Sample records for main theoretical framework

  1. A Theoretical Framework for Visual Motion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alan L. Yuille; Norberto M. Grzywacz

    We propose a theoretical framework for visual motion. Models in this framework are constructed using two design principles: First, their mechanisms should be biologically plausible and consistent with experiments. Second, they should be well-engineered to perform well on motion data from realistic scenes. The framework is rst described at a conceptual level where we show that it can, in principle,

  2. METAMEMORY: A THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK AND NEW FINDINGS

    E-print Network

    Barrett, Jeffrey A.

    . A Theoretical Framework for Metamemory Our analysis of metacognition is based on three abstract principles of those terms by the mathematician Hilbert THE PSYCHOLOGY OF LEARNING Copyright d 1990 by Academic Press

  3. New Theoretical Frameworks for Machine Learning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maria-Florina Balcan

    Abstract This thesis develops and analyzes theoretical frameworks,for new emerging paradigms of Machine Learning including Semi-supervised, Active, and Similarity-based Learning. These are areas of significant practical importance and significant activity in Machine Learning, and a number of different algorithmic approaches have been developed for each of them. Standard Learning Theory frameworks,such as PAC or Statistical Learning Theory models tend to

  4. Unifying different theories of learning: theoretical framework and empirical evidence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Huy Phuong Phan

    2008-01-01

    The main aim of this research study was to test out a conceptual model encompassing the theoretical frameworks of achievement goals, study processing strategies, effort, and reflective thinking practice. In particular, it was postulated that the causal influences of achievement goals on academic performance are direct and indirect through study strategies, effort, and reflective thinking. Furthermore, the effects of study

  5. A theoretical framework for quality regulation in electricity distribution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rodrigo Lopez; Jean-Michel Glachant; Yannick Perez

    2008-01-01

    To supply Quality Service is the main goal of the electricity distribution sector, but the diversity and characteristics of the distribution networks pose a huge problem of regulation to be studied. This paper establishes a theoretical framework for technical-economic analysis on quality regulation in electricity distribution sector. Depending on the regulation model, the Quality of Electricity is simply left to

  6. Unifying Different Theories of Learning: Theoretical Framework and Empirical Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phan, Huy Phuong

    2008-01-01

    The main aim of this research study was to test out a conceptual model encompassing the theoretical frameworks of achievement goals, study processing strategies, effort, and reflective thinking practice. In particular, it was postulated that the causal influences of achievement goals on academic performance are direct and indirect through study…

  7. The Theoretical Framework of Cognitive Informatics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yingxu Wang

    2007-01-01

    ABSTRACT Cognitive Informatics (CI) is a transdisciplinary enquiry of the internal information processing mechanisms and processes of the brain and natural intelligence shared by almost all science and engineering disciplines. This article presents an intensive review of the new field of CI. The structure of the theoretical framework of CI is described encompassing the Layered Reference Model of the Brain

  8. Learning Physical Domains: Toward a Theoretical Framework

    E-print Network

    Forbus, Kenneth D.

    . The chapter outlines the component theories and proposes a learning sequence for physical domains. 12Learning Physical Domains: Toward a Theoretical Framework Kenneth D. Forbus & Dedre Gentner that is being developed in an attempt to construct a computational account of human learning of physical domains

  9. Affect in Mathematics Education--Exploring Theoretical Frameworks. Research Forum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hannula, Markku; Evans, Jeff; Philippou, George; Zan, Rosetta

    2004-01-01

    This document brings into a dialogue some of the theoretical frameworks used to study affect in mathematics education. It presents affect as a representational system, affect as one regulator of the dynamic self, affect in a socio-constructivist framework, and affect as embodied. It also evaluates these frameworks from different perspectives:…

  10. A Screw -Theoretic Framework for Musculoskeletal System Modeling and Analysis

    E-print Network

    Krovi, Venkat

    A Screw -Theoretic Framework for Musculoskeletal System Modeling and Analysis by Michael J. Del of tools for musculoskeletal system analysis, leveraging methodologies which have revolutionized can model, simulate, and analyze a redundant musculoskeletal system with (i) an adequate degree

