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1

The Basic Theoretical Framework  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cosmology is by now a mature experimental science. We are privileged to live at a time when the story of genesis (how the Universe started and developed) can be critically explored by direct observations. Looking deep into the Universe through powerful telescopes, we can see images of the Universe when it was younger because of the finite time it takes light to travel to us from distant sources. Existing data sets include an image of the Universe when it was 0.4 million years old (in the form of the cosmic microwave background), as well as images of individual galaxies when the Universe was older than a billion years. But there is a serious challenge: in between these two epochs was a period when the Universe was dark, stars had not yet formed, and the cosmic microwave background no longer traced the distribution of matter. And this is precisely the most interesting period, when the primordial soup evolved into the rich zoo of objects we now see. The observers are moving ahead along several fronts. The first involves the construction of large infrared telescopes on the ground and in space, that will provide us with new photos of the first galaxies. Current plans include ground-based telescopes which are 24-42 m in diameter, and NASA's successor to the Hubble Space Telescope, called the James Webb Space Telescope. In addition, several observational groups around the globe are constructing radio arrays that will be capable of mapping the three-dimensional distribution of cosmic hydrogen in the infant Universe. These arrays are aiming to detect the long-wavelength (redshifted 21-cm) radio emission from hydrogen atoms. The images from these antenna arrays will reveal how the non-uniform distribution of neutral hydrogen evolved with cosmic time and eventually was extinguished by the ultra-violet radiation from the first galaxies. Theoretical research has focused in recent years on predicting the expected signals for the above instruments and motivating these ambitious observational projects.

Loeb, Abraham

2

A Theoretical Framework for Chimera Domain Decomposition  

E-print Network

A Theoretical Framework for Chimera Domain Decomposition S. L. Keeling Sverdrup Technology, Inc. Steger, UC Davis, May 2-4, 1997. 1 Introduction. The Chimera scheme is a domain decomposition method- ometry is divided into simply shaped regions. Unlike other approaches [5], the Chimera method simplifies

Keeling, Stephen L.

3

Developing a theoretical framework for complex community-based interventions.  

PubMed

Applying existing theories to research, in the form of a theoretical framework, is necessary to advance knowledge from what is already known toward the next steps to be taken. This article proposes a guide on how to develop a theoretical framework for complex community-based interventions using the Cardiovascular Health Awareness Program as an example. Developing a theoretical framework starts with identifying the intervention's essential elements. Subsequent steps include the following: (a) identifying and defining the different variables (independent, dependent, mediating/intervening, moderating, and control); (b) postulating mechanisms how the independent variables will lead to the dependent variables; (c) identifying existing theoretical models supporting the theoretical framework under development; (d) scripting the theoretical framework into a figure or sets of statements as a series of hypotheses, if/then logic statements, or a visual model; (e) content and face validation of the theoretical framework; and (f) revising the theoretical framework. In our example, we combined the "diffusion of innovation theory" and the "health belief model" to develop our framework. Using the Cardiovascular Health Awareness Program as the model, we demonstrated a stepwise process of developing a theoretical framework. The challenges encountered are described, and an overview of the strategies employed to overcome these challenges is presented. PMID:23564493

Angeles, Ricardo N; Dolovich, Lisa; Kaczorowski, Janusz; Thabane, Lehana

2014-01-01

4

Affect in Mathematics Education--Exploring Theoretical Frameworks. Research Forum  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document brings into a dialogue some of the theoretical frameworks used to study affect in mathematics education. It presents affect as a representational system, affect as one regulator of the dynamic self, affect in a socio-constructivist framework, and affect as embodied. It also evaluates these frameworks from different perspectives:…

Hannula, Markku; Evans, Jeff; Philippou, George; Zan, Rosetta

2004-01-01

5

New Theoretical Frameworks for Interferometric Imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the advent of new instruments (MIRC-6T at CHARA, PIONEER at VLTI, and VISION at NPOI) as well as the construction of MROI, the focus in optical and infrared interferometry has shifted toward imaging. However, examining the current “model-independent” image reconstruction packages proves they are often inadequate to reconstruct even simple objects. We present here two possible paths that are being explored to improve the quality of image reconstruction. The first is the Compressed Sensing framework, which prescribes the use of spatial bases in which the object is sparse. The second is the Bayesian evidence framework, which allows to discrimination between physical models in imaging. We illustrate the application of both frameworks with reconstruction of a simulated spotted star.

Baron, F.; Monnier, J.; Young, J.; Buscher, D.

2014-09-01

6

Bayesian Decision Theoretical Framework for Clustering  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this thesis, we establish a novel probabilistic framework for the data clustering problem from the perspective of Bayesian decision theory. The Bayesian decision theory view justifies the important questions: what is a cluster and what a clustering algorithm should optimize. We prove that the spectral clustering (to be specific, the…

Chen, Mo

2011-01-01

7

A Statistical Decision-Theoretic Framework for Social Choice  

E-print Network

A Statistical Decision-Theoretic Framework for Social Choice Hossein Azari Soufiani David C. Parkes with an explicit decision space and loss function. azari@google.com, Google Research, New York, NY 10011, USA

Varela, Carlos

8

EDUCATIONAL CARTOGRAPHY: MAPPING A THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although school atlases represent a major sector in cartographic publishing, we know little about how these materials are developed. This is partly because the number of people directly involved in research and development worldwide is relatively small, partly because commercial competition has generally stifled debate and partly because theoretical perspectives on map design for young people remain underdeveloped. Although the

Patrick Wiegand

9

Responsive space: Concept analysis and theoretical framework  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Customers' needs are dynamic and evolve in response to unfolding environmental uncertainties. The ability of a company or an industry to address these changing customers' needs in a timely and cost-effective way is a measure of its responsiveness. In the space industry, a systemic discrepancy exists between the time constants associated with the change of customers' needs, and the response time of the industry in delivering on-orbit solutions to these needs. There are important penalties associated with such delays, and space responsiveness is recognized as a strategic imperative in commercial competitive and military environments. In this paper, we provide a critical assessment of the literature on responsive space and introduce a new multi-disciplinary framework for thinking about and addressing issues of space responsiveness. Our framework advocates three levels of responsiveness: a global industry-wide responsiveness, a local stakeholder responsiveness, and an interactive or inter-stakeholder responsiveness. We introduce and motivate the use of "responsiveness maps" for multiple stakeholders. We then identify "levers of responsiveness": technical spacecraft- and launch-centric, as well as "soft" levers (e.g., acquisition policies) for improving the responsiveness of the space industry. Finally, we propose a series of research questions to aggressively tackle problems associated with space responsiveness.

Saleh, Joseph H.; Dubos, Gregory F.

2009-08-01

10

Exploring how globalization shapes education: methodology and theoretical framework  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This is a commentary on some major issues raised in Carter and Dediwalage's "Globalisation and science education: The case of Sustainability by the bay" (this issue), particularly their methodology and theoretical framework for understanding how globalisation shapes education (including science education). While acknowledging the authors' contribution to the literature on globalisation and education, it questions the degree to which their analysis captures and explains how globalisation shapes science education, and examines how the research can be complemented by altering its methodology and expanding its theoretical framework.

Pan, Su-Yan

2010-06-01

11

A Theoretical Framework for Physics Education Research: Modeling Student Thinking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Education is a goal-oriented field. But if we want to treat education\\u000ascientifically so we can accumulate, evaluate, and refine what we learn, then\\u000awe must develop a theoretical framework that is strongly rooted in objective\\u000aobservations and through which different theoretical models of student thinking\\u000acan be compared. Much that is known in the behavioral sciences is robust and

Edward F. Redish

2004-01-01

12

Educational Communities of Inquiry: Theoretical Framework, Research and Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Communications technologies have been continuously integrated into learning and training environments which has revealed the need for a clear understanding of the process. The Community of Inquiry (COI) Theoretical Framework has a philosophical foundation which provides planned guidelines and principles to development useful learning environments…

Akyol, Zehra; Garrison, D. Randy

2013-01-01

13

Location Uncertainty in Mobile Networks: a theoretical framework \\Lambda  

E-print Network

are the unique stresses imposed by mobile computing and especially mobile computer programs (agents). As an aid number of different ports or connection media. Likewise, a mobile network service or agent [1--4] mightLocation Uncertainty in Mobile Networks: a theoretical framework \\Lambda Christopher Rose & Roy

Yates, Roy

14

A Theoretical Framework towards Understanding of Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children's emotional and behavioural difficulties are the result of multiple individual, social and contextual factors working in concert. The current paper proposes a theoretical framework to interpret students' emotional and behavioural difficulties in schools, by taking into consideration teacher-student relationships, students'…

Poulou, Maria S.

2014-01-01

15

Exploring How Globalization Shapes Education: Methodology and Theoretical Framework  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is a commentary on some major issues raised in Carter and Dediwalage's "Globalisation and science education: The case of "Sustainability by the bay"" (this issue), particularly their methodology and theoretical framework for understanding how globalisation shapes education (including science education). While acknowledging the authors'…

Pan, Su-Yan

2010-01-01

16

UNSUPERVISED LEARNING: AN INFORMATION THEORETIC FRAMEWORK SUDHIR MADHAV RAO  

E-print Network

UNSUPERVISED LEARNING: AN INFORMATION THEORETIC FRAMEWORK By SUDHIR MADHAV RAO A DISSERTATION FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2008 1 #12;c 2008 Sudhir Madhav Rao 2 #12;To Parents to express my gratitude to all my committee members; Dr. Murali Rao, Dr. John G. Harris and Dr.Clint Slatton

Slatton, Clint

17

Toward a theoretical framework for trustworthy cyber sensing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cyberspace is an indispensable part of the economy and society, but has been "polluted" with many compromised computers that can be abused to launch further attacks against the others. Since it is likely that there always are compromised computers, it is important to be aware of the (dynamic) cyber security-related situation, which is however challenging because cyberspace is an extremely large-scale complex system. Our project aims to investigate a theoretical framework for trustworthy cyber sensing. With the perspective of treating cyberspace as a large-scale complex system, the core question we aim to address is: What would be a competent theoretical (mathematical and algorithmic) framework for designing, analyzing, deploying, managing, and adapting cyber sensor systems so as to provide trustworthy information or input to the higher layer of cyber situation-awareness management, even in the presence of sophisticated malicious attacks against the cyber sensor systems?

Xu, Shouhuai

2010-04-01

18

Theoretical framework for estimating snow distribution through point measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years, marked improvements in our knowledge of the statistical properties of the spatial distribution of snow properties have been achieved thanks to improvements in measuring technologies (e.g. LIDAR, TLS, and GPR). Despite of this, objective and quantitative frameworks for the evaluation of errors and extrapolations in snow measurements have been lacking. Here, we present a theoretical framework for quantitative evaluations of the uncertainty of point measurements of snow depth when used to represent the average depth over a profile section or an area. The error is defined as the expected value of the squared difference between the real mean of the profile/field and the sample mean from a limited number of measurements. The model is tested for one and two dimensional survey designs that range from a single measurement to an increasing number of regularly-spaced measurements. Using high-resolution (~1 m) LIDAR snow depths at two locations in Colorado, we show that the sample errors follow the theoretical behavior. Furthermore, we show how the determination of the spatial location of the measurements can be reduced to an optimization problem for the case of the predefined number of measurements, or to the designation of an acceptable uncertainty level to determine the total number of regularly-spaced measurements required to achieve such error. On this basis, a series of figures are presented that can be used to aid in the determination of the survey design under the conditions described, and under the assumption of prior knowledge of the spatial covariance/correlation properties. With this methodology, better objective survey designs can be accomplished, tailored to the specific applications for which the measurements are going to be used. The theoretical framework can be extended to other spatially distributed snow variables (e.g. SWE) whose statistical properties are comparable to those of snow depth.

Trujillo, E.; Lehning, M.

2015-01-01

19

Development of a theoretical framework for analyzing cerebrospinal fluid dynamics  

PubMed Central

Background To date hydrocephalus researchers acknowledge the need for rigorous but utilitarian fluid mechanics understanding and methodologies in studying normal and hydrocephalic intracranial dynamics. Pressure volume models and electric circuit analogs introduced pressure into volume conservation; but control volume analysis enforces independent conditions on pressure and volume. Previously, utilization of clinical measurements has been limited to understanding of the relative amplitude and timing of flow, volume and pressure waveforms; qualitative approaches without a clear framework for meaningful quantitative comparison. Methods Control volume analysis is presented to introduce the reader to the theoretical background of this foundational fluid mechanics technique for application to general control volumes. This approach is able to directly incorporate the diverse measurements obtained by clinicians to better elucidate intracranial dynamics and progression to disorder. Results Several examples of meaningful intracranial control volumes and the particular measurement sets needed for the analysis are discussed. Conclusion Control volume analysis provides a framework to guide the type and location of measurements and also a way to interpret the resulting data within a fundamental fluid physics analysis. PMID:19772652

Cohen, Benjamin; Voorhees, Abram; Vedel, Søren; Wei, Timothy

2009-01-01

20

A Game Theoretic Framework for Analyzing Re-Identification Risk  

PubMed Central

Given the potential wealth of insights in personal data the big databases can provide, many organizations aim to share data while protecting privacy by sharing de-identified data, but are concerned because various demonstrations show such data can be re-identified. Yet these investigations focus on how attacks can be perpetrated, not the likelihood they will be realized. This paper introduces a game theoretic framework that enables a publisher to balance re-identification risk with the value of sharing data, leveraging a natural assumption that a recipient only attempts re-identification if its potential gains outweigh the costs. We apply the framework to a real case study, where the value of the data to the publisher is the actual grant funding dollar amounts from a national sponsor and the re-identification gain of the recipient is the fine paid to a regulator for violation of federal privacy rules. There are three notable findings: 1) it is possible to achieve zero risk, in that the recipient never gains from re-identification, while sharing almost as much data as the optimal solution that allows for a small amount of risk; 2) the zero-risk solution enables sharing much more data than a commonly invoked de-identification policy of the U.S. Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA); and 3) a sensitivity analysis demonstrates these findings are robust to order-of-magnitude changes in player losses and gains. In combination, these findings provide support that such a framework can enable pragmatic policy decisions about de-identified data sharing. PMID:25807380

Wan, Zhiyu; Vorobeychik, Yevgeniy; Xia, Weiyi; Clayton, Ellen Wright; Kantarcioglu, Murat; Ganta, Ranjit; Heatherly, Raymond; Malin, Bradley A.

2015-01-01

21

A game theoretic framework for analyzing re-identification risk.  

PubMed

Given the potential wealth of insights in personal data the big databases can provide, many organizations aim to share data while protecting privacy by sharing de-identified data, but are concerned because various demonstrations show such data can be re-identified. Yet these investigations focus on how attacks can be perpetrated, not the likelihood they will be realized. This paper introduces a game theoretic framework that enables a publisher to balance re-identification risk with the value of sharing data, leveraging a natural assumption that a recipient only attempts re-identification if its potential gains outweigh the costs. We apply the framework to a real case study, where the value of the data to the publisher is the actual grant funding dollar amounts from a national sponsor and the re-identification gain of the recipient is the fine paid to a regulator for violation of federal privacy rules. There are three notable findings: 1) it is possible to achieve zero risk, in that the recipient never gains from re-identification, while sharing almost as much data as the optimal solution that allows for a small amount of risk; 2) the zero-risk solution enables sharing much more data than a commonly invoked de-identification policy of the U.S. Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA); and 3) a sensitivity analysis demonstrates these findings are robust to order-of-magnitude changes in player losses and gains. In combination, these findings provide support that such a framework can enable pragmatic policy decisions about de-identified data sharing. PMID:25807380

Wan, Zhiyu; Vorobeychik, Yevgeniy; Xia, Weiyi; Clayton, Ellen Wright; Kantarcioglu, Murat; Ganta, Ranjit; Heatherly, Raymond; Malin, Bradley A

2015-01-01

22

Vaccine Hesitancy: Clarifying a Theoretical Framework for an Ambiguous Notion  

PubMed Central

Today, according to many public health experts, public confidence in vaccines is waning. The term “vaccine hesitancy” (VH) is increasingly used to describe the spread of such vaccine reluctance. But VH is an ambiguous notion and its theoretical background appears uncertain. To clarify this concept, we first review the current definitions of VH in the public health literature and examine its most prominent characteristics. VH has been defined as a set of beliefs, attitudes, or behaviours, or some combination of them, shared by a large and heterogeneous portion of the population and including people who exhibit reluctant conformism (they may either decline a vaccine, delay it or accept it despite their doubts) and vaccine-specific behaviours. Secondly, we underline some of the ambiguities of this notion and argue that it is more a catchall category than a real concept. We also call into question the usefulness of understanding VH as an intermediate position along a continuum ranging from anti-vaccine to pro-vaccine attitudes, and we discuss its qualification as a belief, attitude or behaviour. Thirdly, we propose a theoretical framework, based on previous literature and taking into account some major structural features of contemporary societies, that considers VH as a kind of decision-making process that depends on people’s level of commitment to healthism/risk culture and on their level of confidence in the health authorities and mainstream medicine.

Peretti-Watel, Patrick; Larson, Heidi J; Ward, Jeremy K.; Schulz, William S; Verger, Pierre

2015-01-01

23

Experiences of using the Theoretical Domains Framework across diverse clinical environments: a qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background The Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF) is an integrative framework developed from a synthesis of psychological theories as a vehicle to help apply theoretical approaches to interventions aimed at behavior change. Purpose This study explores experiences of TDF use by professionals from multiple disciplines across diverse clinical settings. Methods Mixed methods were used to examine experiences, attitudes, and perspectives of health professionals in using the TDF in health care implementation projects. Individual interviews were conducted with ten health care professionals from six disciplines who used the TDF in implementation projects. Deductive content and thematic analysis were used. Results Three main themes and associated subthemes were identified including: 1) reasons for use of the TDF (increased confidence, broader perspective, and theoretical underpinnings); 2) challenges using the TDF (time and resources, operationalization of the TDF) and; 3) future use of the TDF. Conclusion The TDF provided a useful, flexible framework for a diverse group of health professionals working across different clinical settings for the assessment of barriers and targeting resources to influence behavior change for implementation projects. The development of practical tools and training or support is likely to aid the utility of TDF. PMID:25834455

Phillips, Cameron J; Marshall, Andrea P; Chaves, Nadia J; Jankelowitz, Stacey K; Lin, Ivan B; Loy, Clement T; Rees, Gwyneth; Sakzewski, Leanne; Thomas, Susie; To, The-Phung; Wilkinson, Shelley A; Michie, Susan

2015-01-01

24

Colossal resistivity change besides magnetoresistance: an extended theoretical framework for electronic transport of manganites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Current theoretical approaches to manganites mainly stem from magnetic framework, in which the electronic transport is thought to be spin-dependent. However, quite a number of experimental observations can yet not be reasonably explained. An extended framework for electronic transport of manganites has been proposed, in which the total resistivity has been partitioned into two parts: ?s and ?c in terms of two different mechanisms: spin-dependent and charge-dependent. Correspondingly, the colossal magnetoresistance (CMR) classification inherited from Aliaga et al has been extended as: CMR2 and XR, where CMR2 is the classical spin-dependent process while XR is spin-independent. We emphasize the important role of XR which helps to understand the true mechanism of CMR.

Dong, Shuai; Wang, Kefeng; Zhu, Han; Yao, Xiaoyan; Liu, Junming

2006-03-01

25

A theoretical and instrumental framework for implementing change in ICT in education  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper summarizes the development and practical testing of a theoretical framework for the identification of important factors in relation to the implementation of ICT into a UK secondary school. The approach is characterized by considering the process of implementing use of ICT across a whole school for teaching and learning as a special case of implementing change.The theoretical framework

Penni Tearle

2004-01-01

26

A Theoretical Framework for the Studio as a Learning Environment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article we describe a holistic, ecological framework that takes into account the surface structures and pedagogical approaches in the studio and how these elements are connected to the construction of design knowledge: epistemology. In our development of this framework, we came to understand how disciplinary underpinnings and academic…

Brandt, Carol B.; Cennamo, Katherine; Douglas, Sarah; Vernon, Mitzi; McGrath, Margarita; Reimer, Yolanda

2013-01-01

27

Validation of the theoretical domains framework for use in behaviour change and implementation research  

PubMed Central

Background An integrative theoretical framework, developed for cross-disciplinary implementation and other behaviour change research, has been applied across a wide range of clinical situations. This study tests the validity of this framework. Methods Validity was investigated by behavioural experts sorting 112 unique theoretical constructs using closed and open sort tasks. The extent of replication was tested by Discriminant Content Validation and Fuzzy Cluster Analysis. Results There was good support for a refinement of the framework comprising 14 domains of theoretical constructs (average silhouette value 0.29): ‘Knowledge’, ‘Skills’, ‘Social/Professional Role and Identity’, ‘Beliefs about Capabilities’, ‘Optimism’, ‘Beliefs about Consequences’, ‘Reinforcement’, ‘Intentions’, ‘Goals’, ‘Memory, Attention and Decision Processes’, ‘Environmental Context and Resources’, ‘Social Influences’, ‘Emotions’, and ‘Behavioural Regulation’. Conclusions The refined Theoretical Domains Framework has a strengthened empirical base and provides a method for theoretically assessing implementation problems, as well as professional and other health-related behaviours as a basis for intervention development. PMID:22530986

2012-01-01

28

Language as a Tool in Medicine: Methodology and Theoretical Framework  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since language is the predominant instrument by which information is transmitted between doctor and patient, an understanding of the uses and functions of language in medicine is crucial to effective medical care. This paper describes a framework for the study of language as a tool in medicine. (LBH)

Cassell, Eric J.; Skopek, Lucienne

1977-01-01

29

Theoretical frameworks used to discuss ethical issues in private physiotherapy practice and proposal of a new ethical tool.  

PubMed

In the past, several researchers in the field of physiotherapy have asserted that physiotherapy clinicians rarely use ethical knowledge to solve ethical issues raised by their practice. Does this assertion still hold true? Do the theoretical frameworks used by researchers and clinicians allow them to analyze thoroughly the ethical issues they encounter in their everyday practice? In our quest for answers, we conducted a literature review and analyzed the ethical theoretical frameworks used by physiotherapy researchers and clinicians to discuss the ethical issues raised by private physiotherapy practice. Our final analysis corpus consisted of thirty-nine texts. Our main finding is that researchers and clinicians in physiotherapy rarely use ethical knowledge to analyze the ethical issues raised in their practice and that gaps exist in the theoretical frameworks currently used to analyze these issues. Consequently, we developed, for ethical analysis, a four-part prism which we have called the Quadripartite Ethical Tool (QET). This tool can be incorporated into existing theoretical frameworks to enable professionals to integrate ethical knowledge into their ethical analyses. The innovative particularity of the QET is that it encompasses three ethical theories (utilitarism, deontologism, and virtue ethics) and axiological ontology (professional values) and also draws on both deductive and inductive approaches. It is our hope that this new tool will help researchers and clinicians integrate ethical knowledge into their analysis of ethical issues and contribute to fostering ethical analyses that are grounded in relevant philosophical and axiological foundations. PMID:24942342

Drolet, Marie-Josée; Hudon, Anne

2015-02-01

30

Theories of behaviour change synthesised into a set of theoretical groupings: introducing a thematic series on the theoretical domains framework  

PubMed Central

Behaviour change is key to increasing the uptake of evidence into healthcare practice. Designing behaviour-change interventions first requires problem analysis, ideally informed by theory. Yet the large number of partly overlapping theories of behaviour makes it difficult to select the most appropriate theory. The need for an overarching theoretical framework of behaviour change was addressed in research in which 128 explanatory constructs from 33 theories of behaviour were identified and grouped. The resulting Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF) appears to be a helpful basis for investigating implementation problems. Research groups in several countries have conducted TDF-based studies. It seems timely to bring together the experience of these teams in a thematic series to demonstrate further applications and to report key developments. This overview article describes the TDF, provides a brief critique of the framework, and introduces this thematic series. In a brief review to assess the extent of TDF-based research, we identified 133 papers that cite the framework. Of these, 17 used the TDF as the basis for empirical studies to explore health professionals’ behaviour. The identified papers provide evidence of the impact of the TDF on implementation research. Two major strengths of the framework are its theoretical coverage and its capacity to elicit beliefs that could signify key mediators of behaviour change. The TDF provides a useful conceptual basis for assessing implementation problems, designing interventions to enhance healthcare practice, and understanding behaviour-change processes. We discuss limitations and research challenges and introduce papers in this series. PMID:22531601

2012-01-01

31

Multiple Intelligent Mentors Instructing Collaboratively (MIMIC): Developing a Theoretical Framework.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes preliminary work on "Multiple Intelligent Mentors Instructing Collaboratively" (MIMIC), an intelligent Web-based agent environment for learning instructional design. The focus is on developing theoretical foundations of instructional design and instructional theory that form the foundation for systems development. In the…

Baylor, Amy

32

Potential benefits of remote sensing: Theoretical framework and empirical estimate  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A theoretical framwork is outlined for estimating social returns from research and application of remote sensing. The approximate dollar magnitude is given of a particular application of remote sensing, namely estimates of corn production, soybeans, and wheat. Finally, some comments are made on the limitations of this procedure and on the implications of results.

Eisgruber, L. M.

1972-01-01

33

A Type-Theoretic Framework for Certified Model Transformations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a framework based on the Calculus of Inductive Constructions (CIC) and its associated tool the Coq proof assistant to allow certification of model transformations in the context of Model-Driven Engineering (MDE). The approached is based on a semi-automatic translation process from metamodels, models and transformations of the MDE technical space into types, propositions and functions of the CIC technical space. We describe this translation and illustrate its use in a standard case study.

Calegari, Daniel; Luna, Carlos; Szasz, Nora; Tasistro, Álvaro

34

MOTIVATION IN THE ELDERLY: A THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK AND SOME PROMISING FINDINGS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite a widespread concern with the well-being of elderly people, very little is known about the motivation behind everyday behaviours in old age. In this paper a theoretical framework that has been found useful in research on young adults is suggested as a promising direction for research on the psychology of motivation in the elderly. This framework (Deci & Ryan,

ROBERT J. VALLERAND; BRIAN P. OCONNOR

1989-01-01

35

A Theoretical Framework to Guide the Re-Engineering of Technology Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Before leaders in technology education are able to identify a theoretical framework upon which a curriculum is to stand, they must first grapple with two opposing views of the purpose of technology education--education for all learners or career/technical education. Dakers (2006) identifies two opposing philosophies that can serve as a framework

Kelley, Todd; Kellam, Nadia

2009-01-01

36

A game theoretic framework for bandwidth allocation and pricing in broadband networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present a game theoretic framework for bandwidth allocation for elastic services in high-speed net- works. The framework is based on the idea of the Nash bargaining solution from cooperative game theory, which not only provides the rate settings of users that are Pareto optimal from the point of view of the whole system, but are also

Haïkel Yaïche; Ravi R. Mazumdar; Catherine Rosenberg

2000-01-01

37

A Research Framework on Social Networking Sites Usage: Critical Review and Theoretical Extension  

E-print Network

A Research Framework on Social Networking Sites Usage: Critical Review and Theoretical Extension framework guiding the research on SNS usage. Built upon the Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology) articulate a list of other users with whom they share a connection, and 3) view and traverse their list

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

38

Developing a Theoretical Framework for Examining Student Understanding of Fractional Concepts: An Historical Accounting  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 2007, a group of mathematics educators and researchers met to examine rational numbers and why children have such an issue with them. An extensive review of the literature on fractional understanding was conducted. The ideas in that literature were then consolidated into a theoretical framework for examining fractions. Once that theoretical

Cooper, Susan M.; Wilkerson, Trena L.; Montgomery, Mark; Mechell, Sara; Arterbury, Kristin; Moore, Sherrie

2012-01-01

39

Towards developing a theoretical framework for measuring public sector managers' career success  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to develop a theoretical framework for measuring public sector managers' career success. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The theoretical foundation used in this study is social cognitive career theory. To conduct a literature search, several keywords were identified, i.e. career success, objective and subjective career success, managers, managerial career development and social cognitive career theory.

Roziah Mohd Rasdi; Maimunah Ismail; Jegak Uli; Sidek Mohd Noah

2009-01-01

40

Towards Developing a Theoretical Framework for Measuring Public Sector Managers' Career Success  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to develop a theoretical framework for measuring public sector managers' career success. Design/methodology/approach: The theoretical foundation used in this study is social cognitive career theory. To conduct a literature search, several keywords were identified, i.e. career success, objective and subjective…

Rasdi, Roziah Mohd; Ismail, Maimunah; Uli, Jegak; Noah, Sidek Mohd

2009-01-01

41

Theoretical Limits of Hydrogen Storage in Metal-Organic Frameworks: Opportunities and Trade-Offs  

E-print Network

Theoretical Limits of Hydrogen Storage in Metal-Organic Frameworks: Opportunities and Trade predict the hydrogen storage properties of these compounds. Approximately 20 000 candidate compounds were excess H2 uptake and surface area, we predict the theoretical total hydrogen storage capacity

Cafarella, Michael J.

42

Emergent Writing in Preschoolers: Preliminary Evidence for a Theoretical Framework.  

PubMed

Researchers and educators use the term emergent literacy to refer to a broad set of skills and attitudes that serve as foundational skills for acquiring success in later reading and writing; however, models of emergent literacy have generally focused on reading and reading-related behaviors. Hence, the primary aim of this study was to articulate and evaluate a theoretical model of the components of emergent writing. Alternative models of the structure of individual and developmental differences of emergent writing and writing-related skills were examined in 372 preschool children who ranged in age from 3- to 5-years using confirmatory factor analysis. Results from a confirmatory factor analysis provide evidence that these emergent writing skills are best described by three correlated but distinct factors, (a) Conceptual Knowledge, (b) Procedural Knowledge, and (c) Generative Knowledge. Evidence that these three emergent writing factors show different patterns of relations to emergent literacy constructs is presented. Implications for understanding the development of writing and assessment of early writing skills are discussed. PMID:25316955

Puranik, Cynthia S; Lonigan, Christopher J

2014-10-01

43

Dissecting Genetic Networks Underlying Complex Phenotypes: The Theoretical Framework  

PubMed Central

Great progress has been made in genetic dissection of quantitative trait variation during the past two decades, but many studies still reveal only a small fraction of quantitative trait loci (QTLs), and epistasis remains elusive. We integrate contemporary knowledge of signal transduction pathways with principles of quantitative and population genetics to characterize genetic networks underlying complex traits, using a model founded upon one-way functional dependency of downstream genes on upstream regulators (the principle of hierarchy) and mutual functional dependency among related genes (functional genetic units, FGU). Both simulated and real data suggest that complementary epistasis contributes greatly to quantitative trait variation, and obscures the phenotypic effects of many ‘downstream’ loci in pathways. The mathematical relationships between the main effects and epistatic effects of genes acting at different levels of signaling pathways were established using the quantitative and population genetic parameters. Both loss of function and “co-adapted” gene complexes formed by multiple alleles with differentiated functions (effects) are predicted to be frequent types of allelic diversity at loci that contribute to the genetic variation of complex traits in populations. Downstream FGUs appear to be more vulnerable to loss of function than their upstream regulators, but this vulnerability is apparently compensated by different FGUs of similar functions. Other predictions from the model may account for puzzling results regarding responses to selection, genotype by environment interaction, and the genetic basis of heterosis. PMID:21283795

Zhang, Fan; Zhai, Hu-Qu; Paterson, Andrew H.; Xu, Jian-Long; Gao, Yong-Ming; Zheng, Tian-Qing; Wu, Rong-Ling; Fu, Bin-Ying; Ali, Jauhar; Li, Zhi-Kang

2011-01-01

44

A Research Framework on Social Networking Sites Usage: Critical Review and Theoretical Extension  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Despite the worldwide popularity and rapid proliferation of social networking sites (SNS), e.g., Facebook, our understanding\\u000a about what drive people to SNS and how they use them remains limited. This study aims at establishing a theoretical framework\\u000a guiding the research on SNS usage. Built upon the Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT), the framework makes\\u000a following major extensions:

Kathy Ning Shen; Mohamed Khalifa

2010-01-01

45

Theoretical properties of regularities in the oscillation spectra of A-F main-sequence stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the theoretical properties of the regular spacings found in the oscillation spectra of ? Scuti stars. A linear relation between the large separation and the mean density is predicted to be found in the low-frequency domain (i.e. radial orders spanning from 1 to 8, approximately) of the main-sequence ? Scuti stars' oscillation spectrum. This implies an independent direct measure of the average density of ? Scuti stars, analogous to that of the Sun, and places tight constraints on the mode identification and hence on the stellar internal structure and dynamics, and allows a determination the radii of planets orbiting around ? Scuti stars with unprecedented precision. This opens the way for studying the evolution of regular patterns in pulsating stars, and its relation to stellar structure and evolution.

Suárez, Juan Carlos; Hernández, Antonio García; Moya, Andrés; Rodrigo, Carlos; Solano, Enrique; Garrido, Rafael; Rodón, José R.

2014-02-01

46

Generation of Longitudinal Flux Tube Waves in Theoretical Main-Sequence Stars: Effects of Model Parameters  

E-print Network

Context. Continued investigation of the linkage between magneto-acoustic energy generation in stellar convective zones and the energy dissipation and radiative emission in outer stellar atmospheres in stars of different activity levels. Aims. We compute the wave energy fluxes carried by longitudinal tube waves along vertically oriented thin magnetic fluxes tubes embedded in the atmospheres of theoretical main-sequence stars based on stellar parameters deduced by R. L. Kurucz and D. F. Gray. Additionally, we present a fitting formula for the wave energy flux based on the governing stellar and magnetic parameters. Methods. A modified theory of turbulence generation based on the mixing-length concept is combined with the magneto-hydrodynamic equations to numerically account for the wave energies generated at the base of magnetic flux tubes. Results. The results indicate a stiff dependence of the generated wave energy on the stellar and magnetic parameters in principal agreement with previous studies. The wave en...

Fawzy, Diaa E

2010-01-01

47

A theoretical framework for building online communities of practice with social networking tools  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a theoretical framework as a foundation for building online communities of practice when a suite of social networking applications referred to as collective intelligence tools are utilized to develop a product or solutions to a problem. Drawing on recent developments in Web 2.0 tools, research on communities of practice and relevant theories of learning, and the authors'

Charlotte N. Gunawardena; Mary Beth Hermans; Damien Sanchez; Carol Richmond; Maribeth Bohley; Rebekah Tuttle

2009-01-01

48

A Game-Theoretic Framework for Congestion Control in General Topology Networks 1  

E-print Network

that addresses congestion control, pricing and resource allocation problems for a large class of of commu and congestion control problems [6, 7]. Ref. [6] shows that if an appropri- ate cost function and pricingA Game-Theoretic Framework for Congestion Control in General Topology Networks 1 Tansu Alpcan2

Alpcan, Tansu

49

The developmental niche: A theoretical framework for analyzing the household production of health  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent efforts to promote child survival and development internationally have focused new attention on the importance of the household as a mediator of both environmental risks and programmatic interventions to promote better health. In this paper, we introduce a theoretical framework, the 'developmental niche,' derived from studies of children's behavior and development in different cultural contexts, as a tool for

Sara Harkness; Charles M. Super

1994-01-01

50

Decision Theoretic Fusion Framework for Actionability Using Data Mining on an Embedded System  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a decision theoretic fusion framework for ac- tionability using data mining techniques in an embedded car navigation system. An embedded system having limited resources is not easy to manage the abun- dant information in the database. Thus, the proposed system stores and man- ages only multiple level-of-abstraction in the database to resolve the problem of resource limitations,

Heungkyu Lee; Sunmee Kang; Hanseok Ko

2006-01-01

51

Steady-States of ReceptorLigand Dynamics: A Theoretical Framework  

E-print Network

Steady-States of Receptor­Ligand Dynamics: A Theoretical Framework Madalena Chaves a,,1 , Eduardo D of a conventional mechanism of ligand- receptor interactions, with a focus on the stability and location of steady-states for receptor­ligand interactions are obtained at relatively long times that are taken to be at steady-state

Chaves, Madalena

52

A theoretical framework to describe communication processes during medical disability assessment interviews  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Research in different fields of medicine suggests that communication is important in physician-patient encounters and influences satisfaction with these encounters. It is argued that this also applies to the non-curative tasks that physicians perform, such as sickness certification and medical disability assessments. However, there is no conceptualised theoretical framework that can be used to describe intentions with regard to

H Jolanda van Rijssen; Antonius JM Schellart; Johannes R Anema; Allard J van der Beek

2009-01-01

53

A Computational Game-Theoretic Framework for Cryptography Joseph Y. Halpern  

E-print Network

A Computational Game-Theoretic Framework for Cryptography Joseph Y. Halpern Cornell University theory and zero-knowledge "simulation" in cryptography--are intimately related. Other special cases. A central question in both cryptography and game theory is investigating under what circumstances mediators

Keinan, Alon

54

Measuring demand for sanitation in developing countries: A new theoretical and methodological framework for contingent valuation  

E-print Network

% of the surveys contained in the review intended to measure demand for water, sanitation, or health services1 Measuring demand for sanitation in developing countries: A new theoretical and methodological framework for contingent valuation surveys Julien Milanesi PhD, Centre d'analyse théorique et traitement des

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

55

A Theoretical Approach to Human-Robot Interaction Based on the Bipolar Man Framework  

E-print Network

A Theoretical Approach to Human-Robot Interaction Based on the Bipolar Man Framework Francesco "philosophical" position ex- pressed by the concept of bipolar man, which has an im- pact on both the analysis on the concept of bipolar man [1] able both to potentially describe the current human-robot in- teraction

Amigoni, Francesco

56

Analysing Theoretical Frameworks of Moral Education through Lakatos's Philosophy of Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The structure of studies of moral education is basically interdisciplinary; it includes moral philosophy, psychology, and educational research. This article systematically analyses the structure of studies of moral educational from the vantage points of philosophy of science. Among the various theoretical frameworks in the field of philosophy of…

Han, Hyemin

2014-01-01

57

A Theoretical Framework for Building Online Communities of Practice with Social Networking Tools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper proposes a theoretical framework as a foundation for building online communities of practice when a suite of social networking applications referred to as collective intelligence tools are utilized to develop a product or solutions to a problem. Drawing on recent developments in Web 2.0 tools, research on communities of practice and…

Gunawardena, Charlotte N.; Hermans, Mary Beth; Sanchez, Damien; Richmond, Carol; Bohley, Maribeth; Tuttle, Rebekah

2009-01-01

58

Ecological Dynamics as a Theoretical Framework for Development of Sustainable Behaviours towards the Environment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper proposes how the theoretical framework of ecological dynamics can provide an influential model of the learner and the learning process to pre-empt effective behaviour changes. Here we argue that ecological dynamics supports a well-established model of the learner ideally suited to the environmental education context because of its…

Brymer, Eric; Davids, Keith

2013-01-01

59

Proverbs as Theoretical Frameworks for Lifelong Learning in Indigenous African Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Every aspect of a community's life and values in indigenous Africa provide the theoretical framework for education. The holistic worldview of the traditional system places a strong emphasis on the centrality of the human element and orature in the symmetrical relationship between life and learning. This article focuses on proverbs and the…

Avoseh, Mejai B. M.

2013-01-01

60

Towards a Theoretical Framework for Teaching Controversial Socio-scientific Issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper develops a conceptual basis for a model on the teaching of socio-scientific controversial issues for secondary or high school students. I argue that the teaching of controversial issues needs a stronger theoretical base. Drawing on a liberal democratic conception of possible sources of conflict, three strands are developed that provide a framework for teachers when teaching socio-scientific issues:

Ralph Levinson

2006-01-01

61

Towards a theoretical framework for knowledge transfer in the field of CSR and sustainability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The present paper seeks to focus on the processes involved in the knowledge transfer of CSR and sustainability programs and theorises about a conceptual framework that addresses three aspects of such a knowledge transfer process: the “thinking”, the “doing” and the “being”. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper is a theoretical interdisciplinary study, which combines insights from the theory of

Katerina Nicolopoulou

2011-01-01

62

A Theoretical and Instrumental Framework for Implementing Change in ICT in Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper summarizes the development and practical testing of a theoretical framework for the identification of important factors in relation to the implementation of ICT into a UK secondary school. The approach is characterized by considering the process of implementing use of ICT across a whole school for teaching and learning as a special case…

Tearle, Penni

2004-01-01

63

First-Year Biology Students' Understandings of Meiosis: An Investigation Using a Structural Theoretical Framework  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Meiosis is a biological concept that is both complex and important for students to learn. This study aims to explore first-year biology students' explanations of the process of meiosis, using an explicit theoretical framework provided by the Structure of the Observed Learning Outcome (SOLO) model. The research was based on responses of 334…

Quinn, Frances; Pegg, John; Panizzon, Debra

2009-01-01

64

A decision-theoretic framework for the application of cost-effectiveness analysis in  

E-print Network

process. Key words: Bayesian decision theory, Health economic evaluation, Sensitivity analysis, Regulatory, the application of this technique to real practice decision making has found several critical barriers: in ItalyA decision-theoretic framework for the application of cost-effectiveness analysis in regulatory

Guillas, Serge

65

A theoretical framework and efficiency study of multivariate statistical process control charts  

Microsoft Academic Search

A multivariate T chart is developed based on the Generalized Likelihood Ratio Test (GLRT) without a priori information about potential mean deviations. Identification of response variables from a T chart is challenging and has received considerable attention recently. By highlighting the intrinsic relationship between various multivariate control charts and statistical hypothesis testing, this paper presents a theoretical framework for various

Wei Jiang; Kwok-Leung Tsui

2008-01-01

66

The Pedagogy of Primary Historical Sources in Mathematics: Classroom Practice Meets Theoretical Frameworks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We analyze our method of teaching with primary historical sources within the context of theoretical frameworks for the role of history in teaching mathematics developed by Barbin, Fried, Jahnke, Jankvist, and Kjeldsen and Blomhøj, and more generally from the perspective of Sfard's theory of learning as communication. We present case studies…

Barnett, Janet Heine; Lodder, Jerry; Pengelley, David

2014-01-01

67

A Theoretical Framework for Organizing the Effect of the Internet on Cognitive Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The number of children and adolescents accessing the Internet as well as the amount of time online are steadily increasing. The most common online activities include playing video games, navigating web sites, and communicating via chat rooms, email, and instant messaging. A theoretical framework for understanding the effects of Internet use on…

Johnson, Genevieve Marie

2006-01-01

68

Variation Theory: A Theory of Learning and a Useful Theoretical Framework for Chemical Education Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Instructors are constantly baffled by the fact that two students who are sitting in the same class, who have access to the same materials, can come to understand a particular chemistry concept differently. Variation theory offers a theoretical framework from which to explore possible variations in experience and the resulting differences in…

Bussey, Thomas J.; Orgill, MaryKay; Crippen, Kent J.

2013-01-01

69

Measuring Instructional Congruence in Elementary Science Classrooms: Pedagogical and Methodological Components of a Theoretical Framework  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article is situated within a theoretical framework, "instructional congruence," articulating issues of student diversity with the demands of academic disciplines. In the context of a large-scale study targeting elementary school science, the article describes a research instrument that aims to combine the strengths of both quantitative and…

Luykx, Aurolyn; Lee, Okhee

2007-01-01

70

Toward a decision-theoretic framework for affect recognition and user assistance  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is an increasing interest in developing intelligent human-computer interaction systems that can fulfill two functions— recognizing user affective states and providing the user with timely and appropriate assistance. In this paper, we present a general unified decision-theoretic framework based on influence diagrams for simultaneously modeling user affect recognition and assistance. Affective state recognition is achieved through active probabilistic inference

Wenhui Liao; Weihong Zhang; Zhiwei Zhu; Qiang Ji; Wayne D. Gray

71

A Theoretical Framework for an Access Programme Encompassing Further Education Training: Remedy for Educational Wastage?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes research aimed at developing a theoretical framework for Further Education and Training (FET) options within South African higher education. These alternative options could broaden the scope, value, and outcomes of current programs designed to increase access to further education by lower achievers and other unprepared students. (EV)

Nair, P. A. P.

