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1

Office productivity: a theoretical framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The aim of this paper is to provide a validated theoretical framework for the measurement of office productivity. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The study's strength is that it is based on two sizable data sets. The data collected consists of data about the physical characteristics of the office environment and data pertaining to the behavioural environment. Findings – One of

Barry P. Haynes

2007-01-01

2

Towards a Theoretical Framework for Educational Simulations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the need for a sustained and systematic effort toward establishing a theoretical framework for educational simulations, proposes the adaptation of models borrowed from the natural and applied sciences, and describes three simulations based on such a model adapted using Brunerian learning theory. Sixteen references are listed. (LLS)

Winer, Laura R.; Vazquez-Abad, Jesus

1981-01-01

3

The Theoretical Framework of Cognitive Informatics  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT Cognitive Informatics (CI) is a transdisciplinary enquiry of the internal information processing mechanisms and processes of the brain and natural intelligence shared by almost all science and engineering disciplines. This article presents an intensive review of the new field of CI. The structure of the theoretical framework of CI is described encompassing the Layered Reference Model of the Brain

Yingxu Wang

2007-01-01

4

Theoretical Models and Operational Frameworks in Public Health Ethics  

PubMed Central

The article is divided into three sections: (i) an overview of the main ethical models in public health (theoretical foundations); (ii) a summary of several published frameworks for public health ethics (practical frameworks); and (iii) a few general remarks. Rather than maintaining the superiority of one position over the others, the main aim of the article is to summarize the basic approaches proposed thus far concerning the development of public health ethics by describing and comparing the various ideas in the literature. With this in mind, an extensive list of references is provided.

Petrini, Carlo

2010-01-01

5

Epistemologically authentic inquiry in schools: A theoretical framework for evaluating inquiry tasks  

Microsoft Academic Search

A main goal of science education is to help students learn to reason scien- tifically. A main way to facilitate learning is to engage students in inquiry activities such as conducting experiments. This article presents a theoretical framework for evaluating inquiry tasks in terms of how similar they are to authentic science. The framework helps identify the respects in which

Clark A. Chinn; Betina A. Malhotra

2002-01-01

6

Knowledge management and organizational culture: a theoretical integrative framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Organizational culture is a critical factor in building and reinforcing knowledge management in organizations. However, there is no theoretical framework that comprehensively explains the effect of organizational culture on knowledge management in organizations. This paper endeavors to develop a theoretical integrative framework for organizational knowledge management and organizational culture. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – This is a conceptual paper. It modifies

Rajnish Kumar Rai

2011-01-01

7

Taxation of banks: A theoretical framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of this paper is to develop a model of financial intermediation analyze the impact of various forms of taxation. The model considers in a unified framework various functions of banks: monitoring, transaction services and asset transformation. Particular attention is devoted to conditions for separability between deposits and loans. The analysis focuses on: (i) competition between banks and alternative

Ramon Caminal

2002-01-01

8

Bayesian Decision Theoretical Framework for Clustering  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this thesis, we establish a novel probabilistic framework for the data clustering problem from the perspective of Bayesian decision theory. The Bayesian decision theory view justifies the important questions: what is a cluster and what a clustering algorithm should optimize. We prove that the spectral clustering (to be specific, the…

Chen, Mo

2011-01-01

9

Use of theoretical and conceptual frameworks in qualitative research.  

PubMed

Aim To debate the definition and use of theoretical and conceptual frameworks in qualitative research. Background There is a paucity of literature to help the novice researcher to understand what theoretical and conceptual frameworks are and how they should be used. This paper acknowledges the interchangeable usage of these terms and researchers' confusion about the differences between the two. It discusses how researchers have used theoretical and conceptual frameworks and the notion of conceptual models. Detail is given about how one researcher incorporated a conceptual framework throughout a research project, the purpose for doing so and how this led to a resultant conceptual model. Review methods Concepts from Abbott ( 1988 ) and Witz ( 1992 ) were used to provide a framework for research involving two case study sites. The framework was used to determine research questions and give direction to interviews and discussions to focus the research. Discussion Some research methods do not overtly use a theoretical framework or conceptual framework in their design, but this is implicit and underpins the method design, for example in grounded theory. Other qualitative methods use one or the other to frame the design of a research project or to explain the outcomes. An example is given of how a conceptual framework was used throughout a research project. Conclusion Theoretical and conceptual frameworks are terms that are regularly used in research but rarely explained. Textbooks should discuss what they are and how they can be used, so novice researchers understand how they can help with research design. Implications for practice/research Theoretical and conceptual frameworks need to be more clearly understood by researchers and correct terminology used to ensure clarity for novice researchers. PMID:25059086

Green, Helen Elise

2014-07-01

10

A Theoretical Framework for Contextual Science Teaching  

Microsoft Academic Search

The contextual approach to teaching is generally recognized as a reasonable and desirable strategy to enhance student learning\\u000a in science. Using several cognitive and learning theories together with various philosophical considerations, I identify five\\u000a distinct contexts that are important in engaging learners: the theoretical, practical, social, historical, and affective.\\u000a Based on these five contexts, I construct a model for teaching

Stephen Klassen

2006-01-01

11

Exploring how globalization shapes education: methodology and theoretical framework  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This is a commentary on some major issues raised in Carter and Dediwalage's "Globalisation and science education: The case of Sustainability by the bay" (this issue), particularly their methodology and theoretical framework for understanding how globalisation shapes education (including science education). While acknowledging the authors' contribution to the literature on globalisation and education, it questions the degree to which their analysis captures and explains how globalisation shapes science education, and examines how the research can be complemented by altering its methodology and expanding its theoretical framework.

Pan, Su-Yan

2010-06-01

12

A Theoretical Framework for Physics Education Research: Modeling Student Thinking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Education is a goal-oriented field. But if we want to treat education\\u000ascientifically so we can accumulate, evaluate, and refine what we learn, then\\u000awe must develop a theoretical framework that is strongly rooted in objective\\u000aobservations and through which different theoretical models of student thinking\\u000acan be compared. Much that is known in the behavioral sciences is robust and

Edward F. Redish

2004-01-01

13

Theoretical seismic properties of pre-main sequence ? Doradus pulsators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Context. The late A and F-type ? Doradus (? Dor) stars pulsate with high-order gravity modes (g-modes). The existence of different evolutionary phases crossing the ? Dor instability strip raises the question whether pre-main sequence (PMS) ? Dor stars exist. Aims: We intend to study the differences between the asteroseismic behaviour of PMS and main sequence (MS) ? Dor pulsators as predicted by the current theory of stellar evolution and stability. Methods: We explore the adiabatic and non-adiabatic properties of high-order g-modes in a grid of PMS and MS models covering the mass range 1.2 M? < M? < 2.5 M?. Results: We have derived the theoretical instability strip (IS) for the PMS ? Dor pulsators. This IS covers the same effective temperature range as the MS ? Dor one. Nevertheless, the frequency domain of unstable modes in PMS models with a fully radiative core is greater than in MS models, even if they present the same number of unstable modes. Moreover, the differences between MS and PMS internal structures are reflected in the average values of the period spacing, as well as in the dependence of the period spacing on the radial order of the modes, opening the window to determination of the evolutionary phase of ? Dor stars from their pulsation spectra.

Bouabid, M.-P.; Montalbán, J.; Miglio, A.; Dupret, M.-A.; Grigahcène, A.; Noels, A.

2011-07-01

14

The impact of Greek Orthodoxy on entrepreneurship: a theoretical framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to offer a theoretical framework for the analysis of the eventual implications of Greek Orthodoxy for business and entrepreneurial activities in general. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper examines the basic concepts, tenets and principles – in particular, those being of interest to business and entrepreneurship – of a specific religious worldview, Greek Orthodoxy.

George Gotsis; Zoe Kortezi

2009-01-01

15

Exploring How Globalization Shapes Education: Methodology and Theoretical Framework  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is a commentary on some major issues raised in Carter and Dediwalage's "Globalisation and science education: The case of "Sustainability by the bay"" (this issue), particularly their methodology and theoretical framework for understanding how globalisation shapes education (including science education). While acknowledging the authors'…

Pan, Su-Yan

2010-01-01

16

A theoretical framework for an intelligent design catalogue  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper outlines continuing work on the intelligent design catalogue. The intelligent design catalogue seeks to create a virtual design environment that is linked to a catalogue of standard parts. The theoretical framework for this research draws on several engineering areas. Within manufacturing, process plans can be developed in a virtual environment independently of the machines on the shop floor

Paul Winkelman; Ian Yellowley

2011-01-01

17

Towards a Theoretical Framework of Heritage Language Literacy and Identity Processes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Drawing mainly on Pierre Bourdieu's notions of symbolic capital, Bakhtin's concept of voice and heteroglossia in the novel, and Gee's theory of Discourses and the term third space as applied in education, I construct a theoretical framework for heritage language (HL) literacy and identity processes. I propose that HL literacy acquisition be viewed…

Lo-Philip, Stephanie Wing-Yan

2010-01-01

18

Towards a theoretical framework of heritage language literacy and identity processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drawing mainly on Pierre Bourdieu's notions of symbolic capital, Bakhtin's concept of voice and heteroglossia in the novel, and Gee's theory of Discourses and the term third space as applied in education, I construct a theoretical framework for heritage language (HL) literacy and identity processes. I propose that HL literacy acquisition be viewed as identity processes that encompass the acquisition

Stephanie Wing-Yan Lo-Philip

2010-01-01

19

A detection-theoretic framework for modeling informational masking  

PubMed Central

There has been growing interest in recent years in masking that appears to have its origin at a central level of the auditory nervous system—so-called informational masking (IM). Masker uncertainty and target-masker similarity have been identified as the two major factors affecting IM; however, no theoretical framework currently exists that would give precise meaning to these terms necessary to evaluate their relative importance or model their effects. The present paper offers a first attempt at such a framework constructed within the doctrines of the theory of signal detection.

Lutfi, Robert A.; Chang, An-Chieh; Stamas, Jacob; Gilbertson, Lynn

2012-01-01

20

A general module theoretic framework for vector M-Padé and matrix rational interpolation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A general module theoretic framework is used to solve several classical interpolation problems and generalizations thereof in a unified way. These problems are divided into two main families. The first family contains the classical linearized Padé, Padé-Hermite and M-Padé problems and the generalization to the vector M-Padé problem. The second family consists of the Padé problem, the scalar, vector and

M. Van Barel; A. Bultheel

1992-01-01

21

A theoretical framework for fish-eddy interactions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The natural habitats of fishes are characterized by water movements driven by a multitude of physical processes of either natural or human origin. The resultant unsteadiness is exacerbated when flow interacts with surfaces, such as the bottom and banks, and protruding objects, such as corals, boulders, and woody debris. There is growing interest in the impacts on performance and behavior of fishes swimming in ``turbulent flows''. The ability of fishes to stabilize body postures and their swimming trajectories is thought to be important in determining species distributions and densities, and hence resultant assemblages in various habitats. Understanding impacts of turbulence on fishes is also important as human practices modify water movements, and as turbulence-generating structures ranging from hardening shorelines to control erosion, through designing fish deterrents, to the design of fish passageways become common. A new theoretical framework is proposed to quantify fish-eddy interactions. Dimensionless parameters are derived based on a common element: eddy circulation. A set of variables defines the flow field whereas a second set quantifies fish characteristics as an embedded body in the flow. By comparing both sets of variables, different regimes are predicted describing fish responses to a wide range of physical perturbations.

Cotel, Aline; Webb, Paul

2007-11-01

22

A New Replicator: A theoretical framework for analysing replication  

PubMed Central

Background Replicators are the crucial entities in evolution. The notion of a replicator, however, is far less exact than the weight of its importance. Without identifying and classifying multiplying entities exactly, their dynamics cannot be determined appropriately. Therefore, it is importance to decide the nature and characteristics of any multiplying entity, in a detailed and formal way. Results Replication is basically an autocatalytic process which enables us to rest on the notions of formal chemistry. This statement has major implications. Simple autocatalytic cycle intermediates are considered as non-informational replicators. A consequence of which is that any autocatalytically multiplying entity is a replicator, be it simple or overly complex (even nests). A stricter definition refers to entities which can inherit acquired changes (informational replicators). Simple autocatalytic molecules (and nests) are excluded from this group. However, in turn, any entity possessing copiable information is to be named a replicator, even multicellular organisms. In order to deal with the situation, an abstract, formal framework is presented, which allows the proper identification of various types of replicators. This sheds light on the old problem of the units and levels of selection and evolution. A hierarchical classification for the partition of the replicator-continuum is provided where specific replicators are nested within more general ones. The classification should be able to be successfully applied to known replicators and also to future candidates. Conclusion This paper redefines the concept of the replicator from a bottom-up theoretical approach. The formal definition and the abstract models presented can distinguish between among all possible replicator types, based on their quantity of variable and heritable information. This allows for the exact identification of various replicator types and their underlying dynamics. The most important claim is that replication, in general, is basically autocatalysis, with a specific defined environment and selective force. A replicator is not valid unless its working environment, and the selective force to which it is subject, is specified.

2010-01-01

23

A Theoretical Framework for the Studio as a Learning Environment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article we describe a holistic, ecological framework that takes into account the surface structures and pedagogical approaches in the studio and how these elements are connected to the construction of design knowledge: epistemology. In our development of this framework, we came to understand how disciplinary underpinnings and academic…

Brandt, Carol B.; Cennamo, Katherine; Douglas, Sarah; Vernon, Mitzi; McGrath, Margarita; Reimer, Yolanda

2013-01-01

24

Participatory Action Research: A Theoretical and Practical Framework for EE.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Uses four student-led investigations conducted as part of the National Science Foundation (NSF) funded 'Explorations from an Aerial Perspective' program to demonstrate how participatory action research can provide a framework for realizing environmental education goals. (Author/MM)

Mordock, Kalay; Krasny, Marianne E.

2001-01-01

25

Unsupervised image-set clustering using an information theoretic framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we combine discrete and continuous image models with information-theoretic-based criteria for unsu- pervised hierarchical image-set clustering. The continuous image modeling is based on mixture of Gaussian densities. The unsu- pervised image-set clustering is based on a generalized version of a recently introduced information-theoretic principle, the infor- mation bottleneck principle. Images are clustered such that the mutual information

Jacob Goldberger; Shiri Gordon; Hayit Greenspan

2006-01-01

26

Immigrant Students' Experience of Schooling: A Narrative Inquiry Theoretical Framework  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We explore immigrant students' experience of schooling focusing on Yang Yang and his family. We present insights into immigrant Chinese educational experience in Canada and bring forward a narrative-inquiry framework for the study of student experience. We find that--contrary to some of the expectations of Chinese immigrants--family relations,…

Xu, Shijing; Connelly, F. Michael; He, Ming Fang; Phillion, JoAnn

2007-01-01

27

Language Learner Strategies: Adhering to a Theoretical Framework  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The editors and guest editors of Volume 35 have very kindly asked me to write an end-piece to this special issue of "The Language Learning Journal" that has focused on language learner strategies (LLS). Particularly they have asked me to evaluate the extent to which the papers presented in this volume adhere to some sort of theoretical consensus.…

Macaro, Ernesto

2007-01-01

28

Primary Teachers' Attitudes toward Science: A New Theoretical Framework  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Attention to the attitudes of preservice and inservice primary teachers toward science is of fundamental importance to research on primary science education. However, progress in this field of research has been slow due to the poor definition and conceptualization of the construct of primary teachers' attitude toward science. This poor theoretical

van Aalderen-Smeets, Sandra I.; Walma van der Molen, Juliette H.; Asma, Lieke J. F.

2012-01-01

29

Multiple Intelligent Mentors Instructing Collaboratively (MIMIC): Developing a Theoretical Framework.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes preliminary work on "Multiple Intelligent Mentors Instructing Collaboratively" (MIMIC), an intelligent Web-based agent environment for learning instructional design. The focus is on developing theoretical foundations of instructional design and instructional theory that form the foundation for systems development. In the…

Baylor, Amy

30

Theoretical investigation of hydrogen interaction in Covalent Organic Framework - 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Density functional theory (DFT) and second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory (MP2) are carried out to calculate the non-dissociative hydrogen adsorption energies of covalent organic framework-1 (COF-1). Our DFT results show that a hydrogen molecule prefers to adsorb on top of oxygen of boroxine (B3O3) ring and C---C bridge site of benzene ring when a single H2 is interacting with the COF-1.

Pornjuk Srepusharawoot; Ralph H. Scheicher; C. Moysées Araúujo; Andreas Blomqvist; Rajeev Ahuja

2010-01-01

31

A Type-Theoretic Framework for Certified Model Transformations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a framework based on the Calculus of Inductive Constructions (CIC) and its associated tool the Coq proof assistant to allow certification of model transformations in the context of Model-Driven Engineering (MDE). The approached is based on a semi-automatic translation process from metamodels, models and transformations of the MDE technical space into types, propositions and functions of the CIC technical space. We describe this translation and illustrate its use in a standard case study.

Calegari, Daniel; Luna, Carlos; Szasz, Nora; Tasistro, Álvaro

32

Theories of behaviour change synthesised into a set of theoretical groupings: introducing a thematic series on the theoretical domains framework  

PubMed Central

Behaviour change is key to increasing the uptake of evidence into healthcare practice. Designing behaviour-change interventions first requires problem analysis, ideally informed by theory. Yet the large number of partly overlapping theories of behaviour makes it difficult to select the most appropriate theory. The need for an overarching theoretical framework of behaviour change was addressed in research in which 128 explanatory constructs from 33 theories of behaviour were identified and grouped. The resulting Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF) appears to be a helpful basis for investigating implementation problems. Research groups in several countries have conducted TDF-based studies. It seems timely to bring together the experience of these teams in a thematic series to demonstrate further applications and to report key developments. This overview article describes the TDF, provides a brief critique of the framework, and introduces this thematic series. In a brief review to assess the extent of TDF-based research, we identified 133 papers that cite the framework. Of these, 17 used the TDF as the basis for empirical studies to explore health professionals’ behaviour. The identified papers provide evidence of the impact of the TDF on implementation research. Two major strengths of the framework are its theoretical coverage and its capacity to elicit beliefs that could signify key mediators of behaviour change. The TDF provides a useful conceptual basis for assessing implementation problems, designing interventions to enhance healthcare practice, and understanding behaviour-change processes. We discuss limitations and research challenges and introduce papers in this series.

2012-01-01

33

A Theoretical Framework to Guide the Re-Engineering of Technology Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Before leaders in technology education are able to identify a theoretical framework upon which a curriculum is to stand, they must first grapple with two opposing views of the purpose of technology education--education for all learners or career/technical education. Dakers (2006) identifies two opposing philosophies that can serve as a framework

Kelley, Todd; Kellam, Nadia

2009-01-01

34

Educating students with insecure attachment histories: toward an interdisciplinary theoretical framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

Middle school students with insecure attachment histories present a particular challenge for school personnel. These students frequently cause behavioural disruptions and fail to academically engage in course content. This paper draws from attachment theory, as well as literature in the fields of education, neurobiology and psychology, to establish a theoretical framework for future research on teachers and attachment. The framework

Brianna L. Kennedy

2008-01-01

35

A game theoretic framework for bandwidth allocation and pricing in broadband networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present a game theoretic framework for bandwidth allocation for elastic services in high-speed net- works. The framework is based on the idea of the Nash bargaining solution from cooperative game theory, which not only provides the rate settings of users that are Pareto optimal from the point of view of the whole system, but are also

Haïkel Yaïche; Ravi R. Mazumdar; Catherine Rosenberg

2000-01-01

36

A Theoretical Framework for Unsupervised Change Detection Based on Change Vector Analysis in the Polar Domain  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses unsupervised change detection by proposing a proper framework for a formal definition and a theoretical study of the change vector analysis (CVA) technique. This framework, which is based on the representation of the CVA in polar coordinates, aims at: 1) introducing a set of formal definitions in the polar domain (which are linked to the properties of

Francesca Bovolo; Lorenzo Bruzzone

2007-01-01

37

[Towards a theoretical framework for rethinking cultural accessibility].  

PubMed

Health services accessibility is a key health policy issue. However, few in-depth studies have addressed it theoretically. Most distinguish between availability, accessibility, and acceptability, or between geographic, financial, administrative, and cultural accessibility. We discuss and analyze the concept of accessibility as conflictive articulation between supply and demand in health. The article addresses the importance of cultural accessibility, rethinking it as a social interface, i.e., a social arena with clashing worldviews (namely, those of physicians and patients). The approach sheds light on the complex processes of grasping, translating, and reshaping knowledge and recommendations within such interaction. PMID:24627053

Landini, Fernando; Cowes, Valeria González; D'Amore, Eliana

2014-02-01

38

Towards Developing a Theoretical Framework for Measuring Public Sector Managers' Career Success  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to develop a theoretical framework for measuring public sector managers' career success. Design/methodology/approach: The theoretical foundation used in this study is social cognitive career theory. To conduct a literature search, several keywords were identified, i.e. career success, objective and subjective…

Rasdi, Roziah Mohd; Ismail, Maimunah; Uli, Jegak; Noah, Sidek Mohd

2009-01-01

39

The symmetries of image formation by scattering. I. Theoretical framework.  

PubMed

We perceive the world through images formed by scattering. The ability to interpret scattering data mathematically has opened to our scrutiny the constituents of matter, the building blocks of life, and the remotest corners of the universe. Here, we present an approach to image formation based on the symmetry properties of operations in three-dimensional space. Augmented with graph-theoretic means, this approach can recover the three-dimensional structure of objects from random snapshots of unknown orientation at four orders of magnitude higher complexity than previously demonstrated. This is critical for the burgeoning field of structure recovery by X-ray Free Electron Lasers, as well as the more established electron microscopic techniques, including cryo-electron microscopy of biological systems. In a subsequent paper, we demonstrate the recovery of structure and dynamics from experimental, ultralow-signal random sightings of systems with X-rays, electrons, and photons, with no orientational or timing information. PMID:22714309

Giannakis, Dimitrios; Schwander, Peter; Ourmazd, Abbas

2012-06-01

40

Use of Theoretical Frameworks as a Pragmatic Guide for Mixed Methods Studies: A Methodological Necessity?  

PubMed Central

There is a growing acceptance of the utility of mixed methods in health sciences but there is no widely accepted set of ideas in regard to use of a conceptual or theoretical framework to guide inquiry. Few mixed methods health science articles report the use of such a framework. Lack of available conceptual maps provided by theoretical frameworks, necessary intricacy of design, and the qualitative “black box” tradition all contribute to a dearth of methodological guidance in such studies. This article uses a funded National Institutes of Health study as an example to explain the utility of a theoretical framework in conceptualizing a study, making design decisions such as sampling and recruitment, collecting and analyzing data, and data interpretation.

Evans, Bronwynne C.; Coon, David W.; Ume, Ebere

2011-01-01

41

Theoretical investigation of hydrogen interaction in Covalent Organic Framework - 1  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Density functional theory (DFT) and second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory (MP2) are carried out to calculate the non-dissociative hydrogen adsorption energies of covalent organic framework-1 (COF-1). Our DFT results show that a hydrogen molecule prefers to adsorb on top of oxygen of boroxine (B3O3) ring and C---C bridge site of benzene ring when a single H2 is interacting with the COF-1. Moreover, the trend of adsorption energy obtained from the DFT calculations is found to be in good agreement with the MP2 binding energy trend. However, hydrogen molecules prefer to trap on top of oxygen at B3O3 ring and carbon atom at C6H4 ring at high hydrogen loadings. By performing ab initio molecular dynamics simulations, we observed that H2 molecules are able to stay at their initial adsorption sites due to blocking by occupancy of hydrogen molecules at the adsorption sites. (See also J. Phys. Chem. C, 113, 8498 (2009))

Srepusharawoot, Pornjuk; Scheicher, Ralph H.; Moysées Araúujo, C.; Blomqvist, Andreas; Ahuja, Rajeev

2010-03-01

42

Interprofessional learning in acute care: developing a theoretical framework.  

PubMed

There are a number of adult learning theories that have been used to inform IPE delivery (e.g. Kolb's theory of experiential learning), and one of the most important to emerge in recent times has been the contact theory or contact hypothesis, which looks at the outcomes when two differing groups of health care professionals are brought together. The team responsible for the development of an acute care IPE programme called Student Management of Acute illness Recognition and Treatment (SMART(TM)) set out to incorporate the most up to date educational theory into the programme. Following an extensive review of the literature, it was decided to adopt a blended theoretical approach, involving a combination of 'contact theory' and 'scaffolding', supported by interprofessional facilitation. It was clear that there were a number of enabling factors that could be incorporated into any IPE programme. These were the educational setting, group characteristics (group size, balance and stability), quality of IPE facilitation and opportunities for informal learning. Although the contact theory provides us with a better understanding of interprofessional groups, an understanding of how the organised contact of different professional groups of students helps to reduce intergroup prejudice and improve intergroup relations is still required. PMID:21531487

Lewis, Robin

2012-04-01

43

Human rights in patient care: a theoretical and practical framework.  

PubMed

The concept of "human rights in patient care" refers to the application of human rights principles to the context of patient care. It provides a principled alternative to the growing discourse of "patients' rights" that has evolved in response to widespread and severe human rights violations in health settings. Unlike "patients' rights," which is rooted in a consumer framework, this concept derives from inherent human dignity and neutrally applies universal, legally recognized human rights principles, protecting both patients and providers and admitting of limitations that can be justified by human rights norms. It recognizes the interrelation between patient and provider rights, particularly in contexts where providers face simultaneous obligations to patients and the state ("dual loyalty") and may be pressured to abet human rights violations. The human rights lens provides a means to examine systemic issues and state responsibility. Human rights principles that apply to patient care include both the right to the highest attainable standard of health, which covers both positive and negative guarantees in respect of health, as well as civil and political rights ranging from the patient's right to be free from torture and inhumane treatment to liberty and security of person. They also focus attention on the right of socially excluded groups to be free from discrimination in the delivery of health care. Critical rights relevant to providers include freedom of association and the enjoyment of decent work conditions. Some, but not all, of these human rights correspond to rights that have been articulated in "patients' rights" charters. Complementary to—but distinct from—bioethics, human rights in patient care carry legal force and can be applied through judicial action. They also provide a powerful language to articulate and mobilize around justice concerns, and to engage in advocacy through the media and political negotiation. As "patients' rights" movements and charters grow in popularity, it is important to link patient rights back to human rights standards and processes that are grounded in international law and consensus. PMID:24421170

Cohen, Jonathan; Ezer, Tamar

2013-01-01

44

Developing theory-informed behaviour change interventions to implement evidence into practice: a systematic approach using the Theoretical Domains Framework  

PubMed Central

Background There is little systematic operational guidance about how best to develop complex interventions to reduce the gap between practice and evidence. This article is one in a Series of articles documenting the development and use of the Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF) to advance the science of implementation research. Methods The intervention was developed considering three main components: theory, evidence, and practical issues. We used a four-step approach, consisting of guiding questions, to direct the choice of the most appropriate components of an implementation intervention: Who needs to do what, differently? Using a theoretical framework, which barriers and enablers need to be addressed? Which intervention components (behaviour change techniques and mode(s) of delivery) could overcome the modifiable barriers and enhance the enablers? And how can behaviour change be measured and understood? Results A complex implementation intervention was designed that aimed to improve acute low back pain management in primary care. We used the TDF to identify the barriers and enablers to the uptake of evidence into practice and to guide the choice of intervention components. These components were then combined into a cohesive intervention. The intervention was delivered via two facilitated interactive small group workshops. We also produced a DVD to distribute to all participants in the intervention group. We chose outcome measures in order to assess the mediating mechanisms of behaviour change. Conclusions We have illustrated a four-step systematic method for developing an intervention designed to change clinical practice based on a theoretical framework. The method of development provides a systematic framework that could be used by others developing complex implementation interventions. While this framework should be iteratively adjusted and refined to suit other contexts and settings, we believe that the four-step process should be maintained as the primary framework to guide researchers through a comprehensive intervention development process.

2012-01-01

45

A Game-Theoretic Framework for Analyzing Trust-Inference Protocols  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a novel game-theoretic framework for analyzing the robustness of trust-inference protocols in the presence of adversarial (but rational) users. To the best of our knowledge, this is the rst such framework which simultaneously (1) admits a rigor- ous and precise denition, thereby enabling formal proofs of security (in various adversarial settings) for specic trust-inference protocols; (2) is exible

Ruggero Morselli; Jonathan Katz; Bobby Bhattacharjee

46

Understanding the Role of Numeracy in Health: Proposed Theoretical Framework and Practical Insights  

PubMed Central

Numeracy, that is how facile people are with mathematical concepts and their applications, is gaining importance in medical decision making and risk communication. This paper proposes six critical functions of health numeracy. These functions are integrated into a theoretical framework on health numeracy that has implications for risk-communication and medical-decision-making processes. We examine practical underpinnings for targeted interventions aimed at improving such processes as a function of health numeracy. It is hoped that the proposed functions and theoretical framework will spur more research to determine how an understanding of health numeracy can lead to more effective communication and decision outcomes.

Lipkus, Isaac M.; Peters, Ellen

2009-01-01

47

Theoretical study of ? Doradus pulsations in pre-main sequence stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The question of the existence of the pre-main sequence (PMS) ? Doradus (? Dor) pulsators has been raised by observations of young clusters such as NGC 884 hosting ? Dor members. We have explored the properties of ? Dor-type pulsations with a grid of PMS models covering the mass range {1.2 < M_*/M_? < 2.5} and we derive the theoretical instability strip (IS) for the PMS ? Dor pulsators. We explore the possibility of distinguishing between PMS and MS ? Dor by the behaviour of the period spacing of their high order gravity modes (g-modes).

Bouabid, M.-P.; Montalbán, J.; Miglio, A.; Dupret, M.-A.; Grigahcène, A.; Noels, A.

2010-12-01

48

Proposing a Theoretical Framework for Digital Age Youth Information Behavior Building upon Radical Change Theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contemporary young people are engaged in a variety of information behaviors, such as information seeking, using, sharing, and creating. The ways youth interact with information have transformed in the shifting digital information environment; however, relatively little empirical research exists and no theoretical framework adequately explains digital age youth information behaviors from a holistic perspective. In order to bridge the empirical

Kyungwon Koh

2011-01-01

49

Theoretical Frameworks for Learning-Based Approaches to Change in Industrialised-Country Agricultures  

Microsoft Academic Search

A range of theoretical perspectives on learning and change are reviewed and explored within a framework that owes much to the second order cybernetic claim that all knowing is doing. It is the aspiration of the authors to enable distinctions by the reader that illuminate their practice or their reading of the case study chapters that follow. Our ambition is

R. L. ISON; C. P. BLACKMORE; M. CERF

50

Variation Theory: A Theory of Learning and a Useful Theoretical Framework for Chemical Education Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Instructors are constantly baffled by the fact that two students who are sitting in the same class, who have access to the same materials, can come to understand a particular chemistry concept differently. Variation theory offers a theoretical framework from which to explore possible variations in experience and the resulting differences in…

Bussey, Thomas J.; Orgill, MaryKay; Crippen, Kent J.

2013-01-01

51

Analysing Theoretical Frameworks of Moral Education through Lakatos's Philosophy of Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The structure of studies of moral education is basically interdisciplinary; it includes moral philosophy, psychology, and educational research. This article systematically analyses the structure of studies of moral educational from the vantage points of philosophy of science. Among the various theoretical frameworks in the field of philosophy of…

Han, Hyemin

2014-01-01

52

Time To Speak Up: A Theoretical Framework of Situated Pedagogy and Practice for Communication.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses a theoretical framework of situated pedagogy and practice for communication across the curriculum (CXC). Gives principles of a situated communication pedagogy. Examines implications of a situated communication pedagogy for communication in the disciplines (CID) practice. Notes the benefits of a situated communication pedagogy and…

Dannels, Deanna P.

2001-01-01

53

Sharpening Thermal Imageries: A Generalized Theoretical Framework From an Assimilation Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Land surface temperature (LST) plays an important role in many fields. However, thermal bands in prevailing sensors that are onboard satellites have limited spatial resolutions, which seriously impede their potential applications. Many approaches that aim to downscale thermal imageries to finer spatial resolution levels have been developed in recent years. This paper managed to construct a Generalized Theoretical Framework from

Wenfeng Zhan; Yunhao Chen; Ji Zhou; Jing Li; Wenyu Liu

2011-01-01

54

A Test for Theoretical Integration: Systems Theory Framework and Dialogical Self  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Systems Theory Framework (STF) is presented as an integrating and organising concept for the predominant theories of career. In order to test the integrative capacity of the STF, this research merges the STF's theoretical element of story with the Theory of Dialogical Self's model of personality. Implications for the practice of career…

McIlveen, Peter

2007-01-01

55

LeZi-Update: An Information-Theoretic Framework for Personal Mobility Tracking in PCS Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The complexity of the mobility tracking problem in a cellular environment has been characterized under an information-theoretic framework. Shannon's entropy measure is identified as a basis for comparing user mobility models. By building and maintaining a dictionary of individual user's path updates (as opposed to the widely used location updates), the proposed adaptive on-line algorithm can learn subscribers' profiles. This

Amiya Bhattacharya; Sajal K. Das

2002-01-01

56

First-Year Biology Students' Understandings of Meiosis: An Investigation Using a Structural Theoretical Framework  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Meiosis is a biological concept that is both complex and important for students to learn. This study aims to explore first-year biology students' explanations of the process of meiosis, using an explicit theoretical framework provided by the Structure of the Observed Learning Outcome (SOLO) model. The research was based on responses of 334…

Quinn, Frances; Pegg, John; Panizzon, Debra

2009-01-01

57

NLPIR: A Theoretical Framework for Applying Natural Language Processing to Information Retrieval.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Proposes a theoretical framework called NLPIR that integrates natural language processing (NLP) into information retrieval (IR) based on the assumption that there exists representation distance between queries and documents. Discusses problems in traditional keyword-based IR, including relevance, and describes some existing NLP techniques.…

Zhou, Lina; Zhang, Dongsong

2003-01-01

58

Behaviour of cemented clay simulated via the theoretical framework of the Structured Cam Clay model  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the mechanical properties of cemented clay are studied. The theoretical framework of the Structured Cam Clay (SCC) model is extended to describe the behaviour of cemented clay. The SCC model is modified to take into account special features of the behaviour of cemented clay. The widely used mean effective stress parameter is modified to include the influence

Suksun Horpibulsuk; Martin D. Liu; Deepa S. Liyanapathirana; Jirayut Suebsuk

2010-01-01

59

Proverbs as Theoretical Frameworks for Lifelong Learning in Indigenous African Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Every aspect of a community's life and values in indigenous Africa provide the theoretical framework for education. The holistic worldview of the traditional system places a strong emphasis on the centrality of the human element and orature in the symmetrical relationship between life and learning. This article focuses on proverbs and the…

Avoseh, Mejai B. M.

2013-01-01

60

A game theoretic framework for interconnect optimization in deep submicron and nanometer design  

Microsoft Academic Search

The continuous scaling of interconnect wires in deep submicron (DSM)circuits result in increased interconnect delay, power and crosstalk noise. In this dissertation, we address the problem of multi-metric optimization at post layout level in the design of deep submicron designs and develop a game theoretic framework for its solution. Traditional approaches in the literature can only perform single metric optimization

Narender Hanchate

2006-01-01

61

Quantifying heterogeneity attributable to polythetic diagnostic criteria: Theoretical framework and empirical application.  

PubMed

Heterogeneity within psychiatric disorders is both theoretically and practically problematic: For many disorders, it is possible for 2 individuals to share very few or even no symptoms in common yet share the same diagnosis. Polythetic diagnostic criteria have long been recognized to contribute to this heterogeneity, yet no unified theoretical understanding of the coherence of symptom criteria sets currently exists. A general framework for analyzing the logical and mathematical structure, coherence, and diversity of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual diagnostic categories (DSM-5 and DSM-IV-TR) is proposed, drawing from combinatorial mathematics, set theory, and information theory. Theoretical application of this framework to 18 diagnostic categories indicates that in most categories, 2 individuals with the same diagnosis may share no symptoms in common, and that any 2 theoretically possible symptom combinations will share on average less than half their symptoms. Application of this framework to 2 large empirical datasets indicates that patients who meet symptom criteria for major depressive disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder tend to share approximately three-fifths of symptoms in common. For both disorders in each of the datasets, pairs of individuals who shared no common symptoms were observed. Any 2 individuals with either diagnosis were unlikely to exhibit identical symptomatology. The theoretical and empirical results stemming from this approach have substantive implications for etiological research into, and measurement of, psychiatric disorders. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:24886017

Olbert, Charles M; Gala, Gary J; Tupler, Larry A

2014-05-01

62

Determinants of health policy impact: a theoretical framework for policy analysis.  

PubMed

This paper addresses the role of policy and evidence in health promotion. The concept of von Wright's "logic of events" is introduced and applied to health policy impact analysis. According to von Wright (1976), human action can be explained by a restricted number of determinants: wants, abilities, duties, and opportunities. The dynamics of action result from changes in opportunities (logic of events). Applied to the policymaking process, the present model explains personal wants as subordinated to political goals. Abilities of individual policy makers are part of organisational resources. Also, personal duties are subordinated to institutional obligations. Opportunities are mainly related to political context and public support. The present analysis suggests that policy determinants such as concrete goals, sufficient resources and public support may be crucial for achieving an intended behaviour change on the population level, while other policy determinants, e.g., personal commitment and organisational capacities, may especially relate to the policy implementation process. The paper concludes by indicating ways in which future research using this theoretical framework might contribute to health promotion practice for improved health outcomes across populations. PMID:14626621

Rütten, Alfred; Lüschen, Günther; von Lengerke, Thomas; Abel, Thomas; Kannas, Lasse; Rodríguez Diaz, Josep A; Vinck, Jan; van der Zee, Jouke

2003-01-01

63

Framework for a U.S. Geological Survey Hydrologic Climate-Response Program in Maine  

USGS Publications Warehouse

It is important to monitor hydrologic systems in the United States that could change dramatically over the short term as a result of climate change. Many ecological effects of climate change can be understood only if hydrologic data networks are in place. Because of its humid, temperate climate and its substantial annual snowpack, Maine's seasonal water cycle is sensitive to air temperature changes (Hodgkins and others, 2003). Monitoring of relevant hydrologic data would provide important baseline information against which future climate change can be measured. A series of recent investigations by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has documented changes in several components of the water cycle, including earlier snowmelt runoff in Maine during the last 30 to 40 years (Hodgkins and others, 2003), earlier lake- and river-ice breakups (Hodgkins and others, 2002; Hodgkins and others, 2005), and a denser and thinner late-winter snowpack (Hodgkins and Dudley, 2006). Snowmelt runoff timing was measured as the date, each year, by which half of the total winter-spring streamflow passed a streamflow-gaging station. Historical snowmelt runoff timing for the Piscataquis River in central Maine is shown in figure 1 as an example. Results of climate projections input to hydrologic models indicate that hydrologic trends, such as earlier spring snowmelt runoff, are expected to continue into the future (Hayhoe and others, 2007). These trends could affect species at the southern edge of their range in Maine, such as Atlantic salmon and Canada lynx, and may also affect availability of water for human use. This fact sheet describes the framework of a hydrologic climate-response program that would improve understanding of the effects of future climate change in Maine.

Hodgkins, Glenn A.; Lent, Robert M.; Dudley, Robert W.; Schalk, Charles W.

2009-01-01

64

Analysis of poetic literature using B. F. Skinner's theoretical framework from verbal behavior  

PubMed Central

This paper examines Skinner's work on verbal behavior in the context of literature as a particular class of written verbal behavior. It looks at contemporary literary theory and analysis and the contributions that Skinner's theoretical framework can make. Two diverse examples of poetic literature are chosen and analyzed following Skinner's framework, examining the dynamic interplay between the writer and reader that take place within the bounds of the work presented. It is concluded that Skinner's hypotheses about verbal behavior and the functional approach to understanding it have much to offer literary theorists in their efforts to understand literary works and should be more carefully examined.

Luke, Nicole M.

2003-01-01

65

Ecological dynamics as a theoretical framework for development of sustainable behaviours towards the environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes how the theoretical framework of ecological dynamics can provide an influential model of the learner and the learning process to pre-empt effective behaviour changes. Here we argue that ecological dynamics supports a well-established model of the learner ideally suited to the environmental education context because of its emphasis on the learner–environment relationship. The model stems from perspectives

Eric Brymer; Keith Davids

2012-01-01

66

A Game-Theoretic Framework for Bandwidth Attacks and Statistical Defenses  

Microsoft Academic Search

We introduce a game-theoretic framework for rea- soning about bandwidth attacks, a common form of distributed denial of service (DDoS) attacks. In particular, our traffic injection game models the attacker as a rational but limited-resource entity who uses limited knowledge of traffic patterns to launch IP spoofing based bandwidth attacks on a server. We model the defender as a coarse-grained,

Mark E. Snyder; Ravi Sundaram; Mayur Thakur

2007-01-01

67

Framework for a U.S. Geological Survey Hydrologic Climate-Response Program in Maine  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report presents a framework for a U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) hydrologic climate-response program designed to provide early warning of changes in the seasonal water cycle of Maine. Climate-related hydrologic changes on Maine's rivers and lakes in the winter and spring during the last century are well documented, and several river and lake variables have been shown to be sensitive to air-temperature changes. Monitoring of relevant hydrologic data would provide important baseline information against which future climate change can be measured. The framework of the hydrologic climate-response program presented here consists of four major parts: (1) identifying homogeneous climate-response regions; (2) identifying hydrologic components and key variables of those components that would be included in a hydrologic climate-response data network - as an example, streamflow has been identified as a primary component, with a key variable of streamflow being winter-spring streamflow timing; the data network would be created by maintaining existing USGS data-collection stations and establishing new ones to fill data gaps; (3) regularly updating historical trends of hydrologic data network variables; and (4) establishing basins for process-based studies. Components proposed for inclusion in the hydrologic climate-response data network have at least one key variable for which substantial historical data are available. The proposed components are streamflow, lake ice, river ice, snowpack, and groundwater. The proposed key variables of each component have extensive historical data at multiple sites and are expected to be responsive to climate change in the next few decades. These variables are also important for human water use and (or) ecosystem function. Maine would be divided into seven climate-response regions that follow major river-basin boundaries (basins subdivided to hydrologic units with 8-digit codes or larger) and have relatively homogeneous climates. Key hydrologic variables within each climate-response region would be analyzed regularly to maintain up-to-date analyses of year-to-year variability, decadal variability, and longer term trends. Finally, one basin in each climate-response region would be identified for process-based hydrologic and ecological studies.

