizing it. We report two cases of <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> plantaris muscle seen on MRI. PMID:22616036</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gopinath, T. N.; Jagdish, J.; Krishnakiran, K.; Shaji, P. C.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">330</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22616036"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Rupture</span> of plantaris muscle - a mimic: MRI findings.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Calf muscle trauma commonly involves the gastrocnemius and soleus muscles. Plantaris muscle is a vestigial muscle coursing through the calf. Similar clinical features may be seen with injury to the plantaris muscle. It can also mimic other conditions like deep vein thrombosis, <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of Baker's cyst, and tumors. MRI is helpful in identifying and characterizing it. We report two cases of <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> plantaris muscle seen on MRI. PMID:22616036</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gopinath, T N; Jagdish, J; Krishnakiran, K; Shaji, P C</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">331</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5927563"> <span id="translatedtitle">Evolution of interplanetary slow <span class="hlt">shocks</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The possible existence of traveling forward slow <span class="hlt">shocks</span>, their global geometry and their transition to forward fast <span class="hlt">shocks</span> have been discussed in a recent paper. The decrease in the Alfven speed at increasing heliocentric distance causes the evolution of a forward slow <span class="hlt">shock</span> into a forward fast <span class="hlt">shock</span>. During the transition the <span class="hlt">shock</span> system consists of a slow <span class="hlt">shock</span>, a fast <span class="hlt">shock</span>, and a rotational discontinuity. This paper continues to discuss three aspects about the evolution of interplanetary slow <span class="hlt">shocks</span>. The authors first presents a survey of slow <span class="hlt">shock</span> solutions in a three-dimensional A,{theta},{beta} parameter space. Here A=U{sub n}/(a cos {theta}) is the <span class="hlt">shock</span> Alfven number, U{sub n} the normal component of the relative <span class="hlt">shock</span> speed, a the Alfven speed, {theta} the acute angle between the <span class="hlt">shock</span> normal and the magnetic field, and {beta} the ratio of the thermal pressure p to the magnetic pressure B{sup 2}/8{pi}. In a region where the plasma {beta} value is on the order of 1 or greater, the jumps in thermodynamic properties across a slow <span class="hlt">shock</span> are small but the directional changes for the magnetic field and the relative flow velocity are not necessarily small. On the other hand, in the region where the plasma {beta} value is on the order of 0.1 or less, the jumps of all physical properties across a slow <span class="hlt">shock</span> may vary over a wide range of magnitudes. Next, the authors discuss that at the onset of the transition process an interplanetary slow <span class="hlt">shock</span> smoothly converts to a system consisting of a slow <span class="hlt">shock</span>, a very weak rotational discontinuity (an Alfven wave), and a very weak fast <span class="hlt">shock</span> (a fast MHD wave). The authors also show that during the transition, the amplitude of fluctuations in flow velocity and magnetic fields are large in the turbulent region behind the fast <span class="hlt">shock</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Whang, Y.C. (Catholic Univ. of America, Washington, DC (United States))</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1988-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">332</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.T43A2617D"> <span id="translatedtitle">3D Dynamic <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> Simulation Across a Complex Fault System: the Mw7.0, 2010, Haiti Earthquake</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Earthquakes <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> sometimes take place on a secondary fault and surprisingly do not activate an adjacent major one. The 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake is a classic case where <span class="hlt">rupture</span> occurred on a blind thrust while the adjacent San Andreas Fault was not triggered during the process. Similar to Loma Prieta, the Mw7.0, January 12 2010, Haiti earthquake also <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> a secondary blind thrust, the Léogâne fault, adjacent to the <span class="hlt">main</span> plate boundary, the Enriquillo Plantain Garden Fault, which did not <span class="hlt">rupture</span> during this event. Aftershock relocalizations delineate the Léogâne <span class="hlt">rupture</span> with two north dipping segments with slightly different dip, where the easternmost segment had mostly dip-slip motion and the westernmost one had mostly strike-slip motion. In addition, an offshore south dipping structure inferred from the aftershocks to the west of the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> zone coincides with the offshore Trois Baies reverse fault, a region of increase in Coulomb stress increase. In this study, we investigate the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> dynamics of the Haiti earthquake in a complex fault system of multiple segments identified by the aftershock relocations. We suppose a background stress regime that is consistent with the type of motion of each fault and with the regional tectonic regime. We initiate a nucleation on the east segment of the Léogâne fault by defining a circular region with a 2 km radius where shear stress is slightly greater than the yield stress. By varying friction on faults and background stress, we find a range of plausible scenarios. In the absence of near-field seismic records of the event, we score the different models against the static deformation field derived from GPS and InSAR at the surface. All the plausible simulations show that the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> propagates from the eastern to the western segment along the Léogâne fault, but not on the Enriquillo fault nor on the Trois Baies fault. The best-fit simulation shows a significant increase of shear stresses on the Trois Baies fault, which might explain observed triggered aftershocks on this fault and small increase of shear stresses on the Enriquillo fault. We also find that a shift to north of about 3 km of the western segment of the Léogâne fault from recent studies provides a better fit to the coseismic InSAR and GPS displacements.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Douilly, R.; Aochi, H.; Calais, E.; Freed, A. M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">333</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ShWav..24..403B"> <span id="translatedtitle">Analysis of oblique <span class="hlt">shock</span> waves in solids using <span class="hlt">shock</span> polars</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Graphical solutions of <span class="hlt">shock</span> reflections in gases have long been used to gain insight into such phenomena. These <span class="hlt">shock</span> polar solutions provide a simple means of visualizing the complex nonlinear nature of <span class="hlt">shock</span> wave interactions. This methodology, however, is not limited to the treatment of an ideal gas. While the framework can be extended to a completely general equation of state, the emphasis here will be on the description of oblique <span class="hlt">shocks</span> in a hydrodynamic Mie-Gruneisen solid. The oblique <span class="hlt">shock</span> relations for the principal Hugoniot, second <span class="hlt">shock</span> Hugoniot, and release isentrope are presented and used to solve two different <span class="hlt">shock</span> reflection problems. First, the oblique <span class="hlt">shock</span> reflection from an inclined interface is examined using the <span class="hlt">shock</span> polar methodology. Specifically, the <span class="hlt">shock</span> interactions at a copper and beryllium oblique interface are addressed to compare the <span class="hlt">shock</span> polar methodology with a recent study which utilizes a Lagrangian analytical approach in conjunction with numerical simulations. The second problem examined is the so-called Mach lens configuration, which can be used to generate a steady Mach reflection. <span class="hlt">Shock</span> polar solutions are generated for a copper target using various confinements and compared to numerical simulations. Similarly, an iron target is examined in which the resulting polymorphic phase transition can also be described through the <span class="hlt">shock</span> polar methodology.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Brown, J. L.; Ravichandran, G.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">334</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4392341"> <span id="translatedtitle">Isolated renal pelvis <span class="hlt">rupture</span> secondary to blunt trauma: Case report</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Introduction Isolated <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of the renal pelvis is a very rare condition and thus causes delays in the diagnosis of the <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. It is most commonly seen in the setting of obstructive ureteric calculus. Other rare causes include neoplasms, trauma, and iatrogenic procedures. Diagnosis is usually established on computed tomography (CT) which demonstrates the extravasation of the contrast in the peripelvic, perinephric, or retroperitoneal collections. Presentation of case A 27-year-old male patient was admitted to our hospital due to multiple traumas associated with motor vehicle accidents. The patient had clear urine output. A large pelvic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> was detected by abdominal contrast-enhanced CT and after consulting with other departments, emergency repair of the renal pelvis was performed and a ureteral stent was implanted. Discussion Only a few isolated cases of pelvis <span class="hlt">rupture</span> with resultant extravasation have been reported in the literature. The treatment of pelvic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> should be preceded by the removal of underlying causes, followed by conservative management. However, surgical intervention should be warranted in the emergency cases presenting with the symptoms that may impede the decision-making process and in the cases whose diagnosis cannot be clarified by radiological techniques. Conclusion Renal pelvic injury must be considered in the differential diagnosis of blunt trauma. Surgical intervention may be necessary in some cases. We present a case who underwent surgery due to isolated renal pelvis <span class="hlt">rupture</span> caused by blunt abdominal trauma. PMID:25734319</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Taken, Kerem; Oncü, Mehmet Re?it; Ergün, Müslüm; Ery?lmaz, Recep; Güne?, Mustafa</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2015-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">335</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005APS..MARW37001M"> <span id="translatedtitle">Volume Fraction Dependence of Droplet <span class="hlt">Rupturing</span> in Concentrated Nanoemulsions</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We investigate droplet <span class="hlt">rupturing</span> by extreme shear in concentrated silicone oil-in-water nanoemulsions stabilized by sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) surfactant. According to Taylor's prediction for dilute emulsions, the <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> droplet radius, a, varies inversely with the viscosity of the continuous phase. If one assumes that the emulsion's effective viscosity controls the average radius of the <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> droplets, then emulsions that have larger droplet volume fractions, ?s would be <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> by the same shear flow to smaller radii. In stark contrast to this, we find that the average droplet radius actually rises with as ? approaches the quiescent maximally random jammed value of 0.64. This is evidence that both droplet <span class="hlt">rupturing</span> and coalescence occur when concentrated emulsions are subjected to extreme shear. We have also observed phase inversion to an oil-continuous emulsion for ? > 0.64. This supports the idea that coalescence occurs as the driving shear breaks thin films between the concentrated oil droplets at high ?. In addition, we find that the <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> droplet size is relatively insensitive to large changes in the oil viscosity inside the droplets.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Meleson, K.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">336</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70015979"> <span id="translatedtitle">Dynamic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> modeling with laboratory-derived constitutive relations</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A laboratory-derived state variable friction constitutive relation is used in the numerical simulation of the dynamic growth of an in-plane or mode II shear crack. According to this formulation, originally presented by J.H. Dieterich, frictional resistance varies with the logarithm of the slip rate and with the logarithm of the frictional state variable as identified by A.L. Ruina. Under conditions of steady sliding, the state variable is proportional to (slip rate)-1. Following suddenly introduced increases in slip rate, the rate and state dependencies combine to produce behavior which resembles slip weakening. When <span class="hlt">rupture</span> nucleation is artificially forced at fixed <span class="hlt">rupture</span> velocity, <span class="hlt">rupture</span> models calculated with the state variable friction in a uniformly distributed initial stress field closely resemble earlier <span class="hlt">rupture</span> models calculated with a slip weakening fault constitutive relation. Model calculations suggest that dynamic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> following a state variable friction relation is similar to that following a simpler fault slip weakening law. However, when modeling the full cycle of fault motions, rate-dependent frictional responses included in the state variable formulation are important at low slip rates associated with <span class="hlt">rupture</span> nucleation. -from Author</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Okubo, P.G.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1989-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">337</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70017559"> <span id="translatedtitle">The temporal distribution of seismic radiation during deep earthquake <span class="hlt">rupture</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The time history of energy release during earthquakes illuminates the process of failure, which remains enigmatic for events deeper than about 100 kilometers. Stacks of teleseismic records from regional arrays for 122 intermediate (depths of 100 to 350 kilometers) and deep (depths of 350 to 700 kilometers) earthquakes show that the temporal pattern of short-period seismic radiation has a systematic variation with depth. On average, for intermediate depth events more radiation is released toward the beginning of the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> than near the end, whereas for deep events radiation is released symmetrically over the duration of the event, with an abrupt beginning and end of <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. These findings suggest a variation in the style of <span class="hlt">rupture</span> related to decreasing fault heterogeneity with depth.The time history of energy release during earthquakes illuminates the process of failure, which remains enigmatic for events deeper than about 100 kilometers. Stacks of teleseismic records from regional arrays for 122 intermediate (depths of 100 to 350 kilometers) and deep (depths of 350 to 700 kilometers) earthquakes show that the temporal pattern of short-period seismic radiation has a systematic variation with depth. On average, for intermediate depth events more radiation is released toward the beginning of the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> than near the end, whereas for deep events radiation is released symmetrically over the duration of the event, with an abrupt beginning and end of <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. These findings suggest a variation in the style of <span class="hlt">rupture</span> related to decreasing fault heterogeneity with depth.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Houston, H.; Vidale, J.E.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1994-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">338</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005AGUFM.S12A..05S"> <span id="translatedtitle">Evidence for Supershear <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> During the 1906 San Francisco Earthquake</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The 1906 San Francisco earthquake is perhaps the single most important event in the history of earthquake science. Measurements taken and analyzed for that event led to the demonstration of elastic rebound. Despite the importance of this earthquake, the two most recently published source models, one based on seismic data and the other based on geodetic data, are sharply discordant. We suggest the two source models can be reconciled if <span class="hlt">rupture</span> in the 1906 earthquake exceeded the shear wave velocity. Observations of super-shear <span class="hlt">rupture</span> in recent large strike-slip earthquakes suggests that it is possible and may even be typical of large strike-slip events. We find that we can fit the geodetic data and the envelope of the seismic data provided the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> exceeds the shear wave speed to the north of Point Arena. We are analyzing non-repeated triangulation measurements and solving the joint slip/<span class="hlt">rupture</span> velocity inverse problem to test this hypothesis more rigorously. If supershear <span class="hlt">rupture</span> in large earthquakes is common, it would be of fundamental importance for understanding the hazard posed by large strike-slip faults in general, and for our understanding seismic hazard in northern California in particular, because so much of our characterization of the hazard in that region is based on our understanding of what happened in 1906. The prediction of strong ground motion in future large strike-slip earthquakes will be profoundly different if earthquake <span class="hlt">rupture</span> velocity is routinely supershear.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Song, S.; Beroza, G. C.; Segall, P.