  11. Bayesian Decision Theoretical Framework for Clustering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Mo

    2011-01-01

    In this thesis, we establish a novel probabilistic framework for the data clustering problem from the perspective of Bayesian decision theory. The Bayesian decision theory view justifies the important questions: what is a cluster and what a clustering algorithm should optimize. We prove that the spectral clustering (to be specific, the…

  12. Understanding the Ensemble Pianist: A Theoretical Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kokotsaki, Dimitra

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a theoretical model of the attainment of high quality in musical ensemble performance as perceived by the pianist and to identify the factors affecting this process. The research has followed an inductive interpretative approach, applying qualitative methods. The analytic material was collected through the…

  13. EDUCATIONAL CARTOGRAPHY: MAPPING A THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patrick Wiegand

    Although school atlases represent a major sector in cartographic publishing, we know little about how these materials are developed. This is partly because the number of people directly involved in research and development worldwide is relatively small, partly because commercial competition has generally stifled debate and partly because theoretical perspectives on map design for young people remain underdeveloped. Although the

  14. Critical discourse analysis and metaphor: toward a theoretical framework

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christopher Hart

    2008-01-01

    Critical discourse analysis (CDA) explores the role of discourse structures in constituting social inequality. Metaphorical structure, however, has received relatively little attention in explicit CDA. The paper aims to redress this by developing a coherent theoretical framework for CDA and metaphor. This framework adopts conceptual blending theory over conceptual metaphor theory, where the latter is perceived to be incompatible with

  15. A Theoretical Framework for Physics Education Research: Modeling Student Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redish, Edward F.

    2004-01-01

    Education is a goal-oriented field. But if we want to treat education scientifically so we can accumulate, evaluate, and refine what we learn, then we must develop a theoretical framework that is strongly rooted in objective observations and through which different theoretical models of student thinking can be compared. Much that is known in the…

  16. Multicultural Career Counseling: Theoretical Applications of the Systems Theory Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arthur, Nancy; McMahon, Mary

    2005-01-01

    Increasing recognition of cultural influences on career development requires expanded theoretical and practical perspectives. Theories of career development need to explicate views of culture and provide direction for career counseling with clients who are culturally diverse. The Systems Theory Framework (STF) is a theoretical foundation that…

  17. Theoretical mass loss rates of cool main-sequence stars

    E-print Network

    V. Holzwarth; M. Jardine

    2006-11-14

    We develop a model for the wind properties of cool main-sequence stars, which comprises their wind ram pressures, mass fluxes, and terminal wind velocities. The wind properties are determined through a polytropic magnetised wind model, assuming power laws for the dependence of the thermal and magnetic wind parameters on the stellar rotation rate. We use empirical data to constrain theoretical wind scenarios, which are characterised by different rates of increase of the wind temperature, wind density, and magnetic field strength. Scenarios based on moderate rates of increase yield wind ram pressures in agreement with most empirical constraints, but cannot account for some moderately rotating targets, whose high apparent mass loss rates are inconsistent with observed coronal X-ray and magnetic properties. For fast magnetic rotators, the magneto-centrifugal driving of the outflow can produce terminal wind velocities far in excess of the surface escape velocity. Disregarding this aspect in the analyses of wind ram pressures leads to overestimations of stellar mass loss rates. The predicted mass loss rates of cool main-sequence stars do not exceed about ten times the solar value. Our results are in contrast with previous investigations, which found a strong increase of the stellar mass loss rates with the coronal X-ray flux. Owing to the weaker dependence, we expect the impact of stellar winds on planetary atmospheres to be less severe and the detectability of magnetospheric radio emission to be lower then previously suggested. Considering the rotational evolution of a one solar-mass star, the mass loss rates and the wind ram pressures are highest during the pre-main sequence phase.

