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1

Aftershock patterns and main shock faulting  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We have compared aftershock patterns following several moderate to large earthquakes with the corresponding distributions of coseismic slip obtained from previous analyses of the recorded strong ground motion and teleseismic waveforms. Our results are consistent with a hypothesis of aftershock occurrence that requires a secondary redistribution of stress following primary failure on the earthquake fault. Aftershocks followng earthquakes examined in this study occur mostly outside of or near the edges of the source areas indicated by the patterns of main shock slip. The spatial distribution of aftershocks reflects either a continuation of slip in the outer regions of the areas of maximum coseismic displacement or the activation of subsidiary faults within the volume surrounding the boundaries of main shock rupture. -from Authors

Mendoza, C.; Hartzell, S. H.

1988-01-01

2

Massive acute haemoperitoneum and shock from a ruptured ovarian varix  

PubMed Central

A 38-year-old woman presented with shock and severe abdominal pain. Abdominal CT scanning demonstrated massive ascites, which was highly suggestive of haemoperitoneum. Diagnostic paracentesis confirmed haemoperitoneum. Urgent operative treatment with ligation of a ruptured ovarian varix successfully controlled the bleeding. She eventually made a full recovery.

Takehara, Nobuharu; Takashimizu, Ikkei; Yazawa, Kazuyuki

2012-01-01

3

Forecasting large aftershocks within one day after the main shock  

PubMed Central

Forecasting the aftershock probability has been performed by the authorities to mitigate hazards in the disaster area after a main shock. However, despite the fact that most of large aftershocks occur within a day from the main shock, the operational forecasting has been very difficult during this time-period due to incomplete recording of early aftershocks. Here we propose a real-time method for efficiently forecasting the occurrence rates of potential aftershocks using systematically incomplete observations that are available in a few hours after the main shocks. We demonstrate the method's utility by retrospective early forecasting of the aftershock activity of the 2011 Tohoku-Oki Earthquake of M9.0 in Japan. Furthermore, we compare the results by the real-time data with the compiled preliminary data to examine robustness of the present method for the aftershocks of a recent inland earthquake in Japan.

Omi, Takahiro; Ogata, Yosihiko; Hirata, Yoshito; Aihara, Kazuyuki

2013-01-01

4

Littoral cell angioma in main and accessory intrapancreatic spleen presenting as splenic rupture.  

PubMed

We report the incidental finding of a nodular mass in the pancreatic tail on a contrast-enhanced computed tomography scan preinterventional to emergency laparotomy for splenic rupture. Because of the past surgical history and radiologic appearance, differential diagnosis included atypical lymphoma in the spleen and regional lymph node, pancreatic adenocarcinoma with splenic metastasis, and intrapancreatic metastase of malignant melanoma; the patient underwent both splenectomy and pancreatic tail resection. A diagnosis of littoral cell angioma in main and accessory intrapancreatic spleen was made. To our knowledge, this is the first description of littoral cell angioma of the spleen involving both main and accessory organ presenting as splenic rupture. PMID:20409532

Pilz, Julia B; Sperschneider, Toralf; Lutz, Thomas; Loosli, Bruno; Maurer, Christoph A

2011-02-01

5

Seismic moment ratio of aftershocks with respect to main shocks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The empirical Båth's law indicates that the earthquake process is self-similar and provides an opportunity to estimate the magnitude of the largest aftershock subsequent to a main shock. However, the analysis of this relation is limited to a small magnitude range and also depends on the aftershock selection rules. As an alternative, we analyze, in this paper, the cumulative seismic moment of aftershocks relative to the main shock moment, because (i) it is a physical quantity that does not only take the largest aftershock into account; (ii) background activity can be considered and as a result estimations are less affected by selection rules; and (iii) the effects of the catalog cut-off magnitude can be corrected, what leads to larger magnitude range for the analysis. We analyze the global preliminary determination of epicenters U.S. Geological Society catalog (combined with centroid moment tensor focal mechanisms) and find that the seismic moment release of aftershocks is on average approximately 5% of the main shock seismic moment. We show that the results can be well fitted by simulations of the Epidemic Type Aftershock Sequence model. In particular, we test whether simulations constrained by predictions of the static stress-triggering model, proposing a break of self-similarity due to the finite seismogenic width, are in agreement with observations. Our analysis shows that the observed dependency on the main shock magnitude as well as systematic variations with the main shock fault plane solution can be both explained by the constraints based on the static stress triggering.

Zakharova, O.; Hainzl, S.; Bach, C.

2013-11-01

6

The effects of diaphragm rupture and particle loading in contoured shock tubes for vaccine delivery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biological Ballistics, or "Biolistics", is a method by which micro-particle formulations of vaccine can be delivered to human skin or mucosa. A particle acceleration device, the Contoured Shock Tube (CST), has recently been described and characterised experimentally and numerically [2,3,6]. Essentially, the CST comprises a shock tube coupled to a correctly expanded nozzle. The particles are initially retained on a thin diaphragm while the upstream driver section is pressurised with air or helium. Rupture of the diaphragm initiates a classic shock tube flow through the device and consequent nozzle starting process. The design principle of the CST is that the particles be entrained within a quasi-steady, supersonic flow window which is bounded downstream by the nozzle starting process and upstream by the expansion reflected from the driver endwall.

Truong, N. K.; Hardy, M. P.; Kendall, M. A. F.

7

Charge separation during rupture of small water drops in transient flows: Shock tube measurements and applications to lightning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Charge separation during the rupture of small (1-2 mm) drops in the flow behind a shock wave was measured in a laboratory shock tube. The results are consistent with charge separation results measured for larger drops in steady airflows. Such charge separation could account for the lightning observed near volcanoes and above-ground thermonuclear explosions. A charge regeneration also occurs in

D. Dreyfuss; S. Temkin

1983-01-01

8

Improvements in the simulation of a main steam line break with steam generator tube rupture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The result of simultaneous Main Steam Line Break (MSLB) and a Steam Generator Tube Rupture (SGTR) in a Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) is a depressurization in the secondary and primary system because both systems are connected through the SGTR. The OECD/NEA ROSA-2 Test 5 performed in the Large Scale Test Facility (LSTF) reproduces these simultaneous breaks in a Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR). A simulation of this Test 5 was made with the thermal-hydraulic code TRACE5. Some discrepancies found, such as an underestimation of SG-A secondary pressure during the depressurization and overestimation of the primary pressure drop after the first Power Operated Relief Valve (PORV) opening can be improved increasing the nodalization of the Upper Head in the pressure vessel and meeting the actual fluid conditions of Upper Head during the transient.

Gallardo, Sergio; Querol, Andrea; Verdú, Gumersindo

2014-06-01

9

Resolution of Generic Safety Issue 188: Steam Generator Tube Leaks or Ruptures Concurrent with Containment Bypass from Main Stream Line or Feedwater Line Breaches.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report addresses Generic Safety Issue (GSI) 188, Steam Generator Tube Leaks or Ruptures Concurrent with Containment Bypass from Main Steam Line or Feedwater Line Breaches, which concerns the potential for additional tube leakage or ruptures from the ...

E. Reichelt

2006-01-01

10

Simulation of a main steam line break with steam generator tube rupture using trace  

SciTech Connect

A simulation of the OECD/NEA ROSA-2 Project Test 5 was made with the thermal-hydraulic code TRACE5. Test 5 performed in the Large Scale Test Facility (LSTF) reproduced a Main Steam Line Break (MSLB) with a Steam Generator Tube Rupture (SGTR) in a Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR). The result of these simultaneous breaks is a depressurization in the secondary and primary system in loop B because both systems are connected through the SGTR. Good approximation was obtained between TRACE5 results and experimental data. TRACE5 reproduces qualitatively the phenomena that occur in this transient: primary pressure falls after the break, stagnation of the pressure after the opening of the relief valve of the intact steam generator, the pressure falls after the two openings of the PORV and the recovery of the liquid level in the pressurizer after each closure of the PORV. Furthermore, a sensitivity analysis has been performed to know the effect of varying the High Pressure Injection (HPI) flow rate in both loops on the system pressures evolution. (authors)

Gallardo, S.; Querol, A.; Verdu, G. [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica Y Nuclear, Universitat Politecnica de Valencia, Camino de Vera s/n, 46022, Valencia (Spain)

2012-07-01

11

Pipeline Accident Report. Atlanta Gas Light Company High-Pressure Gas Main Rupture, Atlanta, Georgia, December 1, 1977.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

At 1:00 p.m. e.s.t. on December 1, 1977, a 12-inch, cast-iron, high-pressure gas main owned by the Atlanta Gas Light Company was ruptured by an 8-inch, steel I-beam pile, which was driven through the pipe at a construction site in downtown Atlanta, Georgi...

1978-01-01

12

Anaphylactic shock in a female patient due to a spontaneous rupture of a hepatic hydatid cyst: a case report.  

PubMed

A 27-year-old female patient, a refugee from Bosnia and Herzegovina, was admitted to our hospital in a state of shock. She developed an anaphylactic reaction. The US and CT of abdomen revealed a spontaneous rupture of a hepatic hydatid cyst. An emergency operative procedure was performed and in the postoperative period she was treated conservatively with albendazol during the next two months. There was no recurrence of the disease. PMID:8975972

Horzic, M; Bunoza, D; Maric, K

1996-01-01

13

The 2009 L'Aquila (central Italy) MW6.3 earthquake: Main shock and aftershocks  

Microsoft Academic Search

A MW 6.3 earthquake struck on April 6, 2009 the Abruzzi region (central Italy) producing vast damage in the L'Aquila town and surroundings. In this paper we present the location and geometry of the fault system as obtained by the analysis of main shock and aftershocks recorded by permanent and temporary networks. The distribution of aftershocks, 712 selected events with

C. Chiarabba; A. Amato; M. Anselmi; P. Baccheschi; I. Bianchi; M. Cattaneo; G. Cecere; L. Chiaraluce; M. G. Ciaccio; P. De Gori; G. De Luca; M. Di Bona; R. Di Stefano; L. Faenza; A. Govoni; L. Improta; F. P. Lucente; A. Marchetti; L. Margheriti; F. Mele; A. Michelini; G. Monachesi; M. Moretti; M. Pastori; N. Piana Agostinetti; D. Piccinini; P. Roselli; D. Seccia; L. Valoroso

2009-01-01

14

Extracorporeal Shock Wave Treatment (ESWT) Improves In Vitro Functional Activities of Ruptured Human Tendon-Derived Tenocytes  

PubMed Central

In vitro models of human tenocytes derived from healthy as well as from ruptured tendons were established, characterized and used at very early passage (P1) to evaluate the effects of Extracorporeal Shock Wave Treatment (ESWT). The molecular analysis of traditional tenocytic markers, including Scleraxis (Scx), Tenomodulin (Tnm), Tenascin-C (Tn-C) and Type I and III Collagens (Col I and Col III), permitted us to detect in our samples the simultaneous expression of all these genes and allowed us to compare their levels of expression in relationship to the source of the cells and treatments. In untreated conditions, higher molecular levels of Scx and Col I in tenocytes from pathological compared to healthy samples have been detected, suggesting – in the cells from injured tendon – the natural trigger of an early differentiation and repairing program, which depends by Scx and requires an increase in collagen expression. When ESWT (at the dose of 0.14 mJ/mm2) was applied to cultured tenocytes explanted from injured source, Scx and Col I were significantly diminished compared to healthy counterpart, indicating that such natural trigger maybe delayed by the treatment, in order to promote cellular repair. Herein, we show for the first time that ESWT enhances in vitro functional activities of ruptured tendon-derived tenocytes, such as proliferation and migration, which could probably contributes to tendon healing in vivo.

Leone, Laura; Vetrano, Mario; Ranieri, Danilo; Raffa, Salvatore; Vulpiani, Maria Chiara; Ferretti, Andrea; Torrisi, Maria Rosaria; Visco, Vincenzo

2012-01-01

15

Septic shock with tension fecothorax as a delayed presentation of a gunshot diaphragmatic rupture.  

PubMed

Diaphragmatic rupture (DR) after thoracoabdominal trauma has a reported rate of 0.8% to 5% and up to 30% of diaphragmatic hernias are accompanied with delayed diagnosis. The DR occurs after high-energy blunt or penetrating (stab or gunshot wounds) trauma. The purpose of this article is to analyze the DR, its clinical presentation, complications and possible causes of the delay in diagnosis, whilst recording a rare interesting case. A 44-year old moribund male with a fifteen years history of paraplegia, came to the emergency department with a clinical presentation of extremely severe respiratory distress. Chest X-ray showed the colon present in the left hemithorax. The onset of symptoms was 48 hours before, resulting in hemodynamic instability and severe sepsis condition. Emergency left thoracotomy and laparotomy were carried out. A rupture of the left hemidiaphragm was found as well as intrathoracic presence of colon, incarcerated and perforated, feces and omentum, also incarcerated and necrotic. There were dense adhesions between the ectopic viscera and the thoracic structures. The necrotic parts of the colon and the omentum were mobilized, and then resected. The viable parts of the colon were laboriously reintroduced into the intraperitoneal cavity. We conclude that early diagnosis is crucial to the morbidity and mortality after DR. The course and the kinetic energy of bullets determine the extent of the wound and the size of the DR. The diagnosis of rupture of the diaphragm after penetrating trauma is sometimes difficult and delay can lead to life threatening complications. PMID:24255791

Chatzoulis, George; Papachristos, Ioannis C; Daliakopoulos, Stavros I; Chatzoulis, Kostas; Lampridis, Savvas; Svarnas, Grigorios; Katsiadramis, Ioannis

2013-10-01

16

Possible Evidence for Surface Rupture of the Main Frontal Thrust During the Great 1505 Himalayan Earthquake, Far-Western Nepal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An absence of large earthquakes has characterized the Central Himalaya since the great Himalayan earthquake of 1505. This Mw 8.4 (or greater) earthquake is known to have damaged several cities in India as well as monasteries scattered along a 600-km swath of the southern edge of the Tibetan plateau and the Mustang province of Nepal. Our preliminary work at a trench site in far-western Nepal has likely discovered the first direct evidence for surface rupture of the Main Frontal Thrust (MFT) during the 1505 earthquake. Here, faulting and folding related to slip on the MFT, presumably as a result of multiple earthquakes, has formed a 30- to 60-m-high strath terrace capped by middle- to late-Holocene fluvial gravels. Uplifted inset terraces, associated with a tributary channel that drains the high terrace, form 3- and 7-m-high scarps across the MFT. The 7 m scarp is clearly of tectonic origin, but the 3 m scarp may have resulted from a non-tectonic process; cases can be made for either human- or stream-caused erosion of a higher terrace to form the 3 m terrace. Two trenches were excavated, a long trench (T1) across the 3 m terrace, and a second short trench (T2) across the 7 m terrace. Both trenches expose two fault zones ~5 m apart located at the base of the scarp. Faulting in T1 deforms boulder/cobble gravels and thin, pebble-rich interlayers. Gravels in the footwall give way upsection to apparently undeformed sands and interbedded soils. However, it is difficult to determine the age of faulting at T1 due to the coarse, laterally discontinuous nature of the deformed gravels and the likely modification of the 3-m-high scarp. Charcoal ages from the deformed gravels range from 1350 to 1750 yrs BP, providing a maximum age for the earthquake here. T2 exposed a short section of the base of the 7 m scarp and revealed inter-layers of gravel, sand and soil that are folded and faulted with an apparent vertical throw of ~3 m across the southern fault zone. Charcoal age ranges from deformed strata include: ~1200 to 2800 yrs BP from sandy layers, and AD 1300 to 1630 from a soil layer. Analysis of the organic content of the deformed soil, with charcoal removed, yields an age of AD 1410 to 1470. The T2 ruptures, and presumably the T1 ruptures as well, therefore occurred after soil deposition in T2, post AD 1410 to 1470, with the most likely historical candidate being the great 1505 earthquake.

Yule, D.; Dawson, S.; Lave, J.; Sapkota, S.; Tiwari, D.

2006-12-01

17

Investigation of seismicity after the initiation of a Seismic Electric Signal activity until the main shock.  

PubMed

The behavior of seismicity in the area candidate to suffer a main shock is investigated after the observation of the Seismic Electric Signal activity until the impending main shock. This is based on the view that the occurrence of earthquakes is a critical phenomenon to which statistical dynamics may be applied. In the present work, analysing the time series of small earthquakes, the concept of natural time chi was used and the results revealed that the approach to criticality itself can be manifested by the probability density function (PDF) of kappa(1) calculated over an appropriate statistical ensemble. Here, kappa(1) is the variance kappa(1)(=-(2)) resulting from the power spectrum of a function defined as Phi(omega)= summation operator(k=1)(N) p(k) exp(iomegachi(k)), where p(k) is the normalized energy of the k-th small earthquake and omega the natural frequency. This PDF exhibits a maximum at kappa(1) asymptotically equal to 0.070 a few days before the main shock. Examples are presented, referring to the magnitude 6 approximately 7 class earthquakes that occurred in Greece. PMID:18941306

Sarlis, N V; Skordas, E S; Lazaridou, M S; Varotsos, P A

2008-01-01

18

Investigation of seismicity after the initiation of a Seismic Electric Signal activity until the main shock  

PubMed Central

The behavior of seismicity in the area candidate to suffer a main shock is investigated after the observation of the Seismic Electric Signal activity until the impending main shock. This is based on the view that the occurrence of earthquakes is a critical phenomenon to which statistical dynamics may be applied. In the present work, analysing the time series of small earthquakes, the concept of natural time ? was used and the results revealed that the approach to criticality itself can be manifested by the probability density function (PDF) of ?1 calculated over an appropriate statistical ensemble. Here, ?1 is the variance ?1(= ??2? ? ???2) resulting from the power spectrum of a function defined as ?(?)=?k=1Npkexp(i??k), where pk is the normalized energy of the k-th small earthquake and ? the natural frequency. This PDF exhibits a maximum at ?1 ? 0.070 a few days before the main shock. Examples are presented, referring to the magnitude 6?7 class earthquakes that occurred in Greece.

Sarlis, N. V.; Skordas, E. S.; Lazaridou, M. S.; Varotsos, P. A.

2008-01-01

19

Traveling Wire Electrical Discharge Machining as an Alternative Method of Manufacturing M1 Main Battle Tank Rotary Shock Absorber Components.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The project sought reduction in the manufacturing costs of M1 Main Battle Tank rotary shock absorber components (rotor and stator) by using traveling wire electrical discharge machining instead of the traditional machining methods normally used. The proje...

A. R. Kovnat

1986-01-01

20

Chapter A. The Loma Prieta, California, Earthquake of October 17, 1989 - Main Shock Characteristics  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The October 17, 1989, Loma Prieta, Calif., earthquake (0004:15.2 G.m.t. October 18; lat 37.036? N., long 121.883? W.; 19-km depth) had a local magnitude (ML) of about 6.7, a surface-wave magnitude (MS) of 7.1, a seismic moment of 2.2x1019 N-m to 3.5x1019 N-m, a source duration of 6 to 15 s, and an average stress drop of at least 50 bars. Slip occurred on a dipping fault surface about 35 km long and was largely confined to a depth of about 7 to 20 km. The slip vector had a large vertical component, and slip was distributed in two main regions situated northwest and southeast of the hypocenter. This slip distribution caused about half of the earthquake's energy to be focused toward the urbanized San Francisco Bay region, while the other half was focused toward the southeast. Had the rupture initiated at the southeast end of the aftershock zone, shaking in the bay region would have been both longer and stronger. These source parameters suggest that the earthquake was not a typical shallow San Andreas-type event but a deeper event on a different fault with a recurrence interval of many hundreds of years. Therefore, the potential for a damaging shallow event on the San Andreas fault in the Santa Cruz Mountains may still exist.

Edited by Spudich, Paul

1996-01-01

21

Left main artery dissection as a clinical sign of the aortic rupture following aortic valve replacement for fulminant aortic endocarditis.  

PubMed

Aortic valve endocarditis with perivalvular abscess formation remains a demanding condition and the results of the surgery are not optimal. Abscess localized in the aortic basis area can weaken the aortic wall, leading to further deterioration and rupture. The presented case allows us to recommend a maximal aggressive approach in patients, in whom the aortic wall seems to be rearranged due to abscess formation. Sometimes only the resection of the abscess hole and replacement of the entire ascending aorta offers a safe therapy option. PMID:20956402

Szlapka, Michal; Joskowiak, Dominik; Matschke, Klaus; Tugtekin, Sems Malte

2011-01-01

22

Cosmological shocks in Eulerian simulations: main properties and cosmic rays acceleration.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aims: morpholgies, number and energy distributions of Cosmological Shock Waves from a set of ENZO cosmological simulations are produced, along with a study of the connection with Cosmic Rays processes in different environments. Method: we perform cosmological simulations with the public release of the PPM code ENZO, adopt a simple and physically motivated numerical setup to follow the evolution of cosmic structures at the resolution of 125kpc per cell, and characterise shocks with a new post processing scheme. Results: we estimate the efficency of the acceleration of Cosmic Ray particles and present the first comparison of our results with existing limits from observations of galaxy clusters.

Vazza, F.; Brunetti, G.; Gheller, C.

23

Shock  

MedlinePLUS

... you think a person is in shock: Call 911 for immediate medical help. Check the person's airway, ... Call 911 any time a person has symptoms of shock. Stay with the person and follow the first aid ...

24

ANALYSIS OF BOILER ROOM PRESSURES FOLLOWING A POTENTIAL RUPTURE OF THE MAIN COOLANT LINE IN A NUCLEAR POWER PLANT  

Microsoft Academic Search

An anulysis was made of the maximum pressure rise and relevant pressure ; history that might occur in the boiler room of a nuclear reactor from the ; complete failure of a main, sixteen-inch, heavy-water, coolant pipe. The boiler ; room and the 9 ft x 12 ft x 50 ft pressure relief duct were represented by a ; simplified

I. J. Billington; I. I. Glass

1960-01-01

25

Ruptured eardrum  

MedlinePLUS

Tympanic membrane perforation; Eardrum - ruptured or perforated; Perforated eardrum ... Buttaravoli P, Leffler SM. Perforated tympanic membrane (ruptured eardrum). ... Pa: Mosby Elsevier; 2012:chap 37. Kerschner JE. Otitis ...

26

Characteristics of response spectra for long-periods of main-shock recordings of the Chi-Chi earthquake  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current practice uses predictive models to extrapolate long-period response spectra based on far-field recordings in moderate\\u000a and weak earthquakes. However, the spectra are not long enough and the data are often not reliable, which means that the seismic\\u000a design code cannot accurately define seismic design requirements for long-period structures. The near-field recordings in\\u000a the main-shock of the Chi-Chi earthquake have

Yong Chen; Yanxiang Yu

2007-01-01

27

Vibration, acoustic, and shock design and test criteria for components on the Solid Rocket Boosters (SRB), Lightweight External Tank (LWT), and Space Shuttle Main Engines (SSME)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The vibration, acoustics, and shock design and test criteria for components and subassemblies on the space shuttle solid rocket booster (SRB), lightweight tank (LWT), and main engines (SSME) are presented. Specifications for transportation, handling, and acceptance testing are also provided.

1984-01-01

28

Soil gas distribution in the main coseismic surface rupture zone of the 1980, Ms = 6.9, Irpinia earthquake (southern Italy)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

gas measurements of different gas species with different geochemical behaviors were performed in the area of the Pecore Plain, a 200 m × 300 m sized, fault-bounded extensional basin located in the northern Mount Marzano massif, in the axial belt of the southern Apennine chain. The Pecore Plain area was affected by coseismic surface faulting during the Ms = 6.9, 1980 Irpinia earthquake, the strongest and most destructive seismic event of the last 30 years in southern Italy. The collected data and their geostatistical analysis provide new insights into the control exerted by active fault segments on deep-seated gas migration toward the surface. The results define anomalies that are aligned with the NW-SE trending coseismic rupture of the 1980 earthquake along the western border of the plain, as well as along the southern border of the plain where a hidden, E-W striking fault is inferred. Geospatial analysis highlights an anisotropic spatial behavior of 222Rn along the main NW-SE trend and of CO2 along the E-W trend. This feature suggests a correlation between the shape and orientation of the anomalies and the barrier/conduit behavior of fault zones in the area. Furthermore, our results show that gas migration through brittle deformation zones occurs by advective processes, as suggested by the relatively high migration rate needed to obtain anomalies of short-lived 222Rn in the soil pores.

Ciotoli, Giancarlo; Bigi, Sabina; Tartarello, Chiara; Sacco, Pietro; Lombardi, Salvatore; Ascione, Alessandra; Mazzoli, Stefano

2014-03-01

29

Blood vessel rupture by cavitation  

PubMed Central

Cavitation is thought to be one mechanism for vessel rupture during shock wave lithotripsy treatment. However, just how cavitation induces vessel rupture remains unknown. In this work, a high-speed photomicrography system was set up to directly observe the dynamics of bubbles inside blood vessels in ex vivo rat mesenteries. Vascular rupture correlating to observed bubble dynamics were examined by imaging bubble extravasation and dye leakage. The high-speed images show that bubble expansion can cause vessel distention, and bubble collapse can lead to vessel invagination. Liquid jets were also observed to form. Our results suggest that all three mechanisms, vessel distention, invagination and liquid jets, can contribute to vessel rupture.

Chen, Hong; Brayman, Andrew A.; Bailey, Michael R.

2011-01-01

30

Phenomena identification and ranking tables for Westinghouse AP600 small break loss-of-coolant accident, main steam line break, and steam generator tube rupture scenarios  

SciTech Connect

This report revision incorporates new experimental evidence regarding AP600 behavior during small break loss-of-coolant accidents. This report documents the results of Phenomena Identification and Ranking Table (PIRT) efforts for the Westinghouse AP600 reactor. The purpose of this PIRT is to identify important phenomena so that they may be addressed in both the experimental programs and the RELAP5/MOD3 systems analysis computer code. In Revision of this report, the responses of AP600 during small break loss-of-coolant accident, main steam line break, and steam generator tube rupture accident scenarios were evaluated by a committee of thermal-hydraulic experts. Committee membership included Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory staff and recognized thermal-hydraulic experts from outside of the laboratory. Each of the accident scenarios was subdivided into separate, sequential periods or phases. Within each phase, the plant behavior is controlled by, at most, a few thermal-hydraulic processes. The committee identified the phenomena influencing those processes, and ranked & influences as being of high, medium, low, or insignificant importance. The primary product of this effort is a series of tables, one for each phase of each accident scenario, describing the thermal-hydraulic phenomena judged by the committee to be important, and the relative ranking of that importance. The rationales for the phenomena selected and their rankings are provided. This document issue incorporates an update of the small break loss-of-coolant accident portion of the report. This revision is the result of the release of experimental evidence from AP600-related integral test facilities (ROSA/AP600, OSU, and SPES) and thermal-hydraulic expert review. The activities associated with this update were performed during the period from June 1995 through November 1996. 8 refs., 26 figs., 42 tabs.

Wilson, G.E.; Fletcher, C.D.; Davis, C.B. [and others

1997-06-01

31

Partial Rotator Cuff Ruptures  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Partial rotator cuff ruptures are not rare and occur mainly in the supraspinatus tendon and may extend to that of infraspinatus,\\u000a but rarely to the tendon of subscapularis. Isolated lesions in the tendons of infraspinatus, teres minor or subscapularis\\u000a are rare. Partial ruptures usually occur before the sixth decade of life and can be a cause of unexplained pain in

Antonio Cartucho

32

Identical Aftershocks from the Main Rupture Zone 10 Months After the Mw=7.6 September 5, 2012, Nicoya, Costa Rica, Earthquake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over a two weeks period and as part of a Keck Geology Consortium summer research project, we installed a dense broad band seismic array directly over the rupture zone of the Nicoya, September 5th, 2012, Mw=7.6 earthquake. The network consisted of 5 Trillium compact seismometers and Taurus digitizers from Nanometrics, defining a triangular area of ~20 km per side. Also located within this area are 3 stations of the Nicoya permanent broadband network. One side of the triangular area, along the west coast of the Nicoya peninsula, is parallel to the trench and the apex lies 15 km landward. The plate interface and rupture zone of the Nicoya 2012 earthquake are located 16 km below the trench-parallel side and 25 km below the apex of this triangular footprint. Station spacing ranged from 3 to 14 km. This dense array operated from July 2nd to July 17th, 2013. On June 23rd, eight days before we installed this array, an Mw=5.4 aftershock (one of the only 5 aftershocks of the Nicoya Mw=7.6 earthquake with magnitudes above 5.0) occurred directly beneath the area of our temporary network. Preliminary analysis of the data shows that we recorded several identical aftershocks with magnitudes below 1.0 that locate some 18 km below our network. We will present detailed locations of these small aftershocks and their relationship with the June 23rd, 2013 aftershock and the September 5th, 2012, mainshock.

Protti, M.; Alfaro-Diaz, R.; Brenn, G. R.; Fasola, S.; Murillo, A.; Marshall, J. S.; Gardner, T. W.

2013-12-01

33

Discovery of multiple non-axially symmetric near-IR bow shocks around the pre-main sequence binary {AFGL 961}  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the discovery of multiple non-axially symmetric near-IR molecular hydrogen bow shocks around the high-mass pre-main sequence binary system {AFGL 961}. These data indicate that at periods one or both components of the binary have produced collimated outflows with associated shocks similar to those observed at visual wavelengths resulting in optical Herbig-Haro objects. We detect a minimum of four nebulous structures reminiscent of optical bow shocks together with five other diffuse objects with less well-defined morphology. The spatial location of the bow shocks and associated nebulous knots suggests that both components of the binary have, at times, actively driven outflows. At the present time, only the western component of the binary currently shows direct evidence of outflow activity in the form of {(12) CO} emission bandheads. The timescale between the outbursts that drive the outflows and result in the creation of the NIR shock-excited nebulae is 300-500 years. This is similar to estimates made for related events in both optical Herbig-Haro sources and FU Orionis type stars.

Aspin, Colin

1998-07-01

34

Uterine Rupture  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Uterine rupture may be defined as a disruption of the uterine muscle extending to and involving the uterine serosa or disruption\\u000a of the uterine muscle with extension to the bladder or broad ligament [1]. Uterine dehiscence is defined as disruption of\\u000a the uterine muscle with intact uterine serosa [1]. Uterine rupture is associated with severe maternal and perinatal morbidity\\u000a and

Sharon R. Sheehan; Deirdre J. Murphy

35

AntiShock Garments for Obstetric Hemorrhage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Annually, over 500,000 women die from complications of pregnancy and childbirth; the majority die from hemorrhage and shock. Obstetrical hemorrhage of all etiologies, such as uterine atony, ruptured uterus, and ruptured ectopic, can cause massive blood loss resulting in severe shock. Unless women can access fluid replacement, blood transfusions, and, often, surgery, the shock leads to organ failure and death.

Suellen Miller; Aderinola Ojengbede; Janet Turan; Oladosu Ojengbede; Elizabeth Butrick; Paul Hensleigh

2007-01-01

36

[Indirect traumatic diaphragmatic rupture].  

PubMed

Between 1969 and 1988 51 polytraumatized patients were treated for rupture of the diaphragm due to blunt trauma. In 39 cases the lesion was in the left hemidiaphragm, in 11 cases on the right side and in one case on both sides. Clinical investigation and posterior-anterior chest X-ray were the most important diagnostic procedures. A high percentage of ruptures was only detected intraoperatively during acute laparotomy/thoracotomy. Early or delayed surgery had no influence on the survival of patients. The prognosis depends on the severity of associated injuries, which are the main causes of death in these patients. PMID:1858376

Holzberger, P; Königsrainer, A; Tauscher, T; Müller, L; Thöni, H

1991-01-01

37

Fine structure of the landers fault zone: Segmentation and the rupture process  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Observations and modeling of 3- to 6-hertz seismic shear waves trapped within the fault zone of the 1992 Landers earthquake series allow the fine structure and continuity of the zone to be evaluated. The fault, to a depth of at least 12 kilometers, is marked by a zone 100 to 200 meters wide where shear velocity is reduced by 30 to 50 percent. This zone forms a seismic waveguide that extends along the southern 30 kilometers of the Landers rupture surface and ends at the fault bend about 18 kilometers north of the main shock epicenter. Another fault plane waveguide, disconnected from the first, exists along the northern rupture surface. These observations, in conjunction with surface slip, detailed seismicity patterns, and the progression of rupture along the fault, suggest that several simple rupture planes were involved in the Landers earthquake and that the inferred rupture front hesitated or slowed at the location where the rupture jumped from one to the next plane. Reduction in rupture velocity can tentatively be attributed to fault plane complexity, and variations in moment release can be attributed to variations in available energy.

Li, Y. -G.; Vidale, J. E.; Aki, K.; Marone, C. J.; Lee, W. H. K.

1994-01-01

38

[Ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms].  

PubMed

Eighty two aortic replacements of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms have been performed during the last 6 years. There were 72 male and 10 female patients, and the average age was 71.33 years. Hemorrhagic shock on the admission was observed in 45 patients, and 13 have been operated urgently without any diagnostic procedures. The transperitoneal approach have been used for the operation. Two aorto duodenal and one aorto caval fistulas, have been found. Only exploration (three patients died immediately after laparotomy and 6 after cross clamping) has been done in 9 cases, and the aortic replacement in 70 cases (27 with tubular, and 43 with bifurcated graft). In 3 cases and axillobifemoral bypass had to be done. During the operation eleven patients died, and 30 in postoperative period, during the period between one and 40 days. Total intrahospital mortality rate was 50%, compared with 3.5% for 250 electively operated patients with abdominal aortic aneurysms in same period. In postoperative period the most important cause of death was multiple organs failures. Statistically significant greater mortality rate (p > 0.01%) was found in cases of late operative treatment, hemorrhagic shock, intra-operational bleeding, ruptured front wall, suprarenal cross clamping and in patients older than 75 year. In complicated cases such as juxtarenal aneurysm, 3 sutures parachute technique for proximal anastomosis, a temporary transection of the left renal vein, and intraaortal balloon occlusive catheter for proximal bleeding control are recommended. PMID:10951761

Lotina, S I; Davidovi?, L B; Kosti?, D M; Stojanov, P L; Velimirovi?, D B; Djuki?, P L; Cinara, I S; Vojnovi?, B M; Savi?, D V

39

Early coagulopathy in patients with ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm.  

PubMed

Ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is associated with a high mortality despite surgical management. Earlier reports indicate that a major cause of immediate intraoperative death in patients with ruptured AAA is related to hemorrhage due to coagulopathy. Acidosis is, besides hypothermia and hemodilution, a possible cause of coagulopathy. The aim of the present study was to investigate the incidence of coagulopathy and acidosis preoperatively in patients with ruptured AAA in relation to the clinical outcome with special regard to the influence of shock. For this purpose, 95 consecutive patients who underwent surgery for AAA (43 ruptured with shock, 12 ruptured without shock, and 40 nonruptured) were included. Coagulopathy was defined as prothrombin time (international normalized ratio [INR]) ?1.5 and acidosis was defined as base deficit ?6 mmol/L. Mortality and postoperative complications were recorded. The present study shows a state of acidosis at the start of surgery in 30 of 55 patients with ruptured AAA. However, only in 7 of 55 patients with ruptured AAA a state of preoperative coagulopathy was demonstrated. Furthermore, in our patients with shock due to ruptured AAA only 2 of 12 deaths were due to coagulopathy and bleeding. Indeed, our results show a relatively high incidence of thrombosis-related causes of death in patients with ruptured AAA, indicating a relation to an activated coagulation in these patients. These findings indicate that modern emergency management of ruptured AAA has improved in the attempt to prevent fatal coagulopathy. PMID:21733939

Fransson, Maria; Rydningen, Hans; Henriksson, Anders E

2012-01-01

40

Mapping the rupture process of moderate earthquakes by inverting accelerograms  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We present a waveform inversion method that uses recordings of small events as Green's functions to map the rupture growth of moderate earthquakes. The method fits P and S waveforms from many stations simultaneously in an iterative procedure to estimate the subevent rupture time and amplitude relative to the Green's function event. We invert the accelerograms written by two moderate Parkfield earthquakes using smaller events as Green's functions. The first earthquake (M = 4.6) occurred on November 14, 1993, at a depth of 11 km under Middle Mountain, in the assumed preparation zone for the next Parkfield main shock. The second earthquake (M = 4.7) occurred on December 20, 1994, some 6 km to the southeast, at a depth of 9 km on a section of the San Andreas fault with no previous microseismicity and little inferred coseismic slip in the 1966 Parkfield earthquake. The inversion results are strikingly different for the two events. The average stress release in the 1993 event was 50 bars, distributed over a geometrically complex area of 0.9 km2. The average stress release in the 1994 event was only 6 bars, distributed over a roughly elliptical area of 20 km2. The ruptures of both events appear to grow spasmodically into relatively complex shapes: the inversion only constrains the ruptures to grow more slowly than the S wave velocity but does not use smoothness constraints. Copyright 1999 by the American Geophysical Union.

Hellweg, M.; Boatwright, J.

1999-01-01

41

DIRECT OBSERVATION OF RUPTURE PROPAGATION DURING THE 1979 IMPERIAL VALLEY EARTHQUAKE USING A SHORT BASELINE ACCELEROMETER ARRAY  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 1979 Imperial Valley, California, earthquake (Ms -- 6.9) was recorded on the El Centre differential array, a 213-m-long linear array of 5 three-component digital accelerometers 5.6 km from the nearest tectonic surface rupture. Although absolute time was not recorded on the array elements, a relative time base was established using the main shock hypocentral P wave and the P

PAUL SPUDICH; EDWARD CRANSWICK

1984-01-01

42

Maternal Death After Uterine Rupture in an Unscarred Uterus: A Case Report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spontaneous uterine rupture is a life-threatening obstetrical emergency encountered infrequently in the Emergency Department. Emergency Physicians must consider this diagnosis when presented with a pregnant patient in shock with abdominal pain. We present the case of a multigravid woman who had a spontaneous uterine rupture after induction with oxytocin, followed by a discussion of uterine rupture with special emphasis on

Banu Dane; Cem Dane

2009-01-01

43

Do buried-rupture earthquakes trigger less landslides than surface-rupture earthquakes for reverse faults?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gorum et al. (2013, Geomorphology 184, 127-138) carried out a study on inventory compilation and statistical analyses of landslides triggered by the 2010 Mw 7.0 Haiti earthquake. They revealed that spatial distribution patterns of these landslides were mainly controlled by complex rupture mechanism and topography. They also suggested that blind-rupture earthquakes trigger fewer landslides than surface-rupture earthquakes on thrust reverse faults. Although a few lines of evidence indicate that buried-rupture earthquakes might trigger fewer landslides than surface-rupture earthquakes on reverse faults, more careful comparisons and analyses indicate that it is not always true. Instead, some cases show that a buried-rupture earthquake can trigger a larger quantity of landslides that are distributed in a larger area, whereas surface-rupture earthquakes can trigger larger but a fewer landslides distributed in a smaller area.

Xu, Chong

2014-07-01

44

Duodenal rupture following trauma in a child.  

PubMed

We present a case of delayed presentation of a traumatic duodenal rupture in a 15-year-old boy. He presented 12 hours after falling six feet and sustaining blunt trauma to his anterior abdominal wall. On arrival in the Emergency Department he was shocked and peritonitic. After initial resuscitation he was stable and transferred to computed tomography where free retroperitoneal air and duodenal rupture was found. He was transferred to theatre where he underwent laparotomy and successful repair of the rupture. He made an uneventful recovery and was discharged nine days later. Duodenal rupture is a rare but serious complication of blunt abdominal trauma. Diagnosis is difficult but missed diagnosis and delayed presentation is associated with high morbidity and mortality. A high index for suspicion must be kept when dealing with blunt abdominal trauma to ensure this is not missed. PMID:21680305

McWhirter, Derek

2011-05-01

45

Kinematic Seismic Rupture Parameters from a Doppler Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The radiation emitted from extended seismic sources, mainly when the rupture spreads in preferred directions, presents spectral deviations as a function of the observation location. This aspect, unobserved to point sources, and named as directivity, are manifested by an increase in the frequency and amplitude of seismic waves when the rupture occurs in the direction of the seismic station and a decrease in the frequency and amplitude if it occurs in the opposite direction. The model of directivity that supports the method is a Doppler analysis based on a kinematic source model of rupture and wave propagation through a structural medium with spherical symmetry [1]. A unilateral rupture can be viewed as a sequence of shocks produced along certain paths on the fault. According this model, the seismic record at any point on the Earth's surface contains a signature of the rupture process that originated the recorded waveform. Calculating the rupture direction and velocity by a general Doppler equation, - the goal of this work - using a dataset of common time-delays read from waveforms recorded at different distances around the epicenter, requires the normalization of measures to a standard value of slowness. This normalization involves a non-linear inversion that we solve numerically using an iterative least-squares approach. The evaluation of the performance of this technique was done through a set of synthetic and real applications. We present the application of the method at four real case studies, the following earthquakes: Arequipa, Peru (Mw = 8.4, June 23, 2001); Denali, AK, USA (Mw = 7.8; November 3, 2002); Zemmouri-Boumerdes, Algeria (Mw = 6.8, May 21, 2003); and Sumatra, Indonesia (Mw = 9.3, December 26, 2004). The results obtained from the dataset of the four earthquakes agreed, in general, with the values presented by other authors using different methods and data. [1] Caldeira B., Bezzeghoud M, Borges JF, 2009; DIRDOP: a directivity approach to determining the seismic rupture velocity vector. J Seismology, DOI 10.1007/s10950-009-9183-x

Caldeira, Bento; Bezzeghoud, Mourad; Borges, José F.

2010-05-01

46

Fault Branching and Rupture Directivity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Can the rupture directivity of past earthquakes be inferred from fault geometry? Nakata et al. [J. Geogr., 1998] propose to relate the observed surface branching of fault systems with directivity. Their work assumes that all branches are through acute angles in the direction of rupture propagation. However, in some observed cases rupture paths seem to branch through highly obtuse angles, as if to propagate ``backwards". Field examples of that are as follows: (1) Landers 1992. When crossing from the Johnson Valley to the Homestead Valley (HV) fault via the Kickapoo (Kp) fault, the rupture from Kp progressed not just forward onto the northern stretch of the HV fault, but also backwards, i.e., SSE along the HV [Sowers et al., 1994, Spotila and Sieh, 1995, Zachariasen and Sieh, 1995, Rockwell et al., 2000]. Measurements of surface slip along that backward branch, a prominent feature of 4 km length, show right-lateral slip, decreasing towards the SSE. (2) At a similar crossing from the HV to the Emerson (Em) fault, the rupture progressed backwards along different SSE splays of the Em fault [Zachariasen and Sieh, 1995]. (3). In crossing from the Em to Camp Rock (CR) fault, again, rupture went SSE on the CR fault. (4). Hector Mine 1999. The rupture originated on a buried fault without surface trace [Li et al., 2002; Hauksson et al., 2002] and progressed bilaterally south and north. In the south it met the Lavic Lake (LL) fault and progressed south on it, but also progressed backward, i.e. NNW, along the northern stretch of the LL fault. The angle between the buried fault and the northern LL fault is around -160o, and that NNW stretch extends around 15 km. The field examples with highly obtuse branch angles suggest that there may be no simple correlation between fault geometry and rupture directivity. We propose that an important distinction is whether those obtuse branches actually involved a rupture path which directly turned through the obtuse angle (while continuing also on the main fault), or rather involved arrest by a barrier on the original fault and jumping [Harris and Day, JGR, 1993] to a neighboring fault on which rupture propagated bilaterally to form what appears as a backward-branched structure. Our studies [Poliakov et al., JGR in press, 2002; Kame et al, EOS, 2002] of stress fields around a dynamically moving mode II crack tip show a clear tendency to branch from the straight path at high rupture speeds, but the stress fields never allow the rupture path to directly turn through highly obtuse angles, and hence that mechanism is unlikely. In contrast, study of fault maps in the vicinity of the Kp to HV fault transition [Sowers et al., 1994], discussed as case (1) above, strongly suggest that the large-angle branching occurred as a jump, which we propose as the likely general mechanism. Implications for the Nakata et al. [1998] aim of inferring rupture directivity from branch geometry is that this will be possible only when rather detailed characterization (by surface geology, seismic relocation, trapped waves) of fault connectivity can be carried out in the vicinity of the branching junction, to ascertain whether direct turning of the rupture path through an angle, or jumping and then propagating bilaterally, were involved in prior events. They have opposite implications for how we would associate past directivity with a (nominally) branched fault geometry.

Dmowska, R.; Rice, J. R.; Kame, N.

2002-12-01

47

Achilles tendon rupture in badminton.  

PubMed Central

The typical badminton player with an Achilles tendon rupture is 36 years old and, despite limbering up, is injured at the rear line in a sudden forward movement. He resumes work within three months and has a slight lack of dorsiflexion in the ankle as the main complication. Most patients resume badminton within one year, but some finish their sports career, mainly due to fear of a new injury. The investigation discusses predisposing factors and prophylactic measures.

Kaalund, S; Lass, P; H?gsaa, B; N?hr, M

1989-01-01

48

[Interventricular septum rupture following blunt chest trauma].  

PubMed

Interventricular septum rupture following blunt chest trauma is a rare cardiac injury that sometimes is difficult to diagnose. It has a high mortality rate, especially when in cases of hemodynamic instability requiring early surgical repair. We report the case of an 18-year old man who suffered blunt thoracoabdominal trauma and hemorrhagic shock who required emergency abdominal surgery on three occasions. He was diagnosed of traumatic rupture of interventricular septum that had not been detected in the initial echocardiography, but was suspected after the right heart catheterism. Urgent cardiac surgery was performed 72 hours later because of hemodynamic instability. PMID:19232209

Gandía-Martínez, Francisco; Andaluz-Ojeda, David; Martínez-Gil, Iñigo; Campo-Prieto, Alberto; Parra-Morais, Laura; Citores-González, Rafael

2009-01-01

49

Numerical studies on shock cell interaction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, the behavior of a red blood cell under shock impacts has been studied with numerical simulations. Two types of shock wave are considered: one is the planar shock wave and the other is the shock wave induced by bubble collapse. The results show that the bubble induced shock impact is able to cause considerable cell rupture (haemolysis) but the planar shock can only makes several order less strain than the critical value. Furthermore, the roles of the difference viscosity between the blood and cytoplasma seems to play major role for the strain increase after the planar shock passes through the red blood cell.

Hu, X. Y.; Khoo, B. C.

50

Ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm diagnosed through non-contrast MRI  

PubMed Central

Rupture of an aneurysm is a rare complication although it is considered a common cause of death. Some of these patients present with the classic triad of symptoms such as abdominal pain, pulsatile abdominal mass and shock. Most symptoms are misleading and will only present as vague abdominal pain. Here we describe one such patient with an unusual presentation of a misleading abdominal mass which was eventually diagnosed as a ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm after an emergency MRI.

Chatra, Priyank S

2013-01-01

51

Spontaneous splenic rupture: A rare presentation of dengue fever.  

PubMed

Spontaneous rupture of the spleen with hemoperitoneum is a very rare, but serious manifestation of dengue fever (DF). We report a case of a young female who was presented with atraumatic abdominal pain, hypovolemic shock, anemia, ascites and hepatosplenomegaly with a recent history of a febrile illness. Subsequent investigations proved the presence of hemoperitoneum with spontaneous splenic rupture with seropositivity for DF. Early diagnosis and conservative management in this case resulted in a favorable outcome. PMID:24678156

Mukhopadhyay, Mainak; Chatterjee, Nandini; Maity, Pranab; Patar, Kartik

2014-02-01

52

The Constantine (northeast Algeria) earthquake of October 27, 1985: surface ruptures and aftershock study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An earthquake of magnitude M s = 6.0 (CSEM, Strasbourg) occurred at Constantine (Algeria) on 27 October 1985. This seismic event is the strongest felt in the Tellian Atlas since the El Asnam seismic crisis of October 10, 1980. A team from the Centre de Recherche d'Astronomie, d'Astrophysique et de Géophysique (CRAAG, Algeria), utilising 8 portable stations, registered the activity a few days after the main shock. The aftershocks follow a N045° direction, and show the existence of three ruptured segments. Cross sections display a remarkable vertical fault plane and suggest asperities in the rupture process. Surface breaks were found affecting Quaternary deposits. The principal segment is about 3.8 km long showing "enéchelon" cracks with left-lateral displacement while the main direction of the rupture is N055°. Although the vertical motion is small, the northwestern block shows a normal component of the main surface faulting, while the left-lateral displacement is about 10 cm. The strike-slip focal mechanism solution determined from the global seismic network and field observations are in good agreement.

Bounif, A.; Haessler, H.; Meghraoui, M.

1987-10-01

53

Ruptured intracranial dermoid cysts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Rupture of intracranial dermoid cysts (RICDC) is a rare phenomenon. The mechanism of rupture, pathophysiology of fat in the\\u000a ventricles and subarachnoid spaces, possible complications, and proper management of such conditions are proposed on the basis\\u000a of a review of the literature and experience with two cases of ruptured intracranial dermoid cysts (One was in the pineal\\u000a region, while another

K. El-Bahy; A. Kotb; A. Galal; A. EL-Hakim

2006-01-01

54

Ruptured intracranial dermoid cyst  

PubMed Central

Rupture of an intracranial dermoid cyst is a rare event with considerable associated morbidity and potential mortality. We present a case of intracranial rupture of a dermoid cystic tumor with consequent dissemination of subarachnoid fat droplets resulting in acute aseptic chemical meningitis. Radiographic findings, operative treatment, and pathologic features are described.

Barnett, David W.; Snipes, George J.; Layton, Kennith F.; Opatowsky, Michael J.

2012-01-01

55

Ruptured intracranial dermoid cysts  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUNDIntracranial dermoid cysts are rare congenital neoplasms that are believed to arise from ectopic cell rests incorporated in the closing neural tube. The rupture of an intracranial dermoid cyst is a relatively rare event that typically occurs spontaneously. In the past it was believed that rupture is always fatal, a hypothesis that is not supported by more recently reported cases.

Ruediger Stendel; Terttu Aulikki Pietilä; Kerstin Lehmann; Ralf Kurth; Olaf Suess; Mario Brock

2002-01-01

56

Physiopathology of shock  

PubMed Central

Shock syndromes are of three types: cardiogenic, hemorrhagic and inflammatory. Hemorrhagic shock has its initial deranged macro-hemodynamic variables in the blood volume and venous return. In cardiogenic shock there is a primary pump failure that has cardiac output/mean arterial pressure as initial deranged variables. In Inflammatory Shock it is the microcirculation that is mainly affected, while the initial deranged macrocirculation variable is the total peripheral resistance hit by systemic inflammatory response.

Bonanno, Fabrizio Giuseppe

2011-01-01

57

Rupture Dynamics Simulation of Mw 7.9 Wenchuan Earthquake by Curved Grid Finite Difference Method  

Microsoft Academic Search

The devastating Wenchuan earthquake occurred along two large thrust faults along the Long-menshan thrust belt at eastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau. The shock of earthquake ruptured with as much as 9m of slip between Long-menshan and Sichuan basin demonstrated the complex dynamic rupture and ground motion. Precisely speaking, the rupture process of Wenchuan earthquake occurred on a non-planar multi-branch

Z. Gengshang; X. Chen

2009-01-01

58

[Ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm].  

PubMed

Rupture of the abdominal aortic aneurysm is a high lethal risk pathology, which requires precise diagnosis and urgent and efficient surgical treatment. Despite improved diagnostic capabilities (echoscopy, in specialized departments--angiography, computed tomography, magnetic nucleus resonance), mortality related to this pathology remains high in intensive care units. In the present article data concerning prevalence and clinical outcomes of the rupture of the abdominal aortic aneurysm for 1999-2001 is presented in detail. During this period 22 patients have undergone surgery due to abdominal aortic aneurysm rupture. Described are most prevalent complications, mortality rates and causes, analyzed are treatment strategy and tactics. PMID:12474751

Urbonavicius, Sigitas; Antusevas, Aleksandras

2002-01-01

59

Simulations of Relativistic Collisionless Shocks: Shock Structure and Particle Acceleration  

SciTech Connect

We discuss 3D simulations of relativistic collisionless shocks in electron-positron pair plasmas using the particle-in-cell (PIC) method. The shock structure is mainly controlled by the shock's magnetization (''sigma'' parameter). We demonstrate how the structure of the shock varies as a function of sigma for perpendicular shocks. At low magnetizations the shock is mediated mainly by the Weibel instability which generates transient magnetic fields that can exceed the initial field. At larger magnetizations the shock is dominated by magnetic reflections. We demonstrate where the transition occurs and argue that it is impossible to have very low magnetization collisionless shocks in nature (in more than one spatial dimension). We further discuss the acceleration properties of these shocks, and show that higher magnetization perpendicular shocks do not efficiently accelerate nonthermal particles in 3D. Among other astrophysical applications, this may pose a restriction on the structure and composition of gamma-ray bursts and pulsar wind outflows.

Spitkovsky, Anatoly; /KIPAC, Menlo Park

2006-04-10

60

Rupture of the myocardium. Occurrence and risk factors.  

PubMed Central

The occurrence of myocardial rupture was studied in a well defined unselected population of patients with acute myocardial infarction, and the group of patients who died of rupture of the heart were compared with two control groups. Of a total of 3960 patients, 1746 (44%) fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for acute myocardial infarction. Rupture was defined solely on the basis of the presence of a pathological passage through part of the myocardium, either the free wall of the left ventricle or the septum, found at necropsy or during operation. Two controls were selected for each patient and matched for age and sex, one (control group A) with acute myocardial infarction having died in hospital but not of rupture (non-rupture cardiac death) and one (control group B) with acute myocardial infarction having survived the hospital stay. Necropsy was performed in 75% of all fatal cases with acute myocardial infarction. The total hospital mortality was 19%, the highest mortality being among women over 70 years (29%). Ruptures (n = 56) were found in 17% of the hospital deaths, or 3.2% of all cases of acute myocardial infarction. Women aged less than 70 had the highest incidence of rupture, 42% of deaths being due to rupture. The mean age for patients with rupture and controls was 70.5 years. The median time after admission to death was approximately 50 hours for patients and control group A. Thirty per cent of the patients with rupture occurred within 24 hours of the initial symptoms occurring. Angina and previous acute myocardial infarction were more common among control group A. Patients with rupture and control group B were mostly relatively free of previous cardiovascular or other diseases (chronic angina pectoris ( > 2 months) and previous myocardial infarction). Sustained hypertension during admission to the coronary care unit was more common in patients than in control group A. Hypotension and shock were more common among control group A. Most (79%) of the patients who subsequently ruptured did not receive any corticosteroids at all during the hospital stay. Severe heart failure and antiarrhythmic treatment were more uncommon among patients than among control group A. Patients with rupture received analgesics approximately three times a day throughout their stay. Control group B received analgesics mostly during the first 24 hours. Thus female patients, patients with first infarcts, and patients with sustained chest pain should be investigated for the possibility of rupture. As many as one third (32%) of ruptures may be subacute, and therefore time is available for diagnosis and surgery.