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">339</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012APS..MARZ43002V"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Shocks</span> in fragile matter</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Non-linear sound is an extreme phenomenon typically observed in solids after violent explosions. But granular media are different. Right when they unjam, these fragile and disordered solids exhibit vanishing elastic moduli and sound speed, so that even tiny mechanical perturbations form supersonic <span class="hlt">shocks</span>. Here, we perform simulations in which two-dimensional jammed granular packings are continuously compressed, and demonstrate that the resulting excitations are strongly nonlinear <span class="hlt">shocks</span>, rather than linear waves. We capture the full dependence of the <span class="hlt">shock</span> speed on pressure and compression speed by a surprisingly simple analytical model. We also treat shear <span class="hlt">shocks</span> within a simplified viscoelastic model of nearly-isostatic random networks comprised of harmonic springs. In this case, anharmonicity does not originate locally from nonlinear interactions between particles, as in granular media; instead, it emerges from the global architecture of the network. As a result, the diverging width of the shear <span class="hlt">shocks</span> bears a nonlinear signature of the diverging isostatic length associated with the loss of rigidity in these floppy networks.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Vitelli, Vincenzo</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">340</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3622382"> <span id="translatedtitle">Spontaneous Pelvic <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> as a Result of Renal Colic in a Patient with Klinefelter Syndrome</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We present the case of a young man with Klinefelter syndrome, who was admitted to our clinic with renal colic. Shortly after admittance, spontaneous decrease in pain has occurred. Ultrasound and intravenous contrast computed tomography were performed, which showed the evidence of urine extravasation at the level of left renal pelvis and a 4?mm stone in the lower third of the left ureter. The management with a double-J ureteric stent for three weeks was successful. Then, the stent was removed and computed tomography confirmed the absence of urine extravasation. We also analyze the literature related to this case and discuss the <span class="hlt">main</span> mechanisms of collecting system <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. PMID:23585981</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Reva, Sergey; Tolkach, Yuri</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a 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onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">341</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007SPIE.6530E..11G"> <span id="translatedtitle">Strain measurements using FBG on composite over wrap pressure vessels (COPV) in stress <span class="hlt">rupture</span> test</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Thirty six Fiber Optic Braggs Grating sensors were used during an ambient temperature hydrostatic pressurization testing of a Space Transportation System (STS) 40-inch Kevlar Composite Over-wrapped Pressure Vessel (COPV). The 40-inch vessel was of the same design and approximate age as the STS <span class="hlt">Main</span> Propulsion System (MPS) and Orbiter Maneuvering System (OMS) vessels. The sensors were surfaces mounted to on the vessel to measure strain during a stress <span class="hlt">rupture</span> event. The Bragg signals were linear with the applied pressure. The results indicated that the vessel was under an uneven force distribution at various locations on the vessel.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Grant, Joseph; Banks, Curtis</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">342</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014A%26A...565A..73G"> <span id="translatedtitle">Emission lines and <span class="hlt">shock</span> waves in RR Lyrae stars</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Context. Emission lines observed in radially pulsating stars are thought to be produced by atoms de-exciting after being excited by a <span class="hlt">shock</span> wave that is traveling into and then compressing, heating, and accelerating the atmospheric gas. Aims: With the help of recent observations, we examine the origin of all the different types of emission lines of hydrogen and helium that appear during a pulsation cycle. Methods: To analyze the physical origin of emission lines, we used the different models of atmospheric dynamics of RR Lyrae stars that have been calculated so far. Results: In contrast to a recent explanation, we propose that the redshifted emission component of H?, which occurs near the pulsation phase 0.3, is produced by the <span class="hlt">main</span> <span class="hlt">shock</span>. In this case, the emission is the natural consequence of the large extension of the expanding atmosphere. Therefore, this (weak) emission should only be observed in RR Lyrae stars for which the <span class="hlt">main</span> <span class="hlt">shock</span> will propagate far enough from the photosphere. It appears as a P-Cygni type profile. We estimate the <span class="hlt">shock</span> front velocity during the <span class="hlt">shock</span> propagation in the atmosphere and show that it decreases by 40% when the H? emitting-<span class="hlt">shock</span> passes from the photospheric level to the upper atmosphere. The H? P-Cygni profile observed in long-period Cepheids also seems to be caused by the <span class="hlt">main</span> <span class="hlt">shock</span> wave. Although to date He II has only been detected in some Blazhko stars, a comprehensive survey of RR Lyrae stars is necessary to confirm this trend, so we can say that the most intense <span class="hlt">shocks</span> will only be observed in Blazhko stars. Conclusions: The development of a model of atmospheric pulsation that takes the effects of 2D and 3D convection into account, seems to be a necessary step to fully quantify the effects of <span class="hlt">shock</span> waves on the atmospheric dynamics of radially pulsating stars.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gillet, D.; Fokin, A. B.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">343</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://mynasadata.larc.nasa.gov/lesson-plans/?page_id=474?&passid=100"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Fabled <span class="hlt">Maine</span> Winter</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">No study of <span class="hlt">Maine</span> weather would be complete without analysis of the year of 1816 - the year with no summer in an area from western Pennsylvania and New York, up through Quebec and across to <span class="hlt">Maine</span> and the Canadian maritimes. In this five-unit lesson, students will investigate the causes and effects of the Fabled <span class="hlt">Maine</span> Winter by exploring a variety of data sources. They will locate, graph, and analyze meteorological and climatological data for Portland, <span class="hlt">Maine</span>, for more recent years to try to find one that most closely resembles the fabled <span class="hlt">Maine</span> winter of 1816.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">344</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19740009843&hterms=cooperative+principle&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dcooperative%2Bprinciple"> <span id="translatedtitle">Principles and application of <span class="hlt">shock</span>-tubes and <span class="hlt">shock</span> tunnels</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The principles, theoretical flow equations, calculation techniques, limitations and practical performance characteristics of basic and high performance <span class="hlt">shock</span> tubes and <span class="hlt">shock</span> tunnels are presented. Selected operating curves are included.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ried, R. C.; Clauss, H. G., Jr.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1963-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">345</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AGUFM.T53D1998M"> <span id="translatedtitle">Ground-based LiDAR Mapping of Surface <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> Associated with the 2008 Iwate-Miyagi Nairiku, Japan, Earthquake (Mw 6.9)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The 14 June 2008 Mw 6.9 Iwate-Miyagi Nairiku earthquake, northeast Japan, resulted in discontinuous surface <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> with a general trend of NNE-SSW and total length of ~20 km along the eastern edge of the aftershock zone. Surface deformations observed on cultural and geomorphic features show that the <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> were <span class="hlt">mainly</span> due to thrust faulting, which is consistent with focal mechanisms of the mainshock and major aftershocks. The amounts of vertical offset along the <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> are generally <0.5 m. Exceptionally large surficial slip occurred near the southern end of the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> zone. Our field mapping along this portion revealed an about 700-m-long complex structure that is composed of E-W-striking dextral strike-slip section with dextral offset of up to 7 m, and N-S- to NE-SW-striking thrust sections. Both the eastern and western ends of this <span class="hlt">rupture</span> zone are terminated with large deep-seated landslides that slipped during the earthquake, suggesting that both landslides were probably triggered by faulting itself rather than local strong ground motion. To better understand the causal relationship between faulting and landslides, detailed mapping of the surface <span class="hlt">rupture</span> and landslides is necessary. However, because the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> is located on the mountainous area with much vegetation and limited line of sight, conventional field mapping and air-photo- based surveying cannot precisely map the extension, geomorphic patterns, slip sense and amounts of slip of the <span class="hlt">ruptures</span>. Furthermore, vigorous hillslope processes in rainy season and human activities in forested landscapes tend to rapidly degrade landforms generated by surface <span class="hlt">rupturing</span>. Thus, highly detailed and accurate spatial measurements of the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> were required prior to the post-disaster restoration efforts and natural processes. We performed tripod-mounted ground-based LiDAR survey to analyze deformation along the <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. The survey, which covers an extent of approximately 500-m-long and 50-100-m-wide, was conducted from 25 July to 3 August 2008, about one month after the earthquake. The LiDAR-derived ultra- high accuracy digital elevation models that have been processed to remove the effect of vegetation rendered overall topographic features associated with the <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> with unparalleled clarity. Moreover, by artificially enhancing colors, changing illumination angles and vertical exaggerations of the DEM data, we successfully extracted fine-scale topographic breaks from the mountain slopes and valley floors, such as several-cm-high fault scarps, a-few-m long pressure ridges and subdued en echelon fractures and fissures. The high- resolution topography data allow us to discriminate the tectonic <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> from gravity-induced fractures on the basis of their geometrical patterns. Close-examination of the DEM data with field observation suggests that some en echelon fractures and open cracks were interpreted to have associated with the Riedel shear of dextral strike-slip <span class="hlt">rupturing</span> and hanging wall collapse of thrust <span class="hlt">rupturing</span>, respectively, rather than gravity- origin. This study demonstrates the usefulness of ground-based LiDAR for detailed mapping of microtopography along surface <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> in forested mountainous region.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Maruyama, T.; Toda, S.; Yoshimi, M.; Omata, M.; Kohriya, Y.; Nihei, T.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">346</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20080004713&hterms=well+servicing&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dwell%2Bservicing"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Shock</span> absorber servicing tool</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A tool to assist in the servicing of a <span class="hlt">shock</span> absorber wherein the <span class="hlt">shock</span> absorber is constructed of a pair of aligned gas and liquid filled chambers. Each of the chambers is separated by a movable separator member. Maximum efficiency of the <span class="hlt">shock</span> absorber is achieved in the locating of a precise volume of gas within the gas chamber and a precise volume of liquid within the liquid chamber. The servicing tool of this invention employs a rod which is to connect with the separator and by observation of the position of the rod with respect to the gauge body, the location of the separator is ascertained even though it is not directly observable.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Koepler, Jack L. (Inventor); Hill, Robert L. (Inventor)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1981-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">347</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014cosp...40E1640K"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Dynamic Quasiperpendicular <span class="hlt">Shock</span>: Cluster Discoveries</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The physics of collisionless <span class="hlt">shocks</span> is a very broad topic which has been studied for more than five decades. However, there are a number of important issues which remain unresolved. The energy repartition amongst particle populations in quasiperpendicular <span class="hlt">shocks</span> is a multi-scale process related to the spatial and temporal structure of the electromagnetic fields within the <span class="hlt">shock</span> layer. The most important processes take place in the close vicinity of the major magnetic transition or ramp region. The distribution of electromagnetic fields in this region determines the characteristics of ion reflection and thus defines the conditions for ion heating and energy dissipation for supercritical <span class="hlt">shocks</span> and also the region where an important part of electron heating takes place. In other words, the ramp region determines the <span class="hlt">main</span> characteristics of energy repartition. All these processes are crucially dependent upon the characteristic spatial scales of the ramp and foot region provided that the <span class="hlt">shock</span> is stationary. The process of <span class="hlt">shock</span> formation consists of the steepening of a large amplitude nonlinear wave. At some point in its evolution the steepening is arrested by processes occurring within the <span class="hlt">shock</span> transition. From the earliest studies of collisionless <span class="hlt">shocks</span> these processes were identified as nonlinearity, dissipation, and dispersion. Their relative role determines the scales of electric and magnetic fields, and so control the characteristics of processes such as ion reflection, electron heating and particle acceleration. The determination of the scales of the electric and magnetic field is one of the key issues in the physics of collisionless <span class="hlt">shocks</span>. Moreover, it is well known that under certain conditions <span class="hlt">shocks</span> manifest a nonstationary dynamic behaviour called reformation. It was suggested that the transition from stationary to nonstationary quasiperiodic dynamics is related to gradients, e.g. scales of the ramp region and its associated whistler waves that form a precursor wave train. This implies that the ramp region should be considered as the source of these waves. All these questions have been studied making use observations from the Cluster satellites. The Cluster project continues to provide a unique viewpoint from which to study the scales of <span class="hlt">shocks</span>. During its lifetime the inter-satellite distance between the Cluster satellites has varied from 100 km to 10000 km allowing scientists to use the data best adapted for the given scientific objective. Our purpose is to address a subset of unresolved problems in collisionless <span class="hlt">shock</span> physics from experimental point of view making usemulti-point observations onboard Cluster satellites. The problems we address are determination of scales of fields and of a scale of electron heating, identification of energy source of precursor wave train, an estimate of the role of anomalous resistivity in energy dissipation process by means of measuring short scale wave fields, and direct observation of reformation process during one single <span class="hlt">shock</span> front crossing.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Krasnoselskikh, Vladimir</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">348</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013SSRv..178..535K"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Dynamic Quasiperpendicular <span class="hlt">Shock</span>: Cluster Discoveries</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The physics of collisionless <span class="hlt">shocks</span> is a very broad topic which has been studied for more than five decades. However, there are a number of important issues which remain unresolved. The energy repartition amongst particle populations in quasiperpendicular <span class="hlt">shocks</span> is a multi-scale process related to the spatial and temporal structure of the electromagnetic fields within the <span class="hlt">shock</span> layer. The most important processes take place in the close vicinity of the major magnetic transition or ramp region. The distribution of electromagnetic fields in this region determines the characteristics of ion reflection and thus defines the conditions for ion heating and energy dissipation for supercritical <span class="hlt">shocks</span> and also the region where an important part of electron heating takes place. In other words, the ramp region determines the <span class="hlt">main</span> characteristics of energy repartition. All these processes are crucially dependent upon the characteristic spatial scales of the ramp and foot region provided that the <span class="hlt">shock</span> is stationary. The process of <span class="hlt">shock</span> formation consists of the steepening of a large amplitude nonlinear wave. At some point in its evolution the steepening is arrested by processes occurring within the <span class="hlt">shock</span> transition. From the earliest studies of collisionless <span class="hlt">shocks</span> these processes were identified as nonlinearity, dissipation, and dispersion. Their relative role determines the scales of electric and magnetic fields, and so control the characteristics of processes such as ion reflection, electron heating and particle acceleration. The determination of the scales of the electric and magnetic field is one of the key issues in the physics of collisionless <span class="hlt">shocks</span>. Moreover, it is well known that under certain conditions <span class="hlt">shocks</span> manifest a nonstationary dynamic behaviour called reformation. It was suggested that the transition from stationary to nonstationary quasiperiodic dynamics is related to gradients, e.g. scales of the ramp region and its associated whistler waves that form a precursor wave train. This implies that the ramp region should be considered as the source of these waves. All these questions have been studied making use observations from the Cluster satellites. The Cluster project continues to provide a unique viewpoint from which to study the scales of <span class="hlt">shocks</span>. During its lifetime the inter-satellite distance between the Cluster satellites has varied from 100 km to 10000 km allowing scientists to use the data best adapted for the given scientific objective. The purpose of this review is to address a subset of unresolved problems in collisionless <span class="hlt">shock</span> physics from experimental point of view making use multi-point observations onboard Cluster satellites. The problems we address are determination of scales of fields and of a scale of electron heating, identification of energy source of precursor wave train, an estimate of the role of anomalous resistivity in energy dissipation process by means of measuring short scale wave fields, and direct observation of reformation process during one single <span class="hlt">shock</span> front crossing.