  18. An Overview of a Theoretical Framework of Phenomenography in Qualitative Education Research: An Example from Physics Education Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ornek, Funda

    2008-01-01

    One or more theoretical frameworks or orientations are used in qualitative education research. In this paper, the main tenets, the background and the appropriateness of phenomenography, which is one of the theoretical frameworks used in qualitative research, will be depicted. Further, the differences among phenomenography, phenomenology and…

  19. Framework for a space shuttle main engine health monitoring system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hawman, Michael W.; Galinaitis, William S.; Tulpule, Sharayu; Mattedi, Anita K.; Kamenetz, Jeffrey

    1990-01-01

    A framework developed for a health management system (HMS) which is directed at improving the safety of operation of the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) is summarized. An emphasis was placed on near term technology through requirements to use existing SSME instrumentation and to demonstrate the HMS during SSME ground tests within five years. The HMS framework was developed through an analysis of SSME failure modes, fault detection algorithms, sensor technologies, and hardware architectures. A key feature of the HMS framework design is that a clear path from the ground test system to a flight HMS was maintained. Fault detection techniques based on time series, nonlinear regression, and clustering algorithms were developed and demonstrated on data from SSME ground test failures. The fault detection algorithms exhibited 100 percent detection of faults, had an extremely low false alarm rate, and were robust to sensor loss. These algorithms were incorporated into a hierarchical decision making strategy for overall assessment of SSME health. A preliminary design for a hardware architecture capable of supporting real time operation of the HMS functions was developed. Utilizing modular, commercial off-the-shelf components produced a reliable low cost design with the flexibility to incorporate advances in algorithm and sensor technology as they become available.

  20. A Theoretical Framework for Physics Education Research: Modeling Student Thinking

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edward F. Redish

    2004-01-01

    Education is a goal-oriented field. But if we want to treat education\\u000ascientifically so we can accumulate, evaluate, and refine what we learn, then\\u000awe must develop a theoretical framework that is strongly rooted in objective\\u000aobservations and through which different theoretical models of student thinking\\u000acan be compared. Much that is known in the behavioral sciences is robust and

  1. Regulatory framework in assisted reproductive technologies, relevance and main issues.

    PubMed

    Merlet, Françoise

    2009-01-01

    Assisted reproductive technologies (ART) have changed life for the past 25 years and many ethical and social issues have emerged following this new method of conception. In order to protect individuals against scientific and ethical abuses without inhibiting scientific progress, a specific legal framework is necessary. The first French law on Bioethics was voted after an extensive debate in 1994 then reviewed in 2004. This review previously scheduled every five years is currently being discussed. Legal provisions applying to ART are part of a large framework including the protection of the patients' rights and biomedical research. The key principles consist of respect for human life and ban on commercial practices of human body parts, eugenic practices and any kind of cloning. These key principles apply to ART. Donation is anonymous and free. Created in 2004, the Agence de la biomédecine is a government agency and one of the main tools of the French regulations. The missions focus on improving the quality and the safety of the management of ART. Evaluation of activities is available to all from the annual report. The agency represents the French competent authority for medical and scientific aspects of ART. Substantial differences in European legislations exist from the open-up "laissez faire" to the most restrictive one. As a consequence a large reproductive tourism has developed particularly for egg donation or surrogacy. The medical and ethical conditions of management of patients and donors represent the main critical points. In order to avoid ethical abuses, homogenization regarding the key principles is necessary in Europe. It is an opportunity to reassert that human body parts should not be a source of financial gain. PMID:20067901

  2. Towards a Theoretical Framework of Heritage Language Literacy and Identity Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lo-Philip, Stephanie Wing-Yan

    2010-01-01

    Drawing mainly on Pierre Bourdieu's notions of symbolic capital, Bakhtin's concept of voice and heteroglossia in the novel, and Gee's theory of Discourses and the term third space as applied in education, I construct a theoretical framework for heritage language (HL) literacy and identity processes. I propose that HL literacy acquisition be viewed…

  3. The impact of Greek Orthodoxy on entrepreneurship: a theoretical framework

    Microsoft Academic Search

    George Gotsis; Zoe Kortezi

    2009-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to offer a theoretical framework for the analysis of the eventual implications of Greek Orthodoxy for business and entrepreneurial activities in general. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper examines the basic concepts, tenets and principles – in particular, those being of interest to business and entrepreneurship – of a specific religious worldview, Greek Orthodoxy.