2002-01-01

72

Organic carbon burial rate and the molybdenum proxy: Theoretical framework and application to Cenomanian-Turonian  

E-print Network

Organic carbon burial rate and the molybdenum proxy: Theoretical framework and application; published 12 April 2005. [1] In this study the controls on organic carbon burial and molybdenum accumulation to explore the controls on pore water sulfide generation and authigenic molybdenum accumulation and use

Meyers, Stephen R.

73

Innovation value chain capability in Malaysian-owned company: A theoretical framework  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Good quality products or services are no longer adequate to guarantee the sustainability of a company in the present competitive business. Prior research has developed various innovation models with the hope to better understand the innovativeness of the company. Due to countless definitions, indicators, factors, parameter and approaches in the study of innovation, it is difficult to ensure which one will best suit the Malaysian-owned company innovativeness. This paper aims to provide a theoretical background to support the framework of the innovation value chain capability in Malaysian-owned Company. The theoretical framework was based on the literature reviews, expert interviews and focus group study. The framework will be used to predict and assess the innovation value chain capability in Malaysian-owned company.

Abidin, Norkisme Zainal; Suradi, Nur Riza Mohd

2014-09-01

74

Intellect: a theoretical framework for personality traits related to intellectual achievements.  

PubMed

The present article develops a theoretical framework for the structure of personality traits related to intellectual achievements. We postulate a 2-dimensional model, differentiating between 2 processes (Seek and Conquer) and 3 operations (Think, Learn, and Create). The framework was operationalized by a newly developed measure, which was validated based on 2 samples. Subsequently, in 3 studies (overall N = 1,478), the 2-dimensional structure of the Intellect framework was generally supported. Additionally, subdimensions of the Intellect framework specifically predicted conceptually related criteria, including scholastic performance, vocational interest, and leisure activities. Furthermore, results from multidimensional scaling and higher order confirmatory factor analyses show that the framework allows for the incorporation of several constructs that have been proposed on different theoretical backgrounds, such as need for cognition, typical intellectual engagement, curiosity, intrinsic motivation, goal orientation, and openness to ideas. It is concluded that based on the Intellect framework, these constructs, which have been researched separately in the literature, can be meaningfully integrated. PMID:23527846

Mussel, Patrick

2013-05-01

75

A game-theoretic framework for landmark-based image segmentation.  

PubMed

A novel game-theoretic framework for landmark-based image segmentation is presented. Landmark detection is formulated as a game, in which landmarks are players, landmark candidate points are strategies, and likelihoods that candidate points represent landmarks are payoffs, determined according to the similarity of image intensities and spatial relationships between the candidate points in the target image and their corresponding landmarks in images from the training set. The solution of the formulated game-theoretic problem is the equilibrium of candidate points that represent landmarks in the target image and is obtained by a novel iterative scheme that solves the segmentation problem in polynomial time. The object boundaries are finally extracted by applying dynamic programming to the optimal path searching problem between the obtained adjacent landmarks. The performance of the proposed framework was evaluated for segmentation of lung fields from chest radiographs and heart ventricles from cardiac magnetic resonance cross sections. The comparison to other landmark-based segmentation techniques shows that the results obtained by the proposed game-theoretic framework are highly accurate and precise in terms of mean boundary distance and area overlap. Moreover, the framework overcomes several shortcomings of the existing techniques, such as sensitivity to initialization and convergence to local optima. PMID:22692901

Ibragimov, Bulat; Likar, Boštjan; Pernus, Franjo; Vrtovec, Tomaz

2012-09-01

76

Framework for a U.S. Geological Survey Hydrologic Climate-Response Program in Maine  

USGS Publications Warehouse

It is important to monitor hydrologic systems in the United States that could change dramatically over the short term as a result of climate change. Many ecological effects of climate change can be understood only if hydrologic data networks are in place. Because of its humid, temperate climate and its substantial annual snowpack, Maine's seasonal water cycle is sensitive to air temperature changes (Hodgkins and others, 2003). Monitoring of relevant hydrologic data would provide important baseline information against which future climate change can be measured. A series of recent investigations by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has documented changes in several components of the water cycle, including earlier snowmelt runoff in Maine during the last 30 to 40 years (Hodgkins and others, 2003), earlier lake- and river-ice breakups (Hodgkins and others, 2002; Hodgkins and others, 2005), and a denser and thinner late-winter snowpack (Hodgkins and Dudley, 2006). Snowmelt runoff timing was measured as the date, each year, by which half of the total winter-spring streamflow passed a streamflow-gaging station. Historical snowmelt runoff timing for the Piscataquis River in central Maine is shown in figure 1 as an example. Results of climate projections input to hydrologic models indicate that hydrologic trends, such as earlier spring snowmelt runoff, are expected to continue into the future (Hayhoe and others, 2007). These trends could affect species at the southern edge of their range in Maine, such as Atlantic salmon and Canada lynx, and may also affect availability of water for human use. This fact sheet describes the framework of a hydrologic climate-response program that would improve understanding of the effects of future climate change in Maine.

Hodgkins, Glenn A.; Lent, Robert M.; Dudley, Robert W.; Schalk, Charles W.

2009-01-01

77

Toward a Theoretical Framework for the Study of Humor in Literature and the Other Arts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With a clearer understanding of the way humor works, individuals might be better able to give it the attention it deserves when they study and teach the arts. But where do they turn to find a theoretical framework for the study of humor--one that will help them clarify the role that humor plays in the arts and that will help them as well to…

Farber, Jerry

2007-01-01

78

Toward a decision-theoretic framework for affect recognition and user assistance  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is an increasing interest in developing intelligent human-computer interaction systems that can fulflll two functions { recognizing user afiective states and providing the user with timely and appropriate assistance. In this paper, we present a general unifled decision-theoretic framework based on In?uence Diagrams for simultane- ously modeling user afiect recognition and assistance. Afiective state recognition is achieved through active

Wenhui Liao; Weihong Zhang; Zhiwei Zhu; Qiang Ji; Wayne D. Gray

2006-01-01

79

Framework for a U.S. Geological Survey Hydrologic Climate-Response Program in Maine  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report presents a framework for a U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) hydrologic climate-response program designed to provide early warning of changes in the seasonal water cycle of Maine. Climate-related hydrologic changes on Maine's rivers and lakes in the winter and spring during the last century are well documented, and several river and lake variables have been shown to be sensitive to air-temperature changes. Monitoring of relevant hydrologic data would provide important baseline information against which future climate change can be measured. The framework of the hydrologic climate-response program presented here consists of four major parts: (1) identifying homogeneous climate-response regions; (2) identifying hydrologic components and key variables of those components that would be included in a hydrologic climate-response data network - as an example, streamflow has been identified as a primary component, with a key variable of streamflow being winter-spring streamflow timing; the data network would be created by maintaining existing USGS data-collection stations and establishing new ones to fill data gaps; (3) regularly updating historical trends of hydrologic data network variables; and (4) establishing basins for process-based studies. Components proposed for inclusion in the hydrologic climate-response data network have at least one key variable for which substantial historical data are available. The proposed components are streamflow, lake ice, river ice, snowpack, and groundwater. The proposed key variables of each component have extensive historical data at multiple sites and are expected to be responsive to climate change in the next few decades. These variables are also important for human water use and (or) ecosystem function. Maine would be divided into seven climate-response regions that follow major river-basin boundaries (basins subdivided to hydrologic units with 8-digit codes or larger) and have relatively homogeneous climates. Key hydrologic variables within each climate-response region would be analyzed regularly to maintain up-to-date analyses of year-to-year variability, decadal variability, and longer term trends. Finally, one basin in each climate-response region would be identified for process-based hydrologic and ecological studies.

Hodgkins, Glenn A.; Lent, Robert M.; Dudley, Robert W.; Schalk, Charles W.

2009-01-01

80

Phylogenetic Framework and Molecular Signatures for the Main Clades of the Phylum Actinobacteria  

PubMed Central

Summary: The phylum Actinobacteria harbors many important human pathogens and also provides one of the richest sources of natural products, including numerous antibiotics and other compounds of biotechnological interest. Thus, a reliable phylogeny of this large phylum and the means to accurately identify its different constituent groups are of much interest. Detailed phylogenetic and comparative analyses of >150 actinobacterial genomes reported here form the basis for achieving these objectives. In phylogenetic trees based upon 35 conserved proteins, most of the main groups of Actinobacteria as well as a number of their superageneric clades are resolved. We also describe large numbers of molecular markers consisting of conserved signature indels in protein sequences and whole proteins that are specific for either all Actinobacteria or their different clades (viz., orders, families, genera, and subgenera) at various taxonomic levels. These signatures independently support the existence of different phylogenetic clades, and based upon them, it is now possible to delimit the phylum Actinobacteria (excluding Coriobacteriia) and most of its major groups in clear molecular terms. The species distribution patterns of these markers also provide important information regarding the interrelationships among different main orders of Actinobacteria. The identified molecular markers, in addition to enabling the development of a stable and reliable phylogenetic framework for this phylum, also provide novel and powerful means for the identification of different groups of Actinobacteria in diverse environments. Genetic and biochemical studies on these Actinobacteria-specific markers should lead to the discovery of novel biochemical and/or other properties that are unique to different groups of Actinobacteria. PMID:22390973

Gao, Beile

2012-01-01

81

A theoretical framework for modeling dilution enhancement of non-reactive solutes in heterogeneous porous media.  

PubMed

Spatial heterogeneity of the hydraulic properties of geological porous formations leads to erratically shaped solute clouds, thus increasing the edge area of the solute body and augmenting the dilution rate. In this study, we provide a theoretical framework to quantify dilution of a non-reactive solute within a steady state flow as affected by the spatial variability of the hydraulic conductivity. Embracing the Lagrangian concentration framework, we obtain explicit semi-analytical expressions for the dilution index as a function of the structural parameters of the random hydraulic conductivity field, under the assumptions of uniform-in-the-average flow, small injection source and weak-to-mild heterogeneity. Results show how the dilution enhancement of the solute cloud is strongly dependent on both the statistical anisotropy ratio and the heterogeneity level of the porous medium. The explicit semi-analytical solution also captures the temporal evolution of the dilution rate; for the early- and late-time limits, the proposed solution recovers previous results from the literature, while at intermediate times it reflects the increasing interplay between large-scale advection and local-scale dispersion. The performance of the theoretical framework is verified with high resolution numerical results and successfully tested against the Cape Cod field data. PMID:25795562

de Barros, F P J; Fiori, A; Boso, F; Bellin, A

2015-01-01

82

A second gradient theoretical framework for hierarchical multiscale modeling of materials  

SciTech Connect

A theoretical framework for the hierarchical multiscale modeling of inelastic response of heterogeneous materials has been presented. Within this multiscale framework, the second gradient is used as a non local kinematic link between the response of a material point at the coarse scale and the response of a neighborhood of material points at the fine scale. Kinematic consistency between these scales results in specific requirements for constraints on the fluctuation field. The wryness tensor serves as a second-order measure of strain. The nature of the second-order strain induces anti-symmetry in the first order stress at the coarse scale. The multiscale ISV constitutive theory is couched in the coarse scale intermediate configuration, from which an important new concept in scale transitions emerges, namely scale invariance of dissipation. Finally, a strategy for developing meaningful kinematic ISVs and the proper free energy functions and evolution kinetics is presented.

Luscher, Darby J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bronkhorst, Curt A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mc Dowell, David L [GEORGIA TECH

2009-01-01

83

A theoretical framework for negotiating the path of emergency management multi-agency coordination.  

PubMed

Multi-agency coordination represents a significant challenge in emergency management. The need for liaison officers working in strategic level emergency operations centres to play organizational boundary spanning roles within multi-agency coordination arrangements that are enacted in complex and dynamic emergency response scenarios creates significant research and practical challenges. The aim of the paper is to address a gap in the literature regarding the concept of multi-agency coordination from a human-environment interaction perspective. We present a theoretical framework for facilitating multi-agency coordination in emergency management that is grounded in human factors and ergonomics using the methodology of core-task analysis. As a result we believe the framework will enable liaison officers to cope more efficiently within the work domain. In addition, we provide suggestions for extending the theory of core-task analysis to an alternate high reliability environment. PMID:25480001

Curnin, Steven; Owen, Christine; Paton, Douglas; Brooks, Benjamin

2015-03-01

84

Gaming the System: Video Games as a Theoretical Framework for Instructional Design  

E-print Network

In order to facilitate analyzing video games as learning systems and instructional designs as games, we present a theoretical framework that integrates ideas from a broad range of literature. The framework describes games in terms of four layers, all sharing similar structural elements and dynamics: a micro-level game focused on immediate problem-solving and skill development, a macro-level game focused on the experience of the game world and story and identity development, and two meta-level games focused on building or modifying the game and on social interactions around it. Each layer casts gameplay as a co-construction of the game and the player, and contains three dynamical feedback loops: an exploratory learning loop, an intrinsic motivation loop, and an identity loop.

Beatty, Ian D

2014-01-01

85

Congruence between nursing education and nursing service: a common conceptual/theoretic framework for nursing units.  

PubMed

The results of the incorporation of a conceptual/theoretic framework in this nursing service setting have been an improvement in the service to consumers of nursing, an effective restructuring of the environment of the health care agency advantageous for the client and for nursing staff, and the differentiation of practice roles according to education, experiences, and client needs. It has fostered understanding, acceptance, and support of the contribution of theory development and nursing research to nursing and health care. It brought together nurse leaders in education and service to the benefit of both and with maximum benefit to the consumer of nursing services. The specification of the philosophy, outcome behaviors, and conceptual/theoretic frameworks has allowed nurses to have control over nursing. It has incorporated nurses in setting the pace for the future of nursing practice, promoted the development of peer activity and review, and demonstrated how nursing can make a difference. The benefit for the nurse includes increased job satisfaction, enhanced professional and personal development, increased self-esteem, and the realization that the service of nursing is a valued and valuable service to consumers. Promotion of the image of the nurse was another outcome, as was the realization that nurse educators and nurse supervisors share common goals. The timeframe may be different in that educators see a finished product years ahead while nurse supervisors see client outcomes on a daily basis. The gap between these two efforts is bridged by the use of common conceptual/theoretic frameworks for the design and administration of both the nursing education and nursing service units.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:10114915

Yura-Petro, J; Brooks, J

1991-12-01

86

Theoretical and experimental analysis of H2 binding in a prototype metal organic framework material  

SciTech Connect

Hydrogen adsorption by the metal organic framework (MOF) structure Zn2(BDC)2(TED) is investigated using a combination of experimental and theoretical methods. By use of the nonempirical van der Waals density-functional (vdW-DF) approach, it is found that the locus of deepest H2 binding positions lies within two types of narrow channel. The energies of the most stable binding sites, as well as the number of such binding sites, are consistent with the values obtained from experimental adsorption isotherms and heat of adsorption data. Calculations of the shift of the H H stretch frequency when adsorbed in the MOF give a value of approximately ?30 cm?1 at the strongest binding point in each of the two channels. Ambient temperature infrared absorption spectroscopy measurements give a hydrogen peak centered at 4120 cm?1, implying a shift consistent with the theoretical calculations.

Kong, Dr. Lingzhu [Rutgers University; Cooper, Valentino R [ORNL; Nijem, Nour [University of Texas, Dallas; Li, Kunhao [Rutgers University; Li, Jing [Rutgers University; Chabal, Yves J. [University of Texas, Dallas; Langreth, David C. [Rutgers University

2009-01-01

87

The Pedagogy of Primary Historical Sources in Mathematics: Classroom Practice Meets Theoretical Frameworks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We analyze our method of teaching with primary historical sources within the context of theoretical frameworks for the role of history in teaching mathematics developed by Barbin, Fried, Jahnke, Jankvist, and Kjeldsen and Blomhøj, and more generally from the perspective of Sfard's theory of learning as communication. We present case studies for two of our guided student modules that are built around sequences of primary sources and are intended for learning core curricular material, one on logical implication, the other on the concept of a group. Additionally, we propose some conclusions about the advantages and challenges of using primary sources in teaching mathematics.

Barnett, Janet Heine; Lodder, Jerry; Pengelley, David

2013-07-01

88

Fat stigma and public health: a theoretical framework and ethical analysis.  

PubMed

This paper proposes a theoretical framework for understanding fat stigma and its impact on people's well-being. It argues that stigma should never be used as a tool to achieve public health ends. Drawing on Bruce Link and Jo Phelan's 2001 conceptualization of stigma as well as the works of Hilde Lindemann, Paul Benson, and Margaret Urban Walker on identity, positionality, and agency, this paper clarifies the mechanisms by which stigmatizing, oppressive conceptions of overweight and obesity damage identities and diminish moral agency, arguing that the use of obesity-related stigma for public health ends violates the bioethics principles of nonmaleficence, autonomy, and justice. PMID:25423850

Abu-Odeh, Desiree

2014-09-01

89

3684 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON IMAGE PROCESSING, VOL. 23, NO. 8, AUGUST 2014 An Estimation-Theoretic Framework for  

E-print Network

-Theoretic Framework for Spatially Scalable Video Coding Jingning Han, Member, IEEE, Vinay Melkote, Member, IEEE this framework for spatial scalable video coding is then provided to further exploit future base layer frames for additional enhancement layer coding performance gains. Finally, a low-complexity variant of the proposed

California at Santa Barbara, University of

90

The Community-First Land-Centred Theoretical Framework: Bringing a "Good Mind" to Indigenous Education Research?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article introduces an emergent research theoretical framework, the community-first Land-centred research framework. Carefully examining the literature within Indigenous educational research, we noted the limited approaches for engaging in culturally aligned and relevant research within Indigenous communities. The community-first Land-centred…

Styres, Sandra D.; Zinga, Dawn M.

2013-01-01

91

Stratigraphical framework of basaltic lavas in Torres Syncline main valley, southern Parana-Etendeka Volcanic Province  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Paraná-Etendeka Volcanic Province records the volcanism of the Early Cretaceous that precedes the fragmentation of the South-Gondwana supercontinent. Traditionally, investigations of these rocks prioritized the acquisition of geochemical and isotopic data, considering the volcanic stack as a monotonous succession of tabular flows. Torres Syncline is a tectonic structure located in southern Brazil and where the Parana-Etendeka basalts are well preserved. This work provides a detailed analysis of lithofacies and facies architecture, integrated to petrographic and geochemical data. We identified seven distinct lithofacies grouped into four facies associations related to different flow morphologies. The basaltic lava flows in the area can be divided into two contrasting units: Unit I - pahoehoe flow fields; and Unit II - simple rubbly flows. The first unit is build up by innumerous pahoehoe lava flows that cover the sandstones of Botucatu Formation. These flows occur as sheet pahoehoe, compound pahoehoe, and ponded lavas morphologies. Compound lavas are olivine-phyric basalts with intergranular pyroxenes. In ponded lavas and cores of sheet flows coarse plagioclase-phyric basalts are common. The first pahoehoe lavas are more primitive with higher contents of MgO. The emplacement of compound pahoehoe flows is related to low volume eruptions, while sheet lavas were emplaced during sustained eruptions. In contrast, Unit II is formed by thick simple rubbly lavas, characterized by a massive core and a brecciated/rubbly top. Petrographically these flows are characterized by plagioclase-phyric to aphyric basalts with high density of plagioclase crystals in the matrix. Chemically they are more differentiated lavas, and the emplacement is related to sustained high effusion rate eruptions. Both units are low TiO2 and have geochemical characteristics of Gramado magma type. The Torres Syncline main valley has a similar evolution when compared to other Large Igneous Provinces, with compound flows at the base and simple flows in the upper portions. The detailed field work allied with petrography and geochemical data are extremely important to identify heterogeneities inside the volcanic pile and allows the construction of a detailed lithostratigraphical framework.

Rossetti, Lucas M.; Lima, Evandro F.; Waichel, Breno L.; Scherer, Claiton M.; Barreto, Carla J.

2014-12-01

92

A simple theoretical framework for understanding heterogeneous differentiation of CD4+ T cells  

PubMed Central

Background CD4+ T cells have several subsets of functional phenotypes, which play critical yet diverse roles in the immune system. Pathogen-driven differentiation of these subsets of cells is often heterogeneous in terms of the induced phenotypic diversity. In vitro recapitulation of heterogeneous differentiation under homogeneous experimental conditions indicates some highly regulated mechanisms by which multiple phenotypes of CD4+ T cells can be generated from a single population of naïve CD4+ T cells. Therefore, conceptual understanding of induced heterogeneous differentiation will shed light on the mechanisms controlling the response of populations of CD4+ T cells under physiological conditions. Results We present a simple theoretical framework to show how heterogeneous differentiation in a two-master-regulator paradigm can be governed by a signaling network motif common to all subsets of CD4+ T cells. With this motif, a population of naïve CD4+ T cells can integrate the signals from their environment to generate a functionally diverse population with robust commitment of individual cells. Notably, two positive feedback loops in this network motif govern three bistable switches, which in turn, give rise to three types of heterogeneous differentiated states, depending upon particular combinations of input signals. We provide three prototype models illustrating how to use this framework to explain experimental observations and make specific testable predictions. Conclusions The process in which several types of T helper cells are generated simultaneously to mount complex immune responses upon pathogenic challenges can be highly regulated, and a simple signaling network motif can be responsible for generating all possible types of heterogeneous populations with respect to a pair of master regulators controlling CD4+ T cell differentiation. The framework provides a mathematical basis for understanding the decision-making mechanisms of CD4+ T cells, and it can be helpful for interpreting experimental results. Mathematical models based on the framework make specific testable predictions that may improve our understanding of this differentiation system. PMID:22697466

2012-01-01

93

Unpacking teacher-researcher collaboration with three theoretical frameworks: a case of expansive learning activity?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Long association with a mathematics teacher at a Grade 4-6 school in Sweden, is basis for reporting a case of teacher-researcher collaboration. Three theoretical frameworks used to study its development over time are relational knowing, relational agency and cogenerative dialogue. While relational knowing uses narrative perspectives to explore the experiential and relational nature of collaboration; relational agency, draws on activity theory perspectives and identifies the change in the purpose of collaboration, from initially conducting classroom interventions to co-authoring research. Finally, cogenerative dialogue, deploys hermeneutic-phenomenological perspectives and investigates the dialogue that transpired between Lotta and the author, as they co-authored their research report. Such analysis sheds invaluable light on a case of expansive learning activity.

Gade, Sharada

2015-02-01

94

Sustainability of Carbon Sequestration in Terrestrial Ecosystems: Theoretical Framework and a Case Study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A sound understanding of the sustainability of terrestrial carbon (C) sequestration is critical for the success of any policies geared to stabilize atmospheric greenhouse concentrations. This includes the controversial Kyoto Protocol and/or other greenhouse strategies by individual countries. However, the sustainability of C sinks and pools has not been carefully studied with either empirical or theoretical approaches. This study establishes a theoretical framework to define the sustainability based on C influx and residence time (t). Ecosystem C influx is determined by canopy photosynthetic capacity, which is regulated by leaf photosynthetic capacity and leaf area index. The residence time represents the capacity of an ecosystem to store C in plant and soil pools (i.e., the C-storage capacity). The C-sequestration capacity in an ecosystem is jointly determined by the canopy photosynthetic capacity and the C-storage capacity. The C-sequestration capacity is maintained in a future global change scenario only if neither the canopy photosynthetic capacity nor the C-storage capacity is up-or down-regulated. In that case, the future rate of terrestrial C sequestration is primarily determined by environmental forcing functions. The forcing functions could be the rising of atmospheric CO2 concentration, forest regrowth, woody plant encroachment, and nitrogen deposition. We applied this framework to the Free-Air CO2 Enrichment (FACE) experiment in Duke Forest, North Carolina, USA. We estimated C influx with a mechanistic canopy model and residence time via inverse analysis of multiple data sets. Our results indicated that neither canopy photosynthetic capacity nor the C-storage capacity was altered by elevated CO2 at this forest site Thus, the current evidence from both experimental observations and inverse analysis suggests that C sequestration in the ecosystem will increase gradually as Ca gradually increases. Nonetheless, the increased C sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems accounts for only a small fraction of anthropogenic C emission.

Luo, Y.

2002-12-01

95

An Information-Theoretic Framework for Improving Imperfect Dynamical Predictions Via Multi-Model Ensemble Forecasts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work focuses on elucidating issues related to an increasingly common technique of multi-model ensemble (MME) forecasting. The MME approach is aimed at improving the statistical accuracy of imperfect time-dependent predictions by combining information from a collection of reduced-order dynamical models. Despite some operational evidence in support of the MME strategy for mitigating the prediction error, the mathematical framework justifying this approach has been lacking. Here, this problem is considered within a probabilistic/stochastic framework which exploits tools from information theory to derive a set of criteria for improving probabilistic MME predictions relative to single-model predictions. The emphasis is on a systematic understanding of the benefits and limitations associated with the MME approach, on uncertainty quantification, and on the development of practical design principles for constructing an MME with improved predictive performance. The conditions for prediction improvement via the MME approach stem from the convexity of the relative entropy which is used here as a measure of the lack of information in the imperfect models relative to the resolved characteristics of the truth dynamics. It is also shown how practical guidelines for MME prediction improvement can be implemented in the context of forced response predictions from equilibrium with the help of the linear response theory utilizing the fluctuation-dissipation formulas at the unperturbed equilibrium. The general theoretical results are illustrated using exactly solvable stochastic non-Gaussian test models.

Branicki, Michal; Majda, Andrew J.

2015-03-01

96

Fundamental theoretical bias in gravitational wave astrophysics and the parametrized post-Einsteinian framework  

SciTech Connect

We consider the concept of fundamental bias in gravitational wave astrophysics as the assumption that general relativity is the correct theory of gravity during the entire wave-generation and propagation regime. Such an assumption is valid in the weak field, as verified by precision experiments and observations, but it need not hold in the dynamical strong-field regime where tests are lacking. Fundamental bias can cause systematic errors in the detection and parameter estimation of signals, which can lead to a mischaracterization of the Universe through incorrect inferences about source event rates and populations. We propose a remedy through the introduction of the parametrized post-Einsteinian framework, which consists of the enhancement of waveform templates via the inclusion of post-Einsteinian parameters. These parameters would ostensibly be designed to interpolate between templates constructed in general relativity and well-motivated alternative theories of gravity, and also include extrapolations that follow sound theoretical principles, such as consistency with conservation laws and symmetries. As an example, we construct parametrized post-Einsteinian templates for the binary coalescence of equal-mass, nonspinning compact objects in a quasicircular inspiral. The parametrized post-Einsteinian framework should allow matched filtered data to select a specific set of post-Einsteinian parameters without a priori assuming the validity of the former, thus either verifying general relativity or pointing to possible dynamical strong-field deviations.

Yunes, Nicolas; Pretorius, Frans [Department of Physics, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States)

2009-12-15

97

The theoretical calculation of the Rossby number and the `non-local' convective overturn time for pre-main sequence and early post-main sequence stars  

E-print Network

This paper provides estimates of convective turnover time scales for Sun-like stars in the pre-main sequence and early post-main sequence phases of evolution, based on up-to-date physical input for the stellar models. In this first study, all models have solar abundances, which is typical of the stars in the Galactic disk where most of the available data have been collected. A new feature of these models is the inclusion of rotation in the evolutionary sequences, thus making it possible to derive theoretically the Rossby number for each star along its evolutionary track, based on its calculated rotation rate and its local convective turnover time near the base of the convection zone. Global turnover times are also calculated for the complete convection zone. This information should make possible a new class of observational tests of stellar theory which were previously impossible with semi-empirical models, particularly in the study of stellar activity and in research related to angular momentum transfer in stellar interiors during the course of stellar evolution.

Yong -Cheol Kim; Pierre Demarque

1995-07-24

98

Patient centredness in integrated care: results of a qualitative study based on a systems theoretical framework  

PubMed Central

Introduction Health care providers seek to improve patient-centred care. Due to fragmentation of services, this can only be achieved by establishing integrated care partnerships. The challenge is both to control costs while enhancing the quality of care and to coordinate this process in a setting with many organisations involved. The problem is to establish control mechanisms, which ensure sufficiently consideration of patient centredness. Theory and methods Seventeen qualitative interviews have been conducted in hospitals of metropolitan areas in northern Germany. The documentary method, embedded into a systems theoretical framework, was used to describe and analyse the data and to provide an insight into the specific perception of organisational behaviour in integrated care. Results The findings suggest that integrated care partnerships rely on networks based on professional autonomy in the context of reliability. The relationships of network partners are heavily based on informality. This correlates with a systems theoretical conception of organisations, which are assumed autonomous in their decision-making. Conclusion and discussion Networks based on formal contracts may restrict professional autonomy and competition. Contractual bindings that suppress the competitive environment have negative consequences for patient-centred care. Drawbacks remain due to missing self-regulation of the network. To conclude, less regimentation of integrated care partnerships is recommended. PMID:25411573

Lüdecke, Daniel

2014-01-01

99

Theoretical description of the main neutral constituents in the earth's upper atmosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The solution of time-dependent continuity and motion equations for the main neutral constituents O, O2 and N2 has been obtained and compared with different approximations. Numerical calculations have been carried out for different solar fluxes and eddy diffusion coefficients in the altitude range 80-300 km. The O and O2 height profiles obtained differ considerably from profiles calculated using the approximation of minor constituent diffusion and the approaches developed by Friedman (1967) and Colegrove et al. (1965). This discrepancy increases with an increase of eddy diffusion and solar flux. The ratio O/O2 calculated in this work may differ from that deduced from these approximate approaches by about 50%.

Vlasov, M. N.; Davydov, V. E.

1982-08-01

100

A Theoretical Framework for Understanding the Effects of Saharan Mineral Dust Aerosols on African Easterly Waves  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Studies have shown that a large fraction of the intense hurricanes observed over the Atlantic Ocean originate as African easterly waves (AEWs). Of the many processes that affect the propagation, growth and structure of AEWs, the effects of Saharan mineral dust aerosols on AEWs remains an outstanding scientific problem. With this in mind, a new theoretical framework is presented that illuminates causal relationships between Saharan dust and the linear dynamics of AEWs. The framework is built on a quasi-geostrophic system governed by coupled equations for potential vorticity, temperature, and dust continuity. The radiative-dust heating rate accounts for both shortwave and longwave radiative transfer. The source of dust is due to surface emission, which depends on surface wind; the sinks of dust are due to sedimentation and dry deposition. A perturbation analysis yields analytical expressions for the propagation and growth characteristics of the model's AEWs. These expressions are functions of vertically and meridionally averaged wave activity, which depends on wave spatial structure, dust-radiative heating, and the background distributions of wind, temperature, and dust mixing ratio. More specifically, the propagation and growth of the AEWs depend on the amount of dust lofted from the surface by the wind, and the meridional and vertical gradients of the basic state dust distribution, which are modulated by the Doppler-shifted frequency. Idealized cases are presented that show the effects of Saharan dust on the propagation, group velocity, growth, structure, and wave fluxes of AEWs. The clarity of the expressions connecting dust aerosols to the linear properties of AEWs provides an important interpretive tool for analyzing results obtained from comprehensive model simulations of AEWs, such as those produced by the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model.

Nathan, T. R.; Grogan, D.; Chen, S.

2013-12-01

101

A THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK FOR COMBINING TECHNIQUES THAT PROBE THE LINK BETWEEN GALAXIES AND DARK MATTER  

SciTech Connect

We develop a theoretical framework that combines measurements of galaxy-galaxy lensing, galaxy clustering, and the galaxy stellar mass function in a self-consistent manner. While considerable effort has been invested in exploring each of these probes individually, attempts to combine them are still in their infancy. These combinations have the potential to elucidate the galaxy-dark matter connection and the galaxy formation physics responsible for it, as well as to constrain cosmological parameters and to test the nature of gravity. In this paper, we focus on a theoretical model that describes the galaxy-dark matter connection based on standard halo occupation distribution techniques. Several key modifications enable us to extract additional parameters that determine the stellar-to-halo mass relation and to simultaneously fit data from multiple probes while allowing for independent binning schemes for each probe. We construct mock catalogs from numerical simulations to investigate the effects of sample variance and covariance for each probe. Finally, we analyze how trends in each of the three observables impact the derived parameters of the model. In particular, we investigate various features of the observed galaxy stellar mass function (low-mass slope, 'plateau', knee, and high-mass cutoff) and show how each feature is related to the underlying relationship between stellar and halo mass. We demonstrate that the observed 'plateau' feature in the stellar mass function at M{sub *} {approx} 2 x 10{sup 10} M{sub sun} is due to the transition that occurs in the stellar-to-halo mass relation at M{sub h} {approx} 10{sup 12} M{sub sun} from a low-mass power-law regime to a sub-exponential function at higher stellar mass.

Leauthaud, Alexie [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Tinker, Jeremy [Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, Department of Physics, New York University, New York, NY 10003 (United States); Behroozi, Peter S.; Busha, Michael T.; Wechsler, Risa H., E-mail: asleauthaud@lbl.gov [Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Physics Department, Stanford University, and SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States)

2011-09-01

102

Toward an Integrative Theoretical Framework for Explaining Beliefs about Wife Beating: A Study among Students of Nursing from Turkey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An integrative theoretical framework was tested as the basis for explaining beliefs about wife beating among Turkish nursing students. Based on a survey design, 406 nursing students (404 females) in all 4 years of undergraduate studies completed a self-administered questionnaire. Questionnaires were distributed and collected from the participants…

Haj-Yahia, Muhammad M.; Uysal, Aynur

2011-01-01

103

A game theoretic framework for incentive-based models of intrinsic motivation in artificial systems  

PubMed Central

An emerging body of research is focusing on understanding and building artificial systems that can achieve open-ended development influenced by intrinsic motivations. In particular, research in robotics and machine learning is yielding systems and algorithms with increasing capacity for self-directed learning and autonomy. Traditional software architectures and algorithms are being augmented with intrinsic motivations to drive cumulative acquisition of knowledge and skills. Intrinsic motivations have recently been considered in reinforcement learning, active learning and supervised learning settings among others. This paper considers game theory as a novel setting for intrinsic motivation. A game theoretic framework for intrinsic motivation is formulated by introducing the concept of optimally motivating incentive as a lens through which players perceive a game. Transformations of four well-known mixed-motive games are presented to demonstrate the perceived games when players' optimally motivating incentive falls in three cases corresponding to strong power, affiliation and achievement motivation. We use agent-based simulations to demonstrate that players with different optimally motivating incentive act differently as a result of their altered perception of the game. We discuss the implications of these results both for modeling human behavior and for designing artificial agents or robots. PMID:24198797

Merrick, Kathryn E.; Shafi, Kamran

2013-01-01

104

Institutional and structural barriers to HIV testing: elements for a theoretical framework.  

PubMed

Stigma is a barrier to HIV health seeking, but little is known about institutional and structural expressions of stigma in HIV testing. This study examines evidence of institutional and structural stigma in the HIV testing process. A qualitative, grounded theory study was conducted using secondary data from a 2011 HIV test site evaluation data in a Midwestern, moderate HIV incidence state. Expressions of structural and institutional stigma were found with over half of the testing sites and at three stages of the HIV testing visit. Examples of structural stigma included social geography, organization, and staff behavior at first encounter and reception, and staff behavior when experiencing the actual HIV test. Institutional stigma was socially expressed through staff behavior at entry/reception and when experiencing the HIV test. The emerging elements demonstrate the potential compounding of stigma experiences with deleterious effect. Study findings may inform future development of a theoretical framework. In practice, findings can guide organizations seeking to reduce HIV testing barriers, as they provide a window into how test seekers experience HIV test sites at first encounter, entry/reception, and at testing stages; and can identify how stigma might be intensified by structural and institutional expressions. PMID:24313812

Meyerson, Beth; Barnes, Priscilla; Emetu, Roberta; Bailey, Marlon; Ohmit, Anita; Gillespie, Anthony

2014-01-01

105

Toward an Accurate Theoretical Framework for Describing Ensembles for Proteins under Strongly Denaturing Conditions  

PubMed Central

Our focus is on an appropriate theoretical framework for describing highly denatured proteins. In high concentrations of denaturants, proteins behave like polymers in a good solvent and ensembles for denatured proteins can be modeled by ignoring all interactions except excluded volume (EV) effects. To assay conformational preferences of highly denatured proteins, we quantify a variety of properties for EV-limit ensembles of 23 two-state proteins. We find that modeled denatured proteins can be best described as follows. Average shapes are consistent with prolate ellipsoids. Ensembles are characterized by large correlated fluctuations. Sequence-specific conformational preferences are restricted to local length scales that span five to nine residues. Beyond local length scales, chain properties follow well-defined power laws that are expected for generic polymers in the EV limit. The average available volume is filled inefficiently, and cavities of all sizes are found within the interiors of denatured proteins. All properties characterized from simulated ensembles match predictions from rigorous field theories. We use our results to resolve between conflicting proposals for structure in ensembles for highly denatured states. PMID:16766618

Tran, Hoang T.; Pappu, Rohit V.

2006-01-01

106

The Problem With the Phrase Women and Minorities: Intersectionality—an Important Theoretical Framework for Public Health  

PubMed Central

Intersectionality is a theoretical framework that posits that multiple social categories (e.g., race, ethnicity, gender, sexual orientation, socioeconomic status) intersect at the micro level of individual experience to reflect multiple interlocking systems of privilege and oppression at the macro, social-structural level (e.g., racism, sexism, heterosexism). Public health’s commitment to social justice makes it a natural fit with intersectionality’s focus on multiple historically oppressed populations. Yet despite a plethora of research focused on these populations, public health studies that reflect intersectionality in their theoretical frameworks, designs, analyses, or interpretations are rare. Accordingly, I describe the history and central tenets of intersectionality, address some theoretical and methodological challenges, and highlight the benefits of intersectionality for public health theory, research, and policy. PMID:22594719

2012-01-01

107

Contextualized analysis of a needs assessment using the Theoretical Domains Framework: a case example in endocrinology  

PubMed Central

Background The Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF) is a set of 14 domains of behavior change that provide a framework for the critical issues and factors influencing optimal knowledge translation. Considering that a previous study has identified optimal knowledge translation techniques for each TDF domain, it was hypothesized that the TDF could be used to contextualize and interpret findings from a behavioral and educational needs assessment. To illustrate this hypothesis, findings and recommendations drawn from a 2012 national behavioral and educational needs assessment conducted with healthcare providers who treat and manage Growth and Growth Hormone Disorders, will be discussed using the TDF. Methods This needs assessment utilized a mixed-methods research approach that included a combination of: [a] data sources (Endocrinologists (n:120), Pediatric Endocrinologists (n:53), Pediatricians (n:52)), [b] data collection methods (focus groups, interviews, online survey), [c] analysis methodologies (qualitative - analyzed through thematic analysis, quantitative - analyzed using frequencies, cross-tabulations, and gap analysis). Triangulation was used to generate trustworthy findings on the clinical practice gaps of endocrinologists, pediatric endocrinologists, and general pediatricians in their provision of care to adult patients with adult growth hormone deficiency or acromegaly, or children/teenagers with pediatric growth disorders. The identified gaps were then broken into key underlying determinants, categorized according to the TDF domains, and linked to optimal behavioral change techniques. Results The needs assessment identified 13 gaps, each with one or more underlying determinant(s). Overall, these determinants were mapped to 9 of the 14 TDF domains. The Beliefs about Consequences domain was identified as a contributing determinant to 7 of the 13 challenges. Five of the gaps could be related to the Skills domain, while three were linked to the Knowledge domain. Conclusions The TDF categorization of the needs assessment findings allowed recommendation of appropriate behavior change techniques for each underlying determinant, and facilitated communication and understanding of the identified issues to a broader audience. This approach provides a means for health education researchers to categorize gaps and challenges identified through educational needs assessments, and facilitates the application of these findings by educators and knowledge translators, by linking the gaps to recommended behavioral change techniques. PMID:25060235

2014-01-01

108

Can the theoretical domains framework account for the implementation of clinical quality interventions?  

PubMed Central

Background The health care quality improvement movement is a complex enterprise. Implementing clinical quality initiatives requires attitude and behaviour change on the part of clinicians, but this has proven to be difficult. In an attempt to solve this kind of behavioural challenge, the theoretical domains framework (TDF) has been developed. The TDF consists of 14 domains from psychological and organisational theory said to influence behaviour change. No systematic research has been conducted into the ways in which clinical quality initiatives map on to the domains of the framework. We therefore conducted a qualitative mapping experiment to determine to what extent, and in what ways, the TDF is relevant to the implementation of clinical quality interventions. Methods We conducted a thematic synthesis of the qualitative literature exploring clinicians’ perceptions of various clinical quality interventions. We analysed and synthesised 50 studies in total, in five domains of clinical quality interventions: clinical quality interventions in general, structural interventions, audit-type interventions, interventions aimed at making practice more evidence-based, and risk management interventions. Data were analysed thematically, followed by synthesis of these themes into categories and concepts, which were then mapped to the domains of the TDF. Results Our results suggest that the TDF is highly relevant to the implementation of clinical quality interventions. It can be used to map most, if not all, of the attitudinal and behavioural barriers and facilitators of uptake of clinical quality interventions. Each of these 14 domains appeared to be relevant to many different types of clinical quality interventions. One possible additional domain might relate to perceived trustworthiness of those instituting clinical quality interventions. Conclusions The TDF can be usefully applied to a wide range of clinical quality interventions. Because all 14 of the domains emerged as relevant, and we did not identify any obvious differences between different kinds of clinical quality interventions, our findings support an initially broad approach to identifying barriers and facilitators, followed by a “drilling down” to what is most contextually salient. In future, it may be possible to establish a model of clinical quality policy implementation using the TDF. PMID:24359085

2013-01-01

109

Evaluation of Capacity-Building Program of District Health Managers in India: A Contextualized Theoretical Framework  

PubMed Central

Performance of local health services managers at district level is crucial to ensure that health services are of good quality and cater to the health needs of the population in the area. In many low- and middle-income countries, health services managers are poorly equipped with public health management capacities needed for planning and managing their local health system. In the south Indian Tumkur district, a consortium of five non-governmental organizations partnered with the state government to organize a capacity-building program for health managers. The program consisted of a mix of periodic contact classes, mentoring and assignments and was spread over 30?months. In this paper, we develop a theoretical framework in the form of a refined program theory to understand how such a capacity-building program could bring about organizational change. A well-formulated program theory enables an understanding of how interventions could bring about improvements and an evaluation of the intervention. In the refined program theory of the intervention, we identified various factors at individual, institutional, and environmental levels that could interact with the hypothesized mechanisms of organizational change, such as staff’s perceived self-efficacy and commitment to their organizations. Based on this program theory, we formulated context–mechanism–outcome configurations that can be used to evaluate the intervention and, more specifically, to understand what worked, for whom and under what conditions. We discuss the application of program theory development in conducting a realist evaluation. Realist evaluation embraces principles of systems thinking by providing a method for understanding how elements of the system interact with one another in producing a given outcome. PMID:25121081

Prashanth, N. S.; Marchal, Bruno; Kegels, Guy; Criel, Bart

2014-01-01

110

A theoretical framework to describe communication processes during medical disability assessment interviews  

PubMed Central

Background Research in different fields of medicine suggests that communication is important in physician-patient encounters and influences satisfaction with these encounters. It is argued that this also applies to the non-curative tasks that physicians perform, such as sickness certification and medical disability assessments. However, there is no conceptualised theoretical framework that can be used to describe intentions with regard to communication behaviour, communication behaviour itself, and satisfaction with communication behaviour in a medical disability assessment context. Objective The objective of this paper is to describe the conceptualisation of a model for the communication behaviour of physicians performing medical disability assessments in a social insurance context and of their claimants, in face-to-face encounters during medical disability assessment interviews and the preparation thereof. Conceptualisation The behavioural model, based on the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB), is conceptualised for the communication behaviour of social insurance physicians and claimants separately, but also combined during the assessment interview. Other important concepts in the model are the evaluation of communication behaviour (satisfaction), intentions, attitudes, skills, and barriers for communication. Conclusion The conceptualisation of the TPB-based behavioural model will help to provide insight into the communication behaviour of social insurance physicians and claimants during disability assessment interviews. After empirical testing of the relationships in the model, it can be used in other studies to obtain more insight into communication behaviour in non-curative medicine, and it could help social insurance physicians to adapt their communication behaviour to their task when performing disability assessments. PMID:19807905

van Rijssen, H Jolanda; Schellart, Antonius JM; Anema, Johannes R; van der Beek, Allard J

2009-01-01

111

Recovering from childhood sexual abuse: a theoretical framework for practice and research.  