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Krasnoselskikh, V.; Balikhin, M.; Walker, S. N.; Schwartz, S.; Sundkvist, D.; Lobzin, V.; Gedalin, M.; Bale, S. D.; Mozer, F.; Soucek, J.; Hobara, Y.; Comisel, H.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">349</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007JSeis..11...15R"> <span id="translatedtitle">Evidence for a seafloor <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of the Carboneras Fault Zone (southern Spain): Relation to the 1522 Almería earthquake?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">High-resolution sea floor imaging (narrow beam sediment profiler) yields evidence for an offshore <span class="hlt">rupture</span> along a strand of the Carboneras Fault Zone (CFZ) in the Gulf of Almería off southern Spain. The observed faults affect the seafloor and cut the Late Holocene sedimentary cover, hence the faults are regarded as active and the escarpments as relatively fresh. Seafloor faulting is associated with escarpments, fissures, pressure ridges, folds, and reverse faults indicating sinistral strike-slip faulting with a significant vertical displacement. Adjacent to the major fault zone secondary phenomena such as submarine slumps and slides are observed. The observed fresh escarpments imply an offshore <span class="hlt">rupture</span> during a major earthquake along the CFZ. The southern Iberian margin and the Afro-Eurasian convergence zone form an area of moderate seismicity. However, some major events occurred, such as the 1522 Almería earthquake (EMS IX; [IGN (2005) Instituto Geografico Nacional, www.ign.es]), which affected large areas in the western Mediterranean. Different epicentral areas have been suspected, <span class="hlt">mainly</span> along the 50 km long sinistral CFZ; however, no on-shore surface <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> and paleoseismological evidences for this event have been found. Based on our data, a new epicentral area is proposed in the Gulf of Almería precisely along the observed sea floor <span class="hlt">rupture</span> area, where the CFZ extend at least for 100 km offshore. Our findings suggest a specific seismic hazards and tsunami potential for offshore active and seismogenic faults in the Alborán Sea.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Reicherter, Klaus; Hübscher, Christian</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">350</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4087921"> <span id="translatedtitle">Structural control on the Tohoku earthquake <span class="hlt">rupture</span> process investigated by 3D FEM, tsunami and geodetic data</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The 2011 Tohoku earthquake (Mw = 9.1) highlighted previously unobserved features for megathrust events, such as the large slip in a relatively limited area and the shallow <span class="hlt">rupture</span> propagation. We use a Finite Element Model (FEM), taking into account the 3D geometrical and structural complexities up to the trench zone, and perform a joint inversion of tsunami and geodetic data to retrieve the earthquake slip distribution. We obtain a close spatial correlation between the <span class="hlt">main</span> deep slip patch and the local seismic velocity anomalies, and large shallow slip extending also to the North coherently with a seismically observed low-frequency radiation. These observations suggest that the friction controlled the <span class="hlt">rupture</span>, initially confining the deeper <span class="hlt">rupture</span> and then driving its propagation up to the trench, where it spreads laterally. These findings are relevant to earthquake and tsunami hazard assessment because they may help to detect regions likely prone to <span class="hlt">rupture</span> along the megathrust, and to constrain the probability of high slip near the trench. Our estimate of ~40?m slip value around the JFAST (Japan Trench Fast Drilling Project) drilling zone contributes to constrain the dynamic shear stress and friction coefficient of the fault obtained by temperature measurements to ~0.68?MPa and ~0.10, respectively. PMID:25005351</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Romano, F.; Trasatti, E.; Lorito, S.; Piromallo, C.; Piatanesi, A.; Ito, Y.; Zhao, D.; Hirata, K.; Lanucara, P.; Cocco, M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">351</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003AGUFM.S42E0215V"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Rupture</span> process of the Mw=6.9 Boumerdes (Algeria) earthquake of May 21, 2003 from seismological data</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The understanding of the destructive earthquake that struck northern Algeria on May 21, 2003 is complicated by the fact that it most likely <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> the earth surface offshore. Notwithstanding, a number of observations, measurements, and recordings can be used to constrain the <span class="hlt">main</span> aspects of the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> process of the event. We use seismological data, specifically teleseismic body and surface waves, to determine how slip was distributed in space and time relative to the mainshock hypocenter. Our preliminary results indicate that the essential part of the reverse faulting <span class="hlt">rupture</span> occurred at shallow depth (< 10 km) on a south dipping fault plane and was associated with a strong directivity effect toward the SW. We intend to improve the determination of the hypocenter itself by carrying out a relative location with respect to the aftershocks which were recorded by OBS deployed in the epicentral area a few days after the mainshock. Onland ground deformation, such as coastal uplift, as well as offshore imaging of the activated fault (MARADJA cruise) are also used to constrain further the spatial properties of the <span class="hlt">rupture</span>, in particular its absolute location and geometry.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Vallee, M.; Delouis, B.; Deschamps, A.; Deverchere, J.; Yelles, K.; Hello, Y.; Calais, E.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">352</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25005351"> <span id="translatedtitle">Structural control on the Tohoku earthquake <span class="hlt">rupture</span> process investigated by 3D FEM, tsunami and geodetic data.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The 2011 Tohoku earthquake (Mw = 9.1) highlighted previously unobserved features for megathrust events, such as the large slip in a relatively limited area and the shallow <span class="hlt">rupture</span> propagation. We use a Finite Element Model (FEM), taking into account the 3D geometrical and structural complexities up to the trench zone, and perform a joint inversion of tsunami and geodetic data to retrieve the earthquake slip distribution. We obtain a close spatial correlation between the <span class="hlt">main</span> deep slip patch and the local seismic velocity anomalies, and large shallow slip extending also to the North coherently with a seismically observed low-frequency radiation. These observations suggest that the friction controlled the <span class="hlt">rupture</span>, initially confining the deeper <span class="hlt">rupture</span> and then driving its propagation up to the trench, where it spreads laterally. These findings are relevant to earthquake and tsunami hazard assessment because they may help to detect regions likely prone to <span class="hlt">rupture</span> along the megathrust, and to constrain the probability of high slip near the trench. Our estimate of ~40 m slip value around the JFAST (Japan Trench Fast Drilling Project) drilling zone contributes to constrain the dynamic shear stress and friction coefficient of the fault obtained by temperature measurements to ~0.68 MPa and ~0.10, respectively. PMID:25005351</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Romano, F; Trasatti, E; Lorito, S; Piromallo, C; Piatanesi, A; Ito, Y; Zhao, D; Hirata, K; Lanucara, P; Cocco, M</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">353</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014NatSR...4E5631R"> <span id="translatedtitle">Structural control on the Tohoku earthquake <span class="hlt">rupture</span> process investigated by 3D FEM, tsunami and geodetic data</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The 2011 Tohoku earthquake (Mw = 9.1) highlighted previously unobserved features for megathrust events, such as the large slip in a relatively limited area and the shallow <span class="hlt">rupture</span> propagation. We use a Finite Element Model (FEM), taking into account the 3D geometrical and structural complexities up to the trench zone, and perform a joint inversion of tsunami and geodetic data to retrieve the earthquake slip distribution. We obtain a close spatial correlation between the <span class="hlt">main</span> deep slip patch and the local seismic velocity anomalies, and large shallow slip extending also to the North coherently with a seismically observed low-frequency radiation. These observations suggest that the friction controlled the <span class="hlt">rupture</span>, initially confining the deeper <span class="hlt">rupture</span> and then driving its propagation up to the trench, where it spreads laterally. These findings are relevant to earthquake and tsunami hazard assessment because they may help to detect regions likely prone to <span class="hlt">rupture</span> along the megathrust, and to constrain the probability of high slip near the trench. Our estimate of ~40 m slip value around the JFAST (Japan Trench Fast Drilling Project) drilling zone contributes to constrain the dynamic shear stress and friction coefficient of the fault obtained by temperature measurements to ~0.68 MPa and ~0.10, respectively.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Romano, F.; Trasatti, E.; Lorito, S.; Piromallo, C.; Piatanesi, A.; Ito, Y.; Zhao, D.; Hirata, K.; Lanucara, P.; Cocco, M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">354</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004AGUFM.S34A..04T"> <span id="translatedtitle">Do Surface Fault <span class="hlt">Ruptures</span> Cause More Destruction of Houses?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Surface fault <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> accompanying large earthquakes are commonly thought to cause more destruction of houses. In some regions such as California, Utah, and Taiwan, formal regulations are put in place to restrict building of houses on land with known surface fault <span class="hlt">ruptures</span>. However, the question of whether surface fault <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> do actually cause more destruction of houses has never been checked by empirical data. In this paper, we use the spatial distribution of the percentage of totally collapsed houses from two destructive earthquakes in central Taiwan to address this question. The first earthquake took place on April 21, 1935 with a magnitude of 7.1. The earthquake was accompanyed by two segments of surface fault <span class="hlt">ruptures</span>, the NE-SW striking right lateral strike-slip Tun-tze-chiao fault and the N-S striking reverse Shih-tan fault. The second earthquake took place on September 21, 1999 with a magnitude 7.6. The earthquake was acompanyed by the N-S striking thrust Chelungpu fault. We first obtained the percentage of houses totally collapsed as well as the percentage of people killed in each village (¡Tsun-li¡", the smallest administrative district). Then we plot the data on a map to show the spatial distribution patterns of houses collapsed and people killed. The results are summarized as follows: Fault Zone Houses collapsed People killed 1935 Surface <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> 58.67% 5.85% Tun-tze-chiao S-E side 46.16% 1.82% (Strike-slip ) N-W side 28.47% 1.04% 1935 Surface <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> 62.19% 1.89% Shih-tan East side 77.21% 0.46% (Reverse) West side 81.59% 1.52% 1999 Surface <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> 14.54% 0.24% Chelungpu East side 29.41% 0.55% (Thrust) West side 9.73% 0.11% We can see from the table that the surface fault <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> of the strike-slip Tun-tze-chiao fault did cause more destruction of houses than the outside zones, respectively. In contrary, the surface fault <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> of the reverse-slip Shih-tan fault and the thrust Chelungpu fault did not cause more destruction of houses than the outside zones. Thus, the building code regulation to restrict building of houses on land with surface fault <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> apparently is warranted for strike slip faults, but is not necessarily warranted for reverse and thrust faults.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Tsai, Y.; Yu, T.; Lee, C.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">355</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70017387"> <span id="translatedtitle">Impact-<span class="hlt">shocked</span> zircons: discovery of <span class="hlt">shock</span>-induced textures reflecting increasing degrees of <span class="hlt">shock</span> metamorphism</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Textural effects specifically characteristic of <span class="hlt">shock</span> metamorphism in zircons from impact environments have not been reported previously. However, planar deformation features (PDF) due to <span class="hlt">shock</span> metamorphism are well documented in quartz and other mineral grains from these same environments. An etching technique was developed that allows SEM visualization of PDF and other probable <span class="hlt">shock</span>-induced textural features, such as granular (polycrystalline) texture, in zircons from a variety of impact <span class="hlt">shock</span> environments. These textural features in <span class="hlt">shocked</span> zircons from K/T boundary distal ejecta form a series related to increasing degrees of <span class="hlt">shock</span> that should correlate with proportionate resetting of the UPb isotopic system. ?? 1993.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bohor, B.F.; Betterton, W.J.; Krogh, T.E.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1993-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">356</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9772322"> <span id="translatedtitle">Culture <span class="hlt">shock</span> and travelers.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">As travel has become easier and more affordable, the number of people traveling has risen sharply. People travel for many and varied reasons, from the business person on an overseas assignment to backpackers seeking new and exotic destinations. Others may take up residence in different regions, states or countries for family, business or political reasons. Other people are fleeing religious or political persecution. Wherever they go and for whatever reason they go, people take their culture with them. Culture, like language, is acquired innately in early childhood and is then reinforced through formal and complex informal social education into adulthood. Culture provides a framework for interpersonal and social interactions. Therefore, the contact with a new culture is often not the exciting or pleasurable experience anticipated. When immersed in a different culture, people no longer know how to act when faced with disparate value systems. Contact with the unfamiliar culture can lead to anxiety, stress, mental illness and, in extreme cases, physical illness and suicide. "Culture <span class="hlt">shock</span>" is a term coined by the anthropologist Oberg. It is the <span class="hlt">shock</span> of the new. It implies that the experience of the new culture is an unpleasant surprise or <span class="hlt">shock</span>, partly because it is unexpected and partly because it can lead to a negative evaluation of one's own culture. It is also known as cross-cultural adjustment, being that period of anxiety and confusion experienced when entering a new culture. It affects people intellectually, emotionally, behaviorally and physically and is characterized by symptoms of psychological distress. Culture <span class="hlt">shock</span> affects both adults and children. In travelers or workers who have prolonged sojourns in foreign countries, culture <span class="hlt">shock</span> may occur not only as they enter the new culture, but also may occur on their return to their original culture. Children may also experience readjustment problems after returning from leading sheltered lives in expatriate compounds. This readjustment back to their own culture after a period of time abroad has been termed "reverse culture <span class="hlt">shock</span>, a condition which has been studied in both corporate managers and Peace Corps volunteers. With culture <span class="hlt">shock</span> and many other processes of psychological adjustment, people tend to suffer alone, thinking that they are the only ones not coping well with their new circumstance. The objective of this paper was to bring the phenomenon of culture <span class="hlt">shock</span> to the awareness of travel health advisors, who can in turn advise travelers, especially longer term travelers, about having realistic expectations of their travel and life in new cultures. PMID:9772322</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Stewart, L; Leggat, P A</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1998-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">357</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2220140"> <span id="translatedtitle">[Urosepsis and uroseptic <span class="hlt">shock</span>].