Dellborg, M; Held, P; Swedberg, K; Vedin, A

1985-01-01

61

An unusual presentation of ruptured abdominal aorta aneurysm  

PubMed Central

Patient: Female, 65 Final Diagnosis: Ruptured abdominal aorta aneursym Symptoms: — Medication: — Clinical Procedure: After surgery the patient was discharged without sequelae Specialty: Surgery Objective: Unusual clinical course Background: Rupture of an abdominal aortic aneurysm is the most frightening and potentially life threatening complication of an abdominal aorta aneurysm (AAA). Patients present with atypical symptoms such as abdominal or flank pain, gastrointestinal hemorrhage, or shock. Case Report: A 65-year-old woman presented to our emergency department with gradually increasing left flank pain for 4–5 days. Her laboratory, radiologic, and physical examination revealed no significant pathology, so she was discharged, but 3 days later she was readmitted because her symptoms returned. Further research revealed a ruptured AAA and the patient was hospitalized for surgical intervention. Conclusions: Emergency physicians should keep in mind that AAA and its rupture can present with a wide range of symptoms that appear to be simple.

Durdu, Tamer; Yilmaz, Fevzi; Sonmez, Bedriye Muge; Ulgen, Sultan; Demir, Ali; Y?lmaz, Muhittin Serkan; Arslan, Engin Deniz; Hakbilir, Oktay

2013-01-01

62

The Energy Budget of Earthquake Rupture: a View From Spontaneous Rupture Modeling and Finite-Source Models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is a common and frustrating experience of many dynamic modelers to initiate spontaneous rupture calculations that subsequently abort before rupturing to the desired earthquake size [Nielsen and Olsen, 2000; Oglesby and Day, 2002]. Source parameters in such dynamic source models are strongly correlated, but stress drop is the main factor affecting the distribution of the other dynamic rupture parameters. Additionally, the position of the hypocenter exerts a strong influence on the dynamic properties of the earthquake, and certain hypocenter positions are not plausible as those would not lead to spontaneous rupture propagation. To further investigate this last statement, we analyze the energy budget during earthquake rupture using spontaneous dynamic rupture calculations and finite-source rupture models. In describing the energy budget during earthquake rupture, we follow Favreau and Archuleta [2003]. Each point on the fault contributes to the radiated seismic energy Ers = Eel - Efr - Erx, where Eel denotes the elasto-static energy and Efr the fracture energy. In this study we neglect for simplicity the relaxation work Erx spent during the stopping of the earthquake. A rupture can be characterized by locally negative seismic energy density values, but its integral over the fault plane must be positive. The fundamental condition for rupture growth is therefore that the integral of Ers on the rupture area remains always positive during rupture propagation. Based on a simple energy budget calculation, we focus on identifying those target slip/stress distribution in dynamic rupture modeling that for a given hypocenter location fail to rupture spontaneously. Additionally, we study the energy budget of finite-source rupture models by analyzing the integrated seismic energy for the inferred slip maps using also hypocenter positions other than the network location. These results indicate how rupture was promoted for the true hypocenter while randomized hypocenters may not have been able to sustain a large earthquake. Our approach helped us both to speed up the computation of successful spontaneous rupture models, as well as to construct dynamically consistent rupture models for strong motion prediction.

Mai, P.; Guatteri, M.

2003-12-01

63

Ruptured Aneurysm of the Splenic Artery: A Rare Cause of Abdominal Pain after Blunt Trauma  

PubMed Central

Introduction Splenic artery aneurysms (SAAs) are rare (0.2-10.4%); however, they are the most common form of visceral artery aneurysms. Splenic artery aneurysms are important to identify, because up to 25% of the cases are complicated by rupture. Post- rupture mortality rate is 25% -70% based on the underlying cause. Herein we present a young patient with abdominal pain after blunt abdominal trauma due to rupture of an SAA. Case Presentation A 27-year-old male, without a remarkable medical history, who suffered from abdominal pain for 2 days after falling was admitted to the emergency department with hypovolemic shock. Upon performing emergency laparotomy a ruptured splenic artery aneurysm was found. Conclusions It is important to consider rupture of a splenic artery aneurysm in patients with abdominal pain and hypovolemic shock.

Khoshnevis, Jalalludin; Lotfollahzadeh, Saran; Sobhiyeh, Mohammad Reza; Najd Sepas, Hossein; Abbas Nejad, Masomah; Rahbari, Ali; Behnaz, Nazanin; Mahdi, Zeinab

2013-01-01

64

Photo-piezometric study of supershear rupture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We combine acoustic emission acquisition and high speed photography in order to characterize the radiation from spontaneous dynamic rupture propagation on laboratory faults in a transparent, hard resin slab. A number of previous photographic experiments document fracture propagation at supershear velocity and the radiation of a mach cone wavefront. Supershear rupture propagation has been also inferred in several large natural earthquakes. However, failure to observe any strong shock wave in the natural events has fired a debate on the amplitude and attenuation expected for the mach wavefront. Here we attempt to characterize the mach front experimentally. In our spontaneously nucleating laboratory faults, transducers detect the wavefield both close and at a distance from the fault, allowing to characterize the amplitude and the decay of (1) mach wavefronts radiated from the supershear fractures and (2) diffractions emitted by stop-and-go jerks in fracture propagation. In the relatively low frequency range, piezoelectric transducers behave essentially like accelerometers. In the high frequency range, the passage of the rupture front (both sub- and supershear) strongly dominates the acoustic emission in the immediate vicinity of the fault, as expected from the theoretically predicted strain fields in 1/?r close to the fracture tip. Thus simple piezoelectric transducers can be used both to track the passage of the rupture front and as miniature accelerometers. By correlating the fracture photographic sequences to the piezograms recorded at some distance from the fault, we find that the signature of the mach wavefront is visible but not dominant. Our interpretation is that the supershear rupture front is weakely coherent in events, as in our case, where fracture is spontaneously nucleated.

Nielsen, S. B.; Schubnel, A. J.; Taddeucci, J.; Vinciguerra, S.; Rao, S.

2009-12-01

65

Incomplete Cesarean Scar Rupture  

PubMed Central

Background Uterine rupture at the site of a previous cesarean scar is an uncommon but catastrophic complication of pregnancy, which is associated with significant maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. Case Presentation A 30-year old woman at 24th week of gestation and complaint of pain, contractions and spotting was admitted in Royan Institute in Tehran, Iran. She had a past medical history of an EP and a cesarean section delivery, respectively 4 and 2 years before hospitalization. Herniation of an amniotic membrane into the maternal bladder was found on ultrasound examination. Conclusion Risk factors of cesarean scar rupture should be considered in women undergoing subsequent pregnancies as they need extra care. Ultrasonography can be used to evaluate women with previous cesarean section to assess the risks of scar rupture during subsequent pregnancies.

Ahmadi, Firoozeh; Siahbazi, Shiva; Akhbari, Farnaz

2013-01-01

66

Role of Fault Branches in Earthquake Rupture Dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We analyze earthquake ruptures propagating along a straight "main" fault and encountering a finite-length branch fault. Such intersections are often observed in natural fault systems. The predicted effects of the interaction with the branch that we report can be remarkable; they can strongly perturb the propagation velocity on the main fault and, in some cases, even arrest that propagation. Earlier work [Poliakov et al., 2002, Kame et al., 2003; Bhat et al., 2004] emphasized the role of the fault pre-stress state, branch geometry (i.e., branching angle), and the incoming rupture velocity at the branching junction in determining whether the rupture would follow the branch or continue on the main fault or both, through simulations which did not let a rupture on the branch encounter a barrier or a fault end (called "infinite" branch cases henceforth). In this study we look at "finite" branch cases, and study the effect also of branch length, with rupture being blocked from propagation beyond the branch end. It is known that sudden stoppage of a dynamic rupture front leads to the propagation of large dynamic stress perturbations in the medium. These have been known to nucleate ruptures on adjacent fault segments [Harris and Day, 1983, Harris et al., 2001,Fliss et al., 2004, among others]. We thus anticipate interaction between the rupture on the main fault and the branched one at two stages, namely, when the rupture is propagating on the branch and when it is suddenly blocked at the branch end. We show that in general rupture termination on a compressional branch little affects propagation on the main fault compared to the infinite branch cases. For branches on the extensional side, we show in some cases that whereas an infinite branch would have allowed (or stopped) rupture propagation on the main fault, a finite branch stops (or allows) propagation on the main fault. Such results have a dependence on branch length that we document. We also illustrate branch-related complexities in rupture velocity evolution which could be one of the sources of the high-frequency content of strong ground motion records. Complexities in the slip distribution, often associated with a presumed heterogeneous strength distribution along the fault, can also be observed when rupture is terminated on a branch.

Bhat, H. S.; Dmowska, R.; Olives, M.; Rice, J. R.

2006-12-01

67

Role of fault branches in earthquake rupture dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We analyze earthquake ruptures propagating along a straight "main" fault and encountering a finite-length branch fault. Such intersections are often observed in natural fault systems. The predicted effects of the interaction with the branch that we report can be remarkable; they can strongly perturb the propagation velocity on the main fault and, in some cases, even arrest that propagation. Earlier work (Kame et al., 2003; Bhat et al., 2004) emphasized the role of the fault pre-stress state, branch geometry (i.e., branching angle), and the incoming rupture velocity at the branching junction in determining whether the rupture would follow the branch or continue on the main fault or both, through simulations which did not let a rupture on the branch encounter a barrier or a fault end (called `infinite' branch cases henceforth). In this study we look at "finite" branch cases, and study the effect also of branch length, with rupture being blocked from propagation beyond the branch end. It is known that sudden stoppage of a dynamic rupture front leads to the propagation of large dynamic stress perturbations in the medium. These have been known to nucleate or terminate ruptures on adjacent fault segments (Harris et al., 1991; Harris and Day, 1993, 1999; Harris et al., 2002; Fliss et al., 2005, among others). We thus anticipate interaction between the rupture on the main fault and the branched one at two stages, when the rupture is propagating on the branch and when it is suddenly blocked at the branch end. We show that in general rupture termination on a compressional branch little affects propagation on the main fault compared to the infinite branch cases. For branches on the extensional side, we show in some cases, that whereas an infinite' branch would have allowed (or stopped) rupture propagation on the main fault, a finite branch stops (or allows) propagation on the main fault. Such results have a dependence on branch length that we document. We also illustrate branch-related complexities in rupture velocity evolution which could be one of the sources of the high-frequency content of strong ground motion record. Complexities in the slip distribution, often associated with a presumed heterogeneous strength distribution along the fault, can also be observed when rupture is terminated on a branch.

Bhat, Harsha S.; Olives, Marion; Dmowska, Renata; Rice, James R.

2007-11-01

68

Splenic abscess rupture postappendicectomy  

PubMed Central

The authors present a case of splenic abscess rupture postappendicectomy. Splenic abscess is rare with a reported incidence of 0.05%–0.7%. It is extremely unusual for a splenic abscess to result in splenic rupture. Contiguous spread, in this case from postappendix perforation, can cause splenic abscess formation. Postemergency splenectomy, the patient required admission to intensive therapy unit for 5 days but made a good postoperative recovery. This case is important to report as this is a rare postoperative complication of generalised peritonitis and this case highlights that astute diagnosis and management of the deteriorating surgical patient and rapid mobilisation of theatre are lifesaving.

Patel, Roshani; Pai, Aakash; Al-Shoek, Ihsan; Evans, Charles; Gordon, Andrew

2012-01-01

69

Premature Rupture of Membranes  

PubMed Central

The management of premature rupture of the amniotic membranes before 37 weeks gestation remains controversial. The authors of this article outline the risks involved for the fetus, define the various terms related, and discuss the antepartum and intrapartum management of such an event and offer a protocol that they have developed.

Akierman, Albert; Iwanicki, Stanislaw

1988-01-01

70

Diffusive Shock Acceleration at Cosmological Shock Waves  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We reexamine nonlinear diffusive shock acceleration (DSA) at cosmological shocks in the large-scale structure of the universe, incorporating wave-particle interactions that are expected to operate in collisionless shocks. Adopting simple phenomenological models for magnetic field amplification (MFA) by cosmic-ray (CR) streaming instabilities and Alfvénic drift, we perform kinetic DSA simulations for a wide range of sonic and Alfvénic Mach numbers and evaluate the CR injection fraction and acceleration efficiency. In our DSA model, the CR acceleration efficiency is determined mainly by the sonic Mach number Ms , while the MFA factor depends on the Alfvénic Mach number and the degree of shock modification by CRs. We show that at strong CR modified shocks, if scattering centers drift with an effective Alfvén speed in the amplified magnetic field, the CR energy spectrum is steepened and the acceleration efficiency is reduced significantly, compared to the cases without such effects. As a result, the postshock CR pressure saturates roughly at ~20% of the shock ram pressure for strong shocks with Ms >~ 10. In the test-particle regime (Ms <~ 3), it is expected that the magnetic field is not amplified and the Alfvénic drift effects are insignificant, although relevant plasma physical processes at low Mach number shocks remain largely uncertain.

Kang, Hyesung; Ryu, Dongsu

2013-02-01

71

DIFFUSIVE SHOCK ACCELERATION AT COSMOLOGICAL SHOCK WAVES  

SciTech Connect

We reexamine nonlinear diffusive shock acceleration (DSA) at cosmological shocks in the large-scale structure of the universe, incorporating wave-particle interactions that are expected to operate in collisionless shocks. Adopting simple phenomenological models for magnetic field amplification (MFA) by cosmic-ray (CR) streaming instabilities and Alfvenic drift, we perform kinetic DSA simulations for a wide range of sonic and Alfvenic Mach numbers and evaluate the CR injection fraction and acceleration efficiency. In our DSA model, the CR acceleration efficiency is determined mainly by the sonic Mach number M{sub s} , while the MFA factor depends on the Alfvenic Mach number and the degree of shock modification by CRs. We show that at strong CR modified shocks, if scattering centers drift with an effective Alfven speed in the amplified magnetic field, the CR energy spectrum is steepened and the acceleration efficiency is reduced significantly, compared to the cases without such effects. As a result, the postshock CR pressure saturates roughly at {approx}20% of the shock ram pressure for strong shocks with M{sub s} {approx}> 10. In the test-particle regime (M{sub s} {approx}< 3), it is expected that the magnetic field is not amplified and the Alfvenic drift effects are insignificant, although relevant plasma physical processes at low Mach number shocks remain largely uncertain.

Kang, Hyesung [Department of Earth Sciences, Pusan National University, Pusan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Earth Sciences, Pusan National University, Pusan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of); Ryu, Dongsu, E-mail: kang@uju.es.pusan.ac.kr, E-mail: ryu@canopus.cnu.ac.kr [Department of Astronomy and Space Science, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Astronomy and Space Science, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of)

2013-02-10

72

Rupture velocity inferred from near-field differential ground motion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The velocity of the rupture propagation is a fundamental source parameter that strongly affects ground motion. It is commonly assessed from kinematic inversion of strong-motion or teleseismic data, sometimes combined with InSar and/or GPS data. The obtained rupture velocity remains inevitably affected by uncertainties, mainly due to imperfect knowledge of the earth structure and tradeoffs between different source parameters. In this study we show how the analysis of differential ground-motion may help constraining the rupture velocity, without a priori information about the earth velocity structure. Our analysis is based on synthetic ground-motion simulations (0-2 Hz) for vertical strike-slip earthquakes propagating unilaterally at a fixed rupture velocity in a homogeneous elastic medium covered with a 1 km-thick low velocity layer (shear wave velocity equal to 1 km/s). We show that when the rupture reaches the bottom of the shallow layer, the phase velocity of transverse waves measured in the forward rupture direction up to a few rupture lengths is equal to the rupture velocity, for a large range of frequencies. The comparison with the phase velocity obtained for a point source then enables to retrieve the value of the rupture velocity. The phase velocity is simply computed from the ratio between the ground velocity and the shear strain or the rotation about a vertical axis. This study points out the utility of setting up dense arrays at the vicinity of major faults to retrieve rupture features such as the rupture velocity.

Causse, Mathieu; Cornou, Cécile; Bécasse, Julie; Bouchon, Michel

2014-05-01

73

The Constantine (Algeria) seismic sequence of 27 October 1985: a new rupture model from aftershock relocation, focal mechanisms, and stress tensors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The October 27, 1985 Constantine earthquake of magnitude MS 5.9 (NEIC) although moderate is the strongest earthquake recorded in the eastern Tellian Atlas (northeast Algeria) since the beginning of instrumental seismology. The main shock locations given by different institutions are scattered and up to 10 km away northwest from the NE-SW 30 km long elongated aftershocks cloud localized by a dedicated temporary portable network. The focal mechanism indicates left-lateral strike-slip on an almost vertical fault with a small reverse component on the northwest dipping plane. This paper presents relocations of the main shock and aftershocks using TomoDD. One hundred thirty-eight individual focal mechanisms have been built allowing the determination of the stress tensor at different scales. A rupture model has been suggested, which explains the different observations of aftershock distribution and stress tensor rotation.

Ousadou, F.; Dorbath, L.; Dorbath, C.; Bounif, M. A.; Benhallou, H.

2013-04-01

74

Supershear Rupture of 2013 Jan 05, Mw 7.5, Craig, Alaska earthquake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Supershear rupture, in which a fracture's crack tip expansion velocity exceeds the elastic shear velocity, has been investigated theoretically and experimentally. Supershear rupture speeds have been inferred for six intraplate strike-slip earthquakes. In this work, we show evidence of supershear rupture expansion of an interplate earthquake, the 5 January 2013, Mw = 7.5, Craig, Alaska earthquake, which is a bilateral strike-slip event on the Queen Charlotte Fault, offshore of southeastern Alaska. We present direct observations of shear shock-waves in regional seismic stations using an empirical Green's function technique, which is most probably produced by a supershear rupture process. Several inversion and modeling techniques were processed to investigate the rupture ve.ocity using regional seismic and geodetic observations. Both theoretical and empirical Green's functions were used in inversion and modeling, with both indicate a consistent supear-shear rupture velocity of 5.5 to 6 km/s, higher than the crustal and upper-mantle S-wave velocity and approaching the P-wave velocity. Supershear rupture occurred along ~100 km of the northern rupture zone, but not along the shorter southern rupture extension. The direction of supershear rupture may be related to the strong material contrast across the continental-oceanic plate boundary, as predicted theoretically and experimentally.

Yue, H.; Lay, T.; Freymueller, J. T.; Ding, K.; Rivera, L. A.; Ruppert, N. A.; Koper, K. D.

2013-12-01

75

Shock Wave Dynamics in Weakly Ionized Plasmas  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An investigation of the dynamics of shock waves in weakly ionized argon plasmas has been performed using a pressure ruptured shock tube. The velocity of the shock is observed to increase when the shock traverses the plasma. The observed increases cannot be accounted for by thermal effects alone. Possible mechanisms that could explain the anomalous behavior include a vibrational/translational relaxation in the nonequilibrium plasma, electron diffusion across the shock front resulting from high electron mobility, and the propagation of ion-acoustic waves generated at the shock front. Using a turbulence model based on reduced kinetic theory, analysis of the observed results suggest a role for turbulence in anomalous shock dynamics in weakly ionized media and plasma-induced hypersonic drag reduction.

Johnson, Joseph A., III

1999-01-01

76

What Causes Cardiogenic Shock?  

MedlinePLUS

... attack . This damage prevents the heart’s main pumping chamber, the left ventricle (VEN-trih-kul), from working ... of cardiogenic shock cases, the heart’s lower right chamber, the right ventricle, doesn’t work well. This ...

77

Structure in Radiative Shocks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radiative shocks are shock waves fast enough that radiation from the shock-heated matter alters the structure of the shock. They are of fundamental interest to high-energy-density physics and also have applications throughout astrophysics. This poster will review the dimensionless parameters that determine structure in these shocks and will discuss recent experiments to measure such structure for strongly radiative shocks that are optically thin upstream and optically thick downstream. The shock transition itself heats mainly the ions. Immediately downstream of the shock, the ions heat the electrons and the electrons radiate, producing an optically thin cooling layer, followed by the downstream layer of warm, shocked material. The axial structure of these systems is of interest, because the transition from precursor through the cooling layer to the final state is complex and difficult to calculate. Their lateral structure is also of interest, as they seem likely to be subject to some variation on the Vishniac instability of thin layers. In our experiments to produce such shocks, laser ablation launches a Be plasma into a tube of Xe or Ar gas, at a velocity above 100 km/s. This drives a shock down the tube. Radiography provides fundamental information about the structure and evolution of the shocked material in Xe. Thomson scattering and pyrometry have provided data in Ar. We will summarize the available evidence regarding the properties of these shocks, and will discuss their connections to astrophysical cases. This research was sponsored by the National Nuclear Security Administration under the Stewardship Science Academic Alliances program through DOE Research Grants DE-FG52-07NA28058, DE-FG52-04NA00064, and other grants and contracts.

Drake, R. Paul; Visco, A.; Doss, F.; Reighard, A.; Froula, D.; Glenzer, S.; Knauer, J.

2008-05-01

78

Distal biceps tendon rupture  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors report a rupture of the distal tendon of biceps brachii in a 42-year-old athlete. Magnetic resonance imaging confirmed the injury. Early surgical repair was performed by reinsertion of the tendon on the radial tuberosity according to modified Boyd-Anderson technique. Indomethacin was administered prophylactically. No complications were noted. At the latest follow-up, the patient had full elbow range of

Olga D. Savvidou; Panayiotis J. Papagelopoulos; Andreas F. Mavrogenis; Antonios A. Partsinevelos; Evangelos J. Karadimas; Demetrios S. Korres

2004-01-01

79

Placenta percreta and uterine rupture at 16 weeks.  

PubMed

Placenta percreta is a complication of pregnancy with significant morbidity and mortality rates. Spontaneous uterine rupture in early pregnancy due to placenta percreta is rare. We report a case of this life-threatening complication occurring at the sixteenth week of gestation. The patient presented with signs of shock, acute abdomen, and evidence of hemoperitoneum. The pregnancy was viable with a normal ultrasound appearance that created some confusion and there was a dilemma in the diagnosis of this case. Various obstetric and surgical causes were taken into consideration. The patient was taken to the operating room immediately for exploratory laparotomy. She was found to have fundal uterine rupture, which was managed by uterine repair. This patient had prior cesarean section and dilatation and curettage; factors well known to predispose for placenta percreta. Here, we emphasize the importance of a fast decision and surgical intervention to save a patient's life in cases of uterine rupture. PMID:23860897

Neyazi, Salwa M

2013-07-01

80

Acoustic-Friction Networks and the Evolution of Precursor Rupture Fronts in Laboratory Earthquakes  

PubMed Central

The evolution of shear rupture fronts in laboratory earthquakes is analysed with the corresponding functional networks, constructed over acoustic emission friction-patterns. We show that the mesoscopic characteristics of functional networks carry the characteristic time for each phase of the rupture evolution. The classified rupture fronts in network states–obtained from a saw-cut fault and natural faulted Westerly granite - show a clear separation into three main groups, indicating different states of rupture fronts. With respect to the scaling of local ruptures' durations with the networks' parameters, we show that the gap in the classified fronts could be related to the possibility of a separation between slow and regular fronts.

Ghaffari, H. O.; Young, R. P.

2013-01-01

81

Spontaneous Uterine Rupture in the First Trimester: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

Uterine rupture is one of the most feared obstetric complications affecting the pregnant woman and fetus. Most of the cases have various risk factors and mainly occur during the second or third trimester. However, spontaneous uterine rupture during the first trimester is extremely rare. We experienced a case of spontaneous uterine rupture in a 36-yr-old multiparous woman without definite risk factors. The initial impression was a hemoperitoneum of an unknown origin with normal early pregnancy. Intensive surgical method would be needed for accurate diagnosis and immediate management in bad situation by hemoperitoneum even though a patient was early pregnancy.

Ryu, Ki-Young; Lee, Jong-In; Park, Moon-Il

2005-01-01

82

The rupture of a single liquid aluminium alloy film.  

PubMed

The present study is based on the idea of understanding the rupture of films in metal foams by studying free standing metallic films as a model system. Liquid dynamics, the velocity of the rupturing material as well as the behaviour of ceramic particles inside the melt were analysed optically ex situ and by synchrotron X-ray radiography in situ. It was found that the resistance of films to rupture is mainly based on the interaction between solid particles and an immobile oxide skin, the formation of which depends on the oxygen content of the surrounding atmosphere and the presence of magnesium. PMID:24854899

Heim, K; García-Moreno, F; Vinod Kumar, G S; Rack, A; Banhart, J

2014-07-14

83

Effects of Pre-Stress State and Rupture Velocity on Dynamic Fault Branching  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider a mode II rupture which propagates along a planar main fault and encounters an intersection with a branching fault that makes an angle with the main fault. Within a formulation that allows the failure path to be dynamically self-chosen, we study the following questions: Does the rupture start along the branch? Does it continue? Which side is most favored for branching, the extensional or compressional? Does rupture continue on the main fault too? What path is finally self-chosen? Failure in the modeling is described by a slip-weakening law for which the peak and residual strength, and strength at any particular amount of slip, is proportional to normal stress. We use the elastodynamic boundary integral equation method to allow simulations of rupture along the branched fault system. Our results show that dynamic stresses around the rupturing fault tip, which increase with rupture velocity at locations off the main fault plane, relative to those on it, could initiate rupture on a branching fault. As suggested by prior work [Poliakov, Dmowska and Rice, 2002, http://esag.harvard.edu/dmowska/PDR.pdf], whether a branching rupture, once begun, can be continued to a larger scale depends on principal stress directions in the pre-stress state and on rupture velocity. The most favored side for rupture transferring on a branching fault switches from the extensional side to the compressive side as we consider progressively shallower angles of the direction of maximum pre-compression with the main fault. Simultaneous rupturing on both faults is usually difficult for a narrow branching angle due to strong stress interaction between faults, which discourages rupture continuation on the other side. However, it can be activated by enhanced dynamic stressing when the rupture velocity is very near the limiting velocity (Rayleigh wave velocity for mode II). It can also be activated when the branching angle is wide because of decreasing stress interaction between faults. Natural examples seem consistent with the simulations we present.

Kame, N.; Rice, J. R.; Dmowska, R.

2002-12-01

84

[Achilles tendon rupture].  

PubMed

The treatment of acute of Achilles tendon rupture experienced a dynamic development in the last ten years. Decisive for this development was the application of MRI and above all the ultrasonography in the diagnostics of the pathological changes and injuries of tendons. The question of rupture morphology as well as different courses of healing could be now evaluated objectively. These advances led consequently to new modalities in treatment concepts and rehabilitation protocols. The decisive input for improvements of the outcome results and particularly the shortening of the rehabilitation period came with introduction of the early functional treatment in contrast to immobilizing plaster treatment. In a prospective randomized study (1987-1989) at the Trauma Dept. of the Hannover Medical School could show no statistical differences comparing functional non-operative with functional operative therapy with a special therapy boot (Variostabil/Adidas). The crucial criteria for therapy selection results from the sonographically measured position of the tendon stumps in plantar flexion (20 degrees). With complete adaptation of the tendons' ends surgical treatment does not achieve better results than non-operative functional treatment in term of tendon healing and functional outcome. Regarding the current therapeutic standards each method has is advantages and disadvantages. Both, the operative and non-operative functional treatment enable a stable tendon healing with a low risk of re-rupture (1-2%). Meanwhile there is consensus for early functional after-treatment of the operated Achilles' tendons. There seems to be a trend towards non-operative functional treatment in cases of adequate sonographical findings, or to minimal invasive surgical techniques. PMID:10798233

Thermann, H; Hüfner, T; Tscherne, H

2000-03-01

85

The 1 April 2014 Iquique, Chile, Mw 8.1 earthquake rupture sequence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

1 April 2014, a great (Mw 8.1) interplate thrust earthquake ruptured in the northern portion of the 1877 earthquake seismic gap in northern Chile. The sequence commenced on 16 March 2014 with a magnitude 6.7 thrust event, followed by thrust-faulting aftershocks that migrated northward ~40 km over 2 weeks to near the main shock hypocenter. Guided by short-period teleseismic P wave backprojections and inversion of deepwater tsunami wave recordings, a finite-fault inversion of teleseismic P and SH waves using a geometry consistent with long-period seismic waves resolves a spatially compact large-slip (~2-6.7 m) zone located ~30 km downdip and ~30 km along-strike south of the hypocenter, downdip of the foreshock sequence. The main shock seismic moment is 1.7 × 1021 N m with a fault dip of 18°, radiated seismic energy of 4.5-8.4 × 1016 J, and static stress drop of ~2.5 MPa. Most of the 1877 gap remains unbroken and hazardous.

Lay, Thorne; Yue, Han; Brodsky, Emily E.; An, Chao

2014-06-01

86

Spontaneous rupture of hepatic hemangiomas: A review of the literature  

PubMed Central

Hepatic hemangiomas are congenital vascular malformations, considered the most common benign mesenchymal hepatic tumors, composed of masses of blood vessels that are atypical or irregular in arrangement and size. Hepatic hemangiomas can be divided into two major groups: capillary hemangiomas and cavernous hemangiomas These tumors most frequently affect females (80%) and adults in their fourth and fifth decades of life. Most cases are asymptomatic although a few patients may present with a wide variety of clinical symptoms, with spontaneous or traumatic rupture being the most severe complication. In cases of spontaneous rupture, clinical manifestations consist of sudden abdominal pain, and anemia secondary to a haemoperitoneum. Disseminated intravascular coagulopathy can also occur. Haemodynamic instability and signs of hypovolemic shock appear in about one third of cases. As the size of the hemangioma increases, so does the chance of rupture. Imaging studies used in the diagnosis of hepatic hemangiomas include ultrasonography, dynamic contrast-enchanced computed tomography scanning, magnetic resonance imaging, hepatic arteriography, digital subtraction angiography, and nuclear medicine studies. In most cases hepatic hemangiomas are asymptomatic and should be followed up by means of periodic radiological examination. Surgery should be restricted to specific situations. Absolute indications for surgery are spontaneous or traumatic rupture with hemoperitoneum, intratumoral bleeding and consumptive coagulopathy (Kassabach-Merrit syndrome). In a patient presenting with acute abdominal pain due to unknown abdominal disease, spontaneous rupture of a hepatic tumor such as a hemangioma should be considered as a rare differential diagnosis.

Jr, Marcelo AF Ribeiro; Papaiordanou, Francine; Goncalves, Juliana M; Chaib, Eleazar

2010-01-01

87

Mycotic Aneurysm of the Celiac Trunk: From Early CT Sign to Rupture  

SciTech Connect

We present a case of the rapid development and rupture of a mycotic celiac trunk aneurysm. Initiallyon multislice computed tomography (ms-CT) there was a normal celiac trunk with minimal haziness of the surrounding fat. Only 2 weeks later the patient went into hypovolemic shock due to a ruptured celiac aneurysm. Although aneurysms of the visceral arteries are rare, they are of major clinical importance as they carry a life-threatening risk of rupture. This case illustrates the use of ms-CT in detecting and evaluating visceral aneurysms, in order to prevent emergency operation.

Serafino, Gianpiero, E-mail: serafinog@mcrz.nl; Vroegindeweij, Dammis; Boks, Simone [Medical Centre Rijnmond-Zuid, Department of Radiology (Netherlands); Harst, Erwin van der [Medical Centre Rijnmond-Zuid, Department of Vascular Surgery (Netherlands)

2005-06-15

88

Predicting rupture arrests, rupture jumps and cascading earthquakes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The devastation inflicted by recent earthquakes demonstrates the danger of under-predicting the size of earthquakes. Unfortunately, earthquakes may rupture fault-sections larger than previously observed, making it essential to develop predictive rupture models. We present numerical models based on earthquake physics and fault zone data, that determine whether a rupture on a segmented fault could cascade and grow into a devastating, multisegment earthquake. We demonstrate that weakened (damaged) fault zones and bi-material interfaces promote rupture propagation and greatly increase the risk of cascading ruptures and triggered seismicity. This result provides a feasible explanation for the outstanding observation of a very large (10 km) rupture jump documented in theMW7.8 2001 Kunlun, China earthquake. However, enhanced inter-seismic deformation and energy dissipation at fault tips suppress rupture propagation and may turn even small discontinuities into effective earthquake barriers. By assessing fault stability, identifying rupture barriers and foreseeing multisegment earthquakes, we provide a tool to improve earthquake prediction and hazard analysis.

Finzi, Y.; Langer, S.

2012-12-01

89

Investigating Different Aspects of Supershear Rupture Speed to Constraint Earthquake Source Models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since the paper of Andrews (1976) in which the physical conditions to the occurrence of supershear rupture speed has been described in in-plane (mode II) rupture, several earthquakes, mainly large strike-slip faults, show evidence of this phenomenon. Now it is widely accepted this possibility, and several studies describing this phenomenon has been reported in the specialized literature. Those studies of supershear rupture are mainly described into the framework of classical cracks governed by slip-weakening friction. Numerical simulations of dynamic rupture in a heterogeneous field, as expected it is in nature, suggest that localized super-shear rupture speed in strike-slip fault exist at events of all sizes (Mena et al, BSSA 2011, submitted), as well as in dip-slip faults (see Baumann and Dalguer, AGU2011 this session). Inspired by the pioneer study on supershear cracks of Andrews (1976), we have developed in-plane dynamic rupture models governed by strong velocity weakening, to investigate the development of supershear rupture speed in a diversity of rupture styles: crack-like, pulse-like and combination of both. In addition to the classical supershear crack, we have identified four styles of supershear rupture patterns (Gabriel et al, JGR2011, submitted): 1) Supershear pulse triggered by a primary pulse; 2) supershear crack triggered by a primary pulse; 3) Initially steady state pulse, then very shortly become growing pulse to soon nucleates a bilateral asymmetric rupture crack, that later trigger a supershear rupture at the two new rupture fronts. The two supershear rupture fronts propagating toward the hypocenter suffer a collision at the hypocenter; 4) Growing main rupture pulse followed by a reactivation of a shear crack at the hypocenter, that subsequently triggers a supershear crack. The supershear transition mechanism described by Andrews (1976) operates also for all the listed supershear styles. We aim to characterize all these aspects of supershear rupture dynamics to constraint earthquake source models with kinematic description than can be used for forward modeling and/or as prior information for kinematic source inversions. We initiate this characterization considering first the classical shear cracks, for a suite of 3D strike-slip and dip-slip dynamic rupture models covering a wider range of magnitude (Mw 6-8). The source characterization that considers supershear rupture speed is of relevant importance for ground motion prediction and seismic hazard and risk evaluation, because the velocity pulses induced by supershear rupture may produce large damaging amplitude ground motion, due to the Mach waves radiated from the source during rupture (e.g. Dunham and Archuleta, 2005).

Dalguer, L. A.; Gabriel, A. A.; Mena Carbrera, B.; Baumann, C. F.

2011-12-01

90

Ruptured Abdominal AorticAneurysm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and Purpose: A ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm is one of the most urgent surgical conditions with high mortality. The aim of the present study was to define relevant prognostic predictors for the outcome of surgical treatment. Patients and Methods: This study included 229 subsequent patients (83% males, 17% females, age 67.0 ± 7.5 years) with a ruptured abdominal aortic

Miroslav Markovi?; Lazar Davidovi?; Živan Maksimovi?; Dušan Kosti?; Ilijas ?inara; Slobodan Cvetkovi?; Radomir Sindjelic; Petar M. Seferovi?; Arsen D. Risti?

2004-01-01

91

Plantar Fascia Ruptures in Athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To educate sports medicine practitioners as to length of time for an athlete to return to activity after sustaining a rupture of the plantar fascia.Methods: Athletic patients sustaining plantar fascia ruptures and subsequent treatment were reviewed. Diagnosis was based on clinical findings, although radiographic studies were done. Patients were treated for 2 to 3 weeks with a below-knee or

Amol Saxena; Brian Fullem

2004-01-01

92

Consequential rupture of gas pipeline  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the earlier part of the year 2003, various pipeline ruptures were caused by sabotage activities in the southern part of Pakistan. The event being presented in this paper was fascinating because a pipe, which was blasted with the help of explosives, subsequently caused another pipe (buried 20ft away) to rupture through slow and gradual consequential erosion. On 8 April

F. Hasan; J. Iqbal

2006-01-01

93

Cosmological shock waves  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cosmological shock waves, developed during the formation and evolution of cosmic structures, encode crucial information on the hierarchical formation of the Universe as well on its thermalization. They also play an essential role in galaxy cluster properties, contributing very efficiently to the virialization of haloes. In this contribution, we analyse an Eulerian adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) hydrodynamical and N-body simulation in a ?CDM cosmology especially developed for the study of cosmological shock waves. The simulation incorporates common cooling and heating processes for a primordial gas. The combination of a new shock-capturing algorithm together with a halo finder allows us to study in detail some of the main features of the cosmological shock waves developed during the hierarchical evolution of the simulated Universe. We pay especial attention to discuss the spatial and morphological distribution of shocks within the computational box as well as the correlations between the shock Mach numbers and some of the main halo properties. We also analyse the connexion between the formation and evolution of shocks with the dynamical history of the cluster haloes.

Planelles, S.; Quilis, V.

2013-05-01

94

Spontaneous Rupture of the Spleen Masquerading as a Pulmonary Infection  

PubMed Central

Atraumatic rupture of a normal spleen represents a rare clinical phenomenon. We report on an atypical presentation of a spontaneous splenic rupture in a 44-year-old previously healthy Greek male admitted to the emergency department due to left-sided pleuritic thoracic pain in the course of a pneumonia diagnosed 2 days before. During his stay, pain extended to the epigastric region. Abdominal examination revealed generalized tenderness. We presume that coughing secondary to respiratory infection was the main factor that precipitated splenic rupture. Despite the rarity of the condition physicians have to consider the diagnosis of spontaneous nontraumatic splenic rupture when they encounter healthy patients with nonspecific lower thoracic or abdominal pain. Prompt diagnosis is essential for a better outcome.

Kastanakis, Miltiades; Karona, Paraskevi; Fragiadakis, Giorgios; Kokkinos, Ioannis; Bobolakis, Emmanouil

2014-01-01

95

Outcome of ruptured uterus at University Teaching Hospital Aleppo, Syria.  

PubMed

A 10-year review of ruptured gravid uterus at the University Teaching Hospital, Aleppo, Syria showed an incidence of one ruptured uterus in 565 deliveries. This is an average figure compared with published studies but is still high compared with developed countries. Sixty-four per cent of the cases of ruptured uterus had no antenatal care. It is no surprise therefore that maternal and fetal mortality was highest amongst the unbooked labouring women. In survivors the morbidity was also higher. Ruptured uterus is therefore a major cause of maternal and perinatal mortality and morbidity in Syria. The overall hospital maternal and perinatal mortalities for the period under review were 4.3% and 2.6% respectively. The main risk factor identified is scarring from previous caesarean sections. Other risk factors are discussed. PMID:15512134

Bakour, S; Nassif, B; Nwosu, E C

1998-09-01

96

MAINE POPULATION  

EPA Science Inventory

MEPOP250 depicts Maine's 1950-1990 population data by town or Census in unorganized territories. Populations were compiled from US Census Bureau data where available or from Maine Municipal Information (mainly for older records). Unorganized towns with very low or zero pop...

97

Ruptured thought: rupture as a critical attitude to nursing research.  

PubMed

In this paper, we introduce the notion of ‘rupture’ from the French philosopher Michel Foucault, whose studies of discourse and governmentality have become prominent within nursing research during the last 25 years. We argue that a rupture perspective can be helpful for identifying and maintaining a critical potential within nursing research. The paper begins by introducing rupture as an inheritance from the French epistemological tradition. It then describes how rupture appears in Foucault's works, as both an overall philosophical approach and as an analytic tool in his historical studies. Two examples of analytical applications of rupture are elaborated. In the first example, rupture has inspired us to make an effort to seek alternatives to mainstream conceptions of the phenomenon under study. In the second example, inspired by Foucault's work on discontinuity, we construct a framework for historical epochs in nursing history. The paper concludes by discussing the potential of the notion of rupture as a response to the methodological concerns regarding the use of Foucault-inspired discourse analysis within nursing research. We agree with the critique of Cheek that the critical potential of discourse analysis is at risk of being undermined by research that tends to convert the approach into a fixed method. PMID:24741691

Beedholm, Kirsten; Lomborg, Kirsten; Frederiksen, Kirsten

2014-04-01

98

The rupture process of the Manjil, Iran earthquake of 20 june 1990 and implications for intraplate strike-slip earthquakes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In terms of seismically radiated energy or moment release, the earthquake of 20 January 1990 in the Manjil Basin-Alborz Mountain region of Iran is the second largest strike-slip earthquake to have occurred in an intracontinental setting in the past decade. It caused enormous loss of life and the virtual destruction of several cities. Despite a very large meizoseismal area, the identification of the causative faults has been hampered by the lack of reliable earthquake locations and conflicting field reports of surface displacement. Using broadband data from global networks of digitally recording seismographs, we analyse broadband seismic waveforms to derive characteristics of the rupture process. Complexities in waveforms generated by the earthquake indicate that the main shock consisted of a tiny precursory subevent followed in the next 20 seconds by a series of four major subevents with depths ranging from 10 to 15 km. The focal mechanisms of the major subevents, which are predominantly strike-slip, have a common nodal plane striking about 285??-295??. Based on the coincidence of this strike with the dominant tectonic fabric of the region we presume that the EW striking planes are the fault planes. The first major subevent nucleated slightly south of the initial precursor. The second subevent occurred northwest of the initial precursor. The last two subevents moved progressively southeastward of the first subevent in a direction collinear with the predominant strike of the fault planes. The offsets in the relative locations and the temporal delays of the rupture subevents indicate heterogeneous distribution of fracture strength and the involvement of multiple faults. The spatial distribution of teleseismic aftershocks, which at first appears uncorrelated with meizoseismal contours, can be decomposed into stages. The initial activity, being within and on the periphery of the rupture zone, correlates in shape and length with meizoseismal lines. In the second stage of activity the aftershock zone expands and appears to cluster about the geomorphic and geologic features several tens of kilometres from the rupture zone. The activity is interpreted as a regional response to quasistatic stress migration along zones of tectonic weakness. The radiated energy of the main shock and the estimate of seismic moment yields an apparent stress of 20 bars. High apparent stress may be typical of strike slip earthquakes occurring in intracontinental environments undergoing continental collision.

Choy, G. L.; Zednik, J.

1997-01-01

99

MAINE AQUIFERS  

EPA Science Inventory

AQFRS24 contains polygons of significant aquifers in Maine (glacial deposits that are a significant ground water resource) mapped at a scale 1:24,000. This statewide coverage was derived from aquifer boundaries delineated and digitized by the Maine Geological Survey from data com...

100

Seismotectonic, rupture process, and earthquake-hazard aspects of the 2003 December 26 Bam, Iran, earthquake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The catastrophic 2003 Mw 6.6 Bam earthquake in southern Iran attracted much attention, and has been studied with an abundance of observations from synthetic aperture radar, teleseismic seismology, aftershock studies, strong ground motion, geomorphology, remote sensing and surface field work. Many reports have focused on the details of one or other data type, producing interpretations that either conflict with other data or leave questions unanswered. This paper is an attempt to look at all the available data types together, to produce a coherent picture of the coseismic faulting in 2003 and to examine its consequences for active tectonics and continuing seismic hazard in the region. We conclude that more than 80 per cent of the moment release in the main shock occurred on a near-vertical right-lateral strike-slip fault extending from the city of Bam southwards for about 15km, with slip of up to 2 m but mostly restricted to the depth range 2-7km. Analysis of the strong ground motion record at Bam is consistent with this view, and indicates that the extreme damage in the city can be attributed, at least in part, to the enhancement of ground motion in Bam because of its position at the end of the northward-propagating rupture. Little of the slip in the main shock reached the Earth's surface and, more importantly, aftershocks reveal that ~12 km vertical extent of a deeper part of the fault system remained unruptured beneath the coseismic rupture plane, at depths of 8-20km. This may represent a substantial remaining seismic hazard to the reconstructed city of Bam. We believe that some oblique-reverse slip (up to 2m, and less than 20 per cent of the released seismic moment) occurred at a restricted depth of 5-7km on a blind west-dipping fault that projects to the surface at the Bam-Baravat escarpment, an asymmetric anticline ridge that is the most prominent geomorphological feature in the area. This fault did not rupture significantly at shallow levels in 2003, and it may also represent a continuing seismic hazard. Widespread distributed surface ruptures north of the city are apparently unrelated to substantial slip at depth, and may be the result of enhanced ground motion related to northward propagation of the rupture. The faulting at Bam may be in the early stages of a spatial separation (`partitioning') between the reverse and strike-slip components of an oblique convergence across the zone. Such a separation is common on the continents, though in this case the slip vectors between the two faults differ only by ~20° as a substantial strike-slip component remains on the oblique-reverse fault. The Bam earthquake is one in a series of large earthquakes involving faulting along the western edge of the Lut desert. In addition to the unruptured parts of the faults near Bam itself, continuing and substantial hazard is represented by unruptured neighbouring faults, particularly blind thrusts along the Jebel Barez mountains to the south and strike-slip faulting at Sarvestan to the west.

Jackson, J.; Bouchon, M.; Fielding, E.; Funning, G.; Ghorashi, M.; Hatzfeld, D.; Nazari, H.; Parsons, B.; Priestley, K.; Talebian, M.; Tatar, M.; Walker, R.; Wright, T.

2006-09-01

101

Pseudosepsis after myocardial infarction. Unusual presentation of anterior wall rupture and left ventricular pseudoaneurysm.  

PubMed

Left ventricular pseudoaneurysm complicating myocardial infarction is extremely rare. A case of left ventricular anterolateral pseudoaneurysm with its initial presentation mimicking septic shock is reported. The need for urgent resection is stressed due to the high incidence of spontaneous rupture and death regardless of the age or the size of the pseudoaneurysm. PMID:3661592

McCriskin, J W; Baisden, C E; Spaccevento, L J; Breisblatt, W M

1987-09-01

102

Ruptured Aneurysm of Intercostal Arteriovenous Malformation Associated With Neurofibromatosis Type 1: A Case Report  

SciTech Connect

Intercostal arteriovenous malformations (AVM) are rare, with most being secondary to trauma or iatrogenic therapeutic procedures. Only one case of presumably congenital AVM has been reported. Here we report the first case of a ruptured aneurysm of intercostal AVM associated with neurofibromatosis type 1 in a 32-year-old woman who experienced hypovolemic shock caused by massive hemothorax.

Kim, Hyung Jun; Seon, Hyun Ju, E-mail: sunaura@hanmail.net; Choi, Song; Jang, Nam Kyu [Chonnam National University Hospital, Department of Radiology (Korea, Republic of)

2011-02-15

103

DYNAMICS OF BUBBLE OSCILLATION IN CONSTRAINED MEDIA AND MECHANISMS OF VESSEL RUPTURE IN SWL  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rupture of small blood vessels is a primary feature of the vascular injury associated with shock-wave lithotripsy (SWL) and cavitation has been implicated as a potential mechanism. To understand more precisely the underlying mechanical cause of the injury, the dynamics of SWL-induced bubble dynamics in constrained media were investigated. Silicone tubing and regenerated cellulose hollow fibers of various inner diameters

PEI ZHONG; Y UFENG ZHOU; SONGLIN ZHU

2001-01-01

104

Rupture propagation inferred from damage patterns, slip distribution, and segmentation of the 1957 MW 8.1 Gobi-Altay earthquake rupture along the Bogd fault, Mongolia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A detailed analysis of the rupture patterns and slip changes along the surface rupture associated with the 1957 Gobi-Altay earthquake (MW= 8.1) in Mongolia, which occurred along the Bogd left-lateral strike-slip fault, was carried out to better understand segmentation and propagation. The major surface ruptures show a simple linear pattern, whereas minor ruptures along the major ruptures, which are concentrated at rupture step overs and tip zones, show complex patterns. In the latter case, their patterns strongly resemble the geometric and kinematic characteristics of previously reported mesoscale fault damage patterns. The geomorphologic offsets show that left-lateral slip dominated with an average displacement of 3.5 to 4.0 m, but it decreased or transferred to dip-slip components mainly at rupture step-overs and tip zones. Abrupt changes of rupture patterns and slip distribution indicate that the coseismic surface rupture along the Bogd fault comprises three major segments from west to east, namely, the North-Ih, East-Ih, and North-Baga Bogd segments, and a highly damaged eastern tip zone. Based on the location of the epicenter, as well as the asymmetrically distributed damage structures and slips, we infer that the surface rupture propagated eastward unilaterally through several segments and reached the easternmost step-over, which acted as a tough barrier. The rupture finally terminated, producing a highly deformed tip damage zone developed to accommodate released stress. We argue that detailed analysis of damage patterns, slip distribution, and slip transfer can help us to better understand fault segmentation and rupture propagation.

Choi, Jin-Hyuck; Jin, Kwangmin; Enkhbayar, Dandar; Davvasambuu, Battogtokh; Bayasgalan, Amgalan; Kim, Young-Seog

2012-12-01

105

The ruptured PIP breast implant.  

PubMed

Public concern erupted about the safety of Poly Implant Prothèse (PIP) breast implants when it was revealed in 2011 that they contained an inferior, unlicensed industrial-grade silicone associated with a high rate of rupture. There followed national guidance for UK clinicians, which led to a considerable increase in referrals of asymptomatic women for breast implant assessment. In this review we discuss possible approaches to screening the PIP cohort and the salient characteristics of a ruptured implant. PMID:23622796

Helyar, V; Burke, C; McWilliams, S

2013-08-01

106

Spontaneous Rupture of Uterine Vein in Twin Pregnancy  

PubMed Central

Objective. Aim of our study is to present a case of a twin pregnancy following invitro fertilization cycle complicated with hemoperitoneum at third trimester. Case. A 26-year-old nulliparous pregnant woman at 32 weeks of gestation with twin pregnancy following invitro fertilization cycle complained of abdominal pain. After 48 hours of admission, laparotomy was performed with indications of aggravated abdominal pain and decreased hemoglobin levels. Utero-ovarian vein branch rupture was detected on the right posterior side of uterus and bleeding was stopped by suturing the vein. Etiopathogenesis of the present case still remains unclear. Conclusion. Spontaneous rupture of the uterine vessels during pregnancy is a rare complication and may lead to maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. Diagnosis and treatment are based on the clinical symptoms of acute abdominal pain and laboratory tests of hypovolemic shock signs.

Doger, Emek; Cakiroglu, Yigit; Yildirim Kopuk, Sule; Akar, Bertan; Caliskan, Eray; Yucesoy, Gulseren

2013-01-01

107

Maternal death after uterine rupture in an unscarred uterus: a case report.  

PubMed

Spontaneous uterine rupture is a life-threatening obstetrical emergency encountered infrequently in the Emergency Department. Emergency Physicians must consider this diagnosis when presented with a pregnant patient in shock with abdominal pain. We present the case of a multigravid woman who had a spontaneous uterine rupture after induction with oxytocin, followed by a discussion of uterine rupture with special emphasis on the unscarred uterus. After the delivery, the patient was treated with fundal pressure and oxytocin due to severe vaginal hemorrhage. Despite the lack of vaginal hemorrhage after 1 h, the condition of the patient worsened. Laparotomy and a hysterectomy were performed. A parametrial hematoma about 20 cm was detected. The patient died 30 min after the operation. The treatment for intrapartum uterine rupture includes fluid resuscitation and emergency laparotomy. PMID:18385004

Dane, Banu; Dane, Cem

2009-11-01

108

Colonic ischemia: the Achilles heel of ruptured aortic aneurysm repair.  

PubMed

Colonic ischemia is an often fatal complication of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) repair. In elective AAA repair, patency of the inferior mesenteric artery (IMA) has been shown to be an important contributing factor. The purpose of this study was to determine which clinical and operative factors are important in the development of colonic ischemia in ruptured AAA repair. A retrospective review of all patients treated for ruptured AAA over a 7-year period was performed. Of 101 patients who were treated for ruptured AAA, 71 (70 per cent) survived for longer than 24 hours postoperatively, and these patients are the basis for this study. Colonic ischemia, primarily left sided, was a common perioperative complication (n = 24; 35 per cent) requiring colectomy in 11 patients (44 per cent). It carried a 44 per cent mortality compared to 20 per cent in patients without this complication (P = 0.07). Colonic ischemia occurred more frequently in patients with preoperative shock (P = 0.01) and a greater intraoperative blood loss (P = 0.003), but showed no correlation with patient age, co-morbid medical conditions, laboratory values, time to operation, or treatment of the IMA. Most patients with postoperative bowel ischemia were found to have chronic IMA occlusion, including 8 of the 11 patients requiring colectomy. Revascularization would not be feasible in this group. Revascularization of patent IMAs had little effect on outcome. Of the 17 patent IMAs, 9 were reimplanted and 5 (55 per cent) developed bowel ischemia, two of which required colectomy. Eight were ligated and 3 (38 per cent) developed bowel ischemia, one requiring colectomy. The presence of preoperative shock is the most important factor predicting the development of colonic ischemia following ruptured AAA. The incidence of ischemia is not altered by the presence of a patent IMA or with attempts at IMA revascularization. Colonic ischemia remains a significant source of morbidity and mortality in these patients. PMID:8651551

Piotrowski, J J; Ripepi, A J; Yuhas, J P; Alexander, J J; Brandt, C P

1996-07-01

109

MAINE HYDROGRAPHY  

EPA Science Inventory

Hydronet_me24 and Hydropoly_me24 depict Maine's hydrography data, based on 8-digit hydrological unit codes (HUC's) at the 1:24,000 scale. Some New Hampshire and New Brunswick hydrography data are also included. The NHD hydrography data was compiled from previous ArcIn...

110

MAINE WOODLOTS  

EPA Science Inventory

MEOWN250 describes industrial, non-industrial, and public woodlot ownership in Maine at 1:250,000 scale. Industrial owners are those having at least one primary wood processing facility. Non-industrial owners are those with no primary wood processing facility. Public ownership...

111

Maine Ingredients  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article features Maine Learning Technology Initiative (MLTI), the nation's first-ever statewide 1-to-1 laptop program which marks its seventh birthday by expanding into high schools, providing an occasion to celebrate--and to examine the components of its success. The plan to put laptops into the hands of every teacher and student in grades 7…

Waters, John K.