Hodgkins, Glenn A.; Lent, Robert M.; Dudley, Robert W.; Schalk, Charles W.

2009-01-01

68

Praxis and reflexivity for interprofessional education: towards an inclusive theoretical framework for learning.  

PubMed

While there is growing evidence of theoretical perspectives adopted in interprofessional education, learning theories tend to foreground the individual, focusing on psycho-social aspects of individual differences and professional identity to the detriment of considering social-structural factors at work in social practices. Conversely socially situated practice is criticised for being context-specific, making it difficult to draw generalisable conclusions for improving interprofessional education. This article builds on a theoretical framework derived from earlier research, drawing on the dynamics of Dewey's experiential learning theory and Archer's critical realist social theory, to make a case for a meta-theoretical framework enabling social-constructivist and situated learning theories to be interlinked and integrated through praxis and reflexivity. Our current analysis is grounded in an interprofessional curriculum initiative mediated by a virtual community peopled by health and social care users. Student perceptions, captured through quantitative and qualitative data, suggest three major disruptive themes, creating opportunities for congruence and disjuncture and generating a model of zones of interlinked praxis associated with professional differences and identity, pedagogic strategies and technology-mediated approaches. This model contributes to a framework for understanding the complexity of interprofessional learning and offers bridges between individual and structural factors for engaging with the enablements and constraints at work in communities of practice and networks for interprofessional education. PMID:23679676

Hutchings, Maggie; Scammell, Janet; Quinney, Anne

2013-09-01

69

Multi-scale theoretical investigation of hydrogen storage in covalent organic frameworks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The quest for efficient hydrogen storage materials has been the limiting step towards the commercialization of hydrogen as an energy carrier and has attracted a lot of attention from the scientific community. Sophisticated multi-scale theoretical techniques have been considered as a valuable tool for the prediction of materials storage properties. Such techniques have also been used for the investigation of hydrogen storage in a novel category of porous materials known as Covalent Organic Frameworks (COFs). These framework materials are consisted of light elements and are characterized by exceptional physicochemical properties such as large surface areas and pore volumes. Combinations of ab initio, Molecular Dynamics (MD) and Grand Canonical Monte-Carlo (GCMC) calculations have been performed to investigate the hydrogen adsorption in these ultra-light materials. The purpose of the present review is to summarize the theoretical hydrogen storage studies that have been published after the discovery of COFs. Experimental and theoretical studies have proven that COFs have comparable or better hydrogen storage abilities than other competitive materials such as MOF. The key factors that can lead to the improvement of the hydrogen storage properties of COFs are highlighted, accompanied with some recently presented theoretical multi-scale studies concerning these factors.

Tylianakis, Emmanuel; Klontzas, Emmanouel; Froudakis, George E.

2011-03-01

70

Multi-scale theoretical investigation of hydrogen storage in covalent organic frameworks.  

PubMed

The quest for efficient hydrogen storage materials has been the limiting step towards the commercialization of hydrogen as an energy carrier and has attracted a lot of attention from the scientific community. Sophisticated multi-scale theoretical techniques have been considered as a valuable tool for the prediction of materials storage properties. Such techniques have also been used for the investigation of hydrogen storage in a novel category of porous materials known as Covalent Organic Frameworks (COFs). These framework materials are consisted of light elements and are characterized by exceptional physicochemical properties such as large surface areas and pore volumes. Combinations of ab initio, Molecular Dynamics (MD) and Grand Canonical Monte-Carlo (GCMC) calculations have been performed to investigate the hydrogen adsorption in these ultra-light materials. The purpose of the present review is to summarize the theoretical hydrogen storage studies that have been published after the discovery of COFs. Experimental and theoretical studies have proven that COFs have comparable or better hydrogen storage abilities than other competitive materials such as MOF. The key factors that can lead to the improvement of the hydrogen storage properties of COFs are highlighted, accompanied with some recently presented theoretical multi-scale studies concerning these factors. PMID:21218227

Tylianakis, Emmanuel; Klontzas, Emmanouel; Froudakis, George E

2011-03-01

71

Phylogenetic Framework and Molecular Signatures for the Main Clades of the Phylum Actinobacteria  

PubMed Central

Summary: The phylum Actinobacteria harbors many important human pathogens and also provides one of the richest sources of natural products, including numerous antibiotics and other compounds of biotechnological interest. Thus, a reliable phylogeny of this large phylum and the means to accurately identify its different constituent groups are of much interest. Detailed phylogenetic and comparative analyses of >150 actinobacterial genomes reported here form the basis for achieving these objectives. In phylogenetic trees based upon 35 conserved proteins, most of the main groups of Actinobacteria as well as a number of their superageneric clades are resolved. We also describe large numbers of molecular markers consisting of conserved signature indels in protein sequences and whole proteins that are specific for either all Actinobacteria or their different clades (viz., orders, families, genera, and subgenera) at various taxonomic levels. These signatures independently support the existence of different phylogenetic clades, and based upon them, it is now possible to delimit the phylum Actinobacteria (excluding Coriobacteriia) and most of its major groups in clear molecular terms. The species distribution patterns of these markers also provide important information regarding the interrelationships among different main orders of Actinobacteria. The identified molecular markers, in addition to enabling the development of a stable and reliable phylogenetic framework for this phylum, also provide novel and powerful means for the identification of different groups of Actinobacteria in diverse environments. Genetic and biochemical studies on these Actinobacteria-specific markers should lead to the discovery of novel biochemical and/or other properties that are unique to different groups of Actinobacteria.

Gao, Beile

2012-01-01

72

Theoretical framework for the analysis of thermoelectroelastic heterogeneous media with applications  

SciTech Connect

A rigorous theoretical framework is presented for the analysis of thermoelectroelastic heterogeneous media. These materials include, among others, piezoelectric composite media which exhibit pyroelectricity. Formal definitions of a representative volume element, phase constitutive behavior, and numerous averaging theorems are presented. Expression for the average fields in the constituent phases in terms of thermal and electroelastic concentration factors are presented as are exact expressions for the effective moduli in terms of the concentration factors. An approach is presented to estimate the phase concentration factors which is based on the rigorous solution for the auxiliary problem of a single piezoelectric inhomogeneity embedded in an infinite matrix (which is also outlined). The theoretical principles are presented in the framework of a convenient 9 x 9 and 9 x 1 matrix formulation which greatly simplifies their numerical implementation. The framework presented here allows for the clean delineation between exact and assumed relations and allows a clear interpretation of all assumptions. Applications are made to polycrystalline piezoelectric ceramics, cracked piezoelectric solids, and two-phase piezoelectric composites.

Dunn, M.L. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)

1995-03-01

73

Adapting a theoretical framework for characterizing students' use of equations in physics problem solving  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Previous studies have focused on the resources that students activate and utilize while solving a given physics problem. However, few studies explore how students relate a given resource such as an equation, to various types of physics problems and contexts and how they ascertain the meaning and applicability of that resource. We explore how students view physics equations, derive meaning from those equations, and use those equations in physics problem solving. We adapt Dubinsky and McDonald's description of APOS (action-process-object-schema) theory of learning in mathematics, to construct a theoretical framework that describes how students interpret and use equations in physics in terms of actions, processes, objects, and schemas. This framework provides a lens for understanding how students construct their understanding of physics concepts and their relation to equations. We highlight how APOS theory can be operationalized to serve as a lens for studying the use of mathematics in physics problem solving.

Rebello, Carina M.; Rebello, N. Sanjay

2012-02-01

74

Adapting a theoretical framework for characterizing students' use of equations in physics problem solving  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Previous studies have focused on the resources that students activate and utilize while solving a given physics problem. However, few studies explore how students relate a given resource such as an equation, to various types of physics problems and contexts and how they ascertain the meaning and applicability of that resource. We explore how students view physics equations, derive meaning from those equations, and use those equations in physics problem solving. We adapt Dubinsky and McDonald's description of APOS (action-process-object-schema) theory of learning in mathematics, to construct a theoretical framework that describes how students interpret and use equations in physics in terms of actions, processes, objects, and schemas. This framework provides a lens for understanding how students construct their understanding of physics concepts and their relation to equations. We highlight how APOS theory can be operationalized to serve as a lens for studying the use of mathematics in physics problem solving.

Rebello, Carina M.; Rebello, N. S.

2012-05-15

75

Very Long (> 48 hours) Shifts and Cardiovascular Strain in Firefighters: a Theoretical Framework.  

PubMed

Shift work and overtime have been implicated as important work-related risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Many firefighters who contractually work on a 24-hr work schedule, often do overtime (additional 24-hr shifts) which can result in working multiple, consecutive 24-hr shifts. Very little research has been conducted on firefighters at work that examines the impact of performing consecutive 24-hr shifts on cardiovascular physiology. Also, there have been no standard field methods for assessing in firefighters the cardiovascular changes that result from 24-hr shifts, what we call "cardiovascular strain". The objective of this study, as the first step toward elucidating the role of very long (> 48 hrs) shifts in the development of CVD in firefighters, is to develop and describe a theoretical framework for studying cardiovascular strain in firefighters on very long shifts (i.e., > 2 consecutive 24-hr shifts). The developed theoretical framework was built on an extensive literature review, our recently completed studies with firefighters in Southern California, e-mail and discussions with several firefighters on their experiences of consecutive shifts, and our recently conducted feasibility study in a small group of firefighters of several ambulatory cardiovascular strain biomarkers (heart rate, heart rate variability, blood pressure, salivary cortisol, and salivary C-reactive protein). The theoretical framework developed in this study will facilitate future field studies on consecutive 24-hr shifts and cardiovascular health in firefighters. Also it will increase our understanding of the mechanisms by which shift work or long work hours can affect CVD, particularly through CVD biological risk factors, and thereby inform policy about sustainable work and rest schedules for firefighters. PMID:24602344

Choi, Bongkyoo; Schnall, Peter L; Dobson, Marnie; Garcia-Rivas, Javier; Kim, Hyoungryoul; Zaldivar, Frank; Israel, Leslie; Baker, Dean

2014-01-01

76

Very Long (> 48 hours) Shifts and Cardiovascular Strain in Firefighters: a Theoretical Framework  

PubMed Central

Shift work and overtime have been implicated as important work-related risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Many firefighters who contractually work on a 24-hr work schedule, often do overtime (additional 24-hr shifts) which can result in working multiple, consecutive 24-hr shifts. Very little research has been conducted on firefighters at work that examines the impact of performing consecutive 24-hr shifts on cardiovascular physiology. Also, there have been no standard field methods for assessing in firefighters the cardiovascular changes that result from 24-hr shifts, what we call “cardiovascular strain”. The objective of this study, as the first step toward elucidating the role of very long (> 48 hrs) shifts in the development of CVD in firefighters, is to develop and describe a theoretical framework for studying cardiovascular strain in firefighters on very long shifts (i.e., > 2 consecutive 24-hr shifts). The developed theoretical framework was built on an extensive literature review, our recently completed studies with firefighters in Southern California, e-mail and discussions with several firefighters on their experiences of consecutive shifts, and our recently conducted feasibility study in a small group of firefighters of several ambulatory cardiovascular strain biomarkers (heart rate, heart rate variability, blood pressure, salivary cortisol, and salivary C-reactive protein). The theoretical framework developed in this study will facilitate future field studies on consecutive 24-hr shifts and cardiovascular health in firefighters. Also it will increase our understanding of the mechanisms by which shift work or long work hours can affect CVD, particularly through CVD biological risk factors, and thereby inform policy about sustainable work and rest schedules for firefighters.

2014-01-01

77

The Pedagogy of Primary Historical Sources in Mathematics: Classroom Practice Meets Theoretical Frameworks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We analyze our method of teaching with primary historical sources within the context of theoretical frameworks for the role of history in teaching mathematics developed by Barbin, Fried, Jahnke, Jankvist, and Kjeldsen and Blomhøj, and more generally from the perspective of Sfard's theory of learning as communication. We present case studies for two of our guided student modules that are built around sequences of primary sources and are intended for learning core curricular material, one on logical implication, the other on the concept of a group. Additionally, we propose some conclusions about the advantages and challenges of using primary sources in teaching mathematics.

Barnett, Janet Heine; Lodder, Jerry; Pengelley, David

2013-07-01

78

The Community-First Land-Centred Theoretical Framework: Bringing a "Good Mind" to Indigenous Education Research?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article introduces an emergent research theoretical framework, the community-first Land-centred research framework. Carefully examining the literature within Indigenous educational research, we noted the limited approaches for engaging in culturally aligned and relevant research within Indigenous communities. The community-first Land-centred…

Styres, Sandra D.; Zinga, Dawn M.

2013-01-01

79

Body size and species coexistence in consumer–resource interactions: A comparison of two alternative theoretical frameworks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Species coexistence involving trophic interactions has been investigated under two theoretical frameworks—partitioning shared\\u000a resources and accessing exclusive resources. The influence of body size on coexistence is well studied under the exclusive\\u000a resources framework, but has received less attention under the shared-resources framework. We investigate body-size-dependent\\u000a allometric extensions of a classical MacArthur-type model where two consumers compete for two shared resources.

Sumanta Bagchi; Mark E. Ritchie

80

Patterns of Control over the Teaching-Studying-Learning Process and Classrooms as Complex Dynamic Environments: A Theoretical Framework  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this theoretical paper the role of power in classroom interactions is examined in terms of a dominance continuum to advance a theoretical framework justifying the emergence of three ways of distributing power when it comes to dealing with the control over the teaching-studying-learning (TSL) "pattern of teacher domination," "pattern of…

Harjunen, Elina

2012-01-01

81

Integrating a theoretical framework with street outreach services: issues for successful training.  

PubMed Central

HIV/AIDS prevention projects utilizing indigenous outreach workers often rely on the life experiences and skills of the staff to structure the intervention, without grounding in theory. However, to be most effective, community outreach projects which target harder-to-reach high-risk populations should both utilize and enhance the natural strengths of indigenous field workers' experience and style of interaction, while guiding intervention content with theoretical rigor. In this paper we demonstrate that the challenge of successfully integrating a theoretically guided program design with field staff's credibility with, and sensitivity toward, drug-using clients can be practically and satisfactorily met through appropriate training. This training is an important investment for better utilizing valued and scarce prevention resources. The Philadelphia site of the AIDS Evaluation of Street Outreach Project (AESOP), a cooperative agreement of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, designed and implemented staff trainings to reflect the enhancement of the outreach program by the Stages of Change model. Through these trainings, the outreach workers have learned to integrate their natural street and intervention skills into the structure of a theoretical framework. This paper presents specific training components, relevant issues within these components, and areas for evaluation and feedback.

Cheney, R; Merwin, A

1996-01-01

82

[Epidemiology as a theoretical-methodological framework in the nurses' working process].  

PubMed

The objective of this reflection was to understand epidemiology as the theoretical-methodological framework for collective health nursing practice. This study is a bibliographic investigation which analyzed articles and books that point out the strengths and weaknesses of classic, social and critical epidemiology, with the purpose to examine their concepts in regards to nursing practice. The connections between the knowledge obtained from the above mentioned views of epidemiology which allow the creation of nursing interventions to change health realities are discussed. Critical epidemiology is supported by the recognition of the protecting processes and wearing determinants of the health-disease process experienced by different social classes. Hence, nurses should plan health interventions aiming beyond the identified illness, proposing interventions committed to changing historical and social processes, taking into account the unique, particular or structural dimensions that eventually determine the health-disease process in individuals or groups. PMID:23380799

de Medeiros, Adeli Regina Prizybicien; Larocca, Liliana Müller; Chaves, Marta Maria Nolasco; Meier, Marineli Joaquim; Wall, Marilene Loewen

2012-12-01

83

A theoretical framework for early human studies: uncertainty, intervention ensembles, and boundaries  

PubMed Central

Clinical development of novel therapeutics begins with a coordinated sequence of early phase clinical trials. Such early human studies confront a series of methodological and ethical challenges. In what follows, I propose a theoretical framework for early human studies aimed at informing the negotiation of these challenges. At the outset of clinical development, researchers confront a virtually undifferentiated landscape of uncertainty with respect to three variables: outcomes, their probability of occurrence, and operation dimensions needed to effectuate favorable outcomes. Early human trials transform this uncertain landscape into one where there are grounds for belief about risk and benefit for various combined operation dimensions. To accomplish this, studies set out with two aims. First, they identify a set of operation dimensions that, when combined as a package (intervention ensemble), elicits a reasonable probability of a target outcome. Second, they define the boundaries of dimension values within an intervention ensemble. This latter aim entails exposing at least some volunteers in early studies to treatments that are inactive or excessive. I provide examples that illustrate the way early human studies discover and delimit intervention ensembles, and close by offering some implications of this framework for ethics, methodology, and efficiency in clinical development of new interventions.

2012-01-01

84

Fundamental theoretical bias in gravitational wave astrophysics and the parametrized post-Einsteinian framework  

SciTech Connect

We consider the concept of fundamental bias in gravitational wave astrophysics as the assumption that general relativity is the correct theory of gravity during the entire wave-generation and propagation regime. Such an assumption is valid in the weak field, as verified by precision experiments and observations, but it need not hold in the dynamical strong-field regime where tests are lacking. Fundamental bias can cause systematic errors in the detection and parameter estimation of signals, which can lead to a mischaracterization of the Universe through incorrect inferences about source event rates and populations. We propose a remedy through the introduction of the parametrized post-Einsteinian framework, which consists of the enhancement of waveform templates via the inclusion of post-Einsteinian parameters. These parameters would ostensibly be designed to interpolate between templates constructed in general relativity and well-motivated alternative theories of gravity, and also include extrapolations that follow sound theoretical principles, such as consistency with conservation laws and symmetries. As an example, we construct parametrized post-Einsteinian templates for the binary coalescence of equal-mass, nonspinning compact objects in a quasicircular inspiral. The parametrized post-Einsteinian framework should allow matched filtered data to select a specific set of post-Einsteinian parameters without a priori assuming the validity of the former, thus either verifying general relativity or pointing to possible dynamical strong-field deviations.

Yunes, Nicolas; Pretorius, Frans [Department of Physics, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States)

2009-12-15

85

Formal Features of a General Theoretical Framework for Decoherence in Open and Closed Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two complementary decoherence formalisms, Environment Induced Decoherence (EID) for open systems and Self Induced Decoherence (SID) for close systems are compared under a common General Theoretical Formalism for Decoherence (GTFD). The differences and similarities of EID and SID are studied, e.g. that the main difference is that EID only considers the relevant information of the proper system S and neglects the rest, while SID considers all possible information available from a certain class of measurement instruments and neglects the non-available information.

Castagnino, Mario; Fortin, Sebastian

2013-05-01

86

A theoretical framework for analyzing the effect of external change on tidal dynamics in estuaries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The most densely populated areas of the world are usually located in coastal areas near estuaries. As a result, estuaries are often subject to intense human interventions, such as dredging for navigation, dam construction and fresh water withdrawal etc., which in some areas has led to serious deterioration of invaluable ecosystems. Hence it is important to understand the influence of such interventions on tidal dynamics in these areas. In this study, we present one consistent theoretical framework for tidal hydrodynamics, which can be used as a rapid assessment technique that assist policy maker and managers to make considered decisions for the protection and management of estuarine environment when assessing the effect of human interventions in estuaries. Analytical solutions to the one-dimensional St. Venant equations for the tidal hydrodynamics in convergent unbounded estuaries with negligible river discharge can be cast in the form of a set of four implicit dimensionless equations for phase lag, velocity amplitude, damping, and wave celerity, as a function of two localized parameters describing friction and convergence. This method allows for the comparison of the different analytical approaches by rewriting the different solutions in the same format. In this study, classical and more recent formulations are compared, showing the differences and similarities associated to their specific simplifications. The envelope method, which is based on the consideration of the dynamics at high water and low water, can be used to derive damping equations that use different friction approximations. This results in as many analytical solutions, and thereby allows one to build a consistent theoretical framework. Analysis of the asymptotic behaviour of the equations shows that an equilibrium tidal amplitude exits reflecting the balance between friction and channel convergence. The framework is subsequently extended to take into account the effect of river discharge. Hence, the analytical solutions are applicable even in the upstream part of an estuary, where the influence of river discharge is remarkable. The proposed analytical solutions are transparent and practical, allowing a quantitative and qualitative assessment of human interventions (e.g., dredging, flow reduction) on tidal dynamics. Moreover, they are rapid assessment techniques that enable the users to set up a simple model and to understand the functioning of the system with a minimum of information required. The analytical model is illustrated in three large-scale estuaries with significant influence by human activities, i.e., the Scheldt estuary in the Netherlands, the Modaomen and the Yangtze estuaries in China. In these estuaries, the correspondence with observations is good, which suggests that the proposed model is a useful, yet realistic and reliable instrument for quick detection of the effect of human interventions on tidal dynamics and subsequent environmental issues, such as salt intrusion.

CAI, H.; Savenije, H.; Toffolon, M.

2013-12-01

87

Theoretical investigations on the chemical bonding, electronic structure, and optical properties of the metal-organic framework MOF-5.  

PubMed

The chemical bonding, electronic structure, and optical properties of metal-organic framework-5 (MOF-5) were systematically investigated using ab initio density functional calculations. The unit cell volume and atomic positions were optimized with the Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof (PBE) functional leading to a good agreement between the experimental and the theoretical equilibrium structural parameters. The calculated bulk modulus indicates that MOF-5 is a soft material. The estimated band gap from a density of state (DOS) calculation for MOF-5 is about 3.4 eV, indicating a nonmetallic character. As MOFs are considered as potential materials for photocatalysts, active components in hybrid solar cells, and electroluminescence cells, the optical properties of this material were investigated. The detailed analysis of chemical bonding in MOF-5 reveals the nature of the Zn-O, O-C, H-C, and C-C bonds, that is, Zn-O having mainly ionic interaction whereas O-C, H-C, and C-C exhibit mainly covalent interactions. The findings in this paper may contribute to a comprehensive understanding about this kind of material and shed insight into the synthesis and application of novel and stable MOFs. PMID:20961146

Yang, Li-Ming; Vajeeston, Ponniah; Ravindran, Ponniah; Fjellvåg, Helmer; Tilset, Mats

2010-11-15

88

Integrated Modeling in Earth and Space Sciences: An Information Theoretic Framework  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most natural phenomena exhibit multiscale behavior, which is an underlying reason for the challenges in modeling them. The recognition that the key problems, such as extreme events, natural hazards and climate change, require multi-disciplinary approaches to develop models that integrate many natural and anthropogenic phenomena, demand new approaches in the modeling of such systems. Information theory, which emphasizes the inherent features in observational data independent of modeling assumptions, can be used to develop a framework for multi-disciplinary models by integrating the data of the leading processes in multiple systems. An important measure of the inter-relationship among the different phenomena is the lead time among them. The widely used quantities such as the cross-correlation function represent the linear dependence among the variables and are limited in their ability to describe complex driven systems which are essentially nonlinear. The mutual information function, which represents the expectation of the average degree of dependence incorporating all orders of nonlinearity, provides the characteristic times inherent in the data and can be used as the first step to the development of integrated models. This function is used in two systems with widely separated time scales. The first case is the solar wind - magnetosphere interaction and the correlated data yield ~ 5 hr as the inherent time scale for the magnetospheric processes. The second case is a study of the inter-relationship between natural and anthropogenic phenomena and the mutual information functions were computed from the data of the global gross product, temperature and population. These functions show a time delay of ~15 yrs between the changes in global temperature and population as well as gross product, thus providing a measure of the interdependency among the variables underlying climate change. The results from studies of extreme events and an information theoretic modeling framework will be presented.

Sharma, A. S.; Kalnay, E.

2011-12-01

89

Qualitative evaluation of a local coronary heart disease treatment pathway: practical implications and theoretical framework  

PubMed Central

Background Coronary heart disease (CHD) is a common medical problem in general practice. Due to its chronic character, shared care of the patient between general practitioner (GP) and cardiologist (C) is required. In order to improve the cooperation between both medical specialists for patients with CHD, a local treatment pathway was developed. The objective of this study was first to evaluate GPs’ opinions regarding the pathway and its practical implications, and secondly to suggest a theoretical framework of the findings by feeding the identified key factors influencing the pathway implementation into a multi-dimensional model. Methods The evaluation of the pathway was conducted in a qualitative design on a sample of 12 pathway developers (8 GPs and 4 cardiologists) and 4 pathway users (GPs). Face-to face interviews, which were aligned with previously conducted studies of the department and assumptions of the theory of planned behaviour (TPB), were performed following a semi-structured interview guideline. These were audio-taped, transcribed verbatim, coded, and analyzed according to the standards of qualitative content analysis. Results We identified 10 frequently mentioned key factors having an impact on the implementation success of the CHD treatment pathway. We thereby differentiated between pathway related (pathway content, effort, individual flexibility, ownership), behaviour related (previous behaviour, support), interaction related (patient, shared care/colleagues), and system related factors (context, health care system). The overall evaluation of the CHD pathway was positive, but did not automatically lead to a change of clinical behaviour as some GPs felt to have already acted as the pathway recommends. Conclusions By providing an account of our experience creating and implementing an intersectoral care pathway for CHD, this study contributes to our knowledge of factors that may influence physicians’ decisions regarding the use of a local treatment pathway. An improved adaptation of the pathway in daily practice might be best achieved by a combined implementation strategy addressing internal and external factors. A simple, direct adaptation regards the design of the pathway material (e.g. layout, PC version), or the embedding of the pathway in another programme, like a Disease Management Programme (DMP). In addition to these practical implications, we propose a theoretical framework to understand the key factors’ influence on the pathway implementation, with the identified factors along the microlevel (pathway related factors), the mesolevel (interaction related factors), and system- related factors along the macrolevel.

2012-01-01

90

A THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK FOR COMBINING TECHNIQUES THAT PROBE THE LINK BETWEEN GALAXIES AND DARK MATTER  

SciTech Connect

We develop a theoretical framework that combines measurements of galaxy-galaxy lensing, galaxy clustering, and the galaxy stellar mass function in a self-consistent manner. While considerable effort has been invested in exploring each of these probes individually, attempts to combine them are still in their infancy. These combinations have the potential to elucidate the galaxy-dark matter connection and the galaxy formation physics responsible for it, as well as to constrain cosmological parameters and to test the nature of gravity. In this paper, we focus on a theoretical model that describes the galaxy-dark matter connection based on standard halo occupation distribution techniques. Several key modifications enable us to extract additional parameters that determine the stellar-to-halo mass relation and to simultaneously fit data from multiple probes while allowing for independent binning schemes for each probe. We construct mock catalogs from numerical simulations to investigate the effects of sample variance and covariance for each probe. Finally, we analyze how trends in each of the three observables impact the derived parameters of the model. In particular, we investigate various features of the observed galaxy stellar mass function (low-mass slope, 'plateau', knee, and high-mass cutoff) and show how each feature is related to the underlying relationship between stellar and halo mass. We demonstrate that the observed 'plateau' feature in the stellar mass function at M{sub *} {approx} 2 x 10{sup 10} M{sub sun} is due to the transition that occurs in the stellar-to-halo mass relation at M{sub h} {approx} 10{sup 12} M{sub sun} from a low-mass power-law regime to a sub-exponential function at higher stellar mass.

Leauthaud, Alexie [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Tinker, Jeremy [Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, Department of Physics, New York University, New York, NY 10003 (United States); Behroozi, Peter S.; Busha, Michael T.; Wechsler, Risa H., E-mail: asleauthaud@lbl.gov [Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Physics Department, Stanford University, and SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States)

2011-09-01

91

A theoretical framework for the incorporation of history in science education  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis formulates a theoretical framework for the incorporation of history of science in science teaching, which, it is argued, is essential to laying a stable foundation for instructional design and future empirical studies. It is assumed that the historical approach to teaching science no longer needs defending and that contextual methods are a pedagogically sound approach to learning. Various cognitive and learning theories suggest that there are five distinct contexts that are important in engaging learners: the theoretical, practical, social, historical, and affective. On the basis of these five contexts, a model for teaching and learning is constructed, in which the story assumes a major role in engaging the learner affectively. This model is named the Story-Driven Contextual Approach (SDCA). The SDCA is introduced to students by means of a narrative, encouraging students to become actively engaged with the five contexts. In the SDCA, students are seen as novice researchers and the teacher as a research director. The place and nature of the historical science story in science education is a relatively undeveloped area in the literature. This thesis argues that the development of the events in a story proceed in the same fashion as the steps in learning a concept. A structural model of a story consisting of a three-stage temporal sequence, which includes a causative element, is presented and developed. It is argued that the conceptual change process, from a temporal perspective, can also be viewed as a three-stage sequence similar to the story. The story can, in this light, be thought of as the re-enactment of a particular type of learning process. This knowledge about the nature of stories can serve as a guiding principle in the designing and writing of effective stories based on the history of science, which are to be incorporated with the SDCA. The SDCA was tested in a university physics class using a constructed story which portrays the heroic personal and scientific efforts of the nineteenth century physicist Lord Kelvin in laying the first successful trans-Atlantic cable. Students designed and undertook various practical and theoretical exercises in the SDCA and observations on its implementation are reported.

Klassen, James Stephen

92

Linking predator risk and uncertainty to adaptive forgetting: a theoretical framework and empirical test using tadpoles.  

PubMed

Hundreds of studies have examined how prey animals assess their risk of predation. These studies work from the basic tennet that prey need to continually balance the conflicting demands of predator avoidance with activities such as foraging and reproduction. The information that animals gain regarding local predation risk is most often learned. Yet, the concept of 'memory' in the context of predation remains virtually unexplored. Here, our goal was (i) to determine if the memory window associated with predator recognition is fixed or flexible and, if it is flexible, (ii) to identify which factors affect the length of this window and in which ways. We performed an experiment on larval wood frogs, Rana sylvatica, to test whether the risk posed by, and the uncertainty associated with, the predator would affect the length of the tadpoles' memory window. We found that as the risk associated with the predator increases, tadpoles retained predator-related information for longer. Moreover, if the uncertainty about predator-related information increases, then prey use this information for a shorter period. We also present a theoretical framework aiming at highlighting both intrinsic and extrinsic factors that could affect the memory window of information use by prey individuals. PMID:20236976

Ferrari, Maud C O; Brown, Grant E; Bortolotti, Gary R; Chivers, Douglas P

2010-07-22

93

Institutional and structural barriers to HIV testing: elements for a theoretical framework.  

PubMed

Stigma is a barrier to HIV health seeking, but little is known about institutional and structural expressions of stigma in HIV testing. This study examines evidence of institutional and structural stigma in the HIV testing process. A qualitative, grounded theory study was conducted using secondary data from a 2011 HIV test site evaluation data in a Midwestern, moderate HIV incidence state. Expressions of structural and institutional stigma were found with over half of the testing sites and at three stages of the HIV testing visit. Examples of structural stigma included social geography, organization, and staff behavior at first encounter and reception, and staff behavior when experiencing the actual HIV test. Institutional stigma was socially expressed through staff behavior at entry/reception and when experiencing the HIV test. The emerging elements demonstrate the potential compounding of stigma experiences with deleterious effect. Study findings may inform future development of a theoretical framework. In practice, findings can guide organizations seeking to reduce HIV testing barriers, as they provide a window into how test seekers experience HIV test sites at first encounter, entry/reception, and at testing stages; and can identify how stigma might be intensified by structural and institutional expressions. PMID:24313812

Meyerson, Beth; Barnes, Priscilla; Emetu, Roberta; Bailey, Marlon; Ohmit, Anita; Gillespie, Anthony

2014-01-01

94

A game theoretic framework for incentive-based models of intrinsic motivation in artificial systems.  

PubMed

An emerging body of research is focusing on understanding and building artificial systems that can achieve open-ended development influenced by intrinsic motivations. In particular, research in robotics and machine learning is yielding systems and algorithms with increasing capacity for self-directed learning and autonomy. Traditional software architectures and algorithms are being augmented with intrinsic motivations to drive cumulative acquisition of knowledge and skills. Intrinsic motivations have recently been considered in reinforcement learning, active learning and supervised learning settings among others. This paper considers game theory as a novel setting for intrinsic motivation. A game theoretic framework for intrinsic motivation is formulated by introducing the concept of optimally motivating incentive as a lens through which players perceive a game. Transformations of four well-known mixed-motive games are presented to demonstrate the perceived games when players' optimally motivating incentive falls in three cases corresponding to strong power, affiliation and achievement motivation. We use agent-based simulations to demonstrate that players with different optimally motivating incentive act differently as a result of their altered perception of the game. We discuss the implications of these results both for modeling human behavior and for designing artificial agents or robots. PMID:24198797

Merrick, Kathryn E; Shafi, Kamran

2013-01-01

95

An inverse finite element method for beam shape sensing: theoretical framework and experimental validation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Shape sensing, i.e., reconstruction of the displacement field of a structure from surface-measured strains, has relevant implications for the monitoring, control and actuation of smart structures. The inverse finite element method (iFEM) is a shape-sensing methodology shown to be fast, accurate and robust. This paper aims to demonstrate that the recently presented iFEM for beam and frame structures is reliable when experimentally measured strains are used as input data. The theoretical framework of the methodology is first reviewed. Timoshenko beam theory is adopted, including stretching, bending, transverse shear and torsion deformation modes. The variational statement and its discretization with C0-continuous inverse elements are briefly recalled. The three-dimensional displacement field of the beam structure is reconstructed under the condition that least-squares compatibility is guaranteed between the measured strains and those interpolated within the inverse elements. The experimental setup is then described. A thin-walled cantilevered beam is subjected to different static and dynamic loads. Measured surface strains are used as input data for shape sensing at first with a single inverse element. For the same test cases, convergence is also investigated using an increasing number of inverse elements. The iFEM-recovered deflections and twist rotations are then compared with those measured experimentally. The accuracy, convergence and robustness of the iFEM with respect to unavoidable measurement errors, due to strain sensor locations, measurement systems and geometry imperfections, are demonstrated for both static and dynamic loadings.

Gherlone, Marco; Cerracchio, Priscilla; Mattone, Massimiliano; Di Sciuva, Marco; Tessler, Alexander

2014-04-01

96

A game theoretic framework for incentive-based models of intrinsic motivation in artificial systems  

PubMed Central

An emerging body of research is focusing on understanding and building artificial systems that can achieve open-ended development influenced by intrinsic motivations. In particular, research in robotics and machine learning is yielding systems and algorithms with increasing capacity for self-directed learning and autonomy. Traditional software architectures and algorithms are being augmented with intrinsic motivations to drive cumulative acquisition of knowledge and skills. Intrinsic motivations have recently been considered in reinforcement learning, active learning and supervised learning settings among others. This paper considers game theory as a novel setting for intrinsic motivation. A game theoretic framework for intrinsic motivation is formulated by introducing the concept of optimally motivating incentive as a lens through which players perceive a game. Transformations of four well-known mixed-motive games are presented to demonstrate the perceived games when players' optimally motivating incentive falls in three cases corresponding to strong power, affiliation and achievement motivation. We use agent-based simulations to demonstrate that players with different optimally motivating incentive act differently as a result of their altered perception of the game. We discuss the implications of these results both for modeling human behavior and for designing artificial agents or robots.

Merrick, Kathryn E.; Shafi, Kamran

2013-01-01

97

Community of Inquiry as a Theoretical Framework to Foster "Epistemic Engagement" and "Cognitive Presence" in Online Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper, several recent theoretical conceptions of technology-mediated education are examined and a study of 2159 online learners is presented. The study validates an instrument designed to measure teaching, social, and cognitive presence indicative of a community of learners within the community of inquiry (CoI) framework [Garrison, D. R.,…

Shea, Peter; Bidjerano, Temi

2009-01-01

98

A theoretical framework for measuring the impact of information technology in the human resource function: untapped potential or unfulfilled promises?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The corporate human resource function is an area that has undergone a great increase in computer support. Unfortunately, human resource information systems (HRIS) bring with them problems endemic to system design as well as issues to resolve. The author extends a theoretical rationale from which to examine these problems and a framework from which to examine the impact of HRIS

Patricia J. Guinan

1989-01-01

99

The Meaning of Life among Secondary School Pupils. A Theoretical Framework and Some Initial Results. Research Bulletin 65.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This monograph reports on an empirical survey of 394 secondary school students investigating their desire to seek the meaning of their own lives. The theoretical framework upon which the study was based is that of Viktor E. Frankl's hypotheses that a human being wants to seek the meaning in his own life. The questionnaire consisted of tests…

Niemi, Hannele

100

Toward an Integrative Theoretical Framework for Explaining Beliefs about Wife Beating: A Study among Students of Nursing from Turkey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An integrative theoretical framework was tested as the basis for explaining beliefs about wife beating among Turkish nursing students. Based on a survey design, 406 nursing students (404 females) in all 4 years of undergraduate studies completed a self-administered questionnaire. Questionnaires were distributed and collected from the participants…

Haj-Yahia, Muhammad M.; Uysal, Aynur

2011-01-01

101

A game-theoretic framework for multimetric optimization of interconnect delay, power, and crosstalk noise during wire sizing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The continuous scaling of interconnect wires in deep submicron (DSM) circuits results in increased interconnect delay, power, and crosstalk noise. In this work, we develop a game-theoretic framework and multimetric optimization algorithms for the simultaneous optimization during wire sizing of (i) interconnect delay and crosstalk noise, and (ii) interconnect delay, power, and crosstalk noise. We formulate the wire sizing optimization

Narender Hanchate; Nagarajan Ranganathan

2004-01-01

102

The Problem With the Phrase Women and Minorities: Intersectionality--an Important Theoretical Framework for Public Health  

PubMed Central

Intersectionality is a theoretical framework that posits that multiple social categories (e.g., race, ethnicity, gender, sexual orientation, socioeconomic status) intersect at the micro level of individual experience to reflect multiple interlocking systems of privilege and oppression at the macro, social-structural level (e.g., racism, sexism, heterosexism). Public health’s commitment to social justice makes it a natural fit with intersectionality’s focus on multiple historically oppressed populations. Yet despite a plethora of research focused on these populations, public health studies that reflect intersectionality in their theoretical frameworks, designs, analyses, or interpretations are rare. Accordingly, I describe the history and central tenets of intersectionality, address some theoretical and methodological challenges, and highlight the benefits of intersectionality for public health theory, research, and policy.

2012-01-01

103

A theoretical framework for antigay aggression: Review of established and hypothesized effects within the context of the general aggression model?  

PubMed Central

Theory and research on antigay aggression has identified different motives that facilitate aggression based on sexual orientation. However, the individual and situational determinants of antigay aggression associated with these motivations have yet to be organized within a single theoretical framework. This limits researchers’ ability to organize existing knowledge, link that knowledge with related aggression theory, and guide the application of new findings. To address these limitations, this article argues for the use of an existing conceptual framework to guide thinking and generate new research in this area of study. Contemporary theories of antigay aggression, and empirical support for these theories, are reviewed and interpreted within the unifying framework of the general aggression model [Anderson, C.A. & Bushman, B.J. (2002). Human aggression. Annual Review of Psychology, 53, 27–51.]. It is concluded that this conceptual framework will facilitate investigation of individual and situational risk factors that may contribute to antigay aggression and guide development of individual-level intervention.

Parrott, Dominic J.

2008-01-01

104

Recovering from childhood sexual abuse: a theoretical framework for practice and research.  

PubMed

Research on survivors' experiences of recovering from childhood sexual abuse (CSA) has been limited and focused on those with severe mental health difficulties. This study elicited experiences of recovery from CSA in male and female survivors who have/have not utilized mental health services. The tangible end-point was to propose a theoretical model of personally meaningful recovery. This is a qualitative study, which utilized semi-structured individual interviews following the critical incident technique. Transcripts were analysed using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis to identify recurrent themes. A total 22 adult survivors of CSA. Main themes identified were: The Affected Self, Factors Hindering Recovery, Factors Enhancing Recovery, The Hurdles of Recovery and the Recovering Self. The affected self included: lack of boundary awareness and self-blame, over self-reliance, over-vigilance and guilt, shame, aloneness and social stigma. The recovering self was characterized by increasing confidence, assertiveness, ability to self-care and self-acceptance, and by embracing vulnerability. These findings have potentially major implications for clinical practice, service provision, policy development and professional training in this field. The importance of disclosure in the healing process seemed paramount and can have major implications for current service protocols. PMID:23379783

Chouliara, Z; Karatzias, T; Gullone, A

2014-02-01

105

Theoretical values of convective turnover times and Rossby numbers for solar-like, pre-main sequence stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Context. Magnetic fields are at the heart of the observed stellar activity in late-type stars, and they are presumably generated by a dynamo mechanism at the interface layer (tachocline) between the radiative core and the base of the convective envelope. Aims: Since dynamo models are based on the interaction between differential rotation and convective motions, the introduction of rotation in the ATON 2.3 stellar evolutionary code allows for explorations regarding a physically consistent treatment of magnetic effects in stellar structure and evolution, even though there are formidable mathematical and numerical challenges involved. Methods: As examples of such explorations, we present theoretical estimates for both the local convective turnover time (?_c), and global convective times (?_g) for rotating pre-main sequence solar-type stars, based on up-to-date input physics for stellar models. Our theoretical predictions are compared with the previous ones available in the literature. In addition, we investigate the dependence of the convective turnover time on convection regimes, the presence of rotation and atmospheric treatment. Results: Those estimates, as opposed to the use of empirically derived values of ?_c for such matters, can be used to calculate the Rossby number Ro, which is related to the magnetic activity strength in dynamo theories and, at least for main-sequence stars, shows an observational correlation with stellar activity. More important, they can also contribute for testing stellar models against observations. Conclusions: Our theoretical values of ?_c, ?_g and Ro qualitatively agree with those published by Kim & Demarque (1996, ApJ, 457, 340). By increasing the convection efficiency, ?_g decreases for a given mass. FST models show still lower values. The presence of rotation shifts ?_g towards slightly higher values when compared with non-rotating models. The use of non-gray boundary conditions in the models yields values of ?_g smaller than in the gray approximation. Full Table 1 is only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/510/A46

Landin, N. R.; Mendes, L. T. S.; Vaz, L. P. R.