</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The currently high letality rate of uroseptic <span class="hlt">shock</span> may be reduced by early recognition of symptoms and adequate therapy with elimination of causes. Decisive for the septic <span class="hlt">shock</span> are initial disturbances of the microcirculation in the presence of hyperdynamic circulatory regulation with following disorders of the coagulation system, tissue metabolism, acid-base-balance and heart contractility. In the therapeutic armament the important role of vasoactive substances is stressed. In an analysis of 59 patients suffering from urosepsis the intrinsic and iatrogenic causes, the bacterial spectrum and the emergency operative interventions are evaluated, whereas a letality rate of nearly 12% and an injury grade of 34% are estimated. PMID:2220140</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hofmann, W</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1990-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">358</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2651040"> <span id="translatedtitle">Postinfluenza toxic <span class="hlt">shock</span> syndrome.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Postinfluenza toxic <span class="hlt">shock</span> syndrome is a recently described entity that results from a respiratory tract infection with toxin-producing Staphylococcus aureus following an episode of influenza or influenzalike illness. This report describes a 19-year-old man who developed an influenza B respiratory infection complicated by staphylococcal pneumonia and toxic <span class="hlt">shock</span> syndrome. The patient improved rapidly with specific antibiotic therapy, emphasizing the importance of considering this otherwise highly lethal syndrome in any individual who becomes critically ill after an initial influenzalike illness. PMID:2651040</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Prechter, G C; Gerhard, A K</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1989-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">359</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ivie.es/downloads/docs/wpasec/wpasec-1997-05.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Shocks</span> agregados versus <span class="hlt">shocks</span> sectoriales: un análisis factorial</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper aims at disentangling the sectoral and aggregate affects of both aggregate and sector-specific <span class="hlt">shocks</span> by means of static and dynamic factor analytical models. We use two data sets, Gross Value Added and the industrial Production Index, and the results differ slightly. For the Industrial Production Index sectoral <span class="hlt">shocks</span> have greater sectoral effects than aggregate <span class="hlt">shocks</span> in the short</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Francisco José Goerlich Gisbert</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">360</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005AGUFM.S43A1066T"> <span id="translatedtitle">Finite Element Simulations of Dynamic Shear <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> Experiments and Path Selection Along Branched Faults</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The study of dynamically propagating shear cracks along geometrically complex paths is important to understanding the mechanics of earthquakes. Recent laboratory fracture studies of Rousseau and Rosakis examined a branched configuration, analogous to their study of <span class="hlt">rupture</span> along a bent fault path [Rousseau and Rosakis, JGR, 2003], to enhance understanding of the behavior of a shear <span class="hlt">rupture</span> approaching the intersection of two paths. Whereas crack motion along a simple bent path is readily explained by means of the energy available to sustain the propagating crack, or through a crack tip stress field criterion, the behavior of multiple paths displays more intricate variations featuring the inability of the crack to extend along secondary paths situated at shallow angles with respect to the initial direction of propagation. Secondary paths located at larger angles, on the extensional side, generally promote simultaneous extension along both paths beyond the junction, in contrast to preferred motion along the straight path, which is favored when secondary paths are situated on the compressional side. The experiments involve impact loading of thin plates of Homalite-100, a photoelastic polymer, which are cut along branched paths and weakly glued back together everywhere except along a starter notch near the impact site. High-speed photography of isochromatic fringe patterns (lines of constant difference between in-plane principal stresses) characterized the transient deformation field associated with the impact and <span class="hlt">rupture</span> propagation. We adapted the ABAQUS/Explicit dynamic finite element program to analyze the propagation of shear cracks along such branched weakened paths. Two configurations for weakened paths, branches at 35° to the compressional side and the extensional side, were analyzed. We implemented a linear slip-weakening failure model as a user-defined constitutive relation within the ABAQUS program, where weakening could be included in either or both of (1) a cohesive part, c = c(? u) (where ? u = slip) of the shear strength that is insensitive to compressive normal stress ?, and (2) a frictional part f ?, with friction coefficient f = f(? u). The analyses of impact loading, and <span class="hlt">rupture</span> nucleation and propagation were carried out in a 2D plane stress framework. A set of studies of slip weakening parameters and impact velocity were done to investigate the relationship between the strength of the interface and the speed of <span class="hlt">rupture</span> propagation. For a branch on the extensional side of the <span class="hlt">main</span> fault, increasing f(0) decreases the propagation speed on the continuation of the straight <span class="hlt">main</span> fault while increasing speed on the branch. Whether the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> is propagating at an intersonic or sub-Rayleigh speed when it reaches the branching junction has a large effect on the nature of <span class="hlt">rupture</span> propagation along the inclined path. While not achieving perfect agreement with the experimental measurements, principal features observed in dynamic isochromatic line patterns were reproduced.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Templeton, E. L.; Baudet, A.; Bhat, H. S.; Dmowska, R.; Rice, J. R.; Rosakis, A. J.; Rousseau, C. E.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' 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onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">361</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/k3r612662t1m7537.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Heat <span class="hlt">shock</span> proteins in chronic kidney disease</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Heat <span class="hlt">shock</span> proteins (HSP) form a heterogenous, evolutionarily conserved group of molecules with high sequence homology. They\\u000a <span class="hlt">mainly</span> act as intracellular chaperones, protecting the protein structure and folding under stress conditions. The extracellular\\u000a HSP, released in the course of damage or necrosis, play a pivotal role in the innate and adaptive immune responses. They also\\u000a take part in many pathological</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kinga Musia?; Danuta Zwoli?ska</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">362</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70015850"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Rupture</span> process of the Ms 6.6 Superstition Hills, California, earthquake determined from strong-motion recordings: application of tomographic source inversion</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We analyze strong-motion recordings of the Ms6.6 Superstition Hills earthquake to determine the timing, location, spatial extent, and <span class="hlt">rupture</span> velocity of the subevents that produced the bulk of the high-frequency (0.5 to 4Hz) seismic energy radiated by this <span class="hlt">shock</span>. The earthquake can be characterized by three principal subevents, the largest ones occurring about 3 and 10sec after initiation of <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. Timing relationships between pulses on the seismograms indicate that the three subevents are located within 8km of each other along the northern portion of the Superstition Hills fault. The two largest subevents display different directivity effects. We apply a tomographic source inversion to the integrated accelerograms to determine the slip acceleration on the fault as a function of time and distance, based on a one-dimensional fault model. -from Authors</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Frankel, A.; Wennerberg, L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1989-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">363</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4013962"> <span id="translatedtitle">Postpartum Massive Hematoma within the Broad Ligament of the Uterus in a Broodmare Possibly Caused by <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> of the Uterine Artery</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A broodmare showed mild signs of abdominal discomfort and anemia after normal delivery. Ultrasonographic examination revealed a massive hematoma within the broad ligament adjacent to the uterine horn. Internal bleeding into the peritoneal cavity (hemoabdomen) was not seen. Following treatment, the clinical signs improved. Hemorrhage caused by <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of the arteries within the broad ligament of the uterus may be a cause of hematoma. Prepartum and postpartum <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of the arteries supplying the reproductive organs in the mare, which is not uncommon, can be fatal if severe hemoabdomen occurs. In the present case, the hematoma was considered to be tightly encapsulated between two serosal membrane layers of the broad ligament, and the membranes had remained intact. Thus, the serosal membranes did not split open, and massive bleeding into the peritoneal cavity did not occur. For this reason, the present broodmare avoided potentially fatal hemorrhagic <span class="hlt">shock</span>. PMID:24833968</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">OIKAWA, Masa-aki; NAMBO, Yasuo; MIYAMOTO, Mayuka; MIURA, Hiroshi; KIKUCHI, Motohiro; OHNAMI, Yohji</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">364</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PhDT.........3T"> <span id="translatedtitle">Vortex dynamics in <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> and unruptured intracranial aneurysms</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Intracranial aneurysms (IAs) are a potentially devastating pathological dilation of brain arteries that affect 1.5-5 % of the population. Causing around 500 000 deaths per year worldwide, their detection and treatment to prevent <span class="hlt">rupture</span> is critical. Multiple recent studies have tried to find a hemodynamics predictor of aneurysm <span class="hlt">rupture</span>, but concluded with distinct opposite trends using Wall Shear Stress (WSS) based parameters in different clinical datasets. Nevertheless, several research groups tend to converge for now on the fact that the flow patterns and flow dynamics of the <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> aneurysms are complex and unstable. Following this idea, we investigated the vortex properties of both unruptured and <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> cerebral aneurysms. A brief comparison of two Eulerian vortex visualization methods (Q-criterion and lambda 2 method) showed that these approaches gave similar results in our complex aneurysm geometries. We were then able to apply either one of them to a large dataset of 74 patient specific cases of intracranial aneurysms. Those real cases were obtained by 3D angiography, numerical reconstruction of the geometry, and then pulsatile CFD simulation before post-processing with the mentioned vortex visualization tools. First we tested the two Eulerian methods on a few cases to verify their implementation we made as well as compare them with each other. After that, the Q-criterion was selected as method of choice for its more obvious physical meaning (it shows the balance between two characteristics of the flow, its swirling and deformation). Using iso-surfaces of Q, we started by categorizing the patient-specific aneurysms based on the gross topology of the aneurysmal vortices. This approach being unfruitful, we found a new vortex-based characteristic property of <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> aneurysms to stratify the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> risk of IAs that we called the Wall-Kissing Vortices, or WKV. We observed that most <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> aneurysms had a large amount of WKV, which appears to agree with the current hypothesized biological triggers of pathological remodeling of the artery walls. Having a good natural ratio of statuses in our IA cohort (55 unruptured vs. 19 <span class="hlt">ruptured</span>), we were able to test the statistical significance of our predictor to fortify our findings. We also performed a distribution analysis of our cohort with respect to the number of WKV to strengthen the encouraging statistical analysis result; both analyses provided a clear good separation of the status of the aneurysms based on our predictor. Lastly, we constructed a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve to analyze the power different thresholds of WKV had in splitting the data in a binary way (unruptured/<span class="hlt">ruptured</span>). The number of WKV was efficaciously able to stratify the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> status, identifying 84.21 % of the <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> aneurysms (with 25.45 % of false positives, i.e. unruptured IAs tagged as <span class="hlt">ruptured</span>) when using a threshold value of 2. Our novel work undertaken to study the vortex structures in IAs brought to light interesting characteristics of the flow in the aneurysmal sac. We found that there are several distinct categories in which the aneurysm vortex topologies can be put in without relationship to the aneurysm <span class="hlt">rupture</span> status. This first finding was in contradiction with available already-published results. Nonetheless, <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> IAs had a statistically significant larger amount of WKV as opposed to unruptured aneurysms. This new predictor we propose to the community could very well clear a new path among the currently controversial WSS-based parameters. Although it needs to be improved to be more resilient, the first results obtained by the WKV-based parameter are promising when applied to a large dataset of 74 IAs patient-specific transient CFD simulations.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Trylesinski, Gabriel</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">365</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19960003341&hterms=tourmaline&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dtourmaline"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Shock</span> waves data for minerals</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Shock</span> compression of the materials of planetary interiors yields data which upon comparison with density-pressure and density-sound velocity profiles constrain internal composition and temperature. Other important applications of <span class="hlt">shock</span> wave data and related properties are found in the impact mechanics of terrestrial planets and solid satellites. <span class="hlt">Shock</span> wave equation of state, <span class="hlt">shock</span>-induced dynamic yielding and phase transitions, and <span class="hlt">shock</span> temperature are discussed. In regions where a substantial phase change in the material does not occur, the relationship between the particle velocity, U(sub p), and the <span class="hlt">shock</span> velocity, U(sub s), is given by U(sub s) = C(sub 0) + S U(sub p), where C(sub 0) is the <span class="hlt">shock</span> velocity at infinitesimally small particle velocity, or the ambient pressure bulk sound velocity. Numerical values for the <span class="hlt">shock</span> wave equation of state for minerals and related materials of the solar system are provided.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ahrens, Thomas J.; Johnson, Mary L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1994-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">366</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://kidshealth.org/parent/infections/bacterial_viral/toxic_shock.html"> <span id="translatedtitle">Toxic <span class="hlt">Shock</span> Syndrome (For Parents)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePLUS</a></p> <p class="result-summary">... Lessons? Visit KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Measles: What to Know Vaccines: FAQs ... Checkups: What to Expect Toxic <span class="hlt">Shock</span> Syndrome KidsHealth > Parents > Infections > Bacterial & Viral Infections > Toxic <span class="hlt">Shock</span> Syndrome Print ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">367</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19840020892&hterms=iron+mill+scale+thermal+properties&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Diron%2Bmill%2Bscale%2Bthermal%2Bproperties"> <span id="translatedtitle">Creep-<span class="hlt">rupture</span> behavior of candidate Stirling engine iron supperalloys in high-pressure hydrogen. Volume 2: Hydrogen creep-<span class="hlt">rupture</span> behavior</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The creep <span class="hlt">rupture</span> behavior of nine iron base and one cobalt base candidate Stirling engine alloys is evaluated. <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> life, minimum creep rate, and time to 1% strain data are analyzed. The 3500 h <span class="hlt">rupture</span> life stress and stress to obtain 1% strain in 3500 h are also estimated.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bhattacharyya, S.; Peterman, W.; Hales, C.