2009-01-01

112

Full Particle Electromagnetic Simulation of Collisionless Shocks  

Microsoft Academic Search

This tutorial-style review is mainly dedicated to the different strategies and constraints used for simulating and analysing the dynamics of collisionless shocks with full particle electromagnetic codes. The relationship between macroscopic and microscopic processes inherent to the shock dynamics and the associated numerical constraints are explained. Different initial methods are commonly used for exciting a shock which are summarized and

Lembege

2003-01-01

113

STEREO Observations of Interplanetary Shocks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

STEREO observations have been very valuable to study the characteristics of interplanetary (IP) shocks. These shocks can be driven in the heliosphere by fast interplanetary coronal mass ejections (CME) and by solar wind stream interaction (SI). In this work we will discuss the properties of IP shocks and the upstream and downstream regions associated to them. These regions are perturbed due to shock effects. Upstream from the shock a foreshock can develop and be permeated by suprathermal ions and electromagnetic waves. Downstream the plasma is heated and compressed. In this region the magnetic field is also very perturbed. Shocks play a very important role in particle acceleration. During the years 2007-2010 STEREO observed around 80 IP forward shocks driven by stream interactions, and 19 shocks driven by ICMEs. Most of the SI shocks were locally quasi-perpendicular (?Bn >45°) with only 20 quasi-parallel (?Bn < 45°) shocks. In all cases the Mach number was moderate with values 1.1< Mms < 3.8, and the plasma beta reached values up to 29. During the same years the shocks driven by ICMEs have Mach numbers 1.2-4, and plasma beta up to 15. Observations upstream from the shocks have revealed a variety of waves, including whistlers and low frequency fluctuations. Upstream whistler waves may be generated at the shock and upstream ultra low frequency (ULF) waves can be driven locally by ion instabilities. In contrast to planetary bow shocks, most of the waves upstream of the quasi-parallel forward SI shocks observed to date by STEREO are mainly transverse and no steepening occurs. Another difference with Earth's bow shock is the fact that many locally quasi-perpendicular shocks can be accompanied by wave and ion foreshocks. This indicates that at an earlier time the geometry of the shock was quasi-parallel. The downstream wave spectra can be formed by both, locally generated perturbations, and shock transmitted waves. Downstream fluctuations associated with quasi-parallel shocks tend to have larger amplitudes than waves downstream of quasi-perpendicular shocks. Proton foreshocks of shocks driven by stream interactions have extensions dr ?0.05 AU. This is smaller than foreshock extensions for ICME driven shocks (dr ? 0.1 AU). The difference in foreshock extensions is related to the fact that ICME driven shocks are formed closer to the Sun and therefore begin to accelerate particles very early in their existence, while stream interaction shocks form at ~1 AU and have been producing suprathermal particles for a shorter time. It is possible that stronger shocks driven by fast ICMEs are observed in the following months as the solar cycle of activity reaches maximum. Stronger IP shocks may be able to drive more complex foreshocks, where steepened waves such as shocklets may be present.

Blanco-Cano, X.

2013-05-01

114

Spontaneous Rupture of the Esophagus  

PubMed Central

Spontaneous rupture of the esophagus remains a medical and surgical challenge. Its diagnosis is often missed or delayed resulting in increased morbidity and mortality, and controversy exists as to the mode of therapy for the cases seen later than 12 hours after rupture. During the last seven years, nine patients were treated at Grady Memorial Hospital. Four patients, “early group,” were operated upon within 12 hours from the onset of their symptoms and five, “late group,” were operated upon between 20-76 hours (average 41) after rupture. All four patients in the “early group” had primary repair of the rupture and two had, in addition, fundoplication. From the two patients with primary repair alone, one developed postoperative leakage at the esophageal suture line, which closed spontaneously; whereas, in the two patients with fundoplication, no leakage occurred. Three of the four patients recovered and one died from renal failure, gastrointestinal bleeding, and gastric perforation. In the “late group” one patient had T-tube drainage of the esophagus and died. Two had primary repair alone with one death and the other two had primary repair with fundoplication 20 and 76 hours postrupture and both recovered. The two deaths in the “late group” were due to leakage at the site of the rupture. This study suggests that even in patients diagnosed late as having rupture of the esophagus, primary repair can be implemented with reasonable success. Good mediastinal, pleural and gastric drainage, high levels of appropriate antibiotics, and provision of good nourishment are of paramount importance for the successful management of these desperately ill patients. ImagesFig. 2A.FIG. 2B.FIG. 2C.Fig. 2D.

Symbas, Panagiotis N.; Hatcher, Charles R.; Harlaftis, Nickolaos

1978-01-01

115

Delayed tracheal rupture following thyroidectomy.  

PubMed

Thyroidectomy is a commonly performed, low-risk procedure. Tracheal perforation during thyroidectomy is rare, and delayed rupture of the trachea rarer still. We present the case of a patient who underwent total thyroidectomy secondary to Grave's disease who, on postoperative day 7, developed massive subcutaneous emphysema and respiratory distress. Surgical exploration revealed a rupture of the anterolateral tracheal wall at the level of the first tracheal ring. The defect was repaired primarily and the patient recovered uneventfully. The risk factors for and the management of this rare complication are discussed. PMID:18487029

Damrose, Edward J; Damrose, John F

2009-02-01

116

Impact of cardiac magnet resonance imaging on management of ventricular septal rupture after acute myocardial infarction  

PubMed Central

A 74-year-old man was admitted to the cardiac catheterization laboratory with acute myocardial infarction. After successful angioplasty and stent implantation into the right coronary artery, he developed cardiogenic shock the following day. Echocardiography showed ventricular septal rupture. Cardiac magnet resonance imaging (MRI) was performed on the critically ill patient and provided detailed information on size and localization of the ruptured septum by the use of fast MRI sequences. Moreover, the MRI revealed that the ventricular septal rupture was within the myocardial infarction area, which was substantially larger than the rupture. As the patient’s condition worsened, he was intubated and had intra-aortic balloon pump implanted, and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation was initiated. During the following days, the patient’s situation improved, and surgical correction of the ventricular septal defect could successfully be performed. To the best of our knowledge, this case report is the first description of postinfarction ventricular septal rupture by the use of cardiac MRI in an intensive care patient with cardiogenic shock and subsequent successful surgical repair.

Gassenmaier, Tobias; Gorski, Armin; Aleksic, Ivan; Deubner, Nikolas; Weidemann, Frank; Beer, Meinrad

2013-01-01

117

Mechanisms of plaque formation and rupture.  

PubMed

Atherosclerosis causes clinical disease through luminal narrowing or by precipitating thrombi that obstruct blood flow to the heart (coronary heart disease), brain (ischemic stroke), or lower extremities (peripheral vascular disease). The most common of these manifestations is coronary heart disease, including stable angina pectoris and the acute coronary syndromes. Atherosclerosis is a lipoprotein-driven disease that leads to plaque formation at specific sites of the arterial tree through intimal inflammation, necrosis, fibrosis, and calcification. After decades of indolent progression, such plaques may suddenly cause life-threatening coronary thrombosis presenting as an acute coronary syndrome. Most often, the culprit morphology is plaque rupture with exposure of highly thrombogenic, red cell-rich necrotic core material. The permissive structural requirement for this to occur is an extremely thin fibrous cap, and thus, ruptures occur mainly among lesions defined as thin-cap fibroatheromas. Also common are thrombi forming on lesions without rupture (plaque erosion), most often on pathological intimal thickening or fibroatheromas. However, the mechanisms involved in plaque erosion remain largely unknown, although coronary spasm is suspected. The calcified nodule has been suggested as a rare cause of coronary thrombosis in highly calcified and tortious arteries in older individuals. To characterize the severity and prognosis of plaques, several terms are used. Plaque burden denotes the extent of disease, whereas plaque activity is an ambiguous term, which may refer to one of several processes that characterize progression. Plaque vulnerability describes the short-term risk of precipitating symptomatic thrombosis. In this review, we discuss mechanisms of atherosclerotic plaque initiation and progression; how plaques suddenly precipitate life-threatening thrombi; and the concepts of plaque burden, activity, and vulnerability. PMID:24902970

Bentzon, Jacob Fog; Otsuka, Fumiyuki; Virmani, Renu; Falk, Erling

2014-06-01

118

Dynamic rupture at the beginning of the 2011 Tohoku earthquake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 2011 Tohoku earthquake (M 9.0) is characterized by a shallow huge slip more than 40 m, which produced the devastating tsunami. For modeling this earthquake, the stress accumulation and the kinematic rupture process should be understood. Here I focus on the kinematics of this earthquake in the early stage. A couple of studies already came out. Chu et al. (2011) found that the first 4 s of the rupture is equivalent to an Mw 4.9 thrust event. Uchide et al. (AGU, 2011) reported the source process in the first 20 s in detail by the multiscale slip inversion analysis (Uchide and Ide, 2007). Their result implies that rupture propagated eastward until 8 s, and after that the rupture propagated westward. The peak slip rate is around 1 m/s, which implies the dynamic rupture. Hi-net (borehole high-sensitivity seismic network) and KiK-net (borehole strong-motion network) data in Tohoku area shows that the velocity amplitude increases stepwise around 4 s and 16 s. In the first 1 s, the velocity amplitude of the M9 event is comparable to that of nearby M4 events (Mw 4.3 - 4.9). I perform a multiscale slip inversion analysis to focus on the first 10 and 20 s. The multiscale source model is composed of three scales: Scale 1 (smallest) for first 10 s; Scale 2 for first 20 s; and Scale 3 (largest) for the entire source process. The temporal and spatial intervals of grids to discretize the slip-rate distribution history on the fault are 3 km and 1 s for Scale 1, 5 km and 2 s for Scale 2, and 25 km and 10 s for Scale 3. Hi-net data are used for Scales 1 and 2, and KiK-net and F-net strong-motion data are used for Scale 3. Green's functions for Scales 1 and 2 are empirical ones using the observed waveforms of an Mw 4.9 earthquake which occurred at 21:00 on March 9, 2011 (UTC). Those for Scale 3 are calculated assuming a 1D velocity structure. The complex rupture process at the beginning of the Tohoku earthquake is obtained. From the beginning, the peak slip rate is around or more than 1 m/s, which implies dynamic rupture. In the first 14 s, a rupture propagated mainly toward north, and since then, the rupture propagation direction was changed to westward or downward. The change of the rupture propagation direction occurred at the slip area of the M 7.3 foreshock (March 9, 2011) (Ohta et al., 2012). It is probable that, since the stress in the rupture area of the M 7.3 foreshock was already released, the rupture of the mainshock could not propagate north any more. And the prestress on the west was enough high, therefore the rupture changed the propagation direction. Such detailed study on the initial rupture process helps us understand how the M 9 earthquake was initiated. Acknowledgement I used seismic data from Hi-net, KiK-net, and F-net of NIED, and JMA earthquake catalog.

Uchide, T.

2012-12-01

119

Spontaneous splenic rupture and Anisakis appendicitis presenting as abdominal pain: a case report  

PubMed Central

Introduction Anisakidosis, human infection with nematodes of the family Anisakidae, is caused most commonly by Anisakis simplex. Acquired by the consumption of raw or undercooked marine fish or squid, anisakidosis occurs where such dietary customs are practiced, including Japan, the coastal regions of Europe and the United States. Rupture of the spleen is a relatively common complication of trauma and many systemic disorders affecting the reticuloendothelial system, including infections and neoplasias. A rare subtype of rupture occurring spontaneously and arising from a normal spleen has been recognized as a distinct clinicopathologic entity. Herein we discuss the case of a woman who presented to our institution with appendicitis secondary to Anisakis and spontaneous spleen rupture. Case presentation We report the case of a 53-year-old Caucasian woman who presented with hemorrhagic shock and abdominal pain and was subsequently found to have spontaneous spleen rupture and appendicitis secondary to Anisakis simplex. She underwent open surgical resection of the splenic rupture and the appendicitis without any significant postoperative complications. Histopathologic examination revealed appendicitis secondary to Anisakis simplex and splenic rupture of undetermined etiology. Conclusions To the best of our knowledge, this report is the first of a woman with the diagnosis of spontaneous spleen rupture and appendicitis secondary to Anisakis simplex. Digestive anisakiasis may present as an acute abdomen. Emergency physicians should know and consider this diagnosis in patients with ileitis or colitis, especially if an antecedent of raw or undercooked fish ingestion is present. Spontaneous rupture of the spleen is an extremely rare event. Increased awareness of this condition will enhance early diagnosis and effective treatment. Further research is required to identify the possible risk factors associated with spontaneous rupture of the spleen.

2012-01-01

120

Determination of Earthquake Source Parameters Using Local and Regional Data: Seismic Moment and Rupture Directivity of the Mw=7.6 Nicoya Earthquake, Costa Rica  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On September 5, 2012 an MW=7.6 thrust faulting earthquake occurred under the Nicoya Peninsula, in NW Costa Rica, causing no deaths and no major damage. The Nicoya Peninsula is one of the landmasses closest to the Middle American Trench and it is located along the locked segment were the Cocos plate is subducting underneath the Caribbean plate with a convergence rate of 78 ± 1mm/yr. More than 1500 aftershocks (only 5 events with Mw > 5.0) were located by the Volcanological and Seismological Observatory of Costa Rica (OVSICORI-UNA). The main shock was preceded by two small premonitory earthquakes whose waveforms hide the arrival of the main event. In order to generate a suitable location for the mainshock, we apply the multichannel cross-correlation and stack method of the teleseismic (30-90°) body waves and were able to locate the epicenter of the main shock based on arrival times of the premonitory events. Through the time-domain moment tensor inversion and empirical Green's function analysis, we also characterize the seismic source of the main event and largest aftershocks. We found a circular rupture process and no appreciable directivity for the MW=7.6 Nicoya Earthquake.

Chaves Sibaja, E. J.; Pacheco, J. F.; Protti, M.; Gonzales, V.; Vega, F.; Jimenez, W.; Ovsicori-Una

2013-05-01

121

Hypovolemic shock  

MedlinePLUS

... or no urine output General weakness Pale skin color (pallor) Rapid breathing Sweating , moist skin Unconsciousness The greater and more rapid the blood loss, the more severe the symptoms of shock.

122

Quadriceps Tendon Rupture due to Postepileptic Convulsion  

PubMed Central

We present a case of quadriceps tendon (QT) rupture. QT ruptures can occur in all ages. The cause is mostly traumatic in origin. Spontaneous ruptures that are thought to result from predisposing conditions are rare. Post-convulsion QT ruptures lacking traumas in their history can be overlooked in clinical examinations. This should be born in mind by the attending physician, as early diagnosis and treatment of the condition can lead to satisfactory outcomes.

Erkut, Adem; Guvercin, Yilmaz; Sahin, Rifat; Keskin, Davut

2014-01-01

123

Spontaneous Splenic Rupture in Melanoma  

PubMed Central

Spontaneous rupture of spleen due to malignant melanoma is a rare situation, with only a few case reports in the literature. This study reports a previously healthy, 30-year-old man who came with chief complaint of acute abdominal pain to emergency room. On physical examination, abdominal tenderness and guarding were detected to be coincident with hypotension. Ultrasonography revealed mild splenomegaly with moderate free fluid in abdominopelvic cavity. Considering acute abdominal pain and hemodynamic instability, he underwent splenectomy with splenic rupture as the source of bleeding. Histologic examination showed diffuse infiltration by tumor. Immunohistochemical study (positive for S100, HMB45, and vimentin and negative for CK, CD10, CK20, CK7, CD30, LCA, EMA, and chromogranin) confirmed metastatic malignant melanoma. On further questioning, there was a past history of a nasal dark skin lesion which was removed two years ago with no pathologic examination. Spontaneous (nontraumatic) rupture of spleen is an uncommon situation and it happens very rarely due to neoplastic metastasis. Metastasis of malignant melanoma is one of the rare causes of the spontaneous rupture of spleen.

Oryan, Ahmad; Davari, Aida; Daneshbod, Khosrow; Daneshbod, Yahya

2014-01-01

124

Spontaneous rupture of a varicocoele.  

PubMed

We present the case of a young male with an acute scrotal haematoma due to spontaneous rupture of a spermatic cord varicocoele confirmed by Doppler ultrasonography. After failure of conservative management, surgical exploration was performed with successful evacuation of the scrotal haematoma. PMID:20441071

Chin, W N; Cadogan, M; Wan, R; Harrison, L

2009-11-01

125

Diagnosis and management of a ruptured rudimentary horn pregnancy in a low-resource setting.  

PubMed

A 22-year-old woman presented with amenorrhoea, lower abdominal pain and brown vaginal discharge. She was noted to be in hypovolaemic shock with a distended and peritonitic abdomen. On bimanual examination, the uterus was not palpated, the posterior fornix was full and cervical excitation was present. A clinical diagnosis of a ruptured ectopic pregnancy was made. She was resuscitated and an emergency laparotomy was performed. Intraoperatively, a ruptured rudimentary horn with an ex utero pregnancy was discovered. The right horn and tube were removed, as was the non-viable fetus. There were no postoperative complications and the patient was discharged after 5 days of observation. PMID:23749832

Nathan, Hannah; Sornum, Alvin

2013-01-01

126

A theoretical model for fragmentation of viscous bubbly magmas in shock tubes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A coupled model for one-dimensional time-dependent compressible flow and bubble expansion is developed to investigate fragmentation mechanisms of viscous bubbly magmas in shock tubes. Initially a bubbly magma at a high pressure is separated from air at the atmospheric pressure by a diaphragm. As the diaphragm is ruptured, a shock wave propagates into the air, and a rarefaction wave propagates

T. Koyaguchi; N. K. Mitani

2005-01-01

127

Application of the shock tube unsteady expansion wave technique to the study of chemical reactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

An unsteady expansion wave was generated through rupture of a secondary diaphragm by an incident shock wave in a shock tube to study the three-body recombination of iodine atoms. The application to chemical reaction studies has been made possible through an extension of the usable flow time, and a theoretical treatment enables the effect of coupling of chemical reaction to

W. H. Beck; J. C. Mackie

1978-01-01

128

Dynamic Rupture Process of the 1999 Chi-Chi Earthquake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Earthquake source dynamics provides key elements for the prediction of strong ground motion and for understanding the physics of earthquake processes. This research investigates the characteristics of dynamic source rupture process of the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake by using a 3D finite difference method with variable grid spacing. A new algorithm is proposed to deal with a non-planar fault model. This approach does not require aligning the fault plane to the finite-difference grid for implementation of FDM and provide a method to deal with a more realistically irregular geometry fault model. We apply this approach to the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake with a curved fault surface and rebuild the dynamic source rupture process for this larger earthquake. Our results show that for the Chi-Chi earthquake, the behaviors of the most of the subfaults followed a slip-weakening friction law during rupture. And the distributions of the dynamic source parameters estimated from the kinematic results are quite heterogeneous. For the dynamic rupture process, this study reveals the rupture propagation jumping phenomenon which is difficult to be simulated in kinematic modeling. That is when the propagation front encountered a zone with a high strength excess, the rupture would pause to accumulate more energy to break it. Meanwhile, if there are low strength excess zones around the barrier, the propagation front would jump over the barrier to break the low strength excess zones and leave the high strength barrier unbroken. Such phenomenon of the high strength excess barriers intend to delay the propagation front can be seen clearly in the dynamic model. Using a thick fault zone model, the dynamic model discovers that the slip on the hanging-wall side is larger than that on the food-wall side and the northern parts have the longer source duration that the southern parts and these northern parts have an extreme large slip. Based on the dynamic source rupture model, the strong ground motions near the fault surface breaks are simulated in frequency range of 0.05 to 0.5 Hz. In general, the synthetic velocity waveforms agree well with the observed records for most stations. The dynamic source model successfully simulates the distinctive velocity pulse for the stations in the forward rupture direction. Also our dynamic source model successfully reproduced the waveforms as well as the distinctive velocity pulses for the station nearby or on the fault surface breaks. These results demonstrate that our dynamic source model can reproduce the main features of long period ground motions; hence, lead us to a better understanding on the source rupture process of the Chi-Chi earthquake.

Zhang, W.; Iwata, T.; Irikura, K.; Pitarka, A.; Sekiguchi, H.

2003-12-01

129

Spinal shock.  

PubMed

The term "spinal shock" applies to all phenomena surrounding physiologic or anatomic transection of the spinal cord that results in temporary loss or depression of all or most spinal reflex activity below the level of the injury. Hypotension due to loss of sympathetic tone is a possible complication, depending on the level of the lesion. The mechanism of injury that causes spinal shock is usually traumatic in origin and occurs immediately, but spinal shock has been described with mechanisms of injury that progress over several hours. Spinal cord reflex arcs immediately above the level of injury may also be severely depressed on the basis of the Schiff-Sherrington phenomenon. The end of the spinal shock phase of spinal cord injury is signaled by the return of elicitable abnormal cutaneospinal or muscle spindle reflex arcs. Autonomic reflex arcs involving relay to secondary ganglionic neurons outside the spinal cord may be variably affected during spinal shock, and their return after spinal shock abates is variable. The returning spinal cord reflex arcs below the level of injury are irrevocably altered and are the substrate on which rehabilitation efforts are based. PMID:8637263

Atkinson, P P; Atkinson, J L

1996-04-01

130

Centrally-Rupturing Squib-Closure Disks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Rupture-disk design makes squib action more predictable. In new design, center of rupture disk contains cruciform indentation in which thickness reduced to about 0.5 mil (0.013 mm). Reduces strength of center of rupture disk in same manner as that of pull tabs on beverage cans; therefore, disk will fail predictably in center.

Richter, R.

1986-01-01

131

46 CFR 64.61 - Rupture disc.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Rupture disc. 64.61 Section 64.61 Shipping COAST...Vacuum Relief Devices for MPTs § 64.61 Rupture disc. If a rupture disc is the only pressure relief device on the tank,...

2013-10-01

132

Conservative treatment for postintubation tracheobronchial rupture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Postintubation tracheobronchial rupture is usually responsible for unstable intraoperative or postoperative conditions, and its management is discussed. We insist on conservative treatment as a viable alternative after late diagnosis of postintubation tracheobronchial rupture.Methods. We conducted a retrospective study including 14 consecutive patients treated between April 1981 and July 1998.Results. Twelve tracheobronchial ruptures occurred after intubation for general surgery and

Jacques Jougon; Michel Ballester; Emmanuel Choukroun; Jean Dubrez; Gilles Reboul; Jean-François Velly

2000-01-01

133

[Aneurysmal rupture complicating aortitis: A case report].  

PubMed

Tropical aortitis is a rare and poorly described aortic disease, sometimes confounded with Takayasu's disease, mainly in people from Africa. In this case report, the panaortic aneurysmal disease in a young woman from Haiti, first diagnosed after a work-up on renovascular hypertension, would appear to approach this particular arterial disease with no clinical, radiological or biological argument for an infectious etiology. The initially suspected diagnosis of Takayasu's disease had to be rethought because of the presence of several saccular aneurysms extending from the aortic arch to the infrarenal aorta, rarely described in Takayasu's aortitis. Expert opinions from vascular surgeons and clinicians tagged this aortic disease as similar to tropical aortitis which remained asymptomatic for more than a decade. Hypertension was managed with successful balloon angioplasty of the left renal artery stenosis and anti-hypertensive combination therapy. Surgical management of the extended aortic aneurysms was not proposed because of the stability and asymptomatic nature of the aneurysmal disease and the high risk of surgical morbidity and mortality. More than ten years after diagnosis, the course was marked with inaugural and sudden-onset chest pain concomitant with contained rupture of the descending thoracic aortic aneurysm. This case report underlines the persistent risk of aneurysmal rupture and the importance of an anatomopathological study for the diagnosis of complex aortic disease. PMID:24637031

Yannoutsos, A; Mercier, O; Messas, E; Safar, M E; Blacher, J

2014-05-01

134

A new insight into crustal heterogeneity beneath the 2001 Bhuj earthquake region of Northwest India and its implications for rupture initiations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The seismic characteristics of the 2001 Bhuj earthquake (Mw 7.6) has been examined from the proxy indicators, relative size distribution (3D b-value mapping) and seismic tomography using a new data set to understand the role of crustal heterogeneities in rupture initiations of the 2001 Bhuj earthquake of the Gujarat (India), one of the disastrous Indian earthquakes of the new millennium. The aftershocks sequence recorded by 22 seismograph stations of Gujarat Seismic Network (GSNet) during the period from 2006 to 2009, encompassing approximately 80 km × 70 km rupture area had revealed clustering of aftershocks at depth of 5-35 km, which is seismogenic layer responsible for the occurrence of continued aftershocks activity in the study region. The 3D b-value mapping estimated from a total of 3850 precisely located aftershocks with magnitude of completeness Mc ? 2.7 shows that a high b-value region is sandwiched within the main shock hypocenter at the depth of 20-25 km and low b-value region above and below of the 2001 Bhuj main shock hypocenter. Estimates of 3-D seismic velocity (Vp; Vs) and Poisson's ratio (?) structure beneath the region demonstrated a very close correspondence with the b-value mapping that supports the similar physicochemical processes of retaining fluids within the fractured rock matrix beneath the 2001 Bhuj mainshock hypocenter. The overall b-value is estimated close to 1.0 which reveals that seismogenesis is related to crustal heterogeneity, which, in turn also supported by low-Vs and high-? structures. The high b-value and high-? anomaly at the depth of 20-25 km indicate the presence of highly fractured heterogeneous rock matrix with fluid intrusions into it at deeper depth beneath the main shock hypocenter region. Low b-value and high-Vp in the region is observed towards the north-east and north-west of the main shock that might be an indication of the existence of relatively competent rock masses with negligible volume of cracks that may have contained over-pressurized fluids without molten rocks.

Singh, A. P.; Mishra, O. P.; Yadav, R. B. S.; Kumar, Dinesh

2012-04-01

135

Main Report  

PubMed Central

Background: States vary widely in their use of newborn screening tests, with some mandating screening for as few as three conditions and others mandating as many as 43 conditions, including varying numbers of the 40+ conditions that can be detected by tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). There has been no national guidance on the best candidate conditions for newborn screening since the National Academy of Sciences report of 19751 and the United States Congress Office of Technology Assessment report of 1988,2 despite rapid developments since then in genetics, in screening technologies, and in some treatments. Objectives: In 2002, the Maternal and Child Health Bureau (MCHB) of the Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) of the United States Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) commissioned the American College of Medical Genetics (ACMG) to: Conduct an analysis of the scientific literature on the effectiveness of newborn screening.Gather expert opinion to delineate the best evidence for screening for specified conditions and develop recommendations focused on newborn screening, including but not limited to the development of a uniform condition panel.Consider other components of the newborn screening system that are critical to achieving the expected outcomes in those screened. Methods: A group of experts in various areas of subspecialty medicine and primary care, health policy, law, public health, and consumers worked with a steering committee and several expert work groups, using a two-tiered approach to assess and rank conditions. A first step was developing a set of principles to guide the analysis. This was followed by developing criteria by which conditions could be evaluated, and then identifying the conditions to be evaluated. A large and broadly representative group of experts was asked to provide their opinions on the extent to which particular conditions met the selected criteria, relying on supporting evidence and references from the scientific literature. The criteria were distributed among three main categories for each condition: The availability and characteristics of the screening test;The availability and complexity of diagnostic services; andThe availability and efficacy of treatments related to the conditions. A survey process utilizing a data collection instrument was used to gather expert opinion on the conditions in the first tier of the assessment. The data collection format and survey provided the opportunity to quantify expert opinion and to obtain the views of a diverse set of interest groups (necessary due to the subjective nature of some of the criteria). Statistical analysis of data produced a score for each condition, which determined its ranking and initial placement in one of three categories (high scoring, moderately scoring, or low scoring/absence of a newborn screening test). In the second tier of these analyses, the evidence base related to each condition was assessed in depth (e.g., via systematic reviews of reference lists including MedLine, PubMed and others; books; Internet searches; professional guidelines; clinical evidence; and cost/economic evidence and modeling). The fact sheets reflecting these analyses were evaluated by at least two acknowledged experts for each condition. These experts assessed the data and the associated references related to each criterion and provided corrections where appropriate, assigned a value to the level of evidence and the quality of the studies that established the evidence base, and determined whether there were significant variances from the survey data. Survey results were subsequently realigned with the evidence obtained from the scientific literature during the second-tier analysis for all objective criteria, based on input from at least three acknowledged experts in each condition. The information from these two tiers of assessment was then considered with regard to the overriding principles and other technology or condition-specific recommendations. On the basis of this information, conditions were assigned to one of thr

2006-01-01

136

PARTICLE ACCELERATION IN SHOCK-SHOCK INTERACTION: MODEL TO DATA COMPARISON  

SciTech Connect

Shock-shock interaction is a well-established particle acceleration mechanism in astrophysical and space plasmas, but difficult to study observationally. Recently, the interplanetary shock collision with the bow shock of the Earth on 1998 August 10 was identified as one of the rare events where detailed in situ observations of the different acceleration phases can be made. Due to the advantageous spacecraft and magnetic field configurations, in 2011, Hietala et al. were able to distinguish the seed population and its reacceleration at the bow shock, as well as the Fermi acceleration of particles trapped between the shocks. They also interpreted their results as being the first in situ evidence of the release of particles from the trap as the two shocks collided. In the present study we use a global 2.5D test-particle simulation to further study particle acceleration in this event. We concentrate on the last phases of the shock-shock interaction, when the shocks approach and pass through each other. The simulation results verify that the main features of the measurements can be explained by shock-shock interaction in this magnetic geometry, and are in agreement with the previous interpretation of particle release. Shock-shock collisions of this type occur commonly in many astrophysical locations such as stellar coronae, planetary and cometary bow shocks, and the distant heliosphere.

Hietala, H.; Vainio, R. [Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 64, 00014 Helsinki (Finland); Sandroos, A., E-mail: heli.hietala@helsinki.fi [Finnish Meteorological Institute, P.O. Box 503, 00101 Helsinki (Finland)

2012-05-20

137

Hemothorax caused by spontaneous rupture of hepatocellular carcinoma: a case report and review of the literature  

PubMed Central

We report a rare case in which hemothorax occurred in addition to hemoperitoneum due to spontaneous rupture of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) originating from the caudate lobe of the liver. The case pertains to a 56-year-old female who was transported to our hospital for impaired consciousness due to hemorrhagic shock. Computed tomography (CT) demonstrated ruptured HCC originating from the caudate lobe and accompanying hemoperitoneum and right hemothorax. Hemostasis was carried out by transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE), and surgery was conducted approximately one month after TAE. In the present case, no lesions as possible sources of bleeding were observed inside the pleural cavity, and, moreover, the diaphragm had no abnormalities in the intraoperative findings, suggesting that blood from the ruptured tumor may have traversed the intact diaphragm to enter the right pleural cavity soon after the HCC rupture. However, to the best of our knowledge, no similar cases of HCC have been reported to date, and this case is thus believed to be very rare. This unusual phenomenon may therefore be strongly associated with the location of the ruptured tumor and the formation of a hematoma inside the omental bursa. We discuss the mechanism causing hemothorax in the present case and also review the previously reported cases of ruptured HCC complicated by hemothorax.

2012-01-01

138

Liver Hydatid Cyst Rupture Into the Peritoneal Cavity After Abdominal Trauma: Case Report and Literature Review  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to review the literature regarding the rupture of hydatid cysts into the abdominal cavity after trauma. We present both a new case of hydatid cyst rupture that occurred after blunt abdominal trauma and a literature review of studies published in the English language about hydatid cyst rupture after trauma; studies were accessed from PubMed, Google Scholar, EBSCO, EMBASE, and MEDLINE databases. We identified 22 articles published between 2000 and 2011 about hydatid cyst rupture after trauma. Of these, 5 articles were excluded because of insufficient data, duplication, or absence of intra-abdominal dissemination. The other 17 studies included 68 patients (38 males and 30 females) aged 8 to 76 years who had a ruptured hydatid cyst detected after trauma. The most common trauma included traffic accidents and falls. Despite optimal surgical and antihelmintic therapy, 7 patients developed recurrence. Complications included biliary fistula in 5 patients, incisional hernia in 2 patients, and gastrocutaneous fistula in 1 patient. Death occurred from intraoperative anaphylactic shock in 1 patient and gastrointestinal bleeding and pulmonary failure in 1 patient. Rupture of a hydatid cyst into the peritoneal cavity is rare and challenging for the surgeon. This condition is included in the differential diagnosis of the acute abdomen in endemic areas, especially in young patients.

Yilmaz, Mehmet; Akbulut, Sami; Kahraman, Aysegul; Yilmaz, Sezai

2012-01-01

139

Complex rupture during the 12 January 2010 Haiti earthquake  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Initially, the devastating Mw 7.0, 12 January 2010 Haiti earthquake seemed to involve straightforward accommodation of oblique relative motion between the Caribbean and North American plates along the Enriquillog-Plantain Garden fault zone. Here, we combine seismological observations, geologic field data and space geodetic measurements to show that, instead, the rupture process may have involved slip on multiple faults. Primary surface deformation was driven by rupture on blind thrust faults with only minor, deep, lateral slip along or near the main Enriquillog-Plantain Garden fault zone; thus the event only partially relieved centuries of accumulated left-lateral strain on a small part of the plate-boundary system. Together with the predominance of shallow off-fault thrusting, the lack of surface deformation implies that remaining shallow shear strain will be released in future surface-rupturing earthquakes on the Enriquillog-Plantain Garden fault zone, as occurred in inferred Holocene and probable historic events. We suggest that the geological signature of this earthquakeg-broad warping and coastal deformation rather than surface rupture along the main fault zoneg-will not be easily recognized by standard palaeoseismic studies. We conclude that similarly complex earthquakes in tectonic environments that accommodate both translation and convergenceg-such as the San Andreas fault through the Transverse Ranges of Californiag-may be missing from the prehistoric earthquake record. ?? 2010 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

Hayes, G. P.; Briggs, R. W.; Sladen, A.; Fielding, E. J.; Prentice, C.; Hudnut, K.; Mann, P.; Taylor, F. W.; Crone, A. J.; Gold, R.; Ito, T.; Simons, M.

2010-01-01

140

Finite Mach number spherical shock wave, application to shock ignition  

SciTech Connect

A converging and diverging spherical shock wave with a finite initial Mach number M{sub s0} is described by using a perturbative approach over a small parameter M{sub s}{sup ?2}. The zeroth order solution is the Guderley's self-similar solution. The first order correction to this solution accounts for the effects of the shock strength. Whereas it was constant in the Guderley's asymptotic solution, the amplification factor of the finite amplitude shock ?(t)?dU{sub s}/dR{sub s} now varies in time. The coefficients present in its series form are iteratively calculated so that the solution does not undergo any singular behavior apart from the position of the shock. The analytical form of the corrected solution in the vicinity of singular points provides a better physical understanding of the finite shock Mach number effects. The correction affects mainly the flow density and the pressure after the shock rebound. In application to the shock ignition scheme, it is shown that the ignition criterion is modified by more than 20% if the fuel pressure prior to the final shock is taken into account. A good agreement is obtained with hydrodynamic simulations using a Lagrangian code.

Vallet, A.; Ribeyre, X.; Tikhonchuk, V. [University of Bordeaux, CEA, CNRS, CELIA (Centre Lasers Intenses et Applications), UMR5107, F-33400 Talence (France)] [University of Bordeaux, CEA, CNRS, CELIA (Centre Lasers Intenses et Applications), UMR5107, F-33400 Talence (France)

2013-08-15

141

A piston-actuated shock-tube, with laser–Schlieren diagnostics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The essential construction features of a piston actuated shock tube are described, and its advantages relative to the conventional use of diaphragm ruptures for shock initiation are listed. Typical operational parameters are presented to illustrate the levels of reproducibility achieved. Tests with He and N2 drivers into ?99% Ar (1.0%–0.1% reagent) covered shock speeds from 1.539±0.002–0.8143±0.002 mm\\/?s, corresponding to 2390–847K

S. M. Hurst; S. H. Bauer

1993-01-01

142

A piston-actuated shock-tube, with laser-Schlieren diagnostics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The essential construction features of a piston actuated shock tube are described, and its advantages relative to the conventional use of diaphragm ruptures for shock initiation are listed. Typical operational parameters are presented to illustrate the levels of reproducibility achieved. Tests with He and N2 drivers into about 99 percent Ar covered shock speeds from 1.539 +\\/- 0.002-0.8143 +\\/- 0.002

S. M. Hurst; S. H. Bauer

1993-01-01

143

Compound earthquakes on a bimaterial interface and implications for rupture mechanics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Earthquake ruptures on the San Andreas Fault are affected by the material contrast across the fault. Previous observations of microearthquakes at the northern end of the creeping section have found strong signals of asymmetry in both rupture directivity (preferential propagation to the SE), and aftershock asymmetry (many more to the NW, on timescales from 10 s to 9 hr). To understand the aftershock asymmetry, Rubin & Ampuero simulated slip-weakening ruptures on a bimaterial interface and observed differences in the timescales for the two edges to experience their peak stress after being slowed by barriers. This is suggestive of the possibility of asymmetry of subevents in compound earthquakes. A second possible source of subevent asymmetry is that when slowed by barriers, a significant tensile stress pulse is predicted to propagate in the SE but not the NW direction. To study the possible asymmetry of subevent distribution, we search for compound events using an empirical Green's function method. Three sections on the northern San Andreas and part of the Calaveras faults were selected where the events have high spatial density and similar focal mechanisms. About 677 candidate compound events were identified in a 28 869-event catalogue from 1984 to 2009. Most delays between the two subevents cluster around the shear wave transit time over the subevent separation, although with considerable scatter. For subevents on the San Andreas Fault separated by 0.7-2 times the estimated radius of the first subevent (the same spatial separation found to exhibit strong asymmetry of longer term aftershocks), nearly twice as many second subevents occurred to the SE of the first than to the NW. This asymmetry of second subevent distribution is not present on the Calaveras Fault, which does not have a significant across-fault contrast in wave speed in this region. One interpretation is that the extra SE subevents on the San Andreas Fault are representative of the events `missing'from the `longer term'(10 s-9 hr) aftershock population because they became part of the main shock.

Wang, Enning; Rubin, Allan M.; Ampuero, Jean-Paul

2014-05-01

144

Traumatic rupture of horseshoe kidney.  

PubMed

We present the case of a 25-year-old male who came to the emergency room for pain and abdominal distension following trauma to the mesogastrium. A CT scan was performed, revealing a voluminous retroperitoneal hematoma with laceration of both inferior renal poles with regard to rupture of the isthmus of a horseshoe kidney. The patient presented anemization and increased pain, requiring selective embolization by means of arteriography of a branch of the right renal artery and placement of a double J stent due to urinary extravasation in the lower left kidney pole. Following 1 year of monitoring, the patient has maintained normal renal function. Renal affection in blunt abdominal trauma is frequent, occurring in 7% of previously pathological kidneys. The traumatic rupture of horseshoe kidney is facilitated by its particular anatomical characteristics, constituting an infrequent entity, knowledge of which is necessary to achieve conservative management that renders it possible to preserve renal function. PMID:21934278

Molina Escudero, R; Cancho Gil, M J; Husillos Alonso, A; Lledó García, E; Herranz Amo, F; Ogaya Piniés, G; Ramón Botella, E; Simó, G; Navas Martínez, M C; Hernández Fernández, C

2012-01-01

145

Splenic rupture following endoscopic polypectomy.  

PubMed

A 70-year-old man presented with two medium-sized colon polyps at the office of a gastroenterologist. After endoscopic polypectomy in a hospital, the patient was admitted to another hospital because of collapse and increasing abdominal pain. CT scan revealed hematoperitoneum and splenic subcapsular hematoma. Laparotomy with splenectomy was performed because of extended splenic rupture. The postoperative course was unremarkable except late wound dehiscence. PMID:20352593

Wiedmann, M W; Kater, F; Böhm, B

2010-04-01

146

Rupture propagation speed during earthquake faulting reproduced by large-scale biaxial friction experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Earthquakes are generated by unstable frictional slip along pre-existing faults. Both laboratory experiments and numerical simulations have shown that the rupture process involves an initial quasi-static phase, a subsequent accelerating phase and a main dynamic rupture phase. During the main phase, the rupture front propagates at either subshear or supershear velocity, which affects the seismic wave radiation pattern. An examination on what controls the speed is crucial for improvement of earthquake hazard mitigation. Thus We conducted stick-slip experiments on meter-scale Indian gabbro rocks to observe the rupture process of the unstable periodic slip events and to measure the rupture speed along the fault. The simulated fault plane is 1.5m in length and 0.1m in width and ground by #200-300. The fault is applied at a constant normal stress of 6.7MPa and sheared parallel to the longitudinal direction of the fault at a slip rate of 0.1mm/s and up to a displacement of 40cm. The long, narrow fault geometry leads to in-plane shear rupture (mode II). in which the rupture front propagates in the direction of slip, which mimics large strike-slip earthquake faulting. Compressional-(Vp) and shear-(Vs) wave velocities of the rock sample are calculated to be 6.92km/s and 3.62km/s, respectively, based on the elastic properties (Young's modulus, 103GPa; Poisson's ratio, 0.331; Shear modulus, 38GPa). 32 biaxial strain gauges for shear strain and 16 single-axis strain gauges for normal strain were attached along the longitudinal direction of the fault at intervals of 5cm and 10cm, respectively. The local strain data were recorded at a sampling rate of 1MHz within 16 bit resolution. Load calls attached outside the fault plane measured the whole normal and shear forces applied on the fault plane, which was recorded by the same recording system. We have confirmed that the rupture process of unstable slip events consistsing of 1) an initial quasi-static phase where the slipped area spread on the fault at velocities of less than 10 m/s, 2) an accelerating phase where the rupture propagation accelerates up to 100 m/s, and 3) a main rupture phase where the rupture propagates dynamically at elastic wave velocities. These rupture nucleation process is consistent with those reported in previous studies. However, between 2) and 3) , we sometimes observed a discontinuity of rupture propagation in space and time, which is inconsistent with [Ohnaka & Shen, 1999]. Next, we estimated the rupture velocity of the main rupture phase from spatial-temporal variation in local shear strain associated with the dynamic stress reduction induced by fault slip. While several slip events showed the subshear rupture propagation similar to regular natural earthquakes, some were faster than Vs. Such supershear rupture propagation has been studied theoretically in 1970's, and reported for large strike-slip faulting earthquakes. Except for Passelègue et al. [2013], however, few laboratory experiments on rocks have confirmed the presence and this study has reproduced supershear rupture events along meter-scale fault during stick-slip experiments. We shall discuss the relationship between the rupture propagation speed and the stress heterogeneity along the fault monitored by based on the a dense array of local strain gauges.

Mizoguchi, K.; Fukuyama, E.; Yamashita, F.; Takizawa, S.; Kawakata, H.

2013-12-01

147

Molecular dynamics of interface rupture  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Several situations have been studied in which a fluid-vapor or fluid-fluid interface ruptures, using molecular dynamics simulations of 3000 to 20,000 Lennard-Jones molecules in three dimensions. The cases studied are the Rayleigh instability of a liquid thread, the burst of a liquid drop immersed in a second liquid undergoing shear, and the rupture of a liquid sheet in an extensional flow. The late stages of the rupture process involve the gradual withdrawal of molecules from a thinning neck, or the appearance and growth of holes in a sheet. In all cases, it is found that despite the small size of the systems studied, tens of angstroms, the dynamics is in at least qualitative accord with the behavior expected from continuum calculations, and in some cases the agreement is to within tens of percent. Remarkably, this agreement occurs even though the Eulerian velocity and stress fields are essentially unmeasurable - dominated by thermal noise. The limitations and prospects for such molecular simulation techniques are assessed.

Koplik, Joel; Banavar, Jayanth R.

1993-01-01

148

CT of blunt diaphragmatic rupture.  

PubMed

The diagnosis of blunt diaphragmatic rupture (BDR) is difficult and often missed, leaving many patients with this traumatic injury at risk for life-threatening complications. The potential diagnostic pitfalls are numerous and include anatomic variants and congenital and acquired abnormalities. Chest radiography, despite its known limitations, may still be helpful in the early assessment of severe thoracoabdominal trauma and for detecting initially overlooked BDR or late complications of BDR. However, since the development of helical and multidetector scanners, computed tomography (CT) has become the reference standard; thus, knowledge of the CT signs suggestive of BDR is important for recognition of this injury pattern. A large number of CT signs of BDR have been described elsewhere, many of them individually, but the use of various appellations for the same sign can make previously published reports confusing. The systematic description and classification of CT signs provided in this article may help clarify matters and provide clues for diagnosing BDR. The authors describe 19 distinct CT signs grouped in three categories: direct signs of rupture, indirect signs that are consequences of rupture, and signs that are of uncertain origin. Since no single CT sign can be considered a marker leading to a correct diagnosis in every case of BDR, accurate diagnosis depends on the analysis of all signs present. PMID:22411944

Desir, Amandine; Ghaye, Benoît

2012-01-01

149

Intragastric rupture of splenic artery aneurysms: Three case reports and literature review  

PubMed Central

Rupture of splenic artery aneurysm remains an uncommon cause of hypovolemic shock although it is the third most common intra-abdominal aneurysms. It is difficult to diagnosis timely and entails a significant morbidity and mortality. We present three uncommon cases of bleeding from upper gastrointestinal tract as a result of rupture of splenic artery aneurysm to stomach in patients with liver cirrhosis or infectious endocarditis. We also reviewed the literature and these case reports highlighted that rapid resuscitation, diagnostic imaging, surgical consultation, and alternatively transarterial embolization were the priorities in the management. Early diagnosis and intervention for ruptured splenic artery aneurysm are crucial for patient’s survival; therefore, it must be kept in mind as feasible etiology of life-threatening gastrointestinal bleeding, especially in patients with underlying liver cirrhosis or infective endocarditis.

MIAO, Yang-de; YE, Bei

2013-01-01

150

A loop suture for dynamic tendon transfer in the repair of chronic or acute extensor pollicis longus ruptures.  

PubMed

Ruptures of extensor pollicis longus (EPL) tendon may need a tendon transfer for repair, especially in chronic ruptures. We describe a novel transfer technique using a loop-tendon suture for dynamic transfer of extensor pollicis brevis to EPL. We performed an end-to-side transfixing-loop self-locking suture preserving the extensor pollicis brevis, which acts as a motor unit for the distal end of the repaired tendon. Contraindications would mainly be simultaneous rupture of EPL and brevis tendons. No complications were observed, except for mild metacarpal-phalangeal stiffness in chronic ruptures. An early rehabilitation program may be started when no other associated injuries exist. PMID:24389844

Abad, Jose M; Garcia-Lopez, Ignacio; Torrejón, Eduardo F; Garcia de Lucas, Fernando

2014-06-01

151

Rupture pattern of the Oct 23, 2011 Van-Merkez, Eastern Turkey earthquake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-frequency rupture process of the Oct 23, 2011 Van-Merkez earthquake is imaged by back-projection method using high-quality teleseismic P wave data from the US Array, and prestack Kirchhoff migration using P wave data from a subarray of global seismic networks. The rupture model with two asperities is confirmed by previous two methods. In low-frequency imaging, a large asperity derived from the migration method corresponds to the second one from the high-frequency P waves. The consistency of the locations of asperities from datasets with different frequency bands indicates that there is possible insignificance of the frequency-dependent feature for the earthquake. The resultant images illustrate the spatial and temporal evolution of the rupture, which mainly propagated WSW over a length of 33 km during the first 18 s, accompanying with bursts of two asperities at 3 and 11-13 s. The rupture direction is confirmed by the S wave corner frequency variations of strong ground accelerations. The rupture fronts are mainly located at the updip of the causative fault. Based on polarities of the P waveforms and focal mechanisms of the mainshock and aftershocks, the failure of these two asperities is determined to have occurred on a reverse fault with a dip angle of 47°. Hence, the rupture pattern of the 2011 Van-Merkez earthquake was dominated by a unilateral rupture toward the west-southwest direction.

Zhang, Hao; Ge, Zengxi

2014-03-01

152

Shock Waves  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web page explains the physics of sonic shock waves. Text and animations describe and illustrate the wavefronts of sound from a moving point source for the cases of motion equal to, less than, and greater than the speed of sound. This is part of a large collection of physics animations.

2006-06-14

153

The rupture process of the 2002 Alaska earthquake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 2002 Alaska earthquake (Mw=7.9) is one of the largest strike-slip earthquakes in recent history. Seismic waveforms recorded at teleseismic distances show evidence for a complex rupture history, with substantial high-frequency energy. We have carried out preliminary inversions of teleseismic body and surface waves to model the slip distribution and time-history of this event. The earthquake can be divied into two parts, an initial thrusting event followed by a strike-slip part. Although the P waves for the initial thrust event are very prominent, the contribution of the thrust mechanism accounts for about 30% of the total moment release. The main slip distribution on the strike-slip fault in our model starts more than 100 km east-south-east of the epicenter, and extends over a length of more than 200 km. The slip distribution shows a strong heterogeneity, with maximum slip of 12 meters, and is consistent with the observed fault offsets. From the body waves, we find that the rise-times are generally short, and the rupture velocity on the order of 3.5 km/sec, or even more. In the light of recent observations on anomalous rupture propagation during the 1999 Kocaeli earthquake, we are currently investigating the possible occurrence of high rupture velocities during this earthquake, or the triggering of the strike-slip segment by P waves arriving from the hypocenter.

Thio, H. K.

2003-04-01

154

[Spontaneous rupture of the spleen in relation to a splenic pregnancy. Apropos of a case].  

PubMed

Spontaneous rupture of the spleen related to an ectopic pregnancy is exceptional but must be kept in mind. The clinical picture is dominated by signs of haemoperitoneum and shock. Except in an emergency, the plasma BhCG titration, abdominal ultrasonography and CT-Scan, offer a major contribution. If the exploration through a Pfannenstiel incision is normal, the surgeon should not hesitate to extend it through the mid-line. The diagnosis is almost always made on pathological examination. PMID:3393799

Michaud, P; Robillot, P; Tescher, M

1988-04-01

155

Interventricular septal rupture after myocardial infarction despite early percutaneous coronary intervention.  

PubMed

Ventricular septal rupture (VSR) complicating acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is a serious clinical problem with high mortality rate due to cardiogenic shock or prolonged hemodynamic compromise. Despite multiple improvements in medical, interventional and surgical techniques, early and long-term prognosis after AMI related VSR still remain unpromising. We report a patient in whom an acute VSR was diagnosed 7 days after an anterior myocardial infarction treated with early primary percutaneous coronary intervention (pPCI). PMID:24765324

Cicek, Davran; Gökay, Seher; Saba, Tonguc; Sapmaz, Ismail; Muderrisoglu, Haldun

2011-07-01

156

Spontaneous Rupture of a Functioning Adrenocortical Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare malignancy with poor prognosis, and it can be classified as either a functional or nonfunctional tumor. Affected patients usually present with abdominal pain or with symptoms related to the mass effect or hormonal activity of the tumor. Several cases of spontaneously ruptured nonfunctional adrenocortical carcinoma have been reported, but no case of a spontaneous rupture of functioning adrenocortical carcinoma has been described. We report a functioning adrenocortical carcinoma that spontaneously ruptured during a work-up.

Chung, Jin Ook; Cho, Dong Hyeok; Lee, Jae Hyuk; Kwon, Dong Deuk; Chung, Dong Jin

2010-01-01

157

Multidisciplinary management of ruptured hepatocellular carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spontaneous rupture of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a dramatic presentation of the disease. Most published studies are\\u000a from Asian centers, and North American experience is limited. This study was under-taken to review the experience of ruptured\\u000a HCC at a North American multidisciplinary unit. Thirty pa-tients presenting with ruptured HCC at a tertiary care center from\\u000a 1985 to 2004 were studied

Andrzej K. Buczkowski; Peter T. W. Kim; Stephen G. Ho; David F. Schaeffer; Sung I. Lee; David A. Owen; Alan H. Weiss; Stephen W. Chung; Charles H. Scudamore

2006-01-01

158

Acute achilles tendon rupture in athletes.  

PubMed

The incidence of AT rupture has increased in recent decades. AT ruptures frequently occur in the third or fourth decade of life in sedentary individuals who play sport occasionally. Ruptures also occur in elite athletes. Clinical examination must be followed by imaging. Conservative management and early mobilization can achieve excellent results, but the rerupture rate is not acceptable for the management of young, active, or athletic individuals. Open surgery is the most common option for AT ruptures, but there are risks of superficial skin breakdown and wound problems. These problems can be prevented with percutaneous repair. PMID:23707180

Longo, Umile Giuseppe; Petrillo, Stefano; Maffulli, Nicola; Denaro, Vincenzo

2013-06-01

159

Neck curve polynomials in neck rupture model  

SciTech Connect

The Neck Rupture Model is a model that explains the scission process which has smallest radius in liquid drop at certain position. Old fashion of rupture position is determined randomly so that has been called as Random Neck Rupture Model (RNRM). The neck curve polynomials have been employed in the Neck Rupture Model for calculation the fission yield of neutron induced fission reaction of {sup 280}X{sub 90} with changing of order of polynomials as well as temperature. The neck curve polynomials approximation shows the important effects in shaping of fission yield curve.

Kurniadi, Rizal; Perkasa, Yudha S.; Waris, Abdul [Nuclear Physics and Biophysics Research Division, Department of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jalan Ganesa 10 Bandung 40132 (Indonesia)

2012-06-06

160

Tendon Ruptures Associated With Corticosteroid Therapy  

PubMed Central

In five patients, tendon ruptures occurred in association with corticosteroid therapy, either systemic or local infiltration. The chronic nature of the pain in all of these patients suggests that what we often call tendinitis may in fact be early or partial ruptures of tendons. Patients who receive local infiltration of corticosteroids should perhaps be advised of the risk of a ruptured tendon. In addition, particularly when the Achilles tendon is involved, immobilization should be utilized initially for a presumed tendinitis or early rupture, to protect the tendon from further injury. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.

Halpern, Alan A.; Horowitz, Bruce G.; Nagel, Donald A.