  4. Exploring How Globalization Shapes Education: Methodology and Theoretical Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pan, Su-Yan

    2010-01-01

    This is a commentary on some major issues raised in Carter and Dediwalage's "Globalisation and science education: The case of "Sustainability by the bay"" (this issue), particularly their methodology and theoretical framework for understanding how globalisation shapes education (including science education). While acknowledging the authors'…

  5. Educational Communities of Inquiry: Theoretical Framework, Research and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akyol, Zehra; Garrison, D. Randy

    2013-01-01

    Communications technologies have been continuously integrated into learning and training environments which has revealed the need for a clear understanding of the process. The Community of Inquiry (COI) Theoretical Framework has a philosophical foundation which provides planned guidelines and principles to development useful learning environments…

  6. Rewarding North Korea: Theoretical Perspectives on the 1994 Agreed Framework

    Microsoft Academic Search

    CURTIS H. MARTIN

    2002-01-01

    This article tests theoretical propositions of sanctions theory against a 'crucial case study' of the US-DPRK Agreed Framework, which since 1994 has employed incentives to influence North Korea to abandon its nuclear weapons program. By electing an incentives-based strategy, the Agreed Frame- work appears to invalidate the proposition that positive sanctions are unlikely to be employed between adversaries. However, the

  7. Toward a theoretical framework for trustworthy cyber sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Shouhuai

    2010-04-01

    Cyberspace is an indispensable part of the economy and society, but has been "polluted" with many compromised computers that can be abused to launch further attacks against the others. Since it is likely that there always are compromised computers, it is important to be aware of the (dynamic) cyber security-related situation, which is however challenging because cyberspace is an extremely large-scale complex system. Our project aims to investigate a theoretical framework for trustworthy cyber sensing. With the perspective of treating cyberspace as a large-scale complex system, the core question we aim to address is: What would be a competent theoretical (mathematical and algorithmic) framework for designing, analyzing, deploying, managing, and adapting cyber sensor systems so as to provide trustworthy information or input to the higher layer of cyber situation-awareness management, even in the presence of sophisticated malicious attacks against the cyber sensor systems?

  8. Using Learning Principles as a Theoretical Framework for Instructional Consultations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiPietro, Michele; Norman, Marie

    2014-01-01

    Learning theory provides a powerful framework for analyzing instructional consultations and increasing their effectiveness. In this paper, the authors review the main tenets of learning theory, apply them to consultation scenarios, and present a complex case study to show how they can guide analysis and problem solving around challenging…

  9. Unsupervised image-set clustering using an information theoretic framework.

    PubMed

    Goldberger, Jacob; Gordon, Shiri; Greenspan, Hayit

    2006-02-01

    In this paper, we combine discrete and continuous image models with information-theoretic-based criteria for unsupervised hierarchical image-set clustering. The continuous image modeling is based on mixture of Gaussian densities. The unsupervised image-set clustering is based on a generalized version of a recently introduced information-theoretic principle, the information bottleneck principle. Images are clustered such that the mutual information between the clusters and the image content is maximally preserved. Experimental results demonstrate the performance of the proposed framework for image clustering on a large image set. Information theoretic tools are used to evaluate cluster quality. Particular emphasis is placed on the application of the clustering for efficient image search and retrieval. PMID:16479815

  10. A Universal Operator Theoretic Framework for Quantum Fault Tolerance

    E-print Network

    Gerald Gilbert; Michael Hamrick; Yaakov S. Weinstein; Vaneet Aggarwal; A. Robert Calderbank

    2008-02-12

    In this paper we introduce a universal operator theoretic framework for quantum fault tolerance. This incorporates a top-down approach that implements a system-level criterion based on specification of the full system dynamics, applied at every level of error correction concatenation. This leads to more accurate determinations of error thresholds than could previously be obtained. This is demonstrated both formally and with an explicit numerical example. The basis for our approach is the Quantum Computer Condition (QCC), an inequality governing the evolution of a quantum computer. We show that all known coding schemes are actually special cases of the QCC. We demonstrate this by introducing a new, operator theoretic form of entanglement assisted quantum error correction, which incorporates as special cases all known error correcting protocols, and is itself a special case of the QCC.