PubMed

Research on survivors' experiences of recovering from childhood sexual abuse (CSA) has been limited and focused on those with severe mental health difficulties. This study elicited experiences of recovery from CSA in male and female survivors who have/have not utilized mental health services. The tangible end-point was to propose a theoretical model of personally meaningful recovery. This is a qualitative study, which utilized semi-structured individual interviews following the critical incident technique. Transcripts were analysed using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis to identify recurrent themes. A total 22 adult survivors of CSA. Main themes identified were: The Affected Self, Factors Hindering Recovery, Factors Enhancing Recovery, The Hurdles of Recovery and the Recovering Self. The affected self included: lack of boundary awareness and self-blame, over self-reliance, over-vigilance and guilt, shame, aloneness and social stigma. The recovering self was characterized by increasing confidence, assertiveness, ability to self-care and self-acceptance, and by embracing vulnerability. These findings have potentially major implications for clinical practice, service provision, policy development and professional training in this field. The importance of disclosure in the healing process seemed paramount and can have major implications for current service protocols. PMID:23379783

Chouliara, Z; Karatzias, T; Gullone, A

2014-02-01

112

A Theoretical Framework of the Relation between Socioeconomic Status and Academic Achievement of Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A socio-psychological analytical framework will be adopted to illuminate the relation between socioeconomic status and academic achievement. The framework puts the emphasis to incorporate micro familial factors into macro factor of the tracking system. Initially, children of the poor families always lack major prerequisite: diminution of cognitive…

Lam, Gigi

2014-01-01

113

The supply chain crisis and disaster pyramid : A theoretical framework for understanding preparedness and recovery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The research on supply chains concerning disaster and crisis situations is in its infancy, but rapidly expanding on the backs of top researchers in the field. As with most young research streams there is very little theoretical grounding in extant studies. The purpose of this research is to integrate four prominent existing theoretical perspectives to provide a concise

R. Glenn Richey Jr

2009-01-01

114

Theoretical design of n-type organic semiconducting materials containing thiazole and oxazole frameworks.  

PubMed

The characteristics of molecular structure and charge transport of some new n-type organic semiconductors containing thiazole 1a-6a and oxazole 1b-6b frameworks and trifluoromethylphenyl as terminal groups were predicted using density functional theory (DFT) methods. The energy levels of HOMO and LUMO of these compounds are decreased when thiophene and furan units are replaced by thiazole and oxazole units, respectively. The same trend was observed when benzo[1,2-d:4,5-d']bisthiazole groups were replaced with benzo[1,2-d:4,5-d']bisthiazole-4,8-diones. The reorganization energies for electron of compounds are computed in a range of 0.21-0.37 eV, which is comparable to the value of 0.25 eV of well-known n-type semiconductors such as perfluoropentacene. Some important trends can be pointed out as follows: (i) replacing the core thiazolothiazole unit of compounds 1a and 2a by the larger core benzo[1,2-d:4,5-d']bisthiazole units of 3a and 4a decreases both reorganization energies for electron (?(e)); (ii) the ?(e) values of compounds containing thiazole 2a, 4a, and 6a are smaller than those of compounds containing thiophene 1a, 3a, and 5a, respectively; (iii) there is no clear trend when replacing benzene rings of compounds 3a and 4a by quinone rings of 5a and 6a. The ?(e) values of 5 and 6 are only somewhat larger. The same trend is also found for compounds containing oxazole 1b-6b. The intermolecular charge transports in solid state of these compounds mainly occur among molecules in the same molecular layer, whereas intermolecular interactions between molecules in different molecular layers are very small. Generally, beside some experimentally reported molecules 1a-4a, the remaining molecules designed here are good candidates for n-type organic semiconducting materials with small reorganization energies for electron and low energy levels of LUMO. PMID:24720499

Huong, Vu Thi Thu; Tai, Truong Ba; Nguyen, Minh Tho

2014-05-01

115

Social marketing and social influences: Using social ecology as a theoretical framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social marketing has traditionally been dominated by an individualistic model of design. In this work, the authors apply a social ecology model to the theory and practice of social marketing, demonstrating that a multilevel framework is required to fully expose and account for the complexity of sociocultural and environmental effects. The authors have generated a diagnostic tool for this use.

Katie Collins; Alan Tapp; Ashley Pressley

2010-01-01

116

CRITERIA FOR THE THEORETICAL ADEQUACY OF CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK OF PLANNED EDUCATIONAL CHANGE.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THE CURRENT INADEQUACY OF A CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK ALLOWING ACCUMULATION AND SYNTHESIS OF KNOWLEDGE CONCERNING EDUCATIONAL CHANGE IS EVALUATED. CONSIDERATION OF EDUCATIONAL CHANGE AS SCIENTIFIC KNOWLEDGE PRESUPPOSES EXPLORATION OF THE DIFFICULTIES THAT RESTRICT THE MEETING OF THE ACCEPTED SCIENTIFIC CRITERIA OF DESCRIPTION, EXPLANATION, PREDICTION,…

BROUDY, HARRY S.

117

A Theoretical Framework for Research in Algebra: Modification of Janvier's "Star" Model of Function Understanding.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A pentagonal model, based on the star model of function understanding of C. Janvier (1987), is presented as a framework for the design and interpretation of research in the area of learning the concept of mathematical function. The five vertices of the pentagon correspond to five common representations of mathematical function: (1) graph; (2)…

Bowman, Anita H.

118

THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK FOR COUPLING OF NON LOCAL DAMAGE AND VISCOPLASTICITY FOR DYNAMIC LOCALIZATION PROBLEMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conventional continuum mechanics models of inelastic deformation processes are size scale independent. In contrast, there is considerable experimental evidence that inelastic flow in crystalline materials is size- dependent. At present there is no generally accepted framework for analyzing the size-dependent response of an inelastically deforming material. This is due to the fact that very limited quantitative numerical comparisons with experimental

G. Z. Voyiadjis; R. K. Abu Al-Rub

119

Health disparities in Canada today: Some evidence and a theoretical framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper documents contemporary evidence on patterns of health disparities in Canada and suggests theoretical mechanisms that give rise to these patterns. The overall health of Canadians, as measured by life expectancy or mortality, has improved dramatically over the past 30 years and some disparities have diminished slightly (e.g., life expectancy by income group for men), while others have increased

Katherine L. Frohlich; Nancy Ross; Chantelle Richmond

2006-01-01

120

Websites that Satisfy Users: A Theoretical Framework for Web User Interface Design and Evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the fast development and increasing use of the World Wide Web as both an information seeking and an electronic commerce tool, web usability studies grow in importance. While web designers have largely focused on functional aspects of websites, there has been little systematic attention to (1) the motivational issues of web user interface design or (2) a theoretically driven

Ping Zhang; Ruth V. Small; Gisela M. Von Dran; Silvia Barcellos

1999-01-01

121

The Use of CSCL To Teach Information Systems: A Theoretical Framework.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Proposes computer-supported cooperative learning (CSCL) as an organizational idea that can change the current educational process and connect schooling to the working world. Discusses three case studies from the University of Pretoria in which a CSCL environment was established to support the learning process, and explains the theoretical

de Villiers, Carina; Roode, J. Dewald

1998-01-01

122

A Contrastive Lexical Approach to Second Language Acquisition: A Theoretical Framework and Related Techniques  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite criticisms set against methods by postmethodologists who believe that teaching methods must be cast aside, new methods can be proposed that better meet learners' needs as a continuation of the chain of former methods introduced in the past. The present study proposes some language teaching techniques after introducing the theoretical

Maftoon, Parviz; Ziafar, Meisam

2014-01-01

123

Exploring Asynchrony as a Theoretical Framework for Understanding Giftedness: A Case of Cognitive Dissonance?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Asynchrony is a theoretical construct that views the intellectually gifted child as inherently vulnerable because of disparities arising from the mismatch between his or her chronological age and mental age. Such disparities, for example, between wanting to belong but being intellectually out of step with peers, are said to give rise to a…

Andronaco, Julie A.; Shute, Rosalyn; McLachlan, Angus

2014-01-01

124

Teachers' Stances on Cell Phones in the ESL Classroom: Toward a "Theoretical" Framework  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the ongoing and constantly expanding discussion surrounding cell phones in the classroom, a theoretical complement to the practical side of the issue is generally lacking. This is perhaps understandable. Many teachers are still trying to deal with the simple presence of cell phones in the class, and managing a classroom in which the presence…

Brown, Jeff

2014-01-01

125

Predicting Child Abuse Potential: An Empirical Investigation of Two Theoretical Frameworks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated two theoretical risk models predicting child maltreatment potential: (a) Belsky's (1993) developmental-ecological model and (b) the cumulative risk model in a sample of 610 caregivers (49% African American, 46% European American; 53% single) with a child between 3 and 6 years old. Results extend the literature by using a…

Begle, Angela Moreland; Dumas, Jean E.; Hanson, Rochelle F.

2010-01-01

126

Predicting Child Abuse Potential: An Empirical Investigation of Two Theoretical Frameworks  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated two theoretical risk models predicting child maltreatment potential: (a) Belsky's (1993) developmental-ecological model and (b) the cumulative risk model in a sample of 610 caregivers (49% African American, 46% European American; 53% single) with a child between 3 and 6 years old. Results extend the literature by using a widely accepted and valid risk instrument rather than

Angela Moreland Begle; Jean E. Dumas; Rochelle F. Hanson

2010-01-01

127

An Examination of Physical Education Teacher Motivation from a Self-Determination Theoretical Framework  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: The motivation of physical education (PE) teachers has received precious little attention over the years. Self-determination theory (SDT) is a salient theoretical model for understanding motivation, and posits that self-determined motivation (i.e., intrinsic motivation) stems from the perceived fulfillment of three psychological needs:…

Carson, Russell L.; Chase, Melissa A.

2009-01-01

128

Game Object Model Version II: A Theoretical Framework for Educational Game Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Complex computer and video games may provide a vehicle, based on appropriate theoretical concepts, to transform the educational landscape. Building on the original game object model (GOM) a new more detailed model is developed to support concepts that educational computer games should: be relevant, explorative, emotive, engaging, and include…

Amory, Alan

2007-01-01

129

Framework of a Decision-Theoretic Tutoring System for Learning of Mechanics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents the application of decision-theoretic technique to a computer-based tutoring system for elementary mechanics. Uses sound probabilistic reasoning and a student model to identify learners' misconceptions. Focuses on the integration of Bayesian belief networks, item response theory, decision analysis, and database management systems in…

Pek, Peng-Kiat; Poh, Kim-Leng

2000-01-01

130

A theoretical framework for the regulation of Shh morphogen-controlled gene expression  

PubMed Central

How morphogen gradients govern the pattern of gene expression in developing tissues is not well understood. Here, we describe a statistical thermodynamic model of gene regulation that combines the activity of a morphogen with the transcriptional network it controls. Using Sonic hedgehog (Shh) patterning of the ventral neural tube as an example, we show that the framework can be used together with the principled parameter selection technique of approximate Bayesian computation to obtain a dynamical model that accurately predicts tissue patterning. The analysis indicates that, for each target gene regulated by Gli, which is the transcriptional effector of Shh signalling, there is a neutral point in the gradient, either side of which altering the Gli binding affinity has opposite effects on gene expression. This explains recent counterintuitive experimental observations. The approach is broadly applicable and provides a unifying framework to explain the temporospatial pattern of morphogen-regulated gene expression. PMID:25294939

Cohen, Michael; Page, Karen M.; Perez-Carrasco, Ruben; Barnes, Chris P.; Briscoe, James

2014-01-01

131

Applying an extended theoretical framework for data collection mode to health services research  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Over the last 30 years options for collecting self-reported data in health surveys and questionnaires have increased with technological advances. However, mode of data collection such as face-to-face interview or telephone interview can affect how individuals respond to questionnaires. This paper adapts a framework for understanding mode effects on response quality and applies it to a health research context.

Michael R Robling; David K Ingledew; Giles Greene; Adrian Sayers; Chris Shaw; Lesley Sander; Ian T Russell; John G Williams; Kerenza Hood

2010-01-01

132

Supportive Non-Parental Adults and Adolescent Psychosocial Functioning: Using Social Support as a Theoretical Framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

Supportive Non-Parental Adults (SNPAs), or non-parental adults who provide social support to youth, are present in the lives\\u000a of many adolescents; yet to date, a guiding framework for organizing the existing literature on the provision of support provided\\u000a by multiple types of SNPAS, such as teachers, natural mentors, and extended family members, as well as to inform future research\\u000a efforts,

Emma M. Sterrett; Deborah J. Jones; Laura G. McKee; Carlye Kincaid

133

Patient safety culture in primary care: developing a theoretical framework for practical use  

PubMed Central

Objective Great importance has been attached to a culture of safe practice in healthcare organisations, but it has proved difficult to engage frontline staff with this complex concept. The present study aimed to develop and test a framework for making the concept of safety culture meaningful and accessible to managers and frontline staff, and facilitating discussion of ways to improve team/organisational safety culture. Setting Eight primary care trusts and a sample of their associated general practices in north west England. Methods In phase 1 a comprehensive review of the literature and a postal survey of experts helped identify the key dimensions of safety culture in primary care. Semistructured interviews with 30 clinicians and managers explored the application of these dimensions to an established theory of organisational maturity. In phase 2 the face validity and utility of the framework was assessed in 33 interviews and 14 focus groups. Results Nine dimensions were identified through which safety culture is expressed in primary care organisations. Organisational descriptions were developed for how these dimensions might be characterised at five levels of organisational maturity. The resulting framework conceptualises patient safety culture as multidimensional and dynamic, and seems to have a high level of face validity and utility within primary care. It aids clinicians' and managers' understanding of the concept of safety culture and promotes discussion within teams about their safety culture maturity. Conclusions The framework moves the agenda on from rhetoric about the importance of safety culture to a way of understanding why and how the shared values of staff working within a healthcare organisation may be operationalised to create a safe environment for patient care. PMID:17693682

Kirk, Susan; Parker, Dianne; Claridge, Tanya; Esmail, Aneez; Marshall, Martin

2007-01-01

134

The theoretical underpinnings of customer asset management: A framework and propositions for future research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most research in customer asset management has focused on specific aspects of the value of the customer to the company. The\\u000a purpose of this article is to propose an integrated framework, called CUSAMS (customer asset management of services), that\\u000a enables service organizations (1) to make a comprehensive assessment of the value of their customer assets and (2) to understand\\u000a the

Ruth N. Bolton; Katherine N. Lemon; Peter C. Verhoef

2004-01-01

135

Theory of mind and paranoia in schizophrenia: A game theoretical investigation framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction. Ample evidence already shows that theory of mind (ToM) is impaired in people with schizophrenia. Our aim was to critically review this literature.Method. We completed a selected review of the research literature on ToM in schizophrenia.Results. Gaps in ToM research were identified. A specific relationship between impaired ToM and paranoid delusions, although intuitively reasonable from a theoretical basis, has

Kevin K. S. Chan; Eric Y. H. Chen

2011-01-01

136

Incorporating the Cultural Dimensions into the Theoretical Framework of Website Information Architecture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Information Architecture (IA) has emerged as a discipline that is concerned with the development of systematic approaches\\u000a to the presentation and organization of online information. The IA discipline has commanded significant attention from professional\\u000a practitioners but lacks in the theoretical perspective. In our effort to formalize the knowledge of the discipline, we report\\u000a on the extension of our initial work

Wan Abdul Rahim Wan Mohd Isa; Shafie Mehad

2007-01-01

137

Game object model version II: a theoretical framework for educational game development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Complex computer and video games may provide a vehicle, based on appropriate theoretical concepts, to transform the educational\\u000a landscape. Building on the original game object model (GOM) a new more detailed model is developed to support concepts that\\u000a educational computer games should: be relevant, explorative, emotive, engaging, and include complex challenges; support authentic\\u000a learning activities that are designed as narrative

Alan Amory

2007-01-01

138

Dynamic decision making for dam-break emergency management - Part 1: Theoretical framework  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An evacuation decision for dam breaks is a very serious issue. A late decision may lead to loss of lives and properties, but a very early evacuation will incur unnecessary expenses. This paper presents a risk-based framework of dynamic decision making for dam-break emergency management (DYDEM). The dam-break emergency management in both time scale and space scale is introduced first to define the dynamic decision problem. The probability of dam failure is taken as a stochastic process and estimated using a time-series analysis method. The flood consequences are taken as functions of warning time and evaluated with a human risk analysis model (HURAM) based on Bayesian networks. A decision criterion is suggested to decide whether to evacuate the population at risk (PAR) or to delay the decision. The optimum time for evacuating the PAR is obtained by minimizing the expected total loss, which integrates the time-related probabilities and flood consequences. When a delayed decision is chosen, the decision making can be updated with available new information. A specific dam-break case study is presented in a companion paper to illustrate the application of this framework to complex dam-breaching problems.

Peng, M.; Zhang, L. M.

2013-02-01

139

The impact of metabolism on stable isotope dynamics: a theoretical framework.  

PubMed

Stable isotope analysis is a powerful tool used for reconstructing individual life histories, identifying food-web structures and tracking flow of elemental matter through ecosystems. The mechanisms determining isotopic incorporation rates and discrimination factors are, however, poorly understood which hinders a reliable interpretation of field data when no experimental data are available. Here, we extend dynamic energy budget (DEB) theory with a limited set of new assumptions and rules in order to study the impact of metabolism on stable isotope dynamics in a mechanistic way. We calculate fluxes of stable isotopes within an organism by following fluxes of molecules involved in a limited number of macrochemical reactions: assimilation, growth but also structure turnover that is here explicitly treated. Two mechanisms are involved in the discrimination of isotopes: (i) selection of molecules occurs at the partitioning of assimilation, growth and turnover into anabolic and catabolic sub-fluxes and (ii) reshuffling of atoms occurs during transformations. Such a framework allows for isotopic routing which is known as a key, but poorly studied, mechanism. As DEB theory specifies the impact of environmental conditions and individual state on molecule fluxes, we discuss how scenario analysis within this framework could help reveal common mechanisms across taxa. PMID:20921045

Pecquerie, Laure; Nisbet, Roger M; Fablet, Ronan; Lorrain, Anne; Kooijman, Sebastiaan A L M

2010-11-12

140

The impact of metabolism on stable isotope dynamics: a theoretical framework  

PubMed Central

Stable isotope analysis is a powerful tool used for reconstructing individual life histories, identifying food-web structures and tracking flow of elemental matter through ecosystems. The mechanisms determining isotopic incorporation rates and discrimination factors are, however, poorly understood which hinders a reliable interpretation of field data when no experimental data are available. Here, we extend dynamic energy budget (DEB) theory with a limited set of new assumptions and rules in order to study the impact of metabolism on stable isotope dynamics in a mechanistic way. We calculate fluxes of stable isotopes within an organism by following fluxes of molecules involved in a limited number of macrochemical reactions: assimilation, growth but also structure turnover that is here explicitly treated. Two mechanisms are involved in the discrimination of isotopes: (i) selection of molecules occurs at the partitioning of assimilation, growth and turnover into anabolic and catabolic sub-fluxes and (ii) reshuffling of atoms occurs during transformations. Such a framework allows for isotopic routing which is known as a key, but poorly studied, mechanism. As DEB theory specifies the impact of environmental conditions and individual state on molecule fluxes, we discuss how scenario analysis within this framework could help reveal common mechanisms across taxa. PMID:20921045

Pecquerie, Laure; Nisbet, Roger M.; Fablet, Ronan; Lorrain, Anne; Kooijman, Sebastiaan A. L. M.

2010-01-01

141

Validating Photogrammetric Orientation Steps by the Use of Relevant Theoretical Models. Implementation in the "ARPENTEUR" Framework  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The new advance in photogrammetry using the automatic procedures such as the famous algorithm which was proposed by David Lowe (Lowe, 2004) features descriptors and matching (SIFT) and then the recent development of external orientation (Nister (Stewenius et alii, 2006) or Snavely (Snavely et alii, 2010)) have changed drastically the way of measuring space with photogrammetry. The complexity of the process and the huge quantity of processed data (thousands of photographs) makes difficult validating the different process steps. We propose in this paper several theoretical model generation methods in order to validate the complete photogrammetric orientation process. A theoretical photogrammetric model generation has been developed in order to produce photographs, photo orientation, 3D points and 2D observations according to some defined camera and a parametric photograph distribution in the scene. In addition the use of synthesis image software generation as POV-Ray allow us to generate set of photographs with pre-computed internal and external orientation in order to check the whole pipeline from feature extraction to Photographs External Orientation. We apply this model generation approach to several typical geometry of photogrammetric scene, stereo, parallel triplet, parallel strip and convergent models.

Mahiddine, A.; Seinturier, J.; Peloso, D.; Boulaassal, H.; Boï, J.-M.; Merad, D.; Drap, P.

2013-07-01

142

System models for IR diffractive optical systems based on a coherence theoretic framework  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Diffractive optical systems in the Infrared (IR) wavelength regime are being re-examined for remote sensing applications. A pupil-plane adaptive coded aperture can enable a fine resolution, wide field of view sensor system without mechanical scanning. Due to the relatively long wavelengths, coded aperture systems in the IR have unique issues in regards to e.g. X-ray coded apertures. These include diffraction effects, wavelength dependence of optical elements, off axis aberrations due to thick screens, etc. In this paper, we provide a general system model framework based on partial coherence theory that enables us to explore many of the technical challenges in IR diffractive imaging. This paper develops the general theory and shows examples of issues that impact the optical transfer function (OTF) and impulse response of these types of architectures.

Subotic, Nikola; Eismann, M.; Roussi, C.; Meola, J.; Koziol, B.

2007-09-01

143

A Framework for Determining the Maximum Theoretical Power Output for a Given Vibration Energy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper outlines a mathematical framework to determine the upper bound on extractable power as a function of the forcing vibrations. In addition to determining the upper bound on power output, the method described provides insight into the dynamic transducer forces required to attain the upper bound. This relationship, between input vibration parameters and transducer force gives a critical first step in determining the optimal transducer architecture for a given vibration input. The method developed is applied to two specific vibration inputs; a single sinusoid, and the sum of two sinusoids. For the single sinusoidal case, the optimal transducer force is found to be that produced by a linear spring, resonant with the input frequency, and a linear viscous damper, with matched impedance to the mechanical damper. The solution to this first case was previously known, but has been used here to validate the methodology. The resulting transducer force for the input described by a sum of two sinusoids is found to be inherently time dependent. This time dependency shows that an active system can outperform a passive system. Furthermore, the upper bound on power output is shown to be twice that obtainable from a linear harvester centred at the lower of the two frequencies.

Heit, J.; Roundy, S.

2014-11-01

144

[Marxism as a theoretical and methodological framework in collective health: implications for systematic review and synthesis of evidence].  

PubMed

In this study, we discuss the integration in systematic reviews of research developed from a Marxist perspective of knowledge production and their results as evidence in healthcare. The study objectives are to review the assumptions of dialectical and historical materialism (DHM) and discuss the implications of dialectics for a literature review and the synthesis of evidence. DHM is a powerful framework for knowledge generation and transformation of policies and practices in healthcare. It assumes that social contradictions underlie the health-disease process, the fundamental theoretical construction in the field of collective health. Currently, we observe a considerable influence of the critical paradigm, of Marxist origin, in the construction of knowledge in health. Studies based on this critical paradigm incorporate complex methods, which are inherent to the guidelines of dialect, to identify the object and arrive at results that constitute evidence in healthcare. Systematic reviews should address the methodological difficulties associated with entirely integrating these results to healthcare. PMID:24626368

Soares, Cassia Baldini; Campos, Celia Maria Sivalli; Yonekura, Tatiana

2013-12-01

145

Loading of ionic compounds into metal-organic frameworks: a joint theoretical and experimental study for the case of La³?.  

PubMed

Crystalline, highly orientated surface-anchored MOF thin films, grown on Au substrates, were prepared using liquid-phase epitaxy (LPE). The successful loading of La(3+) ions into the Cu3(BTC)2 (HKUST-1) SURMOFs (surface-mounted metal-organic frameworks) was monitored using X-ray diffraction (XRD). Theoretical calculations using classical force-field based Monte Carlo simulations yield a structure with two La(3+) ions within the large Cu3(BTC)2 pores, in full agreement with experimental results on the composition of these films and the relative intensities of the XRD peaks. Implications of these findings for using MOF thin films for electronic applications are briefly discussed. PMID:25046605

Guo, Wei; Liu, Jinxuan; Weidler, Peter G; Liu, Jianxi; Neumann, Tobias; Danilov, Denis; Wenzel, Wolfgang; Feldmann, Claus; Wöll, Christof

2014-09-01

146

Theoretical framework to analyze searches for hidden light gauge bosons in electron scattering fixed target experiments  

E-print Network

Motivated by anomalies in cosmic ray observations and by attempts to solve questions of the Standad Model of particle physics like the (g-2)_mu discrepancy, U(1) extensions of the Standard Model have been proposed in recent years. Such U(1) extensions allow for the interaction of Dark Matter by exchange of a photon-like massive force carrier \\gamma' not included in the Standard Model. In order to search for \\gamma' bosons various experimental programs have been started. One approach is the dedicated search at fixed-target experiments at modest energies as performed at MAMI or at the Jefferson Lab. In these experiments the process e(A,Z)->e(A,Z)l^+l^- is investigated and a search for a very narrow resonance in the invariant mass distribution of the l^+l^- pair is performed. In this work we analyze this process in terms of signal and background in order to describe existing data obtained by the A1 experiment at MAMI with the aim to give accurate predictions for exclusion limits in the \\gamma' parameter space. We present a detailed theoretical analysis of the cross sections entering in the description of such processes.

T. Beranek; H. Merkel; M. Vanderhaeghen

2013-03-11

147

Estimating vocal repertoire size is like collecting coupons: A theoretical framework with heterogeneity in signal abundance.  

PubMed

Vocal repertoire size is an important behavioural measure in songbirds and mammals with complex vocal communication systems, and has traditionally been used as an indicator of individual fitness, cognitive ability, and social structure. Estimates of asymptotic repertoire size have typically been made using curve fitting techniques. However, the exponential model usually applied in these techniques has never been provided with a theoretical justification based on probability theory, and the model has led to inaccurate estimates. We derived the precise expression for the expected number of distinct signal types observed for a fixed sampling effort: a variation of what is known in the statistical literature as the "Coupon Collector?s problem". We used empirical data from three species (northern mockingbird, Carolina chickadee, and rock hyrax) to assess the performance of the Coupon Collector model compared to commonly used techniques, such as exponential fitting and repertoire enumeration, and also tested the different models against simulated artificial data sets with the statistical properties of the empirical data. We found that when signal probabilities are dissimilar, the Coupon Collector model provides far more accurate estimates of repertoire size than traditional techniques. Enumeration and exponential curve fitting greatly underestimated repertoire size, despite appearing to have reached saturation. Application of the Coupon Collector model can generate more accurate estimates of repertoire size than the commonly used exponential model of repertoire discovery, and could go a long way towards re-establishing repertoire size as a useful indicator in animal communication research. PMID:25791282

Kershenbaum, Arik; Freeberg, Todd M; Gammon, David E

2015-05-21

148

Theoretical framework to analyze searches for hidden light gauge bosons in electron scattering fixed target experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Motivated by anomalies in cosmic ray observations and by attempts to solve questions of the Standard Model of particle physics like the (g-2)? discrepancy, U(1) extensions of the Standard Model have been proposed in recent years. Such U(1) extensions allow for the interaction of dark matter by exchange of a photonlike massive force carrier ?' not included in the Standard Model. In order to search for ?' bosons, various experimental programs have been started. One approach is the dedicated search at fixed-target experiments at modest energies as performed at microtron (MAMI) or at the Jefferson Lab. In these experiments the process e(A,Z)?e(A,Z)l+l- is investigated, and a search for a very narrow resonance in the invariant mass distribution of the l+l- pair is performed. In this work we analyze this process in terms of signal and background in order to describe existing data obtained by the A1 experiment at MAMI with the aim to give accurate predictions for exclusion limits in the ?' parameter space. We present a detailed theoretical analysis of the cross sections entering in the description of such processes.

Beranek, T.; Merkel, H.; Vanderhaeghen, M.

2013-07-01

149

Experimental determination for kinetic fractionation during solid condensation at low temperature and theoretical framework  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Isotopic fractionation of water enables climate reconstruction from ice cores. The use of different heavy isotopes of the water such as H218O, H217O or HDO gives information about local temperature but also temperature and humidity of water vapour sources. Quantification of these parameters relies on the good knowledge of equilibrium and kinetic isotopic fractionation at each step of the water cycle. The strongest limitation when interpreting water isotopes in remote Antarctic ice cores is the formulation of the isotopic fractionation at solid condensation (vapour to ice). This classical formulation also implies a good knowledge of coefficients for equilibrium fractionation and water vapour diffusion in air as well as supersaturation in clouds. The uncertainties lying on these different parameters make the formulation of isotopic fractionation at solid condensation only empirical. Here, we make use (1) of recent development in the measurements of water isotopes in the water vapour through infra-red spectroscopy and (2) of the possibility to measure accurately 17O-excess of water to test the classical formulation and parameterization of isotopic fractionation at solid condensation. A first experiment involving very strong supersaturation evidences a strong kinetic effect on 17O-excess on solid condensation, similar to d-excess. It also shows the limits of the classical formulation of water isotopic fractionation during solid condensation estimation at very low temperature. A second experiment performed in a cloud chamber in controlled conditions uses CRDS instruments to depict the spatial variability of water vapour isotopic composition due to diffusion (kinetic effect) during solid condensation. These experiments are in agreement with a new theoretical model that we present for the competition between diffusions of different isotopes.

Casado, Mathieu; Cauquoin, Alexandre; Landais, Amaelle; Landsberg, Janek; Kerstel, Erik; Doussin, Jean-François

2014-05-01

150

Potential determinants of health-care professionals¿ use of survivorship care plans: a qualitative study using the theoretical domains framework.  

PubMed

BackgroundSurvivorship care plans are intended to improve coordination of care for the nearly 14 million cancer survivors in the United States. Evidence suggests that survivorship care plans (SCPs) have positive outcomes for survivors, health-care professionals, and cancer programs, and several high-profile organizations now recommend SCP use. Nevertheless, SCP use remains limited among health-care professionals in United States cancer programs. Knowledge of barriers to SCP use is limited in part because extant studies have used anecdotal evidence to identify determinants. This study uses the theoretical domains framework to identify relevant constructs that are potential determinants of SCP use among United States health-care professionals.MethodsWe conducted semi-structured interviews to assess the relevance of 12 theoretical domains in predicting SCP use among 13 health-care professionals in 7 cancer programs throughout the United States with diverse characteristics. Relevant theoretical domains were identified through thematic coding of interview transcripts, identification of specific beliefs within coded text units, and mapping of specific beliefs onto theoretical constructs.ResultsWe found the following theoretical domains (based on specific beliefs) to be potential determinants of SCP use: health-care professionals¿ beliefs about the consequences of SCP use (benefit to survivors, health-care professionals, and the system as a whole); motivation and goals regarding SCP use (advocating SCP use; extent to which using SCPs competed for health-care professionals¿ time); environmental context and resources (whether SCPs were delivered at a dedicated visit and whether a system, information technology, and funding facilitated SCP use); and social influences (whether using SCPs is an organizational priority, influential people support SCP use, and people who could assist with SCP use buy into using SCPs). Specific beliefs mapped onto the following psychological constructs: outcome expectancies, intrinsic motivation, goal priority, resources, leadership, and team working.ConclusionsPrevious studies have explored a limited range of determinants of SCP use. Our findings suggest a more comprehensive list of potential determinants that could be leveraged to promote SCP use. These results are particularly timely as cancer programs face impending SCP use requirements. Future work should develop instruments to measure the potential determinants and assess their relative influence on SCP use. PMID:25398477

Birken, Sarah A; Presseau, Justin; Ellis, Shellie D; Gerstel, Adrian A; Mayer, Deborah K

2014-11-15

151

Understanding the Canadian adult CT head rule trial: use of the theoretical domains framework for process evaluation  

PubMed Central

Background The Canadian CT Head Rule was prospectively derived and validated to assist clinicians with diagnostic decision-making regarding the use of computed tomography (CT) in adult patients with minor head injury. A recent intervention trial failed to demonstrate a decrease in the rate of head CTs following implementation of the rule in Canadian emergency departments. Yet, the same intervention, which included a one-hour educational session and reminders at the point of requisition, was successful in reducing cervical spine imaging rates in the same emergency departments. The reason for the varied effect of the intervention across these two behaviours is unclear. There is an increasing appreciation for the use of theory to conduct process evaluations to better understand how strategies are linked with outcomes in implementation trials. The Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF) has been used to explore health professional behaviour and to design behaviour change interventions but, to date, has not been used to guide a theory-based process evaluation. In this proof of concept study, we explored whether the TDF could be used to guide a retrospective process evaluation to better understand emergency physicians’ responses to the interventions employed in the Canadian CT Head Rule trial. Methods A semi-structured interview guide, based on the 12 domains from the TDF, was used to conduct telephone interviews with project leads and physician participants from the intervention sites in the Canadian CT Head Rule trial. Two reviewers independently coded the anonymised interview transcripts using the TDF as a coding framework. Relevant domains were identified by: the presence of conflicting beliefs within a domain; the frequency of beliefs; and the likely strength of the impact of a belief on the behaviour. Results Eight physicians from four of the intervention sites in the Canadian CT Head Rule trial participated in the interviews. Barriers likely to assist with understanding physicians’ responses to the intervention in the trial were identified in six of the theoretical domains: beliefs about consequences; beliefs about capabilities; behavioural regulation; memory, attention and decision processes; environmental context and resources; and social influences. Despite knowledge that the Canadian CT Head Rule was highly sensitive and reliable for identifying clinically important brain injuries and strong beliefs about the benefits for using the rule, a number of barriers were identified that may have prevented physicians from consistently applying the rule. Conclusion This proof of concept study demonstrates the use of the TDF as a guiding framework to design a retrospective theory-based process evaluation. There is a need for further development and testing of methods for using the TDF to guide theory-based process evaluations running alongside behaviour change intervention trials. PMID:23433082

2013-01-01

152

Algebraic structures, physics and geometry from a Unified Field Theoretical framework  

E-print Network

Starting from a Unified Field Theory (UFT) proposed previously by the author, the possible fermionic representations arising from the same spacetime are considered from the algebraic and geometrical viewpoint. We specifically demonstrate in this UFT general context that the underlying basis of the single geometrical structure P (G,M) (the principal fiber bundle over the real spacetime manifold M with structural group G) reflecting the symmetries of the different fields carry naturally a biquaternionic structure instead of a complex one. This fact allows us to analyze algebraically and to interpret physically in a straighforward way the Majorana and Dirac representations and the relation of such structures with the spacetime signature and non-hermitian (CP) dynamic operators. Also, from the underlying structure of the tangent space, the existence of hidden (super) symmetries and the possibility of supersymmetric extensions of these UFT models are given showing that Rothstein's theorem is incomplete for that description. The importance of the Clifford algebras in the description of all symmetries, mainly the interaction of gravity with the other fields, is briefly discussed.

Diego Julio Cirilo-Lombardo

2015-03-16

153

Understanding diagnosis and management of dementia and guideline implementation in general practice: a qualitative study using the theoretical domains framework  

PubMed Central

Background Dementia is a growing problem, causing substantial burden for patients, their families, and society. General practitioners (GPs) play an important role in diagnosing and managing dementia; however, there are gaps between recommended and current practice. The aim of this study was to explore GPs’ reported practice in diagnosing and managing dementia and to describe, in theoretical terms, the proposed explanations for practice that was and was not consistent with evidence-based guidelines. Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted with GPs in Victoria, Australia. The Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF) guided data collection and analysis. Interviews explored the factors hindering and enabling achievement of 13 recommended behaviours. Data were analysed using content and thematic analysis. This paper presents an in-depth description of the factors influencing two behaviours, assessing co-morbid depression using a validated tool, and conducting a formal cognitive assessment using a validated scale. Results A total of 30 GPs were interviewed. Most GPs reported that they did not assess for co-morbid depression using a validated tool as per recommended guidance. Barriers included the belief that depression can be adequately assessed using general clinical indicators and that validated tools provide little additional information (theoretical domain of ‘Beliefs about consequences’); discomfort in using validated tools (‘Emotion’), possibly due to limited training and confidence (‘Skills’; ‘Beliefs about capabilities’); limited awareness of the need for, and forgetting to conduct, a depression assessment (‘Knowledge’; ‘Memory, attention and decision processes’). Most reported practising in a manner consistent with the recommendation that a formal cognitive assessment using a validated scale be undertaken. Key factors enabling this were having an awareness of the need to conduct a cognitive assessment (‘Knowledge’); possessing the necessary skills and confidence (‘Skills’; ‘Beliefs about capabilities’); and having adequate time and resources (‘Environmental context and resources’). Conclusions This is the first study to our knowledge to use a theoretical approach to investigate the barriers and enablers to guideline-recommended diagnosis and management of dementia in general practice. It has identified key factors likely to explain GPs’ uptake of the guidelines. The results have informed the design of an intervention aimed at supporting practice change in line with dementia guidelines, which is currently being evaluated in a cluster randomised trial. PMID:24581339

2014-01-01

154

Biomechanics of the Sensor–Tissue Interface—Effects of Motion, Pressure, and Design on Sensor Performance and the Foreign Body Response—Part I: Theoretical Framework  

PubMed Central

The importance of biomechanics in glucose sensor function has been largely overlooked. This article is the first part of a two-part review in which we look beyond commonly recognized chemical biocompatibility to explore the biomechanics of the sensor–tissue interface as an important aspect of continuous glucose sensor biocompatibility. Part I provides a theoretical framework to describe how biomechanical factors such as motion and pressure (typically micromotion and micropressure) give rise to interfacial stresses, which affect tissue physiology around a sensor and, in turn, impact sensor performance. Three main contributors to sensor motion and pressure are explored: applied forces, sensor design, and subject/patient considerations. We describe how acute forces can temporarily impact sensor signal and how chronic forces can alter the foreign body response and inflammation around an implanted sensor, and thus impact sensor performance. The importance of sensor design (e.g., size, shape, modulus, texture) and specific implant location on the tissue response are also explored. In Part II: Examples and Application (a sister publication), examples from the literature are reviewed, and the application of biomechanical concepts to sensor design are described. We believe that adding biomechanical strategies to the arsenal of material compositions, surface modifications, drug elution, and other chemical strategies will lead to improvements in sensor biocompatibility and performance. PMID:21722578

Helton, Kristen L; Ratner, Buddy D; Wisniewski, Natalie A

2011-01-01

155

Developing a Framework for Distributed and Dynamic Data Sharing Among the Coastal Ocean Community: Gulf of Maine Spatial Data Project and the Open IOOS Portal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the past year the Gulf of Maine Ocean Observing System (GoMOOS), the Southeastern Universities Research Association (SURA) and DM Solutions Group worked with multiple government, academic and private industry partners to develop regional and national distributed data-sharing frameworks for the coastal ocean community. These projects were initiated by a joint FGDC and GeoConnections grant for the Gulf of Maine Framework Data Project. This project catalyzed activities in the Gulf of Maine region, building upon the years of effort at the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) and related developments in the NSDI and the Canadian Geospatial Data Infrastructure. This one year demonstration project resulted in a distributed framework data resource that spans international borders and connects more than a dozen regional, State, Federal, Provincial and other types of organizations (www.gommap.org). Even though the project funding has ended the regional partnership continues to grow and has formed the basis for the Gulf of Maine Ocean Data Partnership. Additionally, many organizations within the Canadian government are looking at this project as a model for future data sharing collaborations. Concurrent to the Gulf of Maine project, the SURA Coastal Ocean Observing and Prediction (SCOOP) program initiative leveraged the developing data sharing capacity to coordinate and develop the OpenIOOS portal (www.openioos.org), which demonstrates the capacity of the Integrated Ocean Observing System and starts putting the "I" in IOOS in an OGC-compliant fashion. These efforts have engaged the ocean-science community on the national scale. Indeed, a culture change seems to be underway that will have important implications for our nation's response to recommendations from the U.S. Commission on Ocean Policy. This presentation will discuss the successes and lessons learned from these related projects.

Bogden, P.; Shyka, T.; McIlhagga, D.

2005-12-01

156

A theoretical framework for quantifying the relative importance of dissolution and mechanical erosion in soluble bedrock channels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Models of erosion in surface streams typically assume that the rates of stream incision via dissolution are negligibly small in comparison to mechanical erosion rates. On the contrary, numerical models of the formation and evolution of cave channels in karst landscapes have not typically considered mechanical processes. The disconnect in the assumptions made by these two communities is indicative of a switch in the importance of these two types of processes as channels grow. However, the parameters that control this switch, and the typical settings in which chemical or mechanical incision will dominate are unknown. Here we construct a theoretical framework to allow a systematic study of the role of climatic and lithological factors in controlling the relative importance of dissolution and mechanical processes in channels in highly soluble rock. We begin by characterizing the relationship between saturation state and discharge in a wide variety of streams using data from the USGS Water Quality database. Using this characterization, we have developed a stochastic model for dissolution in streams that enables calculation of rates averaged over all discharges. This model is compared against similar models for mechanical erosion that employ a stream power erosion law. The model shows that at sufficiently high discharges, or shear stresses, mechanical erosion dominates. Similarly, channel dissolution is relatively insensitive to extreme events. However, at low discharges, significant dissolution can occur if the stream is undersaturated. Consequently, the average saturation state of the stream, the critical threshold for the onset of mechanical erosion, and the time distribution of discharges all play crucial roles. We conclude with a preliminary examination of the distribution of characteristic chemical and mechanical erosion features within soluble bedrock channels as a function of lithological, hydraulic, chemical, and sediment properties.

Covington, M. D.; Gabrovšek, F.; Gulley, J. D.

2013-12-01

157

River Restoration in Spain: Theoretical and Practical Approach in the Context of the European Water Framework Directive  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

River restoration is becoming a priority in many countries because of increasing the awareness of environmental degradation. In Europe, the EU Water Framework Directive (WFD) has significantly reinforced river restoration, encouraging the improvement of ecological status for water bodies. To fulfill the WFD requirements, the Spanish Ministry of the Environment developed in 2006 a National Strategy for River Restoration whose design and implementation are described in this paper. At the same time many restoration projects have been conducted, and sixty of them have been evaluated in terms of stated objectives and pressures and implemented restoration measures. Riparian vegetation enhancement, weir removal and fish passes were the most frequently implemented restoration measures, although the greatest pressures came from hydrologic alteration caused by flow regulation for irrigation purposes. Water deficits in quantity and quality associated with uncontrolled water demands seriously affect Mediterranean rivers and represent the main constraint to achieving good ecological status of Spanish rivers, most of them intensively regulated. Proper environmental allocation of in-stream flows would need deep restrictions in agricultural water use which seem to be of very difficult social acceptance. This situation highlights the need to integrate land-use and rural development policies with water resources and river management, and identifies additional difficulties in achieving the WFD objectives and good ecological status of rivers in Mediterranean countries.

González del Tánago, Marta; García de Jalón, Diego; Román, Mercedes

2012-07-01

158

Towards a Theoretical Framework for the Comparative Understanding of Globalisation, Higher Education, the Labour Market and Inequality  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper is a theoretical examination of three major empirical trends that affect many people: globalisation, increasingly close relations between higher education (HE) and labour markets, and increasing social inequality. Its aim is to identify key theoretical resources and their contribution to the development of a comparative theoretical

Kupfer, Antonia

2011-01-01

159

A direct vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque elasticity reconstruction method based on an original material-finite element formulation: theoretical framework  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The peak cap stress (PCS) amplitude is recognized as a biomechanical predictor of vulnerable plaque (VP) rupture. However, quantifying PCS in vivo remains a challenge since the stress depends on the plaque mechanical properties. In response, an iterative material finite element (FE) elasticity reconstruction method using strain measurements has been implemented for the solution of these inverse problems. Although this approach could resolve the mechanical characterization of VPs, it suffers from major limitations since (i) it is not adapted to characterize VPs exhibiting high material discontinuities between inclusions, and (ii) does not permit real time elasticity reconstruction for clinical use. The present theoretical study was therefore designed to develop a direct material-FE algorithm for elasticity reconstruction problems which accounts for material heterogeneities. We originally modified and adapted the extended FE method (Xfem), used mainly in crack analysis, to model material heterogeneities. This new algorithm was successfully applied to six coronary lesions of patients imaged in vivo with intravascular ultrasound. The results demonstrated that the mean relative absolute errors of the reconstructed Young's moduli obtained for the arterial wall, fibrosis, necrotic core, and calcified regions of the VPs decreased from 95.3±15.56%, 98.85±72.42%, 103.29±111.86% and 95.3±10.49%, respectively, to values smaller than 2.6 × 10-8±5.7 × 10-8% (i.e. close to the exact solutions) when including modified-Xfem method into our direct elasticity reconstruction method.