1977-01-01

161

Plane Shock Generator Explosive Lens: PH 13-8 Mo stainless steel versus 4340 steel shock wave separators and LX13 versus PBX9501 explosive particle velocity-time profiles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sandia National Laboratories is currently involved in the optimization of a Plane Shock Generator Explosive Lens (PSGEL). This PSGEL component is designed to generate a planar shock wave transmitted to perform a function through a steel bulkhead without rupturing or destroying the integrity of the bulkhead. The PSGEL component consists of a detonator, explosive, brass cone and tamper housing. The

Vigil

1993-01-01

162

Full Particle Electromagnetic Simulation of Collisionless Shocks  

Microsoft Academic Search

This tutorial-style review is mainly dedicated to the different strategies and constraints used for simulating and analysing\\u000a the dynamics of collisionless shocks with full particle electromagnetic codes. The relationship between macroscopic and microscopic\\u000a processes inherent to the shock dynamics and the associated numerical constraints are explained. Different initial methods\\u000a are commonly used for exciting a shock which are summarized and

Bertrand Lembège

163

Investigation on the temporal change in attenuation within ruptured fault zone of the 1999 Mw7.3 Chi-Chi, Taiwan earthquake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A decrease in Qs two years following the Chi-Chi main shock was revealed by tomography images and an analysis of single-path Qs near the Chelungpu Fault. A synthetic test was carried out accordingly, and suggested little influence to the results from different data distribution in different time period. Qs values within the hanging wall were determined to be 157, which is significantly lower than the values of 238 and 289 prior to and two years after the main shock, respectively. Similar values using a signal-path Qs analysis from the events within the rupture fault zone with the corresponding Qs values of 158, 247 and 318 were obtained, respectively. The reduction in Qs, 89, was close to the Qs change obtained using tomography images. By comparing the 1% Vs reduction revealed during the analysis of repeating earthquakes, the amount of Qs reduction was concluded to be significant, and, thus, suggesting both a reduction in Vs and Qs within the fault zone following the Chi-Chi earthquake. Images of Qs tomography across the Chelungpu Fault with three data periods, (a) 1991 to 19 September 1999; (b) 20 September 1999 to 31 December 2001; and (c) 2002 to 2007. Plots showing the estimated Qs of the signal-path analysis (a) A yearly plot from 1994 to 2003; (b) a daily plot for one month following the Chi-Chi earthquake; (c) a hourly zooming plot.

Wang, Y.; Ma, K.

2013-12-01

164

Transient, specific and extremely rapid release of osmolytes from growing cells of Escherichia coli K-12 exposed to hypoosmotic shock  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of hypoosmotic shock on the solute content of growing Escherichia coli K-12 cells was investigated at 37°C. Within 20 s after the shock the cells had released most of their osmolytes K+, glutamate and trehalose. This release was specific and not due to rupture of the cell membrane, since under these conditions i) the cells neither lost protein

Manfred Schleyer; Roland Schmid; Evert P. Bakker

1993-01-01

165

Fundamentals of collisionless shocks for astrophysical application, 2. Relativistic shocks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this concise review of the recent developments in relativistic shock theory in the Universe we restrict ourselves to shocks that do not exhibit quantum effects. On the other hand, emphasis is given to the formation of shocks under both non-magnetised and magnetised conditions. We only briefly discuss particle acceleration in relativistic shocks where much of the results are still preliminary. Analytical theory is rather limited in predicting the real shock structure. Kinetic instability theory is briefed including its predictions and limitations. A recent self-similar relativistic shock theory is described which predicts the average long-term shock behaviour to be magnetised and to cause reasonable power-law distributions for energetic particles. The main focus in this review is on numerical experiments on highly relativistic shocks in (i) pair and (ii) electron-nucleon plasmas and their limitations. These simulations do not validate all predictions of analytic and self-similar theory and so far they do not solve the injection problem and the self-modification by self-generated cosmic rays. The main results of the numerical experiments discussed in this review are: (i) a confirmation of shock evolution in non-magnetised relativistic plasma in 3D due to either the lepton-Weibel instability (in pair plasmas) or to the ion-Weibel instability; (ii) the sensitive dependence of shock formation on upstream magnetisation which causes suppression of Weibel modes for large upstream magnetisation ratios ?>10-3; (iii) the sensitive dependence of particle dynamics on the upstream magnetic inclination angle ? Bn , where particles of ? Bn >34° cannot escape upstream, leading to the distinction between `subluminal' and `superluminal' shocks; (iv) particles in ultra-relativistic shocks can hardly overturn the shock and escape to upstream; they may oscillate around the shock ramp for a long time, so to speak `surfing it' and thereby becoming accelerated by a kind of SDA; (v) these particles form a power-law tail on the downstream distribution; their limitations are pointed out; (vi) recently developed methods permit the calculation of the radiation spectra emitted by the downstream high-energy particles; (vii) the Weibel-generated downstream magnetic fields form large-amplitude vortices which could be advected by the downstream flow to large distances from the shock and possibly contribute to an extended strong field region; (viii) if cosmic rays are included, Bell-like modes can generate upstream magnetic turbulence at short and, by diffusive re-coupling, also long wavelengths in nearly parallel magnetic field shocks; (ix) advection of such large-amplitude waves should cause periodic reformation of the quasi-parallel shock and eject large-amplitude magnetic field vortices downstream where they contribute to turbulence and to maintaining an extended region of large magnetic fields.

Bykov, A. M.; Treumann, R. A.

2011-08-01

166

Analysis of supershear transition regimes in rupture experiments: the effect of nucleation conditions and friction parameters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider the effect of the rupture initiation procedure on supershear transition of Mode II ruptures on interfaces governed by linear slip-weakening friction. Our study is motivated by recent experiments, which demonstrated the transition of spontaneous ruptures from sub-Rayleigh to supershear speeds in the laboratory. In these works the experiments were analysed using the Burridge-Andrews model of supershear transition, in which a supershear daughter crack is nucleated in front of the main mother rupture. It was concluded that the critical slip of the linear slip-weakening formulation needs to be pressure-dependent for a good match with experiments. However, the dynamic rupture initiation mechanism in the experiments was conceptually different from the quasi-static one adopted in the numerical work used for comparison. Here, our goal is to determine the effect of the nucleation by numerically modelling the experiments using a rupture initiation procedure that captures the dynamic nature of the wire explosion mechanism used in the experiments. We find parameter regimes that match the experimentally observed transition distances for the entire range of experimental conditions. Our simulations show that the dynamic rupture initiation procedure significantly affects the resulting transition distances, shortening them by about 30-50 per cent compared to those predicted through the quasi-static rupture initiation process. Moreover, for some cases, the dynamic initiation procedure changes the very mode of transition, causing a direct supershear transition at the tip of the main rupture instead of the mother-daughter mechanism. We find reasonable parameter regimes which match experimentally determined transition distances with both direct supershear transition at the rupture tip and the Burridge-Andrews (mother-daughter) mechanism, using both pressure-independent and pressure-dependent critical slip. The results show that there are trade-offs between the parameters of the rupture initiation procedure and the properties of interface friction. This underscores the importance of quantifying experimental parameters for proper interpretation of the experiments and highlights the importance of the rupture initiation procedure, in simulations of both experiments and real-life earthquake events.

Lu, Xiao; Lapusta, Nadia; Rosakis, Ares J.

2009-05-01

167

Papillary muscle rupture after blunt chest trauma.  

PubMed

We report a case of anterolateral papillary muscle rupture in a 22-year-old man who had blunt chest trauma caused by a car accident. Transesophageal echocardiography revealed severe mitral regurgitation caused by the rupture. He successfully underwent emergency mitral valve replacement and was discharged 9 days after the surgical correction. PMID:16581491

Cordovil, Adriana; Fischer, Claudio H; Rodrigues, Ana Clara T; Lira Filho, Edgar B; Vieira, Marcelo L C; Cury, Alexandre F; Naccarato, Gustavo A F; Valente, Carmen; Brandão, Carlos M; Pommerantzeff, Pablo M; Morhy, Samira S

2006-04-01

168

Rupture of the uterus: A changing picture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eighty nine cases of rupture of the gravid uterus occurring over a period of 15 years with 77,133 deliveries, were analysed. The overall incidence of ruptured uteri was 1 per 866 deliveries. The patients were devided into two groups, those with a scarred uterus (47) and those with an unscarred uterus (42). Distinct differences in terms of parity, age, aetiology

J. V. Van der Merwe; W. U. A. M. Ombelet

1987-01-01

169

Urinary bladder rupture during voiding cystourethrography  

PubMed Central

Voiding cystourethrography (VCUG) is a commonly performed diagnostic procedure for the evaluation of vesicoureteral reflux with urinary tract infection or congenital renal diseases in children. The procedure is relatively simple and cost-effective, and complications are very rare. The iatrogenic complication of VCUG range from discomfort, urinary tract infection to bacteremia, as well as bladder rupture. Bladder rupture is a rare complication of VCUG, and only a few cases were reported. Bladder rupture among healthy children during VCUG is an especially uncommon event. Bladder rupture associated with VCUG is usually more common in chronically unused bladders like chronic renal failure. Presented is a case of bladder rupture that occurred during a VCUG in a healthy 9-month-old infant, due to instilled action of dye by high pressure. This injury completely healed after 7 days of operation, and it was confirmed with a postoperative cystography. The patient's bladder volume, underlying disease, velocity of the contrast media instilled, catheter size, and styles of instillation are important factors to prevent bladder rupture during VCUG. Management of bladder rupture should be individualized, but the majority of infants are treated with the operation. In conclusion, bladder rupture is a rare complication, however, delicate attention is needed in order to prevent more dire situations.

Lee, Kyong Ok; Park, Se Jin; Shin, Jae Il; Lee, Suk Young

2012-01-01

170

Rupture of wetting films caused by nanobubbles  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is now widely accepted that nanometer sized bubbles, attached at a hydrophobic silica surface, can cause rupture of aqueous wetting films due to the so-called nucleation mechanism. But the knowledge of the existence of such nanobubbles does not give an answer to how the subprocesses of this rupture mechanism operate. The aim of this paper is to describe the

K. W. Stöckelhuber; Boryan Radoev; Andreas Wenger; Hans Joachim Schulze

2004-01-01

171

Spontaneous Rupture Processes on a Bending Fault  

Microsoft Academic Search

We simulated spontaneous rupture processes on vertical bending faults, using a 3-D finite-difference method. Since shear and normal stresses on the fault depend upon its angle to the principal stresses, rupture velocity and slip ahead of a bending point vary with strike change. Moreover, slip on a bending fault is less than one on a flat fault, since a bending

Y. Kase; S. M. Day

2004-01-01

172

Rupture Velocity of Plane Strain Shear Cracks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Propagation of plane strain shear cracks is calculated numerically by using finite difference equations with second-order accuracy. The rupture model, in which stress drops gradually as slip increases, combines two different rupture criteria: (1) slip begins at a finite stress level; (2) finite energy is absorbed per unit area as the crack advances. Solutions for this model are nonsingular. In

D. J. Andrews

1976-01-01

173

Fractal avalanche ruptures in biological membranes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bilayer membranes envelope cells as well as organelles, and constitute the most ubiquitous biological material found in all branches of the phylogenetic tree. Cell membrane rupture is an important biological process, and substantial rupture rates are found in skeletal and cardiac muscle cells under a mechanical load. Rupture can also be induced by processes such as cell death, and active cell membrane repair mechanisms are essential to preserve cell integrity. Pore formation in cell membranes is also at the heart of many biomedical applications such as in drug, gene and short interfering RNA delivery. Membrane rupture dynamics has been studied in bilayer vesicles under tensile stress, which consistently produce circular pores. We observed very different rupture mechanics in bilayer membranes spreading on solid supports: in one instance fingering instabilities were seen resulting in floral-like pores and in another, the rupture proceeded in a series of rapid avalanches causing fractal membrane fragmentation. The intermittent character of rupture evolution and the broad distribution in avalanche sizes is consistent with crackling-noise dynamics. Such noisy dynamics appear in fracture of solid disordered materials, in dislocation avalanches in plastic deformations and domain wall magnetization avalanches. We also observed similar fractal rupture mechanics in spreading cell membranes.

Gözen, Irep; Dommersnes, Paul; Czolkos, Ilja; Jesorka, Aldo; Lobovkina, Tatsiana; Orwar, Owe

2010-11-01

174

Investigation of the Temporal Change in Attenuation Within the Ruptured Fault Zone of the 1999 Mw7.3 Chi-Chi, Taiwan Earthquake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A decrease in Q s values within the hanging wall of the ruptured Chelungpu fault two years following the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake was revealed by Q s tomography images and an analysis of single-path Q s. The synthetic and sensitivity tests of the Q s determination were carried out accordingly to justify the temporal variation. A Q s value within the hanging wall above the hypocenter was determined to be 157 ± 18 two years following the Chi-Chi earthquake, which is significantly lower than the Q s tomography values of 238 ± 17 and 289 ± 13 prior to and two years after the main shock, respectively. Similar values using a signal-path Q s analysis from events within the ruptured fault zone to stations along the fault were obtained. The corresponding Q s values were 247 ± 85 prior to the Chi-Chi earthquake. After the earthquake we obtained Q s values of 158 ± 75 and 318 ± 80 for 2 years following and 2 years after the earthquake, respectively. Considering the two independent methods in determination of Q s, the reduction in Q s by 89 two years following the Chi-Chi earthquake in both methods is significant. Along with 1 % V s reduction revealed by the analysis of repeating earthquakes our studies suggested possible reduction both in V s and Q s values within the fault zone after the Chi-Chi earthquake. Temporal changes in Q s after the Chi-Chi earthquake imply variations of pore-fluid saturation in the ruptured fault zone. The reduction in Q s two years following the Chi-Chi earthquake indicates high pore-fluid saturation within the fractured fault zone due to the postseismic fluid redistribution.

Wang, Yu-Ju; Ma, Kuo-Fong

2014-05-01

175

Isolated rupture of the superficial vein of the penis.  

PubMed

Penile emergencies are rare but when they do occur, prompt diagnosis and treatment are warranted. Emergent conditions of the male genitalia are mainly traumatic, vascular or infectious. Penile emergencies are usually caused by trauma to the penis, during sexual intercourse or manipulation of an erect penis during masturbation. One of the traumatic vascular penile emergencies is superficial penile dorsal vein rupture. This is a rare condition, with just a few reported cases. It is usually taken into differential diagnosis with the other acute penile injuries that present, such as acute penile edema or ecchymosis. We report a case of 59-year-old male with a superficial penile dorsal vein rupture which occurred during manipulation of the erect penis. PMID:24940469

Eken, Alper; Acil, Meltem; Arpaci, Taner

2014-05-01

176

Isolated rupture of the superficial vein of the penis  

PubMed Central

Penile emergencies are rare but when they do occur, prompt diagnosis and treatment are warranted. Emergent conditions of the male genitalia are mainly traumatic, vascular or infectious. Penile emergencies are usually caused by trauma to the penis, during sexual intercourse or manipulation of an erect penis during masturbation. One of the traumatic vascular penile emergencies is superficial penile dorsal vein rupture. This is a rare condition, with just a few reported cases. It is usually taken into differential diagnosis with the other acute penile injuries that present, such as acute penile edema or ecchymosis. We report a case of 59-year-old male with a superficial penile dorsal vein rupture which occurred during manipulation of the erect penis.

Eken, Alper; Acil, Meltem; Arpaci, Taner

2014-01-01

177

Historical seismicity and dynamic rupture process of the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A number of studies have documented the complex rupture process of the Mw9.0 March 11, 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake, which is characterized by different stages of rupture, including a large delayed slip near the trench and multiple high-frequency ruptures along the down-dip edge of the seismogenic zone. In this study, a multiscale circular patch model was used to represent the spatial heterogeneity of fracture energy inferred on the plate interface, with spontaneous dynamic rupture simulated by solving the elasto-dynamic equation with a slip-weakening friction law. Historical seismicity, recorded over the past 100 years, was used to determine the spatial heterogeneity of seismic events, with an additional large patch used to model large slip movements near the trench. Dynamic rupture processes qualitatively consistent with observations were successfully modeled during this study, although slight adjustments, including the introduction of foreshock-related stress concentrations, were needed to accomplish this. The delayed failure of the shallow largest patch, representing the main rupture stage, was only achieved by a dynamic nucleation process comprising cascading ruptures within small and moderately sized patches near the down-dip edge of the seismogenic zone; this failure was followed by successive ruptures along the down-dip edge of the zone. This study confirms that a free surface significantly increases fault slip and released seismic moment during an earthquake. In addition, we found that the largest patch occupies the area where the b-value of the Gutenberg-Richter magnitude-frequency relationship is much smaller than 1, while the hypocenter corresponds to a local maximum b-value of about 1.5. This research also suggests that seismicity catalogs can be used to constrain the spatial segmentation of plate boundaries and to propose possible scenarios for the dynamic rupture processes of future earthquakes.

Ide, Satoshi; Aochi, Hideo

2013-07-01

178

Shock wave-boundary layer interaction in forced shock oscillations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The flow in transonic diffusers as well as in supersonic air intakes becomes often unsteady due to shock wave boundary layer interaction. The oscillations may be induced by natural separation unsteadiness or may be forced by boundary conditions. Significant improvement of CFD tools, increase of computer resources as well as development of experimental methods have again drawn the attention of researchers to this topic. To investigate the problem forced oscillations of transonic turbulent flow in asymmetric two-dimensional Laval nozzle were considered. A viscous, perfect gas flow, was numerically simulated using the Reynolds-averaged compressible Navier-Stokes solver SPARC, employing a two-equation, eddy viscosity, turbulence closure in the URANS approach. For time-dependent and stationary flow simulations, Mach numbers upstream of the shock between 1.2 and 1.4 were considered. Comparison of computed and experimental data for steady states generally gave acceptable agreement. In the case of forced oscillations, a harmonic pressure variation was prescribed at the exit plane resulting in shock wave motion. Excitation frequencies between 0 Hz and 1024 Hz were investigated at the same pressure amplitude. The main result of the work carried out is the relation between the amplitude of the shock wave motion and the excitation frequency in the investigated range. Increasing excitation frequency resulted in decreasing amplitude of the shock movement. At high frequencies a natural mode of shock oscillation (of small amplitude) was observed which is not sensitive to forced excitement.

Doerffer, Piotr; Szulc, Oskar; Magagnato, Franco

2003-02-01

179

Twin ruptures grew to build up the giant 2011 Tohoku, Japan, earthquake  

PubMed Central

The 2011 Tohoku megathrust earthquake had an unexpected size for the region. To image the earthquake rupture in detail, we applied a novel backprojection technique to waveforms from local accelerometer networks. The earthquake began as a small-size twin rupture, slowly propagating mainly updip and triggering the break of a larger-size asperity at shallower depths, resulting in up to 50?m slip and causing high-amplitude tsunami waves. For a long time the rupture remained in a 100–150?km wide slab segment delimited by oceanic fractures, before propagating further to the southwest. The occurrence of large slip at shallow depths likely favored the propagation across contiguous slab segments and contributed to build up a giant earthquake. The lateral variations in the slab geometry may act as geometrical or mechanical barriers finally controlling the earthquake rupture nucleation, evolution and arrest.

Maercklin, Nils; Festa, Gaetano; Colombelli, Simona; Zollo, Aldo

2012-01-01

180

Locations and types of ruptures involved in the 2008 Sichuan earthquake inferred from SAR image matching  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have detected detailed ground displacements in the proximity of the Longmen Shan fault zone (LMSFZ) by applying a SAR offset-tracking method in the analysis of the 2008 Sichuan earthquake. An elevation-dependent correction is indispensable for achieving sub-meter accuracy. A sharp displacement discontinuity with a relative motion of ˜1-2 m appears over a length of 200 km along the LMSFZ, which demonstrates that the main rupture has proceeded on the Beichuan fault (BF) among several active faults composing the LMSFZ, and a new active fault is detected on the northeastward extension of the BF. The rupture on the BF is characterized by a right-lateral motion in the northeast, while in the southwest an oblique right-lateral thrust slip is suggested. In contrast to the northeast, where a major rupture proceeded on the BF only, in the southwest multiple thrust ruptures have occurred in the southeastern foot of the Pengguan massif.

Kobayashi, Tomokazu; Takada, Youichiro; Furuya, Masato; Murakami, Makoto

2009-04-01

181

Precursor shocks and cosmic ray acceleration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cosmic ray acceleration takes place in shocks of relativistic jets in Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN). The diffusive or stochastic acceleration are believed to be the main responsible mechanisms. Additionally, it is known that the back-reaction of accelerated cosmic rays in shock fronts in astrophysical environments, may lead to the formation of a precursor shock with a length scale which corresponds to the diffusive scale of the energetic particles. In this work we will investigate the properties of relativistic, parallel and perpendicular precursor shocks, via numerical test-particle simulations, allowing diffusive and stochastic acceleration.

Meli, A.

2013-02-01

182

Cardiogenic shock.  

PubMed

The syndrome of cardiogenic shock (CS) comprises a constellation of symptoms and signs that define a subset of patients with inadequate tissue perfusion secondary to myocardial dysfunction. Careful attention to and rapid identification of patients at risk for the development of CS and those with impending CS by both hospitalists and subspecialists will help to implement the time-sensitive therapy that it requires. Physicians should gain a familiarity with the underlying pathophysiology of CS and available diagnostic tools as well as the importance of vasopressor therapy, inotropic therapy, rapid reperfusion therapy, and mechanical support. PMID:20469627

Sarswat, Nitasha; Hollenberg, Steven M

2010-02-01

183

The 6 July 2011 (Mw 7.6) Normal-Faulting Kermadec Trench Earthquake: Rupture Process and Aftershock Sequence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On 6 July 2011, a large normal-faulting earthquake occurred along the Kermadec Trench in the southwestern Pacific Ocean (USGS source parameters: Ms 7.4, mb 7.0, 19:03:16.74 UTC, 29.312°S, 176.204°W, hypocentral depth 20 km; GCMT Mw 7.6, centroid depth 22.7 km). Typically, normal-faulting earthquakes of this magnitude occur in the outer-rise or outer trench-slope and are preceded by a larger thrust event that abruptly relaxes the stresses in the subducting plate and allows shallow intraplate extensional faulting to occur. This event occurred seaward of the region considered to be the most strongly seismically coupled portion of the Kermadec-Tonga arc. The down-dip megathrust fault in this region had a large Mw 7.9 thrust event on 14 January 1976, but the largest recent thrust event was an Mw 7.0 event on 29 September 2008. This extensional event may be considered an unusually large aftershock, but if the down-dip region is largely strongly coupled it is not clear why the event is so large. The 2011 event is also notable because all of the aftershocks within a few degrees of the main shock large enough to have GCMT solutions are thrust events on the plate boundary. The 2009 Samoa Mw 8.1 outer slope extensional event is also distinctive for having triggered extensive thrust faulting aftershocks, but that portion of the subduction zone does not appear to be strongly coupled down-dip. Since most outer rise normal-faulting earthquakes occur in the upper portion of the subducting plate where bending stresses are the greatest, determining the depth extent of rupture for the Kermadec event is of interest. We will present an analysis of the body-wave signals, rupture process and aftershock characteristics for this unusual event.

Todd, E.; Lay, T.

2011-12-01

184

[Spontaneous rupture of tricuspid valve papillary muscle in pulmonary hypertension secondary to HIV infection.Report of one case].  

PubMed

Acute primary tricuspid regurgitation (TR) secondary to papillary muscle rupture is an extremely rare clinical situation. We report a 42-year-old male with pulmonary artery hypertension (PAH) secondary to HIV infection, who presented with an acute TR due to spontaneous papillary muscle rupture. He remained in cardiogenic shock despite therapy with inotropic drugs and pulmonary vasodilator therapy. He was subjected to a tricuspid valve replacement. In the postoperative period the patient had severe PAH, which was successfully controlled with inhaled nitric oxide. Tricuspid valve replacement and adjunctive use of pulmonary vasodilator therapy can be a life saving and useful approach in this condition. PMID:24953114

Winter, José Luis; Castro, Pablo; Vega, Julián; Paredes, Alejandro; Gabrielli, Luigi; Revello, Javier; Córdova, Samuel; Baraona, Fernando; Verdejo, Hugo; González, Rodrigo

2014-02-01

185

Giant renal artery pseudoaneurysm caused by rupture of renal angiomyolipoma following pregnancy: endovascular treatment and review of the literature.  

PubMed

Renal angiomyolipoma is a hamartomatous, benign tumor composed of blood vessels, fatty tissue and smooth muscle cells, and is often detected incidentally. It can also be associated with the tuberous-sclerosis complex (TSC). Pregnancy and use of oral contraceptives are known to be associated with an increased risk of tumoral rupture and bleeding. Herein, we report a unique case of renal angiomyolipoma associated with TSC who presented with hypovolemic shock as a result of spontaneous rupture of a giant renal pseudoaneurysm, immediately after pregnancy. Emergency endovascular treatment was successful with sparing of most of the affected kidney as demonstrated by follow-up computed tomography imaging. PMID:24626009

Idilman, Ilkay S; Vesnic, Sanela; Cil, Barbaras; Peynircioglu, Bora

2014-03-01

186

A piston-actuated shock-tube, with laser-Schlieren diagnostics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The essential construction features of a piston actuated shock tube are described, and its advantages relative to the conventional use of diaphragm ruptures for shock initiation are listed. Typical operational parameters are presented to illustrate the levels of reproducibility achieved. Tests with He and N2 drivers into about 99 percent Ar covered shock speeds from 1.539 +/- 0.002-0.8143 +/- 0.002 mm/microsec, corresponding to 2390-847 K incident shock temperatures. Application of this tube for recording postshock front density gradients of the endoergic dissociation of ethane and the exoergic condensation of iron atoms via the laser-Schlieren technique is described.

Hurst, S. M.; Bauer, S. H.

1993-01-01

187

Observation and control of shock waves in individual nanoplasmas.  

PubMed

Using an apparatus that images the momentum distribution of individual, isolated 100-nm-scale plasmas, we make the first experimental observation of shock waves in nanoplasmas. We demonstrate that the introduction of a heating pulse prior to the main laser pulse increases the intensity of the shock wave, producing a strong burst of quasimonoenergetic ions with an energy spread of less than 15%. Numerical hydrodynamic calculations confirm the appearance of accelerating shock waves and provide a mechanism for the generation and control of these shock waves. This observation of distinct shock waves in dense plasmas enables the control, study, and exploitation of nanoscale shock phenomena with tabletop-scale lasers. PMID:24702383

Hickstein, Daniel D; Dollar, Franklin; Gaffney, Jim A; Foord, Mark E; Petrov, George M; Palm, Brett B; Keister, K Ellen; Ellis, Jennifer L; Ding, Chengyuan; Libby, Stephen B; Jimenez, Jose L; Kapteyn, Henry C; Murnane, Margaret M; Xiong, Wei

2014-03-21

188

Magnetic field overshoots in the Venus blow shock  

SciTech Connect

An examination of Pioneer Venus Orbiter fluxgate magnetometer data has shown that magnetic field overshoots occur not only behind quasi-perpendicular bow shocks but also behind quasi-parallel shocks. Overshoots are assocciated only with supercritical shocks. Their amplitudes increase with increasing fast Mach number. Solar wind beta has a lesser effect. The thickness of the overshoot increases with decreasing Theta-BN. The thickness of apparent overshoots detected behind 4 strong fast interplanetary shocks (M greater than M/crit) is about 3 orders of magnitude larger. Multiple crossings of the Venus bow shock were observed mainly at turbulent shocks. Their occurence is not influenced by Theta-BN. 15 references.

Tatrallyay, M.; Luhmann, J.G.; Russell, C.T.

1984-01-01

189

STS-93 SSME Nozzle Tube Rupture Investigation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

STS-93 was launched on July 23, 1999. There was an anomaly at the end of the launch in that the main engines shut down 0.16 second early because sensors detected a low level of oxidizer in the LOX tank (actually the duct from the tank to the vehicle). This resulted in a cutoff velocity for the vehicle that was 16 ft/sec low. It should have been 25872 ft/sec. The OMS engines were subsequently used to achieve the proper orbit. An investigation was immediately initiated into the cause of this LOX tank low level cutoff. It was noticed during the launch that the turbine temperatures for Main Engine 3 (E2019) were approximately 100 F higher than the preflight prediction. Linear Engine Model matching of the data indicated that a nozzle leak best fit the data. Post launch review of the data showed, that at approximately five seconds into the start, numerous parameters indicated small anomalous shifts. These shifts were all consistent with a rupture of nozzle tubes. Post launch review of the films showed that just after Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) ignition and just prior to liftoff a streak is seen in the exhaust plume of E2019. Just after liftoff the streak can be seen emanating from the nozzle wall. This photo confirmed that a leak was coming from the nozzle tubes. Based on the photo, the axial location of the leak was estimated to be 28 in. from the aft end of the nozzle and in line with nozzle coolant feed line #1. The streak continued to be visible during the launch.

Romine, W. Dennis

1999-01-01

190

The Diffusive Shock Acceleration Myth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is generally accepted that diffusive shock acceleration (DSA) is the dominant mechanism for particle acceleration at shocks. This is despite the overwhelming observational evidence that is contrary to predictions of DSA models. For example, our most recent survey of hourly-averaged, spin-averaged proton distribution functions around 61 locally observed shocks in 2001 at 1 AU found that in 21 cases no particles were accelerated. Spectral indices (? ) of suprathermal tails on the velocity distributions around the 40 shocks that did accelerate particles, showed none of the DSA-predicted correlations of ? with the shock compression ratio and the shock normal to magnetic field angle. Here we will present ACE/SWICS observations of three sets of 72 consecutive one-hour averaged velocity distributions (in each of 8 SWICS spin sectors). Each set includes passage of one or more shocks or strong compression regions. All spectra were properly transformed to the solar wind frame using the detailed, updated SWICS forward model, taking into account the hourly-averaged directions of the solar wind flow, the magnetic field and the ACE spin axis (http://www.srl.caltech.edu/ACE/ASC/). The suprathermal tails are observed to be a combination of locally accelerated and remote tails. The local tails are power laws. The remote tails are also power laws with rollovers at higher energies. When local tails are weak (as is the case especially upstream of strong shocks or compression regions) the remote tails also have a rollover at low energies due to modulation (transport effects). Among our main findings are that (1) the spectral indices of both the local and remote tails are -5 within the uncertainties of the measurements, as predicted by our pump acceleration mechanism, and (2) the velocity distributions are anisotropic with the perpendicular (to the magnetic field) pressure greater than the parallel pressure.

Gloeckler, G.; Fisk, L. A.

2012-12-01

191

Seed after-ripening and over-expression of class I ß-1,3-glucanase confer maternal effects on tobacco testa rupture and dormancy release  

Microsoft Academic Search

'Coat-imposed' seed dormancy of many non-endospermic and endospermic species is released during after-ripening. After-ripening-mediated promotion of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) seed germination is mainly due to a promotion of testa rupture and a similar promotion of subsequent endosperm rupture. Treatment of after-ripened or freshly harvested mature seeds with abscisic acid (ABA) delays endosperm rupture and inhibits the induction of class

Gerhard Leubner-Metzger

2002-01-01

192

Acute abdomen due to spontaneous splenic rupture as the first presentation of lung malignancy: a case report  

PubMed Central

Introduction Spontaneous splenic rupture is well recognized in the context of hematological malignancies (lymphoproliferative and myeloproliferative disorders); a few case reports have also linked solid tumors, such as pancreatic and liver cancer, with the occurrence of spontaneous splenic rupture. This is the first case report of lung cancer as a likely cause of spontaneous splenic rupture. Case presentation A 61-year-old Caucasian woman presented to our hospital with non-specific symptoms. She developed an 'acute' abdomen and went into a state of shock within twelve hours of her presentation. She was diagnosed with spontaneous splenic rupture with radiology and following a laparotomy. She made an uneventful recovery postoperatively and was simultaneously found to have a bronchial adenocarcinoma. Conclusion Spontaneous splenic rupture is a potentially fatal but often unrecognized cause of acute abdomen. It should be routinely considered in the differential diagnosis of acute ('surgical') abdomen and when present it should be promptly dealt with, most commonly with a laparotomy. Once the diagnosis is confirmed there should be an aggressive drive to identify an underlying etiology; malignancy is the commonest culprit. Solid tumors should be considered as underlying causes despite being less common than hematological neoplasms. This case report demonstrates lung malignancy as an underlying precipitating cause of spontaneous splenic rupture.

2011-01-01

193

Analysis of Supershear Transition Regimes in Rupture Experiments: Effect of Nucleation Conditions and Friction Parameters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider the effect of rupture initiation and friction parameters on transition of spontaneous ruptures from sub-Rayleigh to supershear speeds on interfaces governed by linear slip-weakening friction. Our study is motivated by recent experiments of supershear transition (Xia et al., 2004) that were analyzed using the Burridge-Andrews (BA) model (Burridge, 1973; Andrews, 1976), in which a supershear daughter crack nucleates in front of the main mother rupture. The experimentally determined transition distances were compared with the ones from the BA model (Xia et al., 2004). It was concluded that the critical slip of the linear slip-weakening formulation needs to be pressure-dependent for a good match with experiments; the pressure dependence was derived from a micromechanical analysis. However, the rupture initiation mechanism in the experiments was conceptually different from the one adopted in the numerical work of Andrews (1976) used for comparison. Our numerical model of the experiments includes an initiation procedure that captures the dynamic nature of the wire explosion used in the experiments to start rupture. The goal is to find parameter regimes that would match the experimentally observed transition distances for the entire range of experimental conditions. Our simulations show that the dynamic rupture initiation procedure significantly affects the resulting transition distances, shortening them by about 30%-50% compared to transition distances predicted by models with a smooth rupture initiation process. Moreover, for some cases, the dynamic initiation procedure changes the very mode of transition, causing a direct supershear transition at the tip of the main rupture instead of the mother-daughter mechanism. We find reasonable parameter regimes that match experimentally determined transition distances for both direct supershear transition at the rupture tip and the BA (mother-daughter) mechanism, using both pressure-independent and pressure-dependent critical slip of the linear slip- weakening formulation. The results show that there are trade-offs between the parameters of the rupture initiation procedure and the properties of interface friction, underscore the need to quantify experimental parameters for proper interpretation of the experiments, and highlight the importance of rupture initiation in simulations of both experiments and real-life earthquake events.

Lu, X.; Lapusta, N.; Rosakis, A. J.

2008-12-01

194

Endoscopic management of a relapsing hepatic hydatid cyst with intrabiliary rupture: a case report and review of the literature.  

PubMed

Hydatid disease, although endemic mostly in sheep-farming countries, remains a public health issue worldwide, involving mainly the liver. Intrabiliary rupture is the most frequent complication of the hepatic hydatid cyst. Endoscopy is advocated, preoperatively, to alleviate obstructive jaundice caused by intracystic materials after a frank rupture and is also a useful and well-established adjunct in locating postoperative biliary fistulas. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiography with sphincterotomy has been successful as the sole and definitive means of treatment of intrabiliary ruptured hydatid cysts. A case of an elderly woman with frank rupture is presented, where the rupture was definitively managed endoscopically in conjunction with sphincterotomy to remove the intrabiliary obstructive daughter cysts and to achieve decontamination of the biliary tree. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiography provided an excellent diagnostic and therapeutic modality in the present case and, thus, it should be considered as definitive treatment in similar cases especially if surgical risk is anticipated to be high. PMID:17431515

Manouras, Andreas; Genetzakis, Michael; Antonakis, Pantelis T; Lagoudianakis, Emmanuel; Pattas, Michael; Papadima, Artemisia; Giannopoulos, Panagiotis; Menenakos, Evangelos

2007-04-01

195

Endoscopic management of a relapsing hepatic hydatid cyst with intrabiliary rupture: A case report and review of the literature  

PubMed Central

Hydatid disease, although endemic mostly in sheep-farming countries, remains a public health issue worldwide, involving mainly the liver. Intrabiliary rupture is the most frequent complication of the hepatic hydatid cyst. Endoscopy is advocated, preoperatively, to alleviate obstructive jaundice caused by intracystic materials after a frank rupture and is also a useful and well-established adjunct in locating postoperative biliary fistulas. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiography with sphincterotomy has been successful as the sole and definitive means of treatment of intra-biliary ruptured hydatid cysts. A case of an elderly woman with frank rupture is presented, where the rupture was definitively managed endoscopically in conjunction with sphincterotomy to remove the intrabiliary obstructive daughter cysts and to achieve decontamination of the biliary tree. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiography provided an excellent diagnostic and therapeutic modality in the present case and, thus, it should be considered as definitive treatment in similar cases especially if surgical risk is anticipated to be high.

Manouras, Andreas; Genetzakis, Michael; Antonakis, Pantelis T; Lagoudianakis, Emmanuel; Pattas, Michael; Papadima, Artemisia; Giannopoulos, Panagiotis; Menenakos, Evangelos

2007-01-01

196

Isolated gallbladder rupture following blunt abdominal trauma.  

PubMed

The gallbladder is a relatively well-protected organ; consequently its rupture following blunt abdominal injury is rare and usually associated with other visceral injuries. Isolated gallbladder rupture is extremely rare. We report a healthy Nigerian adult male who sustained isolated gallbladder rupture following blunt abdominal injury from riding a motor cycle (Okada). A high index of suspicion with positive bile aspirate might lead to early diagnosis. Open cholecystectomy is a safe option of treatment in a resource poor centre especially in delayed presentation and has a good outcome. PMID:23771471

Gali, B M; Ali, N; Bakari, A A; Suleiman, I E

2013-01-01

197

Material Parameters for Creep Rupture of Austenitic Stainless Steel Foils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Creep rupture properties of austenitic stainless steel foil, 347SS, used in compact recuperators have been evaluated at 700 °C in the stress range of 54-221 MPa to establish the baseline behavior for its extended use. Creep curves of the foil show that the primary creep stage is brief and creep life is dominated by tertiary creep deformation with rupture lives in the range of 10-2000 h. Results are compared with properties of bulk specimens tested at 98 and 162 MPa. Thin foil 347SS specimens were found to have higher creep rates and higher rupture ductility than their bulk specimen counterparts. Power law relationship was obtained between the minimum creep rate and the applied stress with stress exponent value, n = 5.7. The value of the stress exponent is indicative of the rate-controlling deformation mechanism associated with dislocation creep. Nucleation of voids mainly occurred at second-phase particles (chromium-rich M23C6 carbides) that are present in the metal matrix by decohesion of the particle-matrix interface. The improvement in strength is attributed to the precipitation of fine niobium carbides in the matrix that act as obstacles to the movement of dislocations.

Osman, H.; Borhana, A.; Tamin, M. N.

2014-06-01

198

Experimental investigation of shock metamorphic effects in a metapelitic granulite: The importance of shock impedance contrast between components  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