2010-02-01

106

Consequences of Implementing Alternative Schools: Toward a Theoretical Framework for Investigating Problems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document applies an anthropological framework to the explanation of group relations in an attempt to implement a community school. In a West Philadelphia area, black community groups joined to establish an alternative school, but tensions and conflicts developed over pedagogical practices. According to the anthropological framework, decisions…

Eriksen, Aase; Messina, Judith

107

Exploring a dynamic framework of innovative capability: a theoretical integration of technological and marketing capabilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

A conceptual framework is presented to address the interaction of innovative capability, marketing capability and technological capability. The proposed framework attempts to examine the role of marketing and technological capabilities in developing innovative capability. While innovation has been linked to market orientation through organisational innovativeness, little is known about learning processes between exploration and exploitation for enhancing innovative capability. This

Teck-Yong Eng; Duygu Okten

2011-01-01

108

A theoretical framework and research agenda for studying team attributions in sport  

Microsoft Academic Search

The attributions made for group outcomes have attracted a great deal of interest in recent years. In this article we bring together much of the current research on attribution theory in sport and outline a new conceptual framework and research agenda for investigating the attributions of team members. The proposed framework draws on multiple conceptual approaches including models of attribution,

Mark S. Allen; Iain Greenlees

2012-01-01

109

Evaluating the successful implementation of evidence into practice using the PARiHS framework: theoretical and practical challenges  

PubMed Central

Background The PARiHS framework (Promoting Action on Research Implementation in Health Services) has proved to be a useful practical and conceptual heuristic for many researchers and practitioners in framing their research or knowledge translation endeavours. However, as a conceptual framework it still remains untested and therefore its contribution to the overall development and testing of theory in the field of implementation science is largely unquantified. Discussion This being the case, the paper provides an integrated summary of our conceptual and theoretical thinking so far and introduces a typology (derived from social policy analysis) used to distinguish between the terms conceptual framework, theory and model – important definitional and conceptual issues in trying to refine theoretical and methodological approaches to knowledge translation. Secondly, the paper describes the next phase of our work, in particular concentrating on the conceptual thinking and mapping that has led to the generation of the hypothesis that the PARiHS framework is best utilised as a two-stage process: as a preliminary (diagnostic and evaluative) measure of the elements and sub-elements of evidence (E) and context (C), and then using the aggregated data from these measures to determine the most appropriate facilitation method. The exact nature of the intervention is thus determined by the specific actors in the specific context at a specific time and place. In the process of refining this next phase of our work, we have had to consider the wider issues around the use of theories to inform and shape our research activity; the ongoing challenges of developing robust and sensitive measures; facilitation as an intervention for getting research into practice; and finally to note how the current debates around evidence into practice are adopting wider notions that fit innovations more generally. Summary The paper concludes by suggesting that the future direction of the work on the PARiHS framework is to develop a two-stage diagnostic and evaluative approach, where the intervention is shaped and moulded by the information gathered about the specific situation and from participating stakeholders. In order to expedite the generation of new evidence and testing of emerging theories, we suggest the formation of an international research implementation science collaborative that can systematically collect and analyse experiences of using and testing the PARiHS framework and similar conceptual and theoretical approaches. We also recommend further refinement of the definitions around conceptual framework, theory, and model, suggesting a wider discussion that embraces multiple epistemological and ontological perspectives.

Kitson, Alison L; Rycroft-Malone, Jo; Harvey, Gill; McCormack, Brendan; Seers, Kate; Titchen, Angie

2008-01-01

110

Theoretical design of n-type organic semiconducting materials containing thiazole and oxazole frameworks.  

PubMed

The characteristics of molecular structure and charge transport of some new n-type organic semiconductors containing thiazole 1a-6a and oxazole 1b-6b frameworks and trifluoromethylphenyl as terminal groups were predicted using density functional theory (DFT) methods. The energy levels of HOMO and LUMO of these compounds are decreased when thiophene and furan units are replaced by thiazole and oxazole units, respectively. The same trend was observed when benzo[1,2-d:4,5-d']bisthiazole groups were replaced with benzo[1,2-d:4,5-d']bisthiazole-4,8-diones. The reorganization energies for electron of compounds are computed in a range of 0.21-0.37 eV, which is comparable to the value of 0.25 eV of well-known n-type semiconductors such as perfluoropentacene. Some important trends can be pointed out as follows: (i) replacing the core thiazolothiazole unit of compounds 1a and 2a by the larger core benzo[1,2-d:4,5-d']bisthiazole units of 3a and 4a decreases both reorganization energies for electron (?(e)); (ii) the ?(e) values of compounds containing thiazole 2a, 4a, and 6a are smaller than those of compounds containing thiophene 1a, 3a, and 5a, respectively; (iii) there is no clear trend when replacing benzene rings of compounds 3a and 4a by quinone rings of 5a and 6a. The ?(e) values of 5 and 6 are only somewhat larger. The same trend is also found for compounds containing oxazole 1b-6b. The intermolecular charge transports in solid state of these compounds mainly occur among molecules in the same molecular layer, whereas intermolecular interactions between molecules in different molecular layers are very small. Generally, beside some experimentally reported molecules 1a-4a, the remaining molecules designed here are good candidates for n-type organic semiconducting materials with small reorganization energies for electron and low energy levels of LUMO. PMID:24720499

Huong, Vu Thi Thu; Tai, Truong Ba; Nguyen, Minh Tho

2014-05-01

111

A Theoretical Framework for Understanding Help-Seeking Processes Among Survivors of Intimate Partner Violence  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper suggests a conceptual framework for understanding the processes of help-seeking among survivors of intimate partner violence (IPV). A cognitive theory from general literature on help-seeking in “stigmatizing” situations suggests three relevant processes or stages of seeking help in the IPV context: defining the problem, deciding to seek help, and selecting a source of support. Individual, interpersonal, and sociocultural

Belle Liang; Lisa Goodman; Pratyusha Tummala-Narra; Sarah Weintraub

2005-01-01

112

A Validation Study of the Leadership Styles of a Holistic Leadership Theoretical Framework  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The overall purpose of the European Union-funded Leadership Improvement for Student Achievement (LISA) project was to explore how leadership styles, as conceptualized in the developed dynamic holistic leadership framework, directly or indirectly affect student achievement at the lower secondary level of education in seven European…

Brauckmann, Stefan; Pashiardis, Petros

2011-01-01

113

WILL MOBILE VIDEO BECOME THE KILLER APPLICATION FOR 3G? - A THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK FOR MEDIA CONVERGENCE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mobile carriers have continually rolled out 3G mobile video applications to increase their revenue and profits. The presumption is that video is superior to the already successful SMS, ringtones, and pictures, and can create greater value to users. However, recent market surveys revealed contradicting results. Motivated by this discrepancy, we propose in this paper a parsimonious framework for user acceptance

Xin Xu; Eric W. K. See-to

2006-01-01

114

A Theoretical Framework for Research in Algebra: Modification of Janvier's "Star" Model of Function Understanding.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A pentagonal model, based on the star model of function understanding of C. Janvier (1987), is presented as a framework for the design and interpretation of research in the area of learning the concept of mathematical function. The five vertices of the pentagon correspond to five common representations of mathematical function: (1) graph; (2)…

Bowman, Anita H.

115

From Traditional to Constructivist Epistemologies: A Proposed Theoretical Framework Based on Activity Theory for Learning Communities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article is concerned with how learning communities are transformed as they evolve from traditional learning epistemologies towards constructivist orientations and pedagogies. Adopting activity theory as a framework, the article discusses how transformations take place through a two-way process of appropriation (learning from one another as a…

Hung, David; Tan, Seng-Chee; Koh, Thiam-Seng

2006-01-01

116

Fair-efficient call admission control policies for broadband networks—a game theoretic framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

Absiract-A fussdamentaf problem in connection oriented multiaervice networks (ATM and STM) is finding the optimat policy for call acceptance. One seeks an admission control policy that efficiently utilizes network resotsrees while at the same time being fair to the various call classes being supported. The theory of cooperative games provides a natural and precise framework for formulating such multicriterion problems

Zbigniew Dziong; Lorne G. Mason

1996-01-01

117

Geochronological correlation of the main coal interval in Brazilian Lower Permian: Radiometric dating of tonstein and calibration of biostratigraphic framework  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The radiometric age of 291 ± 1.2 Ma obtained through single-crystal zircon U-Pb ages (Sensitive High Resolution Ion MicroProbe - SHRIMP II) of tonsteins from the Leão-Butiá Coalfield, southern Paraná Basin (Rio Grande do Sul state), associated with previous SHRIMP II radiometric data obtained from tonsteins from the western (Candiota Coalfield) and eastern (Faxinal and Leão-Butiá coalfields) borders of the basin indicate that the mean age of the main peat-forming interval is 291.0 ± 1.3 Ma. In a regional context, the mean age represents a consistent geochronological correlation for the uppermost and more important coal seams in southern Brazilian coalfields, but this assumption does not establish an ash fall origin from a single volcanic event. According to the International Stratigraphic Chart, the interval is dated as middle Sakmarian. The coal palynofloras are included in the Protohaploxypinus goraiensis Subzone within the palynostratigraphic framework for the Brazilian Paraná Basin. Formal relationships are also established with the Glossopteris-Rhodeopteridium Zone within the phytostratigraphic chart for the Lower Permian of southern Brazilian Paraná Basin.

Simas, Margarete Wagner; Guerra-Sommer, Margot; Cazzulo-Klepzig, Miriam; Menegat, Rualdo; Schneider Santos, João Orestes; Fonseca Ferreira, José Alcides; Degani-Schmidt, Isabela

2012-11-01

118

Health disparities in Canada today: Some evidence and a theoretical framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper documents contemporary evidence on patterns of health disparities in Canada and suggests theoretical mechanisms that give rise to these patterns. The overall health of Canadians, as measured by life expectancy or mortality, has improved dramatically over the past 30 years and some disparities have diminished slightly (e.g., life expectancy by income group for men), while others have increased

Katherine L. Frohlich; Nancy Ross; Chantelle Richmond

2006-01-01

119

How to pay for the peace? A theoretical framework with references to African countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyses a simple game-theoretic model to highlight the choice of the government between raising its defence expenditures or giving away some “gifts” to his opponents, as a means to defend his position in power. If the government is a Cournot-Nash player, then there is no gift in equilibrium, and any increase in the budget will lead to more

Jean-Paul Azam

1995-01-01

120

Multi-scale theoretical investigation of hydrogen storage in covalent organic frameworks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The quest for efficient hydrogen storage materials has been the limiting step towards the commercialization of hydrogen as an energy carrier and has attracted a lot of attention from the scientific community. Sophisticated multi-scale theoretical techniques have been considered as a valuable tool for the prediction of materials storage properties. Such techniques have also been used for the investigation of

Emmanuel Tylianakis; Emmanouel Klontzas; George E. Froudakis

2011-01-01

121

Game Object Model Version II: A Theoretical Framework for Educational Game Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Complex computer and video games may provide a vehicle, based on appropriate theoretical concepts, to transform the educational landscape. Building on the original game object model (GOM) a new more detailed model is developed to support concepts that educational computer games should: be relevant, explorative, emotive, engaging, and include…

Amory, Alan

2007-01-01

122

The Fit between Mobile Task and Mobile Work Support: A Theoretical Framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we propose a theoretical model to assess the effectiveness of mobile work support by investigating the fit between mobile task and mobile work support. The mobile task has been investigated along five dimensions: task difficulty, task inter dependency, time-criticality, mobility, and location dependency. The functionality of mobile support technology is categorized along five dimensions: portable processing power,

Yufei Yuan; Wuping Zheng

2006-01-01

123

An Examination of Physical Education Teacher Motivation from a Self-Determination Theoretical Framework  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: The motivation of physical education (PE) teachers has received precious little attention over the years. Self-determination theory (SDT) is a salient theoretical model for understanding motivation, and posits that self-determined motivation (i.e., intrinsic motivation) stems from the perceived fulfillment of three psychological needs:…

Carson, Russell L.; Chase, Melissa A.

2009-01-01

124

Websites that Satisfy Users: A Theoretical Framework for Web User Interface Design and Evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the fast development and increasing use of the World Wide Web as both an information seeking and an electronic commerce tool, web usability studies grow in importance. While web designers have largely focused on functional aspects of websites, there has been little systematic attention to (1) the motivational issues of web user interface design or (2) a theoretically driven

Ping Zhang; Ruth V. Small; Gisela M. Von Dran; Silvia Barcellos

1999-01-01

125

Framework of a Decision-Theoretic Tutoring System for Learning of Mechanics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents the application of decision-theoretic technique to a computer-based tutoring system for elementary mechanics. Uses sound probabilistic reasoning and a student model to identify learners' misconceptions. Focuses on the integration of Bayesian belief networks, item response theory, decision analysis, and database management systems in…

Pek, Peng-Kiat; Poh, Kim-Leng

2000-01-01

126

Predicting Child Abuse Potential: An Empirical Investigation of Two Theoretical Frameworks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated two theoretical risk models predicting child maltreatment potential: (a) Belsky's (1993) developmental-ecological model and (b) the cumulative risk model in a sample of 610 caregivers (49% African American, 46% European American; 53% single) with a child between 3 and 6 years old. Results extend the literature by using a…

Begle, Angela Moreland; Dumas, Jean E.; Hanson, Rochelle F.

2010-01-01

127

Supportive Non-Parental Adults and Adolescent Psychosocial Functioning: Using Social Support as a Theoretical Framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

Supportive Non-Parental Adults (SNPAs), or non-parental adults who provide social support to youth, are present in the lives\\u000a of many adolescents; yet to date, a guiding framework for organizing the existing literature on the provision of support provided\\u000a by multiple types of SNPAS, such as teachers, natural mentors, and extended family members, as well as to inform future research\\u000a efforts,

Emma M. Sterrett; Deborah J. Jones; Laura G. McKee; Carlye Kincaid

128

Applying an extended theoretical framework for data collection mode to health services research  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Over the last 30 years options for collecting self-reported data in health surveys and questionnaires have increased with technological advances. However, mode of data collection such as face-to-face interview or telephone interview can affect how individuals respond to questionnaires. This paper adapts a framework for understanding mode effects on response quality and applies it to a health research context.

Michael R Robling; David K Ingledew; Giles Greene; Adrian Sayers; Chris Shaw; Lesley Sander; Ian T Russell; John G Williams; Kerenza Hood

2010-01-01

129

Theoretical Framework for Minimizing Converter Losses and Harmonics in a Multilevel STATCOM  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, an analytical framework for minimizing losses and harmonics is presented for the cascaded-type-based multilevel static synchronous compensator (STATCOM) with ldquosquare-wave control.rdquo The focus lays on low losses, low-voltage total harmonic distortion (THD), and low dc voltage ripple. All of the system parameters are studied, including buffer reactance, dc capacitance, transformer ratio, and transformer leakage inductance. The equivalent

Ronny Sternberger; Dragan Jovcic

2008-01-01

130

Peer-centered practice: a theoretical framework for intervention with young people in and from care.  

PubMed

This paper puts forward a conceptual framework for engaging peers as central to transitional services for care-leavers. The situation of youth exiting care is examined and an evidence-informed approach to supporting care-leavers is presented. Exploring the social networks of youth leaving care provides a mechanism for both supporting the maintenance of ties and fostering the development of weak tie connections that facilitate opportunities for social mobility. PMID:24851476

Snow, Kim; Mann-Feder, Varda

2013-01-01

131

A theoretical and computational setting for a geometrically nonlinear gradient damage modelling framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present work deals with the extension to the geometrically nonlinear case of recently proposed ideas on elastic- and\\u000a elastoplastic-damage modelling frameworks within the infinitesimal theory. The particularity of these models is that the damage\\u000a part of the modelling involves the gradient of damage quantity which, together with the equations of motion, are ensuing from\\u000a a new formulation of the

B. Nedjar

2002-01-01

132

Theoretical study of the lattice thermal conductivity in Ge framework semiconductors.  

PubMed

The lattice thermal conductivity of Ge clathrates is investigated by evaluating the linear response theory heat current correlation functions using molecular dynamics. Clathrate crystals with and without guest atoms in their fullerane cages are studied. In comparison with that of diamond-phase Ge, the clathrate conductivity is reduced by approximately 1 order of magnitude due to the open framework itself. The addition of an encapsulated (rattling) Sr guest atom produces a further order of magnitude reduction in the conductivity, making it comparable to that of amorphous Ge. Our results are consistent with experiments, and have impact on the search for improved thermoelectric materials. PMID:11289929

Dong, J; Sankey, O F; Myles, C W

2001-03-12

133

Understanding the Theoretical Framework of Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge: A Collaborative Self-Study to Understand Teaching Practice and Aspects of Knowledge  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes a self-study research project that focused on our experiences when planning, teaching, and evaluating a course in initial teacher education. The theoretical framework of technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK) was used as a conceptual structure for the self-study. Our understanding of the framework in relation to…

Fransson, Goran; Holmberg, Jorgen

2012-01-01

134

Dynamic decision making for dam-break emergency management - Part 1: Theoretical framework  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An evacuation decision for dam breaks is a very serious issue. A late decision may lead to loss of lives and properties, but a very early evacuation will incur unnecessary expenses. This paper presents a risk-based framework of dynamic decision making for dam-break emergency management (DYDEM). The dam-break emergency management in both time scale and space scale is introduced first to define the dynamic decision problem. The probability of dam failure is taken as a stochastic process and estimated using a time-series analysis method. The flood consequences are taken as functions of warning time and evaluated with a human risk analysis model (HURAM) based on Bayesian networks. A decision criterion is suggested to decide whether to evacuate the population at risk (PAR) or to delay the decision. The optimum time for evacuating the PAR is obtained by minimizing the expected total loss, which integrates the time-related probabilities and flood consequences. When a delayed decision is chosen, the decision making can be updated with available new information. A specific dam-break case study is presented in a companion paper to illustrate the application of this framework to complex dam-breaching problems.

Peng, M.; Zhang, L. M.

2013-02-01

135

Validating Photogrammetric Orientation Steps by the Use of Relevant Theoretical Models. Implementation in the "ARPENTEUR" Framework  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The new advance in photogrammetry using the automatic procedures such as the famous algorithm which was proposed by David Lowe (Lowe, 2004) features descriptors and matching (SIFT) and then the recent development of external orientation (Nister (Stewenius et alii, 2006) or Snavely (Snavely et alii, 2010)) have changed drastically the way of measuring space with photogrammetry. The complexity of the process and the huge quantity of processed data (thousands of photographs) makes difficult validating the different process steps. We propose in this paper several theoretical model generation methods in order to validate the complete photogrammetric orientation process. A theoretical photogrammetric model generation has been developed in order to produce photographs, photo orientation, 3D points and 2D observations according to some defined camera and a parametric photograph distribution in the scene. In addition the use of synthesis image software generation as POV-Ray allow us to generate set of photographs with pre-computed internal and external orientation in order to check the whole pipeline from feature extraction to Photographs External Orientation. We apply this model generation approach to several typical geometry of photogrammetric scene, stereo, parallel triplet, parallel strip and convergent models.

Mahiddine, A.; Seinturier, J.; Peloso, D.; Boulaassal, H.; Boï, J.-M.; Merad, D.; Drap, P.

2013-07-01

136

[Beliefs of patients with coronary disease, according to Rokeach theoretical framework, concerning the smoking habit].  

PubMed

This is a descriptive observational study that aimed at identifying beliefs according to centrality/periphery by verifying how they interfere in the behavior of patients with coronary diseases regarding their adherence or non-adherence to smoking. The belief-related frameworks mentioned in the literature were used and findings, pointed out from the analysis of the interviews with 56 people with coronary diseases who were inpatients in a hospital in the interior of São Paulo State, showed a prevalence of primitive beliefs with zero consensus and a tendency to centrality that enabled the identification of hiding factors to the adherence to therapeutic recommendations by health professionals as well as inferences concerning the reluctance to behavioral changes presented by the population. PMID:12733246

Stuchi, Rosamary Aparecida Garcia; de Carvalho, Emilia Campos

2003-01-01

137

I move, therefore I am: A new theoretical framework to investigate agency and ownership  

Microsoft Academic Search

The neurocognitive structure of the acting self has recently been widely studied, yet is still perplexing and remains an often confounded issue in cognitive neuroscience, psychopathology and philosophy. We provide a new systematic account of two of its main features, the sense of agency and the sense of ownership, demonstrating that although both features appear as phenomenally uniform, they each

Matthis Synofzik; Gottfried Vosgerau; Albert Newen

2008-01-01

138

Responsive Feeding Is Embedded in a Theoretical Framework of Responsive Parenting123  

PubMed Central

Children throughout the world are confronted with growth problems ranging from underweight and stunting to overweight and obesity. The development of healthy eating behaviors depends on both healthy food and responsive parenting behaviors. With origins from anthropology, psychology, and nutrition, responsive parenting reflects reciprocity between child and caregiver, conceptualized as a 4-step mutually responsive process: 1) the caregiver creates a routine, structure, expectations, and emotional context that promote interaction; 2) the child responds and signals to the caregiver; 3) the caregiver responds promptly in a manner that is emotionally supportive, contingent, and developmentally appropriate; and 4) the child experiences predictable responses. This paper examines evidence for the practice and developmental benefits of responsive parenting with a view to providing a theoretical basis for responsive feeding. Recommendations are made that future efforts to promote healthy growth and to prevent underweight and overweight among young children incorporate and evaluate responsive feeding.

Black, Maureen M.; Aboud, Frances E.

2011-01-01

139

Characterization of metallic nano-particles via surface wave scattering: A. Theoretical framework and formulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Characterization of nano-size particles and structures are crucial for successful application of self-assembly processes that lead to bottom-up machining and manufacturing concepts. Conventional light-based approaches cannot be used for these purposes, mainly because the particle and structure sizes are much smaller than the wavelength of visible light. To overcome this problem, we are in the process of developing a diagnostic

Gorden Videen; Mustafa M. Aslan; M. Pinar Mengüç

2005-01-01

140

A theoretical framework for 3D LADAR ATR problem definition and performance evaluation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

LADAR imagery provides the capability to represent high resolution detail of 3D surface geometry of complex targets. In previous work we exploited this capability for automatic target recognition (ATR) by developing matching algorithms for performing surface matching of 3D LADAR point clouds with highly-detailed target CAD models. A central challenge in evaluating ATR performance is characterizing the degree of problem difficulty. One of the most important factors is the inherent similarity of target signatures. We've developed a flexible approach to target taxonomy based on 3D shape which includes a classification framework for defining the target recognition problem and evaluating ATR algorithm performance. The target model taxonomy consists of a hierarchical, tree-structured target classification scheme in which different levels of the tree correspond to different degrees of target classification difficulty. Each node in the tree corresponds to a collection of target models forming a target category. Target categories near the tree root represent large and very general target classes, exhibiting large interclass distance. Targets in these categories are easily separated. Target categories near the tree bottom represent very specific target classes with small interclass distance. These targets are difficult to separate. In this paper we focus on creation of optimal categories. We develop approaches for optimal aggregation of target model types into categories which provide for improved classification performance. We generate numerical results using match scores derived from matching highly-detailed CAD models of civilian ground vehicles.

DelMarco, Stephen; Sobel, Erik; Douglas, Joel

2005-05-01

141

Empirical social-ecological system analysis: from theoretical framework to latent variable structural equation model.  

PubMed

The social-ecological system (SES) approach to natural resource management holds enormous promise towards achieving sustainability. Despite this promise, social-ecological interactions are complex and elusive; they require simplification to guide effective application of the SES approach. The complex, adaptive and place-specific nature of human-environment interactions impedes determination of state and trends in SES parameters of interest to managers and policy makers. Based on a rigorously developed systemic theoretical model, this paper integrates field observations, interviews, surveys, and latent variable modeling to illustrate the development of simplified and easily interpretable indicators of the state of, and trends in, relevant SES processes. Social-agricultural interactions in the Logone floodplain, in the Lake Chad basin, served as case study. This approach is found to generate simplified determinants of the state of SESs, easily communicable across the array of stakeholders common in human-environment interactions. The approach proves to be useful for monitoring SESs, guiding interventions, and assessing the effectiveness of interventions. It incorporates real time responses to biophysical change in understanding coarse scale processes within which finer scales are embedded. This paper emphasizes the importance of merging quantitative and qualitative methods for effective monitoring and assessment of SESs. PMID:18773239

Asah, Stanley Tanyi

2008-12-01

142

The Promoting Effective Advance Care for Elders (PEACE) randomized pilot study: theoretical framework and study design.  

PubMed

Practice guidelines are available for hospice and palliative medicine specialists and geriatricians. However, these guidelines do not adequately address the needs of patients who straddle the 2 specialties: homebound chronically ill patients. The purpose of this article is to describe the theoretical basis for the Promoting Effective Advance Care for Elders (PEACE) randomized pilot study. PEACE is an ongoing 2-group randomized pilot study (n=80) to test an in-home interdisciplinary care management intervention that combines palliative care approaches to symptom management, psychosocial and emotional support, and advance care planning with geriatric medicine approaches to optimizing function and addressing polypharmacy. The population comprises new enrollees into PASSPORT, Ohio's community-based, long-term care Medicaid waiver program. All PASSPORT enrollees have geriatric/palliative care crossover needs because they are nursing home eligible. The intervention is based on Wagner's Chronic Care Model and includes comprehensive interdisciplinary care management for these low-income frail elders with chronic illnesses, uses evidence-based protocols, emphasizes patient activation, and integrates with community-based long-term care and other community agencies. Our model, with its standardized, evidence-based medical and psychosocial intervention protocols, will transport easily to other sites that are interested in optimizing outcomes for community-based, chronically ill older adults. PMID:22088165

Allen, Kyle R; Hazelett, Susan E; Radwany, Steven; Ertle, Denise; Fosnight, Susan M; Moore, Pamela S

2012-04-01

143

A theoretical framework for quantitatively characterizing sound field diffusion based on scattering coefficient and absorption coefficient of walls.  

PubMed

This paper describes the development of a theoretical framework for quantitatively characterizing sound field diffusion based on scattering coefficient and absorption coefficient of walls. The concepts of equivalent scattering area, equivalent scatter reflection area, average scattering coefficient and average scatter reflection coefficient are introduced in order to express all walls' capability of scatter in a room. Using these concepts and the mean free path, scatter-to-absorption ratio, mean scatter time and diffusion time are defined in order to evaluate degree of diffusion of a space. Furthermore the effect of spatial scattering objects to sound field diffusion is formulated. In addition the time variation of specular and scattered components in a room impulse response is formulated. The verification of these characterization methods was performed with computer simulations based on the sound ray tracing method. The results supported that the ideas presented are basically valid. PMID:20815450

Hanyu, Toshiki

2010-09-01

144

Highly effective hydrogen isotope separation in nanoporous metal-organic frameworks with open metal sites: direct measurement and theoretical analysis.  

PubMed

Separating gaseous mixtures that consist of very similar size is one of the critical issues in modern separation technology. Especially, the separation of the isotopes hydrogen and deuterium requires special efforts, even though these isotopes show a very large mass ratio. Conventionally, H/D separation can be realized through cryogenic distillation of the molecular species or the Girdler-sulfide process, which are among the most energy-intensive separation techniques in the chemical industry. However, costs can be significantly reduced by using highly mass-selective nanoporous sorbents. Here, we describe a hydrogen isotope separation strategy exploiting the strongly attractive open metal sites present in nanoporous metal-organic frameworks of the CPO-27 family (also referred to as MOF-74). A theoretical analysis predicts an outstanding hydrogen isotopologue separation at open metal sites due to isotopal effects, which has been directly observed through cryogenic thermal desorption spectroscopy. For H2/D2 separation of an equimolar mixture at 60 K, the selectivity of 12 is the highest value ever measured, and this methodology shows extremely high separation efficiencies even above 77 K. Our theoretical results imply also a high selectivity for HD/H2 separation at similar temperatures, and together with catalytically active sites, we propose a mechanism to produce D2 from HD/H2 mixtures with natural or enriched deuterium content. PMID:24359584

Oh, Hyunchul; Savchenko, Ievgeniia; Mavrandonakis, Andreas; Heine, Thomas; Hirscher, Michael

2014-01-28

145

Understanding the Canadian adult CT head rule trial: use of the theoretical domains framework for process evaluation  

PubMed Central

Background The Canadian CT Head Rule was prospectively derived and validated to assist clinicians with diagnostic decision-making regarding the use of computed tomography (CT) in adult patients with minor head injury. A recent intervention trial failed to demonstrate a decrease in the rate of head CTs following implementation of the rule in Canadian emergency departments. Yet, the same intervention, which included a one-hour educational session and reminders at the point of requisition, was successful in reducing cervical spine imaging rates in the same emergency departments. The reason for the varied effect of the intervention across these two behaviours is unclear. There is an increasing appreciation for the use of theory to conduct process evaluations to better understand how strategies are linked with outcomes in implementation trials. The Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF) has been used to explore health professional behaviour and to design behaviour change interventions but, to date, has not been used to guide a theory-based process evaluation. In this proof of concept study, we explored whether the TDF could be used to guide a retrospective process evaluation to better understand emergency physicians’ responses to the interventions employed in the Canadian CT Head Rule trial. Methods A semi-structured interview guide, based on the 12 domains from the TDF, was used to conduct telephone interviews with project leads and physician participants from the intervention sites in the Canadian CT Head Rule trial. Two reviewers independently coded the anonymised interview transcripts using the TDF as a coding framework. Relevant domains were identified by: the presence of conflicting beliefs within a domain; the frequency of beliefs; and the likely strength of the impact of a belief on the behaviour. Results Eight physicians from four of the intervention sites in the Canadian CT Head Rule trial participated in the interviews. Barriers likely to assist with understanding physicians’ responses to the intervention in the trial were identified in six of the theoretical domains: beliefs about consequences; beliefs about capabilities; behavioural regulation; memory, attention and decision processes; environmental context and resources; and social influences. Despite knowledge that the Canadian CT Head Rule was highly sensitive and reliable for identifying clinically important brain injuries and strong beliefs about the benefits for using the rule, a number of barriers were identified that may have prevented physicians from consistently applying the rule. Conclusion This proof of concept study demonstrates the use of the TDF as a guiding framework to design a retrospective theory-based process evaluation. There is a need for further development and testing of methods for using the TDF to guide theory-based process evaluations running alongside behaviour change intervention trials.

2013-01-01

146

Understanding diagnosis and management of dementia and guideline implementation in general practice: a qualitative study using the theoretical domains framework  

PubMed Central

Background Dementia is a growing problem, causing substantial burden for patients, their families, and society. General practitioners (GPs) play an important role in diagnosing and managing dementia; however, there are gaps between recommended and current practice. The aim of this study was to explore GPs’ reported practice in diagnosing and managing dementia and to describe, in theoretical terms, the proposed explanations for practice that was and was not consistent with evidence-based guidelines. Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted with GPs in Victoria, Australia. The Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF) guided data collection and analysis. Interviews explored the factors hindering and enabling achievement of 13 recommended behaviours. Data were analysed using content and thematic analysis. This paper presents an in-depth description of the factors influencing two behaviours, assessing co-morbid depression using a validated tool, and conducting a formal cognitive assessment using a validated scale. Results A total of 30 GPs were interviewed. Most GPs reported that they did not assess for co-morbid depression using a validated tool as per recommended guidance. Barriers included the belief that depression can be adequately assessed using general clinical indicators and that validated tools provide little additional information (theoretical domain of ‘Beliefs about consequences’); discomfort in using validated tools (‘Emotion’), possibly due to limited training and confidence (‘Skills’; ‘Beliefs about capabilities’); limited awareness of the need for, and forgetting to conduct, a depression assessment (‘Knowledge’; ‘Memory, attention and decision processes’). Most reported practising in a manner consistent with the recommendation that a formal cognitive assessment using a validated scale be undertaken. Key factors enabling this were having an awareness of the need to conduct a cognitive assessment (‘Knowledge’); possessing the necessary skills and confidence (‘Skills’; ‘Beliefs about capabilities’); and having adequate time and resources (‘Environmental context and resources’). Conclusions This is the first study to our knowledge to use a theoretical approach to investigate the barriers and enablers to guideline-recommended diagnosis and management of dementia in general practice. It has identified key factors likely to explain GPs’ uptake of the guidelines. The results have informed the design of an intervention aimed at supporting practice change in line with dementia guidelines, which is currently being evaluated in a cluster randomised trial.

2014-01-01

147

Dietary lipid composition and avian migratory flight performance: Development of a theoretical framework for avian fat storage.  

PubMed

Birds rely substantially on fat to fuel migratory flights. The importance of the composition of those fat stores to flight performance is a field of recent interest. Here I review the evidence that dietary lipid fat composition affects exercise in birds. Seasonal changes in adipose composition and diet choice experiments have yet to provide strong evidence that fatty acid composition can affect flight performance. Direct manipulations of dietary fat, however, have been demonstrated to affect exercise performance in both avian and non-avian species. I also describe the major hypotheses for the mechanisms by which dietary fat affects exercise, focusing on the role of fatty acids as oxidative substrates and as structural components of membranes. Evidence is accumulating that fatty acids that are shorter or have more double bonds increase peak performance due to their higher transport rates en route to oxidation. Endurance and efficiency of flight may or may not be affected in similar ways. Other mechanisms requiring further investigation include membrane composition, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors, and eicosanoid-mediated inflammation. Finally, I develop a theoretical framework for studying the composition of fat stores in migrants, focusing on the tradeoffs between fatty acid transport rates, energy storage, and assimilation during stopover refueling. PMID:20561892

Price, Edwin R

2010-12-01

148

Developing a Framework for Distributed and Dynamic Data Sharing Among the Coastal Ocean Community: Gulf of Maine Spatial Data Project and the Open IOOS Portal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the past year the Gulf of Maine Ocean Observing System (GoMOOS), the Southeastern Universities Research Association (SURA) and DM Solutions Group worked with multiple government, academic and private industry partners to develop regional and national distributed data-sharing frameworks for the coastal ocean community. These projects were initiated by a joint FGDC and GeoConnections grant for the Gulf of Maine Framework Data Project. This project catalyzed activities in the Gulf of Maine region, building upon the years of effort at the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) and related developments in the NSDI and the Canadian Geospatial Data Infrastructure. This one year demonstration project resulted in a distributed framework data resource that spans international borders and connects more than a dozen regional, State, Federal, Provincial and other types of organizations (www.gommap.org). Even though the project funding has ended the regional partnership continues to grow and has formed the basis for the Gulf of Maine Ocean Data Partnership. Additionally, many organizations within the Canadian government are looking at this project as a model for future data sharing collaborations. Concurrent to the Gulf of Maine project, the SURA Coastal Ocean Observing and Prediction (SCOOP) program initiative leveraged the developing data sharing capacity to coordinate and develop the OpenIOOS portal (www.openioos.org), which demonstrates the capacity of the Integrated Ocean Observing System and starts putting the "I" in IOOS in an OGC-compliant fashion. These efforts have engaged the ocean-science community on the national scale. Indeed, a culture change seems to be underway that will have important implications for our nation's response to recommendations from the U.S. Commission on Ocean Policy. This presentation will discuss the successes and lessons learned from these related projects.

Bogden, P.; Shyka, T.; McIlhagga, D.

2005-12-01

149

A theoretical framework for quantifying the relative importance of dissolution and mechanical erosion in soluble bedrock channels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Models of erosion in surface streams typically assume that the rates of stream incision via dissolution are negligibly small in comparison to mechanical erosion rates. On the contrary, numerical models of the formation and evolution of cave channels in karst landscapes have not typically considered mechanical processes. The disconnect in the assumptions made by these two communities is indicative of a switch in the importance of these two types of processes as channels grow. However, the parameters that control this switch, and the typical settings in which chemical or mechanical incision will dominate are unknown. Here we construct a theoretical framework to allow a systematic study of the role of climatic and lithological factors in controlling the relative importance of dissolution and mechanical processes in channels in highly soluble rock. We begin by characterizing the relationship between saturation state and discharge in a wide variety of streams using data from the USGS Water Quality database. Using this characterization, we have developed a stochastic model for dissolution in streams that enables calculation of rates averaged over all discharges. This model is compared against similar models for mechanical erosion that employ a stream power erosion law. The model shows that at sufficiently high discharges, or shear stresses, mechanical erosion dominates. Similarly, channel dissolution is relatively insensitive to extreme events. However, at low discharges, significant dissolution can occur if the stream is undersaturated. Consequently, the average saturation state of the stream, the critical threshold for the onset of mechanical erosion, and the time distribution of discharges all play crucial roles. We conclude with a preliminary examination of the distribution of characteristic chemical and mechanical erosion features within soluble bedrock channels as a function of lithological, hydraulic, chemical, and sediment properties.

Covington, M. D.; Gabrovšek, F.; Gulley, J. D.

2013-12-01

150

Laser cooling of semiconductor quantum wells: Theoretical framework and strategy for deep optical refrigeration by luminescence upconversion  

SciTech Connect

Optical refrigeration has great potential as a viable solution to thermal management for semiconductor devices and microsystems. We have developed a first-principles-based theory that describes the evolution of thermodynamics - i.e., thermokinetics - of a semiconductor quantum well under laser pumping. This thermokinetic theory partitions a well into three subsystems: interacting electron-hole pairs (carriers) within the well, the lattice (thermal phonons), and the ambient (a thermal reservoir). We start from the Boltzmann kinetic equations and derive the equations of motion for carrier density and temperature, and lattice temperature, under the adiabatic approximation. A simplification is possible as a result of ultrafast energy exchange between the carriers and phonons in semiconductors: a single-temperature equation is sufficient for them, whereas the lattice cooling is ultimately driven by the much slower radiative recombination (upconverted luminescence) process. Our theory microscopically incorporates photogeneration and radiative recombination of the interacting electron-hole pairs. We verify that Kubo-Martin-Schwinger relation holds for our treatment, as a necessary condition for consistency in treatment. The current theory supports steady-state solutions and allows studies of cooling strategies and thermodynamics. We show by numerical investigation of an exemplary GaAs quantum well that higher power cools better when the laser is detuned from the band edge between a critical negative value and the ambient thermal energy. We argue for the existence of such a counterintuitive lower bound. Most importantly, we show that there exists an actual detuning, 3 meV above the band edge in the simulated free-carrier case and expected to be pinned at the excitonlike absorption peak owing to Coulomb many-body effects, for optimal laser cooling. Significant improvement in cooling efficacy and theoretical possibility of deep refrigeration are verified with such a fixed optimal actual detuning. In essence, this work provides a consistent microscopic framework and an optimization strategy for achieving net deep cooling of semiconductor quantum wells and related microsystems.

Li Jianzhong [NanoScience Solutions, Inc., Cupertino, California 95014 (United States)

2007-04-15

151

River Restoration in Spain: Theoretical and Practical Approach in the Context of the European Water Framework Directive  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

River restoration is becoming a priority in many countries because of increasing the awareness of environmental degradation. In Europe, the EU Water Framework Directive (WFD) has significantly reinforced river restoration, encouraging the improvement of ecological status for water bodies. To fulfill the WFD requirements, the Spanish Ministry of the Environment developed in 2006 a National Strategy for River Restoration whose design and implementation are described in this paper. At the same time many restoration projects have been conducted, and sixty of them have been evaluated in terms of stated objectives and pressures and implemented restoration measures. Riparian vegetation enhancement, weir removal and fish passes were the most frequently implemented restoration measures, although the greatest pressures came from hydrologic alteration caused by flow regulation for irrigation purposes. Water deficits in quantity and quality associated with uncontrolled water demands seriously affect Mediterranean rivers and represent the main constraint to achieving good ecological status of Spanish rivers, most of them intensively regulated. Proper environmental allocation of in-stream flows would need deep restrictions in agricultural water use which seem to be of very difficult social acceptance. This situation highlights the need to integrate land-use and rural development policies with water resources and river management, and identifies additional difficulties in achieving the WFD objectives and good ecological status of rivers in Mediterranean countries.

González del Tánago, Marta; García de Jalón, Diego; Román, Mercedes

2012-07-01

152

A direct vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque elasticity reconstruction method based on an original material-finite element formulation: theoretical framework.  

PubMed

The peak cap stress (PCS) amplitude is recognized as a biomechanical predictor of vulnerable plaque (VP) rupture. However, quantifying PCS in vivo remains a challenge since the stress depends on the plaque mechanical properties. In response, an iterative material finite element (FE) elasticity reconstruction method using strain measurements has been implemented for the solution of these inverse problems. Although this approach could resolve the mechanical characterization of VPs, it suffers from major limitations since (i) it is not adapted to characterize VPs exhibiting high material discontinuities between inclusions, and (ii) does not permit real time elasticity reconstruction for clinical use. The present theoretical study was therefore designed to develop a direct material-FE algorithm for elasticity reconstruction problems which accounts for material heterogeneities. We originally modified and adapted the extended FE method (Xfem), used mainly in crack analysis, to model material heterogeneities. This new algorithm was successfully applied to six coronary lesions of patients imaged in vivo with intravascular ultrasound. The results demonstrated that the mean relative absolute errors of the reconstructed Young's moduli obtained for the arterial wall, fibrosis, necrotic core, and calcified regions of the VPs decreased from 95.3 ± 15.56%, 98.85 ± 72.42%, 103.29 ± 111.86% and 95.3 ± 10.49%, respectively, to values smaller than 2.6 × 10(-8) ± 5.7 × 10(-8)% (i.e. close to the exact solutions) when including modified-Xfem method into our direct elasticity reconstruction method. PMID:24240392

Bouvier, Adeline; Deleaval, Flavien; Doyley, Marvin M; Yazdani, Saami K; Finet, Gérard; Le Floc'h, Simon; Cloutier, Guy; Pettigrew, Roderic I; Ohayon, Jacques

2013-12-01

153

Can an analysis of the contrast between pre-Galilean and Newtonian theoretical frameworks help students develop a scientific mindset?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This study examines a course in which students use two writing activities and collaborative group activities to examine the conceptual structure of the calculus-based introductory Physics course. Students are presented with two alternative frameworks; pre-Galilean Physics and Newtonian Physics. The idea of the course design is that students would at first view the frameworks almost in a theatrical sense as a view of a drama involving a conflict of actors;Aristotle, Galileo, Newton and others occurring a long time ago. As participants passing through a series of interventions, the students become aware that the frameworks relate concepts from different parts of the course and learn to evaluate the two alternative frameworks. They develop a scientific mindset changing their outlook on the course material from the viewpoint that it consists of a tool kit of assorted practices, classified according to problem type, to the viewpoint that it comprises a connected structure of concepts.

Kalman, Calvin S.; Aulls, Mark W.

2013-05-28

154

A theoretical framework for convergence and continuous dependence of estimates in inverse problems for distributed parameter systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Numerical techniques for parameter identification in distributed-parameter systems are developed analytically. A general convergence and stability framework (for continuous dependence on observations) is derived for first-order systems on the basis of (1) a weak formulation in terms of sesquilinear forms and (2) the resolvent convergence form of the Trotter-Kato approximation. The extension of this framework to second-order systems is considered.