  11. Developing, evaluating, and refining stock assessment framework for the Maine sea urchin fishery

    E-print Network

    Chen, Yong

    Developing, evaluating, and refining stock assessment framework for the Maine sea urchin fishery A Bayesian stock assessment framework has been developed and applied to the Maine sea urchin fishery dynamics of sea urchin, which can take into account of large spatial variations in growth; (2) Bayesian

  12. A Game Theoretic Framework for Analyzing Re-Identification Risk

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Zhiyu; Vorobeychik, Yevgeniy; Xia, Weiyi; Clayton, Ellen Wright; Kantarcioglu, Murat; Ganta, Ranjit; Heatherly, Raymond; Malin, Bradley A.

    2015-01-01

    Given the potential wealth of insights in personal data the big databases can provide, many organizations aim to share data while protecting privacy by sharing de-identified data, but are concerned because various demonstrations show such data can be re-identified. Yet these investigations focus on how attacks can be perpetrated, not the likelihood they will be realized. This paper introduces a game theoretic framework that enables a publisher to balance re-identification risk with the value of sharing data, leveraging a natural assumption that a recipient only attempts re-identification if its potential gains outweigh the costs. We apply the framework to a real case study, where the value of the data to the publisher is the actual grant funding dollar amounts from a national sponsor and the re-identification gain of the recipient is the fine paid to a regulator for violation of federal privacy rules. There are three notable findings: 1) it is possible to achieve zero risk, in that the recipient never gains from re-identification, while sharing almost as much data as the optimal solution that allows for a small amount of risk; 2) the zero-risk solution enables sharing much more data than a commonly invoked de-identification policy of the U.S. Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA); and 3) a sensitivity analysis demonstrates these findings are robust to order-of-magnitude changes in player losses and gains. In combination, these findings provide support that such a framework can enable pragmatic policy decisions about de-identified data sharing. PMID:25807380

  13. A Systems-Theoretical Framework for Health and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Voit, Eberhard O.

    2009-01-01

    Modern advances in molecular biology have produced enormous amounts of data characterizing physiological and disease states in cells and organisms. While bioinformatics has facilitated the organizing and mining of these data, it is the task of systems biology to merge the available information into dynamic, explanatory and predictive models. This article takes a step into this direction. It proposes a conceptual approach toward formalizing health and disease and illustrates it in the context of inflammation and preconditioning. Instead of defining health and disease states, the emphasis is on simplexes in a high-dimensional biomarker space. These simplexes are bounded by physiological constraints and permit the quantitative characterization of personalized health trajectories, health risk profiles that change with age, and the efficacy of different treatment options. The article mainly focuses on concepts but also briefly describes how the proposed concepts might be formulated rigorously within a mathematical framework. PMID:18851981

  14. Linearly Compressed Pages: A Main Memory Compression Framework with Low Complexity and Low Latency

    E-print Network

    Linearly Compressed Pages: A Main Memory Compression Framework with Low Complexity and Low Latency@cmu.edu Categories and Subject Descriptors: B.3.2 [Design Styles]: Primary Memory, Cache Memories Keywords: Main memory compression, cache compression 1. Introduction and Motivation Main memory is a critical resource

  15. A theoretical framework for jamming in confluent biological tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manning, M. Lisa

    2015-03-01

    For important biological functions such as wound healing, embryonic development, and cancer tumorogenesis, cells must initially rearrange and move over relatively large distances, like a liquid. Subsequently, these same tissues must undergo buckling and support shear stresses, like a solid. Our work suggests that biological tissues can accommodate these disparate requirements because the tissues are close to glass or jamming transition. While recent self propelled particle models generically predict a glass/jamming transition that is driven by packing density ? and happens at some critical ?c less than unity, many biological tissues that are confluent with no gaps between cells appear to undergo a jamming transition at a constant density (? = 1). I will discuss a new theoretical framework for predicting energy barriers and rates of cell migration in 2D tissue monolayers, and show that this model predicts a novel type of rigidity transition, which takes place at constant ? = 1 and depends only on single cell properties such as cell-cell adhesion, cortical tension and cell elasticity. This model additionally predicts that an experimentally observable parameter, the ratio between a cell's perimeter and the square root of its cross-sectional area, attains a specific, critical value at the jamming transition. We show that this prediction is precisely realized in primary epithelial cultures from human patients, with implications for asthma pathology.