Bouvier, Adeline; Deleaval, Flavien; Doyley, Marvin M.; Yazdani, Saami K.; Finet, Gérard; Le Floc'h, Simon; Cloutier, Guy; Pettigrew, Roderic I.; Ohayon, Jacques

2013-12-01

160

EXPLAINING THE CHOICE OF IT GOVERNANCE MODES MADE BY ORGANIZATIONS FROM THE INSTITUTIONAL PERSPECTIVE: A THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK DEVELOPMENT 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study uses the institutional theory as a lens for explaining choice of IT govern ance modes in organizations. Reasons are given to show how an IT governance mode can in itself be considered a legitimized institution. A conceptual framework is then developed, and several hypotheses are presented. The framework considers the IT governanc e modes from a non -rational

Ben Boubaker

161

Assessing Students' Understandings of Biological Models and Their Use in Science to Evaluate a Theoretical Framework  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research in the field of students' understandings of models and their use in science describes different frameworks concerning these understandings. Currently, there is no conjoint framework that combines these structures and so far, no investigation has focused on whether it reflects students' understandings sufficiently (empirical…

Grünkorn, Juliane; Upmeier zu Belzen, Annette; Krüger, Dirk

2014-01-01

162

A theoretical framework for calculations of the structural relaxation time on the basis of the free energy landscape theory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On the basis of the free energy landscape theory, we develop a framework to calculate the structural relaxation time in supercooled liquids and glasses. By the framework, the relaxation time is obtained by an escaping time from a basin in a given free energy surface. In order to demonstrate its usefulness, we apply the framework to monodisperse hard-sphere glass systems. Then we show that the relaxation time increases drastically with the density. Additionally, we discuss an explicit picture of the cooperatively rearranging region by analyzing the spatial distribution of an activation free energy of one particle.

Ekimoto, Toru; Yoshimori, Akira; Odagaki, Takashi; Yoshidome, Takashi

2013-07-01

163

A theoretical framework for convergence and continuous dependence of estimates in inverse problems for distributed parameter systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Numerical techniques for parameter identification in distributed-parameter systems are developed analytically. A general convergence and stability framework (for continuous dependence on observations) is derived for first-order systems on the basis of (1) a weak formulation in terms of sesquilinear forms and (2) the resolvent convergence form of the Trotter-Kato approximation. The extension of this framework to second-order systems is considered.

Banks, H. T.; Ito, K.

1988-01-01

164

Developing a Theoretical Framework to Illustrate Associations Among Patient Satisfaction, Body Image and Quality of Life for Women Undergoing Breast Reconstruction  

PubMed Central

Within the field of breast reconstruction there is increasing focus on patient-reported outcomes related to satisfaction, body image, and quality of life. These outcomes are deemed highly relevant because the primary goal of breast reconstruction is to recreate the appearance of a breast (or breasts) that is satisfying to the patient. Prominent researchers have suggested the need to develop improved standards for outcome evaluation which can ultimately benefit patients as well as physicians. The purpose of this article is to summarize key findings in the area of patient-reported outcomes for breast reconstruction and introduce a theoretical framework for advancing research in this field. We conducted an extensive literature review of outcome studies for breast reconstruction focusing on patient-reported results. We developed a theoretical framework illustrating core patient-reported outcomes related to breast reconstruction and factors associated with these outcomes. Our theoretical model highlights domains and distinguishing features of patient satisfaction, body image, and quality of life outcomes for women undergoing breast reconstruction. This model further identifies a broad range of variables (e.g., historical/premorbid influences, disease and treatment-related factors) that have been found to influence patient-reported outcomes and need to be taken into consideration when designing future research in this area. Additional attention is given to examining the relationship between patient reported outcomes and outside evaluation of breast reconstruction. Our proposed theoretical framework suggests key opportunities to expand research in this area with the goal of optimizing body image adjustment, satisfaction, and psychosocial outcomes for the individual patient. PMID:23380309

Fingeret, Michelle Cororve; Nipomnick, Summer; Crosby, Melissa A.; Reece, Gregory P.

2013-01-01

165

Developing, and testing, a theoretical framework for inter-organisational systems (IOS) as infrastructure to aid future IOS design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over time many inter-organisational systems (IOS) have evolved to become open systems with the promise of delivering benefits to their broad base of organisational users. However in practice benefits have often remained concentrated, primarily accruing to the dominant party, resulting in low rates of adoption and usage, and often culminating in the failure of the IOS. A framework for IOS

Mark Borman

2006-01-01

166

Assessing Learning in the Outdoors with the Field Trip in Natural Environments (FiNE) Framework  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The development and application of a framework that captures main characteristics of learning in nature--the Field Trip in Natural Environments (FiNE) framework--is the main outcome of this study that followed up 22 daily field trips of 4-6th grade students to nature parks. The theoretical and practical framework, which was developed based on the…

Morag, Orly; Tal, Tali

2012-01-01

167

Full spectrum of turbulence convective mixing: I. theoretical main sequences and turn-off for 0.6 /\\ 15 M_\\odot  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

{We present the results of extensive evolutionary computations from the Zero Age Main Sequence to the Red Giants, for stars in the range 0.6 /15 M_sun and with chemistry (Y, Z) = (0.274, 0.017). The novelty of these computations is in the general treatment of convection, namely: 1. convection as a whole is addressed in the Full Spectrum of Turbulence model (billions of eddy scales are considered) with the appropriate convective fluxes distribution, as opposed to the one-eddy Mixing Length Theory; 2. local chemical evolution also in the presence of convection is separately evaluated for each element, as a result of a process in which nuclear evolution and turbulent transport are fully coupled by means of a diffusive scheme (coupled-diffusion); 3. convective overshooting (when considered) is also addressed in the above coupled-diffusive scheme, assuming that the turbulent velocity exponentially vanishes outside the formally convective region according to an e-folding free parameter zeta , tuned to fit observations. After some tests on the small solar convective core in early main sequence, we discuss the effects of coupled-diffusion in the cores of larger mass stars, where the nuclear lifetimes of some (p-p and) CNO elements can be comparable to the mixing times. We also compute a full grid of tracks with a small amount of overshooting, finding that a unique free parameter can be suitable for the whole range of mass considered (solar and below solar included). Theoretical tracks are discussed, and isochrones are compared to the observational HR diagram for the Pleiades, finding an age > 120 Myr, consistent with that obtained from the candidate brown dwarf PPL 15. An age is also derived for the young cluster alpha Persei, for which a datation from the detection of lithium in brown dwarf candidates should be soon available. For completeness, and to facilitate comparisons with results by other authors, we also describe in details the ATON 2.0 code used for the present computations.}

Ventura, Paolo; Zeppieri, Anna; Mazzitelli, Italo; D'Antona, Francesca

1998-06-01

168

Understanding practice: the factors that influence management of mild traumatic brain injury in the emergency department-a qualitative study using the Theoretical Domains Framework  

PubMed Central

Background Mild traumatic brain injury is a frequent cause of presentation to emergency departments. Despite the availability of clinical practice guidelines in this area, there is variation in practice. One of the aims of the Neurotrauma Evidence Translation program is to develop and evaluate a targeted, theory- and evidence-informed intervention to improve the management of mild traumatic brain injury in Australian emergency departments. This study is the first step in the intervention development process and uses the Theoretical Domains Framework to explore the factors perceived to influence the uptake of four key evidence-based recommended practices for managing mild traumatic brain injury. Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted with emergency staff in the Australian state of Victoria. The interview guide was developed using the Theoretical Domains Framework to explore current practice and to identify the factors perceived to influence practice. Two researchers coded the interview transcripts using thematic content analysis. Results A total of 42 participants (9 Directors, 20 doctors and 13 nurses) were interviewed over a seven-month period. The results suggested that (i) the prospective assessment of post-traumatic amnesia was influenced by: knowledge; beliefs about consequences; environmental context and resources; skills; social/professional role and identity; and beliefs about capabilities; (ii) the use of guideline-developed criteria or decision rules to inform the appropriate use of a CT scan was influenced by: knowledge; beliefs about consequences; environmental context and resources; memory, attention and decision processes; beliefs about capabilities; social influences; skills and behavioral regulation; (iii) providing verbal and written patient information on discharge was influenced by: beliefs about consequences; environmental context and resources; memory, attention and decision processes; social/professional role and identity; and knowledge; (iv) the practice of providing brief, routine follow-up on discharge was influenced by: environmental context and resources; social/professional role and identity; knowledge; beliefs about consequences; and motivation and goals. Conclusions Using the Theoretical Domains Framework, factors thought to influence the management of mild traumatic brain injury in the emergency department were identified. These factors present theoretically based targets for a future intervention. PMID:24418161

2014-01-01

169

Consistent climate-driven spatial patterns of terrestrial ecosystem carbon fluxes in the northern hemisphere: a theoretical framework and synthesis of empirical evidence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A predictive understanding of the terrestrial ecosystem carbon fluxes has been developed slowly, largely owing to lack of broad generalizations and a theoretical framework as well as clearly defined hypotheses. We synthesized Eddy flux data in different regions of northern hemisphere and previously published papers, then developed a framework for the climate controls on the geoecological patterns of terrestrial ecosystem C fluxes, and proposed the underlying mechanisms. Based on the case studies and synthesis, we found that the spatial patterns of ecosystem C fluxes in China, Asia, three continents of the northern hemisphere all had general patterns: predominately controlled by temperature and precipitation, supporting and further developing the traditional theory of 'climate controls on the spatial patterns of ecosystem productivity' in Miami and other models. Five hypotheses were proposed to explain the ecological mechanisms and processes that attribute to the climate-driven spatial patterns of C fluxes. (1) Two key processes determining gross primary productivity (GPP), i.e. growing season length and carbon uptake capacity, are jointly controlled by temperature and precipitation; (2) Ecosystem respiration (ER) is predominately determined also by temperature and precipitation, as well as substrate supply; (3) Components of ecosystem C fluxes are closely coupled with each other in response to climate change; (4) Vegetation types and soil nutrients in particular area are fundamentally determined by environmental factors, which may impact C fluxes within a certain range, but couldn't change the climate-driven pattern of C fluxes at large scale, (5) Land use only changes the magnitude of C fluxes, but doesn't change the spatial patterns and their climate dependence. All of these hypotheses were well validated by the evidences of data synthesis, which could provide the foundation for a theoretical framework for better understanding and predicting geoecological patterns of terrestrial ecosystem C fluxes. Further substantive progress toward this goal requires explicit consideration of disturbance and analyses of complex interactions between natural and social systems.

Yu, G.; Niu, S.; Chen, Z.; Zhu, X.

2013-12-01

170

Learning curves, taking instructions, and patient safety: using a theoretical domains framework in an interview study to investigate prescribing errors among trainee doctors  

PubMed Central

Background Prescribing errors are a major source of morbidity and mortality and represent a significant patient safety concern. Evidence suggests that trainee doctors are responsible for most prescribing errors. Understanding the factors that influence prescribing behavior may lead to effective interventions to reduce errors. Existing investigations of prescribing errors have been based on Human Error Theory but not on other relevant behavioral theories. The aim of this study was to apply a broad theory-based approach using the Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF) to investigate prescribing in the hospital context among a sample of trainee doctors. Method Semistructured interviews, based on 12 theoretical domains, were conducted with 22 trainee doctors to explore views, opinions, and experiences of prescribing and prescribing errors. Content analysis was conducted, followed by applying relevance criteria and a novel stage of critical appraisal, to identify which theoretical domains could be targeted in interventions to improve prescribing. Results Seven theoretical domains met the criteria of relevance: “social professional role and identity,” “environmental context and resources,” “social influences,” “knowledge,” “skills,” “memory, attention, and decision making,” and “behavioral regulation.” From critical appraisal of the interview data, “beliefs about consequences” and “beliefs about capabilities” were also identified as potentially important domains. Interrelationships between domains were evident. Additionally, the data supported theoretical elaboration of the domain behavioral regulation. Conclusions In this investigation of hospital-based prescribing, participants’ attributions about causes of errors were used to identify domains that could be targeted in interventions to improve prescribing. In a departure from previous TDF practice, critical appraisal was used to identify additional domains that should also be targeted, despite participants’ perceptions that they were not relevant to prescribing errors. These were beliefs about consequences and beliefs about capabilities. Specifically, in the light of the documented high error rate, beliefs that prescribing errors were not likely to have consequences for patients and that trainee doctors are capable of prescribing without error should also be targeted in an intervention. This study is the first to suggest critical appraisal for domain identification and to use interview data to propose theoretical elaborations and interrelationships between domains. PMID:22967756

2012-01-01

171

Signalling entropy: A novel network-theoretical framework for systems analysis and interpretation of functional omic data.  

PubMed

A key challenge in systems biology is the elucidation of the underlying principles, or fundamental laws, which determine the cellular phenotype. Understanding how these fundamental principles are altered in diseases like cancer is important for translating basic scientific knowledge into clinical advances. While significant progress is being made, with the identification of novel drug targets and treatments by means of systems biological methods, our fundamental systems level understanding of why certain treatments succeed and others fail is still lacking. We here advocate a novel methodological framework for systems analysis and interpretation of molecular omic data, which is based on statistical mechanical principles. Specifically, we propose the notion of cellular signalling entropy (or uncertainty), as a novel means of analysing and interpreting omic data, and more fundamentally, as a means of elucidating systems-level principles underlying basic biology and disease. We describe the power of signalling entropy to discriminate cells according to differentiation potential and cancer status. We further argue the case for an empirical cellular entropy-robustness correlation theorem and demonstrate its existence in cancer cell line drug sensitivity data. Specifically, we find that high signalling entropy correlates with drug resistance and further describe how entropy could be used to identify the achilles heels of cancer cells. In summary, signalling entropy is a deep and powerful concept, based on rigorous statistical mechanical principles, which, with improved data quality and coverage, will allow a much deeper understanding of the systems biological principles underlying normal and disease physiology. PMID:24675401

Teschendorff, Andrew E; Sollich, Peter; Kuehn, Reimer

2014-06-01

172

Barriers and enablers to delivery of the Healthy Kids Check: an analysis informed by the Theoretical Domains Framework and COM-B model  

PubMed Central

Background More than a fifth of Australian children arrive at school developmentally vulnerable. To counteract this, the Healthy Kids Check (HKC), a one-off health assessment aimed at preschool children, was introduced in 2008 into Australian general practice. Delivery of services has, however, remained low. The Theoretical Domains Framework, which provides a method to understand behaviours theoretically, can be condensed into three core components: capability, opportunity and motivation, and the COM-B model. Utilising this system, this study aimed to determine the barriers and enablers to delivery of the HKC, to inform the design of an intervention to promote provision of HKC services in Australian general practice. Methods Data from 6 focus group discussions with 40 practitioners from general practices in socio-culturally diverse areas of Melbourne, Victoria, were analysed using thematic analysis. Results Many practitioners expressed uncertainty regarding their capabilities and the practicalities of delivering HKCs, but in some cases HKCs had acted as a catalyst for professional development. Key connections between immunisation services and delivery of HKCs prompted practices to have systems of recall and reminder in place. Standardisation of methods for developmental assessment and streamlined referral pathways affected practitioners’ confidence and motivation to perform HKCs. Conclusion Application of a systematic framework effectively demonstrated how a number of behaviours could be targeted to increase delivery of HKCs. Interventions need to target practice systems, the support of office staff and referral options, as well as practitioners’ training. Many behavioural changes could be applied through a single intervention programme delivered by the primary healthcare organisations charged with local healthcare needs (Medicare Locals) providing vital links between general practice, community and the health of young children. PMID:24886520

2014-01-01

173

Knee posture during gait and global functioning post-stroke: a theoretical ICF framework using current measures in stroke rehabilitation.  

PubMed

Abstract Purpose: To characterise the global functioning post-stroke in patients with normal knee posture (NKP) and abnormal knee posture (AKP) during loading-response. Methods: 35 people, 6 months post-stroke. with NKP and AKP were identified and assessed using clinical measures classified into the corresponding International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) domains: weight function (body mass index); muscle power (knee isometric strength); muscle tone (Modified Ashworth Scale); voluntary motor control (Leg sub-score of Fugl-Meyer scale); walking short distances (5-meter walk test; Timed-Up and Go test); walking on different surfaces (Functional Ambulation Categories); moving around (Falls Efficacy Scale); moving using equipment (walking aids) and global assessment of function (WHODAS II). Age, gender, marital status, current occupation and caregivers support characterised personal factors. Results: Patients with AKP had significantly lower knee flexor strength, higher knee flexor and extensor spasticity, more difficulty in maintaining a standing position, walking short and long distances, used walking aids more often and needed more caregiver support. Restriction in activities and participation were correlated with knee flexor strength for AKP and with knee spasticity for NKP group. Conclusions: AKP restricts functioning and participation. Implications for Rehabilitation Identification of abnormal knee posture in gait can indicate potential assessment and treatment priorities, e.g. knee flexor strength is a major determinant of functioning in patients with abnormal knee posture and should be assessed. The identification of an abnormal knee posture post-stroke seems relevant for planning patient's long-term needs (e.g. amount of caregiver support). The interpretation of functional measures based on the ICF framework can enhance clinical-reasoning in rehabilitation post-stroke. PMID:25095902

Rosa, Marlene Cristina Neves; Marques, Alda; Demain, Sara; Metcalf, Cheryl D

2014-08-01

174

Back to the basics: identifying positive youth development as the theoretical framework for a youth drug prevention program in rural Saskatchewan, Canada amidst a program evaluation  

PubMed Central

Background Despite endorsement by the Saskatchewan government to apply empirically-based approaches to youth drug prevention services in the province, programs are sometimes delivered prior to the establishment of evidence-informed goals and objectives. This paper shares the 'preptory’ outcomes of our team’s program evaluation of the Prince Albert Parkland Health Region Mental Health and Addiction Services’ Outreach Worker Service (OWS) in eight rural, community schools three years following its implementation. Before our independent evaluation team could assess whether expectations of the OWS were being met, we had to assist with establishing its overarching program goals and objectives and 'at-risk’ student population, alongside its alliance with an empirically-informed theoretical framework. Methods A mixed-methods approach was applied, beginning with in-depth focus groups with the OWS staff to identify the program’s goals and objectives and targeted student population. These were supplemented with OWS and school administrator interviews and focus groups with school staff. Alignment with a theoretical focus was determined though a review of the OWS’s work to date and explored in focus groups between our evaluation team and the OWS staff and validated with the school staff and OWS and school administration. Results With improved understanding of the OWS’s goals and objectives, our evaluation team and the OWS staff aligned the program with the Positive Youth Development theoretical evidence-base, emphasizing the program’s universality, systems focus, strength base, and promotion of assets. Together we also gained clarity about the OWS’s definition of and engagement with its 'at-risk’ student population. Conclusions It is important to draw on expert knowledge to develop youth drug prevention programming, but attention must also be paid to aligning professional health care services with a theoretically informed evidence-base for evaluation purposes. If time does not permit for the establishment of evidence-informed goals and objectives at the start-up of a program, obtaining insight and expertise from program personnel and school staff and administrators can bring the program to a point where this can still be achieved and theoretical linkages made after a program has been implemented. This is a necessary foundation for measuring an intervention’s success. PMID:24148918

2013-01-01

175

‘It’s a can of worms’: understanding primary care practitioners’ behaviours in relation to HPV using the theoretical domains framework  

PubMed Central

Background The relationship between infection with high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) and cervical cancer is transforming cervical cancer prevention. HPV tests and vaccinations have recently become available. In Ireland, as elsewhere, primary care practitioners play a key role in prevention. ATHENS (A Trial of HPV Education and Support) aims to develop a theory-based intervention to support primary care practitioners in their HPV-related practice. This study, the first step in the intervention development process, aimed to: identify HPV-related clinical behaviours that the intervention will target; clarify general practitioners’ (GPs’) and practice nurses’ roles and responsibilities; and determine factors that potentially influence clinical behaviour. A secondary objective was to informally assess the utility of the Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF) in understanding clinical behaviours in an area with an evolving evidence-base. Methods In-depth semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted with GPs and practice nurses. The topic guide, which contained open questions and HPV-related clinical scenarios, was developed through literature review and clinical experience. Interview transcripts were content-analysed using the TDF as the coding framework. Results 19 GPs and 14 practice nurses were interviewed. The major HPV-related clinical behaviours were: initiating a discussion about HPV infection with female patients; offering/recommending HPV vaccination to appropriate patients; and answering patients’ questions about HPV testing. While the responsibility for taking smears was considered a female role, both male and female practitioners dealt with HPV-related issues. All 12 theoretical domains arose in relation to HPV infection; the domains judged to be most important were: knowledge, emotion, social influences, beliefs about capabilities and beliefs about consequences. Eleven domains emerged in relation to HPV vaccination, with beliefs about consequences, social influences, knowledge and environmental context and resources judged to be the most important. Nine domains were relevant to HPV testing, with knowledge and beliefs about capabilities judged to be the most important. Conclusions The findings confirm the need for an intervention to support primary care practitioners around HPV and suggest it should target a range of theoretical domains. The TDF proved valuable in analysing qualitative data collected using a topic guide not specifically designed to capture TDF domains and understanding clinical behaviours in an area with an evolving evidence-base. PMID:22862968

2012-01-01

176

A cross-country comparison of intensive care physicians’ beliefs about their transfusion behaviour: A qualitative study using the theoretical domains framework  

PubMed Central

Background Evidence of variations in red blood cell transfusion practices have been reported in a wide range of clinical settings. Parallel studies in Canada and the United Kingdom were designed to explore transfusion behaviour in intensive care physicians. The aim of this paper is three-fold: first, to explore beliefs that influence Canadian intensive care physicians’ transfusion behaviour; second, to systematically select relevant theories and models using the Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF) to inform a future predictive study; and third, to compare its results with the UK study. Methods Ten intensive care unit (ICU) physicians throughout Canada were interviewed. Physicians’ responses were coded into theoretical domains, and specific beliefs were generated for each response. Theoretical domains relevant to behaviour change were identified, and specific constructs from the relevant domains were used to select psychological theories. The results from Canada and the United Kingdom were compared. Results Seven theoretical domains populated by 31 specific beliefs were identified as relevant to the target behaviour. The domains Beliefs about capabilities (confident to not transfuse if patients’ clinical condition is stable), Beliefs about consequences (positive beliefs of reducing infection and saving resources and negative beliefs about risking patients’ clinical outcome and potentially more work), Social influences (transfusion decision is influenced by team members and patients’ relatives), and Behavioural regulation (wide range of approaches to encourage restrictive transfusion) that were identified in the UK study were also relevant in the Canadian context. Three additional domains, Knowledge (it requires more evidence to support restrictive transfusion), Social/professional role and identity (conflicting beliefs about not adhering to guidelines, referring to evidence, believing restrictive transfusion as professional standard, and believing that guideline is important for other professionals), and Motivation and goals (opposing beliefs about the importance of restrictive transfusion and compatibility with other goals), were also identified in this study. Similar to the UK study, the Theory of Planned Behaviour, Social Cognitive Theory, Operant Learning Theory, Action Planning, and Knowledge-Attitude-Behaviour model were identified as potentially relevant theories and models for further study. Personal project analysis was added to the Canadian study to explore the Motivation and goals domain in further detail. Conclusions A wide range of beliefs was identified by the Canadian ICU physicians as likely to influence their transfusion behaviour. We were able to demonstrate similar though not identical results in a cross-country comparison. Designing targeted behaviour-change interventions based on unique beliefs identified by physicians from two countries are more likely to encourage restrictive transfusion in ICU physicians in respective countries. This needs to be tested in future prospective clinical trials. PMID:22999460

2012-01-01

177

Euratom Framework Programme research in reactor safety: main achievements of FP4 ('94–'98), preliminary results of FP5 ('98–'02) and prospects for beyond 2002  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper an overview is given of the most important aspects of the research activities organised by the European Union (EU) in the area of reactor safety under both the past 4th and the current 5th Euratom Framework Programmes (FP). This research consists of the following four areas: reactor safety; waste management; future systems; and radiation protection. Under FP-4

G Van Goethem; A Zurita; J Martin Bermejo

2001-01-01

178

Theoretical framework for the dual-energy cone-beam CT noise-power spectrum, NEQ, and tasked-based detectability index  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The optimization of dual-energy computed tomography (DE-CT) is challenged by the lack of a theoretical foundation for image quality. This work reports a cascaded systems analysis model that was used to derive signal and noise propagation in DE-CBCT in prevalent Fourier metrics such as the noise-power spectrum (NPS) and noise-equivalent quanta (NEQ). The model was validated in comparison to measurements of the 3D NPS and NEQ in DE-CBCT images acquired using an experimental imaging bench. Task-based detectability index was derived using DE-NPS and NEQ as an objective function in optimizing DE imaging parameters such as the dose allocation factor (DA) and kVp pair. The resulting dose allocation optimization is in agreement with the practice of assigning more dose to the high-energy image (DA < 0.5), and the model provides a quantitative basis for examining the optimal dose allocation as a function of total dose, kVp pair, the presence of electronics noise, and the imaging task. An example optimization is shown for a breast tumor detection task. Using DE decomposition to cancel fibroglandular tissue (rendering a DE-CBCT image of breast tumor against an adipose tissue background) and assuming a total dose of 15mGy, the optimal kVp pair is identified at [45, 105]kVp with DA=0.46. The model is sufficiently general for applications beyond this example, demonstrating utility in the optimization in a broad range of imaging parameters. The model provides a new, valuable framework for understanding the theoretical limits of DE-CBCT imaging performance and maximizing image quality while minimizing radiation dose.

Gang, G. J.; Zbijewski, W.; Stayman, J. W.; Carrino, J. A.; Siewerdsen, J. H.

2012-03-01

179

Theoretical study on the relationship between diradical character and second hyperpolarizabilities of four-membered-ring diradicals involving heavy main-group elements.  

PubMed

By using spin-unrestricted density functional theory methods, the relationship between the diradical character y and the second hyperpolarizability ? (the third-order nonlinear optical (NLO) properties at the molecular scale) for four-membered-ring diradical compounds, that is, cyclobutane-1,3-diyl, Niecke-type diradicals, and Bertrand-type diradicals, were investigated by focusing on the substitution effects of heavy main-group elements as well as of donor/acceptor groups on the y and ? values. It has been found that i)?? is enhanced in the intermediate y region for these four-membered-ring diradicals, ii)?Niecke-type diradicals with intermediate y values, which are realized by tuning the combination of the main-group elements involved, exhibit larger ? values than Bertrand-type diradicals, and iii)?the y value and thus ? value can be controlled by modifying the both-end donor/acceptor substituents attached to carbon atoms in Nicke-type C2 P2 diradicals. These results demonstrate that four-membered-ring diradicals involving heavy main-group elements exhibit high controllability of the y and ?, which indicates the potential applications of four-membered-ring diradicals as a building block of highly efficient open-shell NLO materials. PMID:25428227

Matsui, Hiroshi; Fukuda, Kotaro; Takamuku, Shota; Sekiguchi, Akira; Nakano, Masayoshi

2015-01-26

180

"Because I am worth it": a theoretical framework and empirical review of a justification-based account of self-regulation failure.  

PubMed

Self-regulation failure is often explained as being overwhelmed by impulse. The present article proposes a novel pathway, presenting a theoretical framework and empirical review of a justification-based account of self-regulation failure. With justification we refer to making excuses for one's discrepant behavior, so that when experiencing a self-regulation dilemma between immediate impulses and long-term intentions, people resolve the conflict by developing and employing justifications that allow violations of the goal they endorse. Accordingly, rather than inhibiting motivations from the impulsive system, the reflective system can also facilitate them, leading to self-regulation failure. We bring together empirical evidence from various domains demonstrating that justifications can instigate self-regulation failure and rule out alternative accounts. Having established that justification processes contribute to self-regulation failure, we then propose several mechanisms that may fuel the effect. Finally, routes for future research and the conceptual and practical implications of these novel insights for self-regulation are discussed. PMID:24214148

De Witt Huberts, Jessie C; Evers, Catharine; De Ridder, Denise T D

2014-05-01

181

Effect of temperature on formation of two new lanthanide metal-organic frameworks: Synthesis, characterization and theoretical studies of Tm(III)-succinate  

SciTech Connect

Two new metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have been synthesized under different hydrothermal conditions and characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, scanning electron microscopy and elemental analysis. Compound 1, crystallized in space group P1-bar with the formula [Tm{sub 2}(L){sub 3}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}]{center_dot}H{sub 2}O, (H{sub 2}L=succinic acid), has triclinic cell parameters of a=7.61780(10), b=10.58050(10), c=12.71030(10), {alpha}=95.3130(10), {beta}=107.4370(10), {gamma}=111.0960(10) and a cell volume of 888.446(16) A{sup 3}. Compound 2, crystallized in space group I2/a with the same formula, is monoclinic, with cell parameters of a=13.77020(10), b=7.63170(10), c=17.2410(2), {beta}=101.303(10) and a cell volume of 1776.72(3) A{sup 3}. The results of this work indicate that a flexible succinate ligand that provides several modes of coordination can lead to different conformations, depending on the temperature used in the reaction. In the theoretical part of this study, semiempirical quantum chemistry methods using AM1, PM3 and PM6 models are employed to predict the structure of MOFs, calculate the geometric and crystallographic parameters, and make comparisons with experimental data. - Graphical abstract: Scheme of obtaining [Tm{sub 2}(C{sub 4}H{sub 4}O{sub 4}){sub 3}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}]H{sub 2}O in two different crystalline phases under the influence of reaction temperature. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Was synthesized new MOFs based on Tm{sup 3+} ions and succinic acid in different temperature. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The change in the temperature leads to two compounds with different crystalline systems. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The Sparkle AM1, PM3 and PM6 models were used to comparison of the theoretical and experimental cell.

Oliveira, Carlos Alberto F. de; Silva, Fausthon Fred da; Malvestiti, Ivani [Department of Fundamental Chemistry, UFPE, 50590-470 Recife, PE (Brazil); Malta, Valeria Rodrigues dos S. [Institute of Chemistry and Biotechnology, UFAL, 57062-970 Maceio, AL (Brazil); Dutra, Jose Diogo L.; Costa, Nivan B. da; Freire, Ricardo O. [Department of Chemistry, UFS, 49100-000 Sao Cristovao, SE (Brazil); Junior, Severino A., E-mail: salvesjr@ufpe.br [Department of Fundamental Chemistry, UFPE, 50590-470 Recife, PE (Brazil)

2013-01-15

182

A quantitative synthesis of the medicinal ethnobotany of the Malinké of Mali and the Asháninka of Peru, with a new theoretical framework  

PubMed Central

Background Although ethnomedically and taxonomically guided searches for new medicinal plants can improve the percentage of plants found containing active compounds when compared to random sampling, ethnobotany has fulfilled little of its promise in the last few decades to deliver a bounty of new, laboratory-proven medicinal plants and compounds. It is quite difficult to test, isolate, and elucidate the structure and mechanism of compounds from the plethora of new medicinal plant uses described each year with limited laboratory time and resources and the high cost of clinical trials of new drug candidates. Methods A new quantitative theoretical framework of mathematical formulas called "relational efficacy" is proposed that should narrow down this search for new plant-derived medicines based on the hypothesis that closely related plants used to treat closely related diseases in distantly related cultures have a higher probability of being effective because they are more likely to be independent discoveries of similar plant compounds and disease mechanisms. A prerequisite to this hypothesis, the idea that empirical testing in traditional medicine will lead to choosing similar medicinal plants and therefore the medicinal flora of two distant cultures will prove to be more similar than their general flora, is tested using resampling statistics on cross-cultural field data of the plants used by the Malinké of Mali and the Asháninka of Peru to treat the diseases malaria, African sleeping sickness, Chagas' disease, leishmaniasis, diabetes, eczema, asthma, and uterine fibroids. Results In this case, the similarity of the medicinal floras is found to be significantly greater than the similarity of the general floras, but only when the diseases in question are grouped into the categories of parasitic and autoimmune diseases. Conclusion If the central theoretical framework of this hypothesis is shown to be true, it will allow the synthesis of medicinal plant information from around the world to pinpoint the species with the highest potential efficacy to take into the laboratory and analyze further, ultimately saving much field and laboratory time and resources. Spanish abstract Las búsquedas que utilizan la etnomedicina y la taxonomía para descubrir nuevas plantas medicinales, pueden aumentar la probabilidad de éxito de encontrar compuestos químicos activos en plantas, en comparación con las búsquedas aleatorias. A pesar de lo anterior, en las últimas décadas, la etnobotánica no ha cumplido con las expectativas de proveer numerosas plantas medicinales y químicos nuevos una vez examinados en el laboratorio. Cada año se describen una plétora de plantas medicinales y sus usos, sin embargo las limitaciones de tiempo y recursos en los laboratorios, unidos al alto coste de los ensayos clínicos de las drogas potenciales, hacen muy difícil probar, aislar, y elucidar la estructura y el mecanismo de los compuestos de estas plantas. Se propone un nuevo marco teórico cuantitativo cuyo fin es focalizar la búsqueda de nueva plantas medicinales. Este marco teórico está basado en la hipótesis que las plantas cercanamente relacionadas, usadas para tratar enfermedades cercanamente relacionadas en culturas distantemente relacionadas, tienen una eficacia potencial más alta, debido a que es más probable que estos hallazgos sean descubrimientos independientes de compuestos químicos similares. Parte de esta hipótesis, que las escogencias racionales se hacen para elegir plantas medicinales similares y que la flora medicinal de dos culturas distantes es más similar que su flora general, se probó usando métodos estadísticos de remuestreo con datos de campo de la comunidad Malinké de Malí y de la Asháninka de Perú, y las enfermedades de paludismo, enfermedad africana del sueño, enfermedad de Chagas, leishmania, diabetes, eczema, asma, y fibromas uterinos. Se encontró, en este caso, que

Bletter, Nathaniel

2007-01-01

183

Forensic intelligence framework. Part II: Study of the main generic building blocks and challenges through the examples of illicit drugs and false identity documents monitoring.  

PubMed

The development of forensic intelligence relies on the expression of suitable models that better represent the contribution of forensic intelligence in relation to the criminal justice system, policing and security. Such models assist in comparing and evaluating methods and new technologies, provide transparency and foster the development of new applications. Interestingly, strong similarities between two separate projects focusing on specific forensic science areas were recently observed. These observations have led to the induction of a general model (Part I) that could guide the use of any forensic science case data in an intelligence perspective. The present article builds upon this general approach by focusing on decisional and organisational issues. The article investigates the comparison process and evaluation system that lay at the heart of the forensic intelligence framework, advocating scientific decision criteria and a structured but flexible and dynamic architecture. These building blocks are crucial and clearly lay within the expertise of forensic scientists. However, it is only part of the problem. Forensic intelligence includes other blocks with their respective interactions, decision points and tensions (e.g. regarding how to guide detection and how to integrate forensic information with other information). Formalising these blocks identifies many questions and potential answers. Addressing these questions is essential for the progress of the discipline. Such a process requires clarifying the role and place of the forensic scientist within the whole process and their relationship to other stakeholders. PMID:25800712

Baechler, Simon; Morelato, Marie; Ribaux, Olivier; Beavis, Alison; Tahtouh, Mark; Kirkbride, K Paul; Esseiva, Pierre; Margot, Pierre; Roux, Claude

2015-05-01

184

A Formal Framework for Stochastic Discrete Event System Specification Modeling and Simulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We introduce an extension of the classic Discrete Event System Specification (DEVS) formalism that includes stochastic features. Based on the use of the probability spaces theory we define the stochastic DEVS (STDEVS) specification, which provides a formal framework for modeling and sim- ulation of general non-deterministic discrete event systems. The main theoretical properties of the STDEVS framework are treated, including

Rodrigo Castro; Ernesto Kofman; Gabriel A. Wainer

2010-01-01

185

MAINE AQUIFERS  

EPA Science Inventory

AQFRS24 contains polygons of significant aquifers in Maine (glacial deposits that are a significant ground water resource) mapped at a scale 1:24,000. This statewide coverage was derived from aquifer boundaries delineated and digitized by the Maine Geological Survey from data com...

186

HOW DOES INTRODUCTION OF STRATEGIC JOB IN FOUR AND FIVE STAR HOTELS AFFECT ORGANIZATIONAL COMMITMENT AND ORGANIZATIONAL CITIZENSHIP BEHAVIOUR: A THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the study is to discuss HR practices system variation within the hotel industry related to the identification of strategic jobs, and how this influences employees' work attitudes. The context for this research is four and five star hotels in Malaysia. This paper provides an integrated framework and five research issues relating the concepts of the HR practices

Rozila Ahmad; Scholar David Solnet; Noel Scott

187

Cultural targeting and tailoring of shared decision making technology: a theoretical framework for improving the effectiveness of patient decision aids in culturally diverse groups.  

PubMed

Patient decision aids are known to positively impact outcomes critical to shared decision making (SDM), such as gist knowledge and decision preparedness. However, research on the potential improvement of these and other important outcomes through cultural targeting and tailoring of decision aids is very limited. This is the case despite extensive evidence supporting use of cultural targeting and tailoring to improve the effectiveness of health communications. Building on prominent psychological theory, we propose a two-stage framework incorporating cultural concepts into the design process for screening and treatment decision aids. The first phase recommends use of cultural constructs, such as collectivism and individualism, to differentially target patients whose cultures are known to vary on these dimensions. Decision aid targeting is operationalized through use of symbols and values that appeal to members of the given culture. Content dimensions within decision aids that appear particularly appropriate for targeting include surface level visual characteristics, language, beliefs, attitudes and values. The second phase of the framework is based on evidence that individuals vary in terms of how strongly cultural norms influence their approach to problem solving and decision making. In particular, the framework hypothesizes that differences in terms of access to cultural mindsets (e.g., access to interdependent versus independent self) can be measured up front and used to tailor decision aids. Thus, the second phase in the framework emphasizes the importance of not only targeting decision aid content, but also tailoring the information to the individual based on measurement of how strongly he/she is connected to dominant cultural mindsets. Overall, the framework provides a theory-based guide for researchers and practitioners who are interested in using cultural targeting and tailoring to develop and test decision aids that move beyond a "one-size fits all" approach and thereby, improve SDM in our multicultural world. PMID:24606791

Alden, Dana L; Friend, John; Schapira, Marilyn; Stiggelbout, Anne

2014-03-01

188

e-Search: A Conceptual Framework of Online Consumer Behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

The continued success of online shopping will be determined by the degree to which consumers utilize the Internet during their decision making process, mainly the acquisition of product information. This chapter addresses consumers' goal-directed information search in the online marketplace. To understand consumer search behavior in this unique environment, relevant theoretical perspectives are drawn to provide a conceptual framework that

Kuan-Pin Chiang; Stu Westin

189

Testing the Theoretical Framework of the COPE Program for Mothers of Critically Ill Children: An Integrative Model of Young Children's Post-Hospital Adjustment Behaviors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To test a theoretical model examining processes through which a parent-focused educational- behavioral intervention (Creating Opportunities for Parent Empowerment (COPE)) relates to children's post- hospital adjustment problems. Methods Mothers (n ¼143) and their 2-7-year-old children, unexpectedly hospitalized in two pediatric intensive care units, were randomized to COPE or control conditions. Maternal measures included parental beliefs, anxiety, negative mood, and

Bernadette Mazurek Melnyk; Hugh F. Crean; Nancy Fischbeck Feinstein; Eileen Fairbanks; Linda J. Alpert-Gillis

2007-01-01

190

MAINE HYDROGRAPHY  

EPA Science Inventory

Hydronet_me24 and Hydropoly_me24 depict Maine's hydrography data, based on 8-digit hydrological unit codes (HUC's) at the 1:24,000 scale. Some New Hampshire and New Brunswick hydrography data are also included. The NHD hydrography data was compiled from previous ArcIn...

191

Maine Ingredients  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article features Maine Learning Technology Initiative (MLTI), the nation's first-ever statewide 1-to-1 laptop program which marks its seventh birthday by expanding into high schools, providing an occasion to celebrate--and to examine the components of its success. The plan to put laptops into the hands of every teacher and student in grades 7…

Waters, John K.

2009-01-01

192

Main Winners.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents the main winners of a competition which judged the most outstanding learning environments at educational institutions nationwide. Jurors spent 2 days reviewing projects, focusing on concepts and ideas that made them exceptional. The top K-12 honor went to Century High School, Sykesville, Maryland. The higher education honor went to Wright…

American School & University, 2003

2003-01-01

193

Using a Theoretical Framework to Investigate Whether the HIV/AIDS Information Needs of the AfroAIDSinfo Web Portal Members Are Met: A South African eHealth Study  

PubMed Central

eHealth has been identified as a useful approach to disseminate HIV/AIDS information. Together with Consumer Health Informatics (CHI), the Web-to-Public Knowledge Transfer Model (WPKTM) has been applied as a theoretical framework to identify consumer needs for AfroAIDSinfo, a South African Web portal. As part of the CHI practice, regular eSurveys are conducted to determine whether these needs are changing and are continually being met. eSurveys show high rates of satisfaction with the content as well as the modes of delivery. The nature of information is thought of as reliable to reuse; both for education and for referencing of information. Using CHI and the WPKTM as a theoretical framework, it ensures that needs of consumers are being met and that they find the tailored methods of presenting the information agreeable. Combining ICTs and theories in eHealth interventions, this approach can be expanded to deliver information in other sectors of public health. PMID:24686487

Van Zyl, Hendra; Kotze, Marike; Laubscher, Ria

2014-01-01

194

Using a theoretical framework to investigate whether the HIV/AIDS information needs of the AfroAIDSinfo Web portal members are met: a South African eHealth study.  

PubMed

eHealth has been identified as a useful approach to disseminate HIV/AIDS information. Together with Consumer Health Informatics (CHI), the Web-to-Public Knowledge Transfer Model (WPKTM) has been applied as a theoretical framework to identify consumer needs for AfroAIDSinfo, a South African Web portal. As part of the CHI practice, regular eSurveys are conducted to determine whether these needs are changing and are continually being met. eSurveys show high rates of satisfaction with the content as well as the modes of delivery. The nature of information is thought of as reliable to reuse; both for education and for referencing of information. Using CHI and the WPKTM as a theoretical framework, it ensures that needs of consumers are being met and that they find the tailored methods of presenting the information agreeable. Combining ICTs and theories in eHealth interventions, this approach can be expanded to deliver information in other sectors of public health. PMID:24686487

Van Zyl, Hendra; Kotze, Marike; Laubscher, Ria

2014-04-01

195

Design Framework Design Framework  

E-print Network

the design trajectory. The structure of this chapter is as follows: section 1 discusses the behaviour domain approach and the specification-driven approach, respectively). According to the first #12;On the DesignDesign Framework 99 Chapter 5 Design Framework This chapter presents a general framework

van Sinderen, Marten

196

22 Digital Technology For Conviviality TheoreticalTheoreticalTheoreticalTheoretical  

E-print Network

of the destructive side effects of institutions that focus too much on growth and productivity. We live in a society22 Digital Technology For Conviviality TheoreticalTheoreticalTheoreticalTheoretical Background #12;2 ­ Theoretical Background Digital Technology For Conviviality 23 Cavallo, which uses the practice

197

Towards general information theoretical representations of database problems  

SciTech Connect

General database systems are described from the General Systems Theoretical (GST) framework. In this context traditional information theoretical (statistical) and general information theoretical (fuzzy measure and set theoretical, possibilistic, and random set theoretical) representations are derived. A preliminary formal framework is introduced.