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1984-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">368</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25073002"> <span id="translatedtitle">Interactions between collagen gene variants and risk of anterior cruciate ligament <span class="hlt">rupture</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The COL5A1 and COL12A1 variants are independently associated with modulating the risk of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) <span class="hlt">rupture</span> in females. The objective of this study was to further investigate if COL3A1 and COL6A1 variants independently, as well as, collagen gene-gene interactions, modulate ACL <span class="hlt">rupture</span> risk. Three hundred and thirty-three South African (SA, n = 242) and Polish (PL, n = 91) participants with diagnosed ACL <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> and 378 controls (235 SA and 143 PL) were recruited. Participants were genotyped for COL3A1 rs1800255 G/A, COL5A1 rs12722 (T/C), COL6A1 rs35796750 (T/C) and COL12A1 rs970547 (A/G). No significant associations were identified between COL6A1 rs35796750 and COL3A1 rs1800255 genotypes and risk of ACL <span class="hlt">rupture</span> in the SA cohort. The COL3A1 AA genotype was, however, significantly (p = 0.036) over-represented in the PL ACL group (9.9%, n = 9) when compared to the PL control (CON) group (2.8%, n = 4). Although there were genotype distribution differences between the SA and PL cohorts, the T+A-inferred pseudo-haplotype constructed from COL5A1 and COL12A1 was significantly over-represented in the female ACL group when compared to the female CON group within the SA (T+A ACL 50.5%, T+A CON 38.1%, p = 0.022), PL (T+A ACL 56.3%, T+A CON 36.3%, p = 0.029) and combined (T+A ACL 51.8%, T+A CON 37.5%, p = 0.004) cohorts. In conclusion, the novel <span class="hlt">main</span> finding of this study was a significant interaction between the COL5A1 rs12722 T/C and COL12A1 rs970547 A/G variants and risk of ACL injury. These results highlight the importance of investigating gene-gene interactions in the aetiology of ACL <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> in multiple independent cohorts. PMID:25073002</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">O'Connell, Kevin; Knight, Hayley; Ficek, Krzysztof; Leonska-Duniec, Agata; Maciejewska-Karlowska, Agnieszka; Sawczuk, Marek; Stepien-Slodkowska, Marta; O'Cuinneagain, Dion; van der Merwe, Willem; Posthumus, Michael; Cieszczyk, Pawel; Collins, Malcolm</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2015-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">369</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19920023037&hterms=main+engine+definition&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dmain%2Bengine%2Bdefinition"> <span id="translatedtitle">Space Transportation <span class="hlt">Main</span> Engine</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: Space Transportation <span class="hlt">Main</span> Engine (STME) definition, design philosophy, robust design, maximum design condition, casting vs. machined and welded forgings, operability considerations, high reliability design philosophy, engine reliability enhancement, low cost design philosophy, engine systems requirements, STME schematic, fuel turbopump, liquid oxygen turbopump, <span class="hlt">main</span> injector, and gas generator. The major engine components of the STME and the Space Shuttle <span class="hlt">Main</span> Engine are compared.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Monk, Jan C.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1992-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">370</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1992cfda.nasa...45M"> <span id="translatedtitle">Space Transportation <span class="hlt">Main</span> Engine</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: Space Transportation <span class="hlt">Main</span> Engine (STME) definition, design philosophy, robust design, maximum design condition, casting vs. machined and welded forgings, operability considerations, high reliability design philosophy, engine reliability enhancement, low cost design philosophy, engine systems requirements, STME schematic, fuel turbopump, liquid oxygen turbopump, <span class="hlt">main</span> injector, and gas generator. The major engine components of the STME and the Space Shuttle <span class="hlt">Main</span> Engine are compared.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Monk, Jan C.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1992-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">371</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20090034483&hterms=Kevlar+49&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3DKevlar%2B49"> <span id="translatedtitle">Composite Overwrap Pressure Vessels: Mechanics and Stress <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> Lifting Philosophy</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) has been conducting an independent technical assessment to address safety concerns related to the known stress <span class="hlt">rupture</span> failure mode of filament wound pressure vessels in use on Shuttle and the International Space Station. The Shuttle s Kevlar-49 (DuPont) fiber overwrapped tanks are of particular concern due to their long usage and the poorly understood stress <span class="hlt">rupture</span> process in Kevlar-49 filaments. Existing long term data show that the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> process is a function of stress, temperature and time. However due to the presence of load sharing liners and the complex manufacturing procedures, the state of actual fiber stress in flight hardware and test articles is not clearly known. Indeed nonconservative life predictions have been made where stress <span class="hlt">rupture</span> data and lifing procedures have ignored the contribution of the liner in favor of applied pressure as the controlling load parameter. With the aid of analytical and finite element results, this paper examines the fundamental mechanical response of composite overwrapped pressure vessels including the influence of elastic plastic liners and degraded/creeping overwrap properties. Graphical methods are presented describing the non-linear relationship of applied pressure to Kevlar-49 fiber stress/strain during manufacturing, operations and burst loadings. These are applied to experimental measurements made on a variety of vessel systems to demonstrate the correct calibration of fiber stress as a function of pressure. Applying this analysis to the actual qualification burst data for Shuttle flight hardware revealed that the nominal fiber stress at burst was in some cases 23 percent lower than what had previously been used to predict stress <span class="hlt">rupture</span> life. These results motivate a detailed discussion of the appropriate stress <span class="hlt">rupture</span> lifing philosophy for COPVs including the correct transference of stress <span class="hlt">rupture</span> life data between dissimilar vessels and test articles.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Thesken, John C.; Murthy, Pappu L. N.; Phoenix, S. L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">372</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20070022369&hterms=Kevlar+49&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3DKevlar%2B49"> <span id="translatedtitle">Composite Overwrap Pressure Vessels: Mechanics and Stress <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> Lifing Philosophy</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) has been conducting an independent technical assessment to address safety concerns related to the known stress <span class="hlt">rupture</span> failure mode of filament wound pressure vessels in use on Shuttle and the International Space Station. The Shuttle's Kevlar-49 fiber overwrapped tanks are of particular concern due to their long usage and the poorly understood stress <span class="hlt">rupture</span> process in Kevlar-49 filaments. Existing long term data show that the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> process is a function of stress, temperature and time. However due to the presence of load sharing liners and the complex manufacturing procedures, the state of actual fiber stress in flight hardware and test articles is not clearly known. Indeed non-conservative life predictions have been made where stress <span class="hlt">rupture</span> data and lifing procedures have ignored the contribution of the liner in favor of applied pressure as the controlling load parameter. With the aid of analytical and finite element results, this paper examines the fundamental mechanical response of composite overwrapped pressure vessels including the influence of elastic-plastic liners and degraded/creeping overwrap properties. Graphical methods are presented describing the non-linear relationship of applied pressure to Kevlar-49 fiber stress/strain during manufacturing, operations and burst loadings. These are applied to experimental measurements made on a variety of vessel systems to demonstrate the correct calibration of fiber stress as a function of pressure. Applying this analysis to the actual qualification burst data for Shuttle flight hardware revealed that the nominal fiber stress at burst was in some cases 23% lower than what had previously been used to predict stress <span class="hlt">rupture</span> life. These results motivate a detailed discussion of the appropriate stress <span class="hlt">rupture</span> lifing philosophy for COPVs including the correct transference of stress <span class="hlt">rupture</span> life data between dissimilar vessels and test articles.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Thesken, John C.; Murthy, Pappu L. N.; Phoenix, Leigh</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">373</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3021316"> <span id="translatedtitle">Hemodynamic-Morphologic Discriminants for Intracranial Aneurysm <span class="hlt">Rupture</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background and Purpose To identify significant morphologic and hemodynamic parameters that discriminate intracranial aneurysm (IA) <span class="hlt">rupture</span> status using 3D angiography and computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Methods 119 IAs (38 <span class="hlt">ruptured</span>, 81 unruptured) were analyzed from 3D angiographic images and CFD. Six morphologic and seven hemodynamic parameters were evaluated for significance with respect to <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) analysis identified area under the curve (AUC) and optimal thresholds separating <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> from unruptured aneurysms for each parameter. Significant parameters were examined by multivariate logistic regression analysis in 3 predictive models—morphology only, hemodynamics only, and combined—to identify independent discriminants, and the AUC-ROC of the predicted probability of <span class="hlt">rupture</span> status was compared among these models. Results Morphologic parameters (Size Ratio [SR], Undulation Index, Ellipticity Index, and Nonsphericity Index) and hemodynamic parameters (Average Wall Shear Stress [WSS], Maximum intra-aneurysmal WSS, Low WSS Area, Average Oscillatory Shear Index [OSI], Number of Vortices, and Relative Resident Time) achieved statistical significance (p<0.01). Multivariate logistic regression analysis demonstrated SR to be the only independently significant factor in the morphology model (AUC=0.83, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.75–0.91), whereas WSS and OSI were the only independently significant variables in the hemodynamics model (AUC=0.85, 95% CI 0.78–0.93). The combined model retained all three variables, SR, WSS, and OSI (AUC=0.89, 95% CI 0.82–0.96). Conclusion All three models—morphological (based on SR), hemodynamic (based on WSS and OSI), and combined—discriminate IA <span class="hlt">rupture</span> status with high AUC values. Hemodynamics is as important as morphology in discriminating aneurysm <span class="hlt">rupture</span> status. PMID:21106956</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Xiang, Jianping; Natarajan, Sabareesh K.; Tremmel, Markus; Ma, Ding; Mocco, J; Hopkins, L. Nelson; Siddiqui, Adnan H.; Levy, Elad I.; Meng, Hui</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">374</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22894893"> <span id="translatedtitle">[Whole-blood transfusion for hemorrhagic <span class="hlt">shock</span> resuscitation: two cases in Djibouti].</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Hemorrhagic <span class="hlt">shock</span> requires early aggressive treatment, including transfusion of packed red blood cells and hemostatic resuscitation. In austere environments, when component therapy is not available, warm fresh whole-blood transfusion is a convenient treatment. It provides red blood cells, clotting factors, and functional platelets. Therefore it is commonly used in military practice to treat hemorrhagic <span class="hlt">shock</span> in combat casualties. At Bouffard Hospital Center in Djibouti, the supply of packed red blood cells is limited, and apheresis platelets are unavailable. We used whole blood transfusion in two civilian patients with life-threatening non-traumatic hemorrhages. One had massive bleeding caused by disseminated intravascular coagulation due to septic <span class="hlt">shock</span>; the second was a 39 year-old pregnant woman with uterine <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. In both cases, whole blood transfusion (twelve and ten 500 mL bags respectively), combined with etiological treatment, enabled coagulopathy correction, hemorrhage control, and satisfactory recovery. PMID:22894893</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Cordier, P Y; Eve, O; Dehan, C; Topin, F; Menguy, P; Bertani, A; Massoure, P L; Kaiser, E</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">375</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007APS..SHK.V6001S"> <span id="translatedtitle">Violent Reactions from Non-<span class="hlt">Shock</span> Stimuli</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Most reactions are thermally initiated, whether from direct heating or dissipation of energy from mechanical, <span class="hlt">shock</span>, or electrical stimuli. For other than prompt <span class="hlt">shock</span> initiation, the reaction must be able to spread through porosity or over large surface area to become more violent than just <span class="hlt">rupturing</span> any confinement. While burning rates are important, high-strain mechanical properties are nearly so, either by reducing existing porosity or generating additional surface area through fracture. The first example is deflagration-to-detonation transition (DDT) in porous beds. During the early stages, weak compressive waves ahead of the convective ignition front will reduce porosity, thereby restricting the spread of combustion and the pressure buildup. If, however, pressure increases faster than can be relieved by loss of confinement, coalescing compressive waves can initiate reaction at hot spots from rapid pore collapse. This compressive reaction can drive a shockwave that transits to detonation, the most violent reaction in any scenario. It has been shown that reaction violence is reduced in DDT experiments if the binder is softened, either by raising the initial temperature or adding a solvent. An example of the role of mechanical properties in enhancing reaction violence through fracturing occurs when cavities in projectile fills collapse during acceleration in the gun barrel, which is referred to as setback. Explosives with soft rubber binders will deform and undergo mild reaction from shear heating within the explosive and adiabatic compression of any gas in the cavity. Stiff explosives are similarly ignited, but also fracture and generate additional surface area for a violent event. The last example to be considered is slow cook-off, where thermal damage can increase burning rate as well as provide porosity to enhance the pressure buildup. As reaction spreads from the zone of thermal run-away, an explosive binder that resists breakup will limit the violence.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sandusky, Harold</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">376</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22118610"> <span id="translatedtitle">STEREO interplanetary <span class="hlt">shocks</span> and foreshocks</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We use STEREO data to study <span class="hlt">shocks</span> driven by stream interactions and the waves associated with them. During the years of the extended solar minimum 2007-2010, stream interaction <span class="hlt">shocks</span> have Mach numbers between 1.1-3.8 and {theta}{sub Bn}{approx}20-86 Degree-Sign . We find a variety of waves, including whistlers and low frequency fluctuations. Upstream whistler waves may be generated at the <span class="hlt">shock</span> and upstream ultra low frequency (ULF) waves can be driven locally by ion instabilities. The downstream wave spectra can be formed by both, locally generated perturbations, and <span class="hlt">shock</span> transmitted waves. We find that many quasiperpendicular <span class="hlt">shocks</span> can be accompanied by ULF wave and ion foreshocks, which is in contrast to Earth's bow <span class="hlt">shock</span>. Fluctuations downstream of quasi-parallel <span class="hlt">shocks</span> tend to have larger amplitudes than waves downstream of quasi-perpendicular <span class="hlt">shocks</span>. Proton foreshocks of <span class="hlt">shocks</span> driven by stream interactions have extensions dr {<=}0.05 AU. This is smaller than foreshock extensions for ICME driven <span class="hlt">shocks</span>. The difference in foreshock extensions is related to the fact that ICME driven <span class="hlt">shocks</span> are formed closer to the Sun and therefore begin to accelerate particles very early in their existence, while stream interaction <span class="hlt">shocks</span> form at {approx}1 AU and have been producing suprathermal particles for a shorter time.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Blanco-Cano, X. [Instituto de Geofisica, UNAM, CU, Coyoacan 04510 DF (Mexico); Kajdic, P. [IRAP-University of Toulouse, CNRS, Toulouse (France); Aguilar-Rodriguez, E. [Instituto de Geofisica, UNAM, Morelia (Mexico); Russell, C. T. [ESS and IGPP, University of California, Los Angeles, 603 Charles Young Drive, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Jian, L. K. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD and University of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Luhmann, J. G. [SSL, University of California Berkeley (United States)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-06-13</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">377</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/48468210"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Shock</span> Waves in Granular Gases</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This review is the first attempt to systematize the results on <span class="hlt">shock</span> waves in granular gases. We present experimental and computational evidences of <span class="hlt">shock</span> and expansion waves propagating within granular gases. The analysis of model flows with <span class="hlt">shock</span> and expansion waves shows that even smallest kinetic energy dissipations crucially affects such flows. We discuss the role of these waves for</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Alexander Goldshtein; Alexander Alexeev; Michael Shapiro</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">378</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/health-topics/topics/shock/causes.html"> <span id="translatedtitle">What Causes Cardiogenic <span class="hlt">Shock</span>?