main">Abstract-Shock</span> recovery experiments were performed at 12.5, 25, 34, 40, and 56 GPa at 25 °C, and at 18 and 25 GPa at 400 °C, on a high-grade, migmatitic, garnet-cordierite metapelite from the Etivé aureole, Scotland. Objectives for this study were to (1) characterize <span class="hlt">shock</span> effects in a complex polymineralic rock with a significant proportion of hydrous ferromagnesian minerals, both as a function of variable <span class="hlt">shock</span> pressure and preshock temperature, and (2) to explore the effects of <span class="hlt">shock</span> impedance contrast between component minerals on the respective abundances and distribution of these features. At any <span class="hlt">shock</span> pressure, the order of decreasing intensity of <span class="hlt">shock</span> metamorphic effects in component phases is: cordierite (Crd)?biotite (Bt)?plagioclase (Pl)?K-feldspar (Kfs)?quartz (Qtz)?garnet (Grt)?orthopyroxene (Opx). Samples <span class="hlt">shocked</span> to pressures below 40 GPa (25 °C) were typically characterized by marked heterogeneous distribution of <span class="hlt">shock</span> effects on both intragranular and intergranular scales. <span class="hlt">Shock</span> heterogeneity is <span class="hlt">mainly</span> attributed to <span class="hlt">shock</span> impedance contrast between contiguous phases, and manifests as <span class="hlt">shock</span> amplification locally where <span class="hlt">shock</span> impedance contrast is greatest, and <span class="hlt">shock</span> suppression where impedance contrast is least. The heterogeneous distribution of <span class="hlt">shock</span> metamorphic effects in both experiments and natural rocks is a signature of extreme disequilibrium at the submillimeter scale. The heterogeneous distribution of <span class="hlt">shock</span> metamorphic effects mitigates against the use of <span class="hlt">shock</span> effects in minerals exclusively as regional <span class="hlt">shock</span> pressure barometers, and ought to be augmented by additional constraints on <span class="hlt">shock</span> pressure from numerical models.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ogilvie, Paula; Gibson, Roger L.; Reimold, W. Uwe; Deutsch, Alexander; Hornemann, Ulrich</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">199</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3809304"> <span id="translatedtitle">Uterine <span class="hlt">rupture</span> revisited: Predisposing factors, clinical features, management and outcomes from a tertiary care center in Turkey</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Objective: To determine the predisposing factors, modes of clinical presentation, management modalities and fetomaternal outcomes of uterine <span class="hlt">rupture</span> cases at a tertiary care center in Turkey. Methodology: A 14-year retrospective analysis of 61 gravid (>20 weeks of gestation) uterine <span class="hlt">rupture</span> cases between January 1998 to March 2012 was carried out. Results: The incidence of <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> uteri was calculated to be 0.116%. Persistence for vaginal delivery after cesarean was the most common cause of uterine <span class="hlt">rupture</span> (31.1%). Ablatio placenta was the most common co-existent obstetric pathology (4.9%). Bleeding was the <span class="hlt">main</span> symptom at presentation (44.3%) and complete type of uterine <span class="hlt">rupture</span> (93.4%) was more likely to occur. Isthmus was the most vulnerable part of uterus (39.3%) for <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. The longer the interval between <span class="hlt">rupture</span> and surgical intervention, the longer the duration of hospitalization was. Older patients with increased number of previous pregnancies were likely to have longer hospitalization periods. Conclusion: <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> of gravid uterus brings about potentially hazardous risks. Regular antenatal care, hospital deliveries and vigilance during labor with quick referral to a well-equipped center may reduce the incidence of this condition.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Turgut, Abdulkadir; Ozler, Ali; Siddik Evsen, Mehmet; Ender Soydinc, Hatice; Yaman Goruk, Neval; Karacor, Talip; Gul, Talip</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">200</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11147073"> <span id="translatedtitle">[Anaphylactic <span class="hlt">shock</span> in the infant].</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Anaphylactic <span class="hlt">shock</span> is a life-threatening allergic reaction with cardiovascular collapse. The cardiovascular collapse may occur suddenly without warning signs or may be preceded by symptoms such as pruritus, wheezing, dyspnea, urticaria, pallor, digestive symptoms, and weakness. Food allergens, injected drugs and hymenoptera stings are the <span class="hlt">main</span> etiologies. Anaphylactic <span class="hlt">shock</span> requires an emergency treatment with immediate intramuscular or subcutaneous epinephrine injection. Subsequent avoidance of the inciting allergens is mandatory together with the availability of a first aid kit including ready-to-use epinephrine syringes. Besides its absolute necessity in any doctor's office, such first aid kits should be available in any children's group. PMID:11147073</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bourrier, T</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2000-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return 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src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">201</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Soil+AND+Science&pg=5&id=EJ826517"> <span id="translatedtitle">Describing Soils: Calibration Tool for Teaching Soil <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> Resistance</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Rupture</span> resistance is a measure of the strength of a soil to withstand an applied stress or resist deformation. In soil survey, during routine soil descriptions, <span class="hlt">rupture</span> resistance is described for each horizon or layer in the soil profile. The lower portion of the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> resistance classes are assigned based on <span class="hlt">rupture</span> between thumb and…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Seybold, C. A.; Harms, D. S.; Grossman, R. B.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">202</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21167821"> <span id="translatedtitle">Effects of Tube <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> Modeling and Parameters on Analysis of MSGTR Event Progression in PWR</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A multiple steam generator tube <span class="hlt">rupture</span> (MSGTR) event in APR1400 has been investigated using the best estimate thermal hydraulic system code, MARS1.4. The effects of parameters such as the number of <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> tubes, <span class="hlt">rupture</span> location, affected steam generator on analysis of the MSGTR event in APR1400 is examined. In particular, tube <span class="hlt">rupture</span> modeling methods, single tube modeling (STM) and double tube modeling (DTM), are compared. When five tubes are <span class="hlt">ruptured</span>, the STM predicts the operator response time of 2085 seconds before <span class="hlt">main</span> steam safety valves (MSSVs) are lifted. The effects of <span class="hlt">rupture</span> location on the MSSV lift time is not significant in case of STM, but the MSSV lift time for tube-top <span class="hlt">rupture</span> is found to be 25.3% larger than that for <span class="hlt">rupture</span> at hog-leg side tube sheet in case of DTM. The MSSV lift time for the cases that both steam generators are affected (4C5x, 4C23x) are found to be larger than that of the single steam generator cases (4A5x, 4B5x) due to a bifurcation of the primary leak flow. The discharge coefficient of Cd is found to affect the MSSV lift time only for smaller value of 0.5. It is found that the most dominant parameter governing the MSSV lift time is the leak flow rate. Whether any modeling method is used, it gives the similar MSSV lift time if the leak flow rate is close, except the case of both steam generators are affected. Therefore, the system performance and the MSSV lift time of the APR1400 are strongly dependent on the break flow model used in the best estimate system code. (authors)</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jeong, Ji Hwan [Dept of Environmental System, Cheonan College of Foreign Studies, Anseo-dong, Cheonan, Choongnam, 330-705 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Ki Yong [Thermal-Hydraulic Safety Research Team, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Deogjin-dong, Yusong-gu, Daejeon, 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Chang, Keun Sun; Kweon, Young Chel [Dept of Mechanical Engineering, Sunmoon University, Tangjeong-myeon, Asan, Choongnam, 336-708 (Korea, Republic of)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">203</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20190104"> <span id="translatedtitle">Surgical treatment of distal biceps <span class="hlt">rupture</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Rupture</span> of the distal biceps tendon accounts for 10% of all biceps brachii <span class="hlt">ruptures</span>. Injuries typically occur in the dominant elbow of men aged 40 to 49 years during eccentric contraction of the biceps. Degenerative changes, decreased vascularity, and tendon impingement may precede <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. Although nonsurgical management is an option, healthy, active persons with distal biceps tendon <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> benefit from early surgical repair, gaining improved strength in forearm supination and, to a lesser degree, elbow flexion. Biomechanical studies have tested the strength and displacement of various repairs; the suspensory cortical button technique exhibits maximum peak load to failure in vitro, and suture anchor and interosseous screw techniques yield the least displacement. Surgical complications include sensory and motor neurapraxia, infection, and heterotopic ossification. Current trends in postoperative rehabilitation include an early return to motion and to activities of daily living. PMID:20190104</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sutton, Karen M; Dodds, Seth D; Ahmad, Christopher S; Sethi, Paul M</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">204</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=DE93002173"> <span id="translatedtitle">Consequences of expansion joint bellows <span class="hlt">rupture</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Expansion joints are used in piping systems to accommodate pipe deflections during service and to facilitate fitup. Typically, the expansion joint bellows is the thinnest part of the pressure boundary, bellows <span class="hlt">rupture</span> frequencies are typically several ord...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">W. L. Daugherty R. F. Miller D. S. Cramer</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1992-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">205</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/48668843"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Rupture</span> of intracranial aneurysm during angiography</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A case of <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of intracranial aneurysm during angiography is presented. Carotid angiograms showed extravasation of contrast medium into the subarachnoid space at the base of the brain. The literature is reviewed and possible mechanisms are briefly discussed.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Shiro Waga; Akinori Kondo; Kozo Moritake; Hajime Handa</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1973-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">206</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23345486"> <span id="translatedtitle">Plantaris <span class="hlt">rupture</span>: why is it important?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Plantaris muscle is accessory plantar flexor of calf, a vestigial muscle of triceps surae complex. Its importance lies in the fact that its <span class="hlt">rupture</span> cans mimic deep vein thrombosis (DVT). Sometimes when there is <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of Achilles tendon, intact plantaris can still cause plantar flexion at ankle presenting a confusing picture. We present one such case of plantaris <span class="hlt">rupture</span> confused by radiology resident with DVT. A 51-year-old man had a feeling as if kicked in back of calf along with a snapping sound and severe pain while playing tennis. On seeing fluid between muscle plane and a hypoechoic structure radiology resident labelled it DVT. MRI suggested <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> plantaris as fluid and muscle stump were seen between gastronemius and soleus. Patient was treated conservatively with rest, ice compression and elevated leg and showed significant reduction in pain and swelling. PMID:23345486</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rohilla, Seema; Jain, Nitin; Yadav, Rohtas</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">207</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2397680"> <span id="translatedtitle">Spontaneous splenic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> in typhoid fever.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Three cases of multidrug-resistant Salmonella typhi infection presenting as spontaneous splenic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> are presented. One patient died and two recovered completely. This is a previously unreported presentation of typhoid fever.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ali, G.; Kamili, M. A.; Rashid, S.; Mansoor, A.; Lone, B. A.; Allaqaband, G. Q.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1994-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">208</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21091032"> <span id="translatedtitle">Acute Iliac Artery <span class="hlt">Rupture</span>: Endovascular Treatment</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The authors present 7 patients who suffered iliac artery <span class="hlt">rupture</span> over a 2 year period. In 5 patients, the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> was iatrogenic: 4 cases were secondary to balloon angioplasty for iliac artery stenosis and 1 occurred during coronary angioplasty. In the last 2 patients, the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> was secondary to iliac artery mycotic aneurysm. Direct placement of a stent-graft was performed in all cases, which was dilated until extravasation was controlled. Placement of the stent-graft was successful in all the cases, without any complications. The techniques used, results, and mid-term follow-up are presented. In conclusion, endovascular placement of a stent-graft is a quick, minimally invasive, efficient, and safe method for emergency treatment of acute iliac artery <span class="hlt">rupture</span>, with satisfactory short- and mid-term results.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Chatziioannou, A.; Mourikis, D.; Katsimilis, J.; Skiadas, V., E-mail: bill_skiadas@yahoo.gr; Koutoulidis, V.; Katsenis, K.; Vlahos, L. [University of Athens, Radiology Department, Areteion Hospital (Greece)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-04-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">209</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=NUREG0651"> <span id="translatedtitle">Evaluation of Steam Generator Tube <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> Events.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The NRC Staff's review of three domestic pressurized water reactor steam generator tube <span class="hlt">rupture</span> events has shown that no significant offsite doses or systems performance inadequacies have occurred. The plant operators and systems successfully avoided dire...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">L. B. Marsh</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1980-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">210</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23338596"> <span id="translatedtitle">Management of traumatic aortic <span class="hlt">rupture</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A traumatic thoracic aortic injury is a severe and life-threatening clinical entity. Although largely fatal; if untreated, these injuries are amenable to surgical repair if appropriately diagnosed. Therefore, early triage of this condition is critically important. Unfortunately, aortic injuries rarely occur in isolation, and there has been no good cutoff value to help select the appropriate surgical strategy. Algorithms for the both diagnosis and treatment of traumatic thoracic aortic injury have undergone changes in recent years. There have been several case reports, retrospective series and registry data describing the treatment of patients with traumatic thoracic aortic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> using endovascular treatment. Endovascular treatment is a less-invasive management option for polytraumatized patients. Because it is less invasive, without the need for thoracotomy or the use of heparin, endovascular repair can be performed even in acutely injured patients, without the risk of destabilizing pulmonary, head or abdominal traumatic lesions. Long-term follow-up especially in young patients is necessary after endovascular treatment. PMID:23338596</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Watanabe, Ken-ichi; Fukuda, Ikuo; Asari, Yasushi</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">211</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=ADA148132"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Shock</span> and Vibration Bulletin. Part 2. Ship <span class="hlt">Shock</span>, <span class="hlt">Shock</span> and Blast and Ground <span class="hlt">Shock</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Partial contents: Two-dimensional <span class="hlt">Shock</span> Response of a Mass on Energy-Absorbing <span class="hlt">Shock</span> Mounts; Optimum Design for Nonlinear <span class="hlt">Shock</span> Mounts for Transient Inputs; Development of a Method for the <span class="hlt">Shock</span>-Resistant Securing of Large Batteries in Submarines; Shipboa...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1984-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">212</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004JAP....96.6919B"> <span id="translatedtitle">Tensile failure of water due to <span class="hlt">shock</span> wave interactions</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A series of low stress <span class="hlt">shock</span> impact experiments were performed on water to examine the dynamic response under tension and establish a lower bound for water <span class="hlt">rupture</span> or cavitation threshold. The experimental cell configuration permitted particle velocity measurements at the water-air free surface separated by a 5-?m-thick aluminized Mylar diaphragm. Water samples were triply distilled, de-ionized, and degassed prior to experiments. The average tensile strength for <span class="hlt">shock</span>-induced cavitation in the water was found to be 8.7+/-0.2 MPa. Experiments are compared with hydrocode simulations using a simple fracture criterion and published experimental data.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Boteler, J. M.; Sutherland, G. T.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">213</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2503357"> <span id="translatedtitle">Spontaneous common iliac arteries <span class="hlt">rupture</span> in Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type IV: report of two cases and review of the literature.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Two patients with previously undiagnosed Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type IV (EDS IV) presented acutely with clinical features suggestive of hypovolemic <span class="hlt">shock</span>. Emergency laparotomies in both of them revealed spontaneous <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of the common iliac arteries. The clinical features, operative findings, surgical approach, outcome and implications are discussed. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Habib, K.; Memon, M. A.; Reid, D. A.; Fairbrother, B. J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">214</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/u5437mn504822776.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Thin-film <span class="hlt">rupture</span> for large slip</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of thin liquid films on hydrophobic substrates, assuming large slip at the liquid-solid interface, is studied\\u000a using a recently developed strong slip lubrication model, it is shown that the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> passes through up to three self-similar regimes with different dominant balances\\u000a and different scaling exponents. For one of these regimes the similarity is of second kind, and the</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">D. Peschka; A. Münch; B. Niethammer</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">215</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2872574"> <span id="translatedtitle">Left Ventricular <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> Post Mitral Valve Replacement</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Prevention is better than cure best applies here. As per many authors, posterior leaflet chordae preservation prevent Left ventricular <span class="hlt">rupture</span> (LVR) and preserve LV geometry. We are presenting here 5 types of left ventricular <span class="hlt">rupture</span> (LVR) post Mitral valve replacement (MVR) with different methods to repair with the advantages and disadvantages of each. The mortality rate is still very high despite the advances in cardiac surgery. Many therapeutic approaches have been adopted. Yet, none is ideal.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sersar, Sameh I.; Jamjoom, Ahmed A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">216</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3522947"> <span id="translatedtitle">The management of <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> abdominal aortic aneurysms in rural Colorado. With a historical note on Kit Carson's death.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Kit Carson died of a <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> aneurysm in rural Colorado in 1868. Since that time, techniques for management of aortic aneurysms have been developed and disseminated to rural areas with small hospitals. A survey of six Colorado rural hospitals' experience with <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> abdominal aortic aneurysms is presented. Fifty-seven <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> aneurysms had been managed during periods ranging from three to ten years. The average time to the operating room was 3.5 to 4.0 hours after hospital arrival and less than 45 minutes after diagnosis. Of those cases arriving with a systolic blood pressure less than 100 mm Hg, the mortality was 56%. The overall mortality was 53%. Groups are analyzed according to preoperative delay, occurrence of <span class="hlt">shock</span>, and other risk factors. The results are compared with several series from metropolitan hospitals. Techniques of management that are of potential benefit in low-volume vascular case settings are discussed. PMID:3522947</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Abernathy, C M; Baumgartner, R; Butler, H G; Collins, J; Dickinson, T C; Hildebrand, J; Yajko, R D; Harken, A H</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1986-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">217</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19596508"> <span id="translatedtitle">Splenic artery aneurysm <span class="hlt">rupture</span> in pregnancy.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Splenic artery aneurysm (SAA) is the commonest visceral artery aneurysm. It is diagnosed more frequently in younger women, with up to 95% presenting during pregnancy. <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> is associated with a disproportionately high maternal and fetal mortality. We performed a literature search on the patient and SAA characteristics, clinical presentations, management and outcome of this serious complication. There were 32 patients in total with a mean age of 27.9 years (range 20-38). The mean SAA size was 2.25 cm (range 0.5-4 cm) and from the available data half of the <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> SAA were 2 cm or less. Only one case (3.1%) was discovered incidentally, whilst the rest (96.9%) were found following <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. The majority <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> spontaneously. Most (62%) of the patients underwent SAA ligation and splenectomy. The maternal death rate was 21.9% (n=7), and fetal death rate was 15.6% (n=5). Most cases are not diagnosed until surgery following <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. <span class="hlt">Ruptured</span> SAA should be considered in the differential diagnosis of a pregnant patient with severe and unexplained abdominal pain. PMID:19596508</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ha, Jennifer Fong; Phillips, Michael; Faulkner, Kingsley</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">218</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12878066"> <span id="translatedtitle">[Spontaneous splenic <span class="hlt">rupture</span>: report of three new cases and review of the literature].</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This study reports 3 new cases of spontaneous (or atraumatic) splenic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of the spleen, including two with massive hemoperitoneum and one with a secondary <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of splenic infarct, and reviews the literature about this rare disease. These spontaneous <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> are rare and potentially fatal. They result from infectious diseases (<span class="hlt">mainly</span> mononucleosis and and paludism) and hematological diseases (<span class="hlt">mainly</span> malignant hemopathies) in more than 50% of cases. Mortality is close to 20%, and includes some deaths occurring before diagnosis was established and postoperatives deaths, which can result from delayed management and bad general condition of the patients. Splenectomy is usually mandatory. Non-surgical treatment can be indicated only in young and stable patients. PMID:12878066</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kianmanesh, R; Aguirre, H I; Enjaume, F; Valverde, A; Brugière, O; Vacher, B; Bleichner, G</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">219</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23313500"> <span id="translatedtitle">Closed traumatic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of the extensor hallucis longus muscle.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A 23-year-old healthy laborer involved in a work-related injury, sustained excessive left ankle plantarflexion, which resulted in closed <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of the extensor hallucis longus muscle without any predisposing factors. He had an associated fracture of the second metatarsal shaft. The muscle proximal to the musculotendinous junction was excised, and the tendon was looped through a longitudinal slit in the <span class="hlt">main</span> extensor digitorum communis tendon and sutured to it. The second metatarsal fracture was fixed with Kirschner wires. The patient regained full function and was symptom free 6 months after surgery. PMID:23313500</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Tadros, Ayman M A; Al-Shaeel, Rashed A</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">220</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.S43A2494U"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Great 1933 Sanriku-oki Earthquake: Possible Compound <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> of Outer Trench Slope and Triggered Interplate Seismicity</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The 1933 Sanriku-oki earthquake offshore northern Honshu, Japan (Mw8.4) is the largest earthquake that occurred outer-rise/outer-trench-slope region. The spatial extent of the aftershocks and possibility of a triggered seismicity was estimated by using modern relocation method and velocity structure. Land-station based hypocenter determination by using 3D velocity structure was firstly applied to the off-Sanriku, near-trench region where systematic hypocenter shifts are recognized in the previous studies. The improvement of hypocenter locations near the trench were confirmed by examinations of recent earthquakes that are accurately located based on OBS data. The earthquakes after the 1933 Sanriku-oki earthquake are located about 200 km long region under the outer trench slope that is separated from the aftershock seismicity under the inner trench slope. The outer-trench-slope earthquakes are shallow (depth <=50km) and has V-shape distribution in the trench-normal cross-section. The aftershock distribution suggests shallow <span class="hlt">rupture</span> area and possibly a compound <span class="hlt">rupture</span> for the 1933 <span class="hlt">main</span> <span class="hlt">shock</span>. We found the V-shaped compound <span class="hlt">rupture</span> model explains better the polarity of Tsunami waves at the Sanriku coast than a single west dipping fault. This indicates that the whole lithosphere is probably not under deviatoric tension at the time of the 1933 earthquake. The occurrence of aftershocks both in outer- and inner trench slope regions was confirmed by the investigation of dominant wave frequency which is seen in the recent precisely located earthquakes in the two regions (Gamage et al., 2009). The earthquakes under the inner trench slope were shallow (depth <=30km) and located where recent activity of interplate thrust earthquakes is high. This suggests the deformation of the 1933 outer-rise earthquake triggered the interplate earthquakes. Recent (2001-2012) seismicity around the source area by the same method show the seismicity at the outer trench-slope region of northern Honshu can be divided into several groups of earthquakes along the trench; one group roughly corresponds to the aftershock region of the 1933 earthquake. Comparison of the 1933 <span class="hlt">rupture</span> dimension based on our relocations with the morphologies of fault scarps in the outer trench slope suggest that the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> was limited by the region where fault scarps are trench parallel and cross cutting seafloor spreading fabric. These suggest bending and structural segmentation largely controls the horizontal and vertical extent of the fault. The re-examined aftershock distribution in this study provides a constraint on the stress state of the subducting plate and water supply to deep earth. They also suggest triggered of interplate seismicity that imply the outer rise /outer trench slope earthquake is closely involved in the earthquake cycle of interplate earthquake.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Uchida, N.; Kirby, S. H.; Umino, N.; Hino, R.; Okal, E. A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' 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style="font-weight: bold;">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">221</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.T13E2428N"> <span id="translatedtitle">Pulverization of quartz single crystal and natural quartzite induced by possible super-shear <span class="hlt">rupture</span> during stick -slips</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Intensely pulverized rocks have been reported from large scale strike slip faults such as San Andreas Fault (e.g., Dor et al., 2006). These rocks are characterized by apparent lack of shear deformation, suggesting shattering and comminuation of grains possibly resulting from a rapid decrease in normal stress and perhaps transient fault opening during passage of the dynamic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> front. Doan and Gary (2009) experimentally reported that the pulverization of granite requires high strain rates and could be explained by a super shear <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. So far, there has been almost few experimental study on damage formation of wall rocks of fault in association with <span class="hlt">rupture</span> propagation during a stick-slip using crustal materials. In order to clarify how <span class="hlt">rupture</span> propagates and damages wall rocks during a stick-slip , we have performed experiments on a stick-slip with a single crystal of synthetic quartz and natural quartzite. We used a gas apparatus, and performed the experiments at confining pressures of 120-180 MPa and axial strain rate of 10-3/s. Single crystal s of dry synthetic quartz and natural quartzite were cored with a diameter of 20 mm and cut to a length of about 40 mm. Then the cores were cut 50° to the long axis of the core, and the precut surfaces were mirror polished. Axial stresses and shear strains along the fault surfaces were measured by strain gauges, and the data were sampled at 5 MHz . Our experimental results on single crystal of quartz yielded two different frictional behaviors and final states of samples: 1) simple fracturing state associated with multiple small stick-slips at the confining pressure (Pc) less than 160 MPa, where samples were split into fragments but no intense pulverization, 2) intense pulverization state associated with large stick-slips at Pc of 180 MPa, where samples were intensely pulverized into numerous small fragments. The size of the fragments extends down to submicron in the vicinity of the slip plane. In pulverized samples, the axial stress abruptly decreased as large as 700 MPa and the slip distance attained up to 2 mm during the <span class="hlt">main</span> <span class="hlt">shock</span> of the stick-slip. The pulverized fragments show polygonal column, and the fractographic textures suggest them to be a tensile fracture origin. Similar fracturing texture developed in natural quartzite, but less intense than single crystal case even at Pc of 180MPa. The mechanical data and the mode of intense pulverization of synthetic quartz imply that super shear <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> radiated supersonic waves during the stick-slip s by anomalously high strain rates and peak stresses. Synthetic single crystals of quartz are very brittle and the stress drops in our experiments are much larger than actual earthquakes, but mosaic textures of pulverized rocks with lack of distinct shear deformation are reproduced in the experiment on natural quartzite and often observable in natural faults. Therefore, it is likely that the pulverization by super-shear would be a mechanism to widen the damaged zones of seismic faults, and change of the site response with passage of seismic wave.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Nishikawa, O.; Muto, J.; Otsuki, K.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">222</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24268850"> <span id="translatedtitle">Spontaneous <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of spleen masquerading as acute pancreatitis.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Splenic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> most commonly follows blunt abdominal trauma. Nontraumatic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of the spleen is rare. Nontraumatic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of the spleen has been described in a variety of pathologic conditions, which include neoplastic, infectious, and hematologic diseases affecting the spleen. Spontaneous <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of nondiseased spleen is extremely rare. We report a case of spontaneous <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of spleen in a chronic alcoholic clinically simulating acute pancreatitis. PMID:24268850</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Debnath, Jyotindu; Sonkar, Samrat; Sharma, Vivek; Chatterjee, Samar; Srivastava, Vikash; Khanna, Shiv Pankaj</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">223</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16231829"> <span id="translatedtitle">[<span class="hlt">Rupture</span> of the spleen in angiosarcoma: a case report and review of the literature].</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Splenic angiosarcoma is a rare neoplasm originating from endothelial cells of the blood vessels. Its incidence is about 0.14-0.25 per million. We report the case of a patient admitted in a state of hypovolaemic <span class="hlt">shock</span> with haemoperitoneum due to <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of the spleen. Splenectomy was performed with evacuation of the haemorrhagic effusion. The blood was aspirated and in part instilled during the operation through intraoperative blood salvage due to the large haemoperitoneum. Histological examination revealed a splenic angiosarcoma. Splenic angiosarcoma should be suspected in cases of splenomegaly with unknown anaemia and no lymphoma, leukaemia or myelofibrosis, because of its neoplastic aggressiveness and its invariably fatal outcome. It is important to perform a splenectomy before splenic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> owing to its negative impact on long-term survival. PMID:16231829</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sivelli, Roberto; Piccolo, Davide; Soliani, Paolo; Franzini, Christian; Ziegler, Stefanie; Sianesi, Mario</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">224</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3540236"> <span id="translatedtitle">Recurrent uterine <span class="hlt">rupture</span> after hysterescopic resection of the uterine septum</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">INTRODUCTION Uterine <span class="hlt">rupture</span> after hysteroscopic septum resection is a rare complication, and its frequency is reported to be approximately 1–2.7%. Uterine perforation and monopolar resection during hysteroscopy are well-known risk factors for subsequent uterine <span class="hlt">rupture</span> during pregnancy. PRESENTATION OF CASE We present a case of recurrent uterine <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> during consecutive pregnancies in a patient who had undergone hysteroscopic septum resection for recurrent pregnancy loss. DISCUSSION Recurrent uterine <span class="hlt">rupture</span> due to hysteroscopic septum resection in pregnancy is a very rare condition. In the present case we noted that the first two uterine <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> resulted from uterine contractions; however, the third <span class="hlt">rupture</span> occurred spontaneously and earlier in gestation. As each uterine <span class="hlt">rupture</span> occurred earlier than the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> in the previous gestation, a history of uterine <span class="hlt">rupture</span> during pregnancy should raise provider suspicion about the possibility of earlier uterine <span class="hlt">rupture</span> recurrence. CONCLUSION Uterine <span class="hlt">rupture</span> may occur in pregnancies after hysteroscopic resection of the uterine septum. However, if a patient has a history of uterine <span class="hlt">rupture</span> during previous pregnancies, the risk of uterine <span class="hlt">rupture</span> may increase for earlier gestational ages in subsequent pregnancies. The patient must be informed about both the risks of uterine <span class="hlt">rupture</span> during pregnancy after hysteroscopic septum resection and that recurrent <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> may occur at earlier gestational weeks than during previous pregnancies.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ergenoglu, Mete; Yeniel, Ahmet Ozgur; Y?ld?r?m, Nuri; Akdemir, Ali; Yucebilgin, Sait</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">225</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997APS..SHK..T103D"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Shock</span>-Initiation Chemistry of Nitroarenes</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We present detailed evidence that the <span class="hlt">shock</span>-initiation chemistry of nitroarenes is dominated by the intermolecular hydrogen transfer mechanism discussed previously. The experimentally established acceleration of rate by pressure, kinetic isotope effect, and product distribution is consistent with the bimolecular transition state and not direct C-N homolysis. GC-MS analysis of samples which were subjected to a <span class="hlt">shock</span> wave generated by detonation of nitromethane shows that nitrobenzene produces aniline and biphenyl, and o-nitrotoluene forms o-toluidine, o-cresol, aniline and toluene, but not anthranil, benzoxazinone, or cyanocyclopentadiene. In isotopic labeling experiments o-nitrotoluene and TNT show extensive H-D exchange on their methyl groups, and C-N bond <span class="hlt">rupture</span> is not observed in the formation of aniline from nitrobenzene or o-nitrotoluene, nor in the formation of o-toluidine from o-nitrotoluene. Recently reported work incorporating fast TOF mass spectroscopy of samples <span class="hlt">shocked</span> and quenched by adiabatic expansion shows that the initial chemical reactions in <span class="hlt">shocked</span> solid nitroaromatic explosives proceed along this path.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Davis, Lloyd L.; Brower, Kay R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">226</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998AIPC..429..699D"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Shock</span>-initiation chemistry of nitroarenes</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We present evidence that the <span class="hlt">shock</span>-initiation chemistry of nitroarenes is dominated by the intermolecular hydrogen transfer mechanism discussed previously. The acceleration by pressure, kinetic isotope effect, and product distribution are consistent with the bimolecular transition state rather than rate-determining C-N homolysis. GC-MS analysis of samples which were subjected to a <span class="hlt">shock</span> wave generated by detonation of nitromethane shows that nitrobenzene produces aniline and biphenyl, and o-nitrotoluene forms aniline, toluene, o-toluidine and o-cresol, but not anthranil, benzoxazinone, or cyanocyclopentadiene. In isotopic labeling experiments o-nitrotoluene and TNT show extensive H-D exchange on their methyl groups, and C-N bond <span class="hlt">rupture</span> is not consistent with the formation of aniline from nitrobenzene or nitrotoluene, nor the formation of o-toluidine from o-nitrotoluene. Recent work incorporating fast TOF mass spectroscopy of samples <span class="hlt">shocked</span> and quenched by adiabatic expansion indicates that the initial chemical reactions in <span class="hlt">shocked</span> solid nitroaromatic explosives proceed along this path.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Davis, Lloyd L.; Brower, Kay R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1998-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">227</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AGUFM.S33A0229B"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Effect of Off-Fault Damage on Earthquake <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> Velocity: An Experimental Study</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Fault zone fracture damage is expected to lower the propagation velocity of earthquake <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> for two reasons. First, the limiting Rayleigh speed of the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> [Vr = 0.92 Vs for Mode II or Vr = Vs for Mode III] is lowered to the extent that the damage lowers the shear wave speed Vs. Second, the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> speed is further reduced because the fracture energy is increased in the fault-tip process zone. This extra energy is expended by frictional slip on existing crack damage and by the creation of new damage. In this study we simulated fault zones in birefringent homalite plates by thermally <span class="hlt">shocking</span> [in liquid N2] strips of variable widths parallel to the slip surface. The slip-plane normal was at an angle of 25 degrees to the uniaxial loading axis. A shear <span class="hlt">rupture</span> was nucleated in the stressed plate by exploding a wire that produced a 1 cm long stress-free patch along the slip surface. A laser and polarizers were used to generate transient fringe patterns that were recorded by high-speed digital cameras and used to find the shear and <span class="hlt">rupture</span> speeds. <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> speed was measured as a function of the half-width w of the of the damage zone for w = 0.5, 1, and 2 cm, and for cases where there was no damage [w = 0] and where the entire plate was damaged. As the damage zone half-width increased we observed that the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> speed, S-wave velocity, and Vr/Vs decreased. The decrease of Vr/Vs with increasing w shows that the decreased <span class="hlt">rupture</span> speed was not due solely to the decrease in shear speed, but was also due to an increased contribution to the fracture energy from the damage zone. A plot of Vr as a function of w yields a value of R0* [a measure of the spatial extent of Coulomb slip] near 3 cm, in agreement with the predicted value for homalite based on the analysis of Rice et al. [BSSA, 2005].</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Biegel, R. L.; Sammis, C. G.; Rosakis, A. J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">228</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.S52B..06G"> <span id="translatedtitle">Broadband Ground Motion Simulations for a Kinematic Variation of the Mw 7.8 ShakeOut <span class="hlt">Rupture</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The 2008 ShakeOut Scenario (Porter et al., 2011) describes a hypothetical Mw 7.8 earthquake on the southern San Andreas Fault, the associated simulated ground motions, and their potential impact on the built environment. The <span class="hlt">main</span> features of the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> scenario, including its end-points, magnitude, and gross slip distribution, were defined through expert opinion. Other details of the original <span class="hlt">rupture</span> description such as slip at smaller length scales, <span class="hlt">rupture</span> speed, and rise time were constrained using empirical relationships and experience gained from previous strong-motion modeling (Hudnut et al., 2008). Subsequent analyses considering the sensitivity of kinematically prescribed <span class="hlt">rupture</span> speed (Graves et al., 2008) and fully spontaneous dynamic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> parameterizations (Olsen et al., 2009) found that ground motion amplification due to <span class="hlt">rupture</span> directivity can be significantly affected by the coherency of the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> across the fault surface. Here, we build on these earlier studies by considering an alternative kinematic parameterization of the ShakeOut <span class="hlt">rupture</span> developed using the methodology presented by Graves and Pitarka (2010). The resulting <span class="hlt">rupture</span> description has a high degree of spatial and temporal complexity, which leads to a reduction in the coherence of the radiated energy and diminished longer period <span class="hlt">rupture</span> directivity effects relative to the original scenario. Analysis of the original ShakeOut results by Star et al. (2011) also found the shorter period simulations attenuate faster with distance and have lower intra-event sigma compared with empirical predictions. We have addressed these issues by adjusting the Q value used in the model and increasing the stochastic variability in the shorter period simulation approach. Comparison of the updated simulation results with estimates from ground motion prediction equations shows improved distance attenuation behavior and an intra-event dispersion that is similar to the empirical models at periods longer than about 1 sec, and closer to, but still somewhat lower, at shorter periods.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Graves, R. W.; Seyhan, E.; Stewart, J. P.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">229</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006PhRvE..74a1107A"> <span id="translatedtitle">Phase transitions in systems possessing <span class="hlt">shock</span> solutions</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Recently it has been shown that there are three families of stochastic one-dimensional nonequilibrium lattice models for which the single-<span class="hlt">shock</span> measures form an invariant subspace of the states of these models. Here, both the stationary states and dynamics of single-<span class="hlt">shocks</span> on a one-dimensional lattice are studied. This is done for both an infinite lattice and a finite lattice with boundaries. It is seen that these models possess both static and dynamical phase transitions. The static phase transition is the well-known low-high density phase transition for the asymmetric simple exclusion process. The branching-coalescing random walk and asymmetric Kawasaki-Glauber process models also show the same phase transition. Double-<span class="hlt">shocks</span> on a one-dimensional lattice are also investigated. It is shown that at the stationary state the contribution of double-<span class="hlt">shocks</span> with higher width becomes small, and the <span class="hlt">main</span> contribution comes from thin double-<span class="hlt">shocks</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Arabsalmani, Maryam; Aghamohammadi, Amir</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">230</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24253241"> <span id="translatedtitle">Management of severe bleeding in a <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> extrauterine pregnancy: a theragnostic approach.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Haemoperitoneum due to <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> extrauterine pregnancy is a complication that may occur in the first trimester of pregnancy, but massive haemorrhage with severe <span class="hlt">shock</span> is rare. When severe bleeding does occur, timely diagnosis and rapid haemostatic treatment are vital. We present the case of a 37-year-old woman with severe bleeding and <span class="hlt">shock</span> due to <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> extrauterine pregnancy.Management of the patient consisted of emergency laparotomy, red blood cell transfusion and targeted haemostatic therapy guided by rotational thromboelastometry using the fibrin-based clotting (FIBTEM) assay, (activation with tissue factor with addition of the platelet inhibitor cytochalasin D). As severe hypofibrinogenaemia was apparent, indicated by a FIBTEM maximum clot firmness (MCF) that was not measurable (i.e.?<?2?mm) and a plasma fibrinogen level of 0.17?g/l, the patient was treated with 4?g fibrinogen concentrate. Tranexamic acid (1?g) was also administered.Rapid restoration of haemostasis was indicated by the improvement of thromboelastometric parameters (FIBTEM MCF 16?mm) and, later, laboratory coagulation tests (plasma fibrinogen 2.75?g/l), along with cessation of bleeding. No fresh frozen plasma (FFP) was administered. Surgery was successfully completed, and the patient was subsequently discharged 5 days after admission with no further complications. Haemorrhage in extrauterine pregnancy is commonly managed using autologous blood transfusion (via cell salvage) and homologous plasma transfusion. In this case of severe bleeding and <span class="hlt">shock</span> due to <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> extrauterine pregnancy, thromboelastometry-guided administration of fibrinogen concentrate enabled rapid restoration of haemostasis, complete avoidance of FFP transfusion and resulted in a successful outcome. PMID:24253241</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Grassetto, Alberto; Fullin, Giorgio; Cerri, Gianluca; Simioni, Paolo; Spiezia, Luca; Maggiolo, Carlo</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">231</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://quake.usgs.gov/~boore/pubs_online/1981bssa_lindh_boore_66parkfield.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">CONTROL OF <span class="hlt">RUPTURE</span> BY FAULT GEOMETRY DURING THE 1966 PARKFIELD EARTHQUAKE</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A reanalysis of the available data for the 1966 Parkfleld, California, earthquake (Mr -- 5½) suggests that although the ground breakage and aftershocks extended about 40 km along the San Andreas Fault, the initial dynamic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> was only 20 to 25 km in length. The foreshocks and the point of initiation of the <span class="hlt">main</span> event locate at a small bend</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">ALLAN G. LINDH; DAVID M. BOORE</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">232</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMNH13B1620O"> <span id="translatedtitle">Establishment of borehole observation system and high resolution seismic studies in the western part of the <span class="hlt">main</span> Marmara Fault in the frame of MARSite Project</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">main</span> objective of this study is to install a multi-parameter borehole system and surface array as close to the <span class="hlt">main</span> Marmara Fault (MMF) in the western Marmara Sea as possible, and measure continuously the evolution of the state of the fault zone surrounding the MMF and to detect any anomaly or change which may occur before earthquakes by making use of the data from the arrays already running in the eastern part of the Marmara Sea. The multi-parameter borehole system will be composed of very wide dynamic range and stable borehole (VBB) broad band seismic sensor, and incorporate 3-D strain meter, tilt meter, and temperature and local hydrostatic pressure measuring devices. The borehole seismic station will use the latest update technologies and design ideas to record 'Earth tides' signals to the smallest magnitude -3 events. Bringing face to face the seismograms of microearthquakes recorded by borehole and surface instruments portrays quite different contents. The shorter recording duration and nearly flat frequency spectrum up to the Nyquist frequencies of borehole records are faced with longer recording duration and rapid decay of spectral amplitudes at higher frequencies of a surface seismogram. The <span class="hlt">main</span> causative of the observed differences are near surface geology effects that mask most of the source related information the seismograms include, and that give rise to scattering, generating longer duration seismograms. In view of these circumstances, studies on microearthquakes employing surface seismograms may bring on misleading results. Particularly, the works on earthquake physics and nucleation process of earthquakes requires elaborate analysis of tiny events. It is obvious from the studies on the nucleation process of the 1999 earthquake that tens of minutes before the major <span class="hlt">rupture</span> initiate noteworthy microearthquake activity happened. The starting point of the 1999 <span class="hlt">rupture</span> was a site of swarm activity noticed a few decades prior the <span class="hlt">main</span> <span class="hlt">shock</span>. Nowadays, analogous case is probable in western Marmara Sea region, prone to a major event in near future where the seismic activity is prevailing along the impending <span class="hlt">rupture</span> zone. Deploying a borehole system eastern end of the Ganos fault zone may yield invaluable data to closely inspect and monitor the last stages of the preparation stage of major <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. Keywords: Borehole seismometer; Ganos fault; microearthquakes; western Marmara</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ozel, A.; Yalcinkaya, E.; Guralp, C. M.; Tunc, S.; Meral Ozel, N.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">233</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22346146"> <span id="translatedtitle">Subaortic membrane with <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of sinus of Valsalva presented with infective endocarditis and its thromboembolic complications.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Rupture</span> of the sinus of Valsalva (RSOV) is an uncommonly encountered condition. It can present with wider manifestations ranging from an asymptomatic murmur to cardiogenic <span class="hlt">shock</span>. The case discussed in this report also had subaortic membrane which usually presents with subvalvular aortic stenosis, left ventricular hypertrophy, myocardial ischemia and sudden death. Corrective cardiac surgery was advised, but due to financial constraints, the patient could not be operated and he died. Here, the authors report for the first time an unusual presence of both RSOV and subaortic membrane and the patient presented with thromboembolic complication resulting from infective endocarditis. PMID:22346146</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jain, Nirdesh; Gutch, Manish; Khanna, Roopali; Arora, Rahul</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">234</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18949188"> <span id="translatedtitle">[Renal angiomyolipoma <span class="hlt">rupture</span> as a cause of lumbar pain: report of one case].</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Renal angiomyolipoma is a benign tumor formed by smooth muscle, adipose tissue and blood vessels. It is commonly found incidentally and its clinical manifestations are pain and abdominal mass or spontaneous tumor <span class="hlt">rupture</span> with retroperitoneal bleeding. The clinical presentation of a hemorrhagic <span class="hlt">shock</span> secondary to a retroperitoneal hematoma is uncommon. We report a 40 year-old male who presented to the emergency room with lumbar pain and deterioration of hemodynamic parameters. The CT scan showed a left renal injury associated to an expansive retroperitoneal process. The abdominal exploration, vascular control of the renal pedicle and nephrectomy allowed a successful outcome. PMID:18949188</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Cifuentes, Melissa; Calleja, Félix; Hola, José; Daviú, Antonio; Jara, Danilo; Vallejos, Humberto</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">235</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005AGUFM.S34A..01M"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Rupture</span> dynamics of a geometrically complex fault</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We study the propagation of a two dimensional antiplane <span class="hlt">rupture</span> along a complex geometrical fault containing a series of kinks of different angles and intervals between the kinks. Numerical solutions are obtained using the spectral element methods developed by Vilotte, Ampuero and Komatisch. We model both periodically kinked and simple versions of randomly kinked faults. We compare our simulations with the results obtained for <span class="hlt">rupture</span> propagation along flat faults. We find that geometrically complex differ substantially from flat faults. First, complex faults emit high frequency radiation of ?-2 type every time they encounter geometrical discontinuities, this produces a strong damping of <span class="hlt">rupture</span> propagation. Second, the average <span class="hlt">rupture</span> speed along the overall direction of the fault is substantially reduced and, depending on the nature of the geometrical discontinuities, <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> may be easily stopped. Energy release rates computed assuming that the fault is flat increase as the fault becomes increasingly complex. The stress field around the fault may be described as a corridor of strongly variable stress with patches of stress increase and decrease even if the slip on the fault is continuous. Contrary to flat faults, earthquake propagation leaves behind a complex final state of stress. Our model confirms the experimental findings of many authors who worked on high speed mode I fracture.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Madariaga, R. I.; Ampuero, J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">236</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23381365"> <span id="translatedtitle">[Successful repair of combined ventricular septal <span class="hlt">rupture</span> and free wall <span class="hlt">rupture</span> (double <span class="hlt">rupture</span>); report of a case].</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We report a case of successful surgical repair of combined ventricular septal perforation and blowout free wall cardiac <span class="hlt">rupture</span>(double <span class="hlt">rupture</span>) after acute myocardial infarction. The patient was a 59-year old man, who suffered an extensive acute anterior myocardial infarction. Although emergent coronary angiogram and coronary intervention was performed, he collapsed in a state of electro-mechanical dissociation in the catheterization laboratory. He was resuscitated by percutaneous cardiopulmonary support system (PCPS) and transferred to the operation theater. Infarction exclusion using bovine pericardial patch was performed. He was weaned from PCPS on day 5 after surgery and discharged hospital on day 65 with good health. PMID:23381365</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Takazawa, Ippei; Kawahito, Koji; Aizawa, Kei; Misawa, Yoshio</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">237</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.G33A0843M"> <span id="translatedtitle">Splay fault surface <span class="hlt">rupture</span> triggered by the 2010 Chile earthquake</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Faults that splay from megathrusts have been imaged at several active plate boundaries and observed on exposed fossil sections. Due to their steep dip, slip along such structures triggered by a megathrust earthquake may enhance near-field tsunami waves and shorten arrival times. However, motion of splay faults and their role on seismotectonic segmentation has remained elusive due to their predominant offshore location and few historical accounts. Though splay fault slip has been inferred during the 2004 Sumatra and other events, surface <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> triggered by the 1964 M9.2 Alaska earthquake have been the only documented so far. Here we use field, geodetic and InSAR data to document surface fault <span class="hlt">rupture</span> and coastal tilting at Isla Santa Maria (ISM; 37S) during the M8.8 earthquake of February 27, 2010. We integrate the observed deformation with previous knowledge of the regional structure to propose triggering of a splay fault. ISM is 75 km inland from the trench, at the intersection of the Arauco Bay and Santa María fault systems (SMFS), both consisting of blind reverse faults that propagate folds. The SMFS is associated to a cluster of microseismicity extending from the plate interface at 15 km to 2 km depth. An offshore seismic reflection profile across this cluster images a <span class="hlt">main</span> reverse fault with a flat-ramp-flat structure shortcutting to the footwall. The 2010 surface breaks extend across the entire northern part of the island for 900 m, divided in two domains of ENE-WSW oriented structures separated by an E-W striking transfer zone. Each domain consists of faults and fractures with en echelon patterns, with a maximum normal vertical displacement of 80 cm. The geometry of surface <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> is consistent with dextral transtensional kinematics. We associate the surface breaks to transpressional growth of the fault-cored anticline northeast of ISM; transtension at the surface relates to fold bending. Surface <span class="hlt">rupture</span> was accompanied by 1.6-2.2 m of coastal uplift and a northward tilt revealed by ALOS InSAR data, biomarkers, campaign GPS, and leveling of a benchmark. This pattern of tilting mimics that of emerged late Holocene beach ridges, and is rather associated to motion along the Arauco Bay fault. Both systems may have been triggered by the megathrust event. Alternatively, it could arise at the sharp edge of a patch of high megathrust slip. Prominent rush of fluids from the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> started during the Maule earthquake and continued for weeks. A small lake adjacent to the <span class="hlt">rupture</span>, dry during summer droughts, became filled by the offspring. The flat morphology leads to small drainage basins with barely sufficient water to supply inhabitants during dry summer months suggesting that fluids rose through the fault from deeper levels in the crust. The SMFS is associated to the position of a paleo backstop structure, which limited an older deformable domain from the stable continental framework. The SMFS branches upward near the updip limit of the seismogenic zone, where fluids are expelled from mineral transformations. The Maule earthquake may have released trapped fluids at depth, which migrated through the splay fault reducing its friction and facilitating fault slip and surface <span class="hlt">rupture</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Melnick, D.; Moreno, M.; Motagh, M.; Cisternas, M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">238</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFM.T52A..06N"> <span id="translatedtitle">Off-fault tensile cracks: A link between geological fault observations, experiments and earthquake <span class="hlt">rupture</span> models</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Motivated by the occurrence of high-angle pseudotachylite injection veins along exhumed faults, we use optical experiments and high-speed photography to interpret the origins of tensile fractures that form during dynamic shear <span class="hlt">rupture</span> in laboratory experiments. Sub-Rayleigh (slower than the Rayleigh wave speed) shear <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> in Homalite-100 produce damage zones consisting of a periodic array of tensile cracks. These cracks nucleate and grow within cohesive zones behind the tips of shear <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> that propagate dynamically along interfaces with frictional and cohesive strength. The tensile cracks are produced only along one side of the interface where transient, fault-parallel, tensile stress perturbations are associated with the growing shear <span class="hlt">rupture</span> tip. We use an analytical, linear velocity weakening, <span class="hlt">rupture</span> model to examine the local nature of the dynamic stress field in the vicinity of the tip of the <span class="hlt">main</span> shear <span class="hlt">rupture</span> which grows along a weak plane (fault) with sub-Rayleigh speed. It is this stress field which is responsible for driving the off-fault mode-I microcracks that grow during the experiments. We show that (1) the orientation of the cracks can be explained by this analytical model; and (2) the cracks can be used to simultaneously constrain the constitutive behavior of the shear <span class="hlt">rupture</span> tip. In addition, we propose an extension of this model to explain damage structures observed along exhumed faults. Results of this study represent an important bridge between geological observations of structures preserved along exhumed faults, laboratory experiments and theoretical models of earthquake propagation, potentially leading to diagnostic criteria for interpreting velocity, directivity, and static pre-stress state associated with past earthquakes on exhumed faults.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ngo, D.; Huang, Y.; Rosakis, A.; Griffith, W. A.; Pollard, D. D.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">239</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22958803"> <span id="translatedtitle">Liver resection for hemoperitoneum caused by spontaneous <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of unrecognized hepatocellular carcinoma.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is an increasingly common form of cancer. Although its spontaneous <span class="hlt">rupture</span> is rare in Western countries, it constitutes a surgical emergency and is associated with high mortality. There is a lack of consensus as to the best approach and what parameters to use in choosing it. The three <span class="hlt">main</span> approaches are conservative, endovascular and resection - the treatment of choice for acute abdominal bleeding. We report a case of hemoperitoneum following the spontaneous <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of an unrecognized HCV-related HCC in a patient with no history of liver disease. The patient was successfully treated by emergency surgery, with resection of two segments of the left liver. PMID:22958803</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Casciaro, G E; Spaziani, E; Costantino, A; Ceci, F; Di Grazia, C; Martellucci, A; Pecchia, M; Cipriani, B; De Angelis, F; Corelli, S; Napoleoni, A; Stefanelli, F; Salvadori, C; Parisella, M; Nicodemi, S; Stagnitti, F</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">240</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11905061"> <span id="translatedtitle">Successfully repaired traumatic tracheal disruption and cardiac <span class="hlt">rupture</span> with cardiopulmonary support.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A 19-year-old man suffering from dyspnea associated with tracheal and cardiac <span class="hlt">rupture</span> from a traffic accident was found by bronchoscopy to have a 7.5 cm longitudinal tear in the membranous portion of the trachea. Right posterolateral thoracotomy was conducted and open ventilation through the left <span class="hlt">main</span> bronchus initiated with standby cardiopulmonary bypass cannulation of the right femoral artery and vein. When oxygenation was poor, extracorporeal circulation was initiated through the cannulated artery and vein. Under the cardiopulmonary bypass, we safely repaired the tracheal laceration and cardiac <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. PMID:11905061</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Daitoku, Kazuyuki; Sakai, Takehiro; Yamada, Yoshitsugu; Tsushima, Takao; Koyama, Masayuki; Takaya, Shunichi</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' 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showDiv("page_14");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">241</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17230070"> <span id="translatedtitle">Undifferentiated (embryonal) sarcoma of the liver complicated with <span class="hlt">rupture</span> in a child.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Undifferentiated (embryonal) sarcoma of the liver (UESL) is a rare hepatic tumor and <span class="hlt">mainly</span> occurs in children. It usually has cystic changes on computed tomography scan, which represents areas of necrosis and hemorrhages. UESL is a rapidly growing tumor and tumor <span class="hlt">rupture</span> does occur. We reported a girl with a large multicystic hepatic tumor who died of tumor <span class="hlt">rupture</span> shortly after the diagnosis of UESL. It is mandatory to be aware of this potentially fatal complication especially in patients with UESL of large tumor volume. PMID:17230070</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hung, Te-Yu; Lu, David; Liu, Min-Chang</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">242</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/health-topics/topics/shock/diagnosis.html"> <span id="translatedtitle">How Is Cardiogenic <span class="hlt">Shock</span> Diagnosed?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePLUS</a></p> <p class="result-summary">... from the NHLBI on Twitter. How Is Cardiogenic <span class="hlt">Shock</span> Diagnosed? The first step in diagnosing cardiogenic <span class="hlt">shock</span> ... is cardiogenic <span class="hlt">shock</span>. Tests and Procedures To Diagnose <span class="hlt">Shock</span> and Its Underlying Causes Blood Pressure Test Medical ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">243</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3415702"> <span id="translatedtitle">Anterior Cruciate Ligament <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> and Osteoarthritis Progression</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) <span class="hlt">rupture</span> is a common sporting injury that frequently affects young, athletic patients. Apart from the functional problems of instability, patients with ACL deficient knees also develop osteoarthritis. Although this is frequently cited as an indication for ACL reconstruction, the relationship between ACL <span class="hlt">rupture</span>, reconstruction and the instigation and progression of articular cartilage degenerative change is controversial. The purpose of this paper is to review the published literature with regards ACL <span class="hlt">rupture</span> and the multifactorial causes for osteoarthritis progression, and whether or not this is slowed or stopped by ACL reconstruction. There is no evidence in the published literature to support the view that ACL reconstruction prevents osteoarthritis, although it may prevent further meniscal damage. It must be recognised that this conclusion is based on the current literature which has substantial methodological limitations.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wong, James Min-Leong; Khan, Tanvir; Jayadev, Chethan S; Khan, Wasim; Johnstone, David</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">244</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19779793"> <span id="translatedtitle">Delayed diagnosis of traumatic diaphragmatic <span class="hlt">rupture</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We report a case of late presentation of traumatic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of the diaphragm discovered incidentally on chest radiography (CXR) during an annual medical checkup. A 60-year-old man suffered severe blunt trauma from heavy steel frames collapsing against his back, resulting in pelvic and femoral fractures as well as pulmonary contusions. The patient recovered, but 10 months later CXR performed for lung cancer surveillance during an annual medical checkup revealed a traumatic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of the diaphragm. Video-assisted thoracic surgery was performed with reduction of the intestine and primary closure of the diaphragmatic defect. The patient recovered uneventfully. This report serves as a useful reminder that a medical history of severe blunt trauma should provoke a high index of suspicion for diaphragmatic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> during annual medical surveillance. PMID:19779793</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mizobuchi, Teruaki; Iwai, Naomichi; Kohno, Hiromasa; Okada, Nao; Yoshioka, Tomoki; Ebana, Hiroki</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">245</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1985JSMEB..28...46Y"> <span id="translatedtitle">Pseudo-<span class="hlt">shock</span> in radial supersonic flow</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The static and dynamic properties of a pseudo-<span class="hlt">shock</span> in a radial supersonic flow between two parallel plates were investigated. The length and pressure recovery of the pseudo-<span class="hlt">shock</span> were smaller than those in a constant-area duct. Pressure fluctuations at two different points along the radius were simultaneously measured and were statistically correlated, so that the propagation of pressure fluctuation was obtained. They had two <span class="hlt">main</span> frequencies, high and low ones, which propagated in different directions.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yamane, R.; Oshima, S.; Takahashi, M.; Tamaki, H.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1985-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">246</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/48710126"> <span id="translatedtitle">Development of a hypersonic <span class="hlt">shock</span> tunnel</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The design, development and calibration of a <span class="hlt">shock</span> tube\\/tunnel is described in this paper. Its <span class="hlt">main</span> features are: (1) test\\u000a section size: 30 cm dia jet enclosed in a 30 cm × 30 cm square test section; (2) diameter and overall length of <span class="hlt">shock</span> tube:\\u000a 50 mm and 5.63 m respectively; (3) test section Mach number range: 4 to 13;</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">N. M. Reddy</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1978-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">247</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=AD826189"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Shock</span> Testing Facilities.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The report describes the <span class="hlt">shock</span>-testing facilities available at the Naval Ordnance Laboratory for simulating the effects of <span class="hlt">shocks</span> experienced by various types of ordnance (mines, torpedoes, and projectiles, for example) under service conditions. The capab...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1967-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">248</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=ADA297518"> <span id="translatedtitle">Materials for <span class="hlt">Shock</span> Mitigation.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The objective of this effort was to investigate basic material properties that affect <span class="hlt">shock</span> wave attenuation in construction materials and field test materials which show promise as external <span class="hlt">shock</span> mitigators (ESMs). The results of this work demonstrated t...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">L. C. Muszyski M. A. Rochefort</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1994-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">249</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19950046210&hterms=Neptune&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3DNeptune"> <span id="translatedtitle">Neptune inbound bow <span class="hlt">shock</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Voyager 2 crossed the inbound or upstream Neptunian bow <span class="hlt">shock</span> at 1430 spacecraft event time on August 24 in 1989 (Belcher et al., 1989). The plasma and magnetic field measurements allow us to study the solar wind interaction with the outermost gas giant. To fully utilize all of the spacecraft observations, an improved nonlinear least squares, 'Rankine-Hugoniot' magnetohydrodynamic <span class="hlt">shock</span>-fitting technique has been developed (Szabo, 1994). This technique is applied to the Neptunian data set. We find that the upstream bow <span class="hlt">shock</span> normal points nearly exactly toward the Sun consistent with any reasonable large-scale model of the bow <span class="hlt">shock</span> for a near subsolar crossing. The <span class="hlt">shock</span> was moving outward with a speed of 14 +/- 12 km/s. The <span class="hlt">shock</span> can be characterized as a low beta, high Mach number, strong quasi-perpendicular <span class="hlt">shock</span>. Finally, the <span class="hlt">shock</span> microstructure features are resolved and found to scale well with theoretical expectations.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Szabo, Adam; Lepping, Ronald P.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1995-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">250</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.T31E..05D"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Rupture</span> Dynamics of Subduction Megathrust Earthquakes</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Motivated by recent megathrust earthquakes, we have begun a systematic investigation of the influence of depth-dependent frictional properties, slab geometry and fault dip angle, and strength of the accretionary prism on <span class="hlt">rupture</span> propagation. A particular focus is on identifying the conditions under which <span class="hlt">rupture</span> reaches the trench, as this maximizes seafloor uplift and the resulting tsunami. We tackle this problem with fully dynamic two-dimensional simulations, using a high order finite difference method with coordinate transforms to handle the complex geometry. The fault obeys rate-and-state friction and the off-fault material response includes continuum Drucker-Prager plasticity that is activated at sufficiently high stress levels. We directly account for variations in material properties across curved crust and mantle layers, since waveguide effects are an essential part of the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> process in this geometry. For shallowly dipping faults, free surface effects are particularly pronounced. Wave reflections from the seafloor transiently decrease normal stress on the fault surface, thereby reducing its strength. We have found that this effect can be sufficient to permit <span class="hlt">rupture</span> all the way to the trench axis, even if the upper portion of the fault is velocity-strengthening and thus incapable of unstable frictional sliding. Additionally, current thinking appears to assume that this upper part of the fault will <span class="hlt">rupture</span> only if it is locked during the interseismic period, thereby resulting in strain accumulation in the surrounding material. Our preliminary models instead suggest that this part of the fault can still slip coseismically, even with negligible prestress. We are now exploring how robust this tentative conclusion is, as it would have significant implications for predictions of <span class="hlt">rupture</span> extent based on observational estimates of the extent of fault locking during the interseismic period.