Joslyn, C.

1997-06-01

198

Main Report  

PubMed Central

Background: States vary widely in their use of newborn screening tests, with some mandating screening for as few as three conditions and others mandating as many as 43 conditions, including varying numbers of the 40+ conditions that can be detected by tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). There has been no national guidance on the best candidate conditions for newborn screening since the National Academy of Sciences report of 19751 and the United States Congress Office of Technology Assessment report of 1988,2 despite rapid developments since then in genetics, in screening technologies, and in some treatments. Objectives: In 2002, the Maternal and Child Health Bureau (MCHB) of the Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) of the United States Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) commissioned the American College of Medical Genetics (ACMG) to: Conduct an analysis of the scientific literature on the effectiveness of newborn screening.Gather expert opinion to delineate the best evidence for screening for specified conditions and develop recommendations focused on newborn screening, including but not limited to the development of a uniform condition panel.Consider other components of the newborn screening system that are critical to achieving the expected outcomes in those screened. Methods: A group of experts in various areas of subspecialty medicine and primary care, health policy, law, public health, and consumers worked with a steering committee and several expert work groups, using a two-tiered approach to assess and rank conditions. A first step was developing a set of principles to guide the analysis. This was followed by developing criteria by which conditions could be evaluated, and then identifying the conditions to be evaluated. A large and broadly representative group of experts was asked to provide their opinions on the extent to which particular conditions met the selected criteria, relying on supporting evidence and references from the scientific literature. The criteria were distributed among three main categories for each condition: The availability and characteristics of the screening test;The availability and complexity of diagnostic services; andThe availability and efficacy of treatments related to the conditions. A survey process utilizing a data collection instrument was used to gather expert opinion on the conditions in the first tier of the assessment. The data collection format and survey provided the opportunity to quantify expert opinion and to obtain the views of a diverse set of interest groups (necessary due to the subjective nature of some of the criteria). Statistical analysis of data produced a score for each condition, which determined its ranking and initial placement in one of three categories (high scoring, moderately scoring, or low scoring/absence of a newborn screening test). In the second tier of these analyses, the evidence base related to each condition was assessed in depth (e.g., via systematic reviews of reference lists including MedLine, PubMed and others; books; Internet searches; professional guidelines; clinical evidence; and cost/economic evidence and modeling). The fact sheets reflecting these analyses were evaluated by at least two acknowledged experts for each condition. These experts assessed the data and the associated references related to each criterion and provided corrections where appropriate, assigned a value to the level of evidence and the quality of the studies that established the evidence base, and determined whether there were significant variances from the survey data. Survey results were subsequently realigned with the evidence obtained from the scientific literature during the second-tier analysis for all objective criteria, based on input from at least three acknowledged experts in each condition. The information from these two tiers of assessment was then considered with regard to the overriding principles and other technology or condition-specific recommendations. On the basis of this information, conditions were assigned to one of thr

2006-01-01

199

The Co-Emergence of Machine Techniques, Paper-and-Pencil Techniques, and Theoretical Reflection: A Study of CAS Use in Secondary School Algebra  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper addresses the dialectical relation between theoretical thinking and technique, as they co-emerge in a combined computer algebra (CAS) and paper-and-pencil environment. The theoretical framework in this ongoing study consists of the instrumental approach to tool use and an adaptation of Chevallard's anthropological theory. The main aim…

Kieran, Carolyn; Drijvers, Paul

2006-01-01

200

Framework for Supporting Web-Based Collaborative Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The article proposes an intelligent framework for supporting Web-based applications. The framework focuses on innovative use of existing resources and technologies in the form of services and takes the leverage of theoretical foundation of services science and the research from services computing. The main focus of the framework is to deliver benefits to users with various roles such as service requesters, service providers, and business owners to maximize their productivity when engaging with each other via the Web. The article opens up with research motivations and questions, analyses the existing state of research in the field, and describes the approach in implementing the proposed framework. Finally, an e-health application is discussed to evaluate the effectiveness of the framework where participants such as general practitioners (GPs), patients, and health-care workers collaborate via the Web.

Dai, Wei

201

Framework for the Future  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The main goal of the Inquiry into the Future for Lifelong Learning is to provide a "strategic framework" for the future. In this article, the author considers the key components that will make up the framework. These are: (1) a statement of vision and values; (2) a stock-take of the current position; (3) an "investment rationale"; (4) some…

Schuller, Tom

2008-01-01

202

Theoretical Perspectives on Industry Clusters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concept of industry clustering has generated much discussion in regional economic development theory and practice in recent years. Yet it is fair to say that an accepted definition or a unified theoretical framework has failed to emerge from the discussion, as the concept often seems to enliven itself under divergent theoretical approaches, including but not limited to work on

Gashawbeza W. Bekele; Randall W. Jackson

203

Theoretical Frameworks for Studying Female Marriage Migrants  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Transnational marriages account for a significant proportion of family-based immigration to North America. An increasing number of immigrant men are choosing to marry women from their countries of origin, and an increasing number of nonimmigrant men are choosing to marry women from other countries. Existing studies on the experiences of foreign…

Merali, Noorfarah

2008-01-01

204

Kinetic Chain Rehabilitation: A Theoretical Framework  

PubMed Central

Sequenced physiologic muscle activations in the upper and lower extremity result in an integrated biomechanical task. This sequencing is known as the kinetic chain, and, in upper extremity dominant tasks, the energy development and output follows a proximal to distal sequencing. Impairment of one or more kinetic chain links can create dysfunctional biomechanical output leading to pain and/or injury. When deficits exist in the preceding links, they can negatively affect the shoulder. Rehabilitation of shoulder injuries should involve evaluation for and restoration of all kinetic chain deficits that may hinder kinetic chain function. Rehabilitation programs focused on eliminating kinetic chain deficits, and soreness should follow a proximal to distal rationale where lower extremity impairments are addressed in addition to the upper extremity impairments. A logical progression focusing on flexibility, strength, proprioception, and endurance with kinetic chain influence is recommended. PMID:22666599

Sciascia, Aaron; Cromwell, Robin

2012-01-01

205

Interpersonal Relations: A Choice-Theoretic Framework.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The microeconomic theory relating to utility and cost is applied to the "risk," and the possible "payoff" relative to relationships with others. A good measure of utility is the need or want-satisfying power of an alternative. For the analysis of interpersonal relationships, the needs delineated by Maslow (i.e. food, shelter, belongingness, love,…

Couvillion, L. Michael; Eckstein, Daniel G.

206

Theoretical Frameworks to Guide School Improvement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A firm grounding in change theory can provide educational leaders with an opportunity to orchestrate meaningful organizational improvements. This article provides an opportunity for practicing leaders to review four major theories of organizational change--continuous improvement, two approaches to organizational learning, and appreciative inquiry.…

Evans, Lisa; Thornton, Bill; Usinger, Janet

2012-01-01

207

Anesthesiologists’ and surgeons’ perceptions about routine pre-operative testing in low-risk patients: application of the Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF) to identify factors that influence physicians’ decisions to order pre-operative tests  

PubMed Central

Background Routine pre-operative tests for anesthesia management are often ordered by both anesthesiologists and surgeons for healthy patients undergoing low-risk surgery. The Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF) was developed to investigate determinants of behaviour and identify potential behaviour change interventions. In this study, the TDF is used to explore anaesthesiologists’ and surgeons’ perceptions of ordering routine tests for healthy patients undergoing low-risk surgery. Methods Sixteen clinicians (eleven anesthesiologists and five surgeons) throughout Ontario were recruited. An interview guide based on the TDF was developed to identify beliefs about pre-operative testing practices. Content analysis of physicians’ statements into the relevant theoretical domains was performed. Specific beliefs were identified by grouping similar utterances of the interview participants. Relevant domains were identified by noting the frequencies of the beliefs reported, presence of conflicting beliefs, and perceived influence on the performance of the behaviour under investigation. Results Seven of the twelve domains were identified as likely relevant to changing clinicians’ behaviour about pre-operative test ordering for anesthesia management. Key beliefs were identified within these domains including: conflicting comments about who was responsible for the test-ordering (Social/professional role and identity); inability to cancel tests ordered by fellow physicians (Beliefs about capabilities and social influences); and the problem with tests being completed before the anesthesiologists see the patient (Beliefs about capabilities and Environmental context and resources). Often, tests were ordered by an anesthesiologist based on who may be the attending anesthesiologist on the day of surgery while surgeons ordered tests they thought anesthesiologists may need (Social influences). There were also conflicting comments about the potential consequences associated with reducing testing, from negative (delay or cancel patients’ surgeries), to indifference (little or no change in patient outcomes), to positive (save money, avoid unnecessary investigations) (Beliefs about consequences). Further, while most agreed that they are motivated to reduce ordering unnecessary tests (Motivation and goals), there was still a report of a gap between their motivation and practice (Behavioural regulation). Conclusion We identified key factors that anesthesiologists and surgeons believe influence whether they order pre-operative tests routinely for anesthesia management for a healthy adults undergoing low-risk surgery. These beliefs identify potential individual, team, and organisation targets for behaviour change interventions to reduce unnecessary routine test ordering. PMID:22682612

2012-01-01

208

The ASA Framework as Rhetoric  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ben Schneider's ASA framework and the associated idea of homogeneity is a theoretical cornerstone on which most organisational person-environment (PE) fit studies are built. However, whilst it is commonly used to justify studies and to explain empirical findings, very few PE fit studies have moved the underlying ASA framework forward. More than 20 years on, the theory remains intact and

Patrick Nelson; Jon Billsberry

209

A Monte-Carlo step-by-step simulation code of the non-homogeneous chemistry of the radiolysis of water and aqueous solutions. Part I: theoretical framework and implementation.  

PubMed

The importance of the radiolysis of water in irradiation of biological systems has motivated considerable theoretical and experimental work in the radiation chemistry of water and aqueous solutions. In particular, Monte-Carlo simulations of radiation track structure and non-homogeneous chemistry have greatly contributed to the understanding of experimental results in radiation chemistry of heavy ions. Actually, most simulations of the non-homogeneous chemistry are done using the Independent Reaction Time (IRT) method, a very fast technique. The main limitation of the IRT method is that the positions of the radiolytic species are not calculated as a function of time, which is needed to simulate the irradiation of more complex systems. Step-by-step (SBS) methods, which are able to provide such information, have been used only sparsely because these are time consuming in terms of calculation. Recent improvements in computer performance now allow the regular use of the SBS method in radiation chemistry. In the present paper, the first of a series of two, the SBS method is reviewed in detail. To these ends, simulation of diffusion of particles and chemical reactions in aqueous solutions is reviewed, and implementation of the program is discussed. Simulation of model systems is then performed to validate the adequacy of stepwise diffusion and reaction schemes. In the second paper, radiochemical yields of simulated radiation tracks calculated by the SBS program in different conditions of LET, pH, and temperature are compared with results from the IRT program and experimental data. PMID:21562854

Plante, Ianik

2011-08-01

210

Decision support models for solid waste management: Review and game-theoretic approaches  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: ? The mainly used decision support frameworks for solid waste management are reviewed. ? The LCA, CBA and MCDM models are presented and their strengths, weaknesses, similarities and possible combinations are analyzed. ? The game-theoretic approach in a solid waste management context is presented. ? The waste management bargaining game is introduced as a specific decision support framework. ? Cooperative and non-cooperative game-theoretic approaches to decision support for solid waste management are discussed. - Abstract: This paper surveys decision support models that are commonly used in the solid waste management area. Most models are mainly developed within three decision support frameworks, which are the life-cycle assessment, the cost–benefit analysis and the multi-criteria decision-making. These frameworks are reviewed and their strengths and weaknesses as well as their critical issues are analyzed, while their possible combinations and extensions are also discussed. Furthermore, the paper presents how cooperative and non-cooperative game-theoretic approaches can be used for the purpose of modeling and analyzing decision-making in situations with multiple stakeholders. Specifically, since a waste management model is sustainable when considering not only environmental and economic but also social aspects, the waste management bargaining game is introduced as a specific decision support framework in which future models can be developed.

Karmperis, Athanasios C., E-mail: athkarmp@mail.ntua.gr [Sector of Industrial Management and Operational Research, School of Mechanical Engineering, National Technical University of Athens, Iroon Polytechniou 9, 15780 Athens (Greece); Army Corps of Engineers, Hellenic Army General Staff, Ministry of Defence (Greece); Aravossis, Konstantinos; Tatsiopoulos, Ilias P.; Sotirchos, Anastasios [Sector of Industrial Management and Operational Research, School of Mechanical Engineering, National Technical University of Athens, Iroon Polytechniou 9, 15780 Athens (Greece)

2013-05-15

211

Theoretical Framework for Microscopic Osmotic Phenomena Theoretical Framework for Microscopic Osmotic Phenomena  

E-print Network

-ion fluxes to compensate for the harmful effects of osmotic pressure [9, 17]. Other ex- amples include Osmotic effects are thought to play an important role in many physical systems associated with biology and technological applications. Examples in technological ap- plications include microscopic devices designed

Kramer, Peter

212

Institute for Theoretical Physics  

SciTech Connect

String theory is the only serious candidate for a unified description of all known fundamental particles and interactions, including gravity, in a single theoretical framework. Over the past two years, activity in this subject has grown rapidly, thanks to dramatic advances in understanding the dynamics of supersymmetric field theories and string theories. The cornerstone of these new developments is the discovery of duality which relates apparently different string theories and transforms difficult strongly coupled problems of one theory into weakly coupled problems of another theory.

Giddings, S.B.; Ooguri, H.; Peet, A.W.; Schwarz, J.H.

1998-06-01

213

Theoretical models in the Virtual Observatory  

E-print Network

Although full interoperativity between theoretical and observational data in the framework of the Virtual Observatory would be a very desirable achievement, the current status of VO offers few approaches to handle theoretical models. TSAP (Theoretical Spectra Access Protocol) has been proposed as a tool to fill this void, providing a simple scheme to easily operate with th is kind of data. TSAP is useful not only for synthetic spectra but also for other types of theoretical data. As an example we show an Isochrone and Evolutionary Tracks server using TSAP. Finally, we pay special attention to the correct treatment of the credits an important issue in the field of theoretical models.

Carlos Rodrigo; Raul Gutierrez; Enrique Solano; Miguel Cervino

2007-11-16

214

Metal-Organic Frameworks Based on Main Group Metals  

E-print Network

can lead to the formation of 3D diamond structure, the bigdiamond, sql = square planar Results and Discussion Formationformation of 3D network becomes possible. Through this method, a square planar, a diamond

Zhao, Xiang

2011-01-01

215

A framework for community design : Worcester's Main South neighborhood  

E-print Network

Communities and the connections between them act as the foundation for the fabric of great cities. Suburbs were originally intended as a utopian alternative to crowded urban conditions. However, the current model of ...

DeSollar, Samuel Joseph

1997-01-01

216

Scaling Up Decision Theoretic Planning to Planetary Rover Problems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Because of communication limits, planetary rovers must operate autonomously during consequent durations. The ability to plan under uncertainty is one of the main components of autonomy. Previous approaches to planning under uncertainty in NASA applications are not able to address the challenges of future missions, because of several apparent limits. On another side, decision theory provides a solid principle framework for reasoning about uncertainty and rewards. Unfortunately, there are several obstacles to a direct application of decision-theoretic techniques to the rover domain. This paper focuses on the issues of structure and concurrency, and continuous state variables. We describes two techniques currently under development that address specifically these issues and allow scaling-up decision theoretic solution techniques to planetary rover planning problems involving a small number of goals.

Meuleau, Nicolas; Dearden, Richard; Washington, Rich

2004-01-01

217

The Fabled Maine Winter  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

No study of Maine weather would be complete without analysis of the year of 1816 - the year with no summer in an area from western Pennsylvania and New York, up through Quebec and across to Maine and the Canadian maritimes. In this five-unit lesson, students will investigate the causes and effects of the Fabled Maine Winter by exploring a variety of data sources. They will locate, graph, and analyze meteorological and climatological data for Portland, Maine, for more recent years to try to find one that most closely resembles the fabled Maine winter of 1816.

218

Theoretical Passages and Boundaries: The Indigenous subject, colonialism, and governmentality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Theoretical paternalism and the convenience of working within 'accepted' frameworks have appropriated the Indigenous subject within the boundaries of colonial relations. The establishment of post-colonial theory as one of the only 'acceptable' frameworks for exploring the Indigenous subject has limited the subject's theoretical development within the binary of coloniser\\/colonised. Breaking from this tradition, the Foucauldian concepts of governmentality, ethics and

Claire Spivakovsky

219

Community policing: a conceptual framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

The theoretical framework for community policing attempts to answer many of the questions revolving around the new paradigm in policing. The paper traces the evolution of community policing as a paradigm in the Kuhnian sense, then proceeds to articulate how it has moved from “revolutionary science” to “normal science”. It then articulates some of the current research in community policing

Willard M. Oliver; Elaine Bartgis

1998-01-01

220

09E-SIW-014 Core Technical Framework Study: A Service Framework for Distributed Simulations in Net-Centric Environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of the Core Technical Framework study is to define a framework that promotes secure, multinational distributed simulation. The main domains targeted are Training, Simulation Based Acquisition (SBA), Concept Development and Experimentation (CD&E). The framework benefits from, and can be easily integrated with, Enterprise Architecture Frameworks descriptions compliant to NAF and MODAF. This paper will describe a Service Framework

Robert Suzi; Qi Huang; Saab AB; Per M. Gustavsson

221

Space Transportation Main Engine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: Space Transportation Main Engine (STME) definition, design philosophy, robust design, maximum design condition, casting vs. machined and welded forgings, operability considerations, high reliability design philosophy, engine reliability enhancement, low cost design philosophy, engine systems requirements, STME schematic, fuel turbopump, liquid oxygen turbopump, main injector, and gas generator. The major engine components of the STME and the Space Shuttle Main Engine are compared.

Monk, Jan C.

1992-01-01

222

Space Transportation Main Engine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: Space Transportation Main Engine (STME) definition, design philosophy, robust design, maximum design condition, casting vs. machined and welded forgings, operability considerations, high reliability design philosophy, engine reliability enhancement, low cost design philosophy, engine systems requirements, STME schematic, fuel turbopump, liquid oxygen turbopump, main injector, and gas generator. The major engine components of the STME and the Space Shuttle Main Engine are compared.

Monk, Jan C.

1992-07-01

223

ICT Framework  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page, from the Mid-Pacific Information and Communications Technology Center, provides a basic background of Information and Communications Technology (ICT). The page outlines the basic framework for understanding and learning about the technology. Information on related industries, levels of ICT expertise and information about non-ICT industries is all included in the document.

224

Gulf of Maine: Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Lessons and activities from the Gulf of Maine Research Institute (formerly Gulf of Maine Aquarium), focused on hurricanes, El Nino, fog, and volcanic eruptions. Emphasis on important hurricanes of the past. Resources include lessons, guides for simple experiments, and a student weather network. Downloadable materials and additional webpages also provided.

225

The Maine Event  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author describes the successful laptop program employed at Mt. Abram High School in Strong, Maine. Through the Maine Learning Technology Initiative, the school has issued laptops to all 36,000 teachers and students in grades 7-8. This program has helped level the playing field for a student population that is 50 percent to 55…

McHale, Tom

2007-01-01

226

on Hurricane Island, Maine  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1981, a study was initiated to measure the effects of low-level trampling (100 to 200 tramples) on selected vegetation on Hurricane Island, Maine. Low levels of trampling are representative of general recreational use patterns on most Maine islands. The study was designed to compare percent survival of common island species when subjected to low-level trampling, to observe treadway formation,

R. E. Leonard; P. W. Conkling; J. L. McMahon

227

MAINE MARINE WORM HABITAT  

EPA Science Inventory

WORM provides a generalized representation at 1:24,000 scale of commercially harvested marine worm habitat in Maine, based on Maine Department of Marine Resources data from 1970's. Original maps were created by MDMR and published by USF&WS as part of the ""&quo...

228

A Conceptual Framework for Predictability Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

A conceptual framework is presented for a unified treatment of issues arising in a variety of predictability studies. The predictive power (PP), a predictability measure based on information-theoretical principles, lies at the center of this framework. The PP is invariant under linear coordinate transformations and applies to multivariate predictions irrespective of assumptions about the probability distribution of prediction errors. For

Tapio Schneider; Stephen M. Griffies

1999-01-01

229

Maine Folklife Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Located at the University of Maine, the Maine Folklife Center is committed to documenting and understanding the folklore, folklife, and history of Maine and Atlantic Canada. Along with its various scholarly activities, the Center sponsors a number of festivals, lectures, and like-minded programs that encourage appreciation of the diverse cultural traditions within the region. The site will be useful to researchers with a penchant in these fields, as it contains information about the collections, including a rather extensive oral history collection (with work that documenting the cranberry culture of Massachusetts and the traditional music of Maine). There is also material on the public programs and exhibits sponsored by the center, and a set of external links that lead to other sites dealing with oral history, folklore, and Maine. While the Center's site does not have a great deal of online material for consideration, the center has transcribed the sixth volume of Northeast Folklore (originally published in 1964) and placed them online.

230

The Main Idea Organizer.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents the Main Idea Organizer (MIO) to help students who may struggle with writing, reading, and thinking--though in different ways and for different reasons. Describes many different ways the author uses the MIO. (SG)

Burke, Jim

2003-01-01

231

Landmark Main Idea  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students will use key details to determine the main idea of informational text about landmarks. For the summative assessment, students will work in small groups to read an informational text about landmarks, fill out a Main Idea Pyramid Graphic Organizer, and then create a poster in the shape of the landmark they read about. Students will utilize the information on their graphic organizer when creating their poster.

Amanda Shipley

2012-07-23

232

The Maine Music Box  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created through a collaboration between the University of Maine's Fogler Library and other Maine libraries, The Maine Music Box contains hundreds of digitized sheet music scores from five major collections. First-time visitors to the site will want to click on the "About Maine Music Box" project as a way of getting started. Here they can check out the "User Information" area, which contains helpful tips on viewing the music and how to best browse the entire database. Additionally, those with a penchant for technical details and information science in general can also learn in copious detail how the database was created for this project. From there, visitors can move straight away into the main collection. Visitors can browse the collection by music subject, sheet music cover art, or just type in their own keywords. One of the best ways to look over the collection is to browse around in such areas as "Instructional Violin", "Maine Collection" and "Parlor Salon Collection". It's also worth remarking that this site may inspire a sing-a-long, a campfire get-together, or a miniature Chautauqua.

233

Decision support models for solid waste management: review and game-theoretic approaches.  

PubMed

This paper surveys decision support models that are commonly used in the solid waste management area. Most models are mainly developed within three decision support frameworks, which are the life-cycle assessment, the cost-benefit analysis and the multi-criteria decision-making. These frameworks are reviewed and their strengths and weaknesses as well as their critical issues are analyzed, while their possible combinations and extensions are also discussed. Furthermore, the paper presents how cooperative and non-cooperative game-theoretic approaches can be used for the purpose of modeling and analyzing decision-making in situations with multiple stakeholders. Specifically, since a waste management model is sustainable when considering not only environmental and economic but also social aspects, the waste management bargaining game is introduced as a specific decision support framework in which future models can be developed. PMID:23462269

Karmperis, Athanasios C; Aravossis, Konstantinos; Tatsiopoulos, Ilias P; Sotirchos, Anastasios

2013-05-01

234

Disseminating research findings: what should researchers do? A systematic scoping review of conceptual frameworks  

PubMed Central

Background Addressing deficiencies in the dissemination and transfer of research-based knowledge into routine clinical practice is high on the policy agenda both in the UK and internationally. However, there is lack of clarity between funding agencies as to what represents dissemination. Moreover, the expectations and guidance provided to researchers vary from one agency to another. Against this background, we performed a systematic scoping to identify and describe any conceptual/organising frameworks that could be used by researchers to guide their dissemination activity. Methods We searched twelve electronic databases (including MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and PsycINFO), the reference lists of included studies and of individual funding agency websites to identify potential studies for inclusion. To be included, papers had to present an explicit framework or plan either designed for use by researchers or that could be used to guide dissemination activity. Papers which mentioned dissemination (but did not provide any detail) in the context of a wider knowledge translation framework, were excluded. References were screened independently by at least two reviewers; disagreements were resolved by discussion. For each included paper, the source, the date of publication, a description of the main elements of the framework, and whether there was any implicit/explicit reference to theory were extracted. A narrative synthesis was undertaken. Results Thirty-three frameworks met our inclusion criteria, 20 of which were designed to be used by researchers to guide their dissemination activities. Twenty-eight included frameworks were underpinned at least in part by one or more of three different theoretical approaches, namely persuasive communication, diffusion of innovations theory, and social marketing. Conclusions There are currently a number of theoretically-informed frameworks available to researchers that can be used to help guide their dissemination planning and activity. Given the current emphasis on enhancing the uptake of knowledge about the effects of interventions into routine practice, funders could consider encouraging researchers to adopt a theoretically-informed approach to their research dissemination. PMID:21092164

2010-01-01

235

The Maine Memory Network  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Once you have visited Maine, it is most certainly not a place that you will soon forget. This website is designed to make sure longtime residents and visitors alike will not forget this tranquil state, as it brings together a very wide range of historical documents and memories from around the state. The site itself was created by the Maine Historical Society, and is supported by monies from the Institute of Museum and Library Services and several other partners. Within the site, visitors can search for historical items and documents, view thematic online exhibits, and learn about how the site may be used effectively in classroom settings. One particularly fine exhibit is the one that offers some visual documentation of rural Aroostook County around the year 1900. In this exhibit, visitors can experience the dense forests and rugged terrain that dominate the landscape of this part of Maine.

236

MAINE SCHOOLS AND LIBRARIES  

EPA Science Inventory

SCHLIB shows point locations of libraries and educational institutions in Maine at 1:24,000 scale. Colleges, universities, technical colleges, high schools, middle schools, elementary schools, kindergarten/sub-primary and other special schools are included. The data was developed...

237

FACILITIES MAINTENANCE MAIN WAREHOUSE  

E-print Network

: Mr. Richard Storlie, Director, Administrative Services requested a workload measurement, validation was conducted from 15 February ­ 30 April 2007. Mr. Storlie is the process owner for the main warehouse. 2 in this report rests with the process owner, Mr. Richard Storlie, with the counsel/concurrence of Facilities

Hemmers, Oliver

238

Main features of meiosis  

SciTech Connect

Chapter 17, outlines the main features of meiosis, beginning with its significance and proceeding through the meiotic stages. Meiosis is the most important modification of mitosis because it is the reduction division that gives rise to the haploid generation in the life cycle. 17 refs., 6 figs.

NONE

1993-12-31

239

Snow Falls - Maine  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

As the Little Androscoggin River flows through western Maine it eventually reaches Snow Falls, a 25 ft cascading waterfall in the town of West Paris.  This photo was taken during a high flow event at the falls. The USGS monitors the Little Androscoggin River upstream of the falls at station 01...

240

Windows on Maine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created with funds provided by the Institute of Museum and Library Services (IMLS), Windows on Maine contains interesting and informative programs and video clips from Maine Public Broadcasting and other partners. On their homepage, visitors can use their interactive map and timeline to locate video clips of interest, and they can also search the entire collection for specific items. Visitors can also use the subject category menu to look over 25 different headings, including "earth sciences", "land disputes", and "Penobscot tribe". The map feature is a real pip, and visitors can customize their search by location and date, and it's a great way to learn about different regions, including Aroostook County (also known as "the County") and Downeast. Also, many of the videos also have additional resources attached to them, such as railroad timetables, historic photographs, and so on.

241

Maine Humanities Council  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Formed as a private nonprofit organization, the Maine Humanities Council (MHC) "promotes strong communities and informed citizens by providing Mainers with opportunities to explore the power and pleasure of ideas." Their work is supported by volunteer board members, and their projects include programs to promote reading and writing, guest lectures around the state, and online newsletters and discussion groups. In the "Programs" area, visitors can learn about these programs, and educators can check out the resources created especially for them. The "Connections" area contains links to their thoughtful blog, their "Humanities on Demand" podcasts, and their periodic newsletter "Synapse", which deals with medicine and literature. The podcasts are quite fun, and they include "Franco-American Women's Words in Maine" and a talk by Professor Dianne Sadoff of Rutgers University on Middlemarch, by George Eliot.

242

Stars main sequence  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What happens during most of a star's life? This activity page, part of an interactive laboratory series for grades 8-12, introduces students to the main sequence phase of a star's existence. This phase is where a star lives out the majority of its life. In an interactive lab activity, students predict the length of the main sequence for four different stars. The predictions can be printed for later evaluation. Students view diagrams that compare the size and color of stars to human lives, and equilibrium within a star is stressed. Finally, students choose between two hypotheses about the length of life of a star. Students write a one- to three-sentence explanation for their hypotheses. The correct answer is provided. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

University of Utah. Astrophysics Science Project Integrating Research and Education (ASPIRE)

2003-01-01

243

Main graphs: Quadratic equation  

E-print Network

Main graphs: Quadratic equation: Equation A2 +B+C = 0, has solutions given by the following 'abc equations: Equation dN dt = kN has the solution: N(t) = N0ekt; N0 is an (arbitrary) initial value of N. Characteristic time of change is = 1/k. Systems of linear differential equations: For system dx dt = ax+by dy dt

Utrecht, Universiteit

244

Maine coast winds  

SciTech Connect

The Maine Coast Winds Project was proposed for four possible turbine locations. Significant progress has been made at the prime location, with a lease-power purchase contract for ten years for the installation of turbine equipment having been obtained. Most of the site planning and permitting have been completed. It is expect that the turbine will be installed in early May. The other three locations are less suitable for the project, and new locations are being considered.

Avery, Richard

2000-01-28

245

Augmented Human Engineering: A Theoretical and Experimental  

E-print Network

. Thus, augmented human design has to integrate human factors - anatomy, neurophysiology, behaviour12 Augmented Human Engineering: A Theoretical and Experimental Approach to Human Systems. Introduction This chapter focuses on one of the main issues for augmented human engineering: integrating

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

246

Anthropology rediscovers sexuality: A theoretical comment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite its reputation for openness to research on sexuality, anthropology as a discipline has only reluctantly supported such work. Anthropological research and theory developed slowly, sharing a stable theoretical paradigm (the cultural influence model) from the 1920s to the 1990s. Moving beyond determinist and essentialist frameworks still common in biomedicine, anthropological work nevertheless viewed important aspects of sexuality as universal

Carole S. Vance

1991-01-01

247

Game-theoretic characterization of antidegradable channels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We introduce a guessing game involving a quantum channel, three parties—the sender, the receiver, and an eavesdropper, Eve—and a quantum public side channel. We prove that a necessary and sufficient condition for the quantum channel to be antidegradable, is that Eve wins the game. We thus obtain a complete operational characterization of antidegradable channels in a game-theoretic framework.

Buscemi, Francesco; Datta, Nilanjana; Strelchuk, Sergii

2014-09-01

248

A Unified Theoretical Bayesian Model of Speech  

E-print Network

A Unified Theoretical Bayesian Model of Speech Communication Clément Moulin-Frier1 , Jean-Luc Schwartz1 , Julien Diard2 , Pierre Bessière3 1 GIPSA-Lab, Speech and Cognition Department (ex-ICP), UMR and theories in speech communication, this paper proposes an original Bayesian framework able to express each

Boyer, Edmond

249

Theoretical Spectroscopy Lectures Theory and Codes  

E-print Network

Theoretical Spectroscopy Lectures Theory and Codes 411, 6-9 February 2011 Electronic excitations and frameworks, which are able to describe electronic excitations and spectroscopy, have become more and more · Introduction to Spectroscopy (Theory - 1/2 h) · Microscopic-Macroscopic connection (Theory - 1 h) · DFT

Botti, Silvana

250

A system theoretic approach to design safety into medical device  

E-print Network

The goal of this thesis is to investigate and demonstrate the application of a systems approach to medical device safety in China. Professor Leveson has developed an accident modeling framework called STAMP (Systems Theoretic ...

Song, Qingyang S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2012-01-01

251

Revenge after trauma: Theoretical outline  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Tis chapter focuses on revenge, a somewhat neglected psychological phenomenon ofen occurring in the context of embitterment\\u000a that has been observed to be associated with traumatization and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). Recent theoretical approaches\\u000a to and research findings on revenge and its specific relationship to embitterment phenomena are summarized, and therapeutic\\u000a implications are discussed. The main objective of the chapter

Ira Gäbler; Andreas Maercker

252

Extending ETL framework using service oriented architecture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extraction, Transformation and Loading (ETL) represent a big portion of a data warehouse project. Complexity of components extensibility is a main problem in the ETL area, because ETL components are tightly-coupled to each others in the current ETL framework. The missing extensibility feature causes impediments to add new components to the current ETL framework; to meet special business needs. This

Mohammed M. I. Awad; Mohd Syazwan Abdullah; Abdul Bashah Mat Ali

2011-01-01

253

Conceptual Framework for Animal Assisted Therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Animal-assisted Therapy (A-AT) is becoming a popular therapeutic treatment for both children and adults. The author has used\\u000a A-AT in a school setting with students with emotional disturbances. A review of the literature regarding A-AT reveals a lack\\u000a of a unified theoretical framework. This paper proposes a conceptual framework that incorporates a physiological, psychological,\\u000a and cognitive model to depict the

Tracy S. Geist

2011-01-01

254

Changing Mental Models of the IT Professions: A Theoretical Framework  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is widely recognized that the current and projected shortage of adequately-educated IT professionals could be greatly reduced if more female and minority students would major in IT disciplines, yet the dramatic under-representation of these populations appears to be worsening. This under-representation is reflected in Drexel University's…

Agosto, Denise E.; Gasson, Susan; Atwood, Michael

2008-01-01

255

Research Leadership in Writing for Publication: A Theoretical Framework  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Academics experience difficulty in managing competing tasks, particularly in relation to writing for publication. In a study conducted on a writing retreat, analysis of data obtained from academic writers revealed that facilitative leadership provided at a writing retreat was central to managing task complexity and writing-related anxiety. The…

Murray, Rowena; Steckley, Laura; MacLeod, Iain

2012-01-01

256

Research leadership in writing for publication: a theoretical framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

Academics experience difficulty in managing competing tasks, particularly in relation to writing for publication. In a study conducted on a writing retreat, analysis of data obtained from academic writers revealed that facilitative leadership provided at a writing retreat was central to managing task complexity and writing-related anxiety. The question remains, however, about how this leadership can be modelled in campus

Rowena Murray; Laura Steckley; Iain MacLeod

2011-01-01

257

QUALITY OF COINCIDENCE DETECTION AND ITD TUNING: A THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK  

E-print Network

, WULFRAM GERSTNER z , HERMANN WAGNER \\Lambda , AND J. LEO VAN HEMMEN y y Physik Department der TU M¨unchen, Theoretische Physik, D­85747 Garching, Germany E­mail: kempter,lvh@physik.tu­muenchen.de z Swiss Federal on internal parameters and input statistics. We show that there is an optimal threshold and, furthermore

Kempter, Richard

258

The growth of business firms: theoretical framework and empirical evidence.  

PubMed

We introduce a model of proportional growth to explain the distribution P(g)(g) of business-firm growth rates. The model predicts that P(g)(g) is exponential in the central part and depicts an asymptotic power-law behavior in the tails with an exponent zeta = 3. Because of data limitations, previous studies in this field have been focusing exclusively on the Laplace shape of the body of the distribution. In this article, we test the model at different levels of aggregation in the economy, from products to firms to countries, and we find that the predictions of the model agree with empirical growth distributions and size-variance relationships. PMID:16365284

Fu, Dongfeng; Pammolli, Fabio; Buldyrev, S V; Riccaboni, Massimo; Matia, Kaushik; Yamasaki, Kazuko; Stanley, H Eugene

2005-12-27

259

Second language acquisition and bilingual development: A theoretical framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

The theory presented here states that all developing and developed bilinguals, no matter what their age or environment, have a preferred and a second language, specific and general, and that a developing bilingual increases his competence in his second language through an overall fluctuating activity between bilingual preferred\\/ second?language medium?orientated communication and monolingual second?language message?orientated communication, with the former decreasing

C. J. Dodson

1985-01-01

260

Assessment of Student Outcomes Using a Theoretical Framework.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the scientific concept of evaporation. Attempts to show how students develop their understanding through the levels of the Structure of the Observed Learning Outcome (SOLO) taxonomy. Shows how designing learning experiences to suit the learners' developmental stages in understanding a concept is paramount to the overall growth of the…

Levins, Lesley

1997-01-01

261

Civic Engagement and Service Learning: Theoretical Framework and Practical Application  

Microsoft Academic Search

Civic engagement rooted in service learning began at Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey in 1988 after then-President Edward Bloustein, in his commencement address, called for citizen education and community service as a graduate requirement for all students in the State of New Jersey (Barber, 1991). Although this vision was never fully enacted, a Committee on Education for Civic

Lea P. Stewart

262

Measurement of Workforce Readiness: Review of Theoretical Frameworks.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two prototypes to categories of necessary workforce skills in five studies are related: (1) "What Work Requires of Schools" by the Secretary's Commission of Achieving Necessary Skills (SCANS); (2) "Workplace Basics: The Essential Skills Employers Want" by the American Society of Training and Development (ASTD); (3) "Michigan Employability Skills…

O'Neil, Harold F., Jr.; And Others

263

Understanding supply chain management: critical research and a theoretical framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasing global cooperation, vertical disintegration and a focus on core activities have led to the notion that firms are links in a networked supply chain. This strategic viewpoint has created the challenge of coordinating effectively the entire supply chain, from upstream to downstream activities. While supply chains have existed ever since businesses have been organized to bring products and services

I. J. Chen; A. Paulraj

2004-01-01

264

Attitude toward advertising through sport: A theoretical framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

An important goal of advertising is designing effective campaigns that foster favorable attitudes toward a product. Attitude toward a product is influenced by one's attitude toward an advertisement. Previous research examining attitude toward advertising in general and in specific mediums (e.g., TV and online) has found that consumers’ attitudes toward advertising have become increasingly negative. The researchers propose that sport

Do Young Pyun; Jeffrey D. James

2011-01-01

265

Understanding New Media Literacy: An Explorative Theoretical Framework  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With the advent of new media technologies, the role of media in a society has been changed that leads researchers to re-construct the meaning of literacy from classic literacy to new media literacy. There have been continuing efforts to understand new media and promote the importance of becoming new media literate among researchers, educators,…

Lin, Tzu-Bin; Li, Jen-Yi; Deng, Feng; Lee, Ling

2013-01-01

266

Theoretical Framework for Radiationless Aneutronic Nuclear Fusion in Metal Deuterides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

George and Stringham(http://www.hooked.net/ ~ rgeorge/sonof.html) have observed large amounts of ^4He and ^3He and heat without radiation or neutrons in Pd, Ti and Ag foils subjected to cavitation bubbles of D_2O. Arata and Zhang(Y. Arata and Y-C Zhang, Proc. Japan Acad. 73B), 1 (1997). have observed the same by-products, also with no high energy particles, in Pd powder that had been electrolytically loaded with D. Because of the MeV energies that are involved, the rules of conventional point-particle collisions of nuclear physics forbid these kinds of reactions. However, if reactants and by-products occupy ion band states, the resulting reactions may violate these rules because energy and momentum conservation involving these kinds of states can also include elastic (Umklapp- like), horizontal transitions, in which momentum is transferred non-locally either through lattice recoil or through a redefinition of the boundaries of the lattice. Implications of the associated theory(S. R. and T. A. Chubb, Fusion Technology, 24), 403, (1993). and the penetration of the Coulomb barrier (S.R. Chubb, and T.A. Chubb, Bull of the APS, 42), no. 1, 678 (1997). are discussed.

Chubb, Scott; Chubb, Talbot

1998-03-01

267

Networks, Interlocking Directors and Strategy: Toward a Theoretical Framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research on inter-organisational networks reflects their acknowledged and growing importance. Strategy research, however, is only beginning to investigate the nature of networks and how network participation can affect organisational performance. Networks embody a relational view of the organisation and their study draws attention to the mechanisms by which relationships are secured and managed. Board of directors interlocks are a principal

Loizos Heracleous; John Murray

2001-01-01

268

The Hydraulic System of Trees: Theoretical Framework and Numerical Simulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Empirical studies pose the problem of the physiological integration of the tree organism, which is also important on the scale of ecosystems. Recently, spatially distributed models emerged, which approach this problem by reflecting the close linkage between physiological processes and the structures of trees and tree stands. In the case of water flow, the tree organism can be regarded as

THOMAS FRÜH; WINFRIED KURTH

1999-01-01

269

Situated Learning as a Theoretical Framework for Sport Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article seeks to establish the usefulness of situated learning theory as a means of thinking differently about the alleged abstraction of school learning in a range of subjects including physical education, and the issue of transfer of learning. Following a discussion of Lave and Wenger’s notion of situated learning as legitimate peripheral participation in communities of practice, the article

David Kirk; Gary Kinchin

2003-01-01

270

Group-theoretical framework for potential symmetries of evolution equations  

Microsoft Academic Search

We develop algebraic approach to the problem of classification of potential symmetries of nonlinear evolution equations. It is essentially based on the recently discovered fact [R. Zhdanov, J. Math. Phys. 50, 053522 (2009)], that any such symmetry is mapped into a contact symmetry. The approach enables using the classical results on classification of contact symmetries of nonlinear evolution equations by

Qing Huang; Changzheng Qu; Renat Zhdanov

2011-01-01

271

Understanding educational transfer: theoretical perspectives and conceptual frameworks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Educational transfer is an important and growing body of literature in the field of comparative education. Work from the last\\u000a decade has focused on the stages of the borrowing cycle, and the context, causes and rationales for education borrowing. This\\u000a recent work has contributed to earlier research on the role of multilateral organizations in education development and transfer.\\u000a Rather than

Laura B. Perry; Geok-hwa Tor

2008-01-01

272

Understanding Online Knowledge Sharing: An Exploratory Theoretical Framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Online learning has been getting popular in higher education. Key functionalities of online learning environment include the\\u000a access to a wider perspective of learning resources and the provision of social interactions between instructor-learners and\\u000a among learners-learners. Recent empirical findings in online learning have acknowledged the importance of online knowledge\\u000a sharing as an integral part of online learning, through the various

Will Wai-Kit Ma; Allan Hoi Kau Yuen

2010-01-01

273

Theoretical framework for spectrum analysis in ultrasonic tissue characterization.  

PubMed

An analytic model is described for application in ultrasonic tissue characterization. The model is applicable to clinical broadband pulse echo systems. It treats spectra derived from received echo signals and relates them to physical tissue properties. The model can be applied to deterministic tissue structures (e.g., retinal detachments, larger blood vessels, and surface layers of the kidney) and to stochastic tissue structures (e.g., various tumors). The beam patterns included in the model are those generated by focused transducers typically used in high-resolution clinical ultrasound. Appropriate calibration procedures are also treated; these are needed for interpretation of absolute spectral parameters. The results obtained with the analytic model have been used to design a digital processing system and the associated techniques which are now being applied during examinations of the eye and abdominal organs. The results have proven useful in interpreting data from various types of tissues. To illustrate the application of these results, representative clinical data, obtained from the digital system, are presented for two types of tissue architectures. The first case is a detached retina representing a deterministic structure characterized by well-defined thickness and reflection coefficients. The second case is asteroid hyalosis and represents a stochastic entity in which the positions of small scattering particles are best described in statistical terms, and characterization is accompanied by means of normalized power spectra. PMID:6853848

Lizzi, F L; Greenebaum, M; Feleppa, E J; Elbaum, M; Coleman, D J

1983-04-01

274

Design theoretic analysis of three system modeling frameworks.  

SciTech Connect

This paper analyzes three simulation architectures from the context of modeling scalability to address System of System (SoS) and Complex System problems. The paper first provides an overview of the SoS problem domain and reviews past work in analyzing model and general system complexity issues. It then identifies and explores the issues of vertical and horizontal integration as well as coupling and hierarchical decomposition as the system characteristics and metrics against which the tools are evaluated. In addition, it applies Nam Suh's Axiomatic Design theory as a construct for understanding coupling and its relationship to system feasibility. Next it describes the application of MATLAB, Swarm, and Umbra (three modeling and simulation approaches) to modeling swarms of Unmanned Flying Vehicle (UAV) agents in relation to the chosen characteristics and metrics. Finally, it draws general conclusions for analyzing model architectures that go beyond those analyzed. In particular, it identifies decomposition along phenomena of interaction and modular system composition as enabling features for modeling large heterogeneous complex systems.