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePLUS</a></p> <p class="result-summary">... ventricle (VEN-trih-kul), from working well. As a result, the heart can't pump enough oxygen-rich blood to the rest of the body. In about 3 percent of cardiogenic <span class="hlt">shock</span> cases, the heart’s lower right chamber, the right ventricle, doesn’t work well. This means the heart can't properly pump ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">379</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7137693"> <span id="translatedtitle">Toxic <span class="hlt">shock</span> syndrome.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Three cases of toxic <span class="hlt">shock</span> syndrome are presented. All exhibited hypotension and involvement of three or more organ systems. Staphylococcus aureus was isolated in all cases. All patients recovered without sequelae. The etiology, clinical features, differential diagnosis, therapy, and preventive measures are discussed. PMID:7137693</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Maya, M; Harwood, A L</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1982-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">380</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://octopus.gma.org/surfing/weather/index.html"> <span id="translatedtitle">Gulf of <span class="hlt">Maine</span>: Weather</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Lessons and activities from the Gulf of <span class="hlt">Maine</span> Research Institute (formerly Gulf of <span class="hlt">Maine</span> Aquarium), focused on hurricanes, El Nino, fog, and volcanic eruptions. Emphasis on important hurricanes of the past. Resources include lessons, guides for simple experiments, and a student weather network. Downloadable materials and additional webpages also provided.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a 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href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">381</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Maine&pg=6&id=EJ783363"> <span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">Maine</span> Event</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this article, the author describes the successful laptop program employed at Mt. Abram High School in Strong, <span class="hlt">Maine</span>. Through the <span class="hlt">Maine</span> Learning Technology Initiative, the school has issued laptops to all 36,000 teachers and students in grades 7-8. This program has helped level the playing field for a student population that is 50 percent to 55…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">McHale, Tom</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">382</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.fs.fed.us/ne/newtown_square/publications/research_notes/pdfs/scanned/OCR/ne_rn327.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">on Hurricane Island, <span class="hlt">Maine</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">In 1981, a study was initiated to measure the effects of low-level trampling (100 to 200 tramples) on selected vegetation on Hurricane Island, <span class="hlt">Maine</span>. Low levels of trampling are representative of general recreational use patterns on most <span class="hlt">Maine</span> islands. The study was designed to compare percent survival of common island species when subjected to low-level trampling, to observe treadway formation,</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">R. E. Leonard; P. W. Conkling; J. L. McMahon</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">383</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/eimsapi.dispdetail?deid=142557"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">MAINE</span> MARINE WORM HABITAT</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p class="result-summary">WORM provides a generalized representation at 1:24,000 scale of commercially harvested marine worm habitat in <span class="hlt">Maine</span>, based on <span class="hlt">Maine</span> Department of Marine Resources data from 1970's. Original maps were created by MDMR and published by USF&WS as part of the ""&quo...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">384</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010PhDT........59W"> <span id="translatedtitle">Earthquake early warning and the physics of earthquake <span class="hlt">rupture</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">One of the great debates in seismology today revolves around the question of whether earthquake <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> are self-similar, cascading failures, or whether their size is somehow predetermined at the start of the <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. If earthquakes are self-similar there is theoretically no way to determine the magnitude of an event until the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> has completely terminated, while if it is deterministic the magnitude should be immediately discernible. Recent advances in Earthquake Early Warning methodologies provide new insight into the fundamental physics of earthquake <span class="hlt">rupture</span> and highlight the importance of understanding the answer to this question. Observations of the amplitude and frequency content of early P-wave arrivals suggest that some information about the final size of an earthquake is already present within a few seconds of the initiation of <span class="hlt">rupture</span>, in agreement with a host of other observations that show a degree of scaling between large and small earthquakes. While this suggests that earthquakes are deterministic, there is likewise a large body of work, both observational and model-based, that indicates that this is not true and earthquakes are self-similar. This work documents the process of calibrating and testing the ElarmS Earthquake Early Warning methodology in northern California on the Northern California and Berkeley Digital Seismic Networks. In the process the work adds to the body of observations which show a dependency on event magnitude of P-wave frequency content and amplitude. These observations are corroborated with a new set of independent observations of kinematic slip distributions. These new observations indicate that the early slip on a fault also scales with magnitude and suggest again that earthquakes are not entirely self-similar cascading events. In an effort to assign a physical mechanism to the observations of scaling, both in P-waves and in kinematic slip inversions, a hypothetical model is tested wherein the intensity of the early <span class="hlt">rupture</span> imparts more or less energy to the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> front and affects the likelihood of the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> continuing or dying out in the face of unfavorable conditions further along the fault plane. The results of testing this hypothesis are somewhat equivocal, but they are suggestive of the likely truth, that earthquakes exhibit aspects of both deterministic and cascading <span class="hlt">rupture</span> to some degree. Understanding the details of the interplay between these two aspects is crucial to the successful application of Earthquake Early Warning systems, especially in rare large earthquakes for which there is little empirical data on the performance of these systems.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wurman, Gilead</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">385</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.umaine.edu/folklife/"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Maine</span> Folklife Center</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Located at the University of <span class="hlt">Maine</span>, the <span class="hlt">Maine</span> Folklife Center is committed to documenting and understanding the folklore, folklife, and history of <span class="hlt">Maine</span> and Atlantic Canada. Along with its various scholarly activities, the Center sponsors a number of festivals, lectures, and like-minded programs that encourage appreciation of the diverse cultural traditions within the region. The site will be useful to researchers with a penchant in these fields, as it contains information about the collections, including a rather extensive oral history collection (with work that documenting the cranberry culture of Massachusetts and the traditional music of <span class="hlt">Maine</span>). There is also material on the public programs and exhibits sponsored by the center, and a set of external links that lead to other sites dealing with oral history, folklore, and <span class="hlt">Maine</span>. While the Center's site does not have a great deal of online material for consideration, the center has transcribed the sixth volume of Northeast Folklore (originally published in 1964) and placed them online.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">386</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010JGRA..11511103S"> <span id="translatedtitle">Non adiabatic electron behavior through a supercritical perpendicular collisionless <span class="hlt">shock</span>: Impact of the <span class="hlt">shock</span> front turbulence</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Adiabatic and nonadiabatic electrons transmitted through a supercritical perpendicular <span class="hlt">shock</span> wave are analyzed with the help of test particle simulations based on field components issued from 2 - D full-particle simulation. A previous analysis (Savoini et al., 2005) based on 1 - D <span class="hlt">shock</span> profile, including <span class="hlt">mainly</span> a ramp (no apparent foot) and defined at a fixed time, has identified three distinct electron populations: adiabatic, overadiabatic, and underadiabatic, respectively, identified by ?ds/?us ? 1, >1 and <1, where ?us and ?ds are the magnetic momenta in the upstream and downstream regions. Presently, this study is extended by investigating the impact of the time evolution of 2 - D <span class="hlt">shock</span> front dynamics on these three populations. Analysis of individual time particle trajectories is performed and completed by statistics based on the use of different upstream velocity distributions (spherical shell of radius vshell and a Maxwellian with thermal velocity vthe). In all statistics, the three electron populations are clearly recovered. Two types of <span class="hlt">shock</span> front nonstationarity are analyzed. First, the impact of the nonstationarity along the <span class="hlt">shock</span> normal (due to the front self-reformation only) strongly depends on the values of vshell or vthe. For low values, the percentages of adiabatic and overadiabatic electrons are almost comparable but become anticorrelated under the filtering impact of the self-reformation; the percentage of the underadiabatic population remains almost unchanged. In contrast, for large values, this impact becomes negligible and the adiabatic population alone becomes dominant. Second, when 2 - D nonstationarity effects along the <span class="hlt">shock</span> front (moving rippling) are fully included, all three populations are strongly diffused, leading to a larger heating; the overadiabatic population becomes largely dominant (and even larger than the adiabatic one) and <span class="hlt">mainly</span> contributes to the energy spectrum.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Savoini, P.; Lembege, B.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">387</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930023193&hterms=Poly+fiber&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3DPoly%2Bfiber"> <span id="translatedtitle">Stress-<span class="hlt">rupture</span> behavior of small diameter polycrystalline alumina fibers</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Continuous length polycrystalline alumina fibers are candidates as reinforcement in high temperature composite materials. Interest therefore exists in characterizing the thermomechanical behavior of these materials, obtaining possible insights into underlying mechanisms, and understanding fiber performance under long term use. Results are reported on the time-temperature dependent strength behavior of Nextel 610 and Fiber FP alumina fibers with grain sizes of 100 and 300 nm, respectively. Below 1000 C and 100 hours, Nextel 610 with the smaller grain size had a greater fast fracture and <span class="hlt">rupture</span> strength than Fiber FP. The time exponents for stress-<span class="hlt">rupture</span> of these fibers were found to decrease from approximately 13 at 900 C to below 3 near 1050 C, suggesting a transition from slow crack growth to creep <span class="hlt">rupture</span> as the controlling fracture mechanism. For both fiber types, an effective activation energy of 690 kJ/mol was measured for <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. This allowed stress-<span class="hlt">rupture</span> predictions to be made for extended times at use temperatures below 1000 C.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yun, Hee Mann; Goldsby, Jon C.; Dicarlo, James A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1993-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">388</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19199222"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Ruptures</span> of the anterior cruciate ligament in soccer.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Ruptures</span> of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) are serious, common and costly injuries. The present 12-year investigation was undertaken to examine the frequency of ACL <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> and identify the game events that may have contributed to the cause of these injuries in male soccer players across a French district. A retrospective questionnaire was used to record the players' age at the time of injury, laterality, standard of play, playing position and injured side. The characteristics of the injury situations were described in detail to investigate the game events involved in each case. A total of 934 <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> was reported. Significantly more <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> were sustained in a non-contact versus a contact situation (p<0.01). Of the total number of lesions, 34.5% occurred during a pivot action. The right knee was affected more than the left knee (p<0.001), irrespective of the dominant side of the player. Certain game events reported in the injury situations were shown to be related to player's age, standard and position. While these results have confirmed observations from previous investigations on ACL <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> in soccer, the analysis of a considerably larger number of injury cases has brought new findings to the literature as well as recommendations for future research. PMID:19199222</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rochcongar, P; Laboute, E; Jan, J; Carling, C</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">389</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUFM.S53C..01D"> <span id="translatedtitle">Robustness Tests for Reliably Determining the Earthquake <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> Process</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Problems related to the determination of the earthquake <span class="hlt">rupture</span> process details from analysis of body-wave seismograms was first discussed by Kostrov in 1974. We discuss how to use robustness tests to identify the reliable properties of the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> process obtained from inversion of broadband body wave data (Das and Kostrov, JGR 1990; PEPI 1994). We then interpret the results for the following submarine subduction zone earthquakes: the Mw 8.0 Andreanof Islands earthquake (Das and Kostrov, ibid.), the Mw 8.2 Biak, Indonesia earthquake (Das et al., JGR, 2000) and the Mw 8.4 2001 Peru earthquake (Robinson et al., Science, 2006), in terms of subducting seafloor features and its influence on the earthquake <span class="hlt">rupture</span> process. In particular, subducting seamounts appear to be affecting the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> process of all these great earthquakes. The question of how much of a seamount still remains after it is subducted to be able to affect the earthquake <span class="hlt">rupture</span> on the subduction plane will be addressed.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Das, S.; Robinson, D.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">390</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24306170"> <span id="translatedtitle">Factors affecting formation and <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of intracranial saccular aneurysms.