Banks, H. T.; Ito, K.

1988-01-01

155

Public administration and R&D localisation by pharmaceutical and biotech companies: a theoretical framework and the Italian case-study.  

PubMed

This article has two objectives. It firstly provides a general framework for variables that influence R&D (Research and Development) localisation by pharmaceutical and biotech companies. The analysis of R&D localization includes both in-house R&D and contracted R&D. Following a systematic literature search, these variables were classified into four distinct categories: regulatory environment, institutional framework, national systems of innovation and local development and specialisation. The authors highlight that some of these factors directly depend on the action of public administrations (e.g., patent protection, price regulation, public investments in research, and incentives to private companies); others are indirectly influenced by public policies (e.g., GDP growth rate, infrastructures). This theoretical framework was used to analyse the Italian case-study. Pros and cons of the Italian context were investigated from the point of view of multinational pharmaceutical companies and the Italian Association of Biotech Companies. Interviews were chosen as the most appropriate data gathering technique given the exploratory nature of the study of the Italian context. The paper is divided into five parts. A brief introduction provides figures showing that Europe has been loosing positions compared with other Continents and the same has occurred in Italy compared with other EU countries. The second one illustrates the methodology. The third one is focused on variables affecting R&D localisation. In the fourth section the Italian case-study is discussed. Theoretical and empirical findings are summarised and discussed in the conclusions. PMID:16824641

Jommi, Claudio; Paruzzolo, Silvia

2007-04-01

156

Understanding practice: the factors that influence management of mild traumatic brain injury in the emergency department-a qualitative study using the Theoretical Domains Framework  

PubMed Central

Background Mild traumatic brain injury is a frequent cause of presentation to emergency departments. Despite the availability of clinical practice guidelines in this area, there is variation in practice. One of the aims of the Neurotrauma Evidence Translation program is to develop and evaluate a targeted, theory- and evidence-informed intervention to improve the management of mild traumatic brain injury in Australian emergency departments. This study is the first step in the intervention development process and uses the Theoretical Domains Framework to explore the factors perceived to influence the uptake of four key evidence-based recommended practices for managing mild traumatic brain injury. Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted with emergency staff in the Australian state of Victoria. The interview guide was developed using the Theoretical Domains Framework to explore current practice and to identify the factors perceived to influence practice. Two researchers coded the interview transcripts using thematic content analysis. Results A total of 42 participants (9 Directors, 20 doctors and 13 nurses) were interviewed over a seven-month period. The results suggested that (i) the prospective assessment of post-traumatic amnesia was influenced by: knowledge; beliefs about consequences; environmental context and resources; skills; social/professional role and identity; and beliefs about capabilities; (ii) the use of guideline-developed criteria or decision rules to inform the appropriate use of a CT scan was influenced by: knowledge; beliefs about consequences; environmental context and resources; memory, attention and decision processes; beliefs about capabilities; social influences; skills and behavioral regulation; (iii) providing verbal and written patient information on discharge was influenced by: beliefs about consequences; environmental context and resources; memory, attention and decision processes; social/professional role and identity; and knowledge; (iv) the practice of providing brief, routine follow-up on discharge was influenced by: environmental context and resources; social/professional role and identity; knowledge; beliefs about consequences; and motivation and goals. Conclusions Using the Theoretical Domains Framework, factors thought to influence the management of mild traumatic brain injury in the emergency department were identified. These factors present theoretically based targets for a future intervention.

2014-01-01

157

The effect of fire-induced soil hydrophobicity on wind erosion in a semiarid grassland: Experimental observations and theoretical framework  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aridland ecosystems are often susceptible to degradation resulting from disturbances like fires and grazing. By exposing the soil surface to the erosive action of winds, these disturbances contribute to the redistribution of soil nutrients associated with grassland-to-shrubland conversions and to the formation of a heterogeneous landscape. Wind erosion maintains the local heterogeneities in nutrient and vegetation distribution in arid landscapes through the removal of nutrient-rich soil from the intercanopy areas and the subsequent deposition of soil onto vegetation patches. Even though wind erosion and disturbances like fires strongly interact with each other and determine vegetation patterns in arid landscapes, very few studies have addressed these interactions. Using soil samples collected after a wildfire event at the Cimarron National Grasslands in southwestern Kansas, we demonstrate through a series of wind-tunnel experiments, laboratory measurements, and theoretical analyses how wind erosion can be enhanced by fire-induced water repellency. Results from the wind-tunnel experiments show that in semiarid grasslands fires can cause a decrease in the threshold velocity of wind erosion thereby, enhancing the post-burn erosion of (hydrophobic) soils. Further, a generalized process-based theoretical equation was derived to explain the decrease in threshold friction velocity in water-repellent soil for the case of soil particles modeled as asymmetrical cones.

Ravi, Sujith; D'Odorico, Paolo; Zobeck, Ted M.; Over, Thomas M.

2009-04-01

158

Assessing Learning in the Outdoors with the Field Trip in Natural Environments (FiNE) Framework  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The development and application of a framework that captures main characteristics of learning in nature--the Field Trip in Natural Environments (FiNE) framework--is the main outcome of this study that followed up 22 daily field trips of 4-6th grade students to nature parks. The theoretical and practical framework, which was developed based on the…

Morag, Orly; Tal, Tali

2012-01-01

159

Signalling entropy: A novel network-theoretical framework for systems analysis and interpretation of functional omic data.  

PubMed

A key challenge in systems biology is the elucidation of the underlying principles, or fundamental laws, which determine the cellular phenotype. Understanding how these fundamental principles are altered in diseases like cancer is important for translating basic scientific knowledge into clinical advances. While significant progress is being made, with the identification of novel drug targets and treatments by means of systems biological methods, our fundamental systems level understanding of why certain treatments succeed and others fail is still lacking. We here advocate a novel methodological framework for systems analysis and interpretation of molecular omic data, which is based on statistical mechanical principles. Specifically, we propose the notion of cellular signalling entropy (or uncertainty), as a novel means of analysing and interpreting omic data, and more fundamentally, as a means of elucidating systems-level principles underlying basic biology and disease. We describe the power of signalling entropy to discriminate cells according to differentiation potential and cancer status. We further argue the case for an empirical cellular entropy-robustness correlation theorem and demonstrate its existence in cancer cell line drug sensitivity data. Specifically, we find that high signalling entropy correlates with drug resistance and further describe how entropy could be used to identify the achilles heels of cancer cells. In summary, signalling entropy is a deep and powerful concept, based on rigorous statistical mechanical principles, which, with improved data quality and coverage, will allow a much deeper understanding of the systems biological principles underlying normal and disease physiology. PMID:24675401

Teschendorff, Andrew E; Sollich, Peter; Kuehn, Reimer

2014-06-01

160

A unified theoretical framework for fluctuating-charge models in atom-space and in bond-space.  

PubMed

Our previously introduced QTPIE (charge transfer with polarization current equilibration) model [J. Chen and T. J. Martínez, Chem. Phys. Lett. 438, 315 (2007)] is a fluctuating-charge model with correct asymptotic behavior. Unlike most other fluctuating-charge models, QTPIE is formulated in terms of charge-transfer variables and pairwise electronegativities, not atomic charge variables and electronegativities. The pairwise character of the electronegativities in QTPIE allows us to avoid spurious charge transfer when bonds are broken. However, the increased number of variables leads to considerable computational expense and a rank-deficient set of working equations, which is numerically inconvenient. Here, we show that QTPIE can be exactly reformulated in terms of atomic charge variables, leading to a considerable reduction in computational complexity. The transformation between atomic and bond variables is generally applicable to arbitrary fluctuating charge models and uncovers an underlying topological framework that can be used to understand the relation between fluctuating-charge models and the classical theory of electrical circuits. PMID:19063550

Chen, Jiahao; Hundertmark, Dirk; Martínez, Todd J

2008-12-01

161

Theoretical study of molecular hydrogen and spiltover hydrogen storage on two-dimensional covalent-organic frameworks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Molecular hydrogen and spiltover hydrogen storages on five two-dimensional (2D) covalent-organic frameworks (COFs) (PPy-COF, TP-COF, BTP-COF, COF-18 Å, and HHTP-DPB COF) are investigated using the grand canonical Monte Carlo (GCMC) simulations and the density functional theory (DFT), respectively. The GCMC simulated results show that HHTP-DPB COF has the best performance for hydrogen storage, followed by BTP-COF, TP-COF, COF-18 Å, and PPy-COF. However, their adsorption amounts at room temperature are all too low to meet the uptake target set by US Department of Energy (US-DOE) and enable practical applications. The effects of pore size, surface area, and isosteric heat of hydrogen on adsorption amount are considered, which indicate that these three factors are all the important factors for determining the H2 adsorption amount. The chemisorptions of spiltover hydrogen atoms on these five COFs represented by the cluster models are investigated using the DFT method. The saturation cluster models are constructed by considering all possible adsorption sites for these cluster models. The average binding energy of a hydrogen atom and the saturation hydrogen storage density are calculated. The large average binding energy indicates that the spillover process may proceed smoothly and reversibly. The saturation hydrogen storage density is much larger than the physisorption uptake of H2 molecules at 298 K and 100 bar (1 bar = 105 Pa), and is close to or exceeds the 2010 US-DOE target of 6 wt% for hydrogen storage. This suggests that the hydrogen storage capacities of these COFs by spillover may be significantly enhanced. Thus 2D COFs studied in this paper are suitable hydrogen storage media by spillover.

Liu, Xiu-Ying; He, Jie; Yu, Jing-Xin; Li, Zheng-Xin; Fan, Zhi-Qin

2014-06-01

162

Barriers and enablers to delivery of the Healthy Kids Check: an analysis informed by the Theoretical Domains Framework and COM-B model  

PubMed Central

Background More than a fifth of Australian children arrive at school developmentally vulnerable. To counteract this, the Healthy Kids Check (HKC), a one-off health assessment aimed at preschool children, was introduced in 2008 into Australian general practice. Delivery of services has, however, remained low. The Theoretical Domains Framework, which provides a method to understand behaviours theoretically, can be condensed into three core components: capability, opportunity and motivation, and the COM-B model. Utilising this system, this study aimed to determine the barriers and enablers to delivery of the HKC, to inform the design of an intervention to promote provision of HKC services in Australian general practice. Methods Data from 6 focus group discussions with 40 practitioners from general practices in socio-culturally diverse areas of Melbourne, Victoria, were analysed using thematic analysis. Results Many practitioners expressed uncertainty regarding their capabilities and the practicalities of delivering HKCs, but in some cases HKCs had acted as a catalyst for professional development. Key connections between immunisation services and delivery of HKCs prompted practices to have systems of recall and reminder in place. Standardisation of methods for developmental assessment and streamlined referral pathways affected practitioners’ confidence and motivation to perform HKCs. Conclusion Application of a systematic framework effectively demonstrated how a number of behaviours could be targeted to increase delivery of HKCs. Interventions need to target practice systems, the support of office staff and referral options, as well as practitioners’ training. Many behavioural changes could be applied through a single intervention programme delivered by the primary healthcare organisations charged with local healthcare needs (Medicare Locals) providing vital links between general practice, community and the health of young children.

2014-01-01

163

H3O2 bridging ligand in a metal-organic framework. Insight into the aqua-hydroxo?hydroxyl equilibrium: a combined experimental and theoretical study.  

PubMed

A metal-organic framework (MOF) bearing the aqua-hydroxo species (O2H3)(-) in the framework, as well as the processes that govern the equilibrium aqua-hydroxo (O2H3)(-)?hydroxyl (OH) in Sc-MOFs, are studied experimentally and theoretically. Computational studies were employed to determine the relative energies for the two compounds that coexist under certain hydrothermal conditions at pH < 2.8. The thermodynamically more stable [Sc3(3,5-DSB)2(?-O2H3)(?-OH)2(H2O)2] (from now on, (O2H3)Sc-MOF; 3,5-DSB = 3,5-disulfobenzoic acid) was obtained as a pure and stable phase. It was impossible to isolate [Sc3(3,5-DSB)2(?-OH)3(H2O)4] as a pure phase, as it turned out to be the precursor of (O2H3)Sc-MOF. Additionally, a third compound that appears at pH between 3.5 and 4, [Sc3(3,5-DSB)(?-OH)6(H2O)] and a fourth, [Sc(3,5-DSB)(Phen)(H2O)](H2O), in whose formula neither OH groups nor H3O2(-) anions appear, are reported for comparative purposes. A study of the (O2H3)Sc-MOF electronic structure, and some heterogeneous catalytic tests in cyanosilylation of aldehydes reactions, are also reported. PMID:23510527

D'Vries, Richard F; de la Peña-O'Shea, Victor A; Snejko, Natalia; Iglesias, Marta; Gutiérrez-Puebla, Enrique; Monge, M Angeles

2013-04-17

164

A theoretical analysis of the ultraviolet spectrum (180-260 nm) of pure liquid benzene. Gasliquid spectral shifts explained through a statistically perturbed CNDO/S framework  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reports an attempt to understand theoretically the red shifts seen in the benzene ultraviolet spectrum upon changing from gas to the liquid phase. The theoretical analysis is performed through a framework which brings together Quantum Chemistry and Classical Statistical Mechanics of molecular liquids. As it is discussed herein, the influence of the liquid phase on the individual molecular properties is taken into account by means of a perturbation term included in the effective molecular Hamiltonian. Such a perturbation depends explicitly on both the chemical nature and the static structure of the liquid surrounding the molecule under study. In order to simulate the vibronic couplings, which make the benzene |Ddforbidden|DD bands1 L a and1 L b have nonzero intensity, random displacements of the nuclei of benzene have been employed in this introductory work. The calculations involve the CNDO/S procedure and the atom-atom radial distribution functions of the liquid sample. The results account for the large red shift (?20 nm) undergone by the band1 L a .

Fernandez, M.; Tortajada, J.; Sesé, L. M.

1988-09-01

165

Back to the basics: identifying positive youth development as the theoretical framework for a youth drug prevention program in rural Saskatchewan, Canada amidst a program evaluation  

PubMed Central

Background Despite endorsement by the Saskatchewan government to apply empirically-based approaches to youth drug prevention services in the province, programs are sometimes delivered prior to the establishment of evidence-informed goals and objectives. This paper shares the 'preptory’ outcomes of our team’s program evaluation of the Prince Albert Parkland Health Region Mental Health and Addiction Services’ Outreach Worker Service (OWS) in eight rural, community schools three years following its implementation. Before our independent evaluation team could assess whether expectations of the OWS were being met, we had to assist with establishing its overarching program goals and objectives and 'at-risk’ student population, alongside its alliance with an empirically-informed theoretical framework. Methods A mixed-methods approach was applied, beginning with in-depth focus groups with the OWS staff to identify the program’s goals and objectives and targeted student population. These were supplemented with OWS and school administrator interviews and focus groups with school staff. Alignment with a theoretical focus was determined though a review of the OWS’s work to date and explored in focus groups between our evaluation team and the OWS staff and validated with the school staff and OWS and school administration. Results With improved understanding of the OWS’s goals and objectives, our evaluation team and the OWS staff aligned the program with the Positive Youth Development theoretical evidence-base, emphasizing the program’s universality, systems focus, strength base, and promotion of assets. Together we also gained clarity about the OWS’s definition of and engagement with its 'at-risk’ student population. Conclusions It is important to draw on expert knowledge to develop youth drug prevention programming, but attention must also be paid to aligning professional health care services with a theoretically informed evidence-base for evaluation purposes. If time does not permit for the establishment of evidence-informed goals and objectives at the start-up of a program, obtaining insight and expertise from program personnel and school staff and administrators can bring the program to a point where this can still be achieved and theoretical linkages made after a program has been implemented. This is a necessary foundation for measuring an intervention’s success.

2013-01-01

166

Noninvasive vascular elastography: theoretical framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes in vessel wall elasticity may be indicative of vessel pathologies. It is known, for example, that the presence of plaque stiffens the vascular wall, and that the heterogeneity of its composition may lead to plaque rupture and thrombosis. Another domain of application where ultrasound elastography may be of interest is the study of vascular wall elasticity to predict the

Roch L. Maurice; Jacques Ohayon; Yves Frétigny; Michel Bertrand; Gilles Soulez; Guy Cloutier

2004-01-01

167

Implementation of pregnancy weight management and obesity guidelines: a meta-synthesis of healthcare professionals' barriers and facilitators using the Theoretical Domains Framework.  

PubMed

Obesity in pregnancy is rising and is associated with severe health consequences for both the mother and the child. There is an increasing international focus on guidelines to manage the clinical risks of maternal obesity, and for pregnancy weight management. However, passive dissemination of guidelines is not effective and more active strategies are required for effective guideline implementation into practice. Implementation of guidelines is a form of healthcare professional behaviour change, and therefore implementation strategies should be based on appropriate behaviour change theory. This systematic review aimed to identify the determinants of healthcare professionals' behaviours in relation to maternal obesity and weight management. Twenty-five studies were included. Data synthesis of the existing international qualitative and quantitative evidence base used the Theoretical Domains Framework to identify the barriers and facilitators to healthcare professionals' maternal obesity and weight management practice. The domains most frequently identified included 'knowledge', 'beliefs about consequences' and 'environmental context and resources'. Healthcare professionals' weight management practice had the most barriers compared with any other area of maternal obesity practice. The results of this review will be used to inform the development of an intervention to support healthcare professional behaviour change. PMID:24629076

Heslehurst, N; Newham, J; Maniatopoulos, G; Fleetwood, C; Robalino, S; Rankin, J

2014-06-01

168

"Because I am worth it": a theoretical framework and empirical review of a justification-based account of self-regulation failure.  

PubMed

Self-regulation failure is often explained as being overwhelmed by impulse. The present article proposes a novel pathway, presenting a theoretical framework and empirical review of a justification-based account of self-regulation failure. With justification we refer to making excuses for one's discrepant behavior, so that when experiencing a self-regulation dilemma between immediate impulses and long-term intentions, people resolve the conflict by developing and employing justifications that allow violations of the goal they endorse. Accordingly, rather than inhibiting motivations from the impulsive system, the reflective system can also facilitate them, leading to self-regulation failure. We bring together empirical evidence from various domains demonstrating that justifications can instigate self-regulation failure and rule out alternative accounts. Having established that justification processes contribute to self-regulation failure, we then propose several mechanisms that may fuel the effect. Finally, routes for future research and the conceptual and practical implications of these novel insights for self-regulation are discussed. PMID:24214148

De Witt Huberts, Jessie C; Evers, Catharine; De Ridder, Denise T D

2014-05-01

169

A CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK FOR RESEARCH ON LIFETIME VIOLENCE, POSTTRAUMATIC STRESS, AND CHILDBEARING  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this theoretical article is to describe a conceptual framework for research on effects of past and current abuse and posttraumatic stress on childbearing women. The proposed framework builds on an earlier framework proposed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) for research on violence occurring around the time of pregnancy. Two main adaptations are suggested.

Julia S. Seng

2002-01-01

170

A quantitative synthesis of the medicinal ethnobotany of the Malink? of Mali and the Ash?ninka of Peru, with a new theoretical framework  

PubMed Central

Background Although ethnomedically and taxonomically guided searches for new medicinal plants can improve the percentage of plants found containing active compounds when compared to random sampling, ethnobotany has fulfilled little of its promise in the last few decades to deliver a bounty of new, laboratory-proven medicinal plants and compounds. It is quite difficult to test, isolate, and elucidate the structure and mechanism of compounds from the plethora of new medicinal plant uses described each year with limited laboratory time and resources and the high cost of clinical trials of new drug candidates. Methods A new quantitative theoretical framework of mathematical formulas called "relational efficacy" is proposed that should narrow down this search for new plant-derived medicines based on the hypothesis that closely related plants used to treat closely related diseases in distantly related cultures have a higher probability of being effective because they are more likely to be independent discoveries of similar plant compounds and disease mechanisms. A prerequisite to this hypothesis, the idea that empirical testing in traditional medicine will lead to choosing similar medicinal plants and therefore the medicinal flora of two distant cultures will prove to be more similar than their general flora, is tested using resampling statistics on cross-cultural field data of the plants used by the Malinké of Mali and the Asháninka of Peru to treat the diseases malaria, African sleeping sickness, Chagas' disease, leishmaniasis, diabetes, eczema, asthma, and uterine fibroids. Results In this case, the similarity of the medicinal floras is found to be significantly greater than the similarity of the general floras, but only when the diseases in question are grouped into the categories of parasitic and autoimmune diseases. Conclusion If the central theoretical framework of this hypothesis is shown to be true, it will allow the synthesis of medicinal plant information from around the world to pinpoint the species with the highest potential efficacy to take into the laboratory and analyze further, ultimately saving much field and laboratory time and resources. Spanish abstract Las búsquedas que utilizan la etnomedicina y la taxonomía para descubrir nuevas plantas medicinales, pueden aumentar la probabilidad de éxito de encontrar compuestos químicos activos en plantas, en comparación con las búsquedas aleatorias. A pesar de lo anterior, en las últimas décadas, la etnobotánica no ha cumplido con las expectativas de proveer numerosas plantas medicinales y químicos nuevos una vez examinados en el laboratorio. Cada año se describen una plétora de plantas medicinales y sus usos, sin embargo las limitaciones de tiempo y recursos en los laboratorios, unidos al alto coste de los ensayos clínicos de las drogas potenciales, hacen muy difícil probar, aislar, y elucidar la estructura y el mecanismo de los compuestos de estas plantas. Se propone un nuevo marco teórico cuantitativo cuyo fin es focalizar la búsqueda de nueva plantas medicinales. Este marco teórico está basado en la hipótesis que las plantas cercanamente relacionadas, usadas para tratar enfermedades cercanamente relacionadas en culturas distantemente relacionadas, tienen una eficacia potencial más alta, debido a que es más probable que estos hallazgos sean descubrimientos independientes de compuestos químicos similares. Parte de esta hipótesis, que las escogencias racionales se hacen para elegir plantas medicinales similares y que la flora medicinal de dos culturas distantes es más similar que su flora general, se probó usando métodos estadísticos de remuestreo con datos de campo de la comunidad Malinké de Malí y de la Asháninka de Perú, y las enfermedades de paludismo, enfermedad africana del sueño, enfermedad de Chagas, leishmania, diabetes, eczema, asma, y fibromas uterinos. Se encontró, en este caso, que

Bletter, Nathaniel

2007-01-01

171

Theoretical studies of massive stars. I - Evolution of a 15-solar-mass star from the zero-age main sequence to neon ignition  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The evolution of a star with mass 15 times that of the sun from the zero-age main sequence to neon ignition has been computed by the Henyey method. The hydrogen-rich envelope and all shell sources were explicitly included in the models. An algorithm has been developed for approximating the results of carbon burning, including the branching ratio for the C-12 + C-12 reaction and taking some secondary reactions into account. Penetration of the convective envelope into the core is found to be unimportant during the stages covered by the models. Energy transfer from the carbon-burning shell to the core by degenerate electron conduction becomes important after the core carbon-burning stage. Neon ignition will occur in a semidegenerate core and will lead to a mild 'flash.' Detailed numerical results are given in an appendix. Continuation of the calculations into later stages and variations with the total mass of the star will be discussed in later papers.

Endal, A. S.

1975-01-01

172

Assessing Learning in the Outdoors with the Field Trip in Natural Environments (FiNE) Framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development and application of a framework that captures main characteristics of learning in nature—the Field Trip in Natural Environments (FiNE) framework—is the main outcome of this study that followed up 22 daily field trips of 4–6th grade students to nature parks. The theoretical and practical framework, which was developed based on the research literature and the data collected, allows

Orly Morag; Tali Tal

2011-01-01

173

Assessing Learning in the Outdoors with the Field Trip in Natural Environments (FiNE) Framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development and application of a framework that captures main characteristics of learning in nature—the Field Trip in Natural Environments (FiNE) framework—is the main outcome of this study that followed up 22 daily field trips of 4–6th grade students to nature parks. The theoretical and practical framework, which was developed based on the research literature and the data collected, allows

Orly Morag; Tali Tal

2012-01-01

174

Teaching Main Idea Comprehension.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intended to help classroom teachers, curriculum developers, and researchers, this book provides current information on theoretical and instructional aspects of main idea comprehension. Titles and authors are as follows: "The Confused World of Main Idea" (James W. Cunningham and David W. Moore); "The Comprehension of Important Information in…

Baumann, James F., Ed.

175

MAINE POPULATION  

EPA Science Inventory

MEPOP250 depicts Maine's 1950-1990 population data by town or Census in unorganized territories. Populations were compiled from US Census Bureau data where available or from Maine Municipal Information (mainly for older records). Unorganized towns with very low or zero pop...

176

Assessment of Student Performance in a PSI College Physics Course Using Ausubel's Learning Theory as a Theoretical Framework for Content Organization.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

David Ausubel's learning theory was used as a framework for the content organization of an experimental Personalized System of Instruction (PSI) course in physics. Evaluation suggests that the combination of PSI as a method of instruction and Ausubel's theory for organization might result in better learning outcomes. (Author/JMD)

Moriera, M. A.

1979-01-01

177

Shear wave propagation in complex sub wavelength tissue geometries: Theoretical and experimental implications in the framework of cornea and skin shear wave imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantitative measurements of cornea and skin biomechanical properties have many applications in medicine. In ophthalmology, it could lead to a better diagnosis of pathologies or monitoring of treatments. In dermatology, it could help the skin lesions removal monitoring. In the framework of Supersonic Shear Imaging (SSI), these organs are characterized by their complex sub wavelength geometry (thin plate and thin

Thu-Mai Nguyen; Jean-Luc Gennisson; Mathieu Couade; David Touboul; Philippe Humbert; Jeremy Bercoff; Mathias Fink; Mickael Tanter

2010-01-01

178

HOW DOES INTRODUCTION OF STRATEGIC JOB IN FOUR AND FIVE STAR HOTELS AFFECT ORGANIZATIONAL COMMITMENT AND ORGANIZATIONAL CITIZENSHIP BEHAVIOUR: A THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the study is to discuss HR practices system variation within the hotel industry related to the identification of strategic jobs, and how this influences employees' work attitudes. The context for this research is four and five star hotels in Malaysia. This paper provides an integrated framework and five research issues relating the concepts of the HR practices

Rozila Ahmad; Scholar David Solnet; Noel Scott

179

Cultural targeting and tailoring of shared decision making technology: a theoretical framework for improving the effectiveness of patient decision aids in culturally diverse groups.  

PubMed

Patient decision aids are known to positively impact outcomes critical to shared decision making (SDM), such as gist knowledge and decision preparedness. However, research on the potential improvement of these and other important outcomes through cultural targeting and tailoring of decision aids is very limited. This is the case despite extensive evidence supporting use of cultural targeting and tailoring to improve the effectiveness of health communications. Building on prominent psychological theory, we propose a two-stage framework incorporating cultural concepts into the design process for screening and treatment decision aids. The first phase recommends use of cultural constructs, such as collectivism and individualism, to differentially target patients whose cultures are known to vary on these dimensions. Decision aid targeting is operationalized through use of symbols and values that appeal to members of the given culture. Content dimensions within decision aids that appear particularly appropriate for targeting include surface level visual characteristics, language, beliefs, attitudes and values. The second phase of the framework is based on evidence that individuals vary in terms of how strongly cultural norms influence their approach to problem solving and decision making. In particular, the framework hypothesizes that differences in terms of access to cultural mindsets (e.g., access to interdependent versus independent self) can be measured up front and used to tailor decision aids. Thus, the second phase in the framework emphasizes the importance of not only targeting decision aid content, but also tailoring the information to the individual based on measurement of how strongly he/she is connected to dominant cultural mindsets. Overall, the framework provides a theory-based guide for researchers and practitioners who are interested in using cultural targeting and tailoring to develop and test decision aids that move beyond a "one-size fits all" approach and thereby, improve SDM in our multicultural world. PMID:24606791

Alden, Dana L; Friend, John; Schapira, Marilyn; Stiggelbout, Anne

2014-03-01

180

MAINE AQUIFERS  

EPA Science Inventory

AQFRS24 contains polygons of significant aquifers in Maine (glacial deposits that are a significant ground water resource) mapped at a scale 1:24,000. This statewide coverage was derived from aquifer boundaries delineated and digitized by the Maine Geological Survey from data com...

181

Simple theoretical framework for a systematic molecular dynamics study of the interfacial properties of oil\\/water systems in the presence of surfactant molecules  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a simple theoretical methodology for a systematic molecular dynamics study of the interfacial properties of oil\\/water\\/surfactant systems. This formalism is based on the appropriate definition and classification of the different energy terms which contribute to the free energy of the ternary system, and thus, to the chemical potentials of the surfactants in oil, water, and at the

German Urbina-Villalba; Isaac Reif

1996-01-01

182

Comment on "A theoretical framework for quantitatively characterizing sound field diffusion based on scattering coefficient and absorption coefficient of walls" [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 128, 1140-1148 (2010)] (L).  

PubMed

The relationship between the acoustic scattering characteristics of materials and the degree of diffusion in enclosed acoustic spaces has recently attracted considerable research attention. Hanyu [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 128(3), 1140-1148 (2010)] introduced a theoretical framework, in which the diffusion time in an enclosure is expressed as a function of a material's average scattering coefficient. In this letter, a modification of this theory is proposed. The decay process of the sound energy through scattering is divided into discrete sub-processes, specifically, a purely scattering process, and alternating scattering and specular reflections. The behavior of each process is examined for different scattering coefficients. PMID:23297877

Omoto, Akira

2013-01-01

183

Theoretical Explanation for Success of Deep-Level-Learning Study Tours  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Study tours can help internationalize curricula and prepare students for global workplaces. We examine benefits of tours providing deep-level learning experiences rather than industrial tourism using five main theoretical frameworks to highlight the diverse learning benefits associated with intensive study tours in particular. Relevant theoretical

Bergsteiner, Harald; Avery, Gayle C.

2008-01-01

184

An Assessment of Agency Theory as a Framework for the Government-University Relationship  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this paper is to use agency theory as the theoretical framework for an examination of the government-university relationship and to assess the main strengths and weaknesses of the theory in this context. Because of its logically consistent framework, agency theory is able to manifest many of the complexities and difficulties that…

Kivisto, Jussi

2008-01-01

185

Dynamics of Occupational and Educational Status Projections: A Theoretical Perspective.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this paper is to develop a theoretical framework to describe and account for dynamic properties of status projection phenomena. The effort is limited in the main to consideration of occupational and educational status projections, and emphasis is given to the particular characteristics and attributes of the rural social milieu…

Kuvlesky, William P.

186

Using a Theoretical Framework to Investigate Whether the HIV/AIDS Information Needs of the AfroAIDSinfo Web Portal Members Are Met: A South African eHealth Study  

PubMed Central

eHealth has been identified as a useful approach to disseminate HIV/AIDS information. Together with Consumer Health Informatics (CHI), the Web-to-Public Knowledge Transfer Model (WPKTM) has been applied as a theoretical framework to identify consumer needs for AfroAIDSinfo, a South African Web portal. As part of the CHI practice, regular eSurveys are conducted to determine whether these needs are changing and are continually being met. eSurveys show high rates of satisfaction with the content as well as the modes of delivery. The nature of information is thought of as reliable to reuse; both for education and for referencing of information. Using CHI and the WPKTM as a theoretical framework, it ensures that needs of consumers are being met and that they find the tailored methods of presenting the information agreeable. Combining ICTs and theories in eHealth interventions, this approach can be expanded to deliver information in other sectors of public health.

Van Zyl, Hendra; Kotze, Marike; Laubscher, Ria

2014-01-01

187

Details for Manuscript Number SSM-D-07-01631R1 "HIV-Related Stigma: Adapting a Theoretical Framework for Use in India"  

PubMed Central

Stigma complicates the treatment of HIV worldwide. We examined whether a multi-component framework, initially consisting of enacted, felt normative, and internalized forms of individual stigma experiences, could be used to understand HIV-related stigma in Southern India. In Study 1, qualitative interviews with a convenience sample of 16 people living with HIV revealed instances of all three types of stigma. Experiences of discrimination (enacted stigma) were reported relatively infrequently. Rather, perceptions of high levels of stigma (felt normative stigma) motivated people to avoid disclosing their HIV status. These perceptions often were shaped by stories of discrimination against others HIV-infected individuals, which we adapted as an additional component of our framework (vicarious stigma). Participants also varied in their acceptance of HIV stigma as legitimate (internalized stigma). In Study 2, newly-developed measures of the stigma components were administered in a survey to 229 people living with HIV. Findings suggested that enacted and vicarious stigma influenced felt normative stigma; that enacted, felt normative, and internalized stigma were associated with higher levels of depression; and that the associations of depression with felt normative and internalized forms of stigma were mediated by the use of coping strategies designed to avoid disclosure of one's HIV serostatus.

Herek, Gregory M; Ramakrishna, Jayashree; Bharat, Shalini; Chandy, Sara; Wrubel, Judith; Ekstrand, Maria L

2008-01-01

188

MAINE HYDROGRAPHY  

EPA Science Inventory

Hydronet_me24 and Hydropoly_me24 depict Maine's hydrography data, based on 8-digit hydrological unit codes (HUC's) at the 1:24,000 scale. Some New Hampshire and New Brunswick hydrography data are also included. The NHD hydrography data was compiled from previous ArcIn...

189

MAINE WOODLOTS  

EPA Science Inventory

MEOWN250 describes industrial, non-industrial, and public woodlot ownership in Maine at 1:250,000 scale. Industrial owners are those having at least one primary wood processing facility. Non-industrial owners are those with no primary wood processing facility. Public ownership...

190

Maine Ingredients  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article features Maine Learning Technology Initiative (MLTI), the nation's first-ever statewide 1-to-1 laptop program which marks its seventh birthday by expanding into high schools, providing an occasion to celebrate--and to examine the components of its success. The plan to put laptops into the hands of every teacher and student in grades 7…

Waters, John K.

2009-01-01

191

High-temperature experimental and theoretical study of magnetic interactions in diamond and pseudo-diamond frameworks built up from hexanuclear tantalum clusters.  

PubMed

Magnetic interactions in solid-state tantalum cluster compounds have been evidenced by using magnetic susceptibility measurements and corroborated by broken-symmetry DFT calculations. The three selected compounds are based on [Ta(6)X(12)(H(2)O)(6)](3+) (X=Cl or/and Br) units with edge-bridged Ta(6) octahedral clusters. Although two of them crystallise in the tetragonal space group I4(1)/a, all compounds exhibit a similar arrangement of paramagnetic clusters related to the diamond structural framework (Fd ?3m space group). Magnetic parameters were fitted by using the [5,4] Padé approximant of high-temperature series expansion of susceptibility for the Heisenberg model (S=1/2) in the diamond framework, assuming only nearest-neighbouring interactions. Such a model appropriately describes magnetic-susceptibility measurements at temperatures T>0.7|J|/k. The magnetic interaction parameter J between two [Ta(6)Cl(12)(H(2)O)(6)](3+) clusters is estimated to be -64.28(7) cm(-1) ; it has been enhanced by replacing several chlorine inner ligands with bromine ones (J=-123(3) cm(-1) for two [Ta(6)Br(7.7(1))Cl(4.3(1))(H(2)O)(6)](3+) clusters) and is strongest between two bromine [Ta(6)Br(12)(H(2)O)(6)](3+) clusters with a value of -155(1) cm(-1) . Broken-symmetry DFT calculations within spin-dimer analysis confirmed this trend. Those interactions can be explained on the basis of the overlap between singly occupied a(2u) orbitals localised on neighbouring clusters. PMID:21500289

Peri?, Berislav; Cordier, Stéphane; Cuny, Jérôme; Gautier, Régis; Guizouarn, Thierry; Planini?, Pavica

2011-05-23

192

[Transcultural discussion in bioethics drawn from research experience in China: building up a theoretical and methodological framework for further research cooperation].  

PubMed

My article discusses bioethics in transcultural context and builds on an experience of conducting research in China in partnership with Chinese scholars and institutions. Key points are about the creation of ethical committees and their prerogatives, the regulation of experimenting in human and animal, and of donating and transplanting organs. Ethical issues are approached according to an anthropological reading. Three transversal lines for further research are suggested: global/local ethical governance applied to research ethics; implications of transnationalizing and delocalizing research practices with regards to governance; theoretical positioning--conceptual pluralism versus pragmatic pluralism--following actual confrontation to transcultural variations in research ethics. Moreover, this work claims for conceptualizing and implementing an ethics in context while assessing intangible (non-relative) principles based on knowledge production and a global patrimony. PMID:22924196

Micollier, Evelyne

2012-06-01

193

A theoretical framework to distinguish direct and indirect anthropogenic perturbations of the terrestrial carbon cycle; and its implications in the definition of "emissions from land-use change"  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a theoretical analysis of the net land-to-atmosphere CO2 flux, so as to discuss possible definitions of "emissions from land-use change" at global scale. Our work is based on the fact that the terrestrial carbon cycle is affected by two anthropogenic perturbations. The first is the perturbation of the global Carbon-Climate-Nitrogen (CCN) system as observed with elevated CO2, climate change and increased nitrogen deposition; it impacts the intensive parameters of the terrestrial biosphere. The second is the Land-Use and Land-Use Change (LUC) perturbation induced by human activities; impacting the extensive parameters of the biosphere. Previous global carbon budgets tried to separate these two perturbations by defining two CO2 fluxes: the emissions from land-use change (LUC perturbation) and the land sink (CCN perturbation). Here, through successive mathematical demonstrations, we isolate four (not two) generic components of the net land-to-atmosphere CO2 flux. The two first components are the fluxes that would be observed if only one perturbation occurred. The two other components are due to the coupling of the CCN and LUC perturbations, highlighting the non-linear behavior of the terrestrial carbon cycle. Thanks to this, we introduce three possible definitions of "emissions from land-use change", that are indeed used in the scientific literature (often without clear distinctions), and we draw conclusions as for their absolute and relative behaviors. Finally, we illustrate our theoretical results thanks to two models: a simple carbon-climate model using a book-keeping module to estimate emissions from land-use change (named OSCAR), and the spatialized land-surface model ORCHIDEE. Our preliminary results show that comparing results from studies that do not use the same definition can lead to a bias of up to 20% between estimates of "emissions from land-use change". This makes our study of major interest to reconcile modeling and observation of "emissions from land-use change", and ultimately to distinguish direct and indirect effects of anthropogenic activities.

Gasser, Thomas; Ciais, Philippe; Viovy, Nicolas

2013-04-01

194

A Framework to Implement Cross-Cultural Pedagogy: The Case of Implementing Learning Reform at Confucian Heritage Culture Colleges  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article proposes an applied theoretical framework that could assist education reformers in Confucian heritage culture (CHC) countries to adopt Western-developed learning practices successfully. This framework is needed because the literature has recently documented a large number of failures in educational reforms at CHC colleges. The main

Thanh, Pham Thi Hong

2012-01-01

195

Main Report  

PubMed Central

Background: States vary widely in their use of newborn screening tests, with some mandating screening for as few as three conditions and others mandating as many as 43 conditions, including varying numbers of the 40+ conditions that can be detected by tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). There has been no national guidance on the best candidate conditions for newborn screening since the National Academy of Sciences report of 19751 and the United States Congress Office of Technology Assessment report of 1988,2 despite rapid developments since then in genetics, in screening technologies, and in some treatments. Objectives: In 2002, the Maternal and Child Health Bureau (MCHB) of the Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) of the United States Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) commissioned the American College of Medical Genetics (ACMG) to: Conduct an analysis of the scientific literature on the effectiveness of newborn screening.Gather expert opinion to delineate the best evidence for screening for specified conditions and develop recommendations focused on newborn screening, including but not limited to the development of a uniform condition panel.Consider other components of the newborn screening system that are critical to achieving the expected outcomes in those screened. Methods: A group of experts in various areas of subspecialty medicine and primary care, health policy, law, public health, and consumers worked with a steering committee and several expert work groups, using a two-tiered approach to assess and rank conditions. A first step was developing a set of principles to guide the analysis. This was followed by developing criteria by which conditions could be evaluated, and then identifying the conditions to be evaluated. A large and broadly representative group of experts was asked to provide their opinions on the extent to which particular conditions met the selected criteria, relying on supporting evidence and references from the scientific literature. The criteria were distributed among three main categories for each condition: The availability and characteristics of the screening test;The availability and complexity of diagnostic services; andThe availability and efficacy of treatments related to the conditions. A survey process utilizing a data collection instrument was used to gather expert opinion on the conditions in the first tier of the assessment. The data collection format and survey provided the opportunity to quantify expert opinion and to obtain the views of a diverse set of interest groups (necessary due to the subjective nature of some of the criteria). Statistical analysis of data produced a score for each condition, which determined its ranking and initial placement in one of three categories (high scoring, moderately scoring, or low scoring/absence of a newborn screening test). In the second tier of these analyses, the evidence base related to each condition was assessed in depth (e.g., via systematic reviews of reference lists including MedLine, PubMed and others; books; Internet searches; professional guidelines; clinical evidence; and cost/economic evidence and modeling). The fact sheets reflecting these analyses were evaluated by at least two acknowledged experts for each condition. These experts assessed the data and the associated references related to each criterion and provided corrections where appropriate, assigned a value to the level of evidence and the quality of the studies that established the evidence base, and determined whether there were significant variances from the survey data. Survey results were subsequently realigned with the evidence obtained from the scientific literature during the second-tier analysis for all objective criteria, based on input from at least three acknowledged experts in each condition. The information from these two tiers of assessment was then considered with regard to the overriding principles and other technology or condition-specific recommendations. On the basis of this information, conditions were assigned to one of thr

2006-01-01

196

A novel aluminoborate open-framework [In(dien)2][Al2B7O16H2] with large chiral cavities templated by chiral main group metal complexes.  

PubMed

A novel aluminoborate open-framework [In(dien)2][Al2B7O16H2] (1, dien = diethylenetriamine) with large chiral cavities has been constructed under solvothermal conditions, in which AlO4 and chainlike B4O8 units are alternately linked to form a network with 20-membered ring windows and then further joined by XO4 (X = 0.5 Al + 0.5 B) units to give a three-dimensional framework. PMID:24244943

Cheng, Lin; Yang, Guo-Yu

2014-01-11

197

Porous silicon: theoretical studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Porous silicon has attracted considerable scientific interest ever since the recent discovery of visible photoluminescence. We present a review of the theoretical work done on this material. We describe the classical theories and computer simulations of the growth of this brittle, spongy structure. The electronic structure calculations based on first principles local density approximation as well as semi-empirical methodologies are outlined. Phenomenological models for photoluminescence, its broad lineshape, decay and temperature dependence and excitonic effects on optical behavior are reviewed. Rudimentary theories of electroluminescence, transport and quantum efficiency are also described. A unified, consistent theoretical framework appears to be a distant goal. Broad suggestions for further theoretical work are outlined.