McDonald, Michael James

2007-05-01

275

Non-state actors in international politics: a theoretical framework  

E-print Network

sympathizers in which education or economic opportunity, and opposition to the government play important roles in determining whether an individual volunteers to join a terror- ist group." Likewise Bueno de Mesquita and Dickson (2007), Bueno de Mesquita (2005a...

Paley, Abram Wil

2009-05-15

276

The Transtheoretical Model: A Theoretical Framework for Organic Food Penetration  

Microsoft Academic Search

While organic food is growing strongly globally this same category remains small in Australia. A synthesis of the literature indicates that organic food is purchased for taste, to alleviate health concerns (e.g. to avoid food scares, food additives and chemicals) and to show concern for the environment and animal rights issues. The academic literature reporting attitudinal and behavioural insights into

Robin Roberts; Sharyn Rundle-Thiele

277

A Theoretical Framework For A Science Of Landscape  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human intrusion is growing at an exponential rate modifying structure and functions of many ecosystems (loss or reduction\\u000a of habitats for species, loss of biodiversity) and reducing the ecosystem services. Many modifications are not immediately\\u000a visible creating an ecological debt dangerous for the entire planet (Tilman et al. 1994) and reducing the possibilities for new biological aggregations. Human activity that

Almo Farina; Sun-Kee Hong

278

Binary collision rates of relativistic thermal plasmas. I Theoretical framework  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Binary collision rates for arbitrary scattering cross sections are derived in the case of a beam of particles interacting with a Maxwell-Boltzmann (MB) plasma, or in the case of two MB plasmas interacting at generally different temperatures. The expressions are valid for all beam energies and plasma temperatures, from the nonrelativistic to the extreme relativistic limits. The calculated quantities include the reaction rate, the energy exchange rate, and the average rate of change of the squared transverse momentum component of a monoenergetic particle beam as a result of scatterings with particles of a MB plasma. Results are specialized to elastic scattering processes, two-temperature reaction rates, or the cold plasma limit, reproducing previous work.

Dermer, C. D.

1985-01-01

279

Towards a Theoretical Framework for Online Professional Discussions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sociocultural theories of learning and sociocultural theories of technology are explored as a way to view and to map the complex interactions that can occur in online professional discussions. The case of synchronous online moderation meetings are used as an example of the combination of variables that can impact on the development of shared…

Adie, Lenore

2014-01-01

280

ICW eHealth Framework.  

PubMed

The ICW eHealth Framework (eHF) is a powerful infrastructure and platform for the development of service-oriented solutions in the health care business. It is the culmination of many years of experience of ICW in the development and use of in-house health care solutions and represents the foundation of ICW product developments based on the Java Enterprise Edition (Java EE). The ICW eHealth Framework has been leveraged to allow development by external partners - enabling adopters a straightforward integration into ICW solutions. The ICW eHealth Framework consists of reusable software components, development tools, architectural guidelines and conventions defining a full software-development and product lifecycle. From the perspective of a partner, the framework provides services and infrastructure capabilities for integrating applications within an eHF-based solution. This article introduces the ICW eHealth Framework's basic architectural concepts and technologies. It provides an overview of its module and component model, describes the development platform that supports the complete software development lifecycle of health care applications and outlines technological aspects, mainly focusing on application development frameworks and open standards. PMID:18376045

Klein, Karsten; Wolff, Astrid C; Ziebold, Oliver; Liebscher, Thomas

2008-01-01

281

Rethinking Theoretical Approaches to Stigma  

PubMed Central

A resurgence of research and policy efforts on stigma both facilitates and forces a reconsideration of the levels and types of factors that shape reactions to persons with conditions that engender prejudice and discrimination. Focusing on the case of mental illness but drawing from theories and studies of stigma across the social sciences, we propose a framework that brings together theoretical insights from micro, meso and macro level research: Framework Integrating Normative Influences on Stigma (FINIS) starts with Goffman’s notion that understanding stigma requires a language of social relationships, but acknowledges that individuals do not come to social interaction devoid of affect and motivation. Further, all social interactions take place in a context in which organizations, media and larger cultures structure normative expectations which create the possibility of marking “difference”. Labelling theory, social network theory, the limited capacity model of media influence, the social psychology of prejudice and discrimination, and theories of the welfare state all contribute to an understanding of the complex web of expectations shaping stigma. FINIS offers the potential to build a broad-based scientific foundation based on understanding the effects of stigma on the lives of persons with mental illness, the resources devoted to the organizations and families who care for them, and policies and programs designed to combat stigma. We end by discussing the clear implications this framework holds for stigma reduction, even in the face of conflicting results. PMID:18436358

Martin, Jack K; Lang, Annie; Olafsdottir, Sigrun

2008-01-01

282

Proof-Theoretic Semantics for a Natural Language Fragment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a Proof - Theoretic Semantics (PTS) for a (positive) fragment E+0 of Natural Language (NL) (English in this case). The semantics is intended [7] to be incorporated into actual grammars, within the framework of Type - Logical Grammar (TLG) [12]. Thereby, this semantics constitutes an alternative to the traditional model - theoretic semantics (MTS), originating in Montague's seminal work [11], used in TLG.

Francez, Nissim; Dyckhoff, Roy

283

An impulse framework for hydrodynamic force analysis : fish propulsion, water entry of spheres, and marine propellers  

E-print Network

This thesis presents an impulse framework for analyzing the hydrodynamic forces on bodies in flow. This general theoretical framework is widely applicable, and it is used to address the hydrodynamics of fish propulsion, ...

Epps, Brenden P

2010-01-01

284

A Framework for Multi Robot Guidance Control  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we present a framework for path planning and path finding for multiple mobile robots with global vision. Our framework model considers the agents’ dynamic status and their environment with obstacles to perform given tasks. The global vision system provides feedback to main controller computer and mobile robots are directed towards to their tasks with avoiding obstacles and without any collision. Different kinds of scenario are prepared to simulate manipulating tasks and non-collision behavior with our framework. Experiment results with Lego Mindstorms NXT shows that our framework can be used where a multi robot system is needed with minimum resources.

Keskin, Onur; Uyar, Erol

285

Sustainability Framework 1 Queen's University  

E-print Network

Sustainability Framework 1 Queen's University Sustainability Strategic Framework #12;Sustainability Framework 2 Contents Introduction .................................................................................................................................................. 2 Queen's Sustainability Mission

Abolmaesumi, Purang

286

State of Maine's Environment 2009  

Microsoft Academic Search

The State of Maine's Environment is a regular series of reports written by senior environmental policy majors at Colby College in Waterville, Maine. The State of Maine's Environment 2009 is the fifth State of Maine's Environment report created by students enrolled in ES 493: Environmental Policy Practicum taught by Philip J. Nyhus, Environmental Studies Program. Topics in this report include

Philip J. Nyhus

2009-01-01

287

Evaluation of Learning Materials: A Holistic Framework  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents a holistic framework for evaluating learning materials and designs for learning. A holistic evaluation comprises investigations of the potential learning potential, the actualised learning potential, and the actual learning. Each aspect is explained and exemplified through theoretical models and definitions. (Contains 3 figures…

Bundsgaard, Jeppe; Hansen, Thomas Illum

2011-01-01

288

Measuring Morality: Moral Frameworks in Videogames  

E-print Network

................................................. 13 Morality in Recent Games .............................................................. 13 Theories of Ethics ........................................................................... 16 Ethical Triangulation... their operation. Chapter IV will create a theoretical framework in which this thesis may be interpreted. When working in an interdisciplinary fashion with literature from fields such as media studies, video game studies, Ludology, literary analysis, ethics...

Whittle, John C.

2010-07-14

289

Human-Centered Fusion Framework  

SciTech Connect

In recent years the benefits of fusing signatures extracted from large amounts of distributed and/or heterogeneous data sources have been largely documented in various problems ranging from biological protein function prediction to cyberspace monitoring. In spite of significant progress in information fusion research, there is still no formal theoretical framework for defining various types of information fusion systems, defining and analyzing relations among such types, and designing information fusion systems using a formal method approach. Consequently, fusion systems are often poorly understood, are less than optimal, and/or do not suit user needs. To start addressing these issues, we outline a formal humancentered fusion framework for reasoning about fusion strategies. Our approach relies on a new taxonomy for fusion strategies, an alternative definition of information fusion in terms of parameterized paths in signature related spaces, an algorithmic formalization of fusion strategies and a library of numeric and dynamic visual tools measuring the impact as well as the impact behavior of fusion strategies. Using a real case of intelligence analysis we demonstrate that the proposed framework enables end users to rapidly 1) develop and implement alternative fusion strategies, 2) understand the impact of each strategy, 3) compare the various strategies, and 4) perform the above steps without having to know the mathematical foundations of the framework. We also demonstrate that the human impact on a fusion system is critical in the sense that small changes in strategies do not necessarily correspond to small changes in results.

Posse, Christian; White, Amanda M.; Beagley, Nathaniel

2007-05-16

290

Interior, view of main entrance hall with main entrance door, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Interior, view of main entrance hall with main entrance door, camera facing northeast - Naval Training Station, Senior Officers' Quarters District, Quarters No. 1, Naval Station Treasure Island, 1 Whiting Way, Yerba Buena Island, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

291

6. MAIN AND SOUTH BAYS. DETAIL OF TOP OF MAIN ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. MAIN AND SOUTH BAYS. DETAIL OF TOP OF MAIN BAY COLUMN, GIRDER FOR ELECTRIC OVERHEAD TRAVEL CRANE, AND ROOF GIRDERS - Oldman Boiler Works, Fabricating Shop, 32 Illinois Street, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

292

Developing a decision-theoretic network for a congenital heart disease  

E-print Network

and statistical decision theory has yielded the framework of decision-theoretic networks 15 . The framework combines explicit, declarative domain models known from arti cial intelligence with normative theories of decision making under uncertainty. In contrast with the classical decision-theoretic and knowledge

Utrecht, Universiteit

293

Peer-Formativity: A Framework for Academic Writing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The system currently deployed to assess research outputs in higher education can influence what, how and for whom academics write; for some it may determine whether or not they write at all. This article offers a framework for negotiating this performative context--the writing meeting. This framework uses the established theoretical underpinning…

Murray, Rowena; Thow, Morag

2014-01-01

294

Ethnicity, Aging, and Oral Health Outcomes: A Conceptual Framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

An expanded version of Andersen's Behavioral Model of Health Services Utilization is used as the theoretical and analytical framework for the International Collaborative Study of Oral Health Outcomes (ICS-II). The conceptual framework for understanding determinants of oral health is based on a \\

R. M. Andersen; P. L. Davidson

1997-01-01

295

A Future-Oriented Retirement Transition Adjustment Framework  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This theoretical paper presents a person-environment fit framework that extends the Minnesota Theory of Work Adjustment to retirement transition and adjustment. The proposed Retirement Transition and Adjustment Framework (RTAF) also accommodates dynamic intra-individual and environment change over time, configural combinations of variables, and an…

Hesketh, Beryl; Griffin, Barbara; Loh, Vanessa

2011-01-01

296

Choosing the Best Main Idea  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this resource, students will choose the best main idea. Through teacher modeling, guided practice, and independent practice, students will choose the best main idea from two choices in each short literary passage.

ReadWorks

2012-03-26

297

EXPLORATORY FISHING FOR MAINE HERRING  

E-print Network

of Maine waters were sounded and fished with a lampara seine, gill nets, midwater trawls, and otter trawls for Atlantic herring and to carry on research and developmental work on sardine fishing gear. Original efforts sought along the Maine coast and in the Gulf of Maine. Otter trawl surveys were made during the winters

298

2014 Maine Earth Science Day  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

On October 15, 2014 Maine Earth Science Day was held at the Maine State Museum in Augusta. The USGS was represented by Charlie Culbertson, left, and Nick Waldron, right. This photo was taken as the two were packing up for the day, and shows a main feature of the table, a touch screen display with th...

299

Risk measures The main result  

E-print Network

Outline Risk measures The main result A collection of risk measures Dual representations of risk measures Georg Ch. Pflug May 7, 2005 Georg Ch. Pflug Dual representations of risk measures #12;Outline Risk measures The main result A collection of risk measures Risk measures The main result A collection of risk

Pflug, Georg

300

Some thoughts on theoretical physics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Some thoughts are presented on the inter-relation between beauty and truth in science in general and theoretical physics in particular. Some conjectural procedures that can be used to create new ideas, concepts and results are illustrated in both Boltzmann-Gibbs and nonextensive statistical mechanics. The sociological components of scientific progress and its unavoidable and benefic controversies are, mainly through existing literary texts, briefly addressed as well. Short essay based on the plenary talk given at the International Workshop on Trends and Perspectives in Extensive and Non-Extensive Statistical Mechanics, held in November 19-21, 2003, in Angra dos Reis, Brazil.

Tsallis, Constantino

2004-12-01

301

Psychology and Prejudice: A Historical Analysis and Integrative Framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

No adequate general theories or integrative frameworks exist for understanding prejudice. Limited theories have proliferated, and a number of competing paradigms emerged that have been theoretically dominant during quite different historical periods. These systematic shifts do not just represent a systematic evolution of knowledge. A historical analysis focusing on explanations of racial prejudice suggests that different theoretical orientations typically emerged

John Duckitt

1992-01-01

302

Metabolic engineering from a cybernetic perspective. 1. Theoretical preliminaries  

PubMed

The theoretical basis of a cybernetic metabolic network design and analysis framework, which has been subsequently successfully applied to predict system response to genetic alteration, is presented. This conceptual methodology consists of three main branches, namely, a model realization framework, a representation of genetic alteration, and lastly, a metabolic design component. These concepts are introduced as a series of postulates that describe the basic tenets of the approach. Each branch is discussed in turn, starting with the cybernetic representation of arbitrarily complex metabolic networks. A set of postulates is put forth that affords the modular construction of cybernetic models of metabolic networks using as a base a library of elementary pathways. This is followed by a discussion of the representation of genetic alterations within the cybernetic framework. It is postulated that the objective of the base network and the altered system are identical (at least on the time scale required for the organism to "learn" new objectives). This implies, with respect to resource allocation, that the base network and its genetically altered counterpart may still be treated as optimal systems; however, the set of competing physiological choices open to the altered network expands or contracts depending upon the nature of the genetic perturbation. Lastly, to add a predictive design aspect to the methodology, we present a set of postulates that outline the application of metabolic control analysis to cybernetic model systems. We postulate that sensitivity coefficients computed from a cybernetic model, although still local in scope, have the added benefit of a systematic representation of regulatory function as described by the cybernetic variables. Thus, information gained from sensitivity measurements stemming from a cybernetic model include the explicit input of metabolic regulation, a component that is lacking in a purely kinetic representation of metabolic function. The sensitivity results can then be employed to develop qualitative strategies for the rational alteration of metabolic function, which can be evaluated by simulation of an appropriately modified cybernetic model of the base network. PMID:10356258

Varner; Ramkrishna

1999-05-01

303

A Formal Framework for Mobile Robot Patrolling in Arbitrary Environments with Adversaries  

E-print Network

Using mobile robots for autonomous patrolling of environments to prevent intrusions is a topic of increasing practical relevance. One of the most challenging scientific issues is the problem of finding effective patrolling strategies that, at each time point, determine the next moves of the patrollers in order to maximize some objective function. In the very last years this problem has been addressed in a game theoretical fashion, explicitly considering the presence of an adversarial intruder. The general idea is that of modeling a patrolling situation as a game, played by the patrollers and the intruder, and of studying the equilibria of this game to derive effective patrolling strategies. In this paper we present a game theoretical formal framework for the determination of effective patrolling strategies that extends the previous proposals appeared in the literature, by considering environments with arbitrary topology and arbitrary preferences for the agents. The main original contributions of this paper ar...

Basilico, Nicola; Amigoni, Francesco

2009-01-01

304

Theoretical Perspectives on Protein Folding  

E-print Network

Understanding how monomeric proteins fold under in vitro conditions is crucial to describing their functions in the cellular context. Significant advances both in theory and experiments have resulted in a conceptual framework for describing the folding mechanisms of globular proteins. The experimental data and theoretical methods have revealed the multifaceted character of proteins. Proteins exhibit universal features that can be determined using only the number of amino acid residues (N) and polymer concepts. The sizes of proteins in the denatured and folded states, cooperativity of the folding transition, dispersions in the melting temperatures at the residue level, and time scales of folding are to a large extent determined by N. The consequences of finite N especially on how individual residues order upon folding depends on the topology of the folded states. Such intricate details can be predicted using the Molecular Transfer Model that combines simulations with measured transfer free energies of protein building blocks from water to the desired concentration of the denaturant. By watching one molecule fold at a time, using single molecule methods, the validity of the theoretically anticipated heterogeneity in the folding routes, and the N-dependent time scales for the three stages in the approach to the native state have been established. Despite the successes of theory, of which only a few examples are documented here, we conclude that much remains to be done to solve the "protein folding problem" in the broadest sense.

D. Thirumalai; Edward P. O'Brien; Greg Morrison; Changbong Hyeon

2010-07-18

305

Perspective Theoretical Neuroscience Rising  

E-print Network

Neuron Perspective Theoretical Neuroscience Rising L.F. Abbott1,* 1Department of Neuroscience *Correspondence: lfabbott@columbia.edu DOI 10.1016/j.neuron.2008.10.019 Theoretical neuroscience has experienced to introduce new ideas and shape directions of neuroscience research. This review presents some

Columbia University

306

Theoretical Development on Pentaquarks  

E-print Network

I first give a brief overview of the status of exotic hadron search so far. Then I review the recent theoretical development on pentaquarks. Finally I emphasize that none of theoretical formalisms predicts the existence of $\\Theta$ pentaquark very reliably. None of them explains its narrow width in a natural way.

Shi-Lin Zhu

2004-10-01

307

Theoretical Perspectives on the Internationalization of Firms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this article is to build a coherent framework of the four main theories relating to the internationalization of firms, in order to facilitate better business teaching and research. Yet, theories of the internationalization of firms are broad and rest on different underlying assumptions. With the purpose of clarifying the potential…

Rask, Morten; Strandskov, Jesper; Hakonsson, Dorthe Dojbak

2008-01-01

308

A new pressure ulcer conceptual framework  

PubMed Central

Aim This paper discusses the critical determinants of pressure ulcer development and proposes a new pressure ulcer conceptual framework. Background Recent work to develop and validate a new evidence-based pressure ulcer risk assessment framework was undertaken. This formed part of a Pressure UlceR Programme Of reSEarch (RP-PG-0407-10056), funded by the National Institute for Health Research. The foundation for the risk assessment component incorporated a systematic review and a consensus study that highlighted the need to propose a new conceptual framework. Design Discussion Paper. Data Sources The new conceptual framework links evidence from biomechanical, physiological and epidemiological evidence, through use of data from a systematic review (search conducted March 2010), a consensus study (conducted December 2010–2011) and an international expert group meeting (conducted December 2011). Implications for Nursing A new pressure ulcer conceptual framework incorporating key physiological and biomechanical components and their impact on internal strains, stresses and damage thresholds is proposed. Direct and key indirect causal factors suggested in a theoretical causal pathway are mapped to the physiological and biomechanical components of the framework. The new proposed conceptual framework provides the basis for understanding the critical determinants of pressure ulcer development and has the potential to influence risk assessment guidance and practice. It could also be used to underpin future research to explore the role of individual risk factors conceptually and operationally. Conclusion By integrating existing knowledge from epidemiological, physiological and biomechanical evidence, a theoretical causal pathway and new conceptual framework are proposed with potential implications for practice and research. PMID:24684197

Coleman, Susanne; Nixon, Jane; Keen, Justin; Wilson, Lyn; McGinnis, Elizabeth; Dealey, Carol; Stubbs, Nikki; Farrin, Amanda; Dowding, Dawn; Schols, Jos MGA; Cuddigan, Janet; Berlowitz, Dan; Jude, Edward; Vowden, Peter; Schoonhoven, Lisette; Bader, Dan L; Gefen, Amit; Oomens, Cees WJ; Nelson, E Andrea

2014-01-01

309

Economic Impact Reporting Framework  

E-print Network

....................................................................................................5 2.2: Human Capital (human capital); 4. Investment in the research base and innovation; 5. Framework conditions (public

310

Choices, Frameworks and Refinement  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this paper we present a method for designing operating systems using object-oriented frameworks. A framework can be refined into subframeworks. Constraints specify the interactions between the subframeworks. We describe how we used object-oriented frameworks to design Choices, an object-oriented operating system.

Campbell, Roy H.; Islam, Nayeem; Johnson, Ralph; Kougiouris, Panos; Madany, Peter

1991-01-01

311

Choices, frameworks and refinement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Presents a method for designing operating systems using object-oriented frameworks. A framework can be refined into subframeworks. Constraints specify the interactions between the subframeworks. The authors describe how they used object-oriented frameworks to design Choices, an object-oriented operating system

Roy H. Campbell; Nayeem Islam; Ralph Johnson; Panos Kougiouris; Peter Madany

1991-01-01

312

Technical Report TR-CS_01_07 A Game Theoretic Approach toward Multi-Party  

E-print Network

Technical Report TR-CS_01_07 A Game Theoretic Approach toward Multi-Party Privacy;A Game Theoretic Approach toward Multi-Party Privacy-Preserving Distributed Data Mining Hillol where each party tries to maximize its own objectives. It develops a game-theoretic framework

Kargupta, Hilol

313

A Markov Random Field Groupwise Registration Framework for Face Recognition  

PubMed Central

In this paper, we propose a new framework for tackling face recognition problem. The face recognition problem is formulated as groupwise deformable image registration and feature matching problem. The main contributions of the proposed method lie in the following aspects: (1) Each pixel in a facial image is represented by an anatomical signature obtained from its corresponding most salient scale local region determined by the survival exponential entropy (SEE) information theoretic measure. (2) Based on the anatomical signature calculated from each pixel, a novel Markov random field based groupwise registration framework is proposed to formulate the face recognition problem as a feature guided deformable image registration problem. The similarity between different facial images are measured on the nonlinear Riemannian manifold based on the deformable transformations. (3) The proposed method does not suffer from the generalizability problem which exists commonly in learning based algorithms. The proposed method has been extensively evaluated on four publicly available databases: FERET, CAS-PEAL-R1, FRGC ver 2.0, and the LFW. It is also compared with several state-of-the-art face recognition approaches, and experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method consistently achieves the highest recognition rates among all the methods under comparison. PMID:25506109

Liao, Shu; Shen, Dinggang; Chung, Albert C.S.

2014-01-01

314

A framework to analyse gender bias in epidemiological research  

PubMed Central

The design and analysis of research may cause systematic gender dependent errors to be produced in results because of gender insensitivity or androcentrism. Gender bias in research could be defined as a systematically erroneous gender dependent approach related to social construct, which incorrectly regards women and men as similar/different. Most gender bias can be found in the context of discovery (development of hypotheses), but it has also been found in the context of justification (methodological process), which must be improved. In fact, one of the main effects of gender bias in research is partial or incorrect knowledge in the results, which are systematically different from the real values. This paper discusses some forms of conceptual and methodological bias that may affect women's health. It proposes a framework to analyse gender bias in the design and analysis of research carried out on women's and men's health problems, and on specific women's health issues. Using examples, the framework aims to show the different theoretical perspectives in a social or clinical research context where forms of selection, measurement and confounding bias are produced as a result of gender insensitivity. Finally, this paper underlines the importance of re?examining results so that they may be reinterpreted to produce new gender based knowledge. PMID:18000118

Ruiz?Cantero, María Teresa; Vives?Cases, Carmen; Artazcoz, Lucía; Delgado, Ana; del Mar García Calvente, Maria; Miqueo, Consuelo; Montero, Isabel; Ortiz, Rocío; Ronda, Elena; Ruiz, Isabel; Valls, Carme

2007-01-01

315

Geospatial evaluations of potato production systems in Maine  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Maine consistently ranks in the top ten potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) production areas though yields are substantially lower than the mid- and western USA. Geospatial frameworks help resolve patterns and trends in production environments (at multiple scales) that may enable improvements in adaptive ...

316

Move & Improve: A Worksite Wellness Program in Maine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background We describe the evaluation process and outcomes of Move & Improve, a worksite wellness program in Maine. The evaluation process was based on the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Framework for Program Evaluation in Public Health and community-based partic- ipatory research principles. Innovative approaches are required to address burgeoning chronic disease trends and risk factors. Worksites are an

Michele Polacsek; Liam M. O'Brien; Wendie Lagasse; Nicole Hammar

317

Theoretical Status of the RHIC Program  

SciTech Connect

Since the beginning of its operation, the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at the Brookhaven National Lab has produced a wealth of exciting and interesting results. I give a brief overview of the theoretical aspects of the main results from the RHIC program.

Jalilian-Marian, Jamal [Institute for Nuclear Theory, University of Washington, Box 351550, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States)

2006-09-25

318

MAINE ATLANTIC SALMON HABITAT - GENERAL  

EPA Science Inventory

ASDENN00 describes, at 1:24,000 scale, important Atlantic salmon habitat of the Dennys River in Maine. The coverage was developed from field surveys conducted on the Dennys River in Maine by staff of the Atlantic Salmon Authority and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. This survey wa...

319

Maine: Early Head Start Initiatives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Maine has two initiatives that build on Early Head Start (EHS). The first initiative, Fund for a Healthy Maine, has since 2001 provided tobacco settlement money to existing Head Start and EHS programs to expand the number of children who receive full-day, full-year services. Local programs have the option of using these funds for EHS, depending on…

Center for Law and Social Policy, Inc. (CLASP), 2012

2012-01-01

320

Main Campus CO Cowell Hall  

E-print Network

GI Gillson Hall GL Gleeson Library HH Hayes-Healy Hall HR Harney Science Center KA Kalmanovitz Hall of Law KN Kendrick Hall ZLL Dorraine Zief Law Library Koret Health & Recreation Center KO Koret Center Academic and Enrollment Services Lone Mountain Main Admission Office Lone Mountain Main Alumni Office Lone

Galles, David

321

Maine Agricultural Foods. Project SEED.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes an activity-based program that teaches students in grades 4-12 about the importance of Maine agriculture in their lives. Specifically, the goal is to increase student awareness of how the foods they eat are planted, harvested, and processed. The emphasis is on crops grown in Maine such as potatoes, broccoli, peas, blueberries,…

Beaulieu, Peter; Ossenfort, Pat

322

Maine Indians: A Brief Summary.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Indians of Maine, descendants of Algonquian linguistic stock, number approximately 1800 and reside on 3 reservations totalling 22,600 acres of land. Most of the reservation land is forested, with important economic and recreational advantages in terms of timber production and hunting and fishing opportunities. In 1965, Maine became the first…

1971

323

Main Propulsion Test Article (MPTA)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Scope: The Main Propulsion Test Article integrated the main propulsion subsystem with the clustered Space Shuttle Main Engines, the External Tank and associated GSE. The test program consisted of cryogenic tanking tests and short- and long duration static firings including gimbaling and throttling. The test program was conducted on the S1-C test stand (Position B-2) at the National Space Technology Laboratories (NSTL)/Stennis Space Center. 3 tanking tests and 20 hot fire tests conducted between December 21 1 1977 and December 17, 1980 Configuration: The main propulsion test article consisted of the three space shuttle main engines, flightweight external tank, flightweight aft fuselage, interface section and a boilerplate mid/fwd fuselage truss structure.

Snoddy, Cynthia

2010-01-01

324

A framework for modeling line-of-sight effects in strong gravitational lensing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In strong gravitational lens systems, the light bending is usually dominated by one main galaxy but may be affected by other objects along the line of sight (LOS). Perturbers projected far from the lens can be approximated with convergence and shear, but perturbers projected closer to the lens create higher-order effects and need to be treated individually. We present a theoretical framework for multi-plane lensing that can handle an arbitrary combination of planes with shear/convergence and planes with higher-order terms. We test our framework first using simulations with a single perturber to study where the shear approximation is not valid and where non-linear effects are important. We show that perturbers behind the lens galaxy can be treated as an effective shear in the main lens plane, but perturbers in front of the lens cannot be mimicked by such a shear. Applying this to realistic fields, we find that our LOS framework can reproduce the fitted lens properties and the Hubble Constant, H0, without bias and with scatter that is smaller than typical measurement uncertainties.

Keeton, Charles R.; McCully, C.; Wong, K. C.; Zabludoff, A. I.

2014-01-01

325

Understanding childbirth practices as an organizational cultural phenomenon: a conceptual framework  

PubMed Central

Understanding the main values and beliefs that might promote humanized birth practices in the specialized hospitals requires articulating the theoretical knowledge of the social and cultural characteristics of the childbirth field and the relations between these and the institution. This paper aims to provide a conceptual framework allowing examination of childbirth practices through the lens of an organizational culture theory. A literature review performed to extrapolate the social and cultural factors contribute to birth practices and the factors likely overlap and mutually reinforce one another, instead of complying with the organizational culture of the birth place. The proposed conceptual framework in this paper examined childbirth patterns as an organizational cultural phenomenon in a highly specialized hospital, in Montreal, Canada. Allaire and Firsirotu’s organizational culture theory served as a guide in the development of the framework. We discussed the application of our conceptual model in understanding the influences of organizational culture components in the humanization of birth practices in the highly specialized hospitals and explained how these components configure both the birth practice and women’s choice in highly specialized hospitals. The proposed framework can be used as a tool for understanding the barriers and facilitating factors encountered birth practices in specialized hospitals. PMID:24215446

2013-01-01

326

EXHAUST MAIN PERSONNEL EXPOSURE CALCULATION  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this activity is to identify and determine potential radiation hazards in the service exhaust main due to a waste package leakage from an emplacement drift. This work supports the subsurface ventilation system design for the EDA II, which consists of an accessible service exhaust main for personnel, and an exhaust main for hot air flow. The objective is to provide the necessary radiation exposure calculations to determine if the service exhaust main is accessible following a waste package leak. This work includes the following items responsive to the stated purpose and objective: Calculate the limiting transient radiation exposure of personnel in the service exhaust main due to the passage of airborne radioactive material through the ventilation raise and connecting horizontal raise to the exhaust main in the event of a leaking waste package Calculate the potential exposures to maintenance workers in the service exhaust main from residual radioactive material deposited inside of the ventilation raise and connecting horizontal raise This calculation is limited to external radiation only, since the airborne and contamination sources will be contained in the ventilation raise and connecting horizontal raise.

S. Su

1999-09-29

327

Distributed visualization framework architecture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An architecture for distributed and collaborative visualization is presented. The design goals of the system are to create a lightweight, easy to use and extensible framework for reasearch in scientific visualization. The system provides both single user and collaborative distributed environment. System architecture employs a client-server model. Visualization projects can be synchronously accessed and modified from different client machines. We present a set of visualization use cases that illustrate the flexibility of our system. The framework provides a rich set of reusable components for creating new applications. These components make heavy use of leading design patterns. All components are based on the functionality of a small set of interfaces. This allows new components to be integrated seamlessly with little to no effort. All user input and higher-level control functionality interface with proxy objects supporting a concrete implementation of these interfaces. These light-weight objects can be easily streamed across the web and even integrated with smart clients running on a user's cell phone. The back-end is supported by concrete implementations wherever needed (for instance for rendering). A middle-tier manages any communication and synchronization with the proxy objects. In addition to the data components, we have developed several first-class GUI components for visualization. These include a layer compositor editor, a programmable shader editor, a material editor and various drawable editors. These GUI components interact strictly with the interfaces. Access to the various entities in the system is provided by an AssetManager. The asset manager keeps track of all of the registered proxies and responds to queries on the overall system. This allows all user components to be populated automatically. Hence if a new component is added that supports the IMaterial interface, any instances of this can be used in the various GUI components that work with this interface. One of the main features is an interactive shader designer. This allows rapid prototyping of new visualization renderings that are shader-based and greatly accelerates the development and debug cycle.

Mishchenko, Oleg; Raman, Sundaresan; Crawfis, Roger

2010-01-01

328

Towards Desistance: Theoretical Underpinnings for an Empirical Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: This article presents the initial theoretical underpinnings for a fresh prospective study of desistance, focused on 20-year-old recidivists. It is argued that significant crime-free gaps appropriately form part of the subject matter of desistance. An interactive theoretical framework is presented, involving ‘programmed potential’, ‘social context’ (structures, culture, situations) and ‘agency’. It is argued that agency, while rightly attracting increasing

Anthony Bottoms; Joanna Shapland; Andrew Costello; Deborah Holmes; Grant Muir

2004-01-01

329

Humboldt River main stem, Nevada  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This data set contains the main stem of the Humboldt River as defined by Humboldt Project personnel of the U.S. Geological Survey Nevada District, 2001. The data set was digitized on screen using digital orthophoto quadrangles from 1994.

Warmath, Eric; Medina, Rose L.

2001-01-01

330

A Literary Map of Maine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Sure, you might know that Longfellow was a member of the literati who called Maine home, but did you know that Robert McCloskey was one as well? In case you might have forgotten, McCloskey was the author and illustrator of those children's classics "Make Way for Ducklings" and "Blueberries for Sal". It's easy to learn about dozens of Maine authors via this delightful website created as part of a partnership between the Maine Sunday Telegram and a number of library and humanities groups in Maine. Currently, the map features over 50 sites, and visitors can browse around at their leisure to learn about authors like Longfellow, Stephen King, and Richard Russo. Clicking on each site will pull up a brief excerpt of each author's work, along with a brief bio.

331

History of Maine Fisheries Database  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A number of institutions have begun to expand their digital collections in order to include lesser-known subjects, and the University of Maine's Raymond H. Fogler Library continues to expand their online offerings with this intriguing collection. Drawing on the holdings of institutions like the Machias Historical Society, the Maine Maritime Museum, and the Maine State Archives, their digital collections team has created this History of Maine Fisheries database. There aren't any subject headings or sample searches on the site, but it is still quite easy to use. Visitors can use the keyword search to locate materials of interest, and they can also set date parameters to look for materials from a given time period. To get started, visitors might try typing in words like "lobster", "fleet", and "Bangor".

332

Virtual Tour of Maine Geology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This selection of slide shows provides a photographic tour of Maine geology. Users can choose slide shows on surficial, bedrock, and coastal geology; fossils, geologic hazards, groundwater and wells; or mineral collecting, mining, and quarrying.

333

LSRA with Shuttle main gear  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A space shuttle landing gear system is visible between the two main landing gear components on this NASA CV-990, modified as a Landing Systems Research Aircraft. The space shuttle landing gear test unit, operated by a high-pressure hydraulic system, allowed engineers to assess and document the performance of space shuttle main and nose landing gear systems, tires and wheel assemblies, plus braking and nose wheel steering performance.

1993-01-01

334

High frequency variations of the main magnetic field: convergence of observations and theory (Petrus Peregrinus Medal Lecture)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding the main magnetic field variations has been hindered by the discrepancy between the periods (from months to years) of the simplest linear wave phenomena and the relatively long time intervals (10 to 100 years) over which magnetic field changes can be confidently monitored. A theoretical description of short-period waves within the Earth's fluid core is at hand. Quasi-geostrophic inertial waves (akin to Rossby waves in the atmosphere) are slightly modified in the presence of magnetic fields and torsional oscillations consist of differential motion between coaxial rigid cylindrical annuli. Torsional oscillations are sensitive to the whole magnetic field that they shear in the course of their propagation. From their modelling, we have thus gained an estimate for the magnetic field strength in the core interior. There is now ongoing work to extend the theoretical framework to longer times. Furthermore, data collected from the Swarm constellation of three satellites to be launched this year by ESA will permit to better separate the internal and external magnetic signals. We may thus dream to detect quasi-geostrophic inertial waves. As the spectral ranges of theoretical models and observations begin to overlap, we can now go beyond the understanding of the magnetic field variations as the juxtaposition of partial models, arranged as a set of nested Matryoshka dolls. This talk will give illustrations for this statement, among which the question of induction in the lower mantle.

Jault, Dominique

2013-04-01

335

IBRD Operational Decision Framework  

SciTech Connect

The IBRD Operational Decision Framework in this document is an expansion of an emerging general risk management framework under development by an interagency working group. It provides the level of detail necessary to develop a general Consequence Management Guidance Document for biological contamination remediation and restoration. It is the intent of this document to support both wide area and individual site remediation and restoration activities. This product was initiated as a portion of the IBRD Task 1 Systems Analysis to aid in identification of wide area remediation and restoration shortcomings and gaps. The draft interagency general risk management framework was used as the basis for the analysis. The initial Task 1 analysis document expanded the draft interagency framework to a higher level of resolution, building on both the logic structure and the accompanying text explanations. It was then employed in a qualitative manner to identify responsible agencies, data requirements, tool requirements, and current capabilities for each decision and task. This resulted in identifying shortcomings and gaps needing resolution. Several meetings of a joint LLNL/SNL working group reviewed and approved the initial content of this analysis. At the conclusion of Task 1, work continued on the expanded framework to generate this Operational Decision Framework which is consistent with the existing interagency general risk management framework. A large LLNL task group met repeatedly over a three-month period to develop the expanded framework, coordinate the framework with the biological remediation checklist, and synchronize the logic with the Consequence Management Plan table of contents. The expanded framework was briefed at a large table top exercise reviewing the interagency risk management framework. This exercise had representation from major US metropolitan areas as well as national agencies. This product received positive comments from the participants. Upon completion of the Operational Decision Framework, another joint LLNL/SNL working group conducted a day-long review. Identified modifications were made to the document, resulting in the included product.

Greenwalt, R; Hibbard, W; Raber, E; Carlsen, T; Folks, K; MacQueen, D; Mancieri, S; Bunt, T; Richards, J; Hirabayashi-Dethier, J

2010-11-12

336

Reusable rocket engine intelligent control system framework design, phase 2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Elements of an advanced functional framework for reusable rocket engine propulsion system control are presented for the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) demonstration case. Functional elements of the baseline functional framework are defined in detail. The SSME failure modes are evaluated and specific failure modes identified for inclusion in the advanced functional framework diagnostic system. Active control of the SSME start transient is investigated, leading to the identification of a promising approach to mitigating start transient excursions. Key elements of the functional framework are simulated and demonstration cases are provided. Finally, the advanced function framework for control of reusable rocket engines is presented.

Nemeth, ED; Anderson, Ron; Ols, Joe; Olsasky, Mark

1991-01-01

337

A comparison of justice frameworks for international research.  

PubMed

Justice frameworks have been developed for international research that provide guidance on the selection of research targets, ancillary care, research capacity strengthening, and post-trial benefits. Yet there has been limited comparison of the different frameworks. This paper examines the underlying aims and theoretical bases of three such frameworks-the fair benefits framework, the human development approach and research for health justice-and considers how their aims impact their guidance on the aforementioned four ethical issues. It shows that the frameworks' underlying objectives vary across two dimensions. First, whether they seek to prevent harmful or exploitative international research or to promote international research with health benefits for low and middle-income countries. Second, whether they address justice at the micro level or the macro level. The fair benefits framework focuses on reforming contractual elements in individual international research collaborations to ensure fairness, whereas the other two frameworks aim to connect international research with the reduction of global health inequities. The paper then highlights where there is overlap between the frameworks' requirements and where differences in the strength and content of the obligations they identify arise as a result of their varying objectives and theoretical bases. In doing so, it does not offer a critical comparison of the frameworks but rather seeks to add clarity to current debates on justice and international research by showing how they are positioned relative to one another. PMID:25378552

Pratt, Bridget; Loff, Bebe

2014-11-01

338

Remember the MaineRx.  

PubMed

In 2000, Maine became the first state in the US to enact a law to establish maximum retail prices for prescription drugs for all qualified state residents-MaineRx. The purpose was to lower prescription drug prices for all eligible residents of the state. The state was to have the ability to negotiate manufacturer rebates and pharmacy discounts. Major drug manufacturers, represented by the Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of America, challenged MaineRx in the courts, going to the Supreme Court where it was upheld in 2003. Fifteen other states enacted, proposed, or filed price-control bills in their state legislatures. The result would have been downward pressure on prices outside of the public programs, and the first instance of state-sponsored monopsony power in the US. MaineRx is viewed as one of the proximate causes of the pharmaceutical industry's successful lobbying effort to implement Medicare Part D in 2004. Medicare Part D is administered through private Pharmacy Benefit Managers (PBMs); it made administration via state government PBMs illegal. The lower prices that could have resulted from MaineRx-type laws did not occur and the magnitude of these reductions is commented upon. PMID:24420789

Kemp, Robert

2014-02-01

339

A Review of Telehealth Service Implementation Frameworks  

PubMed Central

Despite the potential of telehealth services to increase the quality and accessibility of healthcare, the success rate of such services has been disappointing. The purpose of this paper is to find and compare existing frameworks for the implementation of telehealth services that can contribute to the success rate of future endeavors. After a thorough discussion of these frameworks, this paper outlines the development methodologies in terms of theoretical background, methodology and validation. Finally, the common themes and formats are identified for consideration in future implementation. It was confirmed that a holistic implementation approach is needed, which includes technology, organizational structures, change management, economic feasibility, societal impacts, perceptions, user-friendliness, evaluation and evidence, legislation, policy and governance. Furthermore, there is some scope for scientifically rigorous framework development and validation approaches. PMID:24464237

van Dyk, Liezl

2014-01-01

340

A theoretical study of fluorides scintillating crystals: Methodology and application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Theoretical computation and simulation study has been performed on important scintillating fluorides crystal BaF2 and PbF2. The structural, electronic, transport and defects properties are investigated under different methodology schemes. The thesis provide accurate and detailed understandings of fundamental electronic structures of them in different phases for the very first time. A new expanded module for which provide the CRYSTAL program package with full capability in ECP (effective pseudo-potential) method calculation is developed and successfully applied into the this study. We present the results of an all-electron first principles study on BaF 2 in its stable (cubic) and high-pressure phases. A LCAO (linear combination of atomic orbitals) approach in the framework of DFT is employed for total energy calculations in cubic, orthorhombic and hexagonal phases of BaF 2. A fitting of the energy surface to the equation of state yields the lattice constant and the bulk modulus of these phases at zero pressure which are in good agreement with the corresponding experimental values. Analysis of band structure determines the high-pressure phases to be direct-gap materials and no metallization of BaF2 is predicted to occur for pressures up to 50 GPa. Furthermore, several peaks observed in the spectroscopic experiments have been identified with interband transitions in the cubic BaF2. We also performed the small-core ECP first principles calculation on Pb2 in its cubic, orthorhombic and hexagonal phases. For cubic phase, the accurate theoretical band data now are available with the structural properties were very well generated. It is predicted with direct band gap at X. The band structures of orthorhombic and hexagonal phases are first time calculated. We predict the orthorhombic and hexagonal phase PbF2 has indirect band gap. These results may help to clarify some doubts and controversies in the experiments and promote the application studies. At last, a discussion on the results from this study is held. Special attention is paid to the methodology level questions on theoretical computations and simulations. The main limitations of methods used in this work are summarized and analyzed with future method developments and application studies suggested. The thesis finally concludes with some fundamental perspectives in theoretical computation and simulation work. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

Jiang, Huitian

341

Free Parameters and Frameworks in Minimal Supersymmetry  

E-print Network

405 Appendix A Free Parameters and Frameworks in Minimal Supersymmetry It is useful to discuss what the various schemes that exist for reducing the set of free parameters to a manageable number. The information, and so is fixed by experiment. The free parameters consist mainly of the coefficients of the "soft

California at Berkeley, University of

342

Free Parameters and Frameworks in Minimal Supersymmetry  

E-print Network

405 Appendix A Free Parameters and Frameworks in Minimal Supersymmetry It is useful to discuss what the various schemes that exist for reducing the set of free parameters to a manageable number. The information, and so is fixed by experiment. The free parameters consist mainly of the coe#cients of the ``soft

California at Berkeley, University of

343

High-Performance Framework For Web Applications  

E-print Network

called "Frag-min" that is focused on extendability, modifiability and usability to tackle the problem, will most likely increase a lot. Frag-min is meant as a general purpose framework, but because of its ap data. This paper will put Frag-min in a role as CMS. The main goal of Frag-min is to redesign the human

Emmerich, Michael

344

Seismic Risk Management Framework of Bridge Engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seismic damages of bridges may have great effects on traffic transport. In order to reduce the losses of the disaster, it is necessary to carry out seismic risk management of bridge engineering. In the paper, the seismic risk management framework was proposed and the main steps of risk management including risk identification, risk analysis, risk assessment and risk control were

Lu Mingqi; Qu Weibo

2009-01-01

345

A conceptual framework for marine agronomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Between the late 1960s and the early 1980s, several generations of phycologists in Hawaii and the Philippines, associated with M. S. Doty, contributed to developing a new approach, and to advance concepts in marine agronomy. This study reviews the approach and the main concepts contributed. Integrating these contributions with others, a basic conceptual framework for marine agronomy is presented.