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Unruptured intracranial aneurysms represent a decisional challenge. Treatment risks have to be balanced against an unknown probability of <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. A better understanding of the physiopathology is the basis for a better prediction of the natural history of an individual patient. Knowledge about the possible determining factors arises from a careful comparison between <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> versus unruptured aneurysms and from the prospective observation and analysis of unbiased series with untreated, unruptured aneurysms. The key point is the correct identification of the determining variables for the fate of a specific aneurysm in a given individual. Thus, the increased knowledge of mechanisms of formation and eventual <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of aneurysms should provide significant clues to the identification of <span class="hlt">rupture</span>-prone aneurysms. Factors like structural vessel wall defects, local hemodynamic stress determined also by peculiar geometric configurations, and inflammation as trigger of a wall remodeling are crucial. In this sense the study of genetic modifiers of inflammatory responses together with the computational study of the vessel tree might contribute to identify aneurysms prone to <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. The aim of this article is to underline the value of a unifying hypothesis that merges the role of geometry, with that of hemodynamics and of genetics as concerns vessel wall structure and inflammatory pathways. PMID:24306170</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bacigaluppi, S; Piccinelli, M; Antiga, L; Veneziani, A; Passerini, T; Rampini, P; Zavanone, M; Severi, P; Tredici, G; Zona, G; Krings, T; Boccardi, E; Penco, S; Fontanella, M</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">391</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4275862"> <span id="translatedtitle">Spontaneous ureteric <span class="hlt">rupture</span> secondary to an invasive desmoid tumour</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">INTRODUCTION Spontaneous ureteric <span class="hlt">rupture</span> is a rare entity that presents as an extravasation of urine from the ureter without previous surgery, ureteric manipulation and external trauma of the ureter. We report the case of a desmoid tumour presenting as spontaneous ureteric <span class="hlt">rupture</span> which was managed in our institution. PRESENTATION OF CASE A 28 years old healthy male presented with a four day history of generalised abdominal pain secondary to spontaneous right ureteric <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. Patient was initially managed via insertion of nephrostomy tube and antibiotics. After unsuccessful attempts of retrograde and antegrade ureteric stent insertion, patient was subsequently managed via elective surgical intervention. The excised specimen revealed desmoid tumour as cause of the ureteric <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. DISCUSSION Desmoid tumours are rare benign tumours arising from fascial or musculoaponeurotic structures that do not metastasise, but tend to invade locally. It is often initially managed medically prior to undertaking a definitive surgical intervention. To our knowledge this is the first reported case of ureteric perforation secondary to a desmoid tumour of the mesentery. CONCLUSION Spontaneous <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of the ureter is often misdiagnosed as other conditions. History taking and examination can be unreliable, hence a high level of suspicion and further investigations should be utilised. Once the diagnosis is made, treatment can be individualised based on aetiology. PMID:25460442</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yoon, Peter Daechul; Ahmadi, Nariman; Strahan, Stephen; Wang, Audrey</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">392</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20110011347&hterms=aggressive&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Daggressive"> <span id="translatedtitle">Composite Overwrapped Pressure Vessels (COPV) Stress <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> Test</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">One of the major concerns for the aging Space Shuttle fleet is the stress <span class="hlt">rupture</span> life of composite overwrapped pressure vessels (COPVs). Stress <span class="hlt">rupture</span> life of a COPV has been defined as the minimum time during which the composite maintains structural integrity considering the combined effects of stress levels and time. To assist in the evaluation of the aging COPVs in the Orbiter fleet an analytical reliability model was developed. The actual data used to construct this model was from testing of COPVs constructed of similar, but not exactly same materials and pressure cycles as used on Orbiter vessels. Since no actual Orbiter COPV stress <span class="hlt">rupture</span> data exists the Space Shuttle Program decided to run a stress <span class="hlt">rupture</span> test to compare to model predictions. Due to availability of spares, the testing was unfortunately limited to one 40" vessel. The stress <span class="hlt">rupture</span> test was performed at maximum operating pressure at an elevated temperature to accelerate aging. The test was performed in two phases. The first phase, 130 F, a moderately accelerated test designed to achieve the midpoint of the model predicted point reliability. The more aggressive second phase, performed at 160 F was designed to determine if the test article will exceed the 95% confidence interval of the model. This paper will discuss the results of this test, it's implications and possible follow-on testing.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Russell, Richard; Flynn, Howard; Forth, Scott; Greene, Nathanael; Kezian, Michael; Varanauski, Don; Yoder, Tommy; Woodworth, Warren</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">393</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24200459"> <span id="translatedtitle">Distal biceps brachii tendon <span class="hlt">rupture</span> resulting in acute compartment syndrome.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Distal biceps brachii tendon <span class="hlt">rupture</span> is an uncommon injury. Compartment syndrome of the upper arm is rarely described in the literature. The diagnosis of upper arm compartment syndrome requires a high index of suspicion, and emergent surgical treatment with fasciotomy in the acute setting is necessary to avoid devastating neurovascular complications. This article reports a case of acute compartment syndrome of the anterior compartment of the upper arm after a complete <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of the distal biceps brachii tendon. A healthy 45-year-old man presented with increasing arm pain; paresthesia in the lateral antebrachial cutaneous nerve distribution; and a tense, swollen anterior compartment of his upper arm. Side port catheter absolute pressure measurement was 83 mm Hg with a diastolic blood pressure of 92 mm Hg. The patient underwent an emergent fasciotomy and was found to have a complete <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of his distal biceps brachii tendon. He subsequently underwent distal biceps tendon repair and delayed primary closure of his incision. Postoperatively, his paresthesia improved and he has no neurological deficit. There is a paucity of case reports describing compartment syndrome after <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of either the proximal or distal end of the biceps brachii tendon, and none of the reports describe compartment syndrome of the upper arm after <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of the distal biceps tendon. This article highlights an unusual complication of an uncommon injury and reviews diagnostic and treatment principles for the management of acute compartment syndrome of the upper arm. PMID:24200459</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Grandizio, Louis C; Suk, Michael; Feltham, Glen T</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">394</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1987RaPC...29..201T"> <span id="translatedtitle">Creep <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of a tropical wood polymer composite</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Wood polymer composite (WPC) specimens were produced by impregnating a tropical wood with methyl methacrylate (MMA) and subsequently polymerised by gamma irradiation. Beam specimens of varying weight percentages of polymer were then subjected to three-point-bend creep <span class="hlt">rupture</span> test under a constant load condition. Results indicated that the impregnation of MMA and subsequent polymerisation by irradiation to form WPC significantly increased the creep <span class="hlt">rupture</span> resistance of the wood. Two models, namely, a three element non-linear mechanical model derived from an energy failure criterion and a power law model derived from a damage parameter concept, modelled adequately the creep <span class="hlt">rupture</span> time of the WPC. The energy criterion model was useful because the equation parameters such as elastic modulus, anelastic modulus and resilience of WPC show a general trend of increase with the amount of polymer impregnated into the wood, and also it could predict the upper stress limit where the specimens <span class="hlt">rupture</span> immediately on application of load and the lower stress limit where the specimens sustain the load indefinitely. Results indicated that the equation parameters increase significantly in the first 20 or 30% polymer loading in agreement with previous work. An interfacial interaction between the polymer and the wood cell wall was used to account for the behaviour of the increase in the creep <span class="hlt">rupture</span> resistance.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Teoh, S. H.; Chia, L. H. L.; Boey, F. Y. C.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">395</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008JPES....2.1140Y"> <span id="translatedtitle">Creep <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> Properties of Welded Joints of Heat Resistant Steels</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this study, the high-temperature mechanical and creep <span class="hlt">rupture</span> properties of Grade 91/Grade 91 (Mod. 9Cr-Mo) similar welded joints and Grade 91/Inconel 82/SUS304 dissimilar welded joints were examined. The effects of temperature and stress on the failure location in the joints were also investigated. Creep <span class="hlt">rupture</span> tests were conducted at 823, 873, and 923 K; the applied stress ranges were 160-240, 80-160, and 40-80 MPa, respectively. The creep <span class="hlt">rupture</span> strengths of the specimens with welded joints were lower than those of the specimens of the base metal at all temperature levels; in addition, these differences in creep strength increased with temperature. After being subjected to long-term creep <span class="hlt">rupture</span> tests, the fracture type exhibited by the dissimilar welded joints was transformed from Types V and VII to Type IV. It was estimated that the fracture type exhibited by the dissimilar welded joints after 100,000-h <span class="hlt">rupture</span> strength tests at 823 K and 873 K was Type IV fracture.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yamazaki, Masayoshi; Watanabe, Takashi; Hongo, Hiromichi; Tabuchi, Masaaki</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">396</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUFM.S11E..05D"> <span id="translatedtitle">Identification of Necessary Conditions for Super-shear Wave <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> Speeds: The San Andreas Fault</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The 2001 Kunlun, Tibet earthquake taught us that the portion of a strike-slip fault most likely to propagate at super-shear speeds are the long straight portions. This is only a necessary (but not sufficient) condition. That is, once a fault accelerates to the maximum permissible speed, it can continue at this speed provided it is straight and there are no obstacles along the way, and provided the fault friction is low. For the Tibet earthquake, the 100 km region of highest <span class="hlt">rupture</span> speed also had the highest slip rate, the highest slip and the highest stress drop (Robinson et al., JGR, 2006). Off-fault cracks due to the passage of the Mach cone exists in only that portion of the fault identified as travelling at super-shear speed and not in other places along the fault (Bhat et al., JGR, 2007). Re-examination of earlier reports of super-shear <span class="hlt">rupture</span> speeds on the North Anatolian fault and the Denali fault show that such speeds did occur on the straight section of these faults. Of course all straight portions of faults will not reach super-shear speeds. So what can the Tibet earthquake teach us about the San Andreas fault? Both the 1906 and the 1857 have long, straight portions, the former having been identified by Song et al. (EOS, 2005) as having reached super-shear speeds to the north of San Francisco, the region of highest slip. If the repeat of the 1857 starts in the central valley, as it is believed to have done in 1857, it has the potential to propagate at super-shear speeds through the long, straight portion of the San Andread fault in the Carrizo Plain, the region believed to have had the largest displacement in 1857 based on paleoseismic studies. The resulting <span class="hlt">shock</span> waves would strike the highly populated regions of Santa Barbara and the Los Angeles Basin (Das, Science, 2007).</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Das, S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">397</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4177807"> <span id="translatedtitle">Radiographic Risk Factors for Contralateral <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> in Dogs with Unilateral Cranial Cruciate Ligament <span class="hlt">Rupture</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background Complete cranial cruciate ligament <span class="hlt">rupture</span> (CR) is a common cause of pelvic limb lameness in dogs. Dogs with unilateral CR often develop contralateral CR over time. Although radiographic signs of contralateral stifle joint osteoarthritis (OA) influence risk of subsequent contralateral CR, this risk has not been studied in detail. Methodology/Principal Findings We conducted a retrospective longitudinal cohort study of client-owned dogs with unilateral CR to determine how severity of radiographic stifle synovial effusion and osteophytosis influence risk of contralateral CR over time. Detailed survival analysis was performed for a cohort of 85 dogs after case filtering of an initial sample population of 513 dogs. This population was stratified based on radiographic severity of synovial effusion (graded on a scale of 0, 1, and 2) and severity of osteophytosis (graded on a scale of 0, 1, 2, and 3) of both index and contralateral stifle joints using a reproducible scoring method. Severity of osteophytosis in the index and contralateral stifles was significantly correlated. <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> of the contralateral cranial cruciate ligament was significantly influenced by radiographic OA in both the index and contralateral stifles at diagnosis. Odds ratio for development of contralateral CR in dogs with severe contralateral radiographic stifle effusion was 13.4 at one year after diagnosis and 11.4 at two years. Odds ratio for development of contralateral CR in dogs with severe contralateral osteophytosis was 9.9 at one year after diagnosis. These odds ratios were associated with decreased time to contralateral CR. Breed, age, body weight, gender, and tibial plateau angle did not significantly influence time to contralateral CR. Conclusion Subsequent contralateral CR is significantly influenced by severity of radiographic stifle effusion and osteophytosis in the contralateral stifle, suggesting that synovitis and arthritic joint degeneration are significant factors in the disease mechanism underlying the arthropathy. PMID:25254499</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Chuang, Connie; Ramaker, Megan A.; Kaur, Sirjaut; Csomos, Rebecca A.; Kroner, Kevin T.; Bleedorn, Jason A.; Schaefer, Susan L.; Muir, Peter</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">398</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.T43A2630S"> <span id="translatedtitle">Analog modeling of strike-slip surface <span class="hlt">ruptures</span>: Implications for Greendale Fault (New Zealand) mechanics and paleoseismology</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Analog modeling of strike-slip faulting provides insight into the development and behavior of surface <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> with progressive slip, with relevance for understanding how coseismic displacements from fault <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> are recorded in paleoseismic trenches. Patterns of surface deformation were investigated in analogue experiments using cohesive and non-cohesive granular materials above a vertical, planar, strike-slip basement fault. Surface deformation during the experiments was monitored by 3D PIV (Particle Imaging Velocimetry) and 2D time-lapse photography. Analysis of the experiments focused on fault zone morphology and development, as well as comparisons between the models and surface deformation observed along the Greendale Fault that resulted from the 2010 Darfield earthquake, New Zealand. Complex surface <span class="hlt">rupture</span> patterns with similar characteristics to the Greendale Fault (en echelon fractures, Riedel shears, pop-up structures, etc.) were generated by a simple fault plane of uniform dip, slip, and frictional properties. The <span class="hlt">main</span> controls on surface <span class="hlt">rupture</span> morphology were found to be the properties and thickness of the overburden, the nature of the material surface, and the overall displacement of the underlying fault. Mapping the evolution of fracture patterns with progressive shear strain reveals that Riedel shears, striking 0-30° from the underlying basement fault, are more frequently reactivated during multiple displacement (earthquake) cycles, and are thus most likely to provide reliable paleoseismic records. This information will assist in the identification of suitable locations for paleoseismic trenches and in the interpretation of trench records from the Greendale Fault and other active, strike-slip faults in analogous geologic settings. The results also highlight the tendency of trenching studies of faults of this type to underestimate the number of and displacements on previous <span class="hlt">ruptures</span>, which potentially leads to an underestimate of the magnitude potential and recurrence interval of paleoearthquakes.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sasnett, P.; Quigley, M.; Cruden, A. R.; Boutelier, D. A.; Villamor, P.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">399</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25474937"> <span id="translatedtitle">[Near infrared spectrum analysis and meaning of the soil in 512 earthquake surface <span class="hlt">rupture</span> zone in Pingtong, Sichuan].</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Through modern near infrared spectrum, the authors analyzed the yellow soil from the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> zone located in Ping- tong town,Pingwu, Sichuan province. By rapid identification of the characteristic of peak absorption of mineral particles, the result shows that the soil samples <span class="hlt">mainly</span> composed of calcite, dolomite, muscovite, sericite, illite, smectite; talc, tremolite, actinolite, chlorite, etc. And the mineral compositions of the soil is basically the same with the yellow soil in Sichuan region. By analyzing and comparing it was revealed that part of mineral compositions of the soil are in accordance with the characteristics of the rock mineral compositions below the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> zone, indicating that part of the minerals of the soil's evolution is closely related to the rock compositions in this area; and the compositions of the clay mineral in the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> zone is similar to the Ma Lan loess in the north of China, so it is presumed that the clay minerals in these two kinds of soil have the same genetic type. The characteristic of the mineral composition of the soil is in accordance with evolution characteristics of the rocks which is bellow the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> zone, also it was demonstrated that the results of soil minerals near-infrared analysis can effectively analyze the mineral particles in the soil and indicate the pedogenic environment. Therefore, the result shows the feasibility of adopting modern near-infrared spectrum for rapid analysis of mineral particles of the soil and research of geology. Meanwhile, the results can be the foundation of this region's soil mineral analysis, and also provide new ideas and methods for the future research of soil minerals and the earthquake <span class="hlt">rupture</span> zone. PMID:25474937</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yi, Ze-bang; Cao, Jian-jin; Luo, Song-ying; Wang, Zheng-yang; Liao, Yi-peng</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">400</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25508716"> <span id="translatedtitle">[Near infrared spectrum analysis and meaning of the soil in 512 earthquake surface <span class="hlt">rupture</span> zone in Pingtong, Sichuan].