John, George C.; Singh, Vijay A.

1995-12-01

198

Framework for Supporting Web-Based Collaborative Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The article proposes an intelligent framework for supporting Web-based applications. The framework focuses on innovative use of existing resources and technologies in the form of services and takes the leverage of theoretical foundation of services science and the research from services computing. The main focus of the framework is to deliver benefits to users with various roles such as service requesters, service providers, and business owners to maximize their productivity when engaging with each other via the Web. The article opens up with research motivations and questions, analyses the existing state of research in the field, and describes the approach in implementing the proposed framework. Finally, an e-health application is discussed to evaluate the effectiveness of the framework where participants such as general practitioners (GPs), patients, and health-care workers collaborate via the Web.

Dai, Wei

199

Canadian Language Benchmarks 2000: Theoretical Framework.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document provides indepth study and support of the "Canadian Language Benchmarks 2000" (CLB 2000). In order to make the CLB 2000 usable, the competencies and standards were considerably compressed and simplified, and much of the indepth discussion of language ability or proficiency was omitted, at publication. This document includes: (1)…

Pawlikowska-Smith, Grazyna

200

Interpersonal Relations: A Choice-Theoretic Framework.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The microeconomic theory relating to utility and cost is applied to the "risk," and the possible "payoff" relative to relationships with others. A good measure of utility is the need or want-satisfying power of an alternative. For the analysis of interpersonal relationships, the needs delineated by Maslow (i.e. food, shelter, belongingness, love,…

Couvillion, L. Michael; Eckstein, Daniel G.

201

[Marketing in veterinary practice; a theoretical framework].  

PubMed

An increase in the number of veterinarians, while at the same time the number of animals has remained constant, has resulted in growing competition. By extending the range of products and by enlarging the veterinarians' scope of activities this competition can be decreased. A marketing-orientation will be helpful in this respect. This article indicates in which way marketing concepts can be used in a veterinary practice. The services of the veterinarian will be looked at by means of the Abell approach. This focuses on the functions performed by the services and examines, per function performed, for whom this might be interesting and which alternatives there might be. Next the concept of market segmentation is filled in for a veterinary practice by means of a hypothetical example. The marketing mix (product, place, price, promotion and personnel) is given considerable attention. The last element of marketing in a veterinary practice that is discussed here is the marketing information system. In a next article the question will be answered how marketing-directed the Dutch veterinarian works nowadays. To find this out research has been done; 166 vets were interviewed by telephone for approximately 40 minutes each. PMID:2321238

Schuurmans, A J; Smidts, A

1990-03-15

202

A theoretical framework for land evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Land evaluation is the process of predicting the use potential of land on the basis of its attributes. A variety of analytical models can be used in these predictions, ranging from qualitative to quantitative, functional to mechanistic, and specific to general. This paper classifies land evaluation models by how they take time and space into account, and whether they use

David G. Rossiter; J. Bouma; P. A. Burrough; J. J. de Gruijter; E. Van Ranst; A. K. L. Johnson; A. B. McBratney

1996-01-01

203

New Theoretical Frameworks for Machine Learning.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This thesis has two primary thrusts. The first is developing new models and algorithms for important modern and classic learning problems. The second is establishing new connections between Machine Learning and Algorithmic Game Theory. The formulation of ...

M. Balcan

2008-01-01

204

Theoretical Frameworks to Guide School Improvement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A firm grounding in change theory can provide educational leaders with an opportunity to orchestrate meaningful organizational improvements. This article provides an opportunity for practicing leaders to review four major theories of organizational change--continuous improvement, two approaches to organizational learning, and appreciative inquiry.…

Evans, Lisa; Thornton, Bill; Usinger, Janet

2012-01-01

205

Ecological interface design: theoretical foundations  

Microsoft Academic Search

A theoretical framework for designing interfaces for complex human-machine systems is proposed. The framework, called ecological interface design (EID), is based on the skills, rules, and knowledge taxonomy of cognitive control. The basic goals of EID are not to force processing to a higher level than the demands of the task require, and to support each of the three levels

Kim J. Vicente; Jens Rasmussen

1992-01-01

206

Information-Theoretic Image Formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The emergent role of information theory in image formation is surveyed. Unlike the subject of information-theoretic communication theory, information-theoretic imaging is far from a mature subject. The possible role of information theory in prob- lems of image formation is to provide a rigorous framework for defining the imaging problem, for defining measures of optimality used to form estimates of images,

Joseph A. O'sullivan; Richard E. Blahut; Donald L. Snyder

1998-01-01

207

The ASA Framework as Rhetoric  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ben Schneider's ASA framework and the associated idea of homogeneity is a theoretical cornerstone on which most organisational person-environment (PE) fit studies are built. However, whilst it is commonly used to justify studies and to explain empirical findings, very few PE fit studies have moved the underlying ASA framework forward. More than 20 years on, the theory remains intact and

Patrick Nelson; Jon Billsberry

208

Monotone Data Flow Analysis Frameworks  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider a generalization of Kildall's lattice theoretic approach to data flow analysis, which we call monotone data flow analysis frameworks. Many flow analysis problems which appear in practice meet the monotonicity condition but not Kildall's condition called distributivity. We show that the maximal fixed point solution exists for every instance of every monotone framework, and that it can be

John B. Kam; Jeffrey D. Ullman

1977-01-01

209

A Monte-Carlo step-by-step simulation code of the non-homogeneous chemistry of the radiolysis of water and aqueous solutions. Part I: theoretical framework and implementation.  

PubMed

The importance of the radiolysis of water in irradiation of biological systems has motivated considerable theoretical and experimental work in the radiation chemistry of water and aqueous solutions. In particular, Monte-Carlo simulations of radiation track structure and non-homogeneous chemistry have greatly contributed to the understanding of experimental results in radiation chemistry of heavy ions. Actually, most simulations of the non-homogeneous chemistry are done using the Independent Reaction Time (IRT) method, a very fast technique. The main limitation of the IRT method is that the positions of the radiolytic species are not calculated as a function of time, which is needed to simulate the irradiation of more complex systems. Step-by-step (SBS) methods, which are able to provide such information, have been used only sparsely because these are time consuming in terms of calculation. Recent improvements in computer performance now allow the regular use of the SBS method in radiation chemistry. In the present paper, the first of a series of two, the SBS method is reviewed in detail. To these ends, simulation of diffusion of particles and chemical reactions in aqueous solutions is reviewed, and implementation of the program is discussed. Simulation of model systems is then performed to validate the adequacy of stepwise diffusion and reaction schemes. In the second paper, radiochemical yields of simulated radiation tracks calculated by the SBS program in different conditions of LET, pH, and temperature are compared with results from the IRT program and experimental data. PMID:21562854

Plante, Ianik

2011-08-01

210

[Restoring the complexity of reality in theoretical health promotion approaches through incorporating the identity of the subject].  

PubMed

The theoretical frameworks presently dominating health promotion practices mainly focus on the individual's psychosocial and cognitive components. When focusing on environments, these frameworks barely relate contextual elements to the individuals who give them a real existence. Because of the disjunction and reduction they create, the main theoretical readings only partially recognize the complexity of social life and therefore lose the Subject. Lacking theoretical reliance, these readings fail to meet the Ottawa Charter principles. Based on critical analysis of the main theoretical frameworks, we discuss the influence of disciplinary backgrounds on our modes of knowledge, tackling how epidemiological and behavioral thinking affect how we understand, conceive and problematize the objects in these fields. Based on this analysis, we illustrate how these epistemologies oversimplify social realities related to health. In order to encounter the lost subject of health promotion and thereby achieve Ottawa Charter's principles, we propose an innovative theoretical approach based on Schütz' socio-phenomenological thinking and Morin's complexity paradigm. Our theoretical proposal aims to recognize and reconcile significant aspects of individuals' meaningful life experiences, while integrating common sense principles. By transiting through the subject's identity, this theoretical proposal tends to unify all meaningful aspects that subtend social life at the subject's scale. PMID:24893512

Desgroseilliers, Valérie; Vonarx, Nicolas

2014-01-01

211

Integration and collaboration in public health--a conceptual framework.  

PubMed

With the increasing differentiation of organisations involved in the pursuit of public health, there is also a growing need for inter-organisational integration. Starting from the concepts of differentiation and integration, this article is attempting a theoretical reconstruction based on published research on inter-organisational integration in public health and related welfare services. Different forms of integration are defined and related to each other in a conceptual framework, which is in itself an integration of different theoretical perspectives. According to this framework, integration in the field of public health requires inter-organisational collaboration across different sectors of the society. Such intersectoral collaboration can be organised mainly in the form of multidisciplinary teams across the boundaries of different organisations and sectors. Such an organisation is fragile and volatile, however, which means that it needs a lot of management support in order to survive. PMID:16604850

Axelsson, Runo; Axelsson, Susanna Bihari

2006-01-01

212

Intelligent agent based framework for manufacturing systems control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Existing modeling frameworks for manufacturing system control can be classified into hierarchical, heterarchical, and hybrid control frameworks. The main drawbacks of existing frameworks are discussed in this paper. A new hybrid modeling framework is also described. It is a hybrid of the two: hierarchical and heterarchical frameworks. In this proposed framework, entities (e.g., parts) and resources (e.g., material handling devices,

Sunderesh S. Heragu; Robert J. Graves; Byung-in Kim; Art St. Onge

2002-01-01

213

Institute for Theoretical Physics  

SciTech Connect

String theory is the only serious candidate for a unified description of all known fundamental particles and interactions, including gravity, in a single theoretical framework. Over the past two years, activity in this subject has grown rapidly, thanks to dramatic advances in understanding the dynamics of supersymmetric field theories and string theories. The cornerstone of these new developments is the discovery of duality which relates apparently different string theories and transforms difficult strongly coupled problems of one theory into weakly coupled problems of another theory.

Giddings, S.B.; Ooguri, H.; Peet, A.W.; Schwarz, J.H.

1998-06-01

214

Theoretical Issues  

SciTech Connect

The theoretical issues in the interpretation of the precision measurements of the nucleon-to-Delta transition by means of electromagnetic probes are highlighted. The results of these measurements are confronted with the state-of-the-art calculations based on chiral effective-field theories (EFT), lattice QCD, large-Nc relations, perturbative QCD, and QCD-inspired models. The link of the nucleon-to-Delta form factors to generalized parton distributions (GPDs) is also discussed.

Marc Vanderhaeghen

2007-04-01

215

Strategies Comparison for Game Theoretic Cyber Situational Awareness and Impact Assessment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper compares different defense strategies against various attacks utilizing a dynamic game theoretic data fusion framework for cyber network defense. In our game theoretic framework, Alerts generated by Intrusion Detection Sensors (IDSs) or Intrusi...

D. Shen E. Blasch G. Chen L. Haynes

2007-01-01

216

Conceptual Frameworks in Information Behavior.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews advancements in the development of conceptual frameworks for studying information behavior. Concludes that a unifying theoretical body is emerging that, beyond its user-centered core, emphasizes the contextual interplay of cognitive, social, cultural, organizational, affective, and linguistic factors and asserts that information behavior…

Pettigrew, Karen E.; Fidel, Raya; Bruce, Harry

2001-01-01

217

Main pulmonary artery aneurysm.  

PubMed

Alterations of main pulmonary artery have been described in literature. Main pulmonary artery aneurysm is very rare with few available published data. We present a case of echocardiographic finding of a main pulmonary artery aneurysm in a 78-year-old Italian woman. PMID:19631397

Patanè, Salvatore; Marte, Filippo; Dattilo, Giuseppe; Sturiale, Mauro

2011-10-20

218

The Fabled Maine Winter  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

No study of Maine weather would be complete without analysis of the year of 1816 - the year with no summer in an area from western Pennsylvania and New York, up through Quebec and across to Maine and the Canadian maritimes. In this five-unit lesson, students will investigate the causes and effects of the Fabled Maine Winter by exploring a variety of data sources. They will locate, graph, and analyze meteorological and climatological data for Portland, Maine, for more recent years to try to find one that most closely resembles the fabled Maine winter of 1816.

219

Similarity for Ontologies - A Comprehensive Framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present a comprehensive framework for measuring similarity within and between ontologies as a basis for the collaboration across various application fields. In order to define such a framework, we base our work on an abstract ontology model that allows to adhere to various existing and evolv- ing ontology standards. The main characteristics of the framework is

Marc Ehrig; Peter Haase; Mark Hefke; Nenad Stojanovic

2005-01-01

220

Sulawesi: A Wearable Application Integration Framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes Sulawesi, a framework for developing applications for wearable computing that are capable of multi-modal interaction with the user. The design principles of the framework are described along with its main features, and some example applications that exploit the capabilities of the framework are outlined

Neill J. Newman; Adrian F. Clark

1999-01-01

221

Toward an Interdisciplinary Framework for Educational Inclusivity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This purpose of this paper is to provide a theoretical foundation for inclusion in Canadian schools for this Special Issue on Inclusive Education. In response to the need for an interdisciplinary framework, this paper uses an interpretive literature review methodology to construct a framework for educational inclusivity based on four disciplinary…

DeLuca, Christopher

2013-01-01

222

An Evaluation Use Framework and Empirical Assessment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Research on evaluation use focuses on putting evaluation recommendations into practice. Prior theoretical research proposes varied frameworks for understanding the use (or lack) of program evaluation results. Purpose: Our purpose is to create and test a single, integrated framework for understanding evaluation use. This article relies…

Peck, Laura R.; Gorzalski, Lindsey M.

2009-01-01

223

Cu-Pd-Cu and Cu-Pt-Cu linear frameworks: synthesis, magnetic properties, and theoretical analysis of two mixed-metal complexes of dipyridylamide (dpa), isostructural, and isoelectronic with [Cu3(dpa)4Cl2]+.  

PubMed

The synthesis and crystal structure of two heteronuclear compounds stabilized by four dipyridylamide (dpa) ligands is reported. Cu2Pd(dpa)4Cl2 (1) and Cu2Pt(dpa)4Cl2 (2) exhibit an approximate D4 symmetry and a linear metal framework. They are structurally similar to the homotrinuclear complexes M3(dpa)4L2 already characterized with various transition metals (M=Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Rh, Ru). With 26 metal valence electrons, they are also isoelectronic to the oxidized form of the tricopper complex [Cu3(dpa)4Cl2]+ (3), previously characterized and investigated by Berry et al.10 The magnetic properties and the EPR spectra of 1 and 2 are reported. The results for 1 are interpreted in terms of a weak antiferromagnetic interaction (2J=-7.45 cm(-1) within the framework of the Heisenberg Hamiltonian H=-2JAB ?A?B) between the Cu(II) magnetic centers. For 2, the antiferromagnetic interaction sharply decreases to <1 cm(-1). These properties are at variance with those of (3), for which a relatively strong antiferromagnetic interaction (2J=-34 cm(-1)) had been reported. DFT/UB3LYP calculations reproduce the decrease of the magnetic interaction from 3 to 1 and assign it to the role of the nonmagnetic metal in the transference of the superexchange coupling. However, the vanishing of the magnetic interaction in 2 could not be reproduced at this level of theory and is tentatively assigned to spin-orbit coupling. PMID:17929801

Liu, Isiah Po-Chun; Lee, Gene-Hsiang; Peng, Shie-Ming; Bénard, Marc; Rohmer, Marie-Madeleine

2007-11-12

224

Scaling Up Decision Theoretic Planning to Planetary Rover Problems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Because of communication limits, planetary rovers must operate autonomously during consequent durations. The ability to plan under uncertainty is one of the main components of autonomy. Previous approaches to planning under uncertainty in NASA applications are not able to address the challenges of future missions, because of several apparent limits. On another side, decision theory provides a solid principle framework for reasoning about uncertainty and rewards. Unfortunately, there are several obstacles to a direct application of decision-theoretic techniques to the rover domain. This paper focuses on the issues of structure and concurrency, and continuous state variables. We describes two techniques currently under development that address specifically these issues and allow scaling-up decision theoretic solution techniques to planetary rover planning problems involving a small number of goals.

Meuleau, Nicolas; Dearden, Richard; Washington, Rich

2004-01-01

225

Space Transportation Main Engine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: Space Transportation Main Engine (STME) definition, design philosophy, robust design, maximum design condition, casting vs. machined and welded forgings, operability considerations, high reliability design philosophy, engine reliability enhancement, low cost design philosophy, engine systems requirements, STME schematic, fuel turbopump, liquid oxygen turbopump, main injector, and gas generator. The major engine components of the STME and the Space Shuttle Main Engine are compared.

Monk, Jan C.

1992-07-01

226

Healthy public policy A conceptual cognitive framework.  

PubMed

More than three decades ago, the report A New Perspective on the Health of Canadians (1974) highlighted the significance of other determinants than the healthcare system. The adoption of healthy public policy was identified in the Ottawa Charter (1986) as one of five strategies aiming to promote health. It must now be acknowledged that even if we have a better understanding of health determinants, the latter are not necessarily taken into consideration when developing public policies. The purpose of this paper is to help foster a better understanding of the healthy public policies by presenting a conceptual framework that is inspired by the Advocacy Coalition Framework developed by Sabatier and Jenkins-Smith (1999). On the one hand, this paper intends to show the relevance of the notion of subsystem of public policies in healthy public policy process. On the other, it aims to convince that it is necessary to channel the analysis around the decision-making process, the prospective evaluation of public policies and the knowledge transfer and appropriation process. Finally, the purpose of this paper is to contribute to the ongoing debate about the role of knowledge, values or beliefs in the formulation and adoption of public policies. After briefly summarizing the theoretical developments in studies on public policies, the logic and components of the ACF are introduced. The main criticisms regarding the ACF are then examined, followed by an introduction of the conceptual framework that is adapted to the reality of healthy public policies. The notions of the subsystem of public policy(ies), of process and of learning process are central to this framework. PMID:16793169

Gagnon, France; Turgeon, Jean; Dallaire, Clémence

2007-04-01

227

MAINE MARINE WORM HABITAT  

EPA Science Inventory

WORM provides a generalized representation at 1:24,000 scale of commercially harvested marine worm habitat in Maine, based on Maine Department of Marine Resources data from 1970's. Original maps were created by MDMR and published by USF&WS as part of the ""&quo...

228

The Maine Event  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author describes the successful laptop program employed at Mt. Abram High School in Strong, Maine. Through the Maine Learning Technology Initiative, the school has issued laptops to all 36,000 teachers and students in grades 7-8. This program has helped level the playing field for a student population that is 50 percent to 55…

McHale, Tom

2007-01-01

229

Theoretical interpretation of GRB060614  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

GRB060614 is examined within our theoretical framework. This burst displays unusually an hard-multipeaked emission followed by an extended soft one. The most interesting peculiarity of this source is that, although it lasts about one hundred seconds and its redshift is very low (0.125), there is no evidence of an associated supernova explosion. In collaboration with Maria Grazia Bernardini, Letizia Caito, Maria Giovanna Dainotti, Roberto Guida, and Remo Ruffini, ICRANet and Dipartimento di Fisica - Universitàdi Roma ``La Sapienza''.

Bianco, Carlo Luciano

2007-04-01

230

Maine Folklife Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Located at the University of Maine, the Maine Folklife Center is committed to documenting and understanding the folklore, folklife, and history of Maine and Atlantic Canada. Along with its various scholarly activities, the Center sponsors a number of festivals, lectures, and like-minded programs that encourage appreciation of the diverse cultural traditions within the region. The site will be useful to researchers with a penchant in these fields, as it contains information about the collections, including a rather extensive oral history collection (with work that documenting the cranberry culture of Massachusetts and the traditional music of Maine). There is also material on the public programs and exhibits sponsored by the center, and a set of external links that lead to other sites dealing with oral history, folklore, and Maine. While the Center's site does not have a great deal of online material for consideration, the center has transcribed the sixth volume of Northeast Folklore (originally published in 1964) and placed them online.

231

Main Street Project.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Several years ago the National Trust for Historic Preservation developed the Main Street Program to assist small, primarily rural, communities to revitalize their downtown economic bases. The program has four major components: organization, promotion, des...

1987-01-01

232

The Maine Music Box  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created through a collaboration between the University of Maine's Fogler Library and other Maine libraries, The Maine Music Box contains hundreds of digitized sheet music scores from five major collections. First-time visitors to the site will want to click on the "About Maine Music Box" project as a way of getting started. Here they can check out the "User Information" area, which contains helpful tips on viewing the music and how to best browse the entire database. Additionally, those with a penchant for technical details and information science in general can also learn in copious detail how the database was created for this project. From there, visitors can move straight away into the main collection. Visitors can browse the collection by music subject, sheet music cover art, or just type in their own keywords. One of the best ways to look over the collection is to browse around in such areas as "Instructional Violin", "Maine Collection" and "Parlor Salon Collection". It's also worth remarking that this site may inspire a sing-a-long, a campfire get-together, or a miniature Chautauqua.

233

Disseminating research findings: what should researchers do? A systematic scoping review of conceptual frameworks  

PubMed Central

Background Addressing deficiencies in the dissemination and transfer of research-based knowledge into routine clinical practice is high on the policy agenda both in the UK and internationally. However, there is lack of clarity between funding agencies as to what represents dissemination. Moreover, the expectations and guidance provided to researchers vary from one agency to another. Against this background, we performed a systematic scoping to identify and describe any conceptual/organising frameworks that could be used by researchers to guide their dissemination activity. Methods We searched twelve electronic databases (including MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and PsycINFO), the reference lists of included studies and of individual funding agency websites to identify potential studies for inclusion. To be included, papers had to present an explicit framework or plan either designed for use by researchers or that could be used to guide dissemination activity. Papers which mentioned dissemination (but did not provide any detail) in the context of a wider knowledge translation framework, were excluded. References were screened independently by at least two reviewers; disagreements were resolved by discussion. For each included paper, the source, the date of publication, a description of the main elements of the framework, and whether there was any implicit/explicit reference to theory were extracted. A narrative synthesis was undertaken. Results Thirty-three frameworks met our inclusion criteria, 20 of which were designed to be used by researchers to guide their dissemination activities. Twenty-eight included frameworks were underpinned at least in part by one or more of three different theoretical approaches, namely persuasive communication, diffusion of innovations theory, and social marketing. Conclusions There are currently a number of theoretically-informed frameworks available to researchers that can be used to help guide their dissemination planning and activity. Given the current emphasis on enhancing the uptake of knowledge about the effects of interventions into routine practice, funders could consider encouraging researchers to adopt a theoretically-informed approach to their research dissemination.

2010-01-01

234

Main sequence mass loss  

SciTech Connect

It has been hypothesized that variable stars may experience mass loss, driven, at least in part, by oscillations. The class of stars we are discussing here are the delta Scuti variables. These are variable stars with masses between about 1.2 and 2.25 M/sub theta/, lying on or very near the main sequence. According to this theory, high rotation rates enhance the rate of mass loss, so main sequence stars born in this mass range would have a range of mass loss rates, depending on their initial rotation velocity and the amplitude of the oscillations. The stars would evolve rapidly down the main sequence until (at about 1.25 M/sub theta/) a surface convection zone began to form. The presence of this convective region would slow the rotation, perhaps allowing magnetic braking to occur, and thus sharply reduce the mass loss rate. 7 refs.

Brunish, W.M.; Guzik, J.A.; Willson, L.A.; Bowen, G.

1987-01-01

235

Nucleus as an Open System: New Effects and Theoretical Challenges  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As nuclear science moves in the direction of nuclei far from stability, the studies of nuclear structure and nuclear reactions become more and more interrelated. The main theoretical challenge is to find a consistent description of the nucleus as an open mesoscopic system coupled with continuum through real decay channels and through virtual excitations. The method using the effective non-Hermitian Hamiltonian [see review article: N. Auerbach and V. Zelevinsky, Rep. Prog. Phys. 74, 106301 (2011)] is one of the most promising theoretical approaches; it can be strictly derived from quantum many-body theory, it allows for calculating bound states, resonances and reaction cross sections in the unified framework, and it is quite flexible in practical applications. After explaining the main features of this theory, I will show the method at work (continuum shell model with predictions recently confirmed by the experiments with exotic oxygen isotopes, phenomenon of super-radiance, relation to the idea of doorway states, quantum signal transmission through mesoscopic systems) and discuss new theoretical challenges.

Zelevinsky, Vladimir

2012-10-01

236

EMMA Main Ring Lattice.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The author gave a brief introduction to the purpose and goals of the EMMA experiment and describe how they will impact the design of the main EMMA ring. He then describes the mathematical model that is used to describe the EMMA lattice. Finally, The autho...

J. S. Berg

2008-01-01

237

A Gift from Maine.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Artists and writers from Maine were asked to develop creative activities for a sixth-grade class. Students were encouraged to observe nature, investigate their ancestors, design logos, and think about the impossible. Several of the activities that could be adopted to relate to other states are presented. (DF)

Instructor, 1984

1984-01-01

238

COBRA Main Engine Project.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The COBRA (CO-Optimized Booster for Reusable Applications) project include the following: 1. COBRA main engine project team. 2. COBRA and RLX cycles selected. 3. COBRA proto-type engine approach enables mission success. 4. COBRA provides quick, low cost d...

J. Snoddy S. Sides

2002-01-01

239

MAINE SCHOOLS AND LIBRARIES  

EPA Science Inventory

SCHLIB shows point locations of libraries and educational institutions in Maine at 1:24,000 scale. Colleges, universities, technical colleges, high schools, middle schools, elementary schools, kindergarten/sub-primary and other special schools are included. The data was developed...

240

Maine Studies ECRI.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The articles in this booklet address the questions raised by the Maine Learning Consortium in its efforts to look closely at, describe, and assess the use of programs such as the Exemplary Center for Reading Instruction (ECRI). Based on interviews with six teachers, the first article examines student achievement gains through the use of ECRI.…

Maine Mastery Learning Consortium, Gardiner.

241

Decision support models for solid waste management: review and game-theoretic approaches.  

PubMed

This paper surveys decision support models that are commonly used in the solid waste management area. Most models are mainly developed within three decision support frameworks, which are the life-cycle assessment, the cost-benefit analysis and the multi-criteria decision-making. These frameworks are reviewed and their strengths and weaknesses as well as their critical issues are analyzed, while their possible combinations and extensions are also discussed. Furthermore, the paper presents how cooperative and non-cooperative game-theoretic approaches can be used for the purpose of modeling and analyzing decision-making in situations with multiple stakeholders. Specifically, since a waste management model is sustainable when considering not only environmental and economic but also social aspects, the waste management bargaining game is introduced as a specific decision support framework in which future models can be developed. PMID:23462269

Karmperis, Athanasios C; Aravossis, Konstantinos; Tatsiopoulos, Ilias P; Sotirchos, Anastasios

2013-05-01

242

Maine Humanities Council  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Formed as a private nonprofit organization, the Maine Humanities Council (MHC) "promotes strong communities and informed citizens by providing Mainers with opportunities to explore the power and pleasure of ideas." Their work is supported by volunteer board members, and their projects include programs to promote reading and writing, guest lectures around the state, and online newsletters and discussion groups. In the "Programs" area, visitors can learn about these programs, and educators can check out the resources created especially for them. The "Connections" area contains links to their thoughtful blog, their "Humanities on Demand" podcasts, and their periodic newsletter "Synapse", which deals with medicine and literature. The podcasts are quite fun, and they include "Franco-American Women's Words in Maine" and a talk by Professor Dianne Sadoff of Rutgers University on Middlemarch, by George Eliot.

243

Jupiter's Main Ring  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A mosaic of four images taken through the clear filter (610 nanometers) of the solid state imaging (CCD) system aboard NASA's Galileo spacecraft on November 8, 1996, at a resolution of approximately 46 kilometers (km) per picture element (pixel) along the rings; however, because the spacecraft was only about 0.5 degrees above the ring plane, the image is highly foreshortened in the vertical direction. The images were obtained when Galileo was in Jupiter's shadow peering back toward the Sun; the ring was approximately 2,300,000 kilometers (km) away. The arc on the far right of the image is produced by sunlight scattered by small particles comprising Jupiter's upper atmospheric haze. The ring also efficiently scatters light, indicating that much of its brightness is due to particles that are microns or less in diameter. Such small particles are believed to have human-scale lifetimes, i.e., very brief compared to the solar system's age.

Jupiter's ring system is composed of three parts -- a flat main ring, a lenticular halo interior to the main ring, and the gossamer ring, which lies exterior to the main ring. The near and far arms of Jupiter's main ring extend horizontally across the mosaic, joining together at the ring's ansa, on the far left side of the figure. The near arm of the ring appears to be abruptly truncated close to the planet, at the point where it passes into Jupiter's shadow. Some radial structure is barely visible across the ring's ansa. A faint mist of particles can be seen above and below the main rings; this vertically extended 'halo' is unusual in planetary rings, and is probably caused by electromagnetic forces pushing the smallest grains out of the ring plane. Because of shadowing, the halo is not visible close to Jupiter in the lower right part of the mosaic.

Jupiter's main ring is a thin strand of material encircling the planet. The diffuse innermost boundary begins at approximately 123,000 km. The main ring's outer radius is found to be at 128,940 +/-50 km, slightly less than the Voyager value of 129,130 +/-100 km, but very close to the orbit of the satellite Adrastea (128,980 km). The main ring exhibits a marked drop in brightness at 127,849 +/-50 km, lying almost atop the orbit of the Jovian moon Metis at 127,978 km. Satellites seem to affect the structure of even tenuous rings like that found at Jupiter.

The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC.

This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at: http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov. Background information and educational context for the images can be found at: http:/ /www.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo/sepo.

1997-01-01

244

Windows on Maine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created with funds provided by the Institute of Museum and Library Services (IMLS), Windows on Maine contains interesting and informative programs and video clips from Maine Public Broadcasting and other partners. On their homepage, visitors can use their interactive map and timeline to locate video clips of interest, and they can also search the entire collection for specific items. Visitors can also use the subject category menu to look over 25 different headings, including "earth sciences", "land disputes", and "Penobscot tribe". The map feature is a real pip, and visitors can customize their search by location and date, and it's a great way to learn about different regions, including Aroostook County (also known as "the County") and Downeast. Also, many of the videos also have additional resources attached to them, such as railroad timetables, historic photographs, and so on.

245

Energetic Main Idea  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students will learn about different forms of energy and how to find the main idea and key details in informational text. Included with the lesson is an anticipation guide to assess prior knowledge, plus a rubric to score the students' summative assessment. Also present is a list of books to choose from so that teachers can use the books that fit their students best.

Shipley, Amanda

2012-09-16

246

Interactive visualization of design patterns can help in framework understanding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Framework programming is regarded as one the main advantages of object-oriented software engineering, and is expected to increase software reuse. In exploiting frameworks, however, programmers often face difficulties caused by the complexity of the hidden architecture and the multiplicity of the design decisions that are embedded in a framework. Interactive visualization of design patterns occurring in a framework shows how

Danny B. Lange; Yuichi Nakamura

1995-01-01

247

Gulf of Maine Aquarium  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Gulf of Maine Aquarium Web site is an abundant resource on marine ecosystems. From communication strategies of marine mammals to coral reefs in Belize, the site uses descriptive text and vivid photos to explore a variety of topics related to ocean life. With each menu expanding into a number of further selections, the site is a maze of topics that allows users to navigate through a vast amount of information based on their own interests. Several of the sections include some classroom activities to make the site more useful for teachers.

2001-01-01

248

Theoretical approach to regional environmental conflicts  

SciTech Connect

A regional analysis framework was developed to address regional environmental problems. This interdisciplinary framework is based on the utilization of four principal variables: environmental pattern, assets, and human culture as influenced by the externalities. The framework was applied to three heuristic examples: urban energy supplies in the north-eastern United States; resource extraction in the Rocky Mountain region of the US; and cattle herding in East Africa. The illustrated analyses and their results verify the broad utility of the theory underlying this framework. Although more in-depth analyses would be required to solve the real-world problems, our preliminary analyses indicate that the theoretical framework presented here can indeed be useful in approaching the regional environmental problem, analyzing the significant interactions in the system, and describing the regional dynamics among these variables and components. 34 references, 6 figures, 3 tables

Klopatek, J.M.; Krummel, J.R.; Mankin, J.B.; O'Neill, R.V.

1983-01-01

249

Diffusion at the magnetopause: A theoretical perspective.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper discusses theoretical aspects of cross-field wave-particle transport at the magnetopause. The basic framework for calculating the transport based on second order-theory is reviewed. Instabilities that give rise to the waves which then lead to p...

D. Winske V. A. Thomas N. Omidi

1994-01-01

250

A Decision-Theoretic Model of Assistance  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a growing interest in intelligent assis- tants for a variety of applications from organiz- ing tasks for knowledge workers to helping peo- ple with dementia. In this paper, we present and evaluate a decision-theoretic framework that cap- tures the general notion of assistance. The objec- tive is to observe a goal-directed agent and to se- lect assistive actions

Alan Fern; Sriraam Natarajan; Kshitij Judah; Prasad Tadepalli

2007-01-01

251

Sleep debt: Theoretical and empirical issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

The term 'sleep debt' is widely used to describe the effects of sleep loss. The construct of sleep debt, however, is poorly defined in the scientific literature. Cumulative build-up of sleep pressure appears to be a key feature of sleep debt. The concepts of 'core sleep' and 'basal sleep need' have been proposed to provide a theoretical framework, albeit without

Hans PA VAN DONGEN; Naomi L ROGERS; David F DINGES

2003-01-01

252

Student Assessment in Arts Education: Towards a Theoretical Framework.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Student assessment is dependent on the educational views of the teacher. Arts pedagogy in comprehensive schools has several approaches, orientations, and even genres, each in turn having hidden practices of student evaluation. These stem on the one hand from the pedagogical tradition of the field (music, visual arts, drama, craft) and on the other…

Puurula, Arja; Karppinen, Seija

253

A Decision Theoretic Framework for Real-Time Communication  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider a communication system in which the outputs of a Markov source are encoded and decoded in real-time by a finite memory receiver, and the dis- tortion measure does not tolerate delays. The objective is to choose designs, i.e. real-time encoding, decoding and memory update strategies that minimize a total expected distortion measure. This is a dynamic team problem

Aditya Mahajan; Demosthenis Teneketzis

2005-01-01

254

Financial social accounting matrix: concepts, constructions and theoretical framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Social Accounting Matrix (hereafter, SAM) is a particular tool to represent that whole economic activities incomes and expenditures flows accounts through a socio-economic system, which captures the transactions and transfers between all economic agents and institutions in the system. During the last two decades, the financial market are well developed and significantly impacts the economic growth, it will be

Kai Seng Kelly Wong; Azali M; Chin Lee

2009-01-01

255

Positing a Theoretical Framework for Learning and Design With LOGO  

Microsoft Academic Search

After working for eight years on technical design in the computer learning environment Ebey, the Director of Pacific Research found herself at cross purposes in skill building. The in-depth issues related to coordinating pre-prototype design and learning methodology ushered in concerns both with innovation and good thinking. Combining self discovery and confidence building in the business and industry standards arena

Tina Ebey

2005-01-01

256

Changing Mental Models of the IT Professions: A Theoretical Framework  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is widely recognized that the current and projected shortage of adequately-educated IT professionals could be greatly reduced if more female and minority students would major in IT disciplines, yet the dramatic under-representation of these populations appears to be worsening. This under-representation is reflected in Drexel University's…

Agosto, Denise E.; Gasson, Susan; Atwood, Michael

2008-01-01

257

Design theoretic analysis of three system modeling frameworks.  

SciTech Connect

This paper analyzes three simulation architectures from the context of modeling scalability to address System of System (SoS) and Complex System problems. The paper first provides an overview of the SoS problem domain and reviews past work in analyzing model and general system complexity issues. It then identifies and explores the issues of vertical and horizontal integration as well as coupling and hierarchical decomposition as the system characteristics and metrics against which the tools are evaluated. In addition, it applies Nam Suh's Axiomatic Design theory as a construct for understanding coupling and its relationship to system feasibility. Next it describes the application of MATLAB, Swarm, and Umbra (three modeling and simulation approaches) to modeling swarms of Unmanned Flying Vehicle (UAV) agents in relation to the chosen characteristics and metrics. Finally, it draws general conclusions for analyzing model architectures that go beyond those analyzed. In particular, it identifies decomposition along phenomena of interaction and modular system composition as enabling features for modeling large heterogeneous complex systems.

McDonald, Michael James

2007-05-01

258

A Theoretical Framework for Operational Risk Management and Opportunity Realisation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advanced probability models are used to evaluate risks and to justify decisions where reliable data is available, e.g. reinsurance, money markets and nuclear energy. Operational risk management – the trade-offs made to run an efficient and effective organisation – has much less, and lower quality, data. In the first part of the paper, observations are made about the factors shaping

Adrian Sparrow

2000-01-01

259

A Theoretical Framework of Data Parallelism and Its Operational Semantics  

Microsoft Academic Search

. We developed a theory in order to address crucial questionsof program design methodology. We think that it could unify two conceptsof data parallel programming that we consider fundamental asthey concern data locality expression: the notions of alignment in HPFand shape in C. In this article, we aim at measuring the efficiency ofprograms, and the impact of program transformations on

Philippe Gerner; Eric Violard

2000-01-01

260

A DECISION-THEORETIC FRAMEWORK FOR STRATEGIC LEGAL DECISIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although decision science models have found wide application to problems in such diverse fields as finance and banking, manufacturing, agriculture, medicine, and health delivery systems, and many phases of the public and nonprofit sector, little attention has been paid to their utilization by the members of the legal profession. This paper presents a sampling of legal decisions which can be

John G. Igwebuike; William E. Pinney

261

A Theoretical Framework for Studying Educational Media: A Pilot Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three types of stimulus materials (text, film, and live demonstration) were used to teach graduate students cardiopulmonary resuscitation; and verbal learning and a motor skill task were measured to determine the effectiveness of the different media. No significant differences were found among the three modes of instruction. (Author/JEG)

Wager, Walter

1980-01-01

262

A Universal Operator Theoretic Framework for Quantum Fault Tolerance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We extend standard fault tolerance theory and Kitaev's model for quantum computation so as to enable quantitative determination of design parameters for quantum computers that ensure that the overall computation yields a correct final result with some prescribed probability, as opposed to merely ensuring that the desired final quantum state is obtained. Our extension allows us to explicitly calculate the number of levels of error correction concatenation needed to achieve a correct final result with some prescribed success probability and demonstrate a clear connection between error correction and fault tolerance.

Gilbert, Gerald; Weinstein, Yaakov S.

2009-04-01

263

Understanding supply chain management: critical research and a theoretical framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasing global cooperation, vertical disintegration and a focus on core activities have led to the notion that firms are links in a networked supply chain. This strategic viewpoint has created the challenge of coordinating effectively the entire supply chain, from upstream to downstream activities. While supply chains have existed ever since businesses have been organized to bring products and services

I. J. Chen; A. Paulraj

2004-01-01

264

Theoretical Framework for Evaluation of Cross-cultural Training Effectiveness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Considers six types of cross-cultural training including general, specific, affective, cognitive, behavioral and self-insight, and examines the quantity and timing of the training and the attributes of the trainers and the trainees. Available from: Transaction Periodicals Consortium, Rutgers--The State University, New Brunswick, New Jersey 08903,…

Triandis, Harry C.

1977-01-01

265

Quantitative analysis of diffusion tensor orientation: Theoretical framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diffusion-tensor MRI (DT-MRI) yields information about the magnitude, anisotropy, and orientation of water diffusion of brain tissues. Although white matter tractography and eigen- vector color maps provide visually appealing displays of white matter tract organization, they do not easily lend themselves to quantitative and statistical analysis. In this study, a set of visual and quantitative tools for the investigation of

Yu-Chien Wu; Moo K. Chung; Benham Badie; Andrew L. Alexander

2004-01-01

266

Understanding New Media Literacy: An Explorative Theoretical Framework  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With the advent of new media technologies, the role of media in a society has been changed that leads researchers to re-construct the meaning of literacy from classic literacy to new media literacy. There have been continuing efforts to understand new media and promote the importance of becoming new media literate among researchers, educators,…

Lin, Tzu-Bin; Li, Jen-Yi; Deng, Feng; Lee, Ling

2013-01-01

267

The Hydraulic System of Trees: Theoretical Framework and Numerical Simulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Empirical studies pose the problem of the physiological integration of the tree organism, which is also important on the scale of ecosystems. Recently, spatially distributed models emerged, which approach this problem by reflecting the close linkage between physiological processes and the structures of trees and tree stands. In the case of water flow, the tree organism can be regarded as

THOMAS FRÜH; WINFRIED KURTH

1999-01-01

268

A Relevance-Theoretic Framework for Constructing and Deconstructing Enthymemes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In most proposals for logic-based models of argumentation dialogues between agents, the arguments exchanged are logical arguments of the form h ; i where is a set of formulae (called the support) and is a formula (called the claim) such that is consistent and entails . However, arguments pre- sented by real-world agents do not normally fit the mould of

Elizabeth Black; Anthony Hunter

269

Coordination in the ImpUNITY Framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our main interest in this paper is to investigate how we can combine different systemsand languages via a shared tuple space. The languages themselves can be forexample standard imperative languages. Hence we study a framework, in which wecan have both the possibility for communication via a shared tuple space, and morestandard imperative programming constructs. The ImpUNITY framework is anextension of

Henk Goeman; Joost N. Kok; Kaisa Sere; Rob T. Udink

1996-01-01

270

Framework for Analysis of Mitigation in Courts.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper presents an activity-based framework for empirical discourse analysis of mitigation in public environments such as Swedish and Bulgarian courtroom examinations. Mitigation is defined as a pragmatic, cognitive and linguistic behavior the main pu...