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Dunham, E. M.; Kozdon, J. E.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">251</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2999295"> <span id="translatedtitle">Spontaneous <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of a recurrent hepatic cystadenoma</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Biliary cystadenoma is a rare cystic tumor of the middle aged woman that usually arises in the liver or occasionally in the extrahepatic bile ducts. It has a strong potential for recurrence and for malignant transformation. The lack of specific clinical and biological features hinders diagnosis before surgery. The spontaneous <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of a hepatobiliary cystadnoma is a very rare and potentially life-threatening complication, with only two reported cases in the English literature. We report a case with spontaneous <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of a recurrent hepatobiliary cystadenoma in a 32 year-old woman.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Elfadili, Hakim; Majbar, Anass; Zouaidia, Fouad; Elamrani, Naoufal; Sabbah, Farid; Raiss, Mohamed; Mahassini, Najat; Hrora, Abdelmalek; Ahallat, Mohamed</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">252</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3666500"> <span id="translatedtitle">Pectoralis major tendon <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. Surgical procedures review.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Summary Pectoralis major (PM) muscle is the powerful dynamic stabiliser of the shoulder that acts as a flexor, adductor and internal rotator. The <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of the PM tendon is a relatively rare injury that was firstly described in a French boy by Patissier in 1822 and later, in 1861, by Letenneur who reported another similiar case. To date, over 200 cases have been published. In this article we describe the clinical anatomy and the mechanism of injuries of PM and we review the surgical procedures for acute and chronic <span class="hlt">ruptures</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Merolla, Giovanni; Paladini, Paolo; Campi, Fabrizio; Porcellini, Giuseppe</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">253</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3223500"> <span id="translatedtitle">Amnion <span class="hlt">rupture</span> sequence in previable fetuses.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Amnion <span class="hlt">rupture</span> sequence is considered an uncommon, sporadic condition among liveborn infants. We have examined 1,010 previable fetuses (9-20 weeks developmental age) to determine the incidence and nature of amnion <span class="hlt">rupture</span> sequence at this stage of development. We found 18 affected fetuses (15 spontaneous and 3 induced abortions) with the incidence of 1:56. Eleven fetuses had limb constrictions and amputations only; 7 fetuses also had nonlimb involvement, including disruptions of the craniofacial region mimicking encephalocele, unusual facial clefts, and abdominal defects. In 6 pregnancies, constrictions of the umbilical cord by amniotic bands were the cause of fetal intrauterine death. PMID:3223500</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kalousek, D K; Bamforth, S</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1988-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">254</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/886036"> <span id="translatedtitle">COMPARISON OF CLADDING CREEP <span class="hlt">RUPTURE</span> MODELS</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The objective of this calculation is to compare several creep <span class="hlt">rupture</span> correlations for use in calculating creep strain accrued by the Zircaloy cladding of spent nuclear fuel when it has been emplaced in the repository. These correlations are used to calculate creep strain values that are then compared to a large set of experimentally measured creep strain data, taken from four different research articles, making it possible to determine the best fitting correlation. The scope of the calculation extends to six different creep <span class="hlt">rupture</span> correlations.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">P. Macheret</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2000-06-12</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">255</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/55715609"> <span id="translatedtitle">Harpoon pyrotechnic <span class="hlt">shock</span> study</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A study was conducted to compare predicted Harpoon missile pyrotechnic <span class="hlt">shock</span> response with Harpoon missile design criteria. This report discusses the pyrotechnic <span class="hlt">shock</span> environment and component failures encountered in this type of environment. Correct <span class="hlt">shock</span> test simulation techniques and 'state-of-the-art' limitations are delineated. Actual testing techniques and test apparatus that can be used to achieve the proper test environment are</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">D. Powers; C. E. Wright; W. N. Jones</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1979-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">256</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=DE86000756"> <span id="translatedtitle">Simulations of Collisionless <span class="hlt">Shocks</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A problem of critical importance to space and astrophysics is the existence and properties of high-Mach-number (HMN) <span class="hlt">shocks</span>. In this letter we present the results of simulations of perpendicular <span class="hlt">shocks</span> with Alfven Mach number 22. We show that the <span class="hlt">shock</span> st...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">K. B. Quest</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1984-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">257</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17807728"> <span id="translatedtitle">Emplacement of cretaceous-tertiary boundary <span class="hlt">shocked</span> quartz from chicxulub crater.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Observations on <span class="hlt">shocked</span> quartz in Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) boundary sediments compellingly tied to Chicxulub crater raise three problems. First, in North America <span class="hlt">shocked</span> quartz occurs above the <span class="hlt">main</span> K-T ejecta layer. Second, <span class="hlt">shocked</span> quartz is more abundant west than east of Chicxulub. Third, <span class="hlt">shocked</span> quartz reached distances requiring initial velocities up to 8 kilometers per second, corresponding to <span class="hlt">shock</span> pressures that would produce melt, not the moderate-pressure <span class="hlt">shock</span> lamellae observed. <span class="hlt">Shock</span> devolatilization and the expansion of carbon dioxide and water from impacted wet carbonate, producing a warm, accelerating fireball after the initial hot fireball of silicate vapor, may explain all three problems. PMID:17807728</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Alvarez, W; Claeys, P; Kieffer, S W</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1995-08-18</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">258</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20209775"> <span id="translatedtitle">[Percutaneous repair of achilles tendon <span class="hlt">rupture</span>--a technical note].</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The treatment of the acute <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> of the achillean tendon remains controversial. For the time being, there is no consent regarding the ideal therapeutic approach. The therapeutical procedure for the recent achilean tendon tears varies between two possible solutions, one conservative and the other surgical. The choice between these is made based on the type of <span class="hlt">rupture</span> and the experience of the surgeon. The conservative techniques can have good results in selected cases, but they produce a degree of elongation of the tendon, which may lead to improper functional results. The classical surgical treatment (the open technique) has the handicap of a relatively large, longitudinal incision, which is made in an area with relatively poor skin vascular supply. Also, the vascular supply of the tendon itself is based <span class="hlt">mainly</span> on perforant, subfascial vessels, which are intercepted during the approach. Taking these facts into consideration, some new, minimally invasive (percutaneous) techniques, were imagined. The principles of the standard percutaneous technique consist of: 1) union of the <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> ends without using a large surgical approach, thus also avoiding the drainage of the local hematoma and rushing the repair; 2) avoiding damaging of the tendon's vascular supply. This techique leads to a rapid transformation of the collagen fibers into elastic fibers, which are mechanically effective. We present in this paper the method which uses the TENOLIG kit. This kit consists of two wires with anchors at one end and needles at the other end; two washers and two poliethylene disks for securing the distal end of the wire. We obtained good morphological (proven by MRI scan) and functional results with this technique. The postoperative protocol includes immobilization with the foot initially in equinous, then in normal position, with isometric muscle contractions and non-weight-bearing, then removal of the cast and wires at 45 days postoperatively and continuing the recovery by kinetotherapy. PMID:20209775</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Alexa, O; Veliceasa, B; Puha, C; Popia, I</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">259</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/289216"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Shock</span> formation within sonoluminescence bubbles</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A strong case has been made by several authors that sharp, spherically symmetric <span class="hlt">shocks</span> converging on the center of a spherical bubble driven by a strong acoustic field give rise to rapid compression and heating that produces the brief flash of light known as sonoluminescence. The formation of such <span class="hlt">shocks</span> is considered. It is found that, although at the <span class="hlt">main</span> collapse the bubble wall does indeed launch an inwardly-traveling compression wave, and although the subsequent reflection of the wave at the bubble center produces a very rapid temperature peak, the wave is prevented from steepening into a sharp <span class="hlt">shock</span> by an adverse gradient in the sound speed caused by heat transfer. It is shown that the mathematical characteristics of the flow can be prevented from accumulating into a <span class="hlt">shock</span> front by this adverse sound speed gradient. A range of results is presented for a variety of bubble ambient radii and sound field amplitudes suggested by experiments. The time scale of the peak temperature in the bubble is set by the dynamics of the compression wave: this is typically in the range 100{endash}300 ps (FWHM) in concert with recent measurements of the sonoluminescence pulse width. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Vuong, V.Q. [University of California, Irvine, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Irvine, California 92697-3975 (United States)] [University of California, Irvine, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Irvine, California 92697-3975 (United States); Szeri, A.J. [University of California at Berkeley, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Berkeley, California 94720-1740 (United States)] [University of California at Berkeley, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Berkeley, California 94720-1740 (United States); Young, D.A. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)] [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">260</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=DE93019984"> <span id="translatedtitle">Engineering evaluation of <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> strainer in Building 309.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This report deals with the consequences of the <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> steam strainer and is divided into two sections. Section 1 evaluates the engineering aspects of the <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> steam strainer, investigates the events that culminated in the damage and considers factor...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">J. N. Papenfuss</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1982-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' 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onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">261</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/263364"> <span id="translatedtitle">Small bowel <span class="hlt">rupture</span> due to blunt abdominal trauma.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Fourteen men with traumatic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of the small gut are analysed. Seven had alcohol intoxication. The diagnosis was made pre-operatively in eight. Ileal <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> were the commonest, (11 of 14). Two patients died. PMID:263364</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Minja, B M; Mahalu, W; Hiza, P R</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1979-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">262</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20140006630&hterms=Hybrid+simulation&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3D%2522Hybrid%2Bsimulation%2522"> <span id="translatedtitle">Whistler Waves Associated with Weak Interplanetary <span class="hlt">Shocks</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We analyze the properties of 98 weak interplanetary <span class="hlt">shocks</span> measured by the dual STEREO spacecraft over approximately 3 years during the past solar minimum. We study the occurrence of whistler waves associated with these <span class="hlt">shocks</span>, which on average are high beta <span class="hlt">shocks</span> (0.2 < Beta < 10). We have compared the waves properties upstream and downstream of the <span class="hlt">shocks</span>. In the upstream region the waves are <span class="hlt">mainly</span> circularly polarized, and in most of the cases (approx. 75%) they propagate almost parallel to the ambient magnetic field (<30 deg.). In contrast, the propagation angle with respect to the <span class="hlt">shock</span> normal varies in a broad range of values (20 deg. to 90 deg.), suggesting that they are not phase standing. We find that the whistler waves can extend up to 100,000 km in the upstream region but in most cases (88%) are contained in a distance within 30,000 km from the <span class="hlt">shock</span>. This corresponds to a larger region with upstream whistlers associated with IP <span class="hlt">shocks</span> than previously reported in the literature. The maximum amplitudes of the waves are observed next to the <span class="hlt">shock</span> interface, and they decrease as the distance to the <span class="hlt">shock</span> increases. In most cases the wave propagation direction becomes more aligned with the magnetic field as the distance to the <span class="hlt">shock</span> increases. These two facts suggest that most of the waves in the upstream region are Landau damping as they move away from the <span class="hlt">shock</span>. From the analysis we also conclude that it is likely that the generation mechanism of the upstream whistler waves is taking place at the <span class="hlt">shock</span> interface. In the downstream region, the waves are irregularly polarized, and the fluctuations are very compressive; that is, the compressive component of the wave clearly dominates over the transverse one. The majority of waves in the downstream region (95%) propagate at oblique angles with respect to the ambient magnetic field (>60 deg.). The wave propagation with respect to the <span class="hlt">shock</span>-normal direction has no preferred direction and varies similarly to the upstream case. It is possible that downstream fluctuations are generated by ion relaxation as suggested in previous hybrid simulation <span class="hlt">shocks</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Velez, J. C. Ramirez; Blanco-Cano, X.; Aguilar-Rodriguez, E.; Russell, C. T.; Kajdic, P.; Jian,, L. K.; Luhmann, J. G.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">263</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1875905"> <span id="translatedtitle">Asymptomatic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of the uterus: a case report.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Rupture</span> of the gravid uterus is a serious obstetric emergency that threatens maternal and fetal life. In certain cases the classic clinical picture may be absent. Most asymptomatic <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> are in the lower segment and of minor extent or are really dehiscences of scars. This paper presents a case of massive spontaneous <span class="hlt">rupture</span> involving the entire corpus diagnosed at elective postpartum sterilization. This unusual event stimulated a review of the causes and clinical presentations of uterine <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Alper, M. M.; Dudley, D. K.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1984-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">264</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1030718"> <span id="translatedtitle">D-Zero Cryostat Supplemental <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> Disc</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The common relief and <span class="hlt">rupture</span> disc vent line requires a double disc assembly with vented interspace for accurate disc burst pressures. The first disc must take pump and purge vacuum loading, but be set to operate at 110% of the MAWP, 18.3 psig (ASME code). The available solution is 18.3 psig with a burst tolerance of +/- psig. The interspace should be locally vented by a flow limiting vent valve to decouple the vent line backpressure from the vessel <span class="hlt">rupture</span> disc. The second disc must take the worst case vent line backpressure, the steady state value found in D-Zero engineering note 3740.000-EN-63 with all three cryostats simultaneously venting at the fire condition into the 4-inch x 6-inch and 6-inch x 8-inch sections. This value is less than 2 psid. The maximum <span class="hlt">rupture</span> value for the second disc must be less than the minimum <span class="hlt">rupture</span> value for the first disc less 2 psid i.e. < 16.3.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mulholland, G.T.; /Fermilab</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1987-08-03</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">265</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3249316"> <span id="translatedtitle">Postintubation Tracheal <span class="hlt">Ruptures</span> - A case report -</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Tracheobronchial <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> (TBR) rarely complicate surgical procedures under general anesthesia. Seemingly uneventful intubations can result in injury to the trachea, which often manifests as hemoptysis and subcutaneous emphysema. We present 2 patients with postintubation TBR who were treated surgically and discuss considerations in the management of this potentially lethal injury.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kim, Kyung Hwa; Choi, Jong-Bum; Kuh, Ja-Hong; Jo, Jung-Ku; Park, Hyun Kyu</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">266</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://gallery.usgs.gov/photos/09_28_2010_otk7Nay4LH_09_28_2010_1"> <span id="translatedtitle">Surface <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> in Northwest Saudi Arabia</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://gallery.usgs.gov/">USGS Multimedia Gallery</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Wendy McCausland of the USGS Volcano Disaster Assistance Program and Hani Zahran of the Saudi Geological Survey view the southern end of the surface fault <span class="hlt">rupture</span> caused by a M5.4 earthquake in the Saudi Arabian desert on May 19, 2009. The ground displacements in the soft sediments of the foreground...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-09-28</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">267</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=483139"> <span id="translatedtitle">Electrocardiographic changes produced by interventricular septal <span class="hlt">rupture</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The electrocardiogram was recorded during spontaneous <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of the interventricular septum in a patient after myocardial infarction. The electrocardiographic abnormalities included an increase in the sinus rate, elevation of the ST segment, decrease in Q wave size, and increase in the height and width of the P wave.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kerr, F; Haywood, L J</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1976-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">268</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/61349785"> <span id="translatedtitle">Lower head creep-<span class="hlt">rupture</span> sensitivity studies</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">During hypothetical severe nuclear reactor accidents, structural materials in the reactor vessel can relocate downward and form debris regions above the lower head. In this paper a one-dimensional model is presented that considers melt progression in the debris as well as the thermal and mechanical response of the head. Only creep <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of the lower head is considered; however, other</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">S. S. Dosanjh; M. Pilch</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1991-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">269</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ajnr.org/cgi/reprint/18/10/1881.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Cardiac <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> Complicating Cerebral Intraarterial Thrombolytic Therapy</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Early intraarterial thrombolytic therapy is recognized as a valuable treatment option in the setting of acute stroke. Cardiac <span class="hlt">rupture</span> is a catastrophic complication of myocardial infarc- tion. The risk of this complication has been shown to increase with late coronary thrombo- lytic therapy (more than 7 hours after onset of myocardial infarction) (1) and has also been reported as a</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">R. B. Singh; D. A. Graeb; A. Fung; P. Teal</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">270</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=472536"> <span id="translatedtitle">Traumatic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of the right subclavian artery</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The case report of a patient who sustained a traumatic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of the right subclavian artery in a motor vehicle accident is presented. The preoperative diagnosis, surgical approach, postoperative management, and indications for angiography in traumatic lesions of the thoracic aorta and great vessels are discussed. The relevant literature is reviewed. Images</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Girdwood, Robert W.; Holden, Michael P.; Ionescu, Marian I.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1972-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">271</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.data.scec.org/Module/s1act03.html"> <span id="translatedtitle">What Is an Earthquake?: <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> Models</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this activity, the learner will watch three animations based on actual data from fault <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> from the two largest Southern California earthquakes in the 1990s: Landers (1992) and Northridge (1994). In Section 3, the learner will discover more about how such data is collected and analyzed.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">272</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2256746"> <span id="translatedtitle">Posterior compartment syndrome following <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> Baker's cyst.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A 35 year old man presented with the sudden onset of left leg pain and swelling. Empirical anticoagulation for presumed deep vein thrombophlebitis was followed by acute worsening of symptoms. On further evaluation the patient was found to have a <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> Baker's cyst and an acute posterior compartment syndrome. PMID:2256746</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Petros, D P; Hanley, J F; Gilbreath, P; Toon, R D</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1990-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">273</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18486412"> <span id="translatedtitle">Delayed presentation of traumatic diaphragmatic <span class="hlt">rupture</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We present the case of a 57-year-old woman who suffered a delayed presentation of a traumatic diaphragmatic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> (TDR). Because TDR is frequently missed on initial presentation, a delay between trauma and diagnosis can present a unique diagnostic dilemma for the emergency physician. Important historical clues and physical examination findings are the keys to making this diagnosis. PMID:18486412</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Walchalk, Lisa R; Stanfield, Stephen C</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">274</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2692688"> <span id="translatedtitle">Simultaneous bilateral <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of the quadriceps tendon.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The simultaneous, complete <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of both quadriceps tendons is a rare event. Only 30 previous cases have been reported and the majority have had well-documented predisposing factors, such as chronic renal failure, gout, hyperparathyroidism, diabetes and obesity. We report a case which presented without any predisposing cause, and review the literature to date. PMID:2692688</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ribbans, W J; Angus, P D</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1989-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">275</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/60239478"> <span id="translatedtitle">TMI2 lower head creep <span class="hlt">rupture</span> analysis</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The TMI-2 accident resulted in approximately 40% of the reactor's core melting and collecting on the lower head of the reactor pressure vessel. The severity of the accident has raised questions about the margin of safety against <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of the lower head in this accident since all evidence seems to indicate no major breach of the vessel occurred. Scoping heat</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Thinnes</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1988-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">276</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23546858"> <span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> Achilles tendon: a current overview from biology of <span class="hlt">rupture</span> to treatment.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Achilles tendon (AT) is the most frequently <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> tendon in the human body yet the aetiology remains poorly understood. Despite the extensively published literature, controversy still surrounds the optimum treatment of complete <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. Both non-operative management and percutaneous repair are attractive alternatives to open surgery, which carries the highest complication and cost profile. However, the lack of a universally accepted scoring system has limited any evaluation of treatment options. A typical UK district general hospital treats approximately 3 cases of AT <span class="hlt">rupture</span> a month. It is therefore important for orthopaedic surgeons to correctly diagnose and treat these injuries with respect to the best current evidence-based practice. In this review article, we discuss the relevant pathophysiology and diagnosis of the <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> AT and summarize the current evidence for treatment. PMID:23546858</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Thevendran, G; Sarraf, K M; Patel, N K; Sadri, A; Rosenfeld, P</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">277</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.S23A2450C"> <span id="translatedtitle">Source Complexity: from the inversion of the kinematic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> process to the ground motion spatial variability analysis</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We investigated the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> history of the 2009 April 6th (Mw 6.1) L'Aquila earthquake by using a non-linear inversion of strong motion, GPS and DInSAR data. The joint inversion solution reveals a heterogeneous slip distribution characterized by two <span class="hlt">main</span> asperities, located up-dip from the hypocentre and south-east wards along strike direction respectively. The imaged <span class="hlt">rupture</span> velocity is larger in the up-dip than in the along-strike direction. The up-dip and along-strike <span class="hlt">rupture</span> propagation are separated in time and associated with a Mode II and a Mode III crack, respectively. Our results show that the L'Aquila earthquake featured a very complex <span class="hlt">rupture</span>, with strong spatial and temporal heterogeneities, suggesting a strong frictional and/or structural control of the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> process (Cirella et al., 2012). The retrieved source model not only features the best slip distribution, but also provides the complete <span class="hlt">rupture</span> history (<span class="hlt">rupture</span> velocity, seismic moment released) that we used in a forward modeling to investigate how source heterogeneities of l'Aquila earthquake affected the spatial variability of the ground motion. We model scenarios on a ';virtual' grid (800 sites) by varying the slip distribution, the nucleation position and by considering either a heterogeneous or a uniform <span class="hlt">rupture</span> time distribution for each nucleation position. Our results indicate that the relative position between the <span class="hlt">main</span> patch of slip and the nucleation position on the fault plane strongly influences the ground motion variability also at low-intermediate frequency; moreover, our results suggest that the L'Aquila earthquake may not be intended as the worst-case scenario.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Cirella, A.; Spagnuolo, E.; Piatanesi, A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">278</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006JSASS..54..189M"> <span id="translatedtitle">A Study on Pseudo-<span class="hlt">Shock</span> Wave Formation Mechanism</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The characterization of pseudo-<span class="hlt">shock</span> wave which is made by interaction between a <span class="hlt">shock</span> wave and boundary layer is important for various aerospace engineering purposes including the isolator in a scram jet engine. In the present paper, two-dimensional numerical simulation was conducted to reveal physically how the <span class="hlt">shock</span>-boundary layer interaction produces a pseudo-oblique <span class="hlt">shock</span> wave for a supersonic channel flow with a slender obstacle located at the center downstream. It is found that a high-speed jet against the supersonic <span class="hlt">main</span> flow which is issued from the attachment point of a <span class="hlt">shock</span> wave with the channel wall is the <span class="hlt">main</span> mechanism for the formation of a series of reverse flow regions in the pseudo-<span class="hlt">shock</span> wave.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Matsumoto, Hiroki; Umemura, Akira</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">279</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013RScI...84g5105Y"> <span id="translatedtitle">A non-diaphragm type small <span class="hlt">shock</span> tube for application to a molecular beam source</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A non-diaphragm type small <span class="hlt">shock</span> tube was developed for application to a molecular beam source, which can generate beams in the energy range from 1 to several electron volts and beams containing dissociated species such as atomic oxygen. Since repetitive high-frequency operation is indispensable for rapid signal acquisition in beam scattering experiments, the dimensions of the <span class="hlt">shock</span> tube were miniaturized to reduce the evacuation time between shots. The designed <span class="hlt">shock</span> tube is 2-4 mm in diameter and can operate at 0.5 Hz. Moreover, a high <span class="hlt">shock</span> Mach number at the tube end is required for high-energy molecular beam generation. To reduce the <span class="hlt">shock</span> attenuation caused by the wall boundary layer, which becomes significant in small-diameter tubes, we developed a high-speed response valve employing the current-loop mechanism. The response time of this mechanism is about 100 ?s, which is shorter than the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> time of conventional diaphragms. We show that the current-loop valve generates <span class="hlt">shock</span> waves with shorter formation distances (about 200-300 mm) than those of conventional <span class="hlt">shock</span> tubes. In addition, the converging geometry efficiently accelerates <span class="hlt">shock</span> wave in the small-diameter tubes. The optimal geometry of the <span class="hlt">shock</span> tube yields <span class="hlt">shock</span> Mach number around 7, which indicates that the translation energy of molecular beams can exceed 1 eV even in the presence of the real gas effect.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yoshimoto, Yuta; Osuka, Kenichi; Miyoshi, Nobuya; Kinefuchi, Ikuya; Takagi, Shu; Matsumoto, Yoichiro</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">280</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23902104"> <span id="translatedtitle">A non-diaphragm type small <span class="hlt">shock</span> tube for application to a molecular beam source.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A non-diaphragm type small <span class="hlt">shock</span> tube was developed for application to a molecular beam source, which can generate beams in the energy range from 1 to several electron volts and beams containing dissociated species such as atomic oxygen. Since repetitive high-frequency operation is indispensable for rapid signal acquisition in beam scattering experiments, the dimensions of the <span class="hlt">shock</span> tube were miniaturized to reduce the evacuation time between shots. The designed <span class="hlt">shock</span> tube is 2-4 mm in diameter and can operate at 0.5 Hz. Moreover, a high <span class="hlt">shock</span> Mach number at the tube end is required for high-energy molecular beam generation. To reduce the <span class="hlt">shock</span> attenuation caused by the wall boundary layer, which becomes significant in small-diameter tubes, we developed a high-speed response valve employing the current-loop mechanism. The response time of this mechanism is about 100 ?s, which is shorter than the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> time of conventional diaphragms. We show that the current-loop valve generates <span class="hlt">shock</span> waves with shorter formation distances (about 200-300 mm) than those of conventional <span class="hlt">shock</span> tubes. In addition, the converging geometry efficiently accelerates <span class="hlt">shock</span> wave in the small-diameter tubes. The optimal geometry of the <span class="hlt">shock</span> tube yields <span class="hlt">shock</span> Mach number around 7, which indicates that the translation energy of molecular beams can exceed 1 eV even in the presence of the real gas effect. PMID:23902104</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yoshimoto, Yuta; Osuka, Kenichi; Miyoshi, Nobuya; Kinefuchi, Ikuya; Takagi, Shu; Matsumoto, Yoichiro</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' 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onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">281</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/23470939"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Rupture</span> and dewetting of water films on solid surfaces</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">An experimental study was conducted to observe <span class="hlt">rupture</span> and dewetting of water films, 0.5–2mm thick, on solid surfaces. The effects of surface roughness, wettability, protrusions on surfaces, and air entrapment between films and surfaces were studied. Film thickness measurements were made and film <span class="hlt">rupture</span> and surface dewetting photographed. Experiments showed that liquid films <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> first along the highest edges of</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Neil Mulji; Sanjeev Chandra</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">282</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009A%26ARv..17..409T"> <span id="translatedtitle">Fundamentals of collisionless <span class="hlt">shocks</span> for astrophysical application, 1. Non-relativistic <span class="hlt">shocks</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A comprehensive review is given of the theory and properties of nonrelativistic <span class="hlt">shocks</span> in hot collisionless plasmas—in view of their possible application in astrophysics. Understanding non-relativistic collisionless <span class="hlt">shocks</span> is an indispensable step towards a general account of collisionless astrophysical <span class="hlt">shocks</span> of high Mach number and of their effects in dissipating flow-energy, in heating matter, in accelerating particles to high—presumably cosmic-ray—energies, and in generating detectable radiation from radio to X-rays. Non-relativistic <span class="hlt">shocks</span> have Alfvénic Mach numbers {{fancyscript{M}}_A? sqrt{m_i/m_e}(?_{pe}/?_{ce})}, where m i / m e is the ion-to-electron mass ratio, and ? pe , ? ce are the electron plasma and cyclotron frequencies, respectively. Though high, the temperatures of such <span class="hlt">shocks</span> are limited (in energy units) to T < m e c 2. This means that particle creation is inhibited, classical theory is applicable, and reaction of radiation on the dynamics of the <span class="hlt">shock</span> can be neglected. The majority of such <span class="hlt">shocks</span> are supercritical, meaning that non-relativistic <span class="hlt">shocks</span> are unable to self-consistently produce sufficient dissipation and, thus, to sustain a stationary <span class="hlt">shock</span> transition. As a consequence, supercritical <span class="hlt">shocks</span> act as efficient particle reflectors. All these <span class="hlt">shocks</span> are microscopically thin, with <span class="hlt">shock</span>-transition width of the order of the ion inertial length ? i = c/ ? pi (with ? pi the ion plasma frequency). The full theory of such <span class="hlt">shocks</span> is developed, and the different possible types of <span class="hlt">shocks</span> are defined. Since all collisionless <span class="hlt">shocks</span> are magnetised, the most important distinction is between quasi-perpendicular and quasi-parallel <span class="hlt">shocks</span>. The former propagate about perpendicularly, the latter roughly parallel to the upstream magnetic field. Their manifestly different behaviours are described in detail. In particular, although both types of <span class="hlt">shocks</span> are non-stationary, they have completely different reformation cycles. From numerical full-particle simulations it becomes evident that, on ion-inertial scales close to the <span class="hlt">shock</span> transition, all quasi-parallel collisionless supercritical <span class="hlt">shocks</span> are locally quasi-perpendicular. This property is of vital importance for the particle dynamics near the quasi-parallel <span class="hlt">shock</span> front. Considerable interest focusses on particle acceleration and the generation of radiation. Radiation from non-relativistic <span class="hlt">shocks</span> results <span class="hlt">mainly</span> in wave-wave interactions among various plasma waves. Non-thermal charged particles can be further accelerated to high energies by a Fermi-like mechanism. The important question is whether the <span class="hlt">shock</span> can pre-accelerate <span class="hlt">shock</span>-reflected particles to sufficiently high energies in order to create the seed-population of the non-thermal particles required by the Fermi mechanism. Based on preliminary full-particle numerical simulations, this question is answered affirmatively. Such simulations provide ample evidence that collisionless <span class="hlt">shocks</span> with high-Mach numbers—even when non-relativistic—could probably by themselves produce the energetic seed-particle population for the Fermi-process.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Treumann, R. A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">283</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23925255"> <span id="translatedtitle">Iatrogenic tracheal <span class="hlt">rupture</span> in a child: case study and review of literature.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Tracheal <span class="hlt">rupture</span> is rare in childhood, and optimal treatment is not clear. A 14-year-old boy was admitted to a local hospital after sudden loss of consciousness. He underwent endotracheal intubation and was referred to our hospital. The patient's history revealed that he had voluntarily inhaled butane gas. The physical examination was consistent with coma and cardiogenic <span class="hlt">shock</span>, and the chest radiograph showed pulmonary edema. The patient was admitted to the intensive care unit, and diuretic and inotropic therapy was started. In the third hour of monitoring of the patient under mechanical ventilation, subcutaneous emphysema and pneumothorax at the right hemithorax were observed without deterioration of the vital functions. Thoracic computed tomography scan findings were consistent with tracheal <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. The patient was monitored conservatively without surgery. On the fifth day of hospitalization, his tube was removed, and he was discharged on the 12th day with a positive prognosis. In this study, a tracheal <span class="hlt">rupture</span> case after endotracheal intubation is presented in which the patient recovered completely with conservative therapy. PMID:23925255</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Paksu, Muhammet Sukru; Kilinc, Ayse Ayzit; Asilioglu, Nazik; Gunaydin, Mithat; Aydin, Turgay; Guzel, Ahmet</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">284</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20070019695&hterms=MPS&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3DMPS"> <span id="translatedtitle">Strain Measurement Using FBG on COPV in Stress <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> Test</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">White Sands Test Facility (WSTF) was requested to perform ambient temperature hydrostatic pressurization testing of a Space Transportation System (STS) 40-in. Kevlar Composite Overwrapped Pressure Vessel (COPV). The 40-in. vessel was of the same design and approximate age as the STS <span class="hlt">Main</span> Propulsion System (MPS) and Orbiter Maneuvering System (OMS) vessels. The NASA Engineering Safety Center (NESC) assembled a team of experts and conducted an assessment that involved a review of national Kevlar COPY data. During the review, the STS COPVs were found to be beyond their original certification of ten years. The team observed that the likelihood of STS COPV Stress <span class="hlt">rupture</span>, a catastrophic burst before leak failure mode, was greater than previously believed. Consequently, a detailed assessment of remaining stress <span class="hlt">rupture</span> life became necessary. Prior to STS-114, a certification deviation was written for two flights of OV-103 (Discovery) and OV-104 (Atlantis) per rationale that was based on an extensive review of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories, COPV data, and revisions to the STS COPV stress levels. In order to obtain flight rationale to extend the certification deviation through the end of the Program, the Orbiter Project Office has directed an interagency COPV team to conduct further testing and analysis to investigate conservatism in the stress <span class="hlt">rupture</span> model and evaluate material age degradation. Additional analysis of stress <span class="hlt">rupture</span> life requires understanding the fiber stresses including stress that occurs due to thru-wall composite compression in COPV components. Data must be obtained at both zero gauge pressure (pre-stress) and at the component operating pressure so that this phenomenon can be properly evaluated. The zero gauge pressure stresses are predominantly a result of the autofrettage process used during vessel manufacture. Determining these pre-stresses and the constitutive behavior of the overwrap at pressure will provide necessary information to better predict the remaining life of the STS COPVs. The primary test objective is obtaining data to verify the hypothesis of a radially oriented thru-thickness stress-riser in the COPV composite whose magnitude is a function of the applied pressure and the load history. The anticipated load dependent response follows from the constitutive behavior of the composite overwrap so data to quantify its nonlinear and time dependent response will be sought. The objective of the Fiber Braggs Gratings (FBGs) were to advance the state-of-the-art by developing techniques using FBG sensors that are capable of assessing stress-<span class="hlt">rupture</span> degradation in Kevlar COPVs in a health monitoring mode (1). Moreover, they sought to answer questions of how embedded sensors affect overall integrity of the structure. And lastly, they sought to provide an important link in the overall stress <span class="hlt">rupture</span> study that will help close the loop on the COPV fabrication process. NDE inspection methods will be used from start to finish and FBG will be an integral link within the overall chain.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Banks, Curtis; Grant, Joseph</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">285</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21123989"> <span id="translatedtitle">Subarachnoid hemorrhage caused by a <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> anterior spinal artery aneurysm.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A 51-year-old man presented with an extremely rare case of intracranial subarachnoid hemorrhage caused by <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of an anterior spinal artery aneurysm manifesting as disturbance of consciousness following sudden onset of neck pain and numbness of the extremities. Cranial computed tomography revealed subarachnoid hemorrhage, <span class="hlt">mainly</span> in the posterior fossa. Cerebral angiography studies on admission and on the 4th day demonstrated no definite abnormality as a bleeding source. A ventricular catheter was inserted to treat the acute hydrocephalus, and conservative management was continued during the acute period. Third angiography on the 18th day demonstrated an anterior spinal artery aneurysm at the C1 level which was considered to be the bleeding site. After conservative treatment, the patient was discharged without neurological deficits. Fourth angiography on the 108 th day disclosed spontaneous disappearance of the aneurysm, which was confirmed by the fifth angiography on the 269 th day. If subarachnoid hemorrhage of unknown etiology is encountered, spinal artery aneurysm should be considered as the bleeding source. Despite the controversy concerning the treatment strategy, <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> spinal artery aneurysms can be treated conservatively because of the possibility of spontaneous regression. Follow-up angiography is required to evaluate the natural course of the lesion. PMID:21123989</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Karakama, Jun; Nakagawa, Kazuhiko; Maehara, Taketoshi; Ohno, Kikuo</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">286</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/pr5242h617865n71.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Study of the <span class="hlt">shock</span>-induced acceleration of hexane droplets</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">An experimental study of the interaction of a <span class="hlt">shock</span> wave with a hexane droplet is presented. The <span class="hlt">main</span> goal of the experiments\\u000a was to record images of the process and measure basic parameters describing movement, dispersion and evaporation of the droplets\\u000a engulfed by a <span class="hlt">shock</span> wave propagating in air. A <span class="hlt">shock</span> tube with a visualization section was used for this</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Arkadiusz Kobiera; Jacek Szymczyk; Piotr Wolanski; Allen Kuhl</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">287</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002GeoJI.149..572S"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Rupture</span> nucleations in the 1995 Hyogo-ken Nanbu earthquake and its large aftershocks</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Local seismograms of the Hyogo-ken Nanbu earthquake (M 7.2) and its largest aftershocks show that a slow rising initial phase precedes the <span class="hlt">main</span> P phase. High dynamic range short-period seismograms of the foreshocks, mainshock and aftershocks were recorded by the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) network and the NET-HYOGO. Using these seismograms, we investigate the initial <span class="hlt">rupture</span> process of the mainshock and large aftershocks using an empirical Green's function method. The deconvolved moment rate function of the mainshock shows that it begins with a small pre-event (Mw 4.0), then the moment releases gradually, and after about 0.6 s, it increases rapidly. The first 0.7 s of the deconvolved moment rate functions are inverted to obtain the spatio-temporal images of the initial <span class="hlt">rupture</span> process. The results show that at the hypocentral area (less than 1 km from the hypocentre) slip velocity rises slowly with a low peak. In the surrounding area, 1 km east and downward from the hypocentre, slip velocity rises rapidly with a high peak. It is also found that during the initial <span class="hlt">rupture</span> process, the slip velocity pulse grows continuously. These observations are in accord with a theoretical model of the transition process from nucleation to high-speed dynamic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> in which slip velocity rises slowly at the nucleation zone. We also analyse the initiation and the <span class="hlt">main</span> dynamic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of large aftershocks. Spatio-temporal images of the largest aftershocks (M 5.1 and M 4.8) show that there is a clear initial <span class="hlt">rupture</span> process with a low moment release and, after about 0.2 s, slip velocity increases rapidly. We compare the initial <span class="hlt">rupture</span> process of the mainshock with those of the large aftershocks (M 4.0-5.1). The duration (0.6 s) of the initial phase of the mainshock is longer than those (0.02-0.3 s) of the large aftershocks. Furthermore, the slip velocity of the initial <span class="hlt">rupture</span> process of the mainshock is several times larger than those of the two largest aftershocks. These results suggest that the mainshock starts in the region where the stress drop and fracture energy is higher.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Shibazaki, Bunichiro; Yoshida, Yasuhiro; Nakamura, Mamoru; Nakamura, Masao; Katao, Hiroshi</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">288</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21515086"> <span id="translatedtitle">[Prediction of maternofetal infection in preterm premature <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of membranes: serum maternal markers].</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Premature <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of membranes is a common situation in obstetrics that links the amniotic cavity and the bacterial cervicovaginal flora. The <span class="hlt">main</span> risk in case of preterm premature <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of membranes is the occurrence of an amniochorial infection, which increases neonatal morbidity and mortality. One <span class="hlt">main</span> purpose in cases of preterm premature <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of membranes is to identify infection early to adapt the clinical care. Among the marker used in practice, CRP has a sensitivity between 56% and 86% and specificity between 55% and 82% for predicting clinical chorioamnionitis. These values are respectively 21% to 56% and 76% to 95% for the prediction of early neonatal infection. The white blood cell count, also used in routine, has a poor predictive value of clinical chorioamnionitis although a high specificity when the threshold is of 16 giga/l. Among the pro-inflammatory cytokines, interleukin-6 has been the most studied. Its predictive value for chorioamnionitis or neonatal infection is higher but its clinical usefulness is limited by the various threshold used in the studies and the lack of routine measure. Procalcitonin appears to have low predictive values for detecting amniochorial infection but has finally been little studied. Ways to improve prediction of infection in cases of premature <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of membranes are either looking for new markers or the analysis of local markers (vaginal secretions and amniotic fluid). PMID:21515086</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Popowski, T; Goffinet, F; Batteux, F; Maillard, F; Kayem, G</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">289</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFMNH43B1321K"> <span id="translatedtitle">FOCUSING SEISMIC ENERGY ALONG FAULTS THROUGH TIME-VARIABLE <span class="hlt">RUPTURE</span> MODES: WENCHUAN EARTHQUAKE, CHINA</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Field analysis and RADAR differential interferometry derived from The Phased Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR) of the epicentral area of the May 12 2008 Mw 8.0 Wenchuan earthquake zone reveals some of the largest-ever fault <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> and ground displacments, with field-documented vertical displacements reaching 12 meters along the trace of the <span class="hlt">main</span> fault <span class="hlt">rupture</span>, and PALSAR-measured horizontal displacements reaching 12.3 meters. Slip indicators on the fault scarp show initially sub-horizontal then progressively steeper slip increments with time along the same fault during the 2 minute earthquake, suggesting that the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> propagated as a mixed Mode II-III fracture, with strike-slip movement at the tip directing energy from the initial <span class="hlt">rupture</span> to points north of the epicenter, followed by vertical displacement in the interior of the slipped region. The changing slip directions may correlate with three <span class="hlt">main</span> pulses of energy release at 0, 23, and 57 seconds during the earthquake as recorded by seismograms. The earthquake generated massive landslides > 100 km north of the epicenter along the trace of the fault. The concentration of massive landslides and ground deformation so far north of the epicenter may be related to the Mode II-III fracture propagation focusing the energy along the fault towards the north. The focusing of energy explains why so much devastation occurred more than 100 km from the epicenter, such as in the destroyed city of Beichuan.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kusky, T.; Ghulam, A.; Wang, L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">290</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMSH41B2202Y"> <span id="translatedtitle">Ion heating and energy redistribution across supercritical perpendicular <span class="hlt">shocks</span>: Application to planetary and interplanetary <span class="hlt">shocks</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We investigate how the ion dissipative process across supercritical perpendicular <span class="hlt">shocks</span> depends on the <span class="hlt">shock</span> front micro-structures. At a collisionless plasma <span class="hlt">shock</span>, the dissipation and micro-structure of the <span class="hlt">shock</span> font are dominated by wave-particle interactions. Comparison of the ion thermalization at different kinds of <span class="hlt">shocks</span>, e.g., planetary and interplanetary <span class="hlt">shocks</span>, can quantify how much interaction is occurring at the <span class="hlt">shock</span> boundary. Investigation of this problem for diverse solar wind (SW) conditions will yield important information on the dependences of the ion thermalization and energy redistribution on plasma parameters. With the aid of a successful automatic separation method [Yang et al., 2009], the incident ions at the <span class="hlt">shock</span> can be divided into two parts: reflected (R) ions and directly transmitted (DT) ions. Corresponding heating efficiency of each population of ions at the <span class="hlt">shock</span> can be calculated respectively. Wilkinson & Schwartz [1990] have theorized that the amount of reflected ions at perpendicular <span class="hlt">shocks</span> depends on plasma parameters. Based on the Rankine-Hugoniot (R-H) conservation laws, they found that the fraction reflected is strongly dependent on the magnitude of the ratio of specific heat capacities ? chosen in the R-H relations. The <span class="hlt">main</span> goal of this work is to investigate how the plasma parameters, e.g. the particle velocity distribution, the plasma beta value, seed populations, etc. (from a particle dynamic point of view), control the amount of reflected ions by using one-dimensional (1-D) full-particle-cell simulations. The simulation results may help to explain the ion heating efficiency and energy redistribution at <span class="hlt">shocks</span> observed by Cluster, Wind, Voyager, etc.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yang, Z.; Liu, Y. D.; Richardson, J. D.; Parks, G. K.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">291</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.T43A2638K"> <span id="translatedtitle">Development of an extended BIEM and its application to the analysis of earthquake dynamic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> interacting with a medium interface</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">An extended boundary integral equation method (XBIEM) has been recently proposed for the analysis of dynamic crack growth (=dynamic earthquake <span class="hlt">rupture</span> model) in an inhomogeneous medium consisting of homogeneous sub-regions. Originally XBIEM is applicable to non-planar geometry of cracks and medium interfaces, but it has been demonstrated only for a simple planar crack along a bimaterial interface. Here we developed a code to analyse non-planar <span class="hlt">rupture</span> with non-planar interfaces in a mode III problem, and applied it to a dynamic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> problem across a planar bimaterial interface to investigate the effect of medium inhomogeneity. For this purpose, we firstly derived all the displacement and displacement velocity kernels in a unified analytic discretized form, in addition to the stress kernels already derived, necessary for versatile geometry of boundaries (i.e., cracks and interfaces) and checked all the kernel components in the simulation of wave propagation across a non-planar interface cutting a homogeneous medium. Then we validated our code in a wave reflection-transmission problem across a planar bimaterial interface. Secondly, in order to realize the analysis of dynamic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> crossing a bimaterial interface we introduced a new implicit time-stepping scheme for instantaneously interacting boundary elements on the crack and medium interface. Such interactions only appear in the crack's crossing the interface. Otherwise we can use the explicit scheme as employed for BIEM in a homogeneous medium. We validated our numerical code for the crack growth in a homogeneous medium cut with a planar interface and found that our new scheme worked well. Finally, we tackled dynamic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> propagation on a planar fault embedded normal to the planar interface of a bimaterial. Spontaneous <span class="hlt">rupture</span> was allowed not only on the planar <span class="hlt">main</span> fault but also on the interfacial fault and it is controlled by different slip-weakening laws on each of them: each peak strength is individually chosen and its ratio ?=?(interface)/?(<span class="hlt">main</span>) is chosen as one of controlling parameters. Another parameter ? is chosen as a ratio of the shear wave velocities of the bimaterial, ?=?(+)/?(-). Simulations were conducted for hundres of parameter sets of (?, ?). Our results showed two distinct <span class="hlt">rupture</span> processes: a) one is to propagate <span class="hlt">rupture</span> just on the prescribed fault, and b) another is to activate the subsidiary interfacial <span class="hlt">rupture</span>, which finally results in arresting <span class="hlt">rupture</span> on the <span class="hlt">main</span> planar fault. Two processes were found to be clearly divided by a line in the parameter plane (?, ?). With increasing ?, <span class="hlt">rupture</span> tends to stay on the <span class="hlt">main</span> fault with less significant activation of subsidiary interfacial <span class="hlt">rupture</span> and it agrees with our physical anticipation. With increasing ? from 0.7 to 1.4 (one corresponds to homogeneous), the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> processes shift from (a) to (b). This dependency may be understandable in terms of two extreme cases: <span class="hlt">rupture</span> approaching a free surface and <span class="hlt">rupture</span> approaching a fixed boundary. In the former case, the traction approaches zero in the vicinity of free surface, and thus stress does not concentrate along the interface, and vice versa.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kusakabe, T.; Kame, N.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">292</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20192491"> <span id="translatedtitle">Miniature <span class="hlt">shock</span> tube for laser driven <span class="hlt">shocks</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We describe in this paper the design of a miniature <span class="hlt">shock</span> tube (smaller than 1 cm(3)) that can be placed in a vacuum vessel and allows transverse optical probing and longitudinal backside extreme ultraviolet emission spectroscopy in the 100-500 A range. Typical application is the study of laser launched radiative <span class="hlt">shocks</span>, in the framework of what is called "laboratory astrophysics." PMID:20192491</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Busquet, Michel; Barroso, Patrice; Melse, Thierry; Bauduin, Daniel</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">293</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/27657847"> <span id="translatedtitle">Miniature <span class="hlt">shock</span> tube for laser driven <span class="hlt">shocks</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">We describe in this paper the design of a miniature <span class="hlt">shock</span> tube (smaller than 1 cm3) that can be placed in a vacuum vessel and allows transverse optical probing and longitudinal backside extreme ultraviolet emission spectroscopy in the 100-500 A˚ range. Typical application is the study of laser launched radiative <span class="hlt">shocks</span>, in the framework of what is called ``laboratory astrophysics.''</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Michel Busquet; Patrice Barroso; Thierry Melse; Daniel Bauduin</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">294</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003ASAJ..113..586Z"> <span id="translatedtitle">Suppression of large intraluminal bubble expansion in <span class="hlt">shock</span> wave lithotripsy without compromising stone comminution: Refinement of reflector geometry</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Using the Hamilton model [Hamilton, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 93, 1256-1266 (1993)], the effects of reflector geometry on the pulse profile and sequence of the <span class="hlt">shock</span> waves produced by the original and upgraded reflector of an HM-3 lithotripter were evaluated qualitatively. Guided by this analysis, we have refined the geometry of the upgraded reflector to enhance its suppressive effect on intraluminal bubble expansion without compromising stone comminution in <span class="hlt">shock</span> wave lithotripsy. Using the original HM-3 reflector at 20 kV, <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of a standard vessel phantom made of cellulose hollow fiber (i.d.=0.2 mm), in which degassed water seeded with ultrasound contrast agents was circulated, was produced at the lithotripter focus after about 30 <span class="hlt">shocks</span>. In contrast, using the upgraded reflector at 24 kV no <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of the vessel phantom could be produced within a 20-mm diameter around the lithotripter focus even after 200 <span class="hlt">shocks</span>. On the other hand, stone comminution was comparable between the two reflector configurations, although slightly larger fragments were produced by the upgraded reflector. After 2000 <span class="hlt">shocks</span>, stone comminution efficiency produced by the original HM-3 reflector at 20 kV is 97.15+/-1.92% (mean+/-SD), compared to 90.35+/-1.96% produced by the upgraded reflector at 24 kV (p<0.02). All together, it was found that the upgraded reflector could significantly reduce the propensity for vessel <span class="hlt">rupture</span> in <span class="hlt">shock</span> wave lithotripsy while maintaining satisfactory stone comminution.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zhou, Yufeng; Zhong, Pei</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">295</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19631397"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Main</span> pulmonary artery aneurysm.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Alterations of <span class="hlt">main</span> pulmonary artery have been described in literature. <span class="hlt">Main</span> pulmonary artery aneurysm is very rare with few available published data. We present a case of echocardiographic finding of a <span class="hlt">main</span> pulmonary artery aneurysm in a 78-year-old Italian woman. PMID:19631397</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Patanè, Salvatore; Marte, Filippo; Dattilo, Giuseppe; Sturiale, Mauro</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-10-20</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">296</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19698091"> <span id="translatedtitle">A review on delayed presentation of diaphragmatic <span class="hlt">rupture</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Diaphragmatic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> is a life-threatening condition. Diaphragmatic injuries are quite uncommon and often result from either blunt or penetrating trauma. Diaphragmatic <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> are usually associated with abdominal trauma however, it can occur in isolation. Acute traumatic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of the diaphragm may go unnoticed and there is often a delay between the injury and the diagnosis. A comprehensive literature search was performed using the terms "delayed presentation of post traumatic diaphragmatic <span class="hlt">rupture</span>" and "delayed diaphragmatic <span class="hlt">rupture</span>". The diagnostic and management challenges encountered are discussed, together with strategies for dealing with them. We have focussed on mechanism of injury, duration, presentation and site of injury, visceral herniation, investigations and different approaches for repair. We intend to stress on the importance of delay in presentation of diaphragmatic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> and to provide a review on the available investigations and treatment methods. The enclosed case report also emphasizes on the delayed presentation, diagnostic challenges and the advantages of laparoscopic repair of delayed diaphragmatic <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. PMID:19698091</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rashid, Farhan; Chakrabarty, Mallicka M; Singh, Rajeev; Iftikhar, Syed Y</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">297</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFM.S43A1978S"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Rupture</span> directivity and local site effects: the M7.3 Honduras earthquake of May 23, 2009</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">On May 28, 2009, at 2:24 AM local time, a M 7.3 earthquake struck off the coast of Honduras on the Motagua-Swan Fault System (MSFS), part of the boundary between the North America and Caribbean plates. This plate boundary has an average slip rate of 20 mm/year. This left-lateral earthquake had an average slip of 1.5 m on a 100-km-long near-vertical fault plane (Hayes and Ji, 2009). The hypocenter depth is estimated at 10 km. The <span class="hlt">main</span> <span class="hlt">shock</span> caused 130 structures, including homes and office buildings, to collapse or suffer significant damage in northern Honduras. Seven deaths were reported. Due to a lack of recordings in the area, the available documentation of the local effects of this earthquake are the USGS "Did you feel it?" responses and the data collected during our field seismic intensity investigation. We conducted a field investigation in Honduras between May 30 and June 6, 2009, focused on areas with local reports of damage, including the cities of La Ceiba, El Progresso, San Pedro Sula, Puerto Cortes in northern Honduras and the island of Roatan in the Caribbean Sea. The damage ascertained at these five sites shows that the severity of damage did not decrease with distance from the epicenter as predicted by standard attenuation relations. Instead, a concentration of damage was observed in El Progresso, approximately 75 km directly south from the SW end of the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> and 160 km from the epicenter. The island of Roatan, just 30 km from the epicenter, was graded as VI on the Modified Mercalli Intensity scale while, El Progresso was graded as VIII (one unit higher than “Did you feel it?”). These intensity anomalies can be explained by two factors: (1) SW-directed <span class="hlt">rupture</span> propagation and proximity to a localized 3.0m slip pulse (asperity) that occurred near the SW end of the fault (Hayes and Ji, 2009) that focused energy toward the city of El Progress on the mainland and; (2) local site effects, particularly the Precambrian schists and gneisses on the island of Roatan, in contrast to the soft river deposits (sand, organics, and clay) beneath the city of El Progresso. This study demonstrates the impact of seismic directivity, a fault asperity, and local site conditions on the observed damage patterns from the May 28, 2009 M 7.3 earthquake.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Shulman, D.; Mooney, W. D.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">298</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://mynasadata.larc.nasa.gov/lesson-plans/?page_id=474?&passid=100"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Fabled <span class="hlt">Maine</span> Winter</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">No study of <span class="hlt">Maine</span> weather would be complete without analysis of the year of 1816 - the year with no summer in an area from western Pennsylvania and New York, up through Quebec and across to <span class="hlt">Maine</span> and the Canadian maritimes. In this five-unit lesson, students will investigate the causes and effects of the Fabled <span class="hlt">Maine</span> Winter by exploring a variety of data sources. They will locate, graph, and analyze meteorological and climatological data for Portland, <span class="hlt">Maine</span>, for more recent years to try to find one that most closely resembles the fabled <span class="hlt">Maine</span> winter of 1816.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">299</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006EP%26S...58...37S"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Rupture</span> process of the 2005 West Off Fukuoka Prefecture earthquake obtained from strong motion data of K-NET and KiK-net</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We have investigated the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> process of the 2005 West Off Fukuoka Prefecture earthquake by the multi-time- window linear waveform inversion method using the strong ground motion data recorded at 11 K-NET and KiK-net stations. From the waveforms of the P-wave portion, it is indicated that the energy release in the first few seconds was markedly lower than the subsequent part, and this causes difficulty in identifying onset of the S-wave. To decide an appropriate time window for the waveform inversion, we estimate the S-wave onset using aftershock records. The inverted slip distribution shows a single asperity of 8 km × 6 km and its center located 8 km to the southeast and 6 km above the hypocenter. The asperity explains most of the large-amplitude signals in the observed waveforms. The turning point from the initial low-energy-release <span class="hlt">rupture</span> to the <span class="hlt">main</span> high-energy-release <span class="hlt">rupture</span> is estimated from the spatial variation of the observed initial <span class="hlt">rupture</span> phase. It is found 3.3 s after the initiation of the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> at about 4 km to the southeast of the hypocenter. Stress drop during the initial <span class="hlt">rupture</span> is estimated to be in the same order of those of moderate size aftershocks, which indicates that the initial <span class="hlt">rupture</span> is an ordinary dynamic <span class="hlt">rupture</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sekiguchi, H.; Aoi, S.; Honda, R.; Morikawa, N.; Kunugi, T.; Fujiwara, H.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">300</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.S51B2350A"> <span id="translatedtitle">Factors Contributing to Multi-Segment <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> in the 2010 M7.1 Darfield, New Zealand, Earthquake</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We use dynamic prescribed slip and spontaneous <span class="hlt">rupture</span> modeling to examine the factors contributing to multi-segment <span class="hlt">rupture</span> in the 2010 M7.1 Darfield, New Zealand, earthquake. The simulations build upon the geodetic inversion of static slip and fault geometry by Beavan et al. (2012). We find that dynamic stress changes and the orientation of the faults with respect to the regional stress field as well as the strike-slip/reverse faulting regime create favorable conditions for triggering of the <span class="hlt">main</span> <span class="hlt">rupture</span> on the Greendale fault from <span class="hlt">rupture</span> initiating on the Charing Cross fault. Orientation of the regional stress field and the faulting regime may have also contributed to triggering of <span class="hlt">rupture</span> on a few other small faults in which geodetic inversions, e.g. Beavan et al. (2012), image minor slip. These faults include the Hororata reverse fault west of the epicenter and an oblique fault northwest of the epicenter. However, owing to the complexity of the seismic coda, recorded waveforms provide relatively poor constraints on whether coseismic slip and dynamic triggering occurred late in the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> process on these faults with relatively minor slip.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Aagaard, B.; Williams, C. A.; Fry, B.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' 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onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">301</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/61362647"> <span id="translatedtitle">Comparison of <span class="hlt">shock</span> severity measures</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">In an effort to clarify the issues associated with quantifying <span class="hlt">shock</span> severity, this paper compares the merits of two measures of <span class="hlt">shock</span> severity. The first measure is the widely used absolute acceleration <span class="hlt">shock</span> response spectrum (SAA). The second measure of <span class="hlt">shock</span> severity is relatively new and is known as the <span class="hlt">shock</span> intensity spectrum (SIS). Overall information content of SAA and</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Baca</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1989-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">302</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/54670956"> <span id="translatedtitle">Refraction of Plane <span class="hlt">Shock</span> Waves</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">It is assumed that when a plane <span class="hlt">shock</span> wave is incident on an interface between two gases of different densities rho and rho1, and different ratios of specific heats gamma and gamma1, respectively, a three <span class="hlt">shock</span> configuration results, involving an incident <span class="hlt">shock</span>, a reflected <span class="hlt">shock</span>, and a transmitted <span class="hlt">shock</span>. It is further assumed that in the various angular domains the</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">A. H. Taub</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1947-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">303</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/48926188"> <span id="translatedtitle">Heliospheric <span class="hlt">shocks</span> and catastrophe theory</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Various configurations of forward and reverse <span class="hlt">shocks</span> that occur in the outer heliosphere can be classified using catastrophe theory. The existence of a forward <span class="hlt">shock</span> is associated with a local maximum of a polynomial, and the existence of a reverse <span class="hlt">shock</span> is associated with a local minimum of a polynomial. A configuration with N forward <span class="hlt">shocks</span> and N reverse <span class="hlt">shocks</span></p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">L. F. Burlaga</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1990-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">304</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6099162"> <span id="translatedtitle">Simulations of collisionless <span class="hlt">shocks</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A problem of critical importance to space and astrophysics is the existence and properties of high-Mach-number (HMN) <span class="hlt">shocks</span>. In this letter we present the results of simulations of perpendicular <span class="hlt">shocks</span> with Alfven Mach number 22. We show that the <span class="hlt">shock</span> structure is a sensitive function of resistivity, becoming turbulent when the resistivity is too low. We discuss the problem of electron heating, and the extension of our results to higher Mach numbers. 14 refs., 4 figs.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Quest, K.B.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1984-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">305</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19940007568&hterms=transformation&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3Dtransformation"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Shock</span> transformations in quartzite</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We report results of studies of experimental <span class="hlt">shock</span> metamorphism in a quartzite sample. <span class="hlt">Shock</span> pressure increases in the experiment from a rim to a center of the bowl-shaped sample due to a design of a recovery assembly. The section along an equatorial plane shows a progressive development of <span class="hlt">shock</span> metamorphism. On the basis of observations, it is proposed that diaplectic glass can be a product of quenching a melt.