B. Santelices

1999-01-01

346

Main Idea: Where is Matter?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson teaches main idea and details incorporating a science lesson on matter.Teachers will utilize a KWL chart to help assess students' background knowledge, as well as what they want to learn, and what they have learned at the end of the lesson. An informational text entitled What is the World Made of? All about Solids, Liquids, and Gases will be used throughout the lesson. As a summative assessment, students will write a summary which identifies the main idea and key details from this text.

Brandi Miller

2012-06-30

347

Electronic CAD frameworks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The CAD framework, i.e. the underlying facilities provided to the CAD tool developer, the CAD system integrator, and the end-user (IC or system designer) to facilitate their tasks, is discussed. The development of the CAD framework concept in the domain of electronic circuit design is reviewed. The most important work in the area is briefly described. The major components of

DAVID S. HARRISON; A. RICHARD NEWTON; R. L. Spickelmier; T. J. Barnes

1990-01-01

348

Materials Science Framework  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This PDF document from Edmonds Community College provides a framework for a program in materials science. Components and competencies include chemical science skills, physical science skills, fundamentals of materials science and technology and materials testing. Different materials including metals, plastics, composites, wood, concrete, glasses and ceramics are also included in the program framework.

349

Frameworks of Educational Technology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper, written from a 20th-century perspective, traces the development of, and influences on, the field of instructional technology and attempts to describe a framework within which we can better understand the field. [This article is based on "Instructional Technology: Contemporary Frameworks" originally written by the author for the…

Ely, Donald

2008-01-01

350

Discipline: A Theoretical Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Six postulates are developed concerning the concept of discipline (both academic and behavioral) which, if used as a theoretical basis in the formulation and administration of particular behavioral discipline policies, will result in a change of discipline methodology--not different in degree of refinement, but different in kind. (MJB)

Penta, Gerard C.

1977-01-01

351

A Theoretical Trombone  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

What follows is a description of a theoretical model designed to calculate the playing frequencies of the musical pitches produced by a trombone. The model is based on quantitative treatments that demonstrate the effects of the flaring bell and cup-shaped mouthpiece sections on these frequencies and can be used to calculate frequencies that…

LoPresto, Michael C.

2014-01-01

352

EBSD Images Theoretical Background  

E-print Network

function during a welding procedure. Consistent grain growth curves were obtained with this techniqueMotivation EBSD Images Theoretical Background Defects in the Weld Grain Growth Low Speed Welding High Speed Welding Conclusion Heat-Affected Zone Observations Welding Experiments The low density

Candea, George

353

Relationships among Theoretical Traditions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Notes alternative visions of the relationship between developmental psychology and three theoretical approaches described by Teo. Highlights four such visions: positivism or exclusivism, which rejects alternate viewpoints; inclusivism, which assimilates elements of alternate viewpoints; detachment or relativism, which sees different viewpoints as…

Meacham, Jack

1997-01-01

354

Journal of Theoretical Biology ] (  

E-print Network

, and Uganda as of September 14, 2003 (CDC, 2003b; WHO, 2003a). Two different strains of the Ebola virus (Ebola virus has not yet been identified (Breman et al., 1999; Leirs et al., 1999). Ebola is transmittedJournal of Theoretical Biology ] (

Chowell, Gerardo

355

Assignment 1 Theoretical Neuroscience  

E-print Network

is the valence of the ion (C). · The Nernst equation describes the resting potential of a membrane. It is given. Best idea is to use the ode15s function. Hodgkin and Huxly defined the resting potential to be at -65mAssignment 1 Theoretical Neuroscience Quentin Huys 8 October 2004 1. Passive membrane The ionic

Huys, Quentin

356

Gulf of Maine Research Institute  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Maine's oceanic shoreline has long been one of the richest in North America, both in terms of natural resources and its importance to the local economy. One important organization that is committed to this valued ecosystem is the Gulf of Maine Research Institute. Based in Portland, the Institute is designed to educate Maine residents and visitors about Maine's fresh and saltwater resources and to "facilitate and conduct collaborative research.� Their website contains some of these resources, and first-time visitors should start their journey here at the "Science" section. As might be expected, visitors will be able to learn about some of the Institute's ongoing survey work, including their comprehensive survey of the region's shrimp stocks, the impacts of mobile fishing gear, and cod-tagging. Every good institute worth its salt has a strong education component, and this institute has got the web-browsing public's best interests in mind. In their "Education" section, they have placed a number of interactive and multimedia features, including such areas as "All About Lobsters" and "Undersea Landscapes".

357

Gulf of Maine Research Institute  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Teaching about aquatic environments, serving as neutral conveners, and facilitating marine research is the mission of the Gulf of Maine Research Institute. Features hundreds of web pages with information and classroom activities covering: oceans, human impact, weather, satellite imagery, remote sensing, Antarctica, global climate change, lobsters, turtles, marine, freshwater issues and more. The project of building the new aquarium at Portland is specially considered.

358

Library Site Finder MAIN LIBRARY  

E-print Network

Library Site Finder MAIN LIBRARY Burlington Street Tel: 0161 275 3751 THE ALAN GILBERT LEARNING COMMONS Oxford Road Tel: 0161 306 4306 ART & ARCHAEOLOGY LIBRARY Mansfield Cooper Building Tel: 0161 275 3657 BRADDICK LIBRARY School of Physics & Astronomy Brunswick Street Tel: 0161 275 4078 EDDIE DAVIES

Sidorov, Nikita

359

Changes in Maine's Unemployment Rate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Changes in Maine's Unemployment Rates map was created using data and shapefiles provided by the U.S. Census Bureau and shows changes in unemployment rates within labor market areas between January 2004 and January 2005. Overall, there has been a general decrease in unemployment rates throughout the state.

William G. Stohner

2005-01-01

360

The EMMA Main Ring Lattice.  

SciTech Connect

I give a brief introduction to the purpose and goals of the EMMA experiment and describe how they will impact the design of the main EMMA ring. I then describe the mathematical model that is used to describe the EMMA lattice. Finally, I show how the different lattice configurations were obtained and list their parameters.

Berg,J.S.

2008-02-21

361

DISINFECTION OF NEW WATER MAINS  

EPA Science Inventory

The 'AWWA Standard for Disinfecting Water Mains' (AWWA C601-68) has fallen into disuse by a number of water utilities because of repeated bacteriological failures following initial disinfection with the recommended high-dose chlorination. Other methods of disinfection, including ...

362

Maine's Families: Poverty Despite Work.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children are among the poorest of Maine's residents. Nearly 1 in 5 children under the age of 18, 19.3%, lived in families below the federal poverty line in the early 1990s. Most of these poor children lived in working families. The working poor are often missing from policy debates, but their numbers are likely to increase with welfare reform…

Lazere, Edward B.

363

Information-Theoretic Security Analysis of Physical Uncloneable Functions  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a general theoretical framework to analyze the security of Physical Uncloneable Functions (PUFs). We apply the frame- work to optical PUFs. In particular we present a derivation, based on the physics governing multiple scattering processes, of the number of in- dependent challenge-response pairs supported by a PUF. We flnd that the number of independent challenge-response pairs is proportional

Pim Tuyls; Boris Skoric; S. Stallinga; Anton H. M. Akkermans; W. Ophey

2005-01-01

364

Understanding Literacy: Theoretical Foundations for Research in Media Ecology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews the major scholarship of Harold Innis, Eric Havelock, Marshall McLuhan, Jack Goody, Walter Ong and Elizabeth Eisenstein, as they focused on the development of writing systems, and later, printing. Discusses how their theoretical frameworks are central to understanding media ecology, an emerging field of interdisciplinary study for…

Ramos, Lori

2000-01-01

365

Nonscience Majors Learning Science: A Theoretical Model of Motivation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A theoretical model of nonscience majors' motivation to learn science was tested by surveying 369 students in a large-enrollment college science course that satisfies a core curriculum requirement. Based on a social-cognitive framework, motivation to learn science was conceptualized as having both cognitive and affective influences that foster…

Glynn, Shawn M.; Taasoobshirazi, Gita; Brickman, Peggy

2007-01-01

366

Factors of Motivation in Young Children: Theoretical and Empirical.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The construction of Gumpgookies, a test for measuring motivation of young children to achieve in school, is discussed. The test is rooted in a theoretical framework, which conceives of five constituents of motivation to achieve: (1) affective; (2) conceptual; (3) purposive; (4) cognitive; and (5) evaluative. Factor analysis and a type of cluster…

Adkins, Dorothy C.; Ballif, Bonnie L.

367

A Decision Theoretic Approach to Causality Vanessa Didelez  

E-print Network

? ­ banning smoking in pubs to lower lung cancer risk? ­ advice on breast feeding: how long is best and under-120. Didelez, Geneletti & Dawid (2006). Direct and indirect effects of sequential treatments 22nd UAI, 138 diagrams Part 3: Sequential decisions and direct effects #12;Part 1: Decision theoretic framework

Chambaz, Antoine

368

LVCSR rescoring with modified loss functions: a decision theoretic perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem of speech decoding is considered in a decision theoretic framework and a modified speech decoding procedure to minimize the expected risk under a general loss function is formulated. A specific word error rate loss function is considered and an implementation in an N-best list rescoring procedure is presented. Methods for estimation of the parameters of the resulting decision

Vaibhava Goel; William Byrne; Sanjeev Khudanpur

1998-01-01

369

Modeling multiple teams of mobile robots: a graph theoretic approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Addresses the control of a team of robots navigating in a terrain with obstacles, while maintaining a desired formation and changing formations when required using an underlying graph theoretic framework. We state and prove the mathematical results relating to multi-robot teams moving in a formation. We model each team as a triple, (g, r, ℋ), consisting of a group element,

Jaydev P. Desai

2001-01-01

370

Principles of Reform and Reforming Principal Training: A Theoretical Perspective.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines reform debates in educational administration training programs using a theoretical framework derived from Thomas Kuhn's notion of paradigm. Most administrator training programs in the United States are characterized as hybrid/preparadigm departments unlikely to undertake fundamental changes. Using a collaborative school leadership program…

Bjork, Lars G.; Ginsberg, Rick

1995-01-01

371

MODEL THEORETIC PROPERTIES OF METRIC VALUED FIELDS ITAI BEN YAACOV  

E-print Network

structures. We show that the class of (projective spaces over) metric valued fields is elementary as a metric space, and therefore does not fit in the framework of standard bounded continuous logic. One trickMODEL THEORETIC PROPERTIES OF METRIC VALUED FIELDS ITA¨I BEN YAACOV Abstract. We study model

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

372

A Dynamic Programming Framework for Combinatorial Optimization Problems on  

E-print Network

A Dynamic Programming Framework for Combinatorial Optimization Problems on Graphs with Bounded's performance and fault tolerance. The main technique considered in this paper is dynamic programming. I in the rest of the paper. In Section III we present a generic dynamic programming framework for solving combi

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

373

A Framework for Integrating Artificial Intelligence and Simulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Both Simulation and Artificial Intelligence try to model reality for problem solving and decision making. In this paper, we propose a framework for integrating the two areas by uncovering fundamental similarities between them and opportunities for combining them which can be mutually useful. The framework also shows the potential gains for Simulation by applying Artificial Intelligence concepts (mainly expert systems)

Georgios I. Doukidis; Marios C. Angelides

1994-01-01

374

MODELTALK: A Framework for Developing Domain Specific Executable Models  

E-print Network

- edge between domain experts and application programmers. Do- main specific model driven development adopt an interpretive approach to domain specific model driven devel- opment. We present a framework Design, Languages Keywords Model driven development; Dependency injection; Meta-modeling; Executable

Lorenz, David H.

375

LSRA with Shuttle main gear  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A space shuttle landing gear system is visible between the two main landing gear components on this NASA CV-990, modified as a Landing Systems Research Aircraft (LSRA). The space shuttle landing gear test unit, operated by a high-pressure hydraulic system, allowed engineers to assess and document the performance of space shuttle main and nose landing gear systems, tires and wheel assemblies, plus braking and nose wheel steering performance. The series of 155 test missions for the space shuttle program, conducted at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, provided extensive data about the life and endurance of the shuttle tire systems and helped raise the shuttle crosswind landing limits at Kennedy.

1993-01-01

376

Surficial Geologic Map of Maine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity students become familiar with the nature and use of the Surficial Geologic Map of Maine and gain practice in using maps other than topographic maps. They will discover that surficial geology deals primarily with the geologically youthful, unconsolidated sedimentary materials that exist at, or close to the surface of a specific area and are important because the surface deposits filter and control the access of water to the water table. Students also learn that the study of surficial geology is important for siting of waste disposal facilities and for resources such as sand, gravel, and clay. Although this activity was written for a map of Maine, it will work in any state where surficial geological maps are available.

377

Main Results of Grossversuch IV  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main results of a randomized hail suppression experiment, Grossversuch IV, are presented in this paper. Grossversuch IV tested the `Soviet' hail prevention method during five years (1977-81). The field experiment took place in central Switzerland with the participation of research groups from France, Italy and Switzerland.A very dense hailpad network (330 hailpads over 1300 km2) and a carefully calibrated

B. Federer; A. Waldvogel; W. Schmid; H. H. Schiesser; F. Hampel; Marianne Schweingruber; W. Stahel; J. Bader; J. F. Mezeix; Nadie Doras; G. D'Aubigny; G. Dermegreditchian; D. Vento

1986-01-01

378

Heavy hydrocarbon main injector technology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One of the key components of the Advanced Launch System (ALS) is a large liquid rocket, booster engine. To keep the overall vehicle size and cost down, this engine will probably use liquid oxygen (LOX) and a heavy hydrocarbon, such as RP-1, as propellants and operate at relatively high chamber pressures to increase overall performance. A technology program (Heavy Hydrocarbon Main Injector Technology) is being studied. The main objective of this effort is to develop a logic plan and supporting experimental data base to reduce the risk of developing a large scale (approximately 750,000 lb thrust), high performance main injector system. The overall approach and program plan, from initial analyses to large scale, two dimensional combustor design and test, and the current status of the program are discussed. Progress includes performance and stability analyses, cold flow tests of injector model, design and fabrication of subscale injectors and calorimeter combustors for performance, heat transfer, and dynamic stability tests, and preparation of hot fire test plans. Related, current, high pressure, LOX/RP-1 injector technology efforts are also briefly discussed.

Fisher, S. C.; Arbit, H. A.

1988-01-01

379

A theoretical trombone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

What follows is a description of a theoretical model designed to calculate the playing frequencies of the musical pitches produced by a trombone. The model is based on quantitative treatments that demonstrate the effects of the flaring bell and cup-shaped mouthpiece sections on these frequencies and can be used to calculate frequencies that compare well to both the desired frequencies of the musical pitches and those actually played on a real trombone.

LoPresto, Michael C.

2014-09-01

380

Panorama of theoretical physics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We shall start this panorama of theoretical physics by giving an overview of physics in general, this branch of knowledge that has been taken since the scientific revolution as the archetype of the scientific discipline. We shall then proceed in showing in what way theoretical physics from Newton to Maxwell, Einstein, Feynman and the like, in all modesty, could be considered as the ticking heart of physics. By its special mode of inquiry and its tantalizing successes, it has capturing the very spirit of the scientific method, and indeed it has been taken as a role model by other disciplines all the way from the "hard" ones to the social sciences. We shall then review how much we know today of the world of matter, both in term of its basic content and in the way it is structured. We will then present the dreams of today's theoretical physics as a way of penetrating into its psyche, discovering in this way its aspirations and longing in much the same way that a child's dreams tell us about his yearning and craving. Yet our understanding of matter has been going in the past decades through a crisis of sort. As a necessary antidote, we shall thus discuss the pitfalls of dreams pushed too far….

Mimouni, J.

2012-06-01

381

Strategies comparison for game theoretic cyber situational awareness and impact assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper compares different defense strategies against various attacks utilizing a dynamic game theoretic data fusion framework for Cyber network defense. In our game theoretic framework, alerts generated by intrusion detection sensors (IDSs) or intrusion prevention sensors (IPSs) are fed into the data refinement (Level 0) and object assessment (LI) data fusion components. High-level situation\\/threat assessment (L2\\/L3) data fusion based

Dan Shen; Genshe Chen; Leonard Haynes; Erik Blasch

2007-01-01

382

A general framework and review of scatter correction methods in cone beam CT. Part 2: Scatter estimation approaches  

SciTech Connect

The main components of scatter correction procedures are scatter estimation and a scatter compensation algorithm. This paper completes a previous paper where a general framework for scatter compensation was presented under the prerequisite that a scatter estimation method is already available. In the current paper, the authors give a systematic review of the variety of scatter estimation approaches. Scatter estimation methods are based on measurements, mathematical-physical models, or combinations of both. For completeness they present an overview of measurement-based methods, but the main topic is the theoretically more demanding models, as analytical, Monte-Carlo, and hybrid models. Further classifications are 3D image-based and 2D projection-based approaches. The authors present a system-theoretic framework, which allows to proceed top-down from a general 3D formulation, by successive approximations, to efficient 2D approaches. A widely useful method is the beam-scatter-kernel superposition approach. Together with the review of standard methods, the authors discuss their limitations and how to take into account the issues of object dependency, spatial variance, deformation of scatter kernels, external and internal absorbers. Open questions for further investigations are indicated. Finally, the authors refer on some special issues and applications, such as bow-tie filter, offset detector, truncated data, and dual-source CT.

Ruehrnschopf and, Ernst-Peter; Klingenbeck, Klaus [Siemens AG, Healthcare Sector, Imaging and Therapy Division, D 91301 Forchheim (Germany)

2011-09-15

383

A general framework and review of scatter correction methods in cone beam CT. Part 2: scatter estimation approaches.  

PubMed

The main components of scatter correction procedures are scatter estimation and a scatter compensation algorithm. This paper completes a previous paper where a general framework for scatter compensation was presented under the prerequisite that a scatter estimation method is already available. In the current paper, the authors give a systematic review of the variety of scatter estimation approaches. Scatter estimation methods are based on measurements, mathematical-physical models, or combinations of both. For completeness they present an overview of measurement-based methods, but the main topic is the theoretically more demanding models, as analytical, Monte-Carlo, and hybrid models. Further classifications are 3D image-based and 2D projection-based approaches. The authors present a system-theoretic framework, which allows to proceed top-down from a general 3D formulation, by successive approximations, to efficient 2D approaches. A widely useful method is the beam-scatter-kernel superposition approach. Together with the review of standard methods, the authors discuss their limitations and how to take into account the issues of object dependency, spatial variance, deformation of scatter kernels, external and internal absorbers. Open questions for further investigations are indicated. Finally, the authors refer on some special issues and applications, such as bow-tie filter, offset detector, truncated data, and dual-source CT. PMID:21978063

Ruhrnschopf And, Ernst-Peter; Klingenbeck, Klaus

2011-09-01

384

78 FR 70545 - KEI (Maine) Power Management (I) LLC, KEI (Maine) Power Management (II) LLC, KEI (Maine) Power...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...11472-060, 11132-028, 11482-030, 4202-023, 3562-024] KEI (Maine) Power Management (I) LLC, KEI (Maine) Power Management (II) LLC, KEI (Maine) Power Management (III) LLC, KEI (Maine) Power Management (IV)...

2013-11-26

385

Argumentation in Science Education: A Model-based Framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of this article is threefold: First, the theoretical background for a model-based framework of argumentation to describe\\u000a and evaluate argumentative processes in science education is presented. Based on the general model-based perspective in cognitive\\u000a science and the philosophy of science, it is proposed to understand arguments as reasons for the appropriateness of a theoretical\\u000a model which explains a

Florian Böttcher; Anke Meisert

2011-01-01

386

Cybersecurity Framework Development Overview  

E-print Network

promoting safety, security, business confidentiality, privacy, and civil liberties" https of critical infrastructure identify, assess, and manage cyber risk · Enable technical innovation and account of the order "Include methodologies to identify and mitigate impacts of the Cybersecurity Framework

387

Building the Framework  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Content-Understanding-Environment (C-U-E) framework incorporates key findings from research and is easy to use and remember. Further, current professional development for science teachers usually focuses on only one aspect of teaching and learning, wh

Anne Tweed

2009-11-01

388

Cybersecurity Framework Development Overview  

E-print Network

Cybersecurity Framework Development Overview NIST's Role in Implementing Executive Order 13636 "Improving Critical Infrastructure Cybersecurity" #12;Executive Order 13636: Improving Critical Infrastructure Cybersecurity - February 12, 2013 "The cyber threat to critical infrastructure continues to grow

Bentz, Dale P.

389

Frameworks as Web Services  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Object oriented frameworks represent one of the most important current approaches in component based software development\\u000a for achieving high level software reuse. Frameworks for different domains others than those provided by well known development\\u000a platforms are generally developed within an organization and the people who use them belong to the same organization, although\\u000a their reuse scope may be widened by

Olivia Graciela Fragoso Diaz; René Santaolaya Salgado; Isaac M. Vásquez Mendez; Manuel A. Valdés Marrero

2004-01-01

390

Mount Apatite Park, Auburn, Maine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This guide discusses the geology, mineralogy, and mineral collecting opportunities of the Mount Apatite quarries at Auburn, Maine. Topics include the history and occurrence of the granite pegmatites, which contain collectible specimens of apatite, tourmaline, lepidolite, and other minerals; the history of glaciation in the area; and the history of the mining industry in Auburn, an important producer of commercial feldspar in the early 1900s. There is also information for mineral collectors, including permission and access, directions, and information on the exposures and how to extract specimens from them. References and links to additonal information are included.

391

Bald Mountain, Washington Plantation, Maine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This guide provides information on the geology of Bald Mountain, an outstanding example of an unvegetated mountain summit in western Maine. Topics include the petrology of the metamorphic rocks exposed on the mountain (layered quartzite and schist), which preserve evidence of their sedimentary origin (graded bedding, cross-bedding). There is also information on the glacial history of the area, as indicated by the presence of glacial striations and erratics. For visitors, there is information on permission and access, directions, sampling information, and activities. References are included.

392

Enzootic Babesia microti in Maine.  

PubMed

Human babesiosis in the northeastern United States caused by Babesia microti (Apicomplexa: Piroplasmida) is mainly reported from coastal New England sites, where deer ticks (Ixodes dammini) are common. However, the piroplasm has been detected in microtine rodents elsewhere in association with I. angustus or other nidicolous ticks, suggesting that the agent is widely distributed but zoonotically significant only where a human-biting "bridge" vector is present. To determine whether this piroplasm may be enzootic in areas where I. dammini is absent, we surveyed small mammals collected from 2 sites in Maine, where I. angustus or I. muris is common but I. dammini is not. Of 43 chipmunks, voles, deer mice, and shrews examined, 3 (6.9, 95% confidence interval 0 to 14.5) were parasitemic, as determined by blood smear or polymerase chain reaction targeting a piroplasm-specific portion of the 18S ribosomal DNA gene. Phylogenetic analysis of the sequenced amplification products demonstrates the presence of 2 forms of B. microti. We conclude that B. microti may be enzootic in the absence of I. dammini but that human risk relates to dense infestations of this human-biting tick. PMID:14627162

Goethert, H K; Lubelcyzk, C; LaCombe, E; Holman, M; Rand, P; Smith, R P; Telford, S R

2003-10-01

393

Main Magnetic Focus Ion Source: I. Basic principles and theoretical predictions  

E-print Network

It is proposed to produce highly charged ions in the local potential traps formed by the rippled electron beam in a focusing magnetic field. In this method, the extremely high electron current densities can be attained on short length of the ion trap. The design the very compact ion sources is feasible. For such ions as, for example, Ne${}^{8+}$ and Xe${}^{44+}$, the intensities of about $10^9$ and $10^6$ particles per second, respectively, can be obtained.

Ovsyannikov, V P

2015-01-01

394

European Vocational Training "Systems"--Some Thoughts on the Theoretical Context of Their Historical Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There are few long-term studies in which the development of vocational education and training (VET) is placed in a larger societal framework. Consequently, there is limited understanding as to why VET has evolved quite differently even in countries with similar economic and social development. In his reflections on a possible theoretical framework

Greinert, Wolf-Dietrich

2004-01-01

395

YSOVAR: SIX PRE-MAIN-SEQUENCE ECLIPSING BINARIES IN THE ORION NEBULA CLUSTER  

E-print Network

Eclipsing binaries (EBs) provide critical laboratories for empirically testing predictions of theoretical models of stellar structure and evolution. Pre-main-sequence (PMS) EBs are particularly valuable, both due to their ...

Morales-Calderón, M.

396

Theoretical Astrophysics at Fermilab  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Theoretical Astrophysics Group works on a broad range of topics ranging from string theory to data analysis in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. The group is motivated by the belief that a deep understanding of fundamental physics is necessary to explain a wide variety of phenomena in the universe. During the three years 2001-2003 of our previous NASA grant, over 120 papers were written; ten of our postdocs went on to faculty positions; and we hosted or organized many workshops and conferences. Kolb and collaborators focused on the early universe, in particular and models and ramifications of the theory of inflation. They also studied models with extra dimensions, new types of dark matter, and the second order effects of super-horizon perturbations. S tebbins, Frieman, Hui, and Dodelson worked on phenomenological cosmology, extracting cosmological constraints from surveys such as the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. They also worked on theoretical topics such as weak lensing, reionization, and dark energy. This work has proved important to a number of experimental groups [including those at Fermilab] planning future observations. In general, the work of the Theoretical Astrophysics Group has served as a catalyst for experimental projects at Fennilab. An example of this is the Joint Dark Energy Mission. Fennilab is now a member of SNAP, and much of the work done here is by people formerly working on the accelerator. We have created an environment where many of these people made transition from physics to astronomy. We also worked on many other topics related to NASA s focus: cosmic rays, dark matter, the Sunyaev-Zel dovich effect, the galaxy distribution in the universe, and the Lyman alpha forest. The group organized and hosted a number of conferences and workshop over the years covered by the grant. Among them were:

2004-01-01

397

Bedrock Geologic Map of Maine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity students study a map of bedrock geology which describes the types of rocks that exist in a given area. It shows these rock units as well as their known and inferred contacts. Consideration is also given to folding, faulting, unconformities, and similar rock relationships. These features are often included in bedrock geology maps. Students study the legend and scale and become aware of the other information that is included on the map such as the stratigraphic column, list of formations, and inset map of metamorphic grade. Students then locate their city or town and draw a 40-mile diameter circle around it and identify all the symbols inside the circle and the age of the various rocks. Student question sheets are available at this site. Although this activity was written for a map of Maine, it will work in any state where geological maps are available.

398

Space shuttle main engine controller  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A technical description of the space shuttle main engine controller, which provides engine checkout prior to launch, engine control and monitoring during launch, and engine safety and monitoring in orbit, is presented. Each of the major controller subassemblies, the central processing unit, the computer interface electronics, the input electronics, the output electronics, and the power supplies are described and discussed in detail along with engine and orbiter interfaces and operational requirements. The controller represents a unique application of digital concepts, techniques, and technology in monitoring, managing, and controlling a high performance rocket engine propulsion system. The operational requirements placed on the controller, the extremely harsh operating environment to which it is exposed, and the reliability demanded, result in the most complex and rugged digital system ever designed, fabricated, and flown.

Mattox, R. M.; White, J. B.

1981-01-01

399

Puzzling Snowballs: Main Belt Comets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Main belt comets (MBCs) are a class of newly discovered objects that exhibit comet-like appearances and yet are dynamically indistinguishable from ordinary main belt asteroids. The measured size and albedo of MBCs are similar to those of classical comets. At present, six MBCs have been discovered, namely 133P/Elst-Pizarro, 176P/LINEAR, 238P/Read, P/2008 R1, P/La Sagra and P/2006 VW139. The total number of active MBCs is estimated to be at the level of a few hundreds (Hsieh & Jewitt, 2006). Several explanations for the activity of MBCs have been suggested. These include impact ejection, sublimation and rotational instability. However, since renewed activity has been observed in 133P and 238P at successive perihelion passages, the most likely explanation may be a thermally-driven process - e.g sublimation of exposed surface ice. Although the proximity of MBCs to the Sun (r ~ 3 AU) makes the survival of surface ice improbable, thermal models have shown that water ice is thermally stable under a regolith layer a few meters thick. The study of MBCs has recently been complicated by the discoveries of two asteroid collisional events (P/2010 A2 (LINEAR) and (596) Scheila) in 2010, where comet-like dust coma/tail have been attributed to recent impacts. If MBCs are indeed icy, they represent the closest and the third established reservoir of comets (after the Oort cloud and the Kuiper belt). As such, they may have been an important source of water for the Earth's oceans. I will review the current state of MBC studies, present the latest observational results and discuss possible mechanisms that could produce the observed activity. I will also talk about current and future space missions that are dedicated or closely related to MBC studies.

Yang, Bin; Meech, Karen

2015-03-01

400

Theoretical Development, Factorial Validity, and Reliability of the Online Graduate Mentoring Scale  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, we sought to confirm the theoretical framework underlying an Online Graduate Mentoring Scale by establishing the scale's factorial validity and reliability. Analysis of data received from doctoral students and alumni/ae of the College of Education of one large, online, accredited university reduced the initial theoretical

Crawford, Linda M.; Randolph, Justus J.; Yob, Iris M.

2014-01-01

401

Pairing Model-Theoretic Syntax and Semantic Network for Writing Assistance  

E-print Network

Pairing Model-Theoretic Syntax and Semantic Network for Writing Assistance Jean-Philippe Prost,Lafourcade}@lirmm.fr Abstract. In this paper we investigate the possibility of a syntax­ semantics inferface between a framework for Model-Theoretic Syntax on one hand and a semantic network on the other hand. We focus on exploring

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

402

"The Integrity and Obstinacy of Intellectual Creations": Jurgen Habermas and Librarianship's Theoretical Literature  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Librarianship and library and information science (LIS) have long struggled with an ongoing lack of a theoretical and epistemological basis. There have been renewed efforts to explore various theoretical and philosophical positions and their meaning for librarianship and LIS research. This article explores the framework that Jurgen Habermas offers…

Buschman, John

2006-01-01

403

Some New Theoretical Issues in Systems Thinking Relevant for Modelling Corporate Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to describe fundamental concepts and theoretical challenges with regard to systems, and to build on these in proposing new theoretical frameworks relevant to learning, for example in so-called learning organizations. Design/methodology/approach: The paper focuses on some crucial fundamental aspects introduced…

Minati, Gianfranco

2007-01-01

404

Dark matter: Theoretical perspectives  

SciTech Connect

I both review and make the case for the current theoretical prejudice: a flat Universe whose dominant constituent is nonbaryonic dark matter, emphasizing that this is still a prejudice and not yet fact. The theoretical motivation for nonbaryonic dark matter is discussed in the context of current elementary-particle theory, stressing that: (1) there are no dark matter candidates within the standard model of particle physics; (2) there are several compelling candidates within attractive extensions of the standard model of particle physics; and (3) the motivation for these compelling candidates comes first and foremost from particle physics. The dark-matter problem is now a pressing issue in both cosmology and particle physics, and the detection of particle dark matter would provide evidence for ``new physics.`` The compelling candidates are: a very light axion ( 10{sup {minus}6} eV--10{sup {minus}4} eV); a light neutrino (20 eV--90 eV); and a heavy neutralino (10 GeV--2 TeV). The production of these particles in the early Universe and the prospects for their detection are also discussed. I briefly mention more exotic possibilities for the dark matter, including a nonzero cosmological constant, superheavy magnetic monopoles, and decaying neutrinos.

Turner, M.S. [Chicago Univ., IL (United States). Enrico Fermi Inst.]|[Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (United States)

1993-01-01

405

Dark matter: Theoretical perspectives  

SciTech Connect

I both review and make the case for the current theoretical prejudice: a flat Universe whose dominant constituent is nonbaryonic dark matter, emphasizing that this is still a prejudice and not yet fact. The theoretical motivation for nonbaryonic dark matter is discussed in the context of current elementary-particle theory, stressing that: (1) there are no dark matter candidates within the standard model of particle physics; (2) there are several compelling candidates within attractive extensions of the standard model of particle physics; and (3) the motivation for these compelling candidates comes first and foremost from particle physics. The dark-matter problem is now a pressing issue in both cosmology and particle physics, and the detection of particle dark matter would provide evidence for new physics.'' The compelling candidates are: a very light axion ( 10[sup [minus]6] eV--10[sup [minus]4] eV); a light neutrino (20 eV--90 eV); and a heavy neutralino (10 GeV--2 TeV). The production of these particles in the early Universe and the prospects for their detection are also discussed. I briefly mention more exotic possibilities for the dark matter, including a nonzero cosmological constant, superheavy magnetic monopoles, and decaying neutrinos.

Turner, M.S. (Chicago Univ., IL (United States). Enrico Fermi Inst. Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (United States))

1993-01-01

406

Dark matter: theoretical perspectives.  

PubMed Central

I both review and make the case for the current theoretical prejudice: a flat Universe whose dominant constituent is nonbaryonic dark matter, emphasizing that this is still a prejudice and not yet fact. The theoretical motivation for nonbaryonic dark matter is discussed in the context of current elementary-particle theory, stressing that (i) there are no dark-matter candidates within the "standard model" of particle physics, (ii) there are several compelling candidates within attractive extensions of the standard model of particle physics, and (iii) the motivation for these compelling candidates comes first and foremost from particle physics. The dark-matter problem is now a pressing issue in both cosmology and particle physics, and the detection of particle dark matter would provide evidence for "new physics." The compelling candidates are a very light axion (10(-6)-10(-4) eV), a light neutrino (20-90 eV), and a heavy neutralino (10 GeV-2 TeV). The production of these particles in the early Universe and the prospects for their detection are also discussed. I briefly mention more exotic possibilities for the dark matter, including a nonzero cosmological constant, superheavy magnetic monopoles, and decaying neutrinos. PMID:11607395

Turner, M S

1993-01-01

407

Dark matter: Theoretical perspectives  

SciTech Connect

The author both reviews and makes the case for the current theoretical prejudice: a flat Universe whose dominant constituent is nonbaryonic dark matter, emphasizing that this is still a prejudice and not yet fact. The theoretical motivation for nonbaryonic dark matter is discussed in the context of current elementary-particle theory, stressing that (i) there are no dark-matter candidates within the [open quotes]standard model[close quotes] of particle physics, (ii) there are several compelling candidates within attractive extensions of the standard model of particle physics, and (iii) the motivation for these compelling candidates comes first and foremost from particle physics. The dark-matter problem is now a pressing issue in both cosmology and particle physics, and the detection of particle dark matter would provide evidence for [open quotes]new physics.[close quotes] The compelling candidates are a very light axion (10[sup [minus]6]--10[sup [minus]4] eV), a light neutrino (20--90 eV), and a heavy neutralino (10 GeV--2 TeV). The production of these particles in the early Universe and the prospects for their detection are also discussed. The author briefly mentions more exotic possibilities for the dark matter, including a nonzero cosmological constant, superheavy magnetic monopoles, and decaying neutrinos. 119 refs.

Turner, M.S. (Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States) Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (United States))

1993-06-01

408

Journal of Theoretical Biology ] (  

E-print Network

bluefin tuna movements: An analysis based on net displacement and length of track Ryan Gutenkunsta 16 October 2006 Abstract We use observed movement tracks of Atlantic bluefin tuna in the Gulf, we estimate that, on average, bluefin tuna in the Gulf of Maine encounter a resource patch every 2 h

Keshet, Leah

409

General Aviation Data Framework  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Flight Research Services Directorate at the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) provides development and operations services associated with three general aviation (GA) aircraft used for research experiments. The GA aircraft includes a Cessna 206X Stationair, a Lancair Colombia 300X, and a Cirrus SR22X. Since 2004, the GA Data Framework software was designed and implemented to gather data from a varying set of hardware and software sources as well as enable transfer of the data to other computers or devices. The key requirements for the GA Data Framework software include platform independence, the ability to reuse the framework for different projects without changing the framework code, graphics display capabilities, and the ability to vary the interfaces and their performance. Data received from the various devices is stored in shared memory. This paper concentrates on the object oriented software design patterns within the General Aviation Data Framework, and how they enable the construction of project specific software without changing the base classes. The issues of platform independence and multi-threading which enable interfaces to run at different frame rates are also discussed in this paper.

Blount, Elaine M.; Chung, Victoria I.

2006-01-01

410

A framework for empirical galaxy phenomenology: the scatter in galaxy ages and stellar metallicities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We develop a theoretical framework that extracts a deeper understanding of galaxy formation from empirically derived relations among galaxy properties by extending the main-sequence integration method for computing galaxy star formation histories. We properly account for scatter in the stellar mass-star formation rate relation and the evolving fraction of passive systems and find that the latter effect is almost solely responsible for the age distributions among z ˜ 0 galaxies with stellar masses above ˜1010 M?. However, while we qualitatively agree with the observed median stellar metallicity as a function of stellar mass, we attribute our inability to reproduce the distribution in detail largely to a combination of imperfect gas-phase metallicity and ?/Fe ratio calibrations. Our formalism will benefit from new observational constraints and, in turn, improve interpretations of future data by providing self-consistent star formation histories for population synthesis modelling.

Muñoz, Joseph A.; Peeples, Molly S.

2015-04-01

411

Overarching framework for data-based modelling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the main modelling paradigms for complex physical systems are networks. When estimating the network structure from measured signals, typically several assumptions such as stationarity are made in the estimation process. Violating these assumptions renders standard analysis techniques fruitless. We here propose a framework to estimate the network structure from measurements of arbitrary non-linear, non-stationary, stochastic processes. To this end, we propose a rigorous mathematical theory that underlies this framework. Based on this theory, we present a highly efficient algorithm and the corresponding statistics that are immediately sensibly applicable to measured signals. We demonstrate its performance in a simulation study. In experiments of transitions between vigilance stages in rodents, we infer small network structures with complex, time-dependent interactions; this suggests biomarkers for such transitions, the key to understand and diagnose numerous diseases such as dementia. We argue that the suggested framework combines features that other approaches followed so far lack.

Schelter, Björn; Mader, Malenka; Mader, Wolfgang; Sommerlade, Linda; Platt, Bettina; Lai, Ying-Cheng; Grebogi, Celso; Thiel, Marco

2014-02-01

412

A framework for quantifying complexity and understanding its sources : application to tow large-scale systems  

E-print Network

The motivation for this work is to quantify the complexity of complex systems and to understand its sources. To study complexity, we develop a theoretical framework where the complex system of interest is embedded in a ...

Martin, Pierre-Alain J. Y

2004-01-01

413

TANGO: A FRAMEWORK AND SYSTEM FOR ALGORITHM ANIMATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Algorithm animation is the process of abstracting the data, operations, and semantics of computer programs, and then creating animated graphical views of those abstractions. Although a handful of algorithm animation systems have been developed in recent years, relatively little work has been done on the theoretical foundations of such systems. In this work we develop a conceptual framework with formal

John T. Stasko

1990-01-01

414

Construct Definition Using Cognitively Based Evidence: A Framework for Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, we highlight the need for a precisely defined construct in score-based validation and discuss the contribution of cognitive theories to accurately and comprehensively defining the construct. We propose a framework for integrating cognitively based theoretical and empirical evidence to specify and evaluate the construct. We apply…

Ketterlin-Geller, Leanne R.; Yovanoff, Paul; Jung, EunJu; Liu, Kimy; Geller, Josh

2013-01-01

415

A Unified Framework for Monetary Theory and Policy Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Search-theoretic models of monetary exchange are based on explicit descriptions of the frictions that make money essential. However, tractable versions of these models typically make strong assumptions that render them ill suited for monetary policy analysis. We propose a new framework, based on explicit micro foundations, within which macro…

Lagos, Ricardo; Wright, Randall

2005-01-01

416

A new general mathematical framework for bioluminescence tomography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bioluminescence tomography (BLT) is a recently developed area in biomedical imaging. The goal of BLT is to quantitatively reconstruct a bioluminescent source distribution within a small animal from optical signals on the surface of the animal body. While there have been theoretical investigations of the BLT problem in the literature, in this paper, we propose a more general mathematical framework

Xiaoliang Cheng; Rongfang Gong; Weimin Han

2008-01-01

417

Students' Science Process Skills within a Cognitive Domain Framework  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to investigate Turkish primary students' scientific process skills under the theoretical framework of cognitive domain. The sample set consisted of 306 sixth and seventh grade students from public, private, and bussed schools. The Turkish Integrated Process Skill Test was used to measure scientific process skills, and…

Ozgelen, Sinan

2012-01-01

418

General framework for removal of clock network pessimism  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents a simple yet powerful general theoretical framework and efficient implementation for removal of clock network timing pessimism. We address pessimism in static timing analysis (STA) tools caused by considering delay variation along common segments of clock paths. The STA tools compute setup (hold) timing slack based on conservative combinations of late (early) launching and early (late) capturing

Jindrich Zejda; Paul Frain

2002-01-01

419

Arts Integration Frameworks, Research & Practice. A Literature Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This literature review is an essential resource for anyone involved in the research, theories, or methods and practices of arts integration. It covers what has been written between 1995 and 2007 in the U.S. and abroad and includes an historical overview, definitions and theoretical frameworks for arts integration, research and evaluation studies…

Burnaford, Gail

2007-01-01

420

Everything Is Connected: Giftedness within a Broad Framework for Cognition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ziegler and Phillipson (Z&P) have provided a valuable discussion of the identification and development of giftedness under a systemic umbrella, including issues of differing theoretical approaches and efficacy. This commentary considers their discussion within a novel systemic framework that links also individuals and environment, but in terms of…

Woolcott, Geoff

2012-01-01

421

Frameworks: Putting Design Patterns into Perspective Henrik Brbak Christensen  

E-print Network

Frameworks: Putting Design Patterns into Perspective Henrik Bærbak Christensen Department, and realized over the last decade. As such, teaching both the underlying ideas of design patterns as well as providing the students with theoret- ical and practical experience with a range of the most often used

Christensen, Henrik Bærbak

422

Multimedia content description framework  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A framework is provided for describing multimedia content and a system in which a plurality of multimedia storage devices employing the content description methods of the present invention can interoperate. In accordance with one form of the present invention, the content description framework is a description scheme (DS) for describing streams or aggregations of multimedia objects, which may comprise audio, images, video, text, time series, and various other modalities. This description scheme can accommodate an essentially limitless number of descriptors in terms of features, semantics or metadata, and facilitate content-based search, index, and retrieval, among other capabilities, for both streamed or aggregated multimedia objects.

Bergman, Lawrence David (Inventor); Kim, Michelle Yoonk Yung (Inventor); Li, Chung-Sheng (Inventor); Mohan, Rakesh (Inventor); Smith, John Richard (Inventor)

2003-01-01

423

A Kernel Classification Framework for Metric Learning.  