B. Martinovsky

2005-01-01

271

Building Safety indicators: Part 1 – Theoretical foundation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Development of early warning indicators to prevent major accidents – to ‘build safety’ – should rest on a sound theoretical foundation, including basic concepts, main perspectives and past developments, as well as an overview of the present status and ongoing research. In this paper we have established the theoretical basis for development of indicators used as early warnings of major

K. Øien; I. B. Utne; I. A. Herrera

2011-01-01

272

Topology and symmetry guided design of framework structures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Materials design and discovery have been gaining ground rapidly due to the combination of strong empirical and theoretical knowledge bases as well as statistical tools combined with computing resources. The above process is strongly dependent upon the crystallographic nature of the problem, and we focus on this aspect in our study. We investigate the relationship between local topology-symmetry and crystal structure in framework structures. We choose the aluminosilicates and aluminophosphates (both mesoporous materials) as being representative of framework materials. Previous work on network materials has focused mainly on classification based on topology or symmetry. We combine both symmetry and topology in our approach by using Wigner-Seitz cells. We also predict structural details on the mesoscale. This is achieved by developing "secondary" descriptors based on Wigner-Seitz cells and by using statistical tools such as Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Partial Least Squares (PLS). By this approach, we investigate a mesostructural feature (pore size) as well M-O bond length using PLS and PCA on local topology-symmetry descriptors. The success of this approach in mesoporous materials points the way toward extending the investigation to framework materials in general. Multiscale structure relations in these materials can be studied and used for design by appropriate descriptor selection and statistical methods.

Rajagopalan, Arun

273

A Framework for Multi Robot Guidance Control  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we present a framework for path planning and path finding for multiple mobile robots with global vision. Our framework model considers the agents’ dynamic status and their environment with obstacles to perform given tasks. The global vision system provides feedback to main controller computer and mobile robots are directed towards to their tasks with avoiding obstacles and without any collision. Different kinds of scenario are prepared to simulate manipulating tasks and non-collision behavior with our framework. Experiment results with Lego Mindstorms NXT shows that our framework can be used where a multi robot system is needed with minimum resources.

Keskin, Onur; Uyar, Erol

274

Human-Centered Fusion Framework  

SciTech Connect

In recent years the benefits of fusing signatures extracted from large amounts of distributed and/or heterogeneous data sources have been largely documented in various problems ranging from biological protein function prediction to cyberspace monitoring. In spite of significant progress in information fusion research, there is still no formal theoretical framework for defining various types of information fusion systems, defining and analyzing relations among such types, and designing information fusion systems using a formal method approach. Consequently, fusion systems are often poorly understood, are less than optimal, and/or do not suit user needs. To start addressing these issues, we outline a formal humancentered fusion framework for reasoning about fusion strategies. Our approach relies on a new taxonomy for fusion strategies, an alternative definition of information fusion in terms of parameterized paths in signature related spaces, an algorithmic formalization of fusion strategies and a library of numeric and dynamic visual tools measuring the impact as well as the impact behavior of fusion strategies. Using a real case of intelligence analysis we demonstrate that the proposed framework enables end users to rapidly 1) develop and implement alternative fusion strategies, 2) understand the impact of each strategy, 3) compare the various strategies, and 4) perform the above steps without having to know the mathematical foundations of the framework. We also demonstrate that the human impact on a fusion system is critical in the sense that small changes in strategies do not necessarily correspond to small changes in results.

Posse, Christian; White, Amanda M.; Beagley, Nathaniel

2007-05-16

275

Revenge after trauma: Theoretical outline  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Tis chapter focuses on revenge, a somewhat neglected psychological phenomenon ofen occurring in the context of embitterment\\u000a that has been observed to be associated with traumatization and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). Recent theoretical approaches\\u000a to and research findings on revenge and its specific relationship to embitterment phenomena are summarized, and therapeutic\\u000a implications are discussed. The main objective of the chapter

Ira Gäbler; Andreas Maercker

276

Rethinking Theoretical Approaches to Stigma  

PubMed Central

A resurgence of research and policy efforts on stigma both facilitates and forces a reconsideration of the levels and types of factors that shape reactions to persons with conditions that engender prejudice and discrimination. Focusing on the case of mental illness but drawing from theories and studies of stigma across the social sciences, we propose a framework that brings together theoretical insights from micro, meso and macro level research: Framework Integrating Normative Influences on Stigma (FINIS) starts with Goffman’s notion that understanding stigma requires a language of social relationships, but acknowledges that individuals do not come to social interaction devoid of affect and motivation. Further, all social interactions take place in a context in which organizations, media and larger cultures structure normative expectations which create the possibility of marking “difference”. Labelling theory, social network theory, the limited capacity model of media influence, the social psychology of prejudice and discrimination, and theories of the welfare state all contribute to an understanding of the complex web of expectations shaping stigma. FINIS offers the potential to build a broad-based scientific foundation based on understanding the effects of stigma on the lives of persons with mental illness, the resources devoted to the organizations and families who care for them, and policies and programs designed to combat stigma. We end by discussing the clear implications this framework holds for stigma reduction, even in the face of conflicting results.

Martin, Jack K; Lang, Annie; Olafsdottir, Sigrun

2008-01-01

277

A signal-processing framework for reflection  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a signal-processing framework for analyzing the reflected light field from a homogeneous convex curved surface under distant illumination. This analysis is of theoretical interest in both graphics and vision and is also of practical importance in many computer graphics problems---for instance, in determining lighting distributions and bidirectional reflectance distribution functions (BRDFs), in rendering with environment maps, and in

Ravi Ramamoorthi; Pat Hanrahan

2004-01-01

278

State of Maine's Environment 2009  

Microsoft Academic Search

The State of Maine's Environment is a regular series of reports written by senior environmental policy majors at Colby College in Waterville, Maine. The State of Maine's Environment 2009 is the fifth State of Maine's Environment report created by students enrolled in ES 493: Environmental Policy Practicum taught by Philip J. Nyhus, Environmental Studies Program. Topics in this report include

Philip J. Nyhus

2009-01-01

279

A Business Driven Management Framework for Utility Computing Environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we introduce a Business Driven Framework for the Management of Utility Computing Environments (BDMF). The framework couples two main subsystems on top of a n IETF-like policy-based resource control layer. They are MBO (Management by Business Objectives) where the decision ability supported by analysis of business objectives resides, and GSLA (Generalized SLA), an advanced framework for SLA

Issam Aib; Mathias Sallé; Claudio Bartolini; Abdel Boulmakoul

280

Threat Analysis Framework.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The need to protect national critical infrastructure has led to the development of a threat analysis framework. The threat analysis framework can be used to identify the elements required to quantify threats against critical infrastructure assets and prov...

D. P. Duggan J. T. Michalski

2007-01-01

281

Umbra Simulation Framework.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Umbra is a new Sandia-developed modeling and simulation framework. The Umbra framework allows users to quickly build models and simulations for intelligent system development, analysis, experimentation, and control and supports tradeoff analyses of comple...

Gottlieb Harrigan McDonald Oppel Xavier

2001-01-01

282

Organizational Socialization Applied to Teacher Induction: An Emerging Conceptual Framework  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper discusses the issues inherent in the teacher induction stage based on a literature review. Literature on organizational socialization is utilized as the theoretical framework and for informing the teacher education literature. A conceptual framework of teacher development is proposed to illustrate the stages from teacher preparation to…

Fletcher, Edward C., Jr.; Chang, Joohee; Kong, Younghee

2008-01-01

283

Coding for system-on-chip networks: a unified framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT In this paper, we present a coding framework derived from a communication-theoretic view of a DSM bus to jointly address power, delay, and reliability. In this framework, the data is first passed through a nonlinear source coder that reduces self and coupling transition activity and im- poses a constraint on the peak coupling transitions on the bus. Next, a

Srinivasa R. Sridhara; Naresh R. Shanbhag

2005-01-01

284

A Future-Oriented Retirement Transition Adjustment Framework  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This theoretical paper presents a person-environment fit framework that extends the Minnesota Theory of Work Adjustment to retirement transition and adjustment. The proposed Retirement Transition and Adjustment Framework (RTAF) also accommodates dynamic intra-individual and environment change over time, configural combinations of variables, and an…

Hesketh, Beryl; Griffin, Barbara; Loh, Vanessa

2011-01-01

285

A Framework for Understanding the Wounding of Healers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a theoretical framework that outlines the process whereby mental health practitioners become "wounded healers" through interactions in their work and training environments. Critical incident constructs are defined and explored. A framework for evaluating incidents is offered and authority responses to a critical incident are discussed.…

Miller, Geraldine A.; Wagner, Angela; Britton, Thomas P.; Gridley, Betty E.

1998-01-01

286

37. Fore and main masts, and main boom lying in ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

37. Fore and main masts, and main boom lying in storage yard. Stern of Museum Ship Wavetreet to left in photograph. - Schooner "Lettie G. Howard", South Street Seaport Museum, New York, New York County, NY

287

4. SOUTH CORNER, MAIN ENTRANCE WAREHOUSE DOORS ON MAIN (SOUTHWEST) ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. SOUTH CORNER, MAIN ENTRANCE WAREHOUSE DOORS ON MAIN (SOUTHWEST) ELEVATION, AND LOADING DOCK ON SOUTHEAST ELEVATION. - North Bend Ranger Station, Building 2230, 42404 Southeast North Bend Way, North Bend, King County, WA

288

Choosing the Best Main Idea  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this resource, students will choose the best main idea. Through teacher modeling, guided practice, and independent practice, students will choose the best main idea from two choices in each short literary passage.

Readworks

2012-03-26

289

Introduction to Theoretical Modelling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We briefly overview commonly encountered theoretical notions arising in the modelling of quantum gases, intended to provide a unified background to the `language' and diverse theoretical models presented elsewhere in this book, and aimed particularly at researchers from outside the quantum gases community.

Davis, Matthew J.; Gardiner, Simon A.; Hanna, Thomas M.; Nygaard, Nicolai; Proukakis, Nick P.; Szyma?ska, Marzena H.

2013-02-01

290

An analytical framework for the evaluation of collaborative design around an interactive tabletop  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we describe an analytical framework that was developed based on the distributed cognition approach to enable the evaluation of a collaborative design task around an interactive tabletop. The framework was a theoretical lens to help develop a better understanding on how people collaborate around the tabletop. This theoretical lens was necessary to prevent any preconceived ideas that

Norlaila Hussain; Oscar de Bruijn

2010-01-01

291

Some thoughts on theoretical physics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Some thoughts are presented on the inter-relation between beauty and truth in science in general and theoretical physics in particular. Some conjectural procedures that can be used to create new ideas, concepts and results are illustrated in both Boltzmann-Gibbs and nonextensive statistical mechanics. The sociological components of scientific progress and its unavoidable and benefic controversies are, mainly through existing literary texts, briefly addressed as well. Short essay based on the plenary talk given at the International Workshop on Trends and Perspectives in Extensive and Non-Extensive Statistical Mechanics, held in November 19-21, 2003, in Angra dos Reis, Brazil.

Tsallis, Constantino

2004-12-01

292

Theoretical and experimental investigation of the structure of azimuthal source-sink flow in a rotating shallow water layer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The structure of source-sink flow in a rotating shallow water layer is studied both theoretically and experimentally. Theoretical calculations are carried out in the framework of the nonlinear model of Ekman boundary layer based on the description of advective terms in the geostrophic momentum approximation. The radial profiles of azimuthal velocity are derived analytically in the small Rossby number limit. It has been shown that the structure of these profiles varies essentially when changing the direction of a radial flow. The velocity profile is strictly monotonic for cyclonic flow (radial flow is directed to the centre) and non-monotonic with maximum near the source-for anticyclonic flow. These results are in agreement with theoretical results by Danilov, Sazonov, derived in the framework of vertically integrated model. The experimental part of the work is carried out on the special experimental apparatus at Abastumani Astrophysical Observatory. The measured radial profiles of the fluid depth and azimuthal velocity produced by concentric sources and sinks located at the bottom of the rotating parabolic vessel are presented. The dependence of these profiles on the intensity of the source-sink system is investigated. It is shown that theoretical results reproduce the main features of the profiles measured in experiments.

Kalashnik, M.; Tsakadze, S.; Kakhiani, V.; Patarashvili, K.; Zhvania, M.; Nanobashvili, J.; Ingel, L.

2008-08-01

293

View of the main interior space facing east. The main ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View of the main interior space facing east. The main entry is on the left hand side at the rear. The exit to the deck is to the right. - San Luis Yacht Club, Avila Pier, South of Front Street, Avila Beach, San Luis Obispo County, CA

294

12. Main cabin, interior view of living room with main ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

12. Main cabin, interior view of living room with main cross beams, purlins and decking, fireplace in rear. Note twisted pine light fixture in center of photograph; view to southeast. - M.T. & Jennie H. Deaton Property, Big Springs Summer Home Area, Lot 2, Block N, Island Park, Fremont County, ID

295

Information Theoretic Quantification of Diagnostic Uncertainty  

PubMed Central

Diagnostic test interpretation remains a challenge in clinical practice. Most physicians receive training in the use of Bayes’ rule, which specifies how the sensitivity and specificity of a test for a given disease combine with the pre-test probability to quantify the change in disease probability incurred by a new test result. However, multiple studies demonstrate physicians’ deficiencies in probabilistic reasoning, especially with unexpected test results. Information theory, a branch of probability theory dealing explicitly with the quantification of uncertainty, has been proposed as an alternative framework for diagnostic test interpretation, but is even less familiar to physicians. We have previously addressed one key challenge in the practical application of Bayes theorem: the handling of uncertainty in the critical first step of estimating the pre-test probability of disease. This essay aims to present the essential concepts of information theory to physicians in an accessible manner, and to extend previous work regarding uncertainty in pre-test probability estimation by placing this type of uncertainty within a principled information theoretic framework. We address several obstacles hindering physicians’ application of information theoretic concepts to diagnostic test interpretation. These include issues of terminology (mathematical meanings of certain information theoretic terms differ from clinical or common parlance) as well as the underlying mathematical assumptions. Finally, we illustrate how, in information theoretic terms, one can understand the effect on diagnostic uncertainty of considering ranges instead of simple point estimates of pre-test probability.

Westover, M Brandon; Eiseman, Nathaniel A; Cash, Sydney S; Bianchi, Matt T

2012-01-01

296

Distributed visualization framework architecture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An architecture for distributed and collaborative visualization is presented. The design goals of the system are to create a lightweight, easy to use and extensible framework for reasearch in scientific visualization. The system provides both single user and collaborative distributed environment. System architecture employs a client-server model. Visualization projects can be synchronously accessed and modified from different client machines. We present a set of visualization use cases that illustrate the flexibility of our system. The framework provides a rich set of reusable components for creating new applications. These components make heavy use of leading design patterns. All components are based on the functionality of a small set of interfaces. This allows new components to be integrated seamlessly with little to no effort. All user input and higher-level control functionality interface with proxy objects supporting a concrete implementation of these interfaces. These light-weight objects can be easily streamed across the web and even integrated with smart clients running on a user's cell phone. The back-end is supported by concrete implementations wherever needed (for instance for rendering). A middle-tier manages any communication and synchronization with the proxy objects. In addition to the data components, we have developed several first-class GUI components for visualization. These include a layer compositor editor, a programmable shader editor, a material editor and various drawable editors. These GUI components interact strictly with the interfaces. Access to the various entities in the system is provided by an AssetManager. The asset manager keeps track of all of the registered proxies and responds to queries on the overall system. This allows all user components to be populated automatically. Hence if a new component is added that supports the IMaterial interface, any instances of this can be used in the various GUI components that work with this interface. One of the main features is an interactive shader designer. This allows rapid prototyping of new visualization renderings that are shader-based and greatly accelerates the development and debug cycle.

Mishchenko, Oleg; Raman, Sundaresan; Crawfis, Roger

2010-01-01

297

Theoretical Perspectives on the Internationalization of Firms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this article is to build a coherent framework of the four main theories relating to the internationalization of firms, in order to facilitate better business teaching and research. Yet, theories of the internationalization of firms are broad and rest on different underlying assumptions. With the purpose of clarifying the potential…

Rask, Morten; Strandskov, Jesper; Hakonsson, Dorthe Dojbak

2008-01-01

298

Maine Agricultural Foods. Project SEED.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes an activity-based program that teaches students in grades 4-12 about the importance of Maine agriculture in their lives. Specifically, the goal is to increase student awareness of how the foods they eat are planted, harvested, and processed. The emphasis is on crops grown in Maine such as potatoes, broccoli, peas, blueberries,…

Beaulieu, Peter; Ossenfort, Pat

299

MAINE ATLANTIC SALMON HABITAT - GENERAL  

EPA Science Inventory

ASDENN00 describes, at 1:24,000 scale, important Atlantic salmon habitat of the Dennys River in Maine. The coverage was developed from field surveys conducted on the Dennys River in Maine by staff of the Atlantic Salmon Authority and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. This survey wa...

300

Main Injector power distribution system  

SciTech Connect

The paper describes a new power distribution system for Fermilab's Main Injector. The system provides 13.8 kV power to Main Injector accelerator (accelerator and conventional loads) and is capable of providing power to the rest of the laboratory (backfeed system). Design criteria, and features including simulation results are given.

Cezary Jach and Daniel Wolff

2002-06-03

301

Oxycontin Abuse: Maine's Newest Epidemic.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Oxycontin, a prescription pain medication introduced in 1995 has become a major drug of abuse in Maine over the past five years. Maine has gotten a great deal of publicity for its role as the first state to identify a problem with Oxycontin and other pres...

2002-01-01

302

Taking a geometric look at the socio-political functioning schemes of the living. Catastrophe theory and theoretical sociology.  

PubMed

The aim of this communication is to consider morphological processes in sociology, mainly through the study of the stability of forms of sociality. At the same time, it aims to study the regulation of constraints, related to an increasingly conflictual environment, through political organization. We use a specific theoretical framework: the catastrophe theory developed by René Thom in topology, further developed by Claude Bruter from a physics point of view, and reworked by Jacques Viret in biology. The idea is to show the existence of archetypal processes organizing social forms. PMID:23943093

Morier, Clément

2013-09-01

303

Main Propulsion Test Article (MPTA)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Scope: The Main Propulsion Test Article integrated the main propulsion subsystem with the clustered Space Shuttle Main Engines, the External Tank and associated GSE. The test program consisted of cryogenic tanking tests and short- and long duration static firings including gimbaling and throttling. The test program was conducted on the S1-C test stand (Position B-2) at the National Space Technology Laboratories (NSTL)/Stennis Space Center. 3 tanking tests and 20 hot fire tests conducted between December 21 1 1977 and December 17, 1980 Configuration: The main propulsion test article consisted of the three space shuttle main engines, flightweight external tank, flightweight aft fuselage, interface section and a boilerplate mid/fwd fuselage truss structure.

Snoddy, Cynthia

2010-01-01

304

P21 Framework Definitions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To help practitioners integrate skills into the teaching of core academic subjects, the Partnership for 21st Century Skills has developed a unified, collective vision for learning known as the Framework for 21st Century Learning. This Framework describes the skills, knowledge and expertise students must master to succeed in work and life; it is a…

Partnership for 21st Century Skills, 2009

2009-01-01

305

SOD: Framework structures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document is part of Subvolume E `Zeolite-Type Crystal Structures and their Chemistry. Framework Type Codes RON to STI' of Volume 14 `Microporous and other Framework Materials with Zeolite-Type Structures' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV `Physical Chemistry'.

Fischer, R. X.; Baur, W. H.

306

Arkansas History Frameworks. Revised.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Arkansas history curriculum framework sets out the state content standards for grades K-4, grades 5-8, and grades 9-12. The framework lists the different history strands: Strand 1: "Time, Continuity, and Change"; Strand 2: "People, Places, and Environments"; Strand 3: "Production, Distribution, and Consumption"; Strand 4: "Power, Authority,…

Arkansas State Dept. of Education, Little Rock.

307

Mathematics Curriculum Evaluation Framework  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper, we present a framework for evaluating commercially developed mathematics programs. This framework is based on principles of instructional design derived from a Direct Instruction approach to education. Given the role that instructional programs play in the classroom, especially for teachers who have not been well prepared to teach…

Stein, Marcy; Kinder, Diane; Milchick, Sherry

2004-01-01

308

Healthcare information framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

CEN committee TC 251 Medical Informatics, has set up a project team charged with producing a European pre-standard ENV on Healthcare Information Framework (HIF). The HIF is based on abstraction from a specific information system architecture to a reference architecture and further to a conceptual architectural framework based on serving open, distributed and heterogeneous healthcare enterprises. To specify the suitable

Niilo Saranummi; Michel Demeester; Antonio Fernandez Perez de Talens; John Harrington; Vigdis Heimly; Jose M. de la Riva Grandal; John Taylor

1995-01-01

309

Materials Science Framework  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This PDF document from Edmonds Community College provides a framework for a program in materials science. Components and competencies include chemical science skills, physical science skills, fundamentals of materials science and technology and materials testing. Different materials including metals, plastics, composites, wood, concrete, glasses and ceramics are also included in the program framework.

2011-09-09

310

Zeolite A imidazolate frameworks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Faujasite (FAU) and zeolite A (LTA) are technologically important porous zeolites (aluminosilicates) because of their extensive use in petroleum cracking and water softening. Introducing organic units and transition metals into the backbone of these types of zeolite allows us to expand their pore structures, enhance their functionality and access new applications. The invention of metal-organic frameworks and zeolitic imidazolate frameworks

Hideki Hayashi; Adrien P. Côté; Hiroyasu Furukawa; Michael O'Keeffe; Omar M. Yaghi

2007-01-01

311

Overlooking the Conceptual Framework  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The conceptual framework is alluded to in most serious texts on research, described in some and fully explained in few. However, examiners of doctoral theses devote considerable attention to exploring its function within social science doctoral vivas. A literature survey explores how the conceptual framework is itself conceptualised and explained.…

Leshem, Shosh; Trafford, Vernon

2007-01-01

312

Science Curriculum Framework. Revised.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document presents the revised Arkansas Science Curriculum Framework (1999), which replaces the Science Curriculum Framework of 1994. Three strands--physical science systems, life science systems, and Earth science/space science systems--were identified using an integrated approach to provide guidance in the science curriculum. A glossary and…

Arkansas State Dept. of Education, Little Rock.

313

Electronic CAD frameworks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The CAD framework, i.e. the underlying facilities provided to the CAD tool developer, the CAD system integrator, and the end-user (IC or system designer) to facilitate their tasks, is discussed. The development of the CAD framework concept in the domain of electronic circuit design is reviewed. The most important work in the area is briefly described. The major components of

DAVID S. HARRISON; A. RICHARD NEWTON; R. L. Spickelmier; T. J. Barnes

1990-01-01

314

Frameworks of Educational Technology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper, written from a 20th-century perspective, traces the development of, and influences on, the field of instructional technology and attempts to describe a framework within which we can better understand the field. [This article is based on "Instructional Technology: Contemporary Frameworks" originally written by the author for the…

Ely, Donald

2008-01-01

315

Understanding childbirth practices as an organizational cultural phenomenon: a conceptual framework.  

PubMed

Understanding the main values and beliefs that might promote humanized birth practices in the specialized hospitals requires articulating the theoretical knowledge of the social and cultural characteristics of the childbirth field and the relations between these and the institution. This paper aims to provide a conceptual framework allowing examination of childbirth practices through the lens of an organizational culture theory. A literature review performed to extrapolate the social and cultural factors contribute to birth practices and the factors likely overlap and mutually reinforce one another, instead of complying with the organizational culture of the birth place. The proposed conceptual framework in this paper examined childbirth patterns as an organizational cultural phenomenon in a highly specialized hospital, in Montreal, Canada. Allaire and Firsirotu's organizational culture theory served as a guide in the development of the framework. We discussed the application of our conceptual model in understanding the influences of organizational culture components in the humanization of birth practices in the highly specialized hospitals and explained how these components configure both the birth practice and women's choice in highly specialized hospitals. The proposed framework can be used as a tool for understanding the barriers and facilitating factors encountered birth practices in specialized hospitals. PMID:24215446

Behruzi, Roxana; Hatem, Marie; Goulet, Lise; Fraser, William; Misago, Chizuru

2013-01-01

316

Understanding childbirth practices as an organizational cultural phenomenon: a conceptual framework  

PubMed Central

Understanding the main values and beliefs that might promote humanized birth practices in the specialized hospitals requires articulating the theoretical knowledge of the social and cultural characteristics of the childbirth field and the relations between these and the institution. This paper aims to provide a conceptual framework allowing examination of childbirth practices through the lens of an organizational culture theory. A literature review performed to extrapolate the social and cultural factors contribute to birth practices and the factors likely overlap and mutually reinforce one another, instead of complying with the organizational culture of the birth place. The proposed conceptual framework in this paper examined childbirth patterns as an organizational cultural phenomenon in a highly specialized hospital, in Montreal, Canada. Allaire and Firsirotu’s organizational culture theory served as a guide in the development of the framework. We discussed the application of our conceptual model in understanding the influences of organizational culture components in the humanization of birth practices in the highly specialized hospitals and explained how these components configure both the birth practice and women’s choice in highly specialized hospitals. The proposed framework can be used as a tool for understanding the barriers and facilitating factors encountered birth practices in specialized hospitals.

2013-01-01

317

A review of telehealth service implementation frameworks.  

PubMed

Despite the potential of telehealth services to increase the quality and accessibility of healthcare, the success rate of such services has been disappointing. The purpose of this paper is to find and compare existing frameworks for the implementation of telehealth services that can contribute to the success rate of future endeavors. After a thorough discussion of these frameworks, this paper outlines the development methodologies in terms of theoretical background, methodology and validation. Finally, the common themes and formats are identified for consideration in future implementation. It was confirmed that a holistic implementation approach is needed, which includes technology, organizational structures, change management, economic feasibility, societal impacts, perceptions, user-friendliness, evaluation and evidence, legislation, policy and governance. Furthermore, there is some scope for scientifically rigorous framework development and validation approaches. PMID:24464237

van Dyk, Liezl

2014-02-01

318

Reusable rocket engine intelligent control system framework design, phase 2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Elements of an advanced functional framework for reusable rocket engine propulsion system control are presented for the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) demonstration case. Functional elements of the baseline functional framework are defined in detail. The SSME failure modes are evaluated and specific failure modes identified for inclusion in the advanced functional framework diagnostic system. Active control of the SSME start transient is investigated, leading to the identification of a promising approach to mitigating start transient excursions. Key elements of the functional framework are simulated and demonstration cases are provided. Finally, the advanced function framework for control of reusable rocket engines is presented.

Nemeth, ED; Anderson, Ron; Ols, Joe; Olsasky, Mark

1991-01-01

319

Humboldt River main stem, Nevada  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This data set contains the main stem of the Humboldt River as defined by Humboldt Project personnel of the U.S. Geological Survey Nevada District, 2001. The data set was digitized on screen using digital orthophoto quadrangles from 1994.

Warmath, Eric; Medina, Rose L.

2001-01-01

320

History of Maine Fisheries Database  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A number of institutions have begun to expand their digital collections in order to include lesser-known subjects, and the University of Maine's Raymond H. Fogler Library continues to expand their online offerings with this intriguing collection. Drawing on the holdings of institutions like the Machias Historical Society, the Maine Maritime Museum, and the Maine State Archives, their digital collections team has created this History of Maine Fisheries database. There aren't any subject headings or sample searches on the site, but it is still quite easy to use. Visitors can use the keyword search to locate materials of interest, and they can also set date parameters to look for materials from a given time period. To get started, visitors might try typing in words like "lobster", "fleet", and "Bangor".

321

Space Shuttle Era: Main Engines  

NASA Video Gallery

Producing 500,000 pounds of thrust from a package weighing only 7,500 pounds, the Space Shuttle Main Engines are one of the shining accomplishments of the shuttle program. The success did not come ...

322

A Literary Map of Maine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Sure, you might know that Longfellow was a member of the literati who called Maine home, but did you know that Robert McCloskey was one as well? In case you might have forgotten, McCloskey was the author and illustrator of those children's classics "Make Way for Ducklings" and "Blueberries for Sal". It's easy to learn about dozens of Maine authors via this delightful website created as part of a partnership between the Maine Sunday Telegram and a number of library and humanities groups in Maine. Currently, the map features over 50 sites, and visitors can browse around at their leisure to learn about authors like Longfellow, Stephen King, and Richard Russo. Clicking on each site will pull up a brief excerpt of each author's work, along with a brief bio.

323

Virtual Tour of Maine Geology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This selection of slide shows provides a photographic tour of Maine geology. Users can choose slide shows on surficial, bedrock, and coastal geology; fossils, geologic hazards, groundwater and wells; or mineral collecting, mining, and quarrying.

324

Theoretical basis for software fault tolerance  

SciTech Connect

A new theoretical basis for software fault tolerance is developed. The theoretical basis has two parts: (1) a formal, set-theoretical model of checking and (2) an informal model of software execution. Central to the work presented is the notion of software fault localization, a notion overlooked in previous theoretical research. Analysis of the design of the recovery block and N-version programs reveals the serious flaw that neither performs software fault localization. This flaw has been carried into the many programming constructs which have grown out of the recovery block. The set-theoretical model of checking developed provides a conceptual framework within which run-time checks can be investigated, analyzed, and designed. Within the model, checking is considered abstractly in terms of relations similar to those found in relational data-base theory. Such relations provide an ideal representation of software specifications. The emphasis of the informal model of execution is upon run-time checking and data dependency in fault-tolerance software. The analysis of fault-tolerance software in terms of data dependency offers insights into the nature of state restoration and into the use of exception handling for providing software fault tolerance.

Staknis, M.E.

1987-01-01

325

Theoretical Status of the RHIC Program  

SciTech Connect

Since the beginning of its operation, the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at the Brookhaven National Lab has produced a wealth of exciting and interesting results. I give a brief overview of the theoretical aspects of the main results from the RHIC program.

Jalilian-Marian, Jamal [Institute for Nuclear Theory, University of Washington, Box 351550, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States)

2006-09-25

326

Cooperation between unrelated individuals – a game theoretic approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Cooperation between unrelated individuals has attracted a lot of research interest because the acts of mutual helping have\\u000a to be reconciled with evolutionary theory and its focus on individual benefits. Various theoretical frameworks exist, and\\u000a this chapter will focus specifically on the game theoretic approach. Game theory captures key ecological and life history\\u000a features like longevity, mutual dependency or mobility

Redouan Bshary

327

Solar Pond for Maine Audubon Society, Falmouth, Maine.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A solar pond heating system has been designed for the old farmhouse at the entrance to the Maine Audubon Society headquarters site. The 1600 ft exp 2 pond would be 40 x 40 ft wide, and occupy a space of about 80 x 80 ft if the sloping embankment is constr...

R. K. Multer

1981-01-01

328

A New Framework for Credit Risk Modelling  

Microsoft Academic Search

We develop this new model, in order to capture both the short-term spread widening risk and the long- term default risk in one consistent framework. It is similar to the Merton's flrm-value based model; the main difierence is that we assume the underlying process is the flrm's credit spread St, rather than the flrm's value Vt. The underlying process St

Clifi Speed; Paternoster UK; Hongbiao Zhao

329

A conceptual framework for marine agronomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Between the late 1960s and the early 1980s, several generations of phycologists in Hawaii and the Philippines, associated with M. S. Doty, contributed to developing a new approach, and to advance concepts in marine agronomy. This study reviews the approach and the main concepts contributed. Integrating these contributions with others, a basic conceptual framework for marine agronomy is presented.

B. Santelices

1999-01-01

330

Common MANET Framework.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This effort researched, developed and demonstrated a Common Mobile Ad-hoc Networking (MANET) framework (CMF) to provide a uniform abstraction for wireless discovery, communication, and routing of network traffic over heterogeneous transmission technologie...

G. Frazier

2008-01-01

331

A General Framework for Analyzing Data from Two Short Time-Series Microarray Experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a general theoretical framework for analyzing differentially expressed genes and behavior patterns from two homogenous short time-course data. The framework generalizes the recently proposed Hilbert-Schmidt Independence Criterion (HSIC)-based framework adapting it to the time-series scenario by utilizing tensor analysis for data transformation. The proposed framework is effective in yielding criteria that can identify both the differentially expressed genes

Mohak Shah; Jacques Corbeil

2011-01-01

332

Main Idea: Where is Matter?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson teaches main idea and details incorporating a science lesson on matter.Teachers will utilize a KWL chart to help assess students' background knowledge, as well as what they want to learn, and what they have learned at the end of the lesson. An informational text entitled What is the World Made of? All about Solids, Liquids, and Gases will be used throughout the lesson. As a summative assessment, students will write a summary which identifies the main idea and key details from this text.

Miller, Brandi

2012-06-30

333

A thermodynamical framework for chemically reacting systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we develop a thermodynamic framework that is capable of describing the response of viscoelastic materials that are undergoing chemical reactions that takes into account stoichiometry. Of course, as a special sub-case, we can also describe the response of elastic materials that undergo chemical reactions. The study generalizes the framework developed by Rajagopal and co-workers to study the response of a disparate class of bodies undergoing entropy producing processes. One of the quintessential feature of this framework is that the second law of thermodynamics is formulated by introducing Gibbs' potential, which is the natural way to study problems involving chemical reactions. The Gibbs potential-based formulation also naturally leads to implicit constitutive equations for the stress tensor. Another feature of the framework is that the constraints due to stoichiometry can also be taken into account in a consistent manner. The assumption of maximization of the rate of entropy production due to dissipation, heat conduction, and chemical reactions is invoked to determine an equation for the evolution of the natural configuration ? p( t)( B), the heat flux vector and a novel set of equations for the evolution of the concentration of the chemical constituents. To determine the efficacy of the framework with regard to chemical reactions, those occurring during vulcanization, a challenging set of chemical reactions, are chosen. More than one type of reaction mechanism is considered and the theoretically predicted distribution of mono, di and polysulfidic cross-links agree reasonably well with available experimental data.

Kannan, K.; Rajagopal, K. R.

2011-04-01

334

Theoretical formulation for mosquito host-feeding patterns: application to a West Nile virus focus of southern France.  

PubMed

Host-feeding patterns play a key role in the transmission of vector-borne diseases such as West Nile fever, which involves two kinds of vertebrates, birds and mammals. In this study, we propose a theoretical formulation for mosquito host-feeding patterns using three quantities, as follows: the apparent attractiveness/contact probabilities, the conditional host(-feeding) preferences, and the enzootic versus bridge probabilities. Using results from host-baited trap collections, the quantities defined above were assessed for the most abundant mosquito species in the main West Nile virus focus of southern France. We found that host availability is important in determining the efficiency of bridge vectors, and that even ornithophilic mosquitoes like Culex species, classically classified as enzootic vectors, may turn out to be efficient bridge vectors in certain contexts of host abundance. Our developed theoretical framework can easily be adapted and applied to other experimental data and other vector-borne diseases. PMID:21936328

Balenghien, Thomas; Fouque, Florence; Sabatier, Philippe; Bicout, Dominique J

2011-09-01

335

DISINFECTION OF NEW WATER MAINS  

EPA Science Inventory

The 'AWWA Standard for Disinfecting Water Mains' (AWWA C601-68) has fallen into disuse by a number of water utilities because of repeated bacteriological failures following initial disinfection with the recommended high-dose chlorination. Other methods of disinfection, including ...

336

Gulf of Maine Research Institute  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Maine's oceanic shoreline has long been one of the richest in North America, both in terms of natural resources and its importance to the local economy. One important organization that is committed to this valued ecosystem is the Gulf of Maine Research Institute. Based in Portland, the Institute is designed to educate Maine residents and visitors about Maine's fresh and saltwater resources and to "facilitate and conduct collaborative research.ïÿý Their website contains some of these resources, and first-time visitors should start their journey here at the "Science" section. As might be expected, visitors will be able to learn about some of the Institute's ongoing survey work, including their comprehensive survey of the region's shrimp stocks, the impacts of mobile fishing gear, and cod-tagging. Every good institute worth its salt has a strong education component, and this institute has got the web-browsing public's best interests in mind. In their "Education" section, they have placed a number of interactive and multimedia features, including such areas as "All About Lobsters" and "Undersea Landscapes".

337

An information theoretic trackability measure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There exists no measure to quantify the difficulty of a video tracking problem. Such difficulty depends upon the quality of the video and upon the ability to distinguish the target from the background and from other potential targets. We define a trackability measure in an information theoretic framework. The tools of information theory allow a measure of trackability that seamlessly combines the video-dependent aspects with the target-dependent aspects of tracking difficulty using measure of rate and information content. Specifically, video quality is encapsulated into a term that measures spatial resolution, temporal resolution and signal-to-noise ratio by way of a Shannon-Hartley analysis. Then, the ability to correctly match a template to a target is evaluated through an analysis of the mutual information between the template, the detected signal and the interfering clutter. The trackability measure is compared to the performance of a recent tracker based on scale space features computed via connected filters. The results show high Spearman correlation magnitude between the trackability measure and actual performance.

Acton, Scott T.; Aksel, Alla

2012-02-01

338

Effective virtual new product development teams: an integrated framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Research on virtual teams is still in its nascent stages. The purpose of this paper is to develop a theoretically grounded integrative framework of key factors influencing the effectiveness of virtual new product development teams. \\u000d\\u000a\\u000d\\u000aDesign\\/methodology\\/approach – The framework is developed by integrating perspectives from several research streams, including relationship marketing, new product development, knowledge management, the resource-based

Vishag Badrinarayanan; Dennis B. Arnett

2008-01-01

339

Theoretical study on high order interior tomography  

PubMed Central

In this paper, we study a new type of high order interior problems characterized by high order differential phase shift measurement. This problem is encountered in local x-ray phase-contrast tomography. Here we extend our previous theoretical framework from interior CT to interior differential phase-contrast tomography, and establish the solution uniqueness in this context. We employ the analytic continuation method and high order total variation minimization which we developed in our previous work for interior CT, and prove that an image in a region of interest (ROI) can be uniquely reconstructed from truncated high order differential projection data if the image is known a priori in a sub-region of the ROI or the image is piecewise polynomial in the ROI. Preliminary numerical experiments support the theoretical finding.

Yang, Jiansheng; Cong, Wenxiang; Jiang, Ming; Wang, Ge

2013-01-01

340

A Framework for Integrating Artificial Intelligence and Simulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Both Simulation and Artificial Intelligence try to model reality for problem solving and decision making. In this paper, we propose a framework for integrating the two areas by uncovering fundamental similarities between them and opportunities for combining them which can be mutually useful. The framework also shows the potential gains for Simulation by applying Artificial Intelligence concepts (mainly expert systems)

Georgios I. Doukidis; Marios C. Angelides

1994-01-01

341

Developing interdisciplinary environmental frameworks.  

PubMed

The purpose of this article is to review interdisciplinary systemic frameworks of environmental protection and evaluate their use as tools, educational policymaking and education. We analyze the pressures-state-responses (PSR) framework of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, the drivers-pressures-state-impact-response (DPSIR) framework developed in the European Environment Agency and a later environmental political dynamics framework developed by Schroll and Staerdahl. We then continue the discussion by introducing a comprehensive model, labeled as the environmental protection process (EPP) framework that can be used to analyze and teach why there are environmental problems, what are their characteristics, and in which ways they can be mitigated. The EPP model is used for classifying measures of coping with environmental problems. Finally, a submodel of individual and societal factors affecting human action is formed. Environmental issues of transport are used as an illustrative example. We hope to contribute a relevant way to outline a wide interdisciplinary picture of environmental problems and solutions. PMID:18488556

Tapio, Petri; Willamo, Risto

2008-03-01

342

Heavy hydrocarbon main injector technology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One of the key components of the Advanced Launch System (ALS) is a large liquid rocket, booster engine. To keep the overall vehicle size and cost down, this engine will probably use liquid oxygen (LOX) and a heavy hydrocarbon, such as RP-1, as propellants and operate at relatively high chamber pressures to increase overall performance. A technology program (Heavy Hydrocarbon Main Injector Technology) is being studied. The main objective of this effort is to develop a logic plan and supporting experimental data base to reduce the risk of developing a large scale (approximately 750,000 lb thrust), high performance main injector system. The overall approach and program plan, from initial analyses to large scale, two dimensional combustor design and test, and the current status of the program are discussed. Progress includes performance and stability analyses, cold flow tests of injector model, design and fabrication of subscale injectors and calorimeter combustors for performance, heat transfer, and dynamic stability tests, and preparation of hot fire test plans. Related, current, high pressure, LOX/RP-1 injector technology efforts are also briefly discussed.

Fisher, S. C.; Arbit, H. A.

1988-01-01

343

Information theoretic adaptive tracking of epidemics in complex networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adaptively monitoring the states of nodes in a large complex network is of interest in domains such as national security, public health, and energy grid management. Here, we present an information theoretic adaptive tracking and sampling framework that recursively selects measurements using the feedback from performing inference on a dynamic Bayesian Network. We also present conditions for the existence of

Patrick L. Harrington Jr; Alfred O. Hero

2009-01-01

344

Presenting a Theoretical Model of Four Conceptions of Civic Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This conceptual study will question the ways different epistemological conceptions of citizenship and education influence the characteristics of civic education. While offering a new theoretical framework, the different undercurrent conceptions that lay at the base of the civic education process shall be brought forth. With the use of the method…

Cohen, Aviv

2010-01-01

345

Understanding Literacy: Theoretical Foundations for Research in Media Ecology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews the major scholarship of Harold Innis, Eric Havelock, Marshall McLuhan, Jack Goody, Walter Ong and Elizabeth Eisenstein, as they focused on the development of writing systems, and later, printing. Discusses how their theoretical frameworks are central to understanding media ecology, an emerging field of interdisciplinary study for…

Ramos, Lori

2000-01-01

346

INFORMATION THEORETIC METHODS FOR BIOMETRICS, CLUSTERING, AND STEMMATOLOGY  

Microsoft Academic Search

This thesis consists of four parts, three of which study issues related to theories and applications of biometric systems, and one which focuses on clustering. We establish an information theoretic framework and the fundamental trade-off between utility of biometric systems and security of biometric systems. The utility includes person identification and secret binding, while template protection, privacy, and secrecy leakage

Po-Hsiang Lai

2012-01-01

347

A theoretical model for tissue growth in confined geometries  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is known that cells proliferate and produce extracellular matrix in response to biochemical and mechanical stimuli. Constitutive models considering these phenomena are needed to quantitatively describe the process of tissue growth in the context of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. In this paper we re-examine the theoretical framework provided by Ambrosi and Guana (2007) and Ambrosi and Guillou (2007).

J. W. C. Dunlop; F. D. Fischer; E. Gamsjäger; P. Fratzl

2010-01-01

348

Carbon Fibre Reinforced Plastic Sandwich Beam Construction in the Main Wing Structure of a Man Powered Aircraft.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this entirely theoretical report, a framework similar to the wing box of the man powered aircraft Puffin 2 is analyzed for the in-flight loading imposed upon it. Design curves for the framework members, with carbon fiber reinforced plastic and honeycom...