</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Through modern near infrared spectrum, the authors analyzed the yellow soil from the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> zone located in Ping- tong town,Pingwu, Sichuan province. By rapid identification of the characteristic of peak absorption of mineral particles, the result shows that the soil samples <span class="hlt">mainly</span> composed of calcite, dolomite, muscovite, sericite, illite, smectite; talc, tremolite, actinolite, chlorite, etc. And the mineral compositions of the soil is basically the same with the yellow soil in Sichuan region. By analyzing and comparing it was revealed that part of mineral compositions of the soil are in accordance with the characteristics of the rock mineral compositions below the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> zone, indicating that part of the minerals of the soil's evolution is closely related to the rock compositions in this area; and the compositions of the clay mineral in the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> zone is similar to the Ma Lan loess in the north of China, so it is presumed that the clay minerals in these two kinds of soil have the same genetic type. The characteristic of the mineral composition of the soil is in accordance with evolution characteristics of the rocks which is bellow the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> zone, also it was demonstrated that the results of soil minerals near-infrared analysis can effectively analyze the mineral particles in the soil and indicate the pedogenic environment. Therefore, the result shows the feasibility of adopting modern near-infrared spectrum for rapid analysis of mineral particles of the soil and research of geology. Meanwhile, the results can be the foundation of this region's soil mineral analysis, and also provide new ideas and methods for the future research of soil minerals and the earthquake <span class="hlt">rupture</span> zone. PMID:25508716</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yi, Ze-bang; Cao, Jian-jin; Luo, Song-ying; Wang, Zheng-yang; Liao, Yi-peng</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return 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title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">401</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10191115"> <span id="translatedtitle">Weak-<span class="hlt">shock</span> reflection factors</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The purpose of this paper is to compare reflection factors for weak <span class="hlt">shocks</span> from various surfaces, and to focus attention on some unsolved questions. Three different cases are considered: square-wave planar <span class="hlt">shock</span> reflection from wedges; square-wave planar <span class="hlt">shock</span> reflection from cylinders; and spherical blast wave reflection from a planar surface. We restrict ourselves to weak <span class="hlt">shocks</span>. <span class="hlt">Shocks</span> with a Mach number of M{sub O} < 1.56 in air or with an overpressure of {Delta}{sub PI} < 25 psi (1.66 bar) under normal ambient conditions are called weak.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Reichenbach, H. [Ernst Mach Inst., Freiburg (Germany); Kuhl, A.L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., El Segundo, CA (United States)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1993-09-07</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">402</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25169692"> <span id="translatedtitle">Microcirculatory alterations in <span class="hlt">shock</span> states.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Functional components of the microcirculation provide oxygen and nutrients and remove waste products from the tissue beds of the body's organs. <span class="hlt">Shock</span> states overwhelmingly stress functional capacity of the microcirculation, resulting in microcirculatory failure. In septic <span class="hlt">shock</span>, inflammatory mediators contribute to hemodynamic instability. In nonseptic <span class="hlt">shock</span> states, the microcirculation is better able to compensate for alterations in vascular resistance, cardiac output, and blood pressure. Therefore, global hemodynamic and oxygen delivery parameters are appropriate for assessing, monitoring, and guiding therapy in hypovolemic and cardiogenic <span class="hlt">shock</span> but, alone, are inadequate for septic <span class="hlt">shock</span>. PMID:25169692</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hamlin, Shannan K; Parmley, C Lee; Hanneman, Sandra K</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">403</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFMNH41D..06K"> <span id="translatedtitle">Locations and types of <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> involved in the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake revealed by SAR image matching</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Introduction: A catastrophic earthquake with a moment magnitude of 7.9 struck China’s Sichuan area on 12 May 2008. The <span class="hlt">rupture</span> was thought to proceed northeastward along the Longmen Shan fault zone (LMSFZ), but it remained uncertain where and how the faults were involved in the seismic event. Interferometric SAR (InSAR) analysis has an advantage of detecting ground deformation in a vast region with high precision. However, for the Sichuan event, the standard InSAR approach was not helpful in knowing the faults directly related to the seismic <span class="hlt">rupture</span>, due to a wide coherent loss area in the proximity of the fault zone. Thus, in order to reveal the unknown surface displacements, we conducted a SAR image matching procedure that enables us to robustly detect large ground deformation even in an incoherent area. Although similar approaches can be taken with optical images to detect surface displacements, SAR images are advantageous because of the radar’s all-weather detection capability. In this presentation we will show a strong advantage of SAR data for inland large earthquakes. Analysis Method: We use ALOS/PALSAR data on the ascending orbital paths. We process the SAR data from a level-1.0 product using a software package Gamma. After conducting coregistration between two images acquired before and after the mainshock, we divide the single-look SAR amplitude images into patches and calculate an offset between the corresponding patches by an intensity tracking method. This method is performed by cross-correlating samples of backscatter intensity of a master image with those of a slave image. To reduce the artificial offsets in range component, we apply an elevation dependent correction incorporating SRTM3 DEM data. Results: We have successfully obtained the surface deformation in range component: A sharp displacement discontinuity with a relative motion of 1-2 m appears over a length of 200 km along the LMSFZ, which demonstrates that the <span class="hlt">main</span> <span class="hlt">rupture</span> has proceeded on the Beichuan fault (BF) among several active faults composing the LMSFZ. The original azimuth offset field suffers from periodic offset patterns that are presumably ionosphererelated noises. We succeeded in mapping the azimuth offset field by applying a band-cut filter through which the wavenumbers corresponding to the oscillatory noises are removed. The two-component displacements (range and azimuth) enable us to infer the types of <span class="hlt">rupture</span>: The <span class="hlt">rupture</span> on the BF is characterized by a right-lateral motion in the northeast, while in the southwest an oblique right-lateral thrust slip is suggested. In contrast to the northeast, where a major <span class="hlt">rupture</span> proceeded on the BF only, in the southwest multiple thrust <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> have occurred in the southeastern foot of the Pengguan massif. Acknowledgments: PALSAR data are provided from Earthquake Working Group and PIXEL (PALSAR Interferometry Consortium to Study our Evolving Land surface) under a cooperative research contract with JAXA. The ownership of PALSAR data belongs to METI (Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry) and JAXA.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kobayashi, T.; Takada, Y.; Furuya, M.; Murakami, M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">404</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20110008062&hterms=New+business+plan&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3DNew%2Bbusiness%2Bplan"> <span id="translatedtitle">Experimental Plans for Subsystems of a <span class="hlt">Shock</span> Wave Driven Gas Core Reactor</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This Contractor Report proposes a number of plans for experiments on subsystems of a <span class="hlt">shock</span> wave driven pulsed magnetic induction gas core reactor (PMI-GCR, or PMD-GCR pulsed magnet driven gas core reactor). Computer models of <span class="hlt">shock</span> generation and collision in a large-scale PMI-GCR <span class="hlt">shock</span> tube have been performed. Based upon the simulation results a number of issues arose that can only be addressed adequately by capturing experimental data on high pressure (approx.1 atmosphere or greater) partial plasma <span class="hlt">shock</span> wave effects in large bore <span class="hlt">shock</span> tubes ( 10 cm radius). There are three <span class="hlt">main</span> subsystems that are of immediate interest (for appraisal of the concept viability). These are (1) the <span class="hlt">shock</span> generation in a high pressure gas using either a plasma thruster or pulsed high magnetic field, (2) collision of MHD or gas dynamic <span class="hlt">shocks</span>, their interaction time, and collision pile-up region thickness, and (3) magnetic flux compression power generation (not included here).</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kazeminezhad, F.; Anghai, S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">405</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1613669S"> <span id="translatedtitle">Contemporary surface <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> in the zone of the Baikal-Mondy fault (Baikal rift system): dynamics of formation and origin</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Sublatitudinal Baikal-Mondy (Tunka) left-lateral strike-slip fault accommodates North Mongolia submeridional rift basins opening (Darkhad and Khubsugul). It is the connecting link between the central and south-western parts of the Baikal rift system. We investigated the present-day activity of faulting on southern border of Mondy basin, which is due to their position at the junction of east-west trending active faults of the Baikal-Mondy fault system with submeridional structures of Khubsugul basin. The investigated area is characterized by high seismic activity. The epicenter of one of the strongest Mondy earthquake 1950 (Mw = 7.0) is located within the Mondy basin. Reconstruction of Late Cenozoic tectonic stress field shows a predominance of strike-slip deformation regime with NW-SE direction of the minimum compression axis and NE-SW direction of the maximum compression axis, which correlates with the present-day stress field derived from the data on earthquake focal mechanisms. On the top of the southern shoulder of Mondy basin a series of extended NE trending surface <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> that cut the crust of weathering and bedrock across the local watershed were discovered. The <span class="hlt">rupture</span> length reaches 180 m, width <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> bedrock reaches 0.6 m. In the bedrock tectonic microfractures of NW and NE directions are dominated, but the NW trending surface <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> are not observed. In the area of contemporary <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> the geodetic measurements were carried out in the period 2009-2013. The results of processing the measurement data on the local testing ground showed that most divergent baselines undergoes extension with maximum values reaching 30 mm/year. The block experienced elongation in all directions, but the morphology of <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> suggests that the <span class="hlt">main</span> direction of stretching is NW-SE. The intensity of cracks opening decreases markedly with time. According to eyewitnesses known that active crack opening at about 100 mm/year started 4 years before Kultuk earthquake (27.08.2008, Mw = 6.3), the epicenter of which was located near the southern tip of the Baikal basin. The existence of centimeter level deformations is confirmed using of differential SAR interferometry method. A pair of images taken with an interval of 2 years highlighted the linear zone of active deformation in the centimeter level. The length of the structure is about 4 kilometers. The offset along the Line-of-Sight (LOS) direction is from 18 to 42 mm, which corresponds to the vertical displacement of 22 to 50 mm, or a horizontal displacement of 32 to 74 mm (Lebedeva et al., 2013). Along with the described <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> we discovered normal faults with an amplitude greater than 2 m, which can be traced along the submeridional local watershed. The length of the normal faults reaches 800 m. The morphology and position of these faults can be attributed to their sackung structures. We conclude that the detected current surface <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> have complex origins and develop under the influence of endogenous (tectonic) and exogenous forces. They founded along NE trending ancient tectonic structures within wide strike-slip zone and <span class="hlt">main</span> direction of opening corresponds to the direction of extension of paleo- and present-day stress field. According to the dynamics of <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> opening, the <span class="hlt">main</span> phase of their formation is connected with stage of Kultuk earthquake preparation. As for geodetic data the block is stretched in all directions, it can be assumed that, by analogy with closely spaced sacking</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sankov, Vladimir; Sankov, Aleksei; Lebedeva, Marina; Ashurkov, Sergey; Parfeevets, Anna</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">406</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19890052477&hterms=metamorphism&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dmetamorphism"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Shock</span> metamorphism of deformed quartz</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The effect produced by <span class="hlt">shock</span> loading (to peak pressures of 12 and 24) on deformed synthetic quartz containing a dislocation and abundant bubbles and small inclusions was investigated, and the relationships between preexisting dislocation density <span class="hlt">shock</span> lamellae in the target material were examined. The resultant material was found to be inhomogeneously deformed and extremely fractured. Results of TEM examinations indicate that no change in dislocation density was caused by <span class="hlt">shock</span> loading except in regions containing <span class="hlt">shock</span> lamellae, where the dislocation density was lowered. The <span class="hlt">shock</span>-induced defects tend to nucleate on and be controlled by preexisting stress concentrators; <span class="hlt">shock</span> lamellae, glassy veins, and most curviplanar defects form in tension, presumably during release. An extremely mobile silica fluid is formed and injected into fractures during release, which forcibly removes crystalline fragments from vein walls. It is concluded that <span class="hlt">shock</span> deformation in quartz is dominated by fracture and melting.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gratz, Andrew J.; Christie, John; Tyburczy, James; Ahrens, Thomas; Pongratz, Peter</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1988-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">407</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19225999"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Rupture</span> of latissimus dorsi muscle in a tennis player.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Spontaneous <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of the latissimus dorsi muscle is a rare injury, and few reported cases were avulsion injuries at their humeral insertion. Seven cases of spontaneous <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of the latissimus dorsi muscle have been reported, but only 1 occurred at the myotendinous junction. The mechanism of this injury is reported to be forceful resisted arm adduction or extension, and reported injuries were rock climbing and attempting to pull up on an overhead handhold, waterskiing injury during pull-up with ski rope, overuse in golf in the leading arm, and abduction-external rotation with horizontally extended arm during a professional steer wrestling performance. The latissimus dorsi muscle is not a critical muscle for activities of daily living; however, the significance of the muscle is increased in professional or elite athletes. This article presents a case of <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of the latissimus dorsi muscle at the myotendinous junction that occurred during a sports activity. PMID:19225999</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Park, Jin-Young; Lhee, Sang-Hoon; Keum, Jeong-Sup</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">408</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002EGSGA..27.5325P"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Rupture</span> Zones of Strong Earthquakes In The Corinth Rift</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Ruptures</span> zones of the strong (M 8805; 6) earthquakes that occurred in the Corinth rift in the last three hundred years have been determined on the basis of aftershock epi- central distributions , intensity distributions and observations regarding seismogenic ground failures and tsunamis. The space U time distribution of the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> zones indi- cates that (1) for time intervals of about 50yrs the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> zones do not overlap; over- alpping appear, however, in longer time intervals , (2) there is a trend of the seismic activity to decrease westwards , and (3) particular regions constitute potential seis- mic gaps , like the Kiato UXylocastro region in the south coast of the Corinth Gulf, where the large 1402 earthquake occurred, and the Livadia U Desfina region where the A.D.361 and 551 large earthquakes possibly took place.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Papadopoulos, G. A.; Kouskouna, V.; Plessa, A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">409</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=