  16. The Dolinar Receiver in an Information Theoretic Framework

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erkmen, Baris I.; Birnbaum, Kevin M.; Moision, Bruce E.; Dolinar, Samuel J.

    2011-01-01

    Optical communication at the quantum limit requires that measurements on the optical field be maximally informative, but devising physical measurements that accomplish this objective has proven challenging. The Dolinar receiver exemplifies a rare instance of success in distinguishing between two coherent states: an adaptive local oscillator is mixed with the signal prior to photodetection, which yields an error probability that meets the Helstrom lower bound with equality. Here we apply the same local-oscillator-based architecture with aninformation-theoretic optimization criterion. We begin with analysis of this receiver in a general framework for an arbitrary coherent-state modulation alphabet, and then we concentrate on two relevant examples. First, we study a binary antipodal alphabet and show that the Dolinar receiver's feedback function not only minimizes the probability of error, but also maximizes the mutual information. Next, we study ternary modulation consistingof antipodal coherent states and the vacuum state. We derive an analytic expression for a near-optimal local oscillator feedback function, and, via simulation, we determine its photon information efficiency (PIE). We provide the PIE versus dimensional information efficiency (DIE) trade-off curve and show that this modulation and the our receiver combination performs universally better than (generalized) on-off keying plus photoncounting, although, the advantage asymptotically vanishes as the bits-per-photon diverges towards infinity.

  17. Corruption in Open Source Software Organizations: a theoretical framework. Corruption in Open Source Software Organizations

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    -profit, non-profit and public organiza- tions (Senior, 2004). Even organizations in which one would not expectCorruption in Open Source Software Organizations: a theoretical framework. 1 Corruption in Open Source Software Organizations: a theoretical framework. Matthias Walther Research Assistant, University

  18. Multiagent Reinforcement Learning: Theoretical Framework and an Algorithm

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Junling Hu; Michael P. Wellman

    1998-01-01

    In this paper, we adopt general-sum stochasticgames as a framework for multiagent reinforcementlearning. Our work extends previouswork by Littman on zero-sum stochasticgames to a broader framework. We designa multiagent Q-learning method underthis framework, and prove that it convergesto a Nash equilibrium under specified conditions.This algorithm is useful for finding theoptimal strategy when there exists a uniqueNash equilibrium in the game.

  19. Theoretical study of the bonding between aminocarbene and main group elements

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Theoretical study of the bonding between aminocarbene and main group elements Gilles Frison CH2, SiH2, NH, PH, O or S. The bonding mode has been described using the Natural Bond Orbital (NBO Localization Function (ELF). A donor­acceptor interaction with a substantial back- bonding of the carbenoid

  20. Information systems and occupational stress: a theoretical framework

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James Y. L. Thong; Chee-Sing Yap

    2000-01-01

    The information systems (IS) profession is a stressful profession. However, there is little theoretical or empirical research on the effects of occupational stress on IS professionals. A major reason is because IS professionals and researchers are unaware of the consequences of occupational stress and unfamiliar with the occupational stress literature. The purpose of this paper is to propose a theoretical

  1. Non-state actors in international politics: a theoretical framework

    E-print Network

    Paley, Abram Wil

    2009-05-15

    In recent years, there has been a burgeoning of studies related to international terrorism, many related to and resulting from current events and occurrences. However, the enterprise of terrorism scholarship within the framework of political science...

  2. Investigating Diets of Asian Youth in the U.S. Using a Theoretical Framework 

    E-print Network

    Diep, Cassandra

    2012-07-16

    studies - two literature reviews and one quantitative study - compose this dissertation, which aims to understand dietary behaviors of Asian-American youths using a theoretical framework. The first study is a systematic literature review of existing...