H. R. Al-agha D. C. Velupillai

1976-01-01

349

Modern Physics : Theoretical Minimum  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Stanford Continuing Studies course is a collection of video lectures that provide a concise introduction to Theoretical Physics. The goal is for students following the curriculum to achieve a solid understanding of Modern Physics in an optimized manner. The lectures in the series cover Classical Mechanics, Quantum Mechanics, Special Relativity, General Relativity, Cosmology, Statistical Mechanics, Quantum Entanglement, Basic Particle Physics, and the Standard Model. While the courses build upon one another, each course also stands on its own.

Susskind, Leonard

2014-05-01

350

Strategic Outsourcing of IT Services: Theoretical Stocktaking and Empirical Challenges  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a review of existing theoretical perspectives and empirical work on strategic IT outsourcing. By presenting the main findings of various recent studies and elaborating on current research gaps it conveys a picture of the past research, the present findings and the future applications of IT outsourcing. Prior research has generated theoretical insights and largely qualitative evidence on

Volker Mahnke; Mikkel Lucas Overby; Jan Vang

2005-01-01

351

International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste. Scientific activities in 1995.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The annual report of the International Centre for Theoretical Physics from Trieste for 1995 contains three parts. Part 1 includes statistical data on the main activities of the Centre. Part 2 presents the scientific programme in various fields (Physics of...

1996-01-01

352

MAMS Service Framework  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we describe the service execution platform for the MAMS service framework which is an agent based platform for the execution of services and service compositions. The MAMS framework supports non-IT-experts in the process of generating, deploying and executing new service compositions. It features an elaborate graphical service creation environment, a service execution platform based on intelligent agents and it supports telecommunication specific functionalities like the IP-Multimedia Subsystem. We have created a distributed service execution environment, which utilises agent technology to improve scalability, platform management and stability. We will show how agent technologies help attaining distributed service oriented systems.

Thiele, Alexander; Kaiser, Silvan; Konnerth, Thomas; Hirsch, Benjamin

353

Java online monitoring framework  

SciTech Connect

An online monitoring framework has been written in the Java Language Environment to develop applications for monitoring special purpose detectors during commissioning of the PEP-II Interaction Region. PEP-II machine parameters and signals from several of the commissioning detectors are logged through VxWorks/EPICS and displayed by Java display applications. Remote clients are able to monitor the machine and detector performance using graphical displays and analysis histogram packages. In this paper, the design and implementation of the object-oriented Java framework is described. Illustrations of data acquisition, display and histograming applications are also given.

Ronan, M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (US); Kirkby, D.; Johnson, A.S.; Groot, D. de [Stanford Univ., CA (US)

1997-10-01

354

Multimedia content description framework  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A framework is provided for describing multimedia content and a system in which a plurality of multimedia storage devices employing the content description methods of the present invention can interoperate. In accordance with one form of the present invention, the content description framework is a description scheme (DS) for describing streams or aggregations of multimedia objects, which may comprise audio, images, video, text, time series, and various other modalities. This description scheme can accommodate an essentially limitless number of descriptors in terms of features, semantics or metadata, and facilitate content-based search, index, and retrieval, among other capabilities, for both streamed or aggregated multimedia objects.

Bergman, Lawrence David (Inventor); Kim, Michelle Yoonk Yung (Inventor); Li, Chung-Sheng (Inventor); Mohan, Rakesh (Inventor); Smith, John Richard (Inventor)

2003-01-01

355

Healthcare Information Framework.  

PubMed

CEN committee TC 251 Medical Informatics, has set up a project team charged with producing a European pre-standard ENV on Healthcare Information Framework (HIF). The HIF is based on abstraction from a specific information system architecture to a reference architecture and further to a conceptual architectural framework based on serving open, distributed and heterogeneous healthcare enterprises. To specify the suitable healthcare information system architecture modelling of the healthcare enterprise is required. As there is no one method serving all needs, the HIF gives guidance on what aspects to look at in selecting a suitable modelling method. It is expected that the work will be completed by early 1995. PMID:7601549

Saranummi, N; Demeester, M; Fernandez Perez de Talens, A; Harrington, J; Heimly, V; de la Riva Grandal, J M; Taylor, J

1995-04-01

356

Mount Apatite Park, Auburn, Maine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This guide discusses the geology, mineralogy, and mineral collecting opportunities of the Mount Apatite quarries at Auburn, Maine. Topics include the history and occurrence of the granite pegmatites, which contain collectible specimens of apatite, tourmaline, lepidolite, and other minerals; the history of glaciation in the area; and the history of the mining industry in Auburn, an important producer of commercial feldspar in the early 1900s. There is also information for mineral collectors, including permission and access, directions, and information on the exposures and how to extract specimens from them. References and links to additonal information are included.

357

Space Shuttle Main Engine. Overview  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An overview of the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) is presented. The Space Shuttle propulsion system consists of two large solid booster motors, three SSME's, two orbital maneuvering system engines, and 44 reaction control system thrusters. The three SSME's burn liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen from the external tank and are sequentially started at launch. Engine thrust is throttleable. The major components and some of their key features and operational parameters are outlined. The life and reliability being achieved by the SSME are presented.

Jackson, Eugene D.

358

A unifying graph-cut image segmentation framework: algorithms it encompasses and equivalences among them  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a general graph-cut segmentation framework GGC, in which the delineated objects returned by the algorithms optimize the energy functions associated with the lp norm, 1 <= p <= ?. Two classes of well known algorithms belong to GGC: the standard graph cut GC (such as the min-cut/max-flow algorithm) and the relative fuzzy connectedness algorithms RFC (including iterative RFC, IRFC). The norm-based description of GGC provides more elegant and mathematically better recognized framework of our earlier results from [18, 19]. Moreover, it allows precise theoretical comparison of GGC representable algorithms with the algorithms discussed in a recent paper [22] (min-cut/max-flow graph cut, random walker, shortest path/geodesic, Voronoi diagram, power watershed/shortest path forest), which optimize, via lp norms, the intermediate segmentation step, the labeling of scene voxels, but for which the final object need not optimize the used lp energy function. Actually, the comparison of the GGC representable algorithms with that encompassed in the framework described in [22] constitutes the main contribution of this work.

Ciesielski, Krzysztof Chris; Udupa, Jayaram K.; Falcão, A. X.; Miranda, P. A. V.

2012-02-01

359

A Volunteer Training Framework  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Volunteering SA (VSA) has responded to the need to revise and expand the training offered to volunteers. It has developed a volunteer training framework to provide structure and guidance for the sector in making policy and financial decisions about directions and type of training that volunteers require and desire, where the training can lead and…

Deslandes, Moira; Rogers, Louise

2008-01-01

360

Frameworks for Comprehending Discourse  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Thirty physical education students and 30 music education students read a passage which could be given two distinct interpretations. Multiple-choice test scores, theme-revealing disambiguations and instrusions in free recall indicate that high-level schemata provide the interpretive framework for comprehending discourse. Schema theory and its…

Anderson, Richard C.; And Others

1977-01-01

361

Futurism: Framework for Composition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Noting that the study of the future has been neglected within the language arts framework, this paper proposes a curriculum unit that uses such study as a vehicle to develop composition skills. The paper provides the following information: the general objectives of the unit; evaluation methods; general humanistic themes to be studied; materials;…

Keroack, Elizabeth Carros; Marquis, Leah Keating

362

Exploring the Science Framework  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The vision for science education set forth in "A Framework for K-12 Science Education" (NRC 2012) makes it clear that for today's students to become the scientifically literate citizens of tomorrow their educational experiences must help them become mathematically proficient. "The focus here is on important practices, such as modeling, developing…

Mayes, Robert; Koballa, Thomas R., Jr.

2012-01-01

363

Exploring the Science Framework  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The vision for science education set forth in "A Framework for K-12 Science Education" (NRC 2012) makes it clear that for today's students to become the scientifically literate citizens of tomorrow, their educational experiences must help them become mathematically proficient. "The focus here is on important practices, such as modeling, developing…

Mayes, Robert; Koballa, Thomas R., Jr.

2012-01-01

364

Developing a Conceptual Framework.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As a screening tool for curriculum priorities, a pattern of curriculum design and redevelopment for the associate degree technical nursing program was explored. Curriculum developers examined three components: student, setting, and subject. The evolved conceptual framework, based on Orem's self-care theory, of a continuum of nursing assistance is…

Fenner, Kathleen

1979-01-01

365

DCPS Effective Schools Framework  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

DCPS is committed to providing "all" students with the caliber of education they deserve. The goal of the DCPS Effective Schools Framework is to ensure that every child, in every classroom, has access to a high-quality and engaging standards-based instructional program, and that all school supports are aligned to support teaching and learning. The…

District of Columbia Public Schools, 2009

2009-01-01

366

Exploring the Science Framework  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The National Research Council's recent publication "A Framework for K-12 Science Education: Practices, Crosscutting Concepts, and Core Ideas" (NRC 2011), which is the foundation for the Next Generation Science Standards now being developed, places unprecedented focus on the practices involved in doing scientific and engineering work. In an effort…

Bell, Philip; Bricker, Leah; Tzou, Carrie; Lee, Tiffany; Van Horne, Katie

2012-01-01

367

Facilitating the Exploratorium Framework.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document describes the Exploratorium Framework project which is a model initiative demonstrating the vital role science museums play in science education reform. Contents include: (1) "The Four Thematic Exhibit Experiments (An Overview)"; (2) "Themes (Looking at the World through Theme-Colored Glasses)"; (3) "Creating an Environment (Don't…

Klages, Ellen

368

Theoretical and computational models of biological ion channels.  

PubMed

The goal of this review is to establish a broad and rigorous theoretical framework to describe ion permeation through biological channels. This framework is developed in the context of atomic models on the basis of the statistical mechanical projection-operator formalism of Mori and Zwanzig. The review is divided into two main parts. The first part introduces the fundamental concepts needed to construct a hierarchy of dynamical models at different level of approximation. In particular, the potential of mean force (PMF) as a configuration-dependent free energy is introduced, and its significance concerning equilibrium and non-equilibrium phenomena is discussed. In addition, fundamental aspects of membrane electrostatics, with a particular emphasis on the influence of the transmembrane potential, as well as important computational techniques for extracting essential information from all-atom molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are described and discussed. The first part of the review provides a theoretical formalism to 'translate' the information from the atomic structure into the familiar language of phenomenological models of ion permeation. The second part is aimed at reviewing and contrasting results obtained in recent computational studies of three very different channels: the gramicidin A (gA) channel, which is a narrow one-ion pore (at moderate concentration), the KcsA channel from Streptomyces lividans, which is a narrow multi-ion pore, and the outer membrane matrix porin F (OmpF) from Escherichia coli, which is a trimer of three beta-barrel subunits each forming wide aqueous multi-ion pores. Comparison with experiments demonstrates that current computational models are approaching semi-quantitative accuracy and are able to provide significant insight into the microscopic mechanisms of ion conduction and selectivity. We conclude that all-atom MD with explicit water molecules can represent important structural features of complex biological channels accurately, including such features as the location of ion-binding sites along the permeation pathway. We finally discuss the broader issue of the validity of ion permeation models and an outlook to the future. PMID:17390604

Roux, Benoît; Allen, Toby; Bernèche, Simon; Im, Wonpil

2004-02-01

369

A category theoretical argument against the possibility of artificial life: Robert Rosen's central proof revisited.  

PubMed

One of Robert Rosen's main contributions to the scientific community is summarized in his book Life itself. There Rosen presents a theoretical framework to define living systems; given this definition, he goes on to show that living systems are not realizable in computational universes. Despite being well known and often cited, Rosen's central proof has so far not been evaluated by the scientific community. In this article we review the essence of Rosen's ideas leading up to his rejection of the possibility of real artificial life in silico. We also evaluate his arguments and point out that some of Rosen's central notions are ill defined. The conclusion of this article is that Rosen's central proof is wrong. PMID:16393453

Chu, Dominique; Ho, Weng Kin

2006-01-01

370

Theoretical analysis of signal-to-noise ratios for transient evoked otoacoustic emission recordings.  

PubMed

Recordings of transient-evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAEs) suffer from two main sources of contamination: Random noise and the stimulus artifact. The stimulus artifact can be substantially reduced by using a derived non-linear recording paradigm. Three such paradigms are analyzed, called here the level derived non-linear (LDNL), the double-evoked (DE), and the rate derived non-linear (RDNL) paradigms. While these methods successfully reduce the stimulus artifact, they lead to an increase in contamination by random noise. In this study, the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) achievable by these three paradigms is compared using a common theoretical framework. This analysis also allows the optimization of the parameters of the RDNL paradigm to achieve the maximum SNR. Calculations based on the analysis with typical parameters used in practice suggest that when ranked in terms of their SNR for a given averaging time, RDNL performs best followed by the LDNL and DE paradigms. PMID:23967942

Lineton, Ben

2013-09-01

371

A general framework and review of scatter correction methods in cone beam CT. Part 2: Scatter estimation approaches  

SciTech Connect

The main components of scatter correction procedures are scatter estimation and a scatter compensation algorithm. This paper completes a previous paper where a general framework for scatter compensation was presented under the prerequisite that a scatter estimation method is already available. In the current paper, the authors give a systematic review of the variety of scatter estimation approaches. Scatter estimation methods are based on measurements, mathematical-physical models, or combinations of both. For completeness they present an overview of measurement-based methods, but the main topic is the theoretically more demanding models, as analytical, Monte-Carlo, and hybrid models. Further classifications are 3D image-based and 2D projection-based approaches. The authors present a system-theoretic framework, which allows to proceed top-down from a general 3D formulation, by successive approximations, to efficient 2D approaches. A widely useful method is the beam-scatter-kernel superposition approach. Together with the review of standard methods, the authors discuss their limitations and how to take into account the issues of object dependency, spatial variance, deformation of scatter kernels, external and internal absorbers. Open questions for further investigations are indicated. Finally, the authors refer on some special issues and applications, such as bow-tie filter, offset detector, truncated data, and dual-source CT.

Ruehrnschopf and, Ernst-Peter; Klingenbeck, Klaus [Siemens AG, Healthcare Sector, Imaging and Therapy Division, D 91301 Forchheim (Germany)

2011-09-15

372

Amorphous metal-organic frameworks.  

PubMed

Conspectus Crystalline metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are porous frameworks comprising an infinite array of metal nodes connected by organic linkers. The number of novel MOF structures reported per year is now in excess of 6000, despite significant increases in the complexity of both component units and molecular networks. Their regularly repeating structures give rise to chemically variable porous architectures, which have been studied extensively due to their sorption and separation potential. More recently, catalytic applications have been proposed that make use of their chemical tunability, while reports of negative linear compressibility and negative thermal expansion have further expanded interest in the field. Amorphous metal-organic frameworks (aMOFs) retain the basic building blocks and connectivity of their crystalline counterparts, though they lack any long-range periodic order. Aperiodic arrangements of atoms result in their X-ray diffraction patterns being dominated by broad "humps" caused by diffuse scattering and thus they are largely indistinguishable from one another. Amorphous MOFs offer many exciting opportunities for practical application, either as novel functional materials themselves or facilitating other processes, though the domain is largely unexplored (total aMOF reported structures amounting to under 30). Specifically, the use of crystalline MOFs to detect harmful guest species before subsequent stress-induced collapse and guest immobilization is of considerable interest, while functional luminescent and optically active glass-like materials may also be prepared in this manner. The ion transporting capacity of crystalline MOFs might be improved during partial structural collapse, while there are possibilities of preparing superstrong glasses and hybrid liquids during thermal amorphization. The tuning of release times of MOF drug delivery vehicles by partial structural collapse may be possible, and aMOFs are often more mechanically robust than crystalline materials, which is of importance for industrial applications. In this Account, we describe the preparation of aMOFs by introduction of disorder into their parent crystalline frameworks through heating, pressure (both hydrostatic and nonhydrostatic), and ball-milling. The main method of characterizing these amorphous materials (analysis of the pair distribution function) is summarized, alongside complementary techniques such as Raman spectroscopy. Detailed investigations into their properties (both chemical and mechanical) are compiled and compared with those of crystalline MOFs, while the impact of the field on the processing techniques used for crystalline MOF powders is also assessed. Crucially, the benefits amorphization may bring to existing proposed MOF applications are detailed, alongside the possibilities and research directions afforded by the combination of the unique properties of the amorphous domain with the versatility of MOF chemistry. PMID:24707980

Bennett, Thomas D; Cheetham, Anthony K

2014-05-20

373

Overarching framework for data-based modelling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the main modelling paradigms for complex physical systems are networks. When estimating the network structure from measured signals, typically several assumptions such as stationarity are made in the estimation process. Violating these assumptions renders standard analysis techniques fruitless. We here propose a framework to estimate the network structure from measurements of arbitrary non-linear, non-stationary, stochastic processes. To this end, we propose a rigorous mathematical theory that underlies this framework. Based on this theory, we present a highly efficient algorithm and the corresponding statistics that are immediately sensibly applicable to measured signals. We demonstrate its performance in a simulation study. In experiments of transitions between vigilance stages in rodents, we infer small network structures with complex, time-dependent interactions; this suggests biomarkers for such transitions, the key to understand and diagnose numerous diseases such as dementia. We argue that the suggested framework combines features that other approaches followed so far lack.

Schelter, Björn; Mader, Malenka; Mader, Wolfgang; Sommerlade, Linda; Platt, Bettina; Lai, Ying-Cheng; Grebogi, Celso; Thiel, Marco

2014-02-01

374

Hydrogen storage inside graphene-oxide frameworks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we use applied mathematical modelling to investigate the storage of hydrogen molecules inside graphene-oxide frameworks, which comprise two parallel graphenes rigidly separated by perpendicular ligands. Hydrogen uptake is calculated for graphene-oxide frameworks using the continuous approximation and an equation of state for both the bulk and adsorption gas phases. We first validate our approach by obtaining results for two parallel graphene sheets. This result agrees well with an existing theoretical result, namely 1.85 wt% from our calculations, and 2 wt% arising from an ab initio and grand canonical Monte Carlo calculation. This provides confidence to the determination of the hydrogen uptake for the four graphene-oxide frameworks, GOF-120, GOF-66, GOF-28 and GOF-6, and we obtain 1.68, 2, 6.33 and 0 wt%, respectively. The high value obtained for GOF-28 may be partly explained by the fact that the benzenediboronic acid pillars between graphene sheets not only provide mechanical support and porous spaces for the molecular structure but also provide the higher binding energy to enhance the hydrogen storage inside graphene-oxide frameworks. For the other three structures, this binding energy is not as large in comparison to that of GOF-28 and this effect diminishes as the ligand density decreases. In the absence of conflicting data, the present work indicates GOF-28 as a likely contender for practical hydrogen storage.

Chan, Yue; Hill, James M.

2011-07-01

375

Hydrogen storage inside graphene-oxide frameworks.  

PubMed

In this paper, we use applied mathematical modelling to investigate the storage of hydrogen molecules inside graphene-oxide frameworks, which comprise two parallel graphenes rigidly separated by perpendicular ligands. Hydrogen uptake is calculated for graphene-oxide frameworks using the continuous approximation and an equation of state for both the bulk and adsorption gas phases. We first validate our approach by obtaining results for two parallel graphene sheets. This result agrees well with an existing theoretical result, namely 1.85 wt% from our calculations, and 2 wt% arising from an ab initio and grand canonical Monte Carlo calculation. This provides confidence to the determination of the hydrogen uptake for the four graphene-oxide frameworks, GOF-120, GOF-66, GOF-28 and GOF-6, and we obtain 1.68, 2, 6.33 and 0 wt%, respectively. The high value obtained for GOF-28 may be partly explained by the fact that the benzenediboronic acid pillars between graphene sheets not only provide mechanical support and porous spaces for the molecular structure but also provide the higher binding energy to enhance the hydrogen storage inside graphene-oxide frameworks. For the other three structures, this binding energy is not as large in comparison to that of GOF-28 and this effect diminishes as the ligand density decreases. In the absence of conflicting data, the present work indicates GOF-28 as a likely contender for practical hydrogen storage. PMID:21719967

Chan, Yue; Hill, James M

2011-07-29

376

Theoretical Astrophysics at Fermilab  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Theoretical Astrophysics Group works on a broad range of topics ranging from string theory to data analysis in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. The group is motivated by the belief that a deep understanding of fundamental physics is necessary to explain a wide variety of phenomena in the universe. During the three years 2001-2003 of our previous NASA grant, over 120 papers were written; ten of our postdocs went on to faculty positions; and we hosted or organized many workshops and conferences. Kolb and collaborators focused on the early universe, in particular and models and ramifications of the theory of inflation. They also studied models with extra dimensions, new types of dark matter, and the second order effects of super-horizon perturbations. S tebbins, Frieman, Hui, and Dodelson worked on phenomenological cosmology, extracting cosmological constraints from surveys such as the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. They also worked on theoretical topics such as weak lensing, reionization, and dark energy. This work has proved important to a number of experimental groups [including those at Fermilab] planning future observations. In general, the work of the Theoretical Astrophysics Group has served as a catalyst for experimental projects at Fennilab. An example of this is the Joint Dark Energy Mission. Fennilab is now a member of SNAP, and much of the work done here is by people formerly working on the accelerator. We have created an environment where many of these people made transition from physics to astronomy. We also worked on many other topics related to NASA s focus: cosmic rays, dark matter, the Sunyaev-Zel dovich effect, the galaxy distribution in the universe, and the Lyman alpha forest. The group organized and hosted a number of conferences and workshop over the years covered by the grant. Among them were:

2004-01-01

377

The Main Aeromonas Pathogenic Factors  

PubMed Central

The members of the Aeromonas genus are ubiquitous, water-borne bacteria. They have been isolated from marine waters, rivers, lakes, swamps, sediments, chlorine water, water distribution systems, drinking water and residual waters; different types of food, such as meat, fish, seafood, vegetables, and processed foods. Aeromonas strains are predominantly pathogenic to poikilothermic animals, and the mesophilic strains are emerging as important pathogens in humans, causing a variety of extraintestinal and systemic infections as well as gastrointestinal infections. The most commonly described disease caused by Aeromonas is the gastroenteritis; however, no adequate animal model is available to reproduce this illness caused by Aeromonas. The main pathogenic factors associated with Aeromonas are: surface polysaccharides (capsule, lipopolysaccharide, and glucan), S-layers, iron-binding systems, exotoxins and extracellular enzymes, secretion systems, fimbriae and other nonfilamentous adhesins, motility and flagella.

Tomas, J. M.

2012-01-01

378

Space shuttle main engine controller  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A technical description of the space shuttle main engine controller, which provides engine checkout prior to launch, engine control and monitoring during launch, and engine safety and monitoring in orbit, is presented. Each of the major controller subassemblies, the central processing unit, the computer interface electronics, the input electronics, the output electronics, and the power supplies are described and discussed in detail along with engine and orbiter interfaces and operational requirements. The controller represents a unique application of digital concepts, techniques, and technology in monitoring, managing, and controlling a high performance rocket engine propulsion system. The operational requirements placed on the controller, the extremely harsh operating environment to which it is exposed, and the reliability demanded, result in the most complex and rugged digital system ever designed, fabricated, and flown.

Mattox, R. M.; White, J. B.

1981-01-01

379

Main ring transition crossing simulations  

SciTech Connect

We used ESME to simulate transition crossing in the Main Ring (MR). For the simulations, we followed the MR 29 cycle used currently for {bar p} production with a flat top of 120 GeV. In Sect. II, some inputs are discussed. In Sect. III, we present simulations with space charge turned off so that the effect of nonlinearity can be studied independently. When space charge is turned on in Sect. IV, we are faced with the problem of statistical errors due to binning, an analysis of which is given in the Appendices. Finally in Sects. V and VI, the results of simulations with space charge are presented and compared with the experimental measurements. 7 refs., 6 figs.

Kourbanis, I.; Ng, King-Yuen.

1990-10-01

380

Bedrock Geologic Map of Maine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity students study a map of bedrock geology which describes the types of rocks that exist in a given area. It shows these rock units as well as their known and inferred contacts. Consideration is also given to folding, faulting, unconformities, and similar rock relationships. These features are often included in bedrock geology maps. Students study the legend and scale and become aware of the other information that is included on the map such as the stratigraphic column, list of formations, and inset map of metamorphic grade. Students then locate their city or town and draw a 40-mile diameter circle around it and identify all the symbols inside the circle and the age of the various rocks. Student question sheets are available at this site. Although this activity was written for a map of Maine, it will work in any state where geological maps are available.

381

M dwarfs: Theoretical work  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Theoretical work on the atmospheres of M dwarfs has progressed along lines parallel to those followed in the study of other classes of stars. Such models have become increasingly sophisticated as improvements in opacities, in the equation of state, and in the treatment of convection were incorporated during the last 15 to 20 years. As a result, spectrophotometric data on M dwarfs can now be fitted rather well by current models. The various attempts at modeling M dwarf photospheres in purely thermal terms are summarized. Some extensions of these models to include the effects of microturbulence and magnetic inhomogeneities are presented.

Mullan, Dermott J.

1987-01-01

382

Identity Education: A Conceptual Framework for Educational Researchers and Practitioners  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents the concept of identity education (IdEd) referring to the purposeful involvement of educators with students’ identity-related processes or contents. We discuss why educators may consider identity important to the realization of educational goals and choose to target aspects of students’ identity in their pedagogical practice. We offer a broad theoretical framework that organizes and focuses the extensive

ELLI P. SCHACHTER; YISRAEL RICH

2011-01-01

383

A passivity-based framework for resilient cyber physical systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resilient control systems play a special role in the area of cyber-physical systems, where the design must address the question how complex dynamic plants are to be controlled safely and reliably when a control system is under a cyber attack. In this paper we describe a control theoretical framework based on the concept of passivity for designing a control network

Nicholas Kottenstette; Gabor Karsai; Janos Sztipanovits

2009-01-01

384

TANGO: A FRAMEWORK AND SYSTEM FOR ALGORITHM ANIMATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Algorithm animation is the process of abstracting the data, operations, and semantics of computer programs, and then creating animated graphical views of those abstractions. Although a handful of algorithm animation systems have been developed in recent years, relatively little work has been done on the theoretical foundations of such systems. In this work we develop a conceptual framework with formal

John T. Stasko

1990-01-01

385

Framework for Bus Rapid Transit Development and Deployment Planning  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report presents the results of its investigation into deployment planning for bus rapid transit systems. In this study, we conducted a macro-scale examination of bus rapid transit systems from technical, operational, institutional, and planning perspectives. We then developed the theoretical foundation for a deployment planning framework for bus rapid transit systems that specifically takes into account the unique features

Mark A. Miller; Yafeng Yin; Tunde Balvanyos; Avishai Ceder

2004-01-01

386

A Framework for Mathematical Thinking: The Case of Linear Algebra  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Linear algebra is one of the unavoidable advanced courses that many mathematics students encounter at university level. The research reported here was part of the first author's recent PhD study, where she created and applied a theoretical framework combining the strengths of two major mathematics education theories in order to investigate the…

Stewart, Sepideh; Thomas, Michael O. J.

2009-01-01

387

Psychological Entropy: A Framework for Understanding Uncertainty-Related Anxiety  

Microsoft Academic Search

Entropy, a concept derived from thermodynamics and information theory, describes the amount of uncertainty and disorder within a system. Self-organizing systems engage in a continual dialogue with the environment and must adapt themselves to changing circumstances to keep internal entropy at a manageable level. We propose the entropy model of uncertainty (EMU), an integrative theoretical framework that applies the idea

Jacob B. Hirsh; Raymond A. Mar; Jordan B. Peterson

2012-01-01

388

Second Language Instructors and CALL: A Multidisciplinary Research Framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increasing importance of computer assisted language learning (CALL) in second language (L2) classes has added a new dimension to L2 research, and it has challenged scholars to find valid research methods and theoretical frameworks that can be applied in the analysis of the linguistic and social aspects of the interaction among students and instructors in CALL. Even though researchers

Gabriela C. Zapata

2004-01-01

389

Pricing Frameworks for Securitization of Mortality Risk1  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is now an accepted fact that stochastic mortality { the risk that future trends in mortality are difierent from those anticipated { is an important risk factor in both life insurance and pensions. As a risk factor it afiects how we calculate fair values, premium rates, and risk reserves. In this paper we discuss theoretical frameworks and models for

Andrew J. G. Cairns; David Blake; Kevin Dowd

2004-01-01

390

A Unified Framework for Monetary Theory and Policy Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Search-theoretic models of monetary exchange are based on explicit descriptions of the frictions that make money essential. However, tractable versions of these models typically make strong assumptions that render them ill suited for monetary policy analysis. We propose a new framework, based on explicit micro foundations, within which macro…

Lagos, Ricardo; Wright, Randall

2005-01-01

391

Construct Definition Using Cognitively Based Evidence: A Framework for Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, we highlight the need for a precisely defined construct in score-based validation and discuss the contribution of cognitive theories to accurately and comprehensively defining the construct. We propose a framework for integrating cognitively based theoretical and empirical evidence to specify and evaluate the construct. We apply…

Ketterlin-Geller, Leanne R.; Yovanoff, Paul; Jung, EunJu; Liu, Kimy; Geller, Josh

2013-01-01

392

Students' Science Process Skills within a Cognitive Domain Framework  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to investigate Turkish primary students' scientific process skills under the theoretical framework of cognitive domain. The sample set consisted of 306 sixth and seventh grade students from public, private, and bussed schools. The Turkish Integrated Process Skill Test was used to measure scientific process skills, and…

Ozgelen, Sinan

2012-01-01

393

Board Governance of Independent Schools: A Framework for Investigation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This paper develops a theoretical framework to guide future inquiry into board governance of independent schools. Design/methodology/approach: The authors' approach is to integrate literatures related to corporate and educational boards, motivation, leadership and group processes that are appropriate for conceptualizing independent school…

McCormick, John; Barnett, Kerry; Alavi, Seyyed Babak; Newcombe, Geoffrey

2006-01-01

394

A Framework for Tiered Service in MPLS Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many network operators offer some type of tiered service, in which users may select only from a small set of service levels (tiers). Such a service has the potential to simplify a wide range of core network functions, allowing the providers to scale their operations efficiently. In this work, we provide a theoretical framework for reasoning about and tackling algorithmically

George N. Rouskas; Nikhil Baradwaj

2007-01-01

395

Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge: A Framework for Teacher Knowledge  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research in the area of educational technology has often been critiqued for a lack of theoretical grounding. In this article we propose a conceptual framework for educational technology by building on Shulman's formulation of "pedagogical content knowledge" and extend it to the phenomenon of teachers integrating technology into their pedagogy.…

Mishra, Punya; Koehler, Matthew J.

2006-01-01

396

A Semi-Supervised Active Learning Framework for Image Retrieval  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although recent studies have shown that unlabeled data are beneficial to boosting the image retrieval performance, very few approaches for image retrieval can learn with la- beled and unlabeled data effectively. This paper proposes a novel semi-supervised active learning framework compris- ing a fusion of semi-supervised learning and support vec- tor machines. We provide theoretical analysis of the active learningframework

Steven C. H. Hoi; Michael R. Lyu

2005-01-01

397

Argumentation in Science Education: A Model-Based Framework  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The goal of this article is threefold: First, the theoretical background for a model-based framework of argumentation to describe and evaluate argumentative processes in science education is presented. Based on the general model-based perspective in cognitive science and the philosophy of science, it is proposed to understand arguments as reasons…

Bottcher, Florian; Meisert, Anke

2011-01-01

398

A Framework for High-Accuracy Privacy-Preserving Mining  

Microsoft Academic Search

To preserve client privacy in the data mining process, a variety of techniques based on random perturbation of individual data records have been proposed recently. In this paper, we present FRAPP, a generalized matrix-theoretic framework of random perturbation, which facilitates a systematic approach to the design of perturbation mechanisms for privacy-preserving mining. Specifically, FRAPP is used to demonstrate that (a)

Shipra Agrawal; Jayant R. Haritsa

2005-01-01

399

A Framework for High-Accuracy Privacy-Preserving Mining  

Microsoft Academic Search

To preserve client privacy in the data mining process, a variety of techniques based on random perturbation of in- dividual data records have been proposed recently. In this paper, we present FRAPP, a generalized matrix-theoretic framework of random perturbation, which facilitates a sys- tematic approach to the design of perturbation mechanisms for privacy-preserving mining. Specifically, FRAPP is used to demonstrate

Shipra Agrawal; Jayant R. Haritsa

2004-01-01

400

Everything Is Connected: Giftedness within a Broad Framework for Cognition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ziegler and Phillipson (Z&P) have provided a valuable discussion of the identification and development of giftedness under a systemic umbrella, including issues of differing theoretical approaches and efficacy. This commentary considers their discussion within a novel systemic framework that links also individuals and environment, but in terms of…

Woolcott, Geoff

2012-01-01

401

Implications of a control-theoretic approach to human-automation-plant interface design  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article critically evaluates some of the design guidelines proposed by researchers investigating human automation interaction. A control theoretic framework is proposed to introduce a set of important conceptual distinctions that need to be respected in automation research and design. The framework is applied to a specific topic of recent research focus, modes in aviation automation. Although previous research in

Greg A. Jamieson; Kim J. Vicente

1998-01-01

402

Unified Framework for Approximation in Inverse Problems for Distributed Parameter Systems,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The authors present a theoretical framework that can be used to treat approximation techniques for very general classes of parameter estimation problems involving distributed systems that are either first or second order in time. Using the approach develo...

H. T. Banks K. Ito

1987-01-01

403

Dark matter: Theoretical perspectives  

SciTech Connect

I both review and make the case for the current theoretical prejudice: a flat Universe whose dominant constituent is nonbaryonic dark matter, emphasizing that this is still a prejudice and not yet fact. The theoretical motivation for nonbaryonic dark matter is discussed in the context of current elementary-particle theory, stressing that: (1) there are no dark matter candidates within the standard model of particle physics; (2) there are several compelling candidates within attractive extensions of the standard model of particle physics; and (3) the motivation for these compelling candidates comes first and foremost from particle physics. The dark-matter problem is now a pressing issue in both cosmology and particle physics, and the detection of particle dark matter would provide evidence for ``new physics.`` The compelling candidates are: a very light axion ( 10{sup {minus}6} eV--10{sup {minus}4} eV); a light neutrino (20 eV--90 eV); and a heavy neutralino (10 GeV--2 TeV). The production of these particles in the early Universe and the prospects for their detection are also discussed. I briefly mention more exotic possibilities for the dark matter, including a nonzero cosmological constant, superheavy magnetic monopoles, and decaying neutrinos.

Turner, M.S. [Chicago Univ., IL (United States). Enrico Fermi Inst.]|[Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (United States)

1993-01-01

404

Dark matter: theoretical perspectives.  

PubMed Central

I both review and make the case for the current theoretical prejudice: a flat Universe whose dominant constituent is nonbaryonic dark matter, emphasizing that this is still a prejudice and not yet fact. The theoretical motivation for nonbaryonic dark matter is discussed in the context of current elementary-particle theory, stressing that (i) there are no dark-matter candidates within the "standard model" of particle physics, (ii) there are several compelling candidates within attractive extensions of the standard model of particle physics, and (iii) the motivation for these compelling candidates comes first and foremost from particle physics. The dark-matter problem is now a pressing issue in both cosmology and particle physics, and the detection of particle dark matter would provide evidence for "new physics." The compelling candidates are a very light axion (10(-6)-10(-4) eV), a light neutrino (20-90 eV), and a heavy neutralino (10 GeV-2 TeV). The production of these particles in the early Universe and the prospects for their detection are also discussed. I briefly mention more exotic possibilities for the dark matter, including a nonzero cosmological constant, superheavy magnetic monopoles, and decaying neutrinos.

Turner, M S

1993-01-01

405

Avoiding piecemeal research on participation in cervical cancer screening: the advantages of a social identity framework.  

PubMed

Background? Cervical cancer screening research has predominantly focused on one type of participation, namely compliance with medical recommendations, and has largely ignored other types of participation. While there is some research that has taken a different approach, findings in this research area are not well integrated under a theoretical framework. Objective? The aim of this study is to show how consideration of a broader definition of participation and better integration of the theoretical conceptualization of participation in cervical cancer screening are both possible and desirable to enable a better understanding of women's experiences of cervical cancer screening specifically and to improve women's health generally. Main Conclusion? It is suggested that alternative types of participation in cervical cancer screening warrant further investigation and that a social identity theoretical approach offers one way of integrating such conceptualizations of participation. The paper also argues for more explicit consideration of the role of social processes and of the variables, such as power, social identity and relational justice, which are involved in participation in cervical cancer screening. PMID:22646802

Tribe, Candice; Webb, Janine

2014-08-01

406

Main Dangers of Our Times.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Terrorism and threatening dictatorships are the main, man-made, dangers of our times. They are run by master demagogues, or, brain-washing manipulators. ----- Our next step in coping with terrorism is to counter master demagoguery. Therefore, supporting EDUCATION that would emphasize the most unifying (and the least controversial), yet, BASIC CIVIC RESPECT for lives of people in a civilian human society, is a priority everywhere on our planet. ----- At the same time we start facing mostly small, threatening, dictatorships, capable of producing weapons of mass destruction. Therefore, we have to try to contribute to developing systems of FREE ELECTIONS, controlling weapons of mass destruction, wherever such dangers exist. ----- In a foreseeable future, unfortunately, we are facing a danger even by orders of magnitude greater. We are facing a possibility of a mass-produced heavy accumulation of inter-continental nuclear missiles, on a computerized "push-button" control, by a very powerful (and, quite possibly, miscalculating, or, suicidal) dictator, dangerous to the very existence of humanity on our planet. Therefore, it is a historical urgency that such a technological power be under the control by a government of the people, by the people and for the people, based on a sufficiently reliable system of FREE ELECTIONS, wherever, on our planet, such a potential danger may originate.

Synek, Miroslav

2003-03-01

407

Main Injector synchronous timing system  

SciTech Connect

The Synchronous Timing System is designed to provide sub-nanosecond timing to instrumen-tation during the acceleration of particles in the Main Injector. Increased energy of the beam particles leads to a small but significant increase in speed, reducing the time it takes to com-plete a full turn of the ring by 61 nanoseconds (or more than 3 RF buckets). In contrast, the reference signal, used to trigger instrumentation and transmitted over a cable, has a constant group delay. This difference leads to a phase slip during the ramp and prevents instrumentation such as dampers from properly operating without additional measures. The Synchronous Tim-ing System corrects for this phase slip as well as signal propagation time changes due to tem-perature variations. A module at the LLRF system uses a 1.2 Gbit/s G-Link chip to transmit the RF clock and digital data (e.g. the current frequency) over a single mode fiber around the ring. Fiber optic couplers at service buildings split off part of this signal for a local module which reconstructs a synchronous beam reference signal. This paper describes the background, design, and expected performance of the Synchronous Timing System.

Willem Blokland and James Steimel

1999-03-02

408

Main injector synchronous timing system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Synchronous Timing System is designed to provide sub-nanosecond timing to instrumentation during the acceleration of particles in the Main Injector. Increased energy of the beam particles leads to a small but significant increase in speed, reducing the time it takes to complete a full turn of the ring by 61 nanoseconds (or more than 3 rf buckets). In contrast, the reference signal, used to trigger instrumentation and transmitted over a cable, has a constant group delay. This difference leads to a phase slip during the ramp and prevents instrumentation such as dampers from properly operating without additional measures. The Synchronous Timing System corrects for this phase slip as well as signal propagation time changes due to temperature variations. A module at the LLRF system uses a 1.2 Gbit/s G-Link chip to transmit the rf clock and digital data (e.g. the current frequency) over a single mode fiber around the ring. Fiber optic couplers at service buildings split off part of this signal for a local module which reconstructs a synchronous beam reference signal. This paper describes the background, design and expected performance of the Synchronous Timing System.

Blokland, Willem; Steimel, James

1998-12-01

409

Main injector synchronous timing system  

SciTech Connect

The Synchronous Timing System is designed to provide sub-nanosecond timing to instrumentation during the acceleration of particles in the Main Injector. Increased energy of the beam particles leads to a small but significant increase in speed, reducing the time it takes to complete a full turn of the ring by 61 nanoseconds (or more than 3 rf buckets). In contrast, the reference signal, used to trigger instrumentation and transmitted over a cable, has a constant group delay. This difference leads to a phase slip during the ramp and prevents instrumentation such as dampers from properly operating without additional measures. The Synchronous Timing System corrects for this phase slip as well as signal propagation time changes due to temperature variations. A module at the LLRF system uses a 1.2 Gbit/s G-Link chip to transmit the rf clock and digital data (e.g. the current frequency) over a single mode fiber around the ring. Fiber optic couplers at service buildings split off part of this signal for a local module which reconstructs a synchronous beam reference signal. This paper describes the background, design and expected performance of the Synchronous Timing System.

Blokland, Willem; Steimel, James [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory Batavia, Illinois 60510 (United States)

1998-12-10

410

Main injector synchronous timing system  

SciTech Connect

The Synchronous Timing System is designed to provide sub-nanosecond timing to instrumentation during the acceleration of particles in the Main Injector. Increased energy of the beam particles leads to a small but significant increase in speed, reducing the time it takes to complete a full turn of the ring by 61 nanoseconds (or more than 3 rf buckets). In contrast, the reference signal, used to trigger instrumentation and transmitted over a cable, has a constant group delay. This difference leads to a phase slip during the ramp and prevents instrumentation such as dampers from properly operating without additional measures. The Synchronous Timing System corrects for this phase slip as well as signal propagation time changes due to temperature variations. A module at the LLRF system uses a 1.2 Gbit/s G-Link chip to transmit the rf clock and digital data (e.g. the current frequency) over a single mode fiber around the ring. Fiber optic couplers at service buildings split off part of this signal for a local module which reconstructs a synchronous beam reference signal. This paper describes the background, design and expected performance of the Synchronous Timing System. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

Blokland, W.; Steimel, J. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory Batavia, Illinois 60510 (United States)

1998-12-01

411

Dravet syndrome: the main issues.  