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Badjukov, D. D.; Koslov, E. A.; Zhugin, Yu. N.; Abakshin, E. V.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1993-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">306</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/52695297"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Shock</span>-wave initiation of heated plastified TATB detonation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Explosive, plastified TATB, attracts attention with its weak sensitivity to <span class="hlt">shock</span> loads and high temperature stability ( Pthreshold ? 6.5 GPa and Tcrit ? 250 0Q). However, at its cooling to T 250 0Q plastified TATB becomes as sensitive to <span class="hlt">shock</span> load as octogen base HE: the excitation threshold reduces down to Pthreshold 2.0 GPa. The <span class="hlt">main</span> physical reason for</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Igor Kuzmitsky; Vladimir Rudenko; Leonid Gatilov; Alexandr Koshelev</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">307</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8912991"> <span id="translatedtitle">Premature <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of the membranes: neonatal consequences.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Premature <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of the membranes (PROM), membrane <span class="hlt">rupture</span> before the onset of labor, occurs in 2% to 18% of pregnancies. The time from PROM to delivery (latency) is usually less than 48 hours in term pregnancy. Therefore, the risks of PROM at term are related to fetal distress, prolapsed cord, abruptio placenta, and rarely, infection. Preterm PROM (pPROM), PROM before 37 weeks' gestation, accounts for 20% to 40% of PROM, and the incidence is doubled in multiple gestations. The latency period in pPROM is inversely related to the gestational age thereby increasing the risks of oligohydramnios and infection in very premature infants and their mothers. Because pPROM is associated with 30% to 40% of premature births, pPROM is also responsible for the neonatal problems resulting from prematurity. This review examines the impact of PROM on the neonate including fetal distress, prematurity, infection, pulmonary hypoplasia, and restriction deformations. PMID:8912991</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Merenstein, G B; Weisman, L E</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1996-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">308</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18285737"> <span id="translatedtitle">Fracture of the penis with urethral <span class="hlt">rupture</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We report a rare case of penile fracture with incomplete urethral <span class="hlt">rupture</span> in a 25 years old male who sustained the injury during sexual intercourse. He presented with a tense haematoma on the ventral aspect of the penile shaft, associated with urethral bleeding. Per urethral catheterization was possible though it was painful. Exploration and repair of the penile fracture and urethra were performed within 16 hrs. The patient made an uneventful recovery with good erectile and voiding function. This case illustrates the value of early surgical repair of the fracture in order to prevent complications. The true incidence of penile fracture is not known even in the Western countries because it is under reported or hidden for social embracement and even it is reported to physicians it remains undiagnosed or mismanaged. Very rarely it is associated with urethral <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. PMID:18285737</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Roy, Mk; Matin, Ma; Alam, Mm; Suruzzaman, M; Rahman, Mm</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">309</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25025027"> <span id="translatedtitle">Spontaneous splenic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> in Plasmodium vivax malaria.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Malaria can present with various clinical symptoms and complications. While a tertian malaria form that is especially prevalent in Korea is characterized by mild clinical progression, occasional splenic complications are known to occur. A 26-year-old Korean male soldier without prior medical history visited The Armed Forces Capital Hospital with left upper quadrant abdominal pain one day ago. Hemostasis under laparoscopic approach was attempted. The operation was converted into laparotomy due to friable splenic tissue and consequently poor hemostasis. Splenectomy was performed. The patient was discharged at postoperative day 17 without complication. While numerous diseases can result in splenic complications, such as splenic <span class="hlt">rupture</span>, malarial infection is known as the most common cause. The incidence of malarial infection in Korea is increasing annually, and there are occasional reports of splenic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> due to the infection, which requires attention. PMID:25025027</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kim, Kwang Min; Bae, Byung Koo; Lee, Sung Bae</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">310</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4091436"> <span id="translatedtitle">Spontaneous splenic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> in Plasmodium vivax malaria</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Malaria can present with various clinical symptoms and complications. While a tertian malaria form that is especially prevalent in Korea is characterized by mild clinical progression, occasional splenic complications are known to occur. A 26-year-old Korean male soldier without prior medical history visited The Armed Forces Capital Hospital with left upper quadrant abdominal pain one day ago. Hemostasis under laparoscopic approach was attempted. The operation was converted into laparotomy due to friable splenic tissue and consequently poor hemostasis. Splenectomy was performed. The patient was discharged at postoperative day 17 without complication. While numerous diseases can result in splenic complications, such as splenic <span class="hlt">rupture</span>, malarial infection is known as the most common cause. The incidence of malarial infection in Korea is increasing annually, and there are occasional reports of splenic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> due to the infection, which requires attention.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kim, Kwang Min; Bae, Byung Koo</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">311</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16838618"> <span id="translatedtitle">[Traumatic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of a horseshoe kidney].</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">One-third to one-half of all patients with horseshoe kidney are asymptomatic and the condition is found incidentally. This congenital renal anomaly has shown as a predisponent condition for renal injury in blunt abdominal trauma, but often the degree of injury has a nonoperative therapy. Horseshoe kidney <span class="hlt">rupture</span> is an exceptional pathology that require a complete diagnostic study to make an adequate management when surgical therapy is indicated. We present a fifteen-year-old male with previously unsuspected horseshoe kidney that suffered an atypical right upper-pole and mesorrenal kidney <span class="hlt">rupture</span> after low-velocity-impact blunt abdominal trauma. A correct presurgical diagnose let a deferred surgical approach with right lower pole and horseshoe renal isthmus preservation. The trauma conditions, an excesive clinic manifestation, a clinical investigation about known congenital simultaneous anomallies and typical radiological signs, can suggest this infrequent patology. Computed tomography provides the best radiological information. PMID:16838618</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Pascual Samaniego, M; Bravo Fernández, I; Ruiz Serrano, M; Ramos Martín, J A; Lázaro Méndez, J; García González, A</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">312</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22083696"> <span id="translatedtitle">Isolated right diaphragmatic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> following blunt trauma.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Blunt diaphragmatic injuries are usually caused by blunt trauma or penetrating injuries. The diagnosis may be delayed or missed because of the confusing clinical and radiographic findings and the presence of multiple associated injuries. We report the case of an isolated right diaphragm <span class="hlt">rupture</span> in a 56-year-old man who sustained blunt thoracic trauma after car accident 2 weeks before presentation. No other injuries were detected, and he was subjected to laparotomy. Diaphragmatic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> is perceived as an emergency entity. The late appearance of such an injury, without other accompanying injuries, is rare and should be in mind by clinicians treating trauma patients who have a delayed presentation after the injury. PMID:22083696</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Baloyiannis, Ioannis; Kouritas, Vasileios K; Karagiannis, Konstantinos; Spyridakis, Michalis; Efthimiou, Matheos</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">313</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009SPIE.7163E..19S"> <span id="translatedtitle">Computational model of retinal photocoagulation and <span class="hlt">rupture</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In patterned scanning laser photocoagulation, shorter duration (< 20 ms) pulses help reduce thermal damage beyond the photoreceptor layer, decrease treatment time and minimize pain. However, safe therapeutic window (defined as the ratio of <span class="hlt">rupture</span> threshold power to that of light coagulation) decreases for shorter exposures. To quantify the extent of thermal damage in the retina, and maximize the therapeutic window, we developed a computational model of retinal photocoagulation and <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. Model parameters were adjusted to match measured thresholds of vaporization, coagulation, and retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) damage. Computed lesion width agreed with histological measurements in a wide range of pulse durations and power. Application of ring-shaped beam profile was predicted to double the therapeutic window width for exposures in the range of 1 - 10 ms.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sramek, Christopher; Paulus, Yannis M.; Nomoto, Hiroyuki; Huie, Phil; Palanker, Daniel</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">314</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19960001675&hterms=Young+Sung+Kim&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3DYoung%2BSung%2BKim"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Shock</span> tunnel studies of scramjet phenomena 1994</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A new expansion tube facility has been built, and is in the process of being commissioned. It has a bore of 90 mm, and has been designed for peak <span class="hlt">rupture</span> pressures of 100 Mpa. It is configured with multiple sections and diaphragm location stations to give optimized performance over a range of sub and superorbital conditions. It has a compound piston arrangement for a two stage compression, designed to maximize the length of <span class="hlt">shock</span> expansion tube which can be driven within a fixed total facility length. Experiments have been successfully performed with a dummy first stage piston, and a rubber energy absorbing brake. The results agree well with a one-dimensional stress wave model of the piston impacting on the rubber, and codes for piston motion. Strain of the rubber is restricted to approximately 20 percent at which level no damage is to be expected in the buffer material, and none has been observed, indicating that the mechanism will be fully reuseable.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1995-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">315</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011GeoRL..38.0G07M"> <span id="translatedtitle">A window into the complexity of the dynamic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of the 2011 Mw 9 Tohoku-Oki earthquake</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The 2011 Mw 9 Tohoku-Oki earthquake, recorded by over 1000 near-field stations and multiple large-aperture arrays, is by far the best recorded earthquake in the history of seismology and provides unique opportunities to address fundamental issues in earthquake source dynamics. Here we conduct a high resolution array analysis based on recordings from the USarray and the European network. The mutually consistent results from both arrays reveal <span class="hlt">rupture</span> complexity with unprecedented resolution, involving phases of diverse <span class="hlt">rupture</span> speed and intermittent high frequency bursts within slow speed phases, which suggests spatially heterogeneous material properties. The earthquake initially propagates down-dip, with a slow initiation phase followed by sustained propagation at speeds of 3 km/s. The <span class="hlt">rupture</span> then slows down to 1.5 km/s for 60 seconds. A rich sequence of bursts is generated along the down-dip rim of this slow and roughly circular <span class="hlt">rupture</span> front. Before the end of the slow phase an extremely fast <span class="hlt">rupture</span> front detaches at about 5 km/s towards the North. Finally a <span class="hlt">rupture</span> front propagates towards the south running at about 2.5 km/s for over 100 km. Key features of the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> process are confirmed by the strong motion data recorded by K-net and KIK-net. The energetic high frequency radiation episodes within a slow <span class="hlt">rupture</span> phase suggests a patchy image of the brittle-ductile transition zone, composed of discrete brittle asperities within a ductile matrix. The high frequency is generated <span class="hlt">mainly</span> at the down-dip edge of the principal slip regions constrained by geodesy, suggesting a variation along dip of the mechanical properties of the mega thrust fault or their spatial heterogeneity that affects rise time.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Meng, Lingsen; Inbal, Asaf; Ampuero, Jean-Paul</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">316</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20020079123&hterms=Primary+Care&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3D%2522Primary%2BCare%2522"> <span id="translatedtitle">Anti-<span class="hlt">Shock</span> Garment</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Ames Research Center developed a prototype pressure suit for hemophiliac children, based on research of astronauts' physiological responses in microgravity. Zoex Corporation picked up the design and patents and developed an anti-<span class="hlt">shock</span> garment for paramedic use. Marketed by Dyna Med, the suit reverses the effect of <span class="hlt">shock</span> on the body's blood distribution by applying counterpressure to the legs and abdomen, returning blood to vital organs and stabilizing body pressure until the patient reaches a hospital. The DMAST (Dyna Med Anti-<span class="hlt">Shock</span> Trousers) employ lower pressure than other <span class="hlt">shock</span> garments, and are non-inflatable.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1996-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">317</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10115376"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Shock</span> initiation of nitromethane</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">shock</span> initiation processes of nitromethane have been examined by using a fast time-resolved emission spectroscopy at a two-stage gas gun. a broad, but strong emission has been observed in a spectral range between 350 and 700 nm from <span class="hlt">shocked</span> nitromethane above 9 GPa. The temporal profile suggests that <span class="hlt">shocked</span> nitromethane detonates through three characteristic periods, namely an induction period, a hock initiation period, and a thermal explosion period. This paper discusses temporal and chemical characteristics of these periods and present the temperature of the <span class="hlt">shock</span>-detonating nitromethane at pressures between 9 and 15 GPa.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yoo, C.S.; Holmes, N.C.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1993-12-31</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">318</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/6174245013241w34.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Ruptured</span> intracranial aneurysms in the elderly</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is often a devastating condition and a significant cause of worldwide morbidity\\u000a and mortality. Because the percentage of senior citizens is increasing in many countries and because of the increased incidence\\u000a of SAH in elderly patients, <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> intracranial aneurysm is an increasingly frequent pathology in western countries. Twenty\\u000a years ago, older people were considered to have</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jacques Sedat; Mustapha Dib; David Rasendrarijao; Denys Fontaine; Michel Lonjon; Philippe Paquis</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">319</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JPhCS.500n2025N"> <span id="translatedtitle">Controlling blast wave generation in a <span class="hlt">shock</span> tube for biological applications</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">shock</span> tube is a versatile apparatus used in a wide range of scientific research fields. In this case, we are developing a system to use with biological specimens. The process of diaphragm <span class="hlt">rupture</span> is closely linked to the <span class="hlt">shock</span> wave generated. Experiments were performed on an air-driven <span class="hlt">shock</span> tube with Mylar® and aluminium diaphragms of various thicknesses, to control the output. The evolution of <span class="hlt">shock</span> pressure was measured and the diaphragm <span class="hlt">rupture</span> process investigated. Single-diaphragm and double-diaphragm configurations were employed, as were open or closed tube configurations. The arrangement was designed to enable high-speed photography and pressure measurements. Overall, results are highly reproducible, and show that the double-diaphragm system enables a more controllable diaphragm burst pressure. The diaphragm burst pressure was linearly related to its thickness within the range studied. The observed relationship between the diaphragm burst pressure and the generated <span class="hlt">shock</span> pressure presents a noticeable difference compared to the theoretical ideal gas description. Furthermore, the duration of the primary <span class="hlt">shock</span> decreased proportionally with the length of the high-pressure charging volume. Computational modelling of the diaphragm breakage process was carried out using the ANSYS software package.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Nguyen, T.-T. N.; Wilgeroth, J. M.; Proud, W. G.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">320</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFM.S31A1700B"> <span id="translatedtitle">Effects of Apparent Supersonic <span class="hlt">Ruptures</span> for Strike-slip <span class="hlt">Rupture</span>: Should We Consider it in the Seismic Hazard Analysis?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Recent numerical studies indicated that the supersonic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> could produce larger off-fault damage at distant sites than the sub-shear <span class="hlt">rupture</span>, due to the famous "mach cone" effect (Dunham and Archuleta, 2005; Bhat et al, 2007). These results were obtained using the steady-state <span class="hlt">rupture</span> simulations in a half-space earth. For more realistic layered or 3D earth models, we should also consider the effects of apparent supersonic <span class="hlt">rupture</span>, i.e., the deep <span class="hlt">rupture</span> is still in a speed slower than the local shear velocity, but faster than the near surface S or even the P wave velocity. The apparent super-shear <span class="hlt">rupture</span> could excite the mach effect, but how large it is has not yet been quantitatively addressed. In this study, we explore this possibility by performing numerical simulations for pure strike-slip <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> on a vertical fault inside various layered earth models.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Barrows, M. B.; Shao, G.; Ji, C.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return 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href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">321</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16504883"> <span id="translatedtitle">Multidisciplinary management of <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> hepatocellular carcinoma.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Spontaneous <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a dramatic presentation of the disease. Most published studies are from Asian centers, and North American experience is limited. This study was undertaken to review the experience of <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> HCC at a North American multidisciplinary unit. Thirty patients presenting with <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> HCC at a tertiary care center from 1985 to 2004 were studied retrospectively and analyzed according to the demographics, clinical presentation, tumor characteristics, treatment, and outcome in four treatment groups: emergency resection, delayed resection (resection after angiographic embolization), transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE), and conservative management. Ten, 10, 7, and 3 patients underwent emergency resection, delayed resection, TAE, and conservative treatment, respectively. The mean age of all patients was 57 years, and the mean Child-Turcotte-Pugh score was 7 +/- 2. Cirrhosis was present in 57% of the patients. Seventy percent of tumors were greater than 5 cm in diameter, and 68% of patients had multiple tumors. There was a trend toward higher 30-day mortality in the emergency resection group than in the delayed resection group. One-year survival was significantly better in the delayed resection group. In selected patients, the multidisciplinary approach of angiographic embolization and delayed resection affords better short-term survival than emergency resection. PMID:16504883</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Buczkowski, Andrzej K; Kim, Peter T W; Ho, Stephen G; Schaeffer, David F; Lee, Sung I; Owen, David A; Weiss, Alan H; Chung, Stephen W; Scudamore, Charles H</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">322</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009JBO....14c4007S"> <span id="translatedtitle">Dynamics of retinal photocoagulation and <span class="hlt">rupture</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In laser retinal photocoagulation, short (<20 ms) pulses have been found to reduce thermal damage to the inner retina, decrease treatment time, and minimize pain. However, the safe therapeutic window (defined as the ratio of power for producing a <span class="hlt">rupture</span> to that of mild coagulation) decreases with shorter exposures. To quantify the extent of retinal heating and maximize the therapeutic window, a computational model of millisecond retinal photocoagulation and <span class="hlt">rupture</span> was developed. Optical attenuation of 532-nm laser light in ocular tissues was measured, including retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) pigmentation and cell-size variability. Threshold powers for vaporization and RPE damage were measured with pulse durations ranging from 1 to 200 ms. A finite element model of retinal heating inferred that vaporization (<span class="hlt">rupture</span>) takes place at 180-190°C. RPE damage was accurately described by the Arrhenius model with activation energy of 340 kJ/mol. Computed photocoagulation lesion width increased logarithmically with pulse duration, in agreement with histological findings. The model will allow for the optimization of beam parameters to increase the width of the therapeutic window for short exposures.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sramek, Christopher; Paulus, Yannis; Nomoto, Hiroyuki; Huie, Phil; Brown, Jefferson; Palanker, Daniel</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">323</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMSH41B2184B"> <span id="translatedtitle">Interplanetary <span class="hlt">shocks</span> observed by STEREO during 2007-2012</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">STEREO data have been very valuable to study the characteristics of interplanetary (IP) <span class="hlt">shocks</span>. These <span class="hlt">shocks</span> can be driven by fast interplanetary coronal mass ejections (CME) and by solar wind stream interactions (SI). In this work we discuss the properties of IP <span class="hlt">shocks</span> and the upstream and downstream regions associated to them. These regions are perturbed due to <span class="hlt">shock</span> effects. Upstream from the <span class="hlt">shock</span> a foreshock can develop and be permeated by suprathermal ions and electromagnetic waves. Downstream the plasma is heated and compressed. In this region the magnetic field is also very perturbed. <span class="hlt">Shocks</span> play a very important role in particle acceleration. During the years of the extended solar minimum (2007-2010) STEREO observed around 80 IP forward <span class="hlt">shocks</span> driven by stream interactions, and 19 <span class="hlt">shocks</span> driven by ICMEs. Most of the SI <span class="hlt">shocks</span> were locally quasi-perpendicular (?Bn >45°) with only 20 quasi-parallel (?Bn < 45°) <span class="hlt">shocks</span>. In all cases the Mach number was moderate with values 1.1< Mms < 3.8, and the plasma beta reached values up to 29. During the same years the <span class="hlt">shocks</span> driven by ICMEs have Mach numbers 1.2-4, and plasma beta up to 15. Measurements upstream from the <span class="hlt">shocks</span> have revealed a variety of waves, including whistlers and low frequency fluctuations. Upstream whistler waves may be generated at the <span class="hlt">shock</span> and upstream ultra low frequency (ULF) waves can be driven locally by ion instabilities. In contrast to planetary bow <span class="hlt">shocks</span>, most of the waves upstream of the quasi-parallel forward SI <span class="hlt">shocks</span> observed until 2010 by STEREO are <span class="hlt">mainly</span> transverse and no steepening occurs. Another difference with Earth's bow <span class="hlt">shock</span> is the fact that many locally quasi-perpendicular <span class="hlt">shocks</span> can be accompanied by wave and ion foreshocks. This indicates that at an earlier time the geometry of the <span class="hlt">shock</span> was quasi-parallel. The downstream wave spectra can be formed by both, locally generated perturbations, and <span class="hlt">shock</span> transmitted waves. Downstream fluctuations associated with quasi-parallel <span class="hlt">shocks</span> tend to have larger amplitudes than waves downstream of quasi-perpendicular <span class="hlt">shocks</span>. Proton foreshocks of <span class="hlt">shocks</span> driven by stream interactions have extensions dr ?0.05 AU. This is smaller than foreshock extensions for ICME driven <span class="hlt">shocks</span> (dr ? 0.1 AU). The difference in foreshock extensions is related to the fact that ICME driven <span class="hlt">shocks</span> are formed closer to the Sun and therefore begin to accelerate particles very early in their existence, while stream interaction <span class="hlt">shocks</span> form at ~1 AU and have been producing suprathermal particles for a shorter time. During the last two years (2011-2012) the rate of interplanetary <span class="hlt">shock</span> observations increased dramatically with around 140 events. In this work we extend our study to include these IP <span class="hlt">shocks</span> and determine if stronger <span class="hlt">shocks</span> lead to significant changes in wave spectra, <span class="hlt">shock</span> profile and foreshock extensions.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Blanco-Cano, X.; Kajdic, P.; Aguilar-Rodriguez, E.; Russell, C. T.; Jian, L.; Luhmann, J. G.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">324</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21432219"> <span id="translatedtitle">Multidimensional effects on relativistic electrons in an oblique <span class="hlt">shock</span> wave</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Multidimensional effects on electron motion in a magnetosonic <span class="hlt">shock</span> wave propagating obliquely to an external magnetic field are studied by means of a two-dimensional (two space coordinates and three velocities) relativistic, electromagnetic particle code. The simulations demonstrate that after trapping and energization in the <span class="hlt">main</span> pulse of the <span class="hlt">shock</span> wave, electrons can be detrapped from it keeping their ultrarelativistic energies. This detrapping is caused by magnetic fluctuations propagating along the wave front. Furthermore, some of the detrapped electrons can be accelerated to much higher energies by the <span class="hlt">shock</span> wave because they can enter and exit the <span class="hlt">shock</span> wave as a result of their gyromotions.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Shikii, Kenta; Toida, Mieko [Department of Physics, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-08-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">325</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1992cfda.nasa...45M"> <span id="translatedtitle">Space Transportation <span class="hlt">Main</span> Engine</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: Space Transportation <span class="hlt">Main</span> Engine (STME) definition, design philosophy, robust design, maximum design condition, casting vs. machined and welded forgings, operability considerations, high reliability design philosophy, engine reliability enhancement, low cost design philosophy, engine systems requirements, STME schematic, fuel turbopump, liquid oxygen turbopump, <span class="hlt">main</span> injector, and gas generator. The major engine components of the STME and the Space Shuttle <span class="hlt">Main</span> Engine are compared.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Monk, Jan C.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1992-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">326</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/52204852"> <span id="translatedtitle">A method for performing oblique <span class="hlt">shock</span>-bow <span class="hlt">shock</span> interaction in double driver <span class="hlt">shock</span> tube (tunnel)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Numerical and experimental results are presented from the development of techniques for studying the oblique interaction of a <span class="hlt">shock</span> wave and a bow <span class="hlt">shock</span> in a double driver <span class="hlt">shock</span> tube. The goals of the efforts included the simultaneous collection of transient pressure data and Schlieren photographs. Functional details are provided of the double driver <span class="hlt">shock</span> tube. The bow <span class="hlt">shock</span> was</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Z. Y. Han; Z. Q. Wang; X. Z. Yin; J. C. Yao; A. D. Du</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1986-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">327</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23151226"> <span id="translatedtitle">Spontaneous uterine <span class="hlt">rupture</span> in a primigravid woman in the early third trimester attributed to adenomyosis: a case report and review of the literature.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We report a rare case of spontaneous uterine <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of an unscarred uterus caused by adenomyosis in the early third trimester. A 33-year-old primigravid woman was referred to our department because of severe acute abdominal pain and signs and symptoms of hemorrhagic <span class="hlt">shock</span>. Ultrasound exanimation performed at admission revealed a living, intrauterine fetus of 28 weeks gestational age with reduced amniotic fluid and presence of free peritoneal fluid. The fetal heart rate was non-reassuring with variable decelerations and severe fetal bradycardia. Emergency cesarean section revealed massive hemoperitoneum and complete <span class="hlt">rupture</span> in the uterine fundus. Subtotal peripartum hysterectomy with conservation of adnexae was performed. Histological examination revealed adenomyosis at the site of uterine <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. PMID:23151226</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Nikolaou, Marinos; Kourea, Helen P; Antonopoulos, Kostas; Geronatsiou, Katerina; Adonakis, George; Decavalas, George</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">328</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014A%26A...565A..99J"> <span id="translatedtitle">Mean shape of interplanetary <span class="hlt">shocks</span> deduced from in situ observations and its relation with interplanetary CMEs</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Context. <span class="hlt">Shocks</span> are frequently detected by spacecraft in the interplanetary space. However, the in situ data of a <span class="hlt">shock</span> do not provide direct information on its overall properties even when a following interplanetary coronal mass ejection (ICME) is detected. Aims: The <span class="hlt">main</span> aim of this study is to constrain the general shape of ICME <span class="hlt">shocks</span> with a statistical study of <span class="hlt">shock</span> orientations. Methods: We first associated a set of <span class="hlt">shocks</span> detected near Earth over 10 years with a sample of ICMEs over the same period. We then analyzed the correlations between <span class="hlt">shock</span> and ICME parameters and studied the statistical distributions of the local <span class="hlt">shock</span> normal orientation. Supposing that <span class="hlt">shocks</span> are uniformly detected all over their surface projected on the 1 AU sphere, we compared the <span class="hlt">shock</span> normal distribution with synthetic distributions derived from an analytical <span class="hlt">shock</span> shape model. Inversely, we derived a direct method to compute the typical general shape of ICME <span class="hlt">shocks</span> by integrating observed distributions of the <span class="hlt">shock</span> normal. Results: We found very similar properties between <span class="hlt">shocks</span> with and without an in situ detected ICME, so that most of the <span class="hlt">shocks</span> detected at 1 AU are ICME-driven even when no ICME is detected. The statistical orientation of <span class="hlt">shock</span> normals is compatible with a mean shape having a rotation symmetry around the Sun-apex line. The analytically modeled shape captures the <span class="hlt">main</span> characteristics of the observed <span class="hlt">shock</span> normal distribution. Next, by directly integrating the observed distribution, we derived the mean <span class="hlt">shock</span> shape, which is found to be comparable for <span class="hlt">shocks</span> with and without a detected ICME and weakly affected by the limited statistics of the observed distribution. We finally found a close correspondence between this statistical result and the leading edge of the ICME sheath that is observed with STEREO imagers. Conclusions: We have derived a mean <span class="hlt">shock</span> shape that only depends on one free parameter. This mean shape can be used in various contexts, such as studies for high-energy particles or space weather forecasts.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Janvier, M.; Démoulin, P.; Dasso, S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">329</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=AD668827"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Shock</span> Waves in Plasma Physics.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Classical gas dynamic <span class="hlt">shock</span> wave theory is briefly summarized. Recent research results are developed for collisional <span class="hlt">shock</span> waves in fully ionized plasmas and a survey is presented of theoretical and experimental research on collisionless <span class="hlt">shock</span> waves. Ioni...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">C. K. Chu R. A. Gross</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1968-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">330</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9186286"> <span id="translatedtitle">Catheter ablation of canine ventricular myocardium. The use of repetitive short time constant capacitive <span class="hlt">shocks</span> to increase lesion volume.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Arching and barotrauma, seen with high energy DC catheter ablation, are responsible for diffuse cardiac damage and coronary sinus <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. In six anesthetized dogs, we investigated the effects of an increasing number of short time-constant capacitive <span class="hlt">shocks</span> on the volume of myocardial damage. Each dog received capacitive <span class="hlt">shocks</span> of 2 J/kg at 3 sites in the left ventricle. One <span class="hlt">shock</span> was delivered in 2 dogs, 2 <span class="hlt">shocks</span> were delivered in 2 dogs and 3 <span class="hlt">shocks</span> were delivered in 2 dogs. <span class="hlt">Shock</span> delivery was not accompanied by hemodynamic collapse, sustained ventricular tachycardia or ventricular fibrillation. The dogs were sacrificed at 60 minutes. Mean (SEM) lesion volumes were 195 (39) mm3, 480 (41) mm3, and 595 (110) mm3, respectively. Despite variability in individual volume of damage, there was a significant increase in lesion volume with an increasing number of <span class="hlt">shocks</span>. There was no evidence of perforation or tamponade. Increasing myocardial damage can be produced using repetitive capacitive <span class="hlt">shocks</span>. Delivery of 2 <span class="hlt">shocks</span> produces clinically useful lesions without the adverse effects associated with single high energy <span class="hlt">shocks</span>. Repetitive capacitive <span class="hlt">shocks</span> offer a method of increasing lesion volume without increasing energy and thereby without compromising safety. PMID:9186286</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Watanabe, I; Nakai, T; Yanagawa, S; Watanabe, H; Kojima, T; Kondo, K; Takahashi, Y; Saito, S; Ozawa, Y; Kanmatsuse, K</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">331</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24732889"> <span id="translatedtitle">Estrogen protects against intracranial aneurysm <span class="hlt">rupture</span> in ovariectomized mice.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Clinical observations suggest that postmenopausal women have a higher incidence of aneurysmal <span class="hlt">rupture</span> than premenopausal women. We hypothesize that a relative deficiency in estrogen may increase the risks of aneurysmal growth and subarachnoid hemorrhage in postmenopausal women. We assessed the effects of estrogen and selective estrogen receptor subtype agonists on the development of aneurysmal <span class="hlt">rupture</span> in ovariectomized female mice. We used an intracranial aneurysm mouse model that recapitulates the key features of human intracranial aneurysms, including spontaneous <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. Ten- to 12-week-old ovariectomized female mice received treatment with estrogen, nonselective estrogen receptor antagonist, estrogen receptor-? agonist, or estrogen receptor-? agonist starting 6 days after aneurysm induction so that the treatments affected the development of aneurysmal <span class="hlt">rupture</span> without affecting aneurysmal formation. Estrogen significantly reduced the incidence of <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> aneurysms and <span class="hlt">rupture</span> rates in ovariectomized mice. Nonselective estrogen receptor antagonist abolished the protective effect of estrogen. Although estrogen receptor-? agonist did not affect the incidence of <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> aneurysms or <span class="hlt">rupture</span> rates, estrogen receptor-? agonist prevented aneurysmal <span class="hlt">rupture</span> without affecting the formation of aneurysms. The protective role of estrogen receptor-? agonist was abolished by the inhibition of nitric oxide synthase. We showed that estrogen prevented aneurysmal <span class="hlt">rupture</span> in ovariectomized female mice. The protective effect of estrogen seemed to occur through the activation of estrogen receptor-?, a predominant subtype of estrogen receptor in human intracranial aneurysms and cerebral arteries. PMID:24732889</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Tada, Yoshiteru; Wada, Kosuke; Shimada, Kenji; Makino, Hiroshi; Liang, Elena I; Murakami, Shoko; Kudo, Mari; Shikata, Fumiaki; Pena Silva, Ricardo A; Kitazato, Keiko T; Hasan, David M; Kanematsu, Yasuhisa; Nagahiro, Shinji; Hashimoto, Tomoki</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">332</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3699210"> <span id="translatedtitle">Morphological Differences between <span class="hlt">Ruptured</span> and Unruptured Basilar Bifurcation Aneurysms</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background?Aspect ratio (AP), daughter artery ratio (DA), and lateral angle ratio (LA) have been reported in middle cerebral artery bifurcation aneurysms to correlate with <span class="hlt">rupture</span> status. Objective?To study the differences in AP, DA, LA, and aneurysm orientation between <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> and unruptured basilar bifurcation aneurysms. Methods?Three-dimensional (3D) angiograms of patients with basilar bifurcation aneurysms were analyzed for AP, DA, and LA. Aneurysm projection was classified as type A if the long axis of aneurysm was along basilar artery and type-B if otherwise. Results?Thirty-one <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> and 17 unruptured aneurysms were analyzed. The APs were significantly different (p?=?0.008), 2.63?±?1.1 for <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> aneurysms and 1.7?±?0.55 for unruptured aneurysms. AP???1.9 correlated with <span class="hlt">rupture</span> status with 68% sensitivity and 70% specificity. Type-A configuration was significantly associated with <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> aneurysms with an odds ratio (OR) of 5.9. LAs were 0.9?±?0.4 and 1.4?±?0.8 for <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> and unruptured aneurysms, respectively, and the difference tended to be significant (p?=?0.56). DAs were 1.25?±?0.22 and 1.21?±?0.19 for <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> and unruptured aneurysms without any statistical difference. Conclusion?AP?>?1.9, type-A configuration, and lower LA is associated with <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> basilar bifurcation aneurysms. DA did not differ between <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> and unruptured aneurysms</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ambekar, Sudheer; Madhugiri, Venkatesh; Bollam, Papireddy; Nanda, Anil</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">333</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4033585"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Ruptured</span> heterotopic pregnancy in a natural conception cycle: a case report at the Yaounde central Hospital (Cameroon)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Heterotopic pregnancy is very rare under natural circumstances. We report the case of a 28 year old Gravida2 Para1001 woman at 9 weeks of pregnancy who consulted in emergency for acute pelvic pain following metrorrhagia. Physical exam revealed hemoperitoneum without <span class="hlt">shock</span>. An emergency ultrasonography revealed two gestational sacs, one intra-uterine and the other extra-uterine. Laparotomy was done and the findings were: a <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> right tubal pregnancy with 1,300 milliliters of hemoperitoneum, type B left utero-adnexal adhesions and an increased uterus consistent with a 9 weeks pregnancy. Right total salpingectomy was done and the patient did well postoperatively. That intrauterine pregnancy evolved normally under progesterone supply and the woman delivered a termed live female baby weighing 3.1 kilogrammes. In our context where ultrasound is not always available, practitioners carrying out salpingectomy for <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> ectopic pregnancies should bear in mind the plausibleness of heterotopic pregnancy in order to properly handle the uterus.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Fouedjio, Jeanne Hortence; Fouelifack, Florent Ymele; Fouogue, Jovanny Tsuala; Sando, Zacharie</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">334</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007APS..SHK.K1024H"> <span id="translatedtitle">Simulation of a <span class="hlt">Shock</span> Recovery Experiment</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">It is difficult to obtaining experimental data for the behaviour of material under <span class="hlt">shock</span> loading due to dynamic nature of this process and finite time available in which measurement can be taken. As a result <span class="hlt">shock</span> recovery technique have been developed to allow examination of a material after <span class="hlt">shock</span> propagation. The <span class="hlt">main</span> goal of this experimental technique is to examine material properties after a single, well-defined <span class="hlt">shock</span> wave followed by a single release wave have been introduced. The process should be such that any change found in the sample after recovery can only be attributed to the <span class="hlt">shock</span> process alone. In order to achieve this, the geometry and design of the target and the fixture play an important role. In this work the simulations were performed using the Lagrangian hydrocode DYNA3D in order to size lateral and longitudinal momentum traps for the material being investigated. The investigation of the <span class="hlt">shock</span> wave propagation in the simulation entails examining the stress, and velocity time histories for the whole fixture as well as for the single element, or block of elements of interest. In addition residual velocity of the sample was minimised to reduce its damage in the process of sample catching.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hughes, K.; Vignjevic, R.; Bourne, N. K.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">335</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24747842"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Shock</span> wave application to cell cultures.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Shock</span> waves nowadays are well known for their regenerative effects. Basic research findings showed that <span class="hlt">shock</span> waves do cause a biological stimulus to target cells or tissue without any subsequent damage. Therefore, in vitro experiments are of increasing interest. Various methods of applying <span class="hlt">shock</span> waves onto cell cultures have been described. In general, all existing models focus on how to best apply <span class="hlt">shock</span> waves onto cells. However, this question remains: What happens to the waves after passing the cell culture? The difference of the acoustic impedance of the cell culture medium and the ambient air is that high, that more than 99% of <span class="hlt">shock</span> waves get reflected! We therefore developed a model that <span class="hlt">mainly</span> consists of a Plexiglas built container that allows the waves to propagate in water after passing the cell culture. This avoids cavitation effects as well as reflection of the waves that would otherwise disturb upcoming ones. With this model we are able to mimic in vivo conditions and thereby gain more and more knowledge about how the physical stimulus of <span class="hlt">shock</span> waves gets translated into a biological cell signal ("mechanotransduction"). PMID:24747842</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Holfeld, Johannes; Tepeköylü, Can; Kozaryn, Radoslaw; Mathes, Wolfgang; Grimm, Michael; Paulus, Patrick</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">336</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/26498873"> <span id="translatedtitle">Gas filtration during the impact of weak <span class="hlt">shock</span> waves on granular layers</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper deals with the unsteady gas filtration through a granular layer attached to a rigid end-wall when impacted head-on by a weak <span class="hlt">shock</span> wave in a <span class="hlt">shock</span> tube. The <span class="hlt">main</span> goal of the present work is to study the gas pressure field developed inside the granular layer during its compression by the <span class="hlt">shock</span> wave. A physical model is proposed</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">A. Britan; G. Ben-Dor; T. Elperin; O. Igra; J. P. Jiang</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">337</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/53400425"> <span id="translatedtitle">Synthesis of high temperature materials for aerospace applications using a <span class="hlt">shock</span> tube</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">main</span> objective of this study is to explore the possibility of developing aluminium nitride by exposing pure Al to elevated temperatures and pressures in a <span class="hlt">shock</span> tube. The nitride formation is achieved by the surface reaction of <span class="hlt">shock</span> heated nitrogen gas with pure aluminium in thin film form inside the driven section of the <span class="hlt">shock</span> tube. Formation of A1N</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">V. Jayaram; M. S. Hegde; K. P. J. Reddy</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">338</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/eimsapi.dispdetail?deid=142557"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">MAINE</span> MARINE WORM HABITAT</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p class="result-summary">WORM provides a generalized representation at 1:24,000 scale of commercially harvested marine worm habitat in <span class="hlt">Maine</span>, based on <span class="hlt">Maine</span> Department of Marine Resources data from 1970's. Original maps were created by MDMR and published by USF&WS as part of the ""&quo...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">339</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=laptop+AND+class&pg=3&id=EJ783363"> <span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">Maine</span> Event</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this article, the author describes the successful laptop program employed at Mt. Abram High School in Strong, <span class="hlt">Maine</span>. Through the <span class="hlt">Maine</span> Learning Technology Initiative, the school has issued laptops to all 36,000 teachers and students in grades 7-8. This program has helped level the playing field for a student population that is 50 percent to 55…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">McHale, Tom</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">340</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=David+F+Marks&pg=7&id=ED268495"> <span id="translatedtitle">Teaching <span class="hlt">Main</span> Idea Comprehension.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Intended to help classroom teachers, curriculum developers, and researchers, this book provides current information on theoretical and instructional aspects of <span class="hlt">main</span> idea comprehension. Titles and authors are as follows: "The Confused World of <span class="hlt">Main</span> Idea" (James W. Cunningham and David W. Moore); "The Comprehension of Important Information in…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Baumann, James F., Ed.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' 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id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">341</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.umaine.edu/folklife/"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Maine</span> Folklife Center</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Located at the University of <span class="hlt">Maine</span>, the <span class="hlt">Maine</span> Folklife Center is committed to documenting and understanding the folklore, folklife, and history of <span class="hlt">Maine</span> and Atlantic Canada. Along with its various scholarly activities, the Center sponsors a number of festivals, lectures, and like-minded programs that encourage appreciation of the diverse cultural traditions within the region. The site will be useful to researchers with a penchant in these fields, as it contains information about the collections, including a rather extensive oral history collection (with work that documenting the cranberry culture of Massachusetts and the traditional music of <span class="hlt">Maine</span>). There is also material on the public programs and exhibits sponsored by the center, and a set of external links that lead to other sites dealing with oral history, folklore, and <span class="hlt">Maine</span>. While the Center's site does not have a great deal of online material for consideration, the center has transcribed the sixth volume of Northeast Folklore (originally published in 1964) and placed them online.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">342</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6221797"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Shock</span> absorbing subassembly</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A <span class="hlt">shock</span> absorbing subassembly, for use in an oil well drilling string above a drilling bit to absorb and reduce bit induced vibration and impact loads, wherein a <span class="hlt">shock</span> absorber element is provided which includes at least one set of ring springs. The ring springs comprise alternating closed outer rings and closed inner rings with tapered contact surfaces on the outer and inner rings.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zabcik, C.J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1981-01-27</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">343</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6334125"> <span id="translatedtitle">Fast <span class="hlt">shock</span> tube assemblies</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Developed is a unique explosively driven devices to be used as fast-<span class="hlt">shock</span> tubes or as particle launchers. Such drivers produce a highly symmetrical pressure wave that can be used to launch particles. <span class="hlt">Shocks</span> in these devices of approximately 18 km/s have been achieved and there are plans to use these devices to accelerate particles in a ''shockless'' particle launch.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Steele, R.D.; Tan, Tai-Ho</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1987-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">344</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/53578720"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Shock</span> wave collisions</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The paper considers the analytical theory of the collisions of normal and oblique <span class="hlt">shock</span> waves in an ideal gas or plasma in the case of arbitrary adiabatic indices and different Mach numbers of the interacting oblique waves. Expressions are obtained for the parameters which define the refracted <span class="hlt">shock</span> waves and the tangential discontinuities generated in the interactions. The effect of</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">R. A. Glatman; A. A. Rumiantsev</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1976-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">345</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www-wds.worldbank.org/servlet/WDSContentServer/WDSP/IB/2001/11/06/000094946_01102304052049/Rendered/PDF/multi0page.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Aid, <span class="hlt">Shocks</span>, and Growth</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Not surprisingly, extreme negative export price <span class="hlt">shocks</span> reduce growth. But these adverse effects can be mitigated through offsetting increases in aid. Indeed, targeting aid to countries experiencing negative <span class="hlt">shocks</span> appears to be even more important for aid effectiveness than targeting aid to countries with good policies.Analysis of the relationship between aid and growth by Burnside and Dollar found that the</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Paul Collier; Jan Dehn</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">346</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AAS...22143801S"> <span id="translatedtitle">Magnetic Fields In Relativistic Collisionless <span class="hlt">Shocks</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We present a systematic study on magnetic fields in Gamma-Ray Burst (GRB) relativistic <span class="hlt">shocks</span> by making use of X-ray and optical afterglow observations, mostly coming from the Swift satellite. We use two methods to constrain the afterglow parameter epsilon_B (the fraction of energy in the magnetic field in the <span class="hlt">shocked</span> plasma): 1. For the X-ray sample, the observed flux at the end of the X-ray steep decline is larger than or equal to the flux from the external-forward <span class="hlt">shock</span>. 2. The observed optical afterglow flux arises from the external-forward <span class="hlt">shock</span> emission. From the method for our X-ray sample (60 GRBs), we determine an upper limit on epsilon_B and from the method for our optical sample (35 GRBs), we determine a measurement for epsilon_B. Combining our X-ray and optical results, the median value we found for epsilon_B is ~ 10^-5. The distributions of epsilon_B from our X-ray and optical samples showed a wide distribution, with epsilon_B ranging from ~ 10^-7 - 10^-3. To characterize how much magnetic field amplification is needed, beyond <span class="hlt">shock</span> compression of the seed magnetic field, we expressed our results for epsilon_B in terms of an amplification factor, AF. For both our X-ray and optical samples, the median value we found is AF ˜ 50-70. The distributions of AF from our X-ray and optical samples also showed a wide distribution, with AF ranging from ~ 1-1000. These results for epsilon_B and AF suggest that a weak amplification, in addition to <span class="hlt">shock</span> compression, is needed to explain the afterglow observations. Our <span class="hlt">main</span> conclusion is that <span class="hlt">shock</span> compression and weak amplification of the magnetic field in GRB relativistic external <span class="hlt">shocks</span> is sufficient to explain the afterglow data.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Santana, Rodolfo; Barniol Duran, R.; Kumar, P.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">347</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/55007090"> <span id="translatedtitle">Current Status of <span class="hlt">Shock</span> Acceleration Theory</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">main</span> features of nonlinear diffusive <span class="hlt">shock</span> acceleration are now reasonably well understood after several decades of work by many individuals. Several distinct approaches have converged to give a reasonably consistent picture of the process. These will be briefly described. The interesting new development in the last few years is the increasing attention being paid to mesoscopic instabilities and their</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Luke Drury</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">348</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://jpkc.fimmu.com/bingsheng/jiaoxuelunwen/bir376.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Hemorheologic events in severe <span class="hlt">shock</span> 1</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Persistent low perfusion and low blood pressure are the two major events in the pathogenesis of irreversible <span class="hlt">shock</span>. This review is focused on our recent study on the mechanism of, and a new therapeutic approach to the two events in IS. One of the <span class="hlt">main</span> causes of persistent low perfusion are leukocyte adhesion on venule walls and plugging in capillaries</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ke-Seng Zhao</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">349</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20050170959&hterms=GPA&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3D%2522GPA%2522"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Shock</span> Demagnetization of Pyrrhotite</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Maps of the remanent magnetic field of Mars show demagnetized zones within and around giant impact basins. It is likely that vast regions of the Martian crust were demagnetized due to a <span class="hlt">shock</span>-induced phase change or magnetic transition of magnetic minerals in the crust. This hypothesis is supported by the fact that around the Hellas and Argyre basins, the edges of the unmagnetized zones roughly correspond with peak <span class="hlt">shock</span> pressure contour lines of a few GPa. Although pyrrhotite is not a major carrier of magnetization in the Earth s crust, it is a common phase in Martian meteorites and may be an important carrier in the Martian crust. Understanding the effects of <span class="hlt">shock</span> waves on magnetic minerals is critical for determining the origin of the demagnetized zones in impact basins and possibly for identifying the major magnetic carrier phases. Here we present the results of the first controlled <span class="hlt">shock</span> demagnetization measurements on pyrrhotite. Previous experiments: <span class="hlt">Shock</span> demagnetization</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Louzada, K. L.; Stewart, S. T.; Weiss, b. P.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">350</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9480639"> <span id="translatedtitle">[Traumatic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of the anterior urethra. Apropos of 18 cases].</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The authors report a retrospective series of 18 cases of <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of the anterior urethra, with a mean age of 25 years (range: 10 to 45 years). The mechanism of the lesion was trauma by falling onto the perineum (12 cases), road accident (4 cases) and sexual intercourse (2 cases). Urine drainage was ensured by suprapubic catheter (15 cases) or urethral catheter (1 case). The two cases of <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of the urethra associated with lesions of the corpora cavernosa required urgent surgical repair. In the other cases, simple urine drainage was sufficient to treat partial <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> of the urethra (11 cases) with only one case of urethral structure. However, end-to-end urethrorraphy was performed in the 4 patients with total <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of the urethra, with early failure in 3 cases, attributed to delayed surgery. Finally, the course of urethral <span class="hlt">rupture</span> associated with <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of the corpora, cavernosa was favourable in terms of both micturition and sexual function. PMID:9480639</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Trifa, M; Njeh, M; Bahloul, A; Jemal, S; Mhiri, M N</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">351</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=PB87190484"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Main</span> Street Project.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Several years ago the National Trust for Historic Preservation developed the <span class="hlt">Main</span> Street Program to assist small, primarily rural, communities to revitalize their downtown economic bases. The program has four major components: organization, promotion, des...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1987-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">352</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/24732606"> <span id="translatedtitle">Emergency percutaneous treatment of arterial iliac axis <span class="hlt">ruptures</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The objective of this paper is to assess the feasibility and effectiveness of emergency percutaneous treatment of <span class="hlt">ruptures</span>\\u000a of the iliac axis. In 5 years, we observed 13 patients (mean age, 62.1 years), 11 with <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of the external iliac artery\\u000a and two with <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of the common iliac artery (six traumatic and seven iatrogenic). All patients were treated with stent\\u000a grafts.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Domenico Laganà; Gianpaolo Carrafiello; Monica Mangini; Andrea Giorgianni; Domenico Lumia; Salvatore Cuffari; Carlo Fugazzola</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">353</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/56550971"> <span id="translatedtitle">Indocyanine green angiographic features of traumatic choroidal <span class="hlt">ruptures</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Purpose To investigate the indocyanine green (ICG) angiographic findings of healed traumatic choroidal <span class="hlt">ruptures</span>.Methods Three eyes of two patients with choroidal <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> underwent both fluorescein angiography and ICG angiography with a digital high-resolution system.Results Fundus examination showed healed choroidal <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> in all three eyes. Two of the eyes had old macular scars and one eye had a recent choroidal neovascular</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ahmet Akman; Sibel Kadayifcilar; Sibel Oto; Pinar Aydin</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1998-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">354</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24456452"> <span id="translatedtitle">Uterine <span class="hlt">rupture</span> following termination of pregnancy in a scarred uterus.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We present a series of two cases complicated by uterine <span class="hlt">rupture</span> following termination of pregnancy (TOP) in the 1st and 2nd trimesters using misoprostol in women with caesarean section scar. Current literature and practise have also been reviewed on <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> uterus in women with caesarean section scar undergoing TOP using misoprostol; the diagnosis of adherent placenta in the 1st and 2nd trimesters in women with previous caesarean uterine scar; and likely implications of a <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> uterus. PMID:24456452</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bika, O; Huned, D; Jha, S; Selby, K</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">355</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/61210324l7363728.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Partial <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of the quadriceps muscle in a child</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">BACKGROUND: The quadriceps femoris muscle <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> usually occur in the middle-aged population. We present a 4-year-old patient with partial <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of the quadriceps femoris muscle. To our knowledge, this is the youngest patient reported with a quadriceps femoris muscle <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. CASE PRESENTATION: A 4-year-old girl admitted to our clinic with left knee pain and limitation in knee movements. Her father</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gokhan Aydemir; Selami Cakmak; Secil Aydinoz</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">356</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.T53E..03C"> <span id="translatedtitle">Experimental observation of <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> propagating on heterogeneous interfaces</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We present experimental observations of a propagating <span class="hlt">rupture</span> interacting with one or several mechanical heterogeneities. We developed a friction laboratory experiment where a soft elastic solid slides past a rigid flat plate. The system is coupled to an original medical imaging technique, ultrasound speckle interferometry, that allows observing the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> dynamics along the interface as well as the emitted elastic shear wavefield into the solid body. We compare the dynamics of propagating <span class="hlt">rupture</span> for an homogeneous flat interface and for three cases of heterogeneous sliding surfaces: 1) an interface with a single point-like barrier made of a small rock pebble, 2) an interface with a single linear barrier that joins the edges of the faults in a direction perpendicular to slip 3) an interface with multiple barriers disposed on half of its surface area, creating an heterogeneous zone. We obtain experimental observations of dynamic effects that have been predicted by numerical dynamic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> simulations and provide experimental observations of the following phenomena: a barrier can stop or delay the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> propagation; a linear single barrier can change the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> velocity, increasing or decreasing it; we observe transition from subshear to supershear propagation due to the linear barrier; a large heterogeneous area slows down the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> propagation. We observe a strong variability of the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> dynamics occurring for identical frictional conditions, that we impute to memory effects caused by the heterogeneity of the stress field due to both the loading conditions and the remaining stress field due to previous <span class="hlt">rupture</span> events. These experiments therefore confirm previously reported numerical simulations of <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> along heterogeneous interfaces. When comparing with natural observations or earthquake <span class="hlt">ruptures</span>, our data provide some phenomenological insights to explain the complexity of the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> history inferred from the pattern of seismic radiations.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Campillo, M.; Latour, S.; Voisin, C.; Catheline, S.; Renard, F.; Larose, E. F.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">357</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24765402"> <span id="translatedtitle">Delayed diagnosis of a right-sided traumatic diaphragmatic <span class="hlt">rupture</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Right-sided traumatic diaphragmatic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> in childhood is a very rare injury. Diaphragmatic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> often manifests itself later, after an organ progressively herniates into the pleural cavity. When the patient is tubed, the ventilation pressure does not allow herniation of an organ, which occurs when the patient is ex-tubed. We present a patient with a delayed diagnose of right sided diaphragmatic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> with a complicated post-operation state. PMID:24765402</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ku?era, Alexandr; Rygl, Michal; Snajdauf, Ji?í; Kavalcová, Lucie; Petr?, Ond?ej; Ritschelová, Vlasta; Kyn?l, Martin</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">358</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://mainemusicbox.library.umaine.edu/"> <span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">Maine</span> Music Box</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Created through a collaboration between the University of <span class="hlt">Maine</span>'s Fogler Library and other <span class="hlt">Maine</span> libraries, The <span class="hlt">Maine</span> Music Box contains hundreds of digitized sheet music scores from five major collections. First-time visitors to the site will want to click on the "About <span class="hlt">Maine</span> Music Box" project as a way of getting started. Here they can check out the "User Information" area, which contains helpful tips on viewing the music and how to best browse the entire database. Additionally, those with a penchant for technical details and information science in general can also learn in copious detail how the database was created for this project. From there, visitors can move straight away into the <span class="hlt">main</span> collection. Visitors can browse the collection by music subject, sheet music cover art, or just type in their own keywords. One of the best ways to look over the collection is to browse around in such areas as "Instructional Violin", "<span class="hlt">Maine</span> Collection" and "Parlor Salon Collection". It's also worth remarking that this site may inspire a sing-a-long, a campfire get-together, or a miniature Chautauqua.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">359</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1615127E"> <span id="translatedtitle">Capturing Continental <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> Processes in Afar</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Both continental and oceanic rifting processes are highly 3D, but the stability of the along-axis segmentation from rifting to breakup, and its relationship to seafloor spreading remains debated. Three-dimensional models of the interactions of faults and magmatism in time and space are in development, but modelling and observations suggest that magmatic segments may propagate and/or migrate during periods of magmatism. Our ability to discriminate between the various models in large part depends on the quality of data in the ocean-transition zone, or, observations from zones of incipient plate <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. Largely 2D crustal-scale seismic data from magmatic passive margins reveal large magmatic additions to the crust, but the timing of this heat and mass transfer is weakly constrained. Thus, the lack of information on the across rift breadth of the deforming zone at <span class="hlt">rupture</span>, and the relationship between the early rift segmentation and the seafloor spreading segmentation represent fundamental gaps in knowledge. Our study of Earth's youngest magmatic margin, the superbly exposed, tectonically active southern Red Sea, aims to answer the following questions: What are the geometry and kinematics of active fault systems across the 'passive margin' to zone of incipient plate <span class="hlt">rupture</span>? What is the relationship between the initial border fault segmentation, and the breakup zone segmentation? What is the distribution of active deformation and magmatism, and how does it compare to time-averaged strain patterns? We integrate results of recent experiments that suggest widespread replacement of crust and mantle lithosphere beneath the 'passive' margin, and explain the ongoing seismic deformation as a consequence of bending stresses across the ocean-continent transition, with or without a dynamic component.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ebinger, Cynthia; Belachew, Manahloh; Tepp, Gabrielle; Keir, Derek; Ayele, Atalay</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">360</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3620434"> <span id="translatedtitle">Migraine before <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of intracranial aneurysms</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> of a saccular intracranial aneurysm (SIA) causes thunderclap headache but it remains unclear whether headache in general and migraine in particular are more prevalent in patients with unruptured SIA. Methods In a prospective case–control study 199 consecutive patients with SIA (103 females and 96 males, mean age: 43.2 years) received a semistructured face to face interview focusing on past headaches. All were admitted to hospital mostly because of <span class="hlt">rupture</span> (177) or for unruptured aneurysm (22). In parallel we interviewed 194 blood donors (86 females, 108 males, mean age: 38.4 years). Diagnoses were made according to the International Headache Society criteria. Aneurysms were diagnosed by conventional cerebral angiography. Results During the year before <span class="hlt">rupture</span>, 124 (62.3%) had one or more types of headache. These headaches included: migraine without aura (MO): 78 (39.2%), migraine with aura (MA): 2 (1%), probable migraine (PM): 4 (2%), tension-type headache (TTH): 39 (19.6%), cluster headache (CH): 2 (1%), posttraumatic headaches (PH): 2 (1%). 1-year prevalence of headaches in controls was 32.5% (63 patients out of 194), they included: TTH: 45 (23.1%), MO: 17(8.8%), PH: 1(0.5%). Only the prevalence of MO was significantly higher in patients with SIA (OR 6.7, 95% CI 3.8-11.9, p?<?0.0001). Conclusions Unruptured SIA cause a marked increase in the prevalence of migraine without aura but not in the prevalence of other types of headache.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return 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showDiv("page_20");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">361</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.T43A2632D"> <span id="translatedtitle">Forecasting the <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> Directivity of Large Earthquakes</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Forecasting the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> directivity of large earthquakes is an important problem in probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA), because directivity strongly influences ground motions. We cast this forecasting problem in terms of the conditional hypocenter distribution (CHD), defined to be the probability distribution of a hypocenter given the spatial distribution of fault slip (moment release). The simplest CHD is a uniform distribution for which the hypocenter probability density equals the moment-release probability density. We have compiled samples of CHDs from a global distribution of large earthquakes using three estimation methods: (a) location of hypocenters within the slip distribution from finite-fault inversions, (b) location of hypocenters within early aftershock distributions, and (c) direct inversion for the directivity parameter D, defined in terms of the degree-two polynomial moments of the source space-time function. The data from method (a) are statistically inconsistent with the uniform CHD suggested by McGuire et al. (2002) using method (c). Instead, the data indicate a 'centroid-biased' CHD, in which the expected distance between the hypocenter and the hypocentroid is less than that of a uniform CHD; i.e., the directivities inferred from finite-fault models appear to be closer to bilateral than predicted by the uniform CHD. One source of this discrepancy may be centroid bias in the second-order moments owing to poor localization of the slip in finite-fault inversions. We compare these observational results with CHDs computed from a large set of theoretical <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> in the Southern California fault system produced by the Rate-State Quake simulator (RSQSim) of Dieterich and Richards-Dinger (2010) and discuss the implications for <span class="hlt">rupture</span> dynamics and fault-zone heterogeneities.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Donovan, J. R.; Jordan, T. H.