PubMed

Learning a distance metric from the given training samples plays a crucial role in many machine learning tasks, and various models and optimization algorithms have been proposed in the past decade. In this paper, we generalize several state-of-the-art metric learning methods, such as large margin nearest neighbor (LMNN) and information theoretic metric learning (ITML), into a kernel classification framework. First, doublets and triplets are constructed from the training samples, and a family of degree-2 polynomial kernel functions is proposed for pairs of doublets or triplets. Then, a kernel classification framework is established to generalize many popular metric learning methods such as LMNN and ITML. The proposed framework can also suggest new metric learning methods, which can be efficiently implemented, interestingly, using the standard support vector machine (SVM) solvers. Two novel metric learning methods, namely, doublet-SVM and triplet-SVM, are then developed under the proposed framework. Experimental results show that doublet-SVM and triplet-SVM achieve competitive classification accuracies with state-of-the-art metric learning methods but with significantly less training time. PMID:25347887

Wang, Faqiang; Zuo, Wangmeng; Zhang, Lei; Meng, Deyu; Zhang, David

2014-10-21

424

Main Dangers of Our Times.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Terrorism and threatening dictatorships are the main, man-made, dangers of our times. They are run by master demagogues, or, brain-washing manipulators. ----- Our next step in coping with terrorism is to counter master demagoguery. Therefore, supporting EDUCATION that would emphasize the most unifying (and the least controversial), yet, BASIC CIVIC RESPECT for lives of people in a civilian human society, is a priority everywhere on our planet. ----- At the same time we start facing mostly small, threatening, dictatorships, capable of producing weapons of mass destruction. Therefore, we have to try to contribute to developing systems of FREE ELECTIONS, controlling weapons of mass destruction, wherever such dangers exist. ----- In a foreseeable future, unfortunately, we are facing a danger even by orders of magnitude greater. We are facing a possibility of a mass-produced heavy accumulation of inter-continental nuclear missiles, on a computerized "push-button" control, by a very powerful (and, quite possibly, miscalculating, or, suicidal) dictator, dangerous to the very existence of humanity on our planet. Therefore, it is a historical urgency that such a technological power be under the control by a government of the people, by the people and for the people, based on a sufficiently reliable system of FREE ELECTIONS, wherever, on our planet, such a potential danger may originate.

Synek, Miroslav

2003-03-01

425

Theoretical Particle Astrophysics  

SciTech Connect

Abstract: Theoretical Particle Astrophysics The research carried out under this grant encompassed work on the early Universe, dark matter, and dark energy. We developed CMB probes for primordial baryon inhomogeneities, primordial non-Gaussianity, cosmic birefringence, gravitational lensing by density perturbations and gravitational waves, and departures from statistical isotropy. We studied the detectability of wiggles in the inflation potential in string-inspired inflation models. We studied novel dark-matter candidates and their phenomenology. This work helped advance the DoE's Cosmic Frontier (and also Energy and Intensity Frontiers) by finding synergies between a variety of different experimental efforts, by developing new searches, science targets, and analyses for existing/forthcoming experiments, and by generating ideas for new next-generation experiments.

Kamionkowski, Marc

2013-08-07

426

Amorphous metal-organic frameworks.  

PubMed

Crystalline metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are porous frameworks comprising an infinite array of metal nodes connected by organic linkers. The number of novel MOF structures reported per year is now in excess of 6000, despite significant increases in the complexity of both component units and molecular networks. Their regularly repeating structures give rise to chemically variable porous architectures, which have been studied extensively due to their sorption and separation potential. More recently, catalytic applications have been proposed that make use of their chemical tunability, while reports of negative linear compressibility and negative thermal expansion have further expanded interest in the field. Amorphous metal-organic frameworks (aMOFs) retain the basic building blocks and connectivity of their crystalline counterparts, though they lack any long-range periodic order. Aperiodic arrangements of atoms result in their X-ray diffraction patterns being dominated by broad "humps" caused by diffuse scattering and thus they are largely indistinguishable from one another. Amorphous MOFs offer many exciting opportunities for practical application, either as novel functional materials themselves or facilitating other processes, though the domain is largely unexplored (total aMOF reported structures amounting to under 30). Specifically, the use of crystalline MOFs to detect harmful guest species before subsequent stress-induced collapse and guest immobilization is of considerable interest, while functional luminescent and optically active glass-like materials may also be prepared in this manner. The ion transporting capacity of crystalline MOFs might be improved during partial structural collapse, while there are possibilities of preparing superstrong glasses and hybrid liquids during thermal amorphization. The tuning of release times of MOF drug delivery vehicles by partial structural collapse may be possible, and aMOFs are often more mechanically robust than crystalline materials, which is of importance for industrial applications. In this Account, we describe the preparation of aMOFs by introduction of disorder into their parent crystalline frameworks through heating, pressure (both hydrostatic and nonhydrostatic), and ball-milling. The main method of characterizing these amorphous materials (analysis of the pair distribution function) is summarized, alongside complementary techniques such as Raman spectroscopy. Detailed investigations into their properties (both chemical and mechanical) are compiled and compared with those of crystalline MOFs, while the impact of the field on the processing techniques used for crystalline MOF powders is also assessed. Crucially, the benefits amorphization may bring to existing proposed MOF applications are detailed, alongside the possibilities and research directions afforded by the combination of the unique properties of the amorphous domain with the versatility of MOF chemistry. PMID:24707980

Bennett, Thomas D; Cheetham, Anthony K

2014-05-20

427

Mapping and monitoring potato cropping systems in Maine: geospatial methods and land use assessments  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Geospatial frameworks and GIS-based approaches were used to assess current cropping practices in potato production systems in Maine. Results from the geospatial integration of remotely-sensed cropland layers (2008-2011) and soil datasets for Maine revealed a four-year potato systems footprint estima...

428

75 FR 27863 - Savings Bank of Maine, MHC and Savings Bank of Maine, Gardiner, Maine; Approval of Conversion...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...TREASURY Office of Thrift Supervision [AC-38: OTS Nos. 06947 and H 4709] Savings Bank of Maine, MHC and Savings Bank of Maine, Gardiner, Maine; Approval of Conversion Application Notice is hereby given that on May 7, 2010, the...

2010-05-18

429

Space Shuttle Main Engine performance analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For a number of years, NASA has relied primarily upon periodically updated versions of Rocketdyne's power balance model (PBM) to provide space shuttle main engine (SSME) steady-state performance prediction. A recent computational study indicated that PBM predictions do not satisfy fundamental energy conservation principles. More recently, SSME test results provided by the Technology Test Bed (TTB) program have indicated significant discrepancies between PBM flow and temperature predictions and TTB observations. Results of these investigations have diminished confidence in the predictions provided by PBM, and motivated the development of new computational tools for supporting SSME performance analysis. A multivariate least squares regression algorithm was developed and implemented during this effort in order to efficiently characterize TTB data. This procedure, called the 'gains model,' was used to approximate the variation of SSME performance parameters such as flow rate, pressure, temperature, speed, and assorted hardware characteristics in terms of six assumed independent influences. These six influences were engine power level, mixture ratio, fuel inlet pressure and temperature, and oxidizer inlet pressure and temperature. A BFGS optimization algorithm provided the base procedure for determining regression coefficients for both linear and full quadratic approximations of parameter variation. Statistical information relative to data deviation from regression derived relations was also computed. A new strategy for integrating test data with theoretical performance prediction was also investigated. The current integration procedure employed by PBM treats test data as pristine and adjusts hardware characteristics in a heuristic manner to achieve engine balance. Within PBM, this integration procedure is called 'data reduction.' By contrast, the new data integration procedure, termed 'reconciliation,' uses mathematical optimization techniques, and requires both measurement and balance uncertainty estimates. The reconciler attempts to select operational parameters that minimize the difference between theoretical prediction and observation. Selected values are further constrained to fall within measurement uncertainty limits and to satisfy fundamental physical relations (mass conservation, energy conservation, pressure drop relations, etc.) within uncertainty estimates for all SSME subsystems. The parameter selection problem described above is a traditional nonlinear programming problem. The reconciler employs a mixed penalty method to determine optimum values of SSME operating parameters associated with this problem formulation.

Santi, L. Michael

1993-11-01

430

Space Shuttle Main Engine performance analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

For a number of years, NASA has relied primarily upon periodically updated versions of Rocketdyne's power balance model (PBM) to provide space shuttle main engine (SSME) steady-state performance prediction. A recent computational study indicated that PBM predictions do not satisfy fundamental energy conservation principles. More recently, SSME test results provided by the Technology Test Bed (TTB) program have indicated significant discrepancies between PBM flow and temperature predictions and TTB observations. Results of these investigations have diminished confidence in the predictions provided by PBM, and motivated the development of new computational tools for supporting SSME performance analysis. A multivariate least squares regression algorithm was developed and implemented during this effort in order to efficiently characterize TTB data. This procedure, called the 'gains model,' was used to approximate the variation of SSME performance parameters such as flow rate, pressure, temperature, speed, and assorted hardware characteristics in terms of six assumed independent influences. These six influences were engine power level, mixture ratio, fuel inlet pressure and temperature, and oxidizer inlet pressure and temperature. A BFGS optimization algorithm provided the base procedure for determining regression coefficients for both linear and full quadratic approximations of parameter variation. Statistical information relative to data deviation from regression derived relations was also computed. A new strategy for integrating test data with theoretical performance prediction was also investigated. The current integration procedure employed by PBM treats test data as pristine and adjusts hardware characteristics in a heuristic manner to achieve engine balance. Within PBM, this integration procedure is called 'data reduction.' By contrast, the new data integration procedure, termed 'reconciliation,' uses mathematical optimization techniques, and requires both measurement and balance uncertainty estimates. The reconciler attempts to select operational parameters that minimize the difference between theoretical prediction and observation. Selected values are further constrained to fall within measurement uncertainty limits and to satisfy fundamental physical relations (mass conservation, energy conservation, pressure drop relations, etc.) within uncertainty estimates for all SSME subsystems. The parameter selection problem described above is a traditional nonlinear programming problem. The reconciler employs a mixed penalty method to determine optimum values of SSME operating parameters associated with this problem formulation.

Santi, L. Michael

1993-01-01

431

An electric energy consumer characterization framework based on data mining techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an electricity consumer characterization framework based on a knowledge discovery in databases (KDD) procedure, supported by data mining (DM) techniques, applied on the different stages of the process. The core of this framework is a data mining model based on a combination of unsupervised and supervised learning techniques. Two main modules compose this framework: the load profiling

Vera Figueiredo; Fátima Rodrigues; Zita Vale; Joaquim Borges Gouveia

2005-01-01

432

Rebels without a Clause: Towards an Institutional Framework for Dealing with Plagiarism by Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper explores why an institutional framework for dealing with plagiarism by students is necessary and it outlines the main ingredients of such a framework that has been developed at Lancaster University. It defines plagiarism as a form of academic malpractice and frames it as a breach of academic integrity. The framework places a strong…

Park, Chris

2004-01-01

433

The First Decade of the Community of Inquiry Framework: A Retrospective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article provides a personal perspective about the development of the seminal papers associated with the Community of Inquiry Framework. The framework and its construction are described. The main part of the paper explores the evolution of the framework and its associated methodology. Finally, research associated with the validation of the…

Garrison, D. Randy; Anderson, Terry; Archer, Walter

2010-01-01

434

A Novel Framework for Building Distributed Data Acquisition and Monitoring Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a novel framework for building a distributed data acquisition and monitoring system. Our novel framework is mainly based on XML leverages and OPC (Openness, Productivity, and Connectivity) techni- ques. Correspondingly, our framework-based system allows easily aggregating more than the hundreds or thousands of the existing OPC DA (Data Access) products in use today with new OPC XML-DA products

Vu Van Tan; Dae-seung Yoo; Myeong-jae Yi

2007-01-01

435

Holonic risk management framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this work is to develop an adaptive risk management framework capable of preventing, identifying and responding in critical time to threats. Our focus is on protecting critical infrastructure (e.g. public utilities) which depends vitally on network and information security. As a solution we propose a holonic cybersecurity system that unfolds into an emergency response management infrastructure capable

Mihaela Ulieru; Paul Worthington

2005-01-01

436

Exploring the Science Framework  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The vision for science education set forth in "A Framework for K-12 Science Education" (NRC 2012) makes it clear that for today's students to become the scientifically literate citizens of tomorrow their educational experiences must help them become mathematically proficient. "The focus here is on important practices, such as modeling, developing…

Mayes, Robert; Koballa, Thomas R., Jr.

2012-01-01

437

Exploring the Science Framework  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The vision for science education set forth in "A Framework for K-12 Science Education" (NRC 2012) makes it clear that for today's students to become the scientifically literate citizens of tomorrow, their educational experiences must help them become mathematically proficient. "The focus here is on important practices, such as modeling, developing…

Mayes, Robert; Koballa, Thomas R., Jr.

2012-01-01

438

Exploring the Science Framework  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The National Research Council's recent publication "A Framework for K-12 Science Education: Practices, Crosscutting Concepts, and Core Ideas" (NRC 2011), which is the foundation for the Next Generation Science Standards now being developed, places unprecedented focus on the practices involved in doing scientific and engineering work. In an effort…

Bell, Philip; Bricker, Leah; Tzou, Carrie; Lee, Tiffany; Van Horne, Katie

2012-01-01

439

Futurism: Framework for Composition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Noting that the study of the future has been neglected within the language arts framework, this paper proposes a curriculum unit that uses such study as a vehicle to develop composition skills. The paper provides the following information: the general objectives of the unit; evaluation methods; general humanistic themes to be studied; materials;…

Keroack, Elizabeth Carros; Marquis, Leah Keating

440

A Volunteer Training Framework  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Volunteering SA (VSA) has responded to the need to revise and expand the training offered to volunteers. It has developed a volunteer training framework to provide structure and guidance for the sector in making policy and financial decisions about directions and type of training that volunteers require and desire, where the training can lead and…

Deslandes, Moira; Rogers, Louise

2008-01-01

441

Preservice Teacher Education Framework.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A project created a framework for integrating school-to-work (STW) into the preservice curriculum for all new teachers in Ohio and conducted a professional development activity for college and university faculty involved with preparation of new teachers. A work team of teacher education faculty representing six public universities met to learn…

Berns, Robert G.

442

Conceptual frameworks and empirical approaches used to assess the impact of health research: an overview of reviews  

PubMed Central

Background How to assess the impact of research is of growing interest to funders, policy makers and researchers mainly to understand the value of investments and to increase accountability. Broadly speaking the term "research impact" refers to the contribution of research activities to achieve desired societal outcomes. The aim of this overview is to identify the most common approaches to research impact assessment, categories of impact and their respective indicators. Methods We systematically searched the relevant literature (PubMed, The Cochrane Library (1990-2009)) and funding agency websites. We included systematic reviews, theoretical and methodological papers, and empirical case-studies on how to evaluate research impact. We qualitatively summarised the included reports, as well the conceptual frameworks. Results We identified twenty-two reports belonging to four systematic reviews and 14 primary studies. These publications reported several theoretical frameworks and methodological approaches (bibliometrics, econometrics, ad hoc case studies). The "payback model" emerged as the most frequently used. Five broad categories of impact were identified: a) advancing knowledge, b) capacity building, c) informing decision-making, d) health benefits, e) broad socio-economic benefits. For each proposed category of impact we summarized a set of indicators whose pros and cons are presented and briefly discussed. Conclusions This overview is a comprehensive, yet descriptive, contribution to summarize the conceptual framework and taxonomy of an heterogeneous and evolving area of research. A shared and comprehensive conceptual framework does not seem to be available yet and its single components (epidemiologic, economic, and social) are often valued differently in different models. PMID:21702930

2011-01-01

443

21 CFR 808.69 - Maine.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Maine. 808.69 Section 808.69 Food and Drugs...Specific State and Local Exemptions § 808.69 Maine. (a) The following Maine medical device requirement is enforceable...

2010-04-01

444

78 FR 34701 - Maine Disaster #ME-00036  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Disaster Declaration 13592 and 13593] Maine Disaster ME-00036 AGENCY: U.S...declaration of a disaster for the State of Maine dated 05/30/2013. Incident: Apartment...Androscoggin. Contiguous Counties: Maine: Cumberland, Franklin, Kennebec,...

2013-06-10

445

78 FR 34701 - Maine Disaster #ME-00037  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Disaster Declaration 13594 and 13595] Maine Disaster ME-00037 AGENCY: U.S...declaration of a disaster for the State of Maine dated 05/30/2013. Incident: Commercial...Androscoggin. Contiguous Counties: Maine: Cumberland, Franklin, Kennebec,...

2013-06-10

446

75 FR 22167 - Maine Disaster #ME-00025  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Disaster Declaration 12126 and 12127] Maine Disaster ME-00025 AGENCY: U.S...declaration of a disaster for the State of MAINE dated 04/19/2010. Incident: Severe...Counties: York. Contiguous Counties: Maine: Cumberland, Oxford. New...

2010-04-27

447

Linearly Compressed Pages: A Main Memory Compression Framework with Low Complexity and Low Latency  

E-print Network

>on: Linearly Compressed Pages (LCP): fixed-size cache line granularity compression Compression Linearly Compressed Pages (LCP): Key Idea LCP Overview Key Results.5 Compression Ra>o GeoMean Zero Page FPC LCP (BDI) LCP (BDI+FPC-fixed) MXT LZ

Mutlu, Onur

448

Linearly Compressed Pages: A Main Memory Compression Framework with Low Complexity and Low Latency  

E-print Network

call Linearly Compressed Pages (LCP). The key idea of LCP is that if all the cache lines within a page (Frequent Pattern Compression [2] and Base- Delta-Immediate Compression [6]) to fit the requirements of LCP

449

Some theoretical issues on computer simulations  

SciTech Connect

The subject of this paper is the development of mathematical foundations for a theory of simulation. Sequentially updated cellular automata (sCA) over arbitrary graphs are employed as a paradigmatic framework. In the development of the theory, the authors focus on the properties of causal dependencies among local mappings in a simulation. The main object of and study is the mapping between a graph representing the dependencies among entities of a simulation and a representing the equivalence classes of systems obtained by all possible updates.

Barrett, C.L.; Reidys, C.M.

1998-02-01

450

Supplier development with benchmarking as part of a comprehensive supplier risk management framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of the paper is to present and empirically support a theoretically sound, operational, and easy-to-implement supplier risk management framework that focuses on supplier development using a benchmarking approach. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper develops a five stage framework for supplier risk management, entailing supplier risk identification, assessment of supplier risks, reporting and decision of supplier risks, supplier

Sabine Matook; Rainer Lasch; Rick Tamaschke

2009-01-01

451

Activity Theory as a potential framework for human- computer interaction research  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the recent years the mainstream framework for HCI research — the information- processing cognitive psychology —has gained more and more criticism because of serious problems in applying it both in research and practical design. In a debate within HCI research the capability of information processing psychology has been questioned and new theoretical frameworks searched. This paper presents an overview

Kari Kuutti

1996-01-01

452

Using the TPACK Framework to Facilitate Decision Making on Instructional Technologies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Technological pedagogical content knowledge ("TPACK") is a theoretical framework used primarily in the field of education to facilitate the integration of technology into educational endeavors. This framework can be particularly valuable to librarians, who are heavy users of technology, and can provide a structure that can help…

Sobel, Karen; Grotti, Margaret G.

2013-01-01

453

Learning and Motivation in Multiple Contexts: The Development of a Heuristic Framework  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents the development of a heuristic framework that integrates three aspects of context (perspective, content and level) from a number of established theoretical approaches. In this framework, context is viewed from different perspectives (subjective and objective), it comprises different contents (physical, social and formal) and it…

Wosnitza, Marold; Beltman, Susan

2012-01-01

454

Adventure Learning and Learner-Engagement: Frameworks for Designers and Educators  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is a recognized need for theoretical frameworks that can guide designers and educators in the development of engagement-rich learning experiences that incorporate emerging technologies in pedagogically sound ways. This study investigated one such promising framework, adventure learning (AL). Data were gathered via surveys, interviews, direct…

Henrickson, Jeni; Doering, Aaron

2013-01-01

455

Career "Mist," "Hope," and "Drift": Conceptual Framework for Understanding Career Development in Japan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this research is to present a new theoretical framework concerning subjective career development in Japan. The framework consists of three concepts, namely, career "drift," "mist," and "hope". Design/methodology/approach: This paper introduces these concepts, including how they were discovered, and the potential strength…

Kato, Ichiro; Suzuki, Ryuta

2006-01-01

456

A Conceptual Framework for Examining Adolescent Identity, Media Influence, and Social Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The adolescent identity, media, and sociocognitive schema (AIMSS) framework offers a theoretical understanding of adolescent consumption and cognitive processing of media entertainment. Review and integration of mass communication theory, developmental theory, and ecological theory serves as the conceptual foundation. The framework outlines linkages between media exposure and adolescent development, in particular adolescent identity formation and social competence. A key contribution

Blake Te'Neil Lloyd

2002-01-01

457

Theoretical atomic collision physics  

SciTech Connect

The theoretical atomic physics at Rice University focuses on obtaining a better understanding of the mechanisms that control inelastic collisions between excited atoms and atoms, molecules and ions. Particular attention is given to systems and processes that are of potential importance to advanced energy technologies. In the current year, significant progress has been made in quantitative studies of: quenching of low-Rydberg Na atoms in thermal energy collisions with He, Ne and Ar atoms; selective excitation resulting from charge transfer in collisions of highly stripped ions of He, Li, C, and with Li, Na and He atoms and H{sub 2} molecules at keV energies; differential elastic and single, and double electron transfer in He{sup ++} collisions with He at keV energies; inelastic electron-transfer in ultra-low-energy-energy (T=8 to 80K) collisions between {sup 3}He{sup +} and {sup 4}He and {sup 4}He{sup +} and {sup 3}He; a formalism for ionization by electron impact of ions in dense, high temperature plasmas.

Lane, N.F. (Rice Univ., Houston, TX (USA) Rice Univ., Houston, TX (USA). Quantum Inst.)

1990-01-01

458

Field-Theoretic Simulations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The science and engineering of materials is entering a new era of so-called "designer materials", wherein, based upon the properties required for a particular application, a material is designed by exploiting the self-assembly of appropriately chosen molecular constituents [1]. The desirable and marketable properties of such materials, which include plastic alloys, block and graft copolymers, and polyelectrolyte solutions, complexes, and gels, depend critically on the ability to control and manipulate morphology by adjusting a combination of molecular and macroscopic variables. For example, styrenebutadiene block copolymers can be devised that serve either as rigid, tough, transparent thermoplastics or as soft, flexible, thermoplastic elastomers, by appropriate control of copolymer architecture and styrene/butadiene ratio. In this case, the property profiles are intimately connected to the extent and type of nanoscale self-assembly that is established within the material. One of the main challenges confronting the successful design of nano-structured polymers is the development of a basic understanding of the relationship between the molecular details of the polymer formulation and the morphology that is achieved. Unfortunately, such relationships are still mainly determined by trial and error experimentation. A purely experimental-based program in pursuit of this objective proves cumbersome — primarily, due to the broad parameter space accessible at the time of synthesis and formulation. Consequently, there is a significant motivation for the development of computational tools that can enable a rational exploration of the parameter space.

Ganesan, Venkat; Fredrickson, Glenn H.

459

Integrating learning assessment and supervision in a competency framework for clinical workplace education.  

PubMed

Although competency-based education is well established in health care education, research shows that the competencies do not always match the reality of clinical workplaces. Therefore, there is a need to design feasible and evidence-based competency frameworks that fit the workplace reality. This theoretical paper outlines a competency-based framework, designed to facilitate learning, assessment and supervision in clinical workplace education. Integration is the cornerstone of this holistic competency framework. PMID:25497139

Embo, M; Driessen, E; Valcke, M; van der Vleuten, C P M

2015-02-01

460

Age-Related Observations of Low Mass Pre-Main and Young Main Sequence Stars (Invited Review)  

E-print Network

This overview summarizes the age dating methods available for young sub-solar mass stars. Pre-main sequence age diagnostics include the Hertzsprung-Russell (HR) diagram, spectroscopic surface gravity indicators, and lithium depletion; asteroseismology is also showing recent promise. Near and beyond the zero-age main sequence, rotation period or vsini and activity (coronal and chromospheric) diagnostics along with lithium depletion serve as age proxies. Other authors in this volume present more detail in each of the aforementioned areas. Herein, I focus on pre-main sequence HR diagrams and address the questions: Do empirical young cluster isochrones match theoretical isochrones? Do isochrones predict stellar ages consistent with those derived via other independent techniques? Do the observed apparent luminosity spreads at constant effective temperature correspond to true age spreads? While definitive answers to these questions are not provided, some methods of progression are outlined.

Lynne A. Hillenbrand

2008-12-06

461

Changing Places, Changing Spaces? Towards Understanding Teacher Education through Space-Time Frameworks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article draws together theoretical ideas from studies of space/spatiality and the history of teacher education. These ideas form a theoretical framework through which to analyse the findings from a small-scale ethnographic study of the geographical relocations made by two university schools of education in England. Data collection instruments…

Murray, Jean

2012-01-01

462

A Theoretical Model of Water and Trade  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water is an essential factor of agricultural production. Agriculture, in turn, is globalized through the trade of food commodities. There is an extensive literature detailing the direct and local relationships between water and agricultural production. Here, we expand upon this important literature to understand how the globalized food economy interacts with water resources. In particular, we seek to understand the following questions: What is the impact of agricultural trade on water resources? How do water resources impact agricultural trade? Thus, we aim to explore the bidirectional feedbacks between water resources and food trade, using a socio-hydrologic framework. To do this, we develop a theoretical model of international trade that explicitly incorporates water resources.

Dang, Qian; Zeng, Ruije; Ling, Xiaowen; Di Baldassarre, Giuliano; Konar, Megan

2014-05-01

463

The Umbra Simulation Framework  

SciTech Connect

Umbra is a new Sandia-developed modeling and simulation framework. The Umbra framework allows users to quickly build models and simulations for intelligent system development, analysis, experimentation, and control and supports tradeoff analyses of complex robotic systems, device, and component concepts. Umbra links together heterogeneous collections of modeling tools. The models in Umbra include 3D geometry and physics models of robots, devices and their environments. Model components can be built with varying levels of fidelity and readily switched to allow models built with low fidelity for conceptual analysis to be gradually converted to high fidelity models for later phase detailed analysis. Within control environments, the models can be readily replaced with actual control elements. This paper describes Umbra at a functional level and describes issues that Sandia uses Umbra to address.

GOTTLIEB,ERIC; HARRIGAN,RAYMOND W.; MCDONALD,MICHAEL J.; OPPEL III,FRED J.; XAVIER,PATRICK G.

2001-06-01

464

Theoretical studies of photosynthesis  

SciTech Connect

The conversion of light energy to chemical energy by the process of photosynthetic charge separation is one of the most important chemical transformation for life on this planet. With the atomic level structures of photosynthetic reaction centers (RC) for some bacteria now known, one can attempt to attain a more complete understanding of the properties and mechanisms of these systems. In this dissertation theoretical studies on both monomeric bacteriochlorophylls (BChl) and aggregates of these related pigments representing models of the RC are presented. Models for the effects of nearby charged and polar groups on monomeric BChls and how these relate to spectroscopic shifts in the absorption spectrum of the RC are discussed. The calculated properties of the BChl dimer or special pair is best described in terms of a dimer of strongly interacting BChl monomers rather than the more traditional coupled chromophore model. That this BChl dimer is responsible for the lowest absorption band in the UV/vis spectrum of RCs is well described by these results. A description of these interactions in the BChl dimer is presented using a simpler model system composed of Mg-bacteriochlorin dimers. A model of the RC consisting of the four BChlbs and two bacteriopheophytins as well as some of the surrounding amino acids of the RC protein is sufficient to give a reasonable description of the calculated UV/vis spectrum of the RC. These results show that the lowest two excited states of the RC are attributed to the BChl dimer. This strengthens the identification of the second lowest excited state with the shoulder seen at 850 nm in experimental spectra as the upper exciton-like component of the BChl dimer. Charge transfer (CT) states are calculated and demonstrate the preference for flow of charge in the RC along only one of its branches.

Thompson, M.A.

1990-01-01

465

Theoretical Quality Assessment of Myocardial Elastography with In Vivo Validation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Myocardial elastography (ME), a radio frequency (RF)-based speckle tracking technique with one-dimensional (1-D) cross correlation and novel recorrelation methods in a 2-D search was proposed to estimate and fully image 2-1) transmural deformation field and to detect abnormal cardiac function. A theoretical framework was first developed in order to evaluate the performance of 2-D myocardial elastography based on a previously

Wei-Ning Lee; Christopher M. Ingrassia; Simon D. Fung-Kee-Fung; Kevin D. Costa; Jeffrey W. Holmes; Elisa E. Konofagou

2007-01-01

466

Zeolite A imidazolate frameworks.  

PubMed

Faujasite (FAU) and zeolite A (LTA) are technologically important porous zeolites (aluminosilicates) because of their extensive use in petroleum cracking and water softening. Introducing organic units and transition metals into the backbone of these types of zeolite allows us to expand their pore structures, enhance their functionality and access new applications. The invention of metal-organic frameworks and zeolitic imidazolate frameworks (ZIFs) has provided materials based on simple zeolite structures where only one type of cage is present. However, so far, no metal-organic analogues based on FAU or LTA topologies exist owing to the difficulty imposed by the presence of two types of large cage (super- and beta-cages for FAU, alpha- and beta-cages for LTA). Here, we have identified a strategy to produce an LTA imidazolate framework in which both the link geometry and link-link interactions play a decisive structure-directing role. We describe the synthesis and crystal structures of three porous ZIFs that are expanded analogues of zeolite A; their cage walls are functionalized, and their metal ions can be changed without changing the underlying LTA topology. Hydrogen, methane, carbon dioxide and argon gas adsorption isotherms are reported and the selectivity of this material for carbon dioxide over methane is demonstrated. PMID:17529969

Hayashi, Hideki; Côté, Adrien P; Furukawa, Hiroyasu; O'Keeffe, Michael; Yaghi, Omar M

2007-07-01

467

THE STAR OFFLINE FRAMEWORK.  

SciTech Connect

The Solenoidal Tracker At RHIC (STAR) is a-large acceptance collider detector, commissioned at Brookhaven National Laboratory in 1999. STAR has developed a software framework supporting simulation, reconstruction and analysis in offline production, interactive physics analysis and online monitoring environments that is well matched both to STAR's present status of transition between Fortran and C++ based software and to STAR's evolution to a fully OO software base. This paper presents the results of two years effort developing a modular C++ framework based on the ROOT package that encompasses both wrapped Fortran components (legacy simulation and reconstruction code) served by IDL-defined data structures, and fully OO components (all physics analysis code) served by a recently developed object model for event data. The framework supports chained components, which can themselves be composite subchains, with components (''makers'') managing ''data sets'' they have created and are responsible for. An St-DataSet class from which data sets and makers inherit allows the construction of hierarchical organizations of components and data, and centralizes almost all system tasks such as data set navigation, I/O, database access, and inter-component communication. This paper will present an overview of this system, now deployed and well exercised in production environments with real and simulated data, and in an active physics analysis development program.

FINE,V.; FISYAK,Y.; PEREVOZTCHIKOV,V.; WENAUS,T.

2000-02-07

468

Skutterudite: Theoretical and Experimental Study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker coherent potential approximation (KKR-CPA) calculations of Ag-doped CoSb3 point to the presence of either an extra sharp peak of s-symmetry Ag density of states near the valence-band edge when filling the void (2 a) or to conventional p-type doping when substituting Sb site (24 g). These results suggest a resonant-like impurity level in the former or nearly rigid-band behavior in the latter. To confirm the theoretical predictions, a series of samples with nominal composition Co8Sb24:Ag x ( x = 0, 0.1, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5) were prepared. Structural and phase composition analyses were carried out by x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and scanning thermoelectric microprobe. Investigations of the influence of Ag impurity on the electrical conductivity and Seebeck coefficient were performed over the temperature range from 300 K to 560 K. It was found that doping CoSb3 with Ag leads to an increase of the thermoelectric power factor ? 2 ? in the temperature range from 300 K to 475 K of about an order of magnitude for all doped samples. However, electron probe microanalysis revealed accumulation of Ag mainly in grain boundaries while the presence of Ag in CoSb3 crystallites was not confirmed. This observation corroborates the results of KKR-CPA calculations concerning the formation energy of the Ag x Co4Sb12 system, which is much lower than values calculated for A x Co4Sb12 ( A = Ca, Ba).

Nieroda, P.; Kutorasinski, K.; Tobola, J.; Wojciechowski, K. T.

2014-06-01

469

Simple theoretical models for composite rotor blades  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of theoretical rotor blade structural models for designs based upon composite construction is discussed. Care was exercised to include a member of nonclassical effects that previous experience indicated would be potentially important to account for. A model, representative of the size of a main rotor blade, is analyzed in order to assess the importance of various influences. The findings of this model study suggest that for the slenderness and closed cell construction considered, the refinements are of little importance and a classical type theory is adequate. The potential of elastic tailoring is dramatically demonstrated, so the generality of arbitrary ply layup in the cell wall is needed to exploit this opportunity.

Valisetty, R. R.; Rehfield, L. W.

1984-01-01

470

Superconducting magnets for the LHC main lattice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main lattice of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) employs about 1600 main magnets and more than 4000 corrector magnets. All superconducting and working in pressurized superfluid helium bath, these impressive line of magnets fills more than 20 km of the underground tunnel. With almost 70 main dipoles already delivered and 10 main quadrupoles almost completed, we passed the 5%

Lucio Rossi

2004-01-01

471

Implementation techniques for main memory database systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the availability of very large, relatively inexpensive main memories, it is becoming possible keep large databases resident in main memory In this paper we consider the changes necessary to permit a relational database system to take advantage of large amounts of main memory We evaluate AVL vs B+-tree access methods for main memory databases, hash-based query processing strategies vs

David J DeWitt; Randy H Katz; Frank Olken; Leonard D Shapiro; Michael R Stonebraker; David A. Wood

1984-01-01

472

Research Regulatory Framework 21 June 2010 1 RESEARCH REGULATORY FRAMEWORK  

E-print Network

and Policies Animals, Research involving http://www.mcgill.ca/researchoffice/compliance/animal/ Conduct://www.mcgill.ca/ehs/laser/policy/ #12;Research Regulatory Framework ­ 21 June 2010 2 Occupational Health for Animal Care Activities httpResearch Regulatory Framework ­ 21 June 2010 1 RESEARCH REGULATORY FRAMEWORK The regulatory

Fabry, Frederic

473

An intermediate framework between WIMP, FIMP, and EWIP dark matter  

SciTech Connect

WIMP (Weakly Interacting Massive Particle), FIMP (Feebly interacting Massive Particle) and EWIP (Extremely Weakly Interacting Particle) dark matter are different theoretical frameworks that have been postulated to explain the dark matter. In this paper we examine an intermediate scenario that combines features from these three frameworks. It consists of a weakly interacting particle — à la WIMP — that does not reach thermal equilibrium in the early Universe — à la FIMP — and whose relic density is determined by the reheating temperature of the Universe — à la EWIP. As an example, an explicit realization of this framework, based on the singlet scalar model of dark matter, is analyzed in detail. In particular, the relic density is studied as a function of the parameters of the model, and the new viable region within this intermediate scenario is determined. Finally, it is shown that this alternative framework of dark matter allows for arbitrarily heavy dark matter particles and that it suggests a connection between dark matter and inflation.

Yaguna, Carlos E., E-mail: carlos.yaguna@uni-muenster.de [Institut für Theoretische Physik, Universität Münster, Wilhelm-Klemm-Straße 9, D-48149 Münster (Germany)

2012-02-01

474

Preparation of functionalized zeolitic frameworks  

DOEpatents

The disclosure provides zeolitic frameworks for gas separation, gas storage, catalysis and sensors. More particularly the disclosure provides zeolitic frameworks (ZIFs). The ZIF of the disclosure comprises any number of transition metals or a homogenous transition metal composition.

Yaghi, Omar M; Hayashi, Hideki; Banerjee, Rahul; Park, Kyo Sung; Wang, Bo; Cote, Adrien P

2012-11-20

475

An urban intervention : enabling frameworks  

E-print Network

The relationship between design and the idea of a framework is essentially an attitude about ordering. A framework is an Intellectual proposition which can support a variety ideas, and in doing so, it provides a resolution ...

Harrigan, Neil Patrick

1993-01-01

476

Preparation of functionalized zeolitic frameworks  

DOEpatents

The disclosure provides zeolitic frameworks for gas separation, gas storage, catalysis and sensors. More particularly the disclosure provides zeolitic frameworks (ZIFs). The ZIF of the disclosure comprises any number of transition metals or a homogenous transition metal composition.

Yaghi, Omar M.; Hayashi, Hideki; Banerjee, Rahul; Park, Kyo Sung; Wang, Bo; Cote, Adrien P.

2014-08-19

477

Preparation of functionalized zeolitic frameworks  

DOEpatents

The disclosure provides zeolitic frameworks for gas separation, gas storage, catalysis and sensors. More particularly the disclosure provides zeolitic frameworks (ZIFs). The ZIF of the disclosure comprises any number of transition metals or a homogenous transition metal composition.

Yaghi, Omar M; Furukawa, Hiroyasu; Wang, Bo

2013-07-09

478

An Automata-Theoretic Approach to Infinite-State Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we develop an automata-theoretic framework for reasoning about infinite-state sequential systems. Our framework is based on the observation that states of such systems, which carry a finite but unbounded amount of information, can be viewed as nodes in an infinite tree, and transitions between states can be simulated by finite-state automata. Checking that a system satisfies a temporal property can then be done by an alternating two-way tree automaton that navigates through the tree. We show how this framework can be used to solve the model-checking problem for ?-calculus and LTL specifications with respect to pushdown and prefix-recognizable systems. In order to handle model checking of linear-time specifications, we introduce and study path automata on trees. The input to a path automaton is a tree, but the automaton cannot split to copies and it can read only a single path of the tree.

Kupferman, Orna; Piterman, Nir; Vardi, Moshe Y.

479

Spatio-temporal Granger causality: a new framework  

PubMed Central

That physiological oscillations of various frequencies are present in fMRI signals is the rule, not the exception. Herein, we propose a novel theoretical framework, spatio-temporal Granger causality, which allows us to more reliably and precisely estimate the Granger causality from experimental datasets possessing time-varying properties caused by physiological oscillations. Within this framework, Granger causality is redefined as a global index measuring the directed information flow between two time series with time-varying properties. Both theoretical analyses and numerical examples demonstrate that Granger causality is a monotonically increasing function of the temporal resolution used in the estimation. This is consistent with the general principle of coarse graining, which causes information loss by smoothing out very fine-scale details in time and space. Our results confirm that the Granger causality at the finer spatio-temporal scales considerably outperforms the traditional approach in terms of an improved consistency between two resting-state scans of the same subject. To optimally estimate the Granger causality, the proposed theoretical framework is implemented through a combination of several approaches, such as dividing the optimal time window and estimating the parameters at the fine temporal and spatial scales. Taken together, our approach provides a novel and robust framework for estimating the Granger causality from fMRI, EEG, and other related data. PMID:23643924

Luo, Qiang; Lu, Wenlian; Cheng, Wei; Valdes-Sosa, Pedro A.; Wen, Xiaotong; Ding, Mingzhou; Feng, Jianfeng

2015-01-01

480

Constructing a theoretical model of moral distress.  

PubMed

Moral distress has been characterised as one of the main ethical problems affecting nurses in all health systems, and has been depicted as a threat to nurses' integrity and to the quality of patient care. In recent years, several studies tried to investigate moral distress, its causes and consequences for health professionals, clients and organisations. However, such studies are considered controversial and vulnerable, mainly because they lack a solid philosophical and empirical basis. The present article aimed at elaborating a theoretical model for moral distress, considering the process of moral deliberation, spaces of power and resistance and patient advocacy, and sought to carry out a reflection that culminated with the creation of a broader concept of moral distress. PMID:25366998

Barlem, Edison Luiz Devos; Ramos, Flávia Regina Souza

2014-11-01

481

Quantum probabilities: an information-theoretic interpretation  

E-print Network

This Chapter develops a realist information-theoretic interpretation of the nonclassical features of quantum probabilities. On this view, what is fundamental in the transition from classical to quantum physics is the recognition that \\emph{information in the physical sense has new structural features}, just as the transition from classical to relativistic physics rests on the recognition that space-time is structurally different than we thought. Hilbert space, the event space of quantum systems, is interpreted as a kinematic (i.e., pre-dynamic) framework for an indeterministic physics, in the sense that the geometric structure of Hilbert space imposes objective probabilistic or information-theoretic constraints on correlations between events, just as the geometric structure of Minkowski space in special relativity imposes spatio-temporal kinematic constraints on events. The interpretation of quantum probabilities is more subjectivist in spirit than other discussions in this book (e.g., the chapter by Timpson), insofar as the quantum state is interpreted as a credence function---a bookkeeping device for keeping track of probabilities---but it is also objective (or intersubjective), insofar as the credences specified by the quantum state are understood as uniquely determined, via Gleason's theorem, by objective correlational constraints on events in the nonclassical quantum event space defined by the subspace structure of Hilbert space.

Jeffrey Bub

2010-05-14

482

Sensor Based Framework for Secure Multimedia Communication in VANET  

PubMed Central

Secure multimedia communication enhances the safety of passengers by providing visual pictures of accidents and danger situations. In this paper we proposed a framework for secure multimedia communication in Vehicular Ad-Hoc Networks (VANETs). Our proposed framework is mainly divided into four components: redundant information, priority assignment, malicious data verification and malicious node verification. The proposed scheme jhas been validated with the help of the NS-2 network simulator and the Evalvid tool. PMID:22163462

Rahim, Aneel; Khan, Zeeshan Shafi; Bin Muhaya, Fahad T.; Sher, Muhammad; Kim, Tai-Hoon

2010-01-01

483

Sensor based framework for secure multimedia communication in VANET.  

PubMed

Secure multimedia communication enhances the safety of passengers by providing visual pictures of accidents and danger situations. In this paper we proposed a framework for secure multimedia communication in Vehicular Ad-Hoc Networks (VANETs). Our proposed framework is mainly divided into four components: redundant information, priority assignment, malicious data verification and malicious node verification. The proposed scheme jhas been validated with the help of the NS-2 network simulator and the Evalvid tool. PMID:22163462

Rahim, Aneel; Khan, Zeeshan Shafi; Bin Muhaya, Fahad T; Sher, Muhammad; Kim, Tai-Hoon

2010-01-01

484

Theoretical horizontal-branch evolution  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The general features of the theoretical evolution of canonical horizontal-branch (HB) stars are briefly reviewed with specific emphasis on the track morphology in the HR diagram and the determination of the globular cluster helium abundance. The observational evidence for the occurrence of semiconvection is discussed together with some remaining theoretical uncertainty.

Sweigart, Allen V.

1987-01-01

485

An entropic framework for modeling economies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We develop an information-theoretic framework for economic modeling. This framework is based on principles of entropic inference that are designed for reasoning on the basis of incomplete information. We take the point of view of an external observer who has access to limited information about broad macroscopic economic features. We view this framework as complementary to more traditional methods. The economy is modeled as a collection of agents about whom we make no assumptions of rationality (in the sense of maximizing utility or profit). States of statistical equilibrium are introduced as those macrostates that maximize entropy subject to the relevant information codified into constraints. The basic assumption is that this information refers to supply and demand and is expressed in the form of the expected values of certain quantities (such as inputs, resources, goods, production functions, utility functions and budgets). The notion of economic entropy is introduced. It provides a measure of the uniformity of the distribution of goods and resources. It captures both the welfare state of the economy as well as the characteristics of the market (say, monopolistic, concentrated or competitive). Prices, which turn out to be the Lagrange multipliers, are endogenously generated by the economy. Further studies include the equilibrium between two economies and the conditions for stability. As an example, the case of the nonlinear economy that arises from linear production and utility functions is treated in some detail.

Caticha, Ariel; Golan, Amos

2014-08-01

486

Framework for network survivability performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article is based on the results of ANSI Technical Subcommittee T1A1 activities in the area of a general framework for telecommunication network survivability performance. The issues of users' expectations and requirements, outage categorization, and a framework for analysis of survivability techniques are discussed. Based on the survivability framework, models for network survivability assessment and analysis are considered, and performance

Ali Zolfaghari; F. J. Kaudel

1994-01-01

487

33 CFR 334.30 - Gulf of Maine off Pemaquid Point, Maine; naval sonobuoy test area.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Gulf of Maine off Pemaquid Point, Maine; naval sonobuoy test area. 334.30 Section...RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.30 Gulf of Maine off Pemaquid Point, Maine; naval sonobuoy...

2010-07-01

488