PubMed

Dravet syndrome (DS) is a severe form of infantile onset epilepsy characterized by multiple seizure types, prolonged convulsive seizures and frequent episodes of status epilepticus. Seizures precipitated by fever are a main characteristic. Affected children exhibit normal early development. Cognitive impairment, behavioral disturbances with hyperactivity and sometimes autistic traits occur after seizure onset. Seizures persist into adulthood but become less frequent. In about 85% of patients, a mutation of the SCN1A gene is present. DS fully illustrates the concept of epileptic encephalopathy. However, it is difficult to determine the causative role of the underlying sodium channel dysfunction and that of the consequent seizures in influencing cognitive outcome. An overwhelmingly high number of SCN1A mutations have been associated with DS. Intragenic or whole gene deletions, duplications and amplifications are additional rare molecular mechanisms. Most mutations are de novo, but familial mutations also occur. Somatic mosaic mutations should be considered when estimating the recurrence. MRI imaging is usually normal, and no neuropathologic signature of the condition seems to exist. In heterozygous Scn1a+/- mice, GABAergic interneurons exhibit substantially reduced sodium current density with reduced ability for sustained action potential firing. GABAergic output is reduced and excitability of downstream synaptic targets increased. Stiripentol was effective in combination with valproate and clobazam in two pivotal phase III trials. Phenytoin, carbamazepine, and lamotrigine can worsen seizures and should be avoided. Prospective studies will clarify to what extent earlier diagnosis and efforts at seizure control with the most appropriate drug combinations will reduce clinical deterioration. PMID:22705271

Guerrini, Renzo

2012-09-01

412

Geologic framework of oil and gas genesis in main sedimentary basins from Romania Oprea Dicea  

SciTech Connect

Oil and gas fields located in Moldavic nappes are encompassed in Oligocene and lower Miocene formations, mostly in the marginal folds nappe, where Kliwa Sandstone sequences have high porosity, and in the Black Sea Plateau. The origin of the hydrocarbon accumulations from the Carpathian foredeep seems to be connected to the Oligocene-lower Miocene bituminous formations of the marginal folds and sub-Carpathian nappes. In the Gethic depression, the hydrocarbon accumulations originate in Oligocene and Miocene source rocks and host in structural, stratigraphical, and lithological traps. The accumulations connected with tectonic lines that outline the areal extension of the Oligocene, Miocene, and Pliocene formations are in the underthrusted Moesian platform. The hydrocarbon accumulations related to the Carpathian foreland represent about 40% of all known accumulations in Romania. Most of them are located in the Moesian platform. In this unit, the oil and gas fields present a vertical distribution at different stratigraphic levels, from paleozoic to Neogene, and in all types of reservoirs, suggesting multicycles of oleogenesis, migration, accumulation, and sealing conditions. The hydrocarbon deposits known so far on the Black Sea continental plateau are confined in the Albian, Cenomanian, Turonian-Senonian, and Eocene formations. The traps are of complex type structural, lithologic, and stratigraphic. The reservoirs are sandstones, calcareous sandstones, limestones, and sands. The hydrocarbon source rocks are pelitic and siltic Oligocene formations. Other older source rocks are probably Cretaceous.

Ionescu, N.; Morariu, C.D. (IPGG, Bucharest (Romania))

1991-03-01

413

Orthotics research evaluation framework.  

PubMed

The evaluation framework presented here defines a three-tier hierarchy of the functional goals of rehabilitation, using the tenodesis splint as an example of an orthosis designed to improve limb function. These goals are combined with five categories of evaluative criteria to create a matrix. Based upon the key validity assumptions underlying the goals, conjoint criteria are suggested. Directions of development and inquiry are indicated. The matrix illustrates the separation as well as the integration of goal levels and evaluative categories; it sets the stage for the proper context and relative importance of specific splinting. This framework will increase the validity of criteria for orthotics evaluation in the design of future clinical studies. PMID:1147749

Rizzo, F; Hamilton, B B; Keagy, R D

1975-07-01

414

Geothermal Sustainability Assessment Framework  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With increasing global energy consumption, geothermal energy usage is set to increase in the future. There is potential for geothermal developments in many countries all over the world, where geothermal resources are located. Geothermal developments may result in both positive and negative environmental and socio-economic impacts. Sustainability assessment tools are useful to decision-makers in showing the progress of energy developments towards sustainability. Due to the unique issues associated with geothermal energy projects, a customized framework for assessing the sustainability of such projects is required. This presentation describes the development of a sustainability assessment framework for geothermal energy projects, using the input of international multi-stakeholder groups and internationally recognized methods.

Shortall, Ruth

2014-05-01

415

[Framework analysis method in qualitative research].  

PubMed

In recent years a number of qualitative research methods have gained popularity within the health care arena. Despite this popularity, different qualitative analysis methods pose many challenges to most researchers. The present paper responds to the needs expressed by recent Chinese medicine researches. The present paper is mainly focused on the concepts, nature, application of framework analysis, especially on how to use it, in such a way to assist the newcomer of Chinese medicine researchers to engage with the methodology. PMID:24941857

Liao, Xing; Liu, Jian-ping; Robison, Nicola; Xie, Ya-ming

2014-05-01

416

A Research Framework for Interaction Computing  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This paper lays out an interdisciplinary research framework that integrates perspectives from physics, biology, mathematics,\\u000a and computer science to develop a vision of interaction computing. The paper recounts the main insights and lessons learned\\u000a in the past six years across multiple projects, gives a current definition of the problem, and outlines a research programme\\u000a for how to approach it that

Paolo Dini; Daniel Schreckling

2010-01-01

417

Zeolite A imidazolate frameworks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Faujasite (FAU) and zeolite A (LTA) are technologically important porous zeolites (aluminosilicates) because of their extensive use in petroleum cracking and water softening. Introducing organic units and transition metals into the backbone of these types of zeolite allows us to expand their pore structures, enhance their functionality and access new applications. The invention of metal-organic frameworks and zeolitic imidazolate frameworks (ZIFs) has provided materials based on simple zeolite structures where only one type of cage is present. However, so far, no metal-organic analogues based on FAU or LTA topologies exist owing to the difficulty imposed by the presence of two types of large cage (super- and ?-cages for FAU, ?- and ?-cages for LTA). Here, we have identified a strategy to produce an LTA imidazolate framework in which both the link geometry and link-link interactions play a decisive structure-directing role. We describe the synthesis and crystal structures of three porous ZIFs that are expanded analogues of zeolite A; their cage walls are functionalized, and their metal ions can be changed without changing the underlying LTA topology. Hydrogen, methane, carbon dioxide and argon gas adsorption isotherms are reported and the selectivity of this material for carbon dioxide over methane is demonstrated.

Hayashi, Hideki; Côté, Adrien P.; Furukawa, Hiroyasu; O'Keeffe, Michael; Yaghi, Omar M.

2007-07-01

418

A Game Theoretic Approach for Analyzing the Efficiency of Web Services in Collaborative Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because web services are loosely-coupled business applications, they are called to cooperate in distributed com- puting for the sake of efficiency. In this paper we propose a model formalizing web services efficiency considering different related parameters and a game-theoretical framework analyz- ing the web services strategies allowing them to maximize this efficiency. Many theoretical results are proved and confirmed through

Babak Khosravifar; Mahsa Alishahi; Jamal Bentahar; Philippe Thiran

2011-01-01

419

Theoretical resources for a globalised bioethics.  

PubMed

In an age of global capitalism, pandemics, far-flung biobanks, multinational drug trials and telemedicine it is impossible for bioethicists to ignore the global dimensions of their field. However, if they are to do good work on the issues that globalisation requires of them, they need theoretical resources that are up to the task. This paper identifies four distinct understandings of 'globalised' in the bioethics literature: (1) a focus on global issues; (2) an attempt to develop a universal ethical theory that can transcend cultural differences; (3) an awareness of how bioethics itself has expanded, with new centres and journals emerging in nearly every corner of the globe; (4) a concern to avoid cultural imperialism in encounters with other societies. Each of these approaches to globalisation has some merit, as will be shown. The difficulty with them is that the standard theoretical tools on which they rely are not designed for cross-cultural ethical reflection. As a result, they leave important considerations hidden. A set of theoretical resources is proposed to deal with the moral puzzles of globalisation. Abandoning idealised moral theory, a normative framework is developed that is sensitive enough to account for differences without losing the broader context in which ethical issues arise. An empirically nourished, self-reflexive, socially inquisitive, politically critical and inclusive ethics allows bioethicists the flexibility they need to pick up on the morally relevant particulars of this situation here without losing sight of the broader cultural contexts in which it all takes place. PMID:21109698

Verkerk, Marian A; Lindemann, Hilde

2011-02-01

420

Nanoporous designer solids with huge lattice constant gradients: multiheteroepitaxy of metal-organic frameworks.  

PubMed

We demonstrate the realization of hierarchically organized MOF (metal-organic framework) multilayer systems with pronounced differences in the size of the nanoscale pores. Unusually large values for the lattice constant mismatch at the MOF-MOF heterojunctions are made possible by a particular liquid-phase epitaxy process. The multiheteroepitaxy is demonstrated for the isoreticular SURMOF-2 series [ Liu et al. Sci. Rep. 2012 , 2 , 921 ] by fabricating trilayer systems with lattice constants of 1.12, 1.34, and 1.55 nm. Despite these large (20%) lattice mismatches, highly crystalline, oriented multilayers were obtained. A thorough theoretical analysis of the MOF-on-MOF heterojunction structure and energetics allows us to identify the two main reasons for this unexpected tolerance of large lattice mismatch: the healing of vacancies with acetate groups and the low elastic constant of MOF materials. PMID:24512342

Wang, Zhengbang; Liu, Jinxuan; Lukose, Binit; Gu, Zhigang; Weidler, Peter G; Gliemann, Hartmut; Heine, Thomas; Wöll, Christof

2014-03-12

421

MOND—theoretical aspects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

I discuss open theoretical questions pertaining to the modified dynamics (MOND)—a proposed alternative to dark matter, which posits a breakdown of Newtonian dynamics in the limit of small accelerations. In particular, I point the reasons for thinking that MOND is an effective theory—perhaps, despite appearance, not even in conflict with GR. I then contrast the two interpretations of MOND as modified gravity and as modified inertia. I describe two mechanical models that are described by potential theories similar to (non-relativistic) MOND: a potential-flow model, and a membrane model. These might shed some light on a possible origin of MOND. The possible involvement of vacuum effects is also speculated on.

Milgrom, Mordehai

2002-11-01

422

Theoretical Leonid entry modeling  

SciTech Connect

In this work we present a model originally developed by ReVelle (1979, 1993) that has been applied to model large Leonid bolides with a few relatively minor modifications and one major modification which allows for catastrophic 'pancake: fragmentation processes as described below. The minor modifications include allowing the energy of ablation per unit mass for vaporization, Qvap, to be a free variable that is adjusted until agreement is obtained between the theoretical model and the statistically expected ablation coefficient for the Leonids (Group IIIB type bolide). It was found that the Qvap had to be reduced by a factor of about five times compared to the accepted value of Qvap for cometary materials. Alternative ways of achieving this degree of agreement between theory and observations are also suggested as well. In a separate paper we apply this model to a specific Leonid bolide during the 1998 storm period.

ReVelle, D. O. (Douglas O.)

2001-01-01

423

Theoretical Particle Astrophysics  

SciTech Connect

Abstract: Theoretical Particle Astrophysics The research carried out under this grant encompassed work on the early Universe, dark matter, and dark energy. We developed CMB probes for primordial baryon inhomogeneities, primordial non-Gaussianity, cosmic birefringence, gravitational lensing by density perturbations and gravitational waves, and departures from statistical isotropy. We studied the detectability of wiggles in the inflation potential in string-inspired inflation models. We studied novel dark-matter candidates and their phenomenology. This work helped advance the DoE's Cosmic Frontier (and also Energy and Intensity Frontiers) by finding synergies between a variety of different experimental efforts, by developing new searches, science targets, and analyses for existing/forthcoming experiments, and by generating ideas for new next-generation experiments.

Kamionkowski, Marc

2013-08-07

424

Theoretical SIS mixer research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Theoretical research has been conducted to elucidate the basic physics behind the properties of superconductor-insulator-superconductor (SIS) tunnel junction receiving devices. The properties of SIS mixers using nonideal junctions and finite LO power, were determined by analytic expansion of the equations of the quantum theory of mixing, and also by computer simulations of SIS receivers over the entire range of experimental parameters. The result is a new coherent and intuitive picture of SIS mixer behavior. Many of the outstanding mysteries and questions about SIS receivers are resolved, and this contributes greatly to the design and interpretation of SIS mixer experiments. Other calculations show how to achieve sub-quantum noise temperatures in the phase sensitive SIS mixer, an important step towards realization of ultra-low-noise detectors. A simplified model casts doubt on the superlative experimental results reported for the RF-series dc-parallel biased array SIS mixer.

Feldman, Marc J.

1993-06-01

425

Space Shuttle Main Engine performance analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

For a number of years, NASA has relied primarily upon periodically updated versions of Rocketdyne's power balance model (PBM) to provide space shuttle main engine (SSME) steady-state performance prediction. A recent computational study indicated that PBM predictions do not satisfy fundamental energy conservation principles. More recently, SSME test results provided by the Technology Test Bed (TTB) program have indicated significant discrepancies between PBM flow and temperature predictions and TTB observations. Results of these investigations have diminished confidence in the predictions provided by PBM, and motivated the development of new computational tools for supporting SSME performance analysis. A multivariate least squares regression algorithm was developed and implemented during this effort in order to efficiently characterize TTB data. This procedure, called the 'gains model,' was used to approximate the variation of SSME performance parameters such as flow rate, pressure, temperature, speed, and assorted hardware characteristics in terms of six assumed independent influences. These six influences were engine power level, mixture ratio, fuel inlet pressure and temperature, and oxidizer inlet pressure and temperature. A BFGS optimization algorithm provided the base procedure for determining regression coefficients for both linear and full quadratic approximations of parameter variation. Statistical information relative to data deviation from regression derived relations was also computed. A new strategy for integrating test data with theoretical performance prediction was also investigated. The current integration procedure employed by PBM treats test data as pristine and adjusts hardware characteristics in a heuristic manner to achieve engine balance. Within PBM, this integration procedure is called 'data reduction.' By contrast, the new data integration procedure, termed 'reconciliation,' uses mathematical optimization techniques, and requires both measurement and balance uncertainty estimates. The reconciler attempts to select operational parameters that minimize the difference between theoretical prediction and observation. Selected values are further constrained to fall within measurement uncertainty limits and to satisfy fundamental physical relations (mass conservation, energy conservation, pressure drop relations, etc.) within uncertainty estimates for all SSME subsystems. The parameter selection problem described above is a traditional nonlinear programming problem. The reconciler employs a mixed penalty method to determine optimum values of SSME operating parameters associated with this problem formulation.

Santi, L. Michael

1993-01-01

426

Rebels without a clause: towards an institutional framework for dealing with plagiarism by students  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores why an institutional framework for dealing with plagiarism by students is necessary and it outlines the main ingredients of such a framework that has been developed at Lancaster University. It defines plagiarism as a form of academic malpractice and frames it as a breach of academic integrity. The framework places a strong emphasis on prevention and education,

Chris Park

2004-01-01

427

The First Decade of the Community of Inquiry Framework: A Retrospective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article provides a personal perspective about the development of the seminal papers associated with the Community of Inquiry Framework. The framework and its construction are described. The main part of the paper explores the evolution of the framework and its associated methodology. Finally, research associated with the validation of the…

Garrison, D. Randy; Anderson, Terry; Archer, Walter

2010-01-01

428

Preparation of functionalized zeolitic frameworks  

DOEpatents

The disclosure provides zeolitic frameworks for gas separation, gas storage, catalysis and sensors. More particularly the disclosure provides zeolitic frameworks (ZIFs). The ZIF of the disclosure comprises any number of transition metals or a homogenous transition metal composition.

Yaghi, Omar M; Furukawa, Hiroyasu; Wang, Bo

2013-07-09

429

Preparation of functionalized zeolitic frameworks  

DOEpatents

The disclosure provides zeolitic frameworks for gas separation, gas storage, catalysis and sensors. More particularly the disclosure provides zeolitic frameworks (ZIFs). The ZIF of the disclosure comprises any number of transition metals or a homogenous transition metal composition.

Yaghi, Omar M; Hayashi, Hideki; Banerjee, Rahul; Park, Kyo Sung; Wang, Bo; Cote, Adrien P

2012-11-20

430

Career "Mist," "Hope," and "Drift": Conceptual Framework for Understanding Career Development in Japan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this research is to present a new theoretical framework concerning subjective career development in Japan. The framework consists of three concepts, namely, career "drift," "mist," and "hope". Design/methodology/approach: This paper introduces these concepts, including how they were discovered, and the potential strength…

Kato, Ichiro; Suzuki, Ryuta

2006-01-01

431

Self-Referent Constructs and Medical Sociology: In Search of an Integrative Framework  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A theoretical framework centering on four classes of self-referent constructs is offered as a device for integrating the diverse areas constituting medical sociology. Guidance by this framework sensitizes the researcher to the occurrence of parallel processes in adjacent disciplines, facilitates recognition of the etiological significance of…

Kaplan, Howard B.

2007-01-01

432

Adventure Learning and Learner-Engagement: Frameworks for Designers and Educators  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is a recognized need for theoretical frameworks that can guide designers and educators in the development of engagement-rich learning experiences that incorporate emerging technologies in pedagogically sound ways. This study investigated one such promising framework, adventure learning (AL). Data were gathered via surveys, interviews, direct…

Henrickson, Jeni; Doering, Aaron

2013-01-01

433

Learning and Motivation in Multiple Contexts: The Development of a Heuristic Framework  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents the development of a heuristic framework that integrates three aspects of context (perspective, content and level) from a number of established theoretical approaches. In this framework, context is viewed from different perspectives (subjective and objective), it comprises different contents (physical, social and formal) and it…

Wosnitza, Marold; Beltman, Susan

2012-01-01

434

Supplier development with benchmarking as part of a comprehensive supplier risk management framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of the paper is to present and empirically support a theoretically sound, operational, and easy-to-implement supplier risk management framework that focuses on supplier development using a benchmarking approach. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper develops a five stage framework for supplier risk management, entailing supplier risk identification, assessment of supplier risks, reporting and decision of supplier risks, supplier

Sabine Matook; Rainer Lasch; Rick Tamaschke

2009-01-01

435

A Deweyian Framework for Youth Development in Experiential Education: Perspectives from Sail Training and Sailing Instruction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this piece, we put forth a Deweyian framework for youth development activities in outdoor and adventure education programs, and we show how such a framework may be exemplified by activities in sail training and sailing instruction. The paper begins with a discussion of the theoretical features of Deweyian educational experiences and makes…

Wojcikiewicz, Steven K.; Mural, Zachary B.

2010-01-01

436

Characterizing Key Developmental Understandings and Pedagogically Powerful Ideas within a Statistical Knowledge for Teaching Framework  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A hypothetical framework to characterize statistical knowledge for teaching (SKT) is described. Empirical grounding for the framework is provided by artifacts from an undergraduate course for prospective teachers that concentrated on the development of SKT. The theoretical notion of "key developmental understanding" (KDU) is used to identify…

Groth, Randall E.

2013-01-01

437

Activity Theory as a potential framework for human- computer interaction research  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the recent years the mainstream framework for HCI research — the information- processing cognitive psychology —has gained more and more criticism because of serious problems in applying it both in research and practical design. In a debate within HCI research the capability of information processing psychology has been questioned and new theoretical frameworks searched. This paper presents an overview

Kari Kuutti

1996-01-01

438

Using the TPACK Framework to Facilitate Decision Making on Instructional Technologies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Technological pedagogical content knowledge ("TPACK") is a theoretical framework used primarily in the field of education to facilitate the integration of technology into educational endeavors. This framework can be particularly valuable to librarians, who are heavy users of technology, and can provide a structure that can help…

Sobel, Karen; Grotti, Margaret G.

2013-01-01

439

Statistical mechanics framework for static granular matter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The physical properties of granular materials have been extensively studied in recent years. So far, however, there exists no theoretical framework which can explain the observations in a unified manner beyond the phenomenological jamming diagram. This work focuses on the case of static granular matter, where we have constructed a statistical ensemble which mirrors equilibrium statistical mechanics. This ensemble, which is based on the conservation properties of the stress tensor, is distinct from the original Edwards ensemble and applies to packings of deformable grains. We combine it with a field theoretical analysis of the packings, where the field is the Airy stress function derived from the force and torque balance conditions. In this framework, Point J characterized by a diverging stiffness of the pressure fluctuations. Separately, we present a phenomenological mean-field theory of the jamming transition, which incorporates the mean contact number as a variable. We link both approaches in the context of the marginal rigidity picture proposed by Wyart and others.

Henkes, Silke; Chakraborty, Bulbul

2009-06-01

440

Conceptual frameworks and empirical approaches used to assess the impact of health research: an overview of reviews  

PubMed Central

Background How to assess the impact of research is of growing interest to funders, policy makers and researchers mainly to understand the value of investments and to increase accountability. Broadly speaking the term "research impact" refers to the contribution of research activities to achieve desired societal outcomes. The aim of this overview is to identify the most common approaches to research impact assessment, categories of impact and their respective indicators. Methods We systematically searched the relevant literature (PubMed, The Cochrane Library (1990-2009)) and funding agency websites. We included systematic reviews, theoretical and methodological papers, and empirical case-studies on how to evaluate research impact. We qualitatively summarised the included reports, as well the conceptual frameworks. Results We identified twenty-two reports belonging to four systematic reviews and 14 primary studies. These publications reported several theoretical frameworks and methodological approaches (bibliometrics, econometrics, ad hoc case studies). The "payback model" emerged as the most frequently used. Five broad categories of impact were identified: a) advancing knowledge, b) capacity building, c) informing decision-making, d) health benefits, e) broad socio-economic benefits. For each proposed category of impact we summarized a set of indicators whose pros and cons are presented and briefly discussed. Conclusions This overview is a comprehensive, yet descriptive, contribution to summarize the conceptual framework and taxonomy of an heterogeneous and evolving area of research. A shared and comprehensive conceptual framework does not seem to be available yet and its single components (epidemiologic, economic, and social) are often valued differently in different models.

2011-01-01

441

The Information FrameWork  

Microsoft Academic Search

John Zachman's framework for information systems architecture has been widely discussed since its publication in the IBM Systems Journal in 1987. This paper shows how the development of the Information FrameWork (IFW) has built upon the ideas presented by Zachman. However, the objectives and scope of IFW are broader than that of the original Zachman framework. IFW is described and

Roger Evernden

1996-01-01

442

Evaluation of current architecture frameworks  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the growing importance of enterprise architecture the discussion about how to create or choose the right enterprise architecture framework for a specific organization arose quickly. But it is not only a question of choosing the right framework for describing or developing an enterprise architecture. It is more important to discover whether the chosen architecture framework meets the defined requirements

Susanne Leist; Gregor Zellner

2006-01-01

443

A framework for technical leadership  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides a framework for acquiring and teaching the skills and knowledge required in the development of technical leaders. This framework was developed to support teaching a graduate systems engineering management course. The framework was developed based on two principal criteria: (1) breadth and depth of materials that clearly distinguish it from undergraduate or other training material, and (2)

K. J. Arunski

2002-01-01

444

Framework for ecological risk assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increased interest in ecological issues such as global climate change, habitat loss, acid deposition, reduced biological diversity, and the ecological impacts of pesticides and toxic chemicals prompts this U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) report, A Framework for Ecological Risk Assessment ('Framework Report'). The report describes basic elements, or a framework, for evaluating scientific information on the adverse effects of physical

D. Rodier; S. Norton; John H. Gentile; William H. van der Schalie; William P. Wood; Michael W. Slimak

1992-01-01

445

Second generation registry framework  

PubMed Central

Background Information management systems are essential to capture data be it for public health and human disease, sustainable agriculture, or plant and animal biosecurity. In public health, the term patient registry is often used to describe information management systems that are used to record and track phenotypic data of patients. Appropriate design, implementation and deployment of patient registries enables rapid decision making and ongoing data mining ultimately leading to improved patient outcomes. A major bottleneck encountered is the static nature of these registries. That is, software developers are required to work with stakeholders to determine requirements, design the system, implement the required data fields and functionality for each patient registry. Additionally, software developer time is required for ongoing maintenance and customisation. It is desirable to deploy a sophisticated registry framework that can allow scientists and registry curators possessing standard computing skills to dynamically construct a complete patient registry from scratch and customise it for their specific needs with little or no need to engage a software developer at any stage. Results This paper introduces our second generation open source registry framework which builds on our previous rare disease registry framework (RDRF). This second generation RDRF is a new approach as it empowers registry administrators to construct one or more patient registries without software developer effort. New data elements for a diverse range of phenotypic and genotypic measurements can be defined at any time. Defined data elements can then be utilised in any of the created registries. Fine grained, multi-level user and workgroup access can be applied to each data element to ensure appropriate access and data privacy. We introduce the concept of derived data elements to assist the data element standards communities on how they might be best categorised. Conclusions We introduce the second generation RDRF that enables the user-driven dynamic creation of patient registries. We believe this second generation RDRF is a novel approach to patient registry design, implementation and deployment and a significant advance on existing registry systems.

2014-01-01

446

Theoretical atomic collision physics  

SciTech Connect

The theoretical atomic physics at Rice University focuses on obtaining a better understanding of the mechanisms that control inelastic collisions between excited atoms and atoms, molecules and ions. Particular attention is given to systems and processes that are of potential importance to advanced energy technologies. In the current year, significant progress has been made in quantitative studies of: quenching of low-Rydberg Na atoms in thermal energy collisions with He, Ne and Ar atoms; selective excitation resulting from charge transfer in collisions of highly stripped ions of He, Li, C, and with Li, Na and He atoms and H{sub 2} molecules at keV energies; differential elastic and single, and double electron transfer in He{sup ++} collisions with He at keV energies; inelastic electron-transfer in ultra-low-energy-energy (T=8 to 80K) collisions between {sup 3}He{sup +} and {sup 4}He and {sup 4}He{sup +} and {sup 3}He; a formalism for ionization by electron impact of ions in dense, high temperature plasmas.

Lane, N.F. (Rice Univ., Houston, TX (USA) Rice Univ., Houston, TX (USA). Quantum Inst.)

1990-01-01

447

Changing Places, Changing Spaces? Towards Understanding Teacher Education through Space-Time Frameworks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article draws together theoretical ideas from studies of space/spatiality and the history of teacher education. These ideas form a theoretical framework through which to analyse the findings from a small-scale ethnographic study of the geographical relocations made by two university schools of education in England. Data collection instruments…

Murray, Jean

2012-01-01

448

An entropic framework for modeling economies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We develop an information-theoretic framework for economic modeling. This framework is based on principles of entropic inference that are designed for reasoning on the basis of incomplete information. We take the point of view of an external observer who has access to limited information about broad macroscopic economic features. We view this framework as complementary to more traditional methods. The economy is modeled as a collection of agents about whom we make no assumptions of rationality (in the sense of maximizing utility or profit). States of statistical equilibrium are introduced as those macrostates that maximize entropy subject to the relevant information codified into constraints. The basic assumption is that this information refers to supply and demand and is expressed in the form of the expected values of certain quantities (such as inputs, resources, goods, production functions, utility functions and budgets). The notion of economic entropy is introduced. It provides a measure of the uniformity of the distribution of goods and resources. It captures both the welfare state of the economy as well as the characteristics of the market (say, monopolistic, concentrated or competitive). Prices, which turn out to be the Lagrange multipliers, are endogenously generated by the economy. Further studies include the equilibrium between two economies and the conditions for stability. As an example, the case of the nonlinear economy that arises from linear production and utility functions is treated in some detail.

Caticha, Ariel; Golan, Amos

2014-08-01

449

A framework for rehabilitation for cancer survivors.  

PubMed

This paper introduces a theoretical framework that recognises the rehabilitation needs of people who have cancer and offers a multi-tiered model to meet these needs. Various models for providing survivorship care have been previously proposed, giving rise to multiple possible delivery systems. Existing cancer rehabilitation frameworks recognise different phases of illness, goals of care and the need for services at all stages of illness. The 'Stained Glass Cancer Rehabilitation Framework' incorporates survivor needs and rehabilitation modalities, arranged in a practical hierarchy and builds on earlier models. A broad view of rehabilitation services considers complexity, temporal and geographic factors. Recognition that needs emerge over time demands a routine long-term approach to screening for physical, functional and psychosocial rehabilitation needs by medical and other health professionals. New methods of care delivery and coordination from specialist to primary care settings are needed, long after treatment is completed. Service delivery infrastructure supported by funding reform and training of rehabilitation professionals in delivering appropriate interventions for cancer survivors is essential, together with more research into cancer rehabilitation interventions, functional outcomes and their delivery. PMID:23750612

Pearson, E J M; Twigg, V J

2013-11-01

450

Field-Theoretic Treatment of Disordered Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis explores a field-theoretic approach to systems characterized by self-assembly and disorder. Such systems, with their many degrees of freedom and resulting complex properties, are well suited for a field-theoretic, or functional-integral, description. Surfactant self-assembly, and in particular oil, water, and surfactant bicontinuous phases, are investigated by a nonlinear field-theoretic model. The anharmonic model treats bonding constraints and the resulting frustration of phase separation in terms of an electrostatic analogy. The model does not assume self-assembly, and it accounts for all long-wavelength density fluctuations. With physically reasonable values for the parameters that characterize the model, the predictions of the theory compare favorably with scattering experiments. The structure of interfaces in oil-water-surfactant bicontinuous phases is examined with the aid of this model. In particular, a reference system that explicitly allows for interfaces is used within a variational approach. On length scales consistent with a microscopic length cutoff, the theory predicts distinct microphase separation for some systems that have been considered bicontinuous. For other systems, for which microphase separation but not bicontinuity has been imagined, the theory predicts near homogeneity, i.e., highly diffuse interfaces. The long-time self-diffusion properties of oil and water are investigated in one bicontinuous surfactant system for which sharp interfaces are predicted by the theory. Specifically, the reduction of oil and water self -diffusion coefficients due to the complicated geometrical arrangement of oil-rich and water-rich phases is discussed. This reduction, the tortuosity factor, is calculated by a massively -parallel, quenched Monte Carlo calculation. The behavior of classical particles diffusing in a more general type of disorder is then discussed. In this case, the diffusion of a particle in a solid medium is hindered by the presence of defects in the medium. Within a functional integral framework, effective diffusion coefficients are calculated by first-order and second-order self-consistent perturbation theories. A one-loop momentum space renormalization group calculation is also carried out. The self-consistent methods are complicated numerically and fail beyond intermediate disorder strengths. In contrast, the renormalization group calculation gives an analytical result that appears valid even to high disorder strengths. We conclude with a field-theoretic approach to liquid structure. The field theory is derived directly from a classical Hamiltonian. The RISM approach to liquid state structure is derived as an approximate consequence of this field theory. Self-consistent corrections to the intramolecular correlation function are also derived. With the use of previously derived results, a treatment of homopolymers spanning the concentration range from dilute to melt is achieved within this framework.

Deem, Michael William

451

STAR Analysis Framework  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The STAR collaboration has developed STAF (STAR Analysis Framework), a distributable data analysis framework based upon the software bus concept and implemented using CORBA-compliant(http://www.omg.org) C++ classes. The extended lifetime of the experiment, the prodigious quantity of data to be handled, and the number of collaborators compel us to pay special attention in software design to the maintainability, upgradability, and scalability of the analysis software for STAR. Object-oriented programming techniques provide a powerful tool for the development and maintenance of complex software systems. The emergence of the CORBA software bus standard from the Object Management Group presents a well-accepted industry standard for combining an OOP approach to software development with a software model distributed over a heterogeneous computer network. We are currently using STAF to develop analysis code on simulated data using the familiar KUIP command-line interface from CERN. We present an overview of the design of STAF, some results from our experience with the software environment, plans for distributing STAF components for event parallel processing, and for upgrading the user interface to a distributed, network-based interface using Java(tm) from Sun Microsystems, Inc.

Olson, D. L.; Tull, C. E.

1996-10-01

452

Tinkering at the main-ring lattice  

SciTech Connect

To improve production of usable antiprotons using the proton beam from the main ring and the lossless injection of cooled antiprotons into the main ring, modifications of the main ring lattice are recommended.

Ohnuma, S.

1982-08-23

453

Field-Theoretic Simulations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The science and engineering of materials is entering a new era of so-called "designer materials", wherein, based upon the properties required for a particular application, a material is designed by exploiting the self-assembly of appropriately chosen molecular constituents [1]. The desirable and marketable properties of such materials, which include plastic alloys, block and graft copolymers, and polyelectrolyte solutions, complexes, and gels, depend critically on the ability to control and manipulate morphology by adjusting a combination of molecular and macroscopic variables. For example, styrenebutadiene block copolymers can be devised that serve either as rigid, tough, transparent thermoplastics or as soft, flexible, thermoplastic elastomers, by appropriate control of copolymer architecture and styrene/butadiene ratio. In this case, the property profiles are intimately connected to the extent and type of nanoscale self-assembly that is established within the material. One of the main challenges confronting the successful design of nano-structured polymers is the development of a basic understanding of the relationship between the molecular details of the polymer formulation and the morphology that is achieved. Unfortunately, such relationships are still mainly determined by trial and error experimentation. A purely experimental-based program in pursuit of this objective proves cumbersome — primarily, due to the broad parameter space accessible at the time of synthesis and formulation. Consequently, there is a significant motivation for the development of computational tools that can enable a rational exploration of the parameter space.

Ganesan, Venkat; Fredrickson, Glenn H.

454

TAD- THEORETICAL AERODYNAMICS PROGRAM  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This theoretical aerodynamics program, TAD, was developed to predict the aerodynamic characteristics of vehicles with sounding rocket configurations. These slender, axisymmetric finned vehicle configurations have a wide range of aeronautical applications from rockets to high speed armament. Over a given range of Mach numbers, TAD will compute the normal force coefficient derivative, the center-of-pressure, the roll forcing moment coefficient derivative, the roll damping moment coefficient derivative, and the pitch damping moment coefficient derivative of a sounding rocket configured vehicle. The vehicle may consist of a sharp pointed nose of cone or tangent ogive shape, up to nine other body divisions of conical shoulder, conical boattail, or circular cylinder shape, and fins of trapezoid planform shape with constant cross section and either three or four fins per fin set. The characteristics computed by TAD have been shown to be accurate to within ten percent of experimental data in the supersonic region. The TAD program calculates the characteristics of separate portions of the vehicle, calculates the interference between separate portions of the vehicle, and then combines the results to form a total vehicle solution. Also, TAD can be used to calculate the characteristics of the body or fins separately as an aid in the design process. Input to the TAD program consists of simple descriptions of the body and fin geometries and the Mach range of interest. Output includes the aerodynamic characteristics of the total vehicle, or user-selected portions, at specified points over the mach range. The TAD program is written in FORTRAN IV for batch execution and has been implemented on an IBM 360 computer with a central memory requirement of approximately 123K of 8 bit bytes. The TAD program was originally developed in 1967 and last updated in 1972.

Barrowman, J.

1994-01-01

455

Theoretical study of imidazole...NO complexes.  

PubMed

A set of weak complexes between imidazole (Imi) and nitric oxide (NO) were calculated with UMP2/6-31++G(d,p) and UMP2/6-311++G(2d,2p) levels of theory. Planar and nonplanar geometries were considered. Complexes of NO and protonated imidazole (ImiH(+)) were also studied due to the biological important effect of Imi protonation. It was found that ring protonation increases the stability of planar complexes and does not affect significantly nonplanar complexes. The Z-H...XY (Z = C, N and X, Y = N, O) interactions resulted as hydrogen bonds according to Koch and Popelier criteria based on AIM theory. Charge transfer was also found very important for complex stabilization within our theoretical framework. Planar NO...ImiH(+) complexes are more stable than those obtained with neutral Imi. PMID:19957917

Crespo-Otero, Rachel; Bravo-Rodríguez, Kenny; Suardíaz, Reynier; Montero, Luis A; García de la Vega, José M

2009-12-31

456

Cross Support Transfer Service (CSTS) Framework Library  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Within the Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS), there is an effort to standardize data transfer between ground stations and control centers. CCSDS plans to publish a collection of transfer services that will each address the transfer of a particular type of data (e.g., tracking data). These services will be called Cross Support Transfer Services (CSTSs). All of these services will make use of a common foundation that is called the CSTS Framework. This library implements the User side of the CSTS Framework. "User side" means that the library performs the role that is typically expected of the control center. This library was developed in support of the Goddard Data Standards program. This technology could be applicable for control centers, and possibly for use in control center simulators needed to test ground station capabilities. The main advantages of this implementation are its flexibility and simplicity. It provides the framework capabilities, while allowing the library user to provide a wrapper that adapts the library to any particular environment. The main purpose of this implementation was to support the inter-operability testing required by CCSDS. In addition, it is likely that the implementation will be useful within the Goddard mission community (for use in control centers).

Ray, Timothy

2014-01-01

457

An Information Theoretic Approach to Speaker Diarization of Meeting Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract. A speaker diarization system based on an information theoretic framework,is de- scribed. The problem is formulated according to the Information Bottleneck (IB) principle. Un- like other approaches where the distance between speaker segments is arbitrarily introduced, IB method,seeks the partition that maximizes,the mutual,information between observations and variables relevant for the problem while minimizing the distortion between observations. This solves

Deepu Vijayasenan; Fabio Valente; Hervé Bourlard

2009-01-01

458

Theoretical Quality Assessment of Myocardial Elastography with In Vivo Validation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Myocardial elastography (ME), a radio frequency (RF)-based speckle tracking technique with one-dimensional (1-D) cross correlation and novel recorrelation methods in a 2-D search was proposed to estimate and fully image 2-1) transmural deformation field and to detect abnormal cardiac function. A theoretical framework was first developed in order to evaluate the performance of 2-D myocardial elastography based on a previously

Wei-Ning Lee; Christopher M. Ingrassia; Simon D. Fung-Kee-Fung; Kevin D. Costa; Jeffrey W. Holmes; Elisa E. Konofagou

2007-01-01

459

The Methodology of Self-Study and Its Theoretical Underpinnings  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this chapter I summarize the epistemological, pedagogical, and moral\\/ethical\\/political underpinnings of self-study, which\\u000a serve as the conceptual framework for the field. I then offer a characterization of the methodology of self-study in relationship\\u000a to those theoretical foundations by encapsulating the predominant pedagogical strategies, research methods, and research representations\\u000a in the literature to date. I conceptualize self-study as “a methodology

Vicki Kubler LaBoskey

460

Supply chain collaboration : Theoretical perspectives and empirical evidence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Presents a theoretical framework for analysing interorganizational collaboration. Argues that Collaborative Planning, Forecasting and Replenishment (CPFR) should be viewed as a general approach to coordination of processes between participants in a supply chain, rather than following a slavish step-by-step model, as suggested by the organization Voluntary Inter-Industry Commerce Standards (VICS). This approach demands a deeper analysis of both integration depth

Tage Skjoett-Larsen; Christian Thernøe; Claus Andresen

2003-01-01

461

Implementation techniques for main memory database systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the availability of very large, relatively inexpensive main memories, it is becoming possible keep large databases resident in main memory In this paper we consider the changes necessary to permit a relational database system to take advantage of large amounts of main memory We evaluate AVL vs B+-tree access methods for main memory databases, hash-based query processing strategies vs

David J DeWitt; Randy H Katz; Frank Olken; Leonard D Shapiro; Michael R Stonebraker; David A. Wood

1984-01-01

462

Skutterudite: Theoretical and Experimental Study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker coherent potential approximation (KKR-CPA) calculations of Ag-doped CoSb3 point to the presence of either an extra sharp peak of s-symmetry Ag density of states near the valence-band edge when filling the void (2 a) or to conventional p-type doping when substituting Sb site (24 g). These results suggest a resonant-like impurity level in the former or nearly rigid-band behavior in the latter. To confirm the theoretical predictions, a series of samples with nominal composition Co8Sb24:Ag x ( x = 0, 0.1, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5) were prepared. Structural and phase composition analyses were carried out by x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and scanning thermoelectric microprobe. Investigations of the influence of Ag impurity on the electrical conductivity and Seebeck coefficient were performed over the temperature range from 300 K to 560 K. It was found that doping CoSb3 with Ag leads to an increase of the thermoelectric power factor ? 2 ? in the temperature range from 300 K to 475 K of about an order of magnitude for all doped samples. However, electron probe microanalysis revealed accumulation of Ag mainly in grain boundaries while the presence of Ag in CoSb3 crystallites was not confirmed. This observation corroborates the results of KKR-CPA calculations concerning the formation energy of the Ag x Co4Sb12 system, which is much lower than values calculated for A x Co4Sb12 ( A = Ca, Ba).

Nieroda, P.; Kutorasinski, K.; Tobola, J.; Wojciechowski, K. T.

2014-06-01

463

Nonextensive information-theoretic measure for image edge detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a nonextensive information-theoretic measure called Jensen-Tsallis divergence, which may be defined between any arbitrary number of probability distributions, and we analyze its main theoretical properties. Using the theory of majorization, we also derive its upper bounds performance. To gain further insight into the robustness and the application of the Jensen-Tsallis divergence measure in imaging, we provide some numerical experiments to show the power of this entopic measure in image edge detection.

Ben Hamza, Abdessamad

2006-01-01

464

An Automata-Theoretic Approach to Infinite-State Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we develop an automata-theoretic framework for reasoning about infinite-state sequential systems. Our framework is based on the observation that states of such systems, which carry a finite but unbounded amount of information, can be viewed as nodes in an infinite tree, and transitions between states can be simulated by finite-state automata. Checking that a system satisfies a temporal property can then be done by an alternating two-way tree automaton that navigates through the tree. We show how this framework can be used to solve the model-checking problem for ?-calculus and LTL specifications with respect to pushdown and prefix-recognizable systems. In order to handle model checking of linear-time specifications, we introduce and study path automata on trees. The input to a path automaton is a tree, but the automaton cannot split to copies and it can read only a single path of the tree.

Kupferman, Orna; Piterman, Nir; Vardi, Moshe Y.

465

The health impacts of globalisation: a conceptual framework  

PubMed Central

This paper describes a conceptual framework for the health implications of globalisation. The framework is developed by first identifying the main determinants of population health and the main features of the globalisation process. The resulting conceptual model explicitly visualises that globalisation affects the institutional, economic, social-cultural and ecological determinants of population health, and that the globalisation process mainly operates at the contextual level, while influencing health through its more distal and proximal determinants. The developed framework provides valuable insights in how to organise the complexity involved in studying the health effects resulting from globalisation. It could, therefore, give a meaningful contribution to further empirical research by serving as a 'think-model' and provides a basis for the development of future scenarios on health.

Huynen, Maud MTE; Martens, Pim; Hilderink, Henk BM

2005-01-01