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">362</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.T43D..02S"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Road Less Traveled: Why the 2002 Denali <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> Took the Totschunda Exit</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A particularly interesting aspect of the 2002 M7.9 Denali fault earthquake was the propagation of the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> from the central Denali fault (CDF) onto the Totschunda fault (TF). New LiDAR data and paleoseismic data provide the basis to more clearly map the structure of the intersection and evaluate controls of fault branching. LiDAR data reveal the CDF-TF intersection is structurally simple. At km 225.7 east of the 2002 epicenter the CDF <span class="hlt">rupture</span> (trending 125°) bends slightly (5°) south and an unruptured fault trace extends eastward from it. Both faults parallel each other for 1.5 km through a 170 m-wide right bend, with the surface traces 40-90 m apart. At km 227.2 the two faults are 65 m apart. Here, the 2002 <span class="hlt">rupture</span>, which is now the TF, diverges southeast (138°); the unruptured fault, which is the eastern Denali fault (EDF), continues eastward with a trend of 121°. There is no step or jump; one fault simply becomes two. 2D analyses and numerical simulations (Kame et al, 2003) suggest three key parameters influence branching: orientation of the principal maximum stress with regard to the <span class="hlt">main</span> fault, <span class="hlt">rupture</span> velocity near the branch point, and orientation of the branch relative to the <span class="hlt">main</span> fault. Varying these, Bhat et al (2004) find that for most simulations the CDF <span class="hlt">rupture</span> continues on the TF. Oglesby et al (2004) performed inverse kinematic and 3D forward dynamic modeling and conclude that a combination of a more favorable orientation to the local stress field and dynamic changes in shear and normal stress favored <span class="hlt">rupture</span> onto the TF. In contrast, we use paleoseismic data to propose that the state of stress at the intersection, as defined by the accumulated strain on each fault (estimated from slip rate and elapsed time since the most recent event), is the primary control of the branching direction and whether propagation beyond the branch point occurs at all. The EDF slip rate is 8.4 (± 2.0) mm/yr; the TF slip rate is 6 (±1.1) mm/yr (Matmon et al, 2006). On the EDF, 17 km east of the intersection, dated peat layers and historical seismicity indicate the most recent surface <span class="hlt">rupture</span> occurred 100-340 years before 2002, with the event closer to the younger date. The penultimate event on the TF occurred 580-700 years before 2002 based on dating at a site 12 km east of the intersection. When the 2002 <span class="hlt">rupture</span> reached the CDF-TF intersection insufficient potential slip (0.6-3.2m) inhibited a continuation on the EDF. The TF, with larger potential slip (2.8-4.9 m), was primed and was triggered. Observed offset in 2002 approached 3m along much of the length of the TF <span class="hlt">rupture</span>; slip in the penultimate event was similar. From paleoearthquake dates on the CDF (AD1430-1650, 930-1300), EDF (AD1660-1900, between or prior to 1320-1450, between or post 720-990), and TF (AD 1302-1422, 612-822) it appears unlikely that the two prior CDF <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> extended beyond the intersection. We suggest that data on event history, slip rate, paleo offsets, and fault geometry, especially on high slip rate-short recurrence interval faults, can be used to assess the likelihood of branching and its direction at other fault intersections such the San Andreas-San Gregorio and the San Andreas-San Jacinto.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Schwartz, D. P.; Haeussler, P. J.; Seitz, G. G.; Dawson, T. E.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">363</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/60017779"> <span id="translatedtitle">Alternative <span class="hlt">shock</span> characterizations for consistent <span class="hlt">shock</span>-test specification</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Mechanical <span class="hlt">shock</span> environments must be characterized in the most complete manner possible if they are to be successfully simulated in the <span class="hlt">shock</span> test laboratory. The objective of the research described in this paper is to evaluate three methods of analyzing transient acceleration time histories which represent promising alternatives to <span class="hlt">shock</span>-response spectra as the basis for deriving consistent <span class="hlt">shock</span>-test specifications. A</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Baca</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1983-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">364</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1638497"> <span id="translatedtitle">Late sucessful treatment of splenic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> in a haemophilic boy.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The recognition of traumatic splenic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> in an 11-year-old severely affected haemophilic boy was delayed for over five weeks. Splenectomy was carried out successfully after the demonstration of splenic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> by an isotope spleen scan. Splenic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> is difficult to differentiate from more simple causes of retroperitoneal haematomata in haemophiliacs when there is no massive acute peritoneal bleeding, but it may be identified with isotopic spleen scans so long as the possibility of <span class="hlt">rupture</span> is borne in mind. Images FIG 1 FIG 2 FIG 3 FIG 4</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gibson, B; Wright, F W; Rizza, C R; Dudley, N E</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1976-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">365</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23464778"> <span id="translatedtitle">Spontaneous diaphragmatic <span class="hlt">rupture</span>: case report and literature review.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Spontaneous diaphragm <span class="hlt">rupture</span> is extremely rare. Usually a diaphragm <span class="hlt">rupture</span> is trauma induced. We describe a case of an 18-year old patient admitted 2 hours after onset, presenting severe epigastric and left sided chest pain without any trauma history. Upright chest x-ray revealed displaced stomach and colon into the left pleural cavity with a collapsed left lung. Surgery for a left-sided diaphragm <span class="hlt">rupture</span> with stomach, spleen and colon splenic flexure herniation was undertaken. We present a brief review regarding the aetiology, diagnostic and treatment policy of spontaneous diaphragmatic <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. PMID:23464778</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ghidirim, Gh; Mishin, I; Condratsky, E; Zastavnitsky, Gh</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">366</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3761522"> <span id="translatedtitle">Subcutaneous Peroneus Longus Tendon <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> Associated with OS Peroneum Fracture</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We report a rare case of subcutaneous peroneus longus tendon <span class="hlt">rupture</span> associated with os peroneum fracture. Three dimensional computed tomographic scan was useful to understand this disorder. We treated the patient with excision of fractured os peroneum and tenodesis of the proximal stump of the <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> peroneus longus tendon to the lateral aspect of the calcaneus. Key points In order to understand a rare case of subcutaneous peroneus longus tendon <span class="hlt">rupture</span> associated with os peroneum fracture, three dimensional computed tomographic scan was useful. The patient was treated with excision of fractured os peroneum and tenodesis of the proximal stump of the <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> peroneus longus tendon to the lateral aspect of the calcaneus.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Fujioka, Hiroyuki; Kokubu, Takeshi; Makino, Takeshi; Nagura, Issei; Maeda, Toshihisa; Kurosaka, Masahiro; Okuno, Hiroaki; Yamagiwa, Tokuyoshi; Tanaka, Juichi; Yoshiya, Shinichi</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">367</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.data.scec.org/Module/s1act02.html"> <span id="translatedtitle">What Is an Earthquake?: Fault-<span class="hlt">Rupture</span> Analogies</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This activity has two parts: the first part will demonstrate the weaknesses of simple fault models (like block diagrams) in depicting the process of fault <span class="hlt">rupture</span> accurately; and the second part is centered around a fairly simple animation of <span class="hlt">rupture</span> propagation, seen by an oblique map view, that attempts to show more accurately what we should envision when we think about fault <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. This activity provides different analogies for describing the process of fault <span class="hlt">rupture</span>, with attention paid to the strengths and weaknesses of each.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">368</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22718400"> <span id="translatedtitle">Potential mechanism of annulus <span class="hlt">rupture</span> during transcatheter aortic valve implantation.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Although annulus <span class="hlt">rupture</span> is one of the most severe complications of transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI), the incidence and mechanism of this complication remain unclear. Out of 387 consecutive TAVI cases in our institution, the incidence of annulus <span class="hlt">rupture</span> was 1.0% (4/387). The first two patients died because of hemodynamic collapse due to tamponade on day 0. Both surviving patients had undergone preprocedural multidetector computed tomography which revealed large calcifications in the epicardial fat part of the aortic annulus. In both cases, annulus <span class="hlt">rupture</span> occurred after deployment of a balloon expandable valve suggesting that mechanical compression of this "vulnerable area" by calcification may cause annulus <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. PMID:22718400</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hayashida, Kentaro; Bouvier, Erik; Lefèvre, Thierry; Hovasse, Thomas; Morice, Marie-Claude; Chevalier, Bernard; Romano, Mauro; Garot, Philippe; Farge, Arnaud; Donzeau-Gouge, Patrick; Cormier, Bertrand</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">369</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21258833"> <span id="translatedtitle">Delayed presentation of a traumatic diaphragmatic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> with intrapericardial herniation.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Thoracic and abdominal blunt traumas are the major causes of diaphragmatic <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. These <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> may be recognized at the time of the initial trauma, but are diagnosed months or even years later during the workup for related symptoms. We present herein a patient who suffered from abdominal pain and dyspnea years after a motor vehicle accident. A chest computed tomography (CT) demonstrated diaphragmatic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> with intrapericardial herniation of intraabdominal organs. Exploratory laparotomy confirmed the diagnosis. In this report, we describe our management of this unusual diaphragmatic <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. PMID:21258833</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Cipe, G; Genç, V; Uzun, C; Atasoy, C; Erkek, B</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">370</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6143109"> <span id="translatedtitle">Comparative yield estimation via <span class="hlt">shock</span> hydrodynamic methods</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Shock</span> TOA (CORRTEX) from recent underground nuclear explosions in saturated tuff were used to estimate yield via the simulated explosion-scaling method. The sensitivity of the derived yield to uncertainties in the measured <span class="hlt">shock</span> Hugoniot, release adiabats, and gas porosity is the <span class="hlt">main</span> focus of this paper. In this method for determining yield, we assume a point-source explosion in an infinite homogeneous material. The rock is formulated using laboratory experiments on core samples, taken prior to the explosion. Results show that increasing gas porosity from 0% to 2% causes a 15% increase in yield per ms/kt{sup 1/3}. 6 refs., 4 figs.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Attia, A.V.; Moran, B.; Glenn, L.A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1991-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">371</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ShWav.tmp....8D"> <span id="translatedtitle">Area change effects on <span class="hlt">shock</span> wave propagation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Experimental testing was conducted for a planar <span class="hlt">shock</span> wave of incident Mach number M_s = 1.33 propagating through one of three compound parabolic profiles of 130, 195 or 260 mm in length, all of which exhibit an 80 % reduction in area. Both high-resolution single shot and low-resolution video were used in a schlieren arrangement. Results showed three <span class="hlt">main</span> types of flow scenarios for propagation through a gradual area reduction, and an optimal net increase of 12.7 % in <span class="hlt">shock</span> Mach number was determined for the longest profile, which is within 5 % of theoretical predictions using Milton's modified Chester-Chisnell-Whitham relation.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Dowse, J.; Skews, B.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">372</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19920022920&hterms=fat+wang&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dfat%2Bwang"> <span id="translatedtitle">Nonlinearly stable compact schemes for <span class="hlt">shock</span> calculations</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The applications of high-order, compact finite difference methods in <span class="hlt">shock</span> calculations are discussed. The <span class="hlt">main</span> concern is to define a local mean which will serve as a reference for introducing a local nonlinear limiting to control spurious numerical oscillations while maintaining the formal accuracy of the scheme. For scalar conservation laws, the resulting schemes can be proven total-variation stable in one space dimension and maximum-norm stable in multiple space dimensions. Numerical examples are shown to verify accuracy and stability of such schemes for problems containing <span class="hlt">shocks</span>. These ideas can also be applied to other implicit schemes such as the continuous Galerkin finite element methods.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Cockburn, Bernardo; Shu, Chi-Wang</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1992-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">373</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014RScI...85a5107L"> <span id="translatedtitle">A cylindrical converging <span class="hlt">shock</span> tube for <span class="hlt">shock</span>-interface studies</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A <span class="hlt">shock</span> tube facility for generating a cylindrical converging <span class="hlt">shock</span> wave is developed in this work. Based on the <span class="hlt">shock</span> dynamics theory, a specific wall profile is designed for the test section of the <span class="hlt">shock</span> tube to transfer a planar <span class="hlt">shock</span> into a cylindrical one. The <span class="hlt">shock</span> front in the converging part obtained from experiment presents a perfect circular shape, which proves the feasibility and reliability of the method. The time variations of the <span class="hlt">shock</span> strength obtained from numerical simulation, experiment, and theoretical estimation show the desired converging effect in the <span class="hlt">shock</span> tube test section. Particular emphasis is then placed on the problem of <span class="hlt">shock</span>-interface interaction induced by cylindrical converging <span class="hlt">shock</span> waves. For this purpose, membrane-less gas cylinder is adopted to form the interface between two different fluids while the laser sheet technique to visualize the flow field. The result shows that it is convenient to perform such experiments in this facility.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Luo, Xisheng; Si, Ting; Yang, Jiming; Zhai, Zhigang</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">374</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24517812"> <span id="translatedtitle">A cylindrical converging <span class="hlt">shock</span> tube for <span class="hlt">shock</span>-interface studies.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A <span class="hlt">shock</span> tube facility for generating a cylindrical converging <span class="hlt">shock</span> wave is developed in this work. Based on the <span class="hlt">shock</span> dynamics theory, a specific wall profile is designed for the test section of the <span class="hlt">shock</span> tube to transfer a planar <span class="hlt">shock</span> into a cylindrical one. The <span class="hlt">shock</span> front in the converging part obtained from experiment presents a perfect circular shape, which proves the feasibility and reliability of the method. The time variations of the <span class="hlt">shock</span> strength obtained from numerical simulation, experiment, and theoretical estimation show the desired converging effect in the <span class="hlt">shock</span> tube test section. Particular emphasis is then placed on the problem of <span class="hlt">shock</span>-interface interaction induced by cylindrical converging <span class="hlt">shock</span> waves. For this purpose, membrane-less gas cylinder is adopted to form the interface between two different fluids while the laser sheet technique to visualize the flow field. The result shows that it is convenient to perform such experiments in this facility. PMID:24517812</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Luo, Xisheng; Si, Ting; Yang, Jiming; Zhai, Zhigang</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">375</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012PhRvL.108e8001G"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Shocks</span> near Jamming</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Nonlinear sound is an extreme phenomenon typically observed in solids after violent explosions. But granular media are different. Right when they jam, these fragile and disordered solids exhibit a vanishing rigidity and sound speed, so that even tiny mechanical perturbations form supersonic <span class="hlt">shocks</span>. Here, we perform simulations in which two-dimensional jammed granular packings are dynamically compressed and demonstrate that the elementary excitations are strongly nonlinear <span class="hlt">shocks</span>, rather than ordinary phonons. We capture the full dependence of the <span class="hlt">shock</span> speed on pressure and impact intensity by a surprisingly simple analytical model.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gómez, Leopoldo R.; Turner, Ari M.; van Hecke, Martin; Vitelli, Vincenzo</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">376</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/34420682"> <span id="translatedtitle">Heat <span class="hlt">shock</span> and cold <span class="hlt">shock</span> in Deinococcus radiodurans</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">On the basis of acquired thermotolerance and cryotolerance, the optimal heat <span class="hlt">shock</span> and cold <span class="hlt">shock</span> temperatures have been determined\\u000a for Deinococcus radiodurans. A heat <span class="hlt">shock</span> at 42°C maximized survival at the lethal temperature of 52°C and a cold <span class="hlt">shock</span> at 20°C maximized survival after\\u000a repeated freeze-thawing. Enhanced survival from heat <span class="hlt">shock</span> was found to be strongly dependent on growth stage,</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Alessandro Airo; Suzanne L. Chan; Zak Martinez; Manu O. Platt; Jonathan D. Trent</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">377</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.math.wvu.edu/~li/research/pub/32_shock_reflection.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Oblique <span class="hlt">Shock</span> Waves and <span class="hlt">Shock</span> Re?ection ?y</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Oblique and conical <span class="hlt">shock</span> waves are generated as solid projectile ?ies supersonically, or as a planar <span class="hlt">shock</span> wave is re?ected along a ramp. We study the stability of oblique <span class="hlt">shock</span> waves for full Euler system of equations in gas-dynamics. The stability criterion is applied to the discussion of regular <span class="hlt">shock</span> re?ection phenomena and the transition of a regular <span class="hlt">shock</span> re?ection</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Dening Li</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">378</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5819301"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Main</span> sequence mass loss</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">It has been hypothesized that variable stars may experience mass loss, driven, at least in part, by oscillations. The class of stars we are discussing here are the delta Scuti variables. These are variable stars with masses between about 1.2 and 2.25 M/sub theta/, lying on or very near the <span class="hlt">main</span> sequence. According to this theory, high rotation rates enhance the rate of mass loss, so <span class="hlt">main</span> sequence stars born in this mass range would have a range of mass loss rates, depending on their initial rotation velocity and the amplitude of the oscillations. The stars would evolve rapidly down the <span class="hlt">main</span> sequence until (at about 1.25 M/sub theta/) a surface convection zone began to form. The presence of this convective region would slow the rotation, perhaps allowing magnetic braking to occur, and thus sharply reduce the mass loss rate. 7 refs.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Brunish, W.M.; Guzik, J.A.; Willson, L.A.; Bowen, G.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1987-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">379</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930061501&hterms=sendai&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dsendai"> <span id="translatedtitle">Performance data of the new free-piston <span class="hlt">shock</span> tunnel T5 at GALCIT</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A new free piston <span class="hlt">shock</span> tunnel has been constructed at the Graduate Aeronautical Laboratories at Caltec. Compression tube length is 30 m and diameter 300 mm. <span class="hlt">Shock</span> tube length is 12 m and diameter 90 mm. Piston mass is 150 kg and maximum diaphragm burst pressure is 130 MPa. Special features of this facility are that the pressure in the driver gas is monitored throughout the compression process until well after diaphragm <span class="hlt">rupture</span>, and that the diaphragm burst pressure can be measured dynamically. An analysis of initial performance data including transient behavior of the flow over models is presented.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hornung, H.; Sturtevant, B.; Belanger, J.; Sanderson, S.; Brouillette, M.; Jenkins, M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1992-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">380</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1996PNAS...93.3764S"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Repetition of Large-Earthquake <span class="hlt">Ruptures</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This survey of well-documented repeated fault <span class="hlt">rupture</span> confirms that some faults have exhibited a ``characteristic'' behavior during repeated large earthquakes--that is, the magnitude, distribution, and style of slip on the fault has repeated during two or more consecutive events. In two cases faults exhibit slip functions that vary little from earthquake to earthquake. In one other well-documented case, however, fault lengths contrast markedly for two consecutive <span class="hlt">ruptures</span>, but the amount of offset at individual sites was similar. Adjacent individual patches, 10 km or more in length, failed singly during one event and in tandem during the other. More complex cases of repetition may also represent the failure of several distinct patches. The faults of the 1992 Landers earthquake provide an instructive example of such complexity. Together, these examples suggest that large earthquakes commonly result from the failure of one or more patches, each characterized by a slip function that is roughly invariant through consecutive earthquake cycles. The persistence of these slip-patches through two or more large earthquakes indicates that some quasi-invariant physical property controls the pattern and magnitude of slip. These data seem incompatible with theoretical models that produce slip distributions that are highly variable in consecutive large events.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sieh, Kerry</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1996-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a 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showDiv("page_21");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">381</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6188768"> <span id="translatedtitle">TMI-2 lower head creep <span class="hlt">rupture</span> analysis</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The TMI-2 accident resulted in approximately 40% of the reactor's core melting and collecting on the lower head of the reactor pressure vessel. The severity of the accident has raised questions about the margin of safety against <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of the lower head in this accident since all evidence seems to indicate no major breach of the vessel occurred. Scoping heat transfer analyses of the relocated core debris and lower head have been made based upon assumed core melting scenarios and core material debris formations while in contact with the lower head. This report describes the structural finite element creep <span class="hlt">rupture</span> analysis of the lower head using a temperature transient judged most likely to challenge the structural capacity of the vessel. This evaluation of vessel response to this transient has provided insight into the creep mechanisms of the vessel wall, a realistic mode of failure, and a means by which margin to failure can be evaluated once examination provides estimated maximum wall temperatures. Suggestions for more extensive research in this area are also provided. 6 refs., 15 figs.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Thinnes, G.L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1988-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">382</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1597109"> <span id="translatedtitle">[Spontaneous splenic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> in acute malaria tropica].</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A 44-year-old man developed bouts of fever (up to 40 degrees C) seven days after returning from a holiday in Kenya. Malaria prophylaxis with chloroquine had been correctly undertaken. Concentrations of lactate dehydrogenase and total bilirubin were raised (493 U/l and 3.55 mg/dl, respectively). Blood smear revealed the ring forms of Plasmodium falciparum. Thereupon the patient was given mefloquine in decreasing doses (750/500/250 mg) at intervals of 8 hours. The following night he had a circulatory collapse and complained of pain on pressure, especially in the left upper abdomen. Abdominal sonography showed a slightly enlarged spherical spleen with an echo-poor band and fluid collection in the rectovesicular pouch, indicating <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of the spleen. A splenectomy was performed. Subsequently the number of malaria organisms in the blood smear gradually fell and signs of haemolysis disappeared. Splenic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> is a very rare complication of acute malaria. It is presumably caused by marked stasis in the splenic sinuses with deformed parasite-containing red blood cells. PMID:1597109</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Falk, S; Protz, H; Köbrich, U; Stutte, H J</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1992-05-29</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">383</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9617415"> <span id="translatedtitle">Acute Achilles tendon <span class="hlt">rupture</span> in badminton players.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">All patients with badminton-related acute Achilles tendon <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> registered during 1990 to 1994 at the University Hospital of Umeå were retrospectively followed up using a questionnaire. Thirty-one patients (mean age, 36.0 years), 27 men and 4 women, were included. Thirty patients (97%) described themselves as recreational players or beginners. The majority of the injuries (29 of 31, 94%) happened at the middle or end of the planned game. Previous local symptoms had been noticed by five patients (16%). Long-term results showed that patients treated with surgery had a significantly shorter sick leave absence than patients treated without surgery (50 versus 75 days). There was no obvious selection favoring any treatment modality. None of the surgically treated patients had reruptures, but two reruptures occurred in the nonsurgically treated group. There seemed to be fewer remaining symptoms and a higher sports activity level after the injury in the surgically treated group. Our results indicate that local muscle fatigue may interfere with strength and coordination. Preventive measures such as specific treatment of minor injuries and adequate training of strength, endurance, and coordination are important. Our findings also indicate that surgical treatment and careful postoperative rehabilitation is of great importance among badminton players of any age or sports level with Achilles tendon <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. PMID:9617415</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Fahlström, M; Björnstig, U; Lorentzon, R</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1998-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">384</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.T33C2644F"> <span id="translatedtitle">How is a stick slip <span class="hlt">rupture</span> initiated?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We investigated the initiation process of stick slip events that occurred during large scale rock friction experiments conducted on the large scale shaking table at NIED (Fukuyama et al., 2012, AGU Fall meeting). We used a pair of Indian gabbro rock samples stacked vertically and applied normal and shear forces. The sliding area between the samples is 1.5m in length and 0.1m in width. We conducted a sequence of experiments using the same rock sample, and before each experiment we removed gouge particles created during the previous experiment by a brush and a cleaner. Here, we show the experiments under constant slip velocity of 0.1mm/s with constant normal stress of 2.7MPa (LB04-003) or 6.7MPa (LB04-005); the final displacement reached 0.04m. We used 44 acoustic sensors (PZT, vertical mode, 0.5MHz resonance frequency), 32 2-comp strain gouges (SGs) for shear strain and 16 1-comp SGs for normal strain measurements, with 48 0.5MHz dynamic SG amplifiers. We also used a 2MN load cell for shear force measurement and three 0.4MN load cells for vertical forces. Data are recorded continuously at an interval of 10MHz for PZT and 1MHz for other sensors. Just after the shear force applied, many stick slip events (SEs) occurred at an interval of a few seconds. By looking carefully at the PZT and SG array data during an SE, we found that one SE consists of many micro stick slip events (MSEs), which can be grouped into two (the former and the latter). These two groups correspond to the acceleration and deceleration stage of the SE. In LB04-005 (6.7MPa normal stress), a clear nucleation phase can be detected that initiated at a narrow area, propagate slowly (~20m/s) and accelerated. Then, a seismic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> started to propagate at a velocity of ~3km/s (subshear) or ~6.5km/s (supershear). Detailed features are shown in Mizoguchi et al. (this meeting). It should be noted that this seismic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> initiated at a narrow area inside the nucleation zone and sometimes after a certain amount of time; it does not seem a smooth transition process from the acceleration to the seismic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> as proposed in Ohnaka and Shen (1999, JGR). In contrast, under low normal stress case (LB04-003, 2.7MPa), there were no visible nucleation phases but a sequence of foreshocks was observed, which was not dominant in LB04-005. The foreshock slip area was typically around 10cm long. Again, we could not see any visible correlation between the location and preceding time of foreshocks and that of seismic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> initiation. By looking at the fault surface topography that was recorded as photograph images before and after the experiment, in the nucleation zone, grooves are not developed, while outside the nucleation area, grooves are well developed. Grooves are caused by the creation of gouge particles during the sliding. It could be interesting to note that outside the groove, the sliding surface looks very smooth and shiny, indicating that this area was polished but did not create gouge particles. Therefore, we might speculate that this shiny fault area is responsible for the initiation phase and when the stress state becomes critical, seismic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> starts around one of the grooves. And in LB04-003, the shiny area might not support the shear stress so that the foreshock releases the strain around the grooves.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Fukuyama, E.; Mizoguchi, K.; Yamashita, F.; Kawakata, H.; Takizawa, S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">385</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=DE2008925821"> <span id="translatedtitle">EMMA <span class="hlt">Main</span> Ring Lattice.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The author gave a brief introduction to the purpose and goals of the EMMA experiment and describe how they will impact the design of the <span class="hlt">main</span> EMMA ring. He then describes the mathematical model that is used to describe the EMMA lattice. Finally, The autho...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">J. S. Berg</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">386</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=logo+AND+design&pg=4&id=EJ307707"> <span id="translatedtitle">A Gift from <span class="hlt">Maine</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Artists and writers from <span class="hlt">Maine</span> were asked to develop creative activities for a sixth-grade class. Students were encouraged to observe nature, investigate their ancestors, design logos, and think about the impossible. Several of the activities that could be adopted to relate to other states are presented. (DF)</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Instructor, 1984</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1984-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">387</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=N20020085154"> <span id="translatedtitle">COBRA <span class="hlt">Main</span> Engine Project.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The COBRA (CO-Optimized Booster for Reusable Applications) project include the following: 1. COBRA <span class="hlt">main</span> engine project team. 2. COBRA and RLX cycles selected. 3. COBRA proto-type engine approach enables mission success. 4. COBRA provides quick, low cost d...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">J. Snoddy S. Sides</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">388</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/eimsapi.dispdetail?deid=142565"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">MAINE</span> SCHOOLS AND LIBRARIES</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p class="result-summary">SCHLIB shows point locations of libraries and educational institutions in <span class="hlt">Maine</span> at 1:24,000 scale. Colleges, universities, technical colleges, high schools, middle schools, elementary schools, kindergarten/sub-primary and other special schools are included. The data was developed...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">389</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED220824.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Maine</span> Studies ECRI.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The articles in this booklet address the questions raised by the <span class="hlt">Maine</span> Learning Consortium in its efforts to look closely at, describe, and assess the use of programs such as the Exemplary Center for Reading Instruction (ECRI). Based on interviews with six teachers, the first article examines student achievement gains through the use of ECRI.…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Maine Mastery Learning Consortium, Gardiner.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">390</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=ADP004408"> <span id="translatedtitle">Pharmacologic Intervention in <span class="hlt">Shock</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A scheme of the progressive changes that occur with <span class="hlt">shock</span> and ischemia which we have previously discussed in detail is presented in Figure 1. The major changes during such conditions are in microcirculation, cell membrane transport and function, energy me...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">I. H. Chaudry A. E. Baue</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1983-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">391</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23868747"> <span id="translatedtitle">Life <span class="hlt">shocks</span> and homelessness.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We exploited an exogenous health <span class="hlt">shock</span>-namely, the birth of a child with a severe health condition-to investigate the effect of a life <span class="hlt">shock</span> on homelessness in large cities in the United States as well as the interactive effects of the <span class="hlt">shock</span> with housing market characteristics. We considered a traditional measure of homelessness, two measures of housing instability thought to be precursors to homelessness, and a combined measure that approximates the broadened conceptualization of homelessness under the 2009 Homeless Emergency Assistance and Rapid Transition to Housing Act (2010). We found that the <span class="hlt">shock</span> substantially increases the likelihood of family homelessness, particularly in cities with high housing costs. The findings are consistent with the economic theory of homelessness, which posits that homelessness results from a conjunction of adverse circumstances in which housing markets and individual characteristics collide. PMID:23868747</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Curtis, Marah A; Corman, Hope; Noonan, Kelly; Reichman, Nancy E</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">392</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=ADA064964"> <span id="translatedtitle">Myocardial Effects of <span class="hlt">Shock</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background material for the original proposal indicated that one of the pathogenic considerations in <span class="hlt">shock</span> was a specific humoral factor responsible for myocardial depression. This myocardial depression factor (MDH) was found to originate in ischemic gut;...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">L. Williams</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1973-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">393</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930040583&hterms=galeev&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3D%2522galeev%2522"> <span id="translatedtitle">Collisionless parallel <span class="hlt">shocks</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Consideration is given to a collisionless parallel <span class="hlt">shock</span> based on solitary-type solutions of the modified derivative nonlinear Schroedinger equation (MDNLS) for parallel Alfven waves. The standard derivative nonlinear Schroedinger equation is generalized in order to include the possible anisotropy of the plasma distribution and higher-order Korteweg-de Vies-type dispersion. Stationary solutions of MDNLS are discussed. The anisotropic nature of 'adiabatic' reflections leads to the asymmetric particle distribution in the upstream as well as in the downstream regions of the <span class="hlt">shock</span>. As a result, nonzero heat flux appears near the front of the <span class="hlt">shock</span>. It is shown that this causes the stochastic behavior of the nonlinear waves, which can significantly contribute to the <span class="hlt">shock</span> thermalization.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Khabibrakhmanov, I. KH.; Galeev, A. A.; Galinskii, V. L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1993-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">394</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=SAND758013"> <span id="translatedtitle">Shell <span class="hlt">Shock</span> Structural Code.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">SHELL <span class="hlt">SHOCK</span> is a computer code that performs a frequency analysis and determines the static and dynamic response of any structure represented by mass, damping, and stiffness matrices. These matrices may be formed directly by the user, formed internally by...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">J. E. Grant V. K. Gabrielson</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1975-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">395</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=PB82970008"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Shock</span> Trauma Studies.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This citation summarizes a one-page announcement of technology available for utilization. Several mathmatical developments at the Chemical Systems Laboratory have revealed new dimensions in the use of <span class="hlt">shock</span> trauma data to characterize and evaluate the sev...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1982-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">396</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/26769490"> <span id="translatedtitle">Numerical simulation of <span class="hlt">shock</span>-wave initiation of heterogeneous detonation in aerosuspensions of aluminum particles</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Numerical simulations of flows of reacting two-phase media in a two-velocity, twotemperature approximation are used to study\\u000a the <span class="hlt">shock</span>-wave initiation of detonation in aerosuspensions of aluminum particles in oxygen. The conditions in a high pressure\\u000a chamber under which detonation can develop after <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of a diaphragm are determined. Two initiation scenarios are established\\u000a that depend on the localization of the</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">A. V. Fedorov; T. A. Khmel</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">397</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23065487"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Rupture</span> of jejunal varices treated with balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Bleeding from varices arising from outside of the gastroesophageal region is rare. We report a case of <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> jejunal varices, successfully treated with B-RTO. Our patient was a 60-year-old man with alcoholic cirrhosis who had undergone total gastrectomy two years before he visited our clinic with tarry stool and hypotensive <span class="hlt">shock</span>. Results of 3DMDCT clearly showed variceal formation at the jejunal loop around the anastomotic site and abdominal wall as well as the extensive epigastric outflow tract, which finally drained into the left femoral vein. B-RTO was carried out via right femoral approach, using a microcatheter system. The varices disappeared, and the patient remained asymptomatic 18 months after the treatment. PMID:23065487</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Osame, Akinobu; Higashihara, Hideyuki; Urakawa, Hiroshi; Kora, Shinichi; Yoshimitsu, Kengo</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">398</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/48510374"> <span id="translatedtitle">Cold-<span class="hlt">Shock</span> Proteins</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Change in temperature is one of the most common stresses faced by all living organisms. Microorganisms, which encounter significant\\u000a shifts to either high or low temperatures in their natural habitats, are equipped with cellular mechanisms to respond and\\u000a adapt to these changes. The focus of research in previous years had been heat <span class="hlt">shock</span> response and adaptation, as heat <span class="hlt">shock</span>\\u000a causes</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sangita Phadtare; Masayori Inouye</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">399</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/31797659"> <span id="translatedtitle">Posttraumatic free intraperitoneal <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of liver cystic echinococcosis: a case series and review of literature</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">BackgroundA serious complication of cystic echinococcus (CE) is the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of the cysts. Free intra-abdominal <span class="hlt">rupture</span> occurs in approximately 3.2% of all cases. Posttraumatic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of liver CE is very rare.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gurkan Ozturk; Bulent Aydinli; M. Ilhan Yildirgan; Mahmut Basoglu; S. Selcuk Atamanalp; K. Yalcin Polat; Fatih Alper; Bulent Guvendi; M. Nuran Akcay; Durkaya Oren</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">400</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013SSRv..176..115J"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Heliospheric Termination <span class="hlt">Shock</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The heliospheric termination <span class="hlt">shock</span> is a vast, spheroidal <span class="hlt">shock</span> wave marking the transition from the supersonic solar wind to the slower flow in the heliosheath, in response to the pressure of the interstellar medium. It is one of the most-important boundaries in the outer heliosphere. It affects energetic particles strongly and for this reason is a significant factor in the effects of the Sun on Galactic cosmic rays. This paper summarizes the general properties and overall large-scale structure and motions of the termination <span class="hlt">shock</span>. Observations over the past several years, both in situ and remote, have dramatically revised our understanding of the <span class="hlt">shock</span>. The consensus now is that the <span class="hlt">shock</span> is quite blunt, is with the front, blunt side canted at an angle to the flow direction of the local interstellar plasma relative to the Sun, and is dynamical and turbulent. Much of this new understanding has come from remote observations of energetic charged particles interacting with the <span class="hlt">shock</span>, radio waves and radiation backscattered from interstellar neutral atoms. The observations and the implications are discussed.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jokipii, J. R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' 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onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">401</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15297589"> <span id="translatedtitle">Endovascular repair of spontaneous or traumatic iliac vein <span class="hlt">rupture</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Spontaneous <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of the iliac vein and <span class="hlt">rupture</span> resulting from blunt trauma are both very unusual. Herein one case of each are reported and were managed by emergent endovascular repair with use of covered stents. Favorable outcomes were achieved in both cases. PMID:15297589</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zieber, Steven R; Mustert, Bryan R; Knox, Michael F; Fedeson, Brian C</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">402</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/23469443"> <span id="translatedtitle">Liposome <span class="hlt">rupture</span> and contents release over coplanar microelectrode arrays</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The vulnerability of vesicles to electroporation and <span class="hlt">rupture</span> by externally applied electric fields, combined with the ability of dielectrophoresis and\\/or AC electroosmosis to manipulate suspended vesicles over micropatterned electrodes suggests new techniques to electrically trigger localized chemical reactions at predetermined positions in microfluidic devices. The electric field conditions needed to <span class="hlt">rupture</span> giant unilamellar phospholipid vesicles were determined as a function</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jit Kang Lim; Hao Zhou; Robert D. Tilton</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">403</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/32038403"> <span id="translatedtitle">Traumatic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of the aortic isthmus: An emergency?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The objectives of this study were to explore the hypotheses that: (1) patients with traumatic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of the aortic isthmus (TRA) who have not exsanguinated into the pleural cavity upon hospital presentation are unilikely to develop <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of the hematoma during the time necessary to investigate all injuries and attend to those of more immediate danger; and (2) appropriate medical</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">James W. Pate; Timothy C. Fabian; William Walker</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1995-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">404</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23668940"> <span id="translatedtitle">Comparing Two Methods of Identifying Alliance <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> Events.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This study compared two methods of detecting <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> in therapy sessions, a procedure based on a self-report measure, the Working Alliance Inventory (WAI), and an observational <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> Resolution Rating System (3RS). We anticipated that the 3RS would detect more <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> than the WAI. We examined the longitudinal data of 38 patient-therapist dyads in a cognitive-behavioral therapy condition. The sample included cases that did not complete treatment (dropped cases) as well as good-outcome and poor-outcome cases. At the end of each session, patients completed the WAI self-report questionnaire. Six judges were trained to observe and detect the occurrence of <span class="hlt">ruptures</span>, and then rated 201 videotaped sessions. Longitudinal statistical models were applied to the data retrieved from the WAI questionnaires completed by patients. We found discrepancies in the ability of the two methods to detect <span class="hlt">rupture</span> events with the observational 3RS detecting more <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> than the WAI. Thus, the use of observational systems for the detection of alliance <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> is crucial for effectively assessing the quality of the therapeutic alliance over the course of treatment. Furthermore, observational systems proven to detect <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> can be used to improve clinical practice and training of new clinicians. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:23668940</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Coutinho, Joana; Ribeiro, Eugénia; Sousa, Inês; Safran, Jeremy D</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-05-13</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">405</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7063959"> <span id="translatedtitle">Delayed <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of renal artery after renal percutaneous transluminal angioplasty</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Two cases are reported in which <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of the renal artery occurred many hours after renal percutaneous transluminal angioplasty. Delayed <span class="hlt">rupture</span> can be recognized by the angiographic appearance and by the presence of persistent flank pain. The typical angiographic finding is a poorly defined zone of contrast medium at the site of perforation.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Puijlaert, C.B.A.J.; Mali, W.P.; Rosenbusch, G.; van Straalen, A.M.; Klinge, J.; Feldberg, M.A.M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1986-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">406</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2387268"> <span id="translatedtitle">Tracheal <span class="hlt">rupture</span> in a cat: Diagnosis by computed tomography</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A cat was presented with a history of worsening generalized subcutaneous emphysema following dental prophylaxis. Tentative diagnosis of tracheal <span class="hlt">rupture</span> was made. The location and extent of the tear was confirmed with the help of computed tomography. This is the 1st computed tomographic description of tracheal <span class="hlt">rupture</span> in the veterinary literature.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bhandal, Jitender; Kuzma, Alan</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">407</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2496021"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Rupture</span> of the stomach following mouth-to-mouth respiration</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Successful repair and survival after <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of the stomach in a patient who received mouth-to-mouth respiration is presented. We were able to find only one report in the literature where <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of the stomach occurred following this manoeuvre—the patient did not survive. The possible aetiological factors and measures designed to avoid this complication are discussed. ImagesFig. 1</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Solowiejczyk, M.; Wapnick, S.; Koren, E.; Mandelbaum, J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1974-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">408</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18419430"> <span id="translatedtitle">Spontaneous splenic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> caused by Babesia microti infection.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Babesiosis has not been previously associated with spontaneous splenic <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. We describe an otherwise healthy 61-year-old man with symptomatic babesiosis whose spleen <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> during hospitalization. Although this complication is rare, practitioners who commonly treat patients with babesiosis should be aware of its potential occurrence. PMID:18419430</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kuwayama, David P; Briones, Renato J</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">409</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17160782"> <span id="translatedtitle">Traumatic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of right hemidiaphragm in a child.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Acute right-sided diaphragmatic <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> are rare in children. We report a case of traumatic right-sided diaphragmatic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> in a child that was managed by delayed repair. The clinical presentation and importance of making an accurate diagnosis and confirmation of any associated visceral injury before definitive surgery is highlighted. PMID:17160782</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Antao, B; Lansdale, N; Shawis, R</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">410</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/31274385"> <span id="translatedtitle">Vaginal birth after cesarean and uterine <span class="hlt">rupture</span> rates in California</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Objective: To describe attempted and successful vaginal birth after cesarean (VBAC) rates and uterine <span class="hlt">rupture</span> rates for women with and without prior cesareans, and compare delivery outcomes in hospitals with different attempted VBAC rates.Methods: We used California hospital discharge summary data for 1995 to calculate attempted and successful VBAC rates and uterine <span class="hlt">rupture</span> rates. We used multivariate logistic regression models</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kimberly D Gregory; Lisa M Korst; Patricia Cane; Lawrence D Platt; Katherine Kahn</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">411</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3892058"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Ruptured</span> renal arteriovenous malformation successfully treated by catheter embolization: a case report</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background Renal arteriovenous fistula (RAVF) is a comparatively rare malformation. Here, we report a case of <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> RAVF that was successfully treated by catheter embolization. Case presentation An 89-year-old female was transferred to our institution with massive gross hematuria in March 2011. Plain abdominal computed tomography (CT) revealed dilated left renal pelvis with high-density contents. Hematoma was suspected. Subsequent plain abdominal magnetic resonance imaging revealed left hydronephrosis and blood retention in the dilated left renal pelvis. No renal or ureteral cancer was evident. Hematuria was conservatively treated using hemostatic agents but hematuria persisted. Repeated urinary cytology revealed no malignant cells. On day 9, the patient went into septic and/or hemorrhagic <span class="hlt">shock</span>. Fluid and catecholamine infusion, blood transfusion, and antibacterial drugs were rapidly initiated, and the patient’s general condition gradually improved. Contrast-enhanced abdominal CT revealed marked expansion of the hematoma in the renal pelvis and microaneurysms in the segmental arteries of the left kidney. Inflammation improved, and a left double-J stent was inserted. Selective renal angiography revealed RAVF with microaneurysms in the left segmental arteries; therefore, catheter embolization using metallic coils was performed, which resolved hematuria. Conclusion We report a case of <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> renal arteriovenous malformation, which was successfully treated by catheter embolization.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">412</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21450310"> <span id="translatedtitle">Percutaneous Treatment of Sac <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> in Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms Previously Excluded with Endovascular Repair (EVAR)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility and effectiveness of percutaneous endovascular repair of <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) previously treated by EVAR. In the last year, two male patients with AAAs, treated 8 and 23 months ago with bifurcated stent-graft, were observed because of lumbar pain and hemorragic <span class="hlt">shock</span>. Multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) showed a retroperitoneal hematoma; in both cases a type III endoleak was detected, in one case associated with a type II endoleak from the iliolumbar artery. The procedures were performed in the theater, in emergency. Type II endoleak was treated with transcatheter superselective glue injection; type III endoleaks were excluded by a stent-graft extension. The procedures were successful in both patients, with immediate hemodynamic stabilization. MDCT after the procedure showed complete exclusion of the aneurysms. In conclusion, endovascular treatment is a safe and feasible option for the treatment of <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> AAAs previously treated by EVAR; this approach allows avoidance of surgical conversion, which is technical very challenging, with a high morbidity and mortality rate.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lagana, Domenico, E-mail: donlaga@gmail.com; Mangini, Monica, E-mail: monica.mangini@tin.it; Fontana, Federico; Nicotera, Paolo; Carrafiello, Gianpaolo; Fugazzola, Carlo [University of Insubria, Vascular and Interventional Radiology, Department of Radiology (Italy)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">413</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21274269"> <span id="translatedtitle">Wall <span class="hlt">shocks</span> in high-energy-density <span class="hlt">shock</span> tube experiments</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The radiative precursor of a sufficiently fast <span class="hlt">shock</span> has been observed to drive the vaporization of <span class="hlt">shock</span> tube material ahead of the <span class="hlt">shock</span>. The resulting expansion drives a converging blast wave into the gas volume of the tube. The effects of this wall <span class="hlt">shock</span> may be observed and correlated with primary <span class="hlt">shock</span> parameters. We demonstrate this process in experiments performed on the Omega Laser Facility, launching <span class="hlt">shocks</span> propagating through xenon with speeds above 100 km/s driven by ablation pressures of approximately 50 Mbars. Wall <span class="hlt">shocks</span> in laser experiments, in which the principal <span class="hlt">shock</span> waves themselves should not be radiative, are also reported--in which the wall <span class="hlt">shocks</span> have been launched by some other early energy source.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Doss, F. W.; Drake, R. P.; Kuranz, C. C. [Department of Atmospheric, Oceanic, and Space Sciences, University of Michigan, Michigan 48109-2143 (United States); Robey, H. F. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94551-0808 (United States)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-11-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">414</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://mainehumanities.org/index.php"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Maine</span> Humanities Council</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Formed as a private nonprofit organization, the <span class="hlt">Maine</span> Humanities Council (MHC) "promotes strong communities and informed citizens by providing Mainers with opportunities to explore the power and pleasure of ideas." Their work is supported by volunteer board members, and their projects include programs to promote reading and writing, guest lectures around the state, and online newsletters and discussion groups. In the "Programs" area, visitors can learn about these programs, and educators can check out the resources created especially for them. The "Connections" area contains links to their thoughtful blog, their "Humanities on Demand" podcasts, and their periodic newsletter "Synapse", which deals with medicine and literature. The podcasts are quite fun, and they include "Franco-American Women's Words in <span class="hlt">Maine</span>" and a talk by Professor Dianne Sadoff of Rutgers University on Middlemarch, by George Eliot.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">415</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA00657&hterms=Jupiter+moons&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3DJupiter%2527s%2Bmoons"> <span id="translatedtitle">Jupiter's <span class="hlt">Main</span> Ring</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A mosaic of four images taken through the clear filter (610 nanometers) of the solid state imaging (CCD) system aboard NASA's Galileo spacecraft on November 8, 1996, at a resolution of approximately 46 kilometers (km) per picture element (pixel) along the rings; however, because the spacecraft was only about 0.5 degrees above the ring plane, the image is highly foreshortened in the vertical direction. The images were obtained when Galileo was in Jupiter's shadow peering back toward the Sun; the ring was approximately 2,300,000 kilometers (km) away. The arc on the far right of the image is produced by sunlight scattered by small particles comprising Jupiter's upper atmospheric haze. The ring also efficiently scatters light, indicating that much of its brightness is due to particles that are microns or less in diameter. Such small particles are believed to have human-scale lifetimes, i.e., very brief compared to the solar system's age.<p/>Jupiter's ring system is composed of three parts -- a flat <span class="hlt">main</span> ring, a lenticular halo interior to the <span class="hlt">main</span> ring, and the gossamer ring, which lies exterior to the <span class="hlt">main</span> ring. The near and far arms of Jupiter's <span class="hlt">main</span> ring extend horizontally across the mosaic, joining together at the ring's ansa, on the far left side of the figure. The near arm of the ring appears to be abruptly truncated close to the planet, at the point where it passes into Jupiter's shadow. Some radial structure is barely visible across the ring's ansa. A faint mist of particles can be seen above and below the <span class="hlt">main</span> rings; this vertically extended 'halo' is unusual in planetary rings, and is probably caused by electromagnetic forces pushing the smallest grains out of the ring plane. Because of shadowing, the halo is not visible close to Jupiter in the lower right part of the mosaic.<p/>Jupiter's <span class="hlt">main</span> ring is a thin strand of material encircling the planet. The diffuse innermost boundary begins at approximately 123,000 km. The <span class="hlt">main</span> ring's outer radius is found to be at 128,940 +/-50 km, slightly less than the Voyager value of 129,130 +/-100 km, but very close to the orbit of the satellite Adrastea (128,980 km). The <span class="hlt">main</span> ring exhibits a marked drop in brightness at 127,849 +/-50 km, lying almost atop the orbit of the Jovian moon Metis at 127,978 km. Satellites seem to affect the structure of even tenuous rings like that found at Jupiter.<p/>The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC.<p/>This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at: http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov. Background information and educational context for the images can be found at: http:/ /www.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo/sepo.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">416</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://windowsonmaine.library.umaine.edu/"> <span id="translatedtitle">Windows on <span class="hlt">Maine</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Created with funds provided by the Institute of Museum and Library Services (IMLS), Windows on <span class="hlt">Maine</span> contains interesting and informative programs and video clips from <span class="hlt">Maine</span> Public Broadcasting and other partners. On their homepage, visitors can use their interactive map and timeline to locate video clips of interest, and they can also search the entire collection for specific items. Visitors can also use the subject category menu to look over 25 different headings, including "earth sciences", "land disputes", and "Penobscot tribe". The map feature is a real pip, and visitors can customize their search by location and date, and it's a great way to learn about different regions, including Aroostook County (also known as "the County") and Downeast. Also, many of the videos also have additional resources attached to them, such as railroad timetables, historic photographs, and so on.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">417</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2007/1437/g/"> <span id="translatedtitle">Development of Final A-Fault <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> Models for WGCEP/ NSHMP Earthquake Rate Model 2</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This appendix discusses how we compute the magnitude and rate of earthquake <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> for the seven Type-A faults (Elsinore, Garlock, San Jacinto, S. San Andreas, N. San Andreas, Hayward-Rodgers Creek, and Calaveras) in the WGCEP/NSHMP Earthquake Rate Model 2 (referred to as ERM 2. hereafter). By definition, Type-A faults are those that have relatively abundant paleoseismic information (e.g., mean recurrence-interval estimates). The first section below discusses segmentation-based models, where <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> are assumed be confined to one or more identifiable segments. The second section discusses an un-segmented-model option, the third section discusses results and implications, and we end with a discussion of possible future improvements. General background information can be found in the <span class="hlt">main</span> report.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Field, Edward H.; Weldon, Ray J., II; Parsons, Thomas; Wills, Chris J.; Dawson, Timothy E.; Stein, Ross S.; Petersen, Mark D.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">418</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24485595"> <span id="translatedtitle">Lipid membranes in external electric fields: kinetics of large pore formation causing <span class="hlt">rupture</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">About 40 years ago, Helfrich introduced an elastic model to explain shapes and shape transitions of cells (Z Naturforsch C, 1973; 28:693). This seminal article stimulated numerous theoretical as well as experimental investigations and created new research fields. In particular, the predictive power of his approach was demonstrated in a large variety of lipid model system. Here in this review, we focus on the development with respect to planar lipid membranes in external electric fields. Stimulated by the early work of Helfrich on electric field forces acting on liposomes, we extended his early approach to understand the kinetics of lipid membrane <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. First, we revisit the <span class="hlt">main</span> forces determining the kinetics of membrane <span class="hlt">rupture</span> followed by an overview on various experiments. Knowledge on the kinetics of defect formation may help to design stable membranes or serve for novel mechanism for controlled release. PMID:24485595</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Winterhalter, Mathias</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">419</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.cpalms.org/Public/PreviewResourceUrl/Preview/35666"> <span id="translatedtitle">Energetic <span class="hlt">Main</span> Idea</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this lesson, students will learn about different forms of energy and how to find the <span class="hlt">main</span> idea and key details in informational text. Included with the lesson is an anticipation guide to assess prior knowledge, plus a rubric to score the students' summative assessment. Also present is a list of books to choose from so that teachers can use the books that fit their students best.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Shipley, Amanda</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-09-16</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">420</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11547138"> <span id="translatedtitle">Prevalence of silicone breast implant <span class="hlt">rupture</span> among Danish women.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The durability of silicone gel-filled breast implants is of concern, but there are few epidemiological studies on this issue. To date, most of the relevant findings are derived from studies of explantation, which suffer from bias by including women with symptoms or concerns about their implants. As part of a long-term magnetic resonance imaging study of the incidence of <span class="hlt">rupture</span>, this study involved 271 women with 533 cosmetic breast implants who were randomly selected from among women who underwent cosmetic breast implantation from 1973 through 1997 at one public and three private plastic-surgery clinics in Denmark. The prevalence of <span class="hlt">rupture</span> was determined from the first magnetic resonance screening. The images were evaluated by four independent readers, using a standardized, validated form. The outcomes under study were <span class="hlt">rupture</span>, possible <span class="hlt">rupture</span>, and intact implant. <span class="hlt">Ruptures</span> were categorized as intracapsular or extracapsular. Overall, 26 percent of implants in 36 percent of the women examined were found to be <span class="hlt">ruptured</span>, and an additional 6 percent were possibly <span class="hlt">ruptured</span>. Of the <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> implants, 22 percent were extracapsular. In multiple regression analyses, age of implant was significantly associated with <span class="hlt">rupture</span> among second- and third-generation implants, with a 12-fold increased prevalence odds ratio for <span class="hlt">rupture</span> of implants that were between 16 and 20 years of age, compared with implants between 3 and 5 years of age. Surgitek implants (Medical Engineering Corporation, Racine, Wis.) had a significantly increased prevalence odds ratio of 2.6 for <span class="hlt">rupture</span>, compared with the reference implants. No significant association was found with the position (subglandular or submuscular) or the type of implant (single- or double-lumen). Extracapsular <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> were significantly associated with a history of closed capsulotomy (p = 0.001). In the future, the authors plan to examine the women in their cohort with a second magnetic resonance imaging scan to establish the incidence of <span class="hlt">rupture</span>, a parameter unknown to date in the literature, and to further characterize those factors associated with the actual risk of <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. PMID:11547138</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hölmich, L R; Kjøller, K; Vejborg, I; Conrad, C; Sletting, S; McLaughlin, J K; Fryzek, J; Breiting, V; Jørgensen, A; Olsen, J H</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-09-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return 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href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">421</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.S33E..08W"> <span id="translatedtitle">Do All Large Strike-slip Earthquakes Have Supershear <span class="hlt">Ruptures</span>?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Studying the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> speeds of earthquakes is of broad interesting for earthquake research because it has a large effect on the strong near-field shaking that causes damage during earthquakes. Also <span class="hlt">rupture</span> speed is a key observation for understanding the controlling stresses and friction during an earthquake, yet the speed and its variations are usually difficult to determine. Using only far-field seismic waveforms, which is the only data available for many large earthquakes, there are problems for estimating the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> speed with standard waveform inversions, due to trade-off between the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> speed and the slip location. Here we applied a back projection method to estimate the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> speeds of Mw ? 7.5 strike-slip earthquakes since 2001 which could be analyzed using Hi-net in Japan. We found that all events had very fast average <span class="hlt">rupture</span> speeds of 3.0-6.0 km/s, which are near or greater than the local shear wave velocity (supershear). These values are faster than for thrust and normal faulting earthquakes that generally <span class="hlt">rupture</span> with speeds of 1.0-3.0 km/s. Considering the depth-dependent shear-wave velocity, the average propagation speeds for all of the strike-slip events are closer to or greater than the shear wave velocity (Figure 1). For large strike-slip events, transition from subshear to supershear usually occurs within distances of 15 to 30 km from the initiation, which is probably the reason for the scarcity of observed supershear earthquakes for smaller magnitudes. Earthquakes with supershear <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> can cause more damage than events with subshear <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> because of the concentration of energy in the forward direction of the <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. Numerical modeling shows strong focusing and other effects of energy at the <span class="hlt">rupture</span> front which can intensify the ground motions. A recent example is the April 13, 2010 Qinghai, China earthquake (Mw 6.9), where a moderate-size event caused extensive damage in the Yushu region at the southeastern end of the fault. Careful evaluation of long and straight strike-slip faults should be emphasized for predicting strong ground motions due to supershear <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. a: Average <span class="hlt">rupture</span> speeds for Mw ? 7.5 strike-slip earthquakes. For comparison, dip-slip earthquakes are also shown. The blue dashed line presents the S wave velocity model of PREM for comparison. b: <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> velocities are shown as ratio to the local S wave velocity, as a function of depth.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wang, D.; Mori, J. J.; Koketsu, K.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">422</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4010050"> <span id="translatedtitle">Contained Left Ventricular Free Wall <span class="hlt">Rupture</span> following Myocardial Infarction</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Rupture</span> of the free wall of the left ventricle occurs in approximately 4% of patients with infarcts and accounts for approximately 20% of the total mortality of patients with myocardial infractions. Relatively few cases are diagnosed before death. Several distinct clinical forms of ventricular free wall <span class="hlt">rupture</span> have been identified. Sudden <span class="hlt">rupture</span> with massive hemorrhage into the pericardium is the most common form; in a third of the cases, the course is subacute with slow and sometimes repetitive hemorrhage into the pericardial cavity. Left ventricular pseudoaneurysms generally occur as a consequence of left ventricular free wall <span class="hlt">rupture</span> covered by a portion of pericardium, in contrast to a true aneurysm, which is formed of myocardial tissue. Here, we report a case of contained left ventricular free wall <span class="hlt">rupture</span> following myocardial infarction.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Shiyovich, Arthur; Nesher, Lior</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">423</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18018610"> <span id="translatedtitle">Delayed hepatothorax due to right-sided traumatic diaphragmatic <span class="hlt">rupture</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We present a 48-year-old man with delayed hepatothorax due to right-sided traumatic diaphragmatic <span class="hlt">rupture</span>. An initial chest radiograph showed no specific signs except elevation of the right diaphragmatic border. The diagnosis was confirmed by coronal reformatted helical computed tomography (CT) imaging, which revealed intrathoracic displacement of the liver. A follow-up chest radiograph revealed gradual elevation of the right diaphragmatic border, suggesting worsening of the diaphragmatic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> and progression of hepatothorax, resulting in severe atelectasis of the right lung. Therefore, surgical repair of the diaphragmatic <span class="hlt">rupture</span> was performed. Impaction of the liver through the diaphragmatic <span class="hlt">ruptured</span> region was observed. Chest radiographic examination after the operation revealed a more normal position of the right diaphragmatic border and resolution of the right lung atelectasis. The problems associated with the diagnosis and operative treatment of hepatothorax with right-sided traumatic diaphragmatic <span class="hlt">ruptures</span> are discussed in the light of this case report. PMID:18018610</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Igai, Hitoshi; Yokomise, Hiroyasu; Kumagai, Kazumi; Yamashita, Susumu; Kawakita, Kenya; Kuroda, Yasuhiro</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">424</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010JAP...108d3301U"> <span id="translatedtitle">Spherical and cylindrical imploding and exploding <span class="hlt">shock</span> waves in plasma system dominated by pair production</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The propagation of ion acoustic <span class="hlt">shock</span> waves in cylindrical and spherical geometries has been investigated. The plasma system consists of cold ions, Boltzmannian electrons and positrons. Spherical, cylindrical Korteweg-de Vries-Burger equations have been derived by reductive perturbation technique and their <span class="hlt">shock</span> behavior is studied by employing finite difference method. Our <span class="hlt">main</span> emphasis is on the behavi