  3. Theoretical Framework: Some Basic Issues Related to Methods and Media Selection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spangenberg, Ronald W.

    A theoretical framework for media and methods selection cannot yet be definitively set forth. However, establishing performance objectives, and then interpreting them into training objectives will help to focus attention on critical factors in the learning process. (Author/MC)

  4. A disaggregated model of urban spatial structure: theoretical framework

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M Echenique; A Feo; R Herrera; J Riquezes

    1974-01-01

    This paper describes a disaggregated model of urban spatial structure which combines the framework provided by the macroscale approach of social physics, to which most models developed to date belong, and the advantages derived from the use of the microscale approach provided by economic theory. The model attempts to integrate both approaches by means of the use of maximum entropy

  5. A Theoretical Framework for the Study of Adult Cognitive Plasticity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lovden, Martin; Backman, Lars; Lindenberger, Ulman; Schaefer, Sabine; Schmiedek, Florian

    2010-01-01

    Does plasticity contribute to adult cognitive development, and if so, in what ways? The vague and overused concept of plasticity makes these controversial questions difficult to answer. In this article, we refine the notion of adult cognitive plasticity and sharpen its conceptual distinctiveness. According to our framework, adult cognitive…

  6. A theoretical framework for multiple neural network systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mike W. Shields; Matthew C. Casey

    2008-01-01

    Multiple neural network systems have become popular techniques for tackling complex tasks, often giving improved performance compared to single network systems. For example, modular systems can provide improvements in generalisation through task decomposition, whereas multiple classifier and regressor systems typically improve generalisation through the ensemble combination of redundant networks. Whilst there has been significant focus on understanding the theoretical properties

  7. 3-D Gradient Coil Design—Initial Theoretical Framework

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter T. While; Larry K. Forbes; Stuart Crozier

    2009-01-01

    An analytic inverse method is presented for the theoretical design of 3-D transverse gradient coils. Existing gradient coil design methods require the basic geometry of the coil to be predetermined before optimization. Typically, coil windings are constrained to lie on cylindrical, planar, spherical, or conical surfaces. In this paper, a fully 3-D region in the solution space is explored and

  8. Potential benefits of remote sensing: Theoretical framework and empirical estimate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eisgruber, L. M.

    1972-01-01

    A theoretical framwork is outlined for estimating social returns from research and application of remote sensing. The approximate dollar magnitude is given of a particular application of remote sensing, namely estimates of corn production, soybeans, and wheat. Finally, some comments are made on the limitations of this procedure and on the implications of results.

  9. Let's Stop the "Debate" and Consider the Theoretical Frameworks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Rena M.

    A teacher's theoretical viewpoint is pervasive. It determines not only the materials chosen and the way the materials are used, but also the perception the teacher holds of the reading process. It is important, therefore, for teachers to understand the theory on which their views are based so that they can understand why they have chosen a…

  10. Primary Teachers' Attitudes toward Science: A New Theoretical Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Aalderen-Smeets, Sandra I.; Walma van der Molen, Juliette H.; Asma, Lieke J. F.

    2012-01-01

    Attention to the attitudes of preservice and inservice primary teachers toward science is of fundamental importance to research on primary science education. However, progress in this field of research has been slow due to the poor definition and conceptualization of the construct of primary teachers' attitude toward science. This poor theoretical

  11. DESIGN AND NEIGHBORHOOD SENSE OF COMMUNITY: AN INTEGRATIVE AND CROSS-CULTURALLY VALID THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yasser M. Moustafa

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposes a much-needed integrative and cross-culturally valid theoretical framework for the study and better understanding of the potential impact of environmental design on neighborhood sense of community. It is specifically formulated to address the major problems impeding the progress of this area of research. These problems are first identified. The proposed framework is then outlined. Subsequently, support for

  12. The Agri-Food Cooperative Netchain: A Theoretical Framework to Study its Configuration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ana Maria Garcia Perez; Marian Garcia Martinez

    2006-01-01

    This paper proposes a research framework of the design and configuration of agrifood chains where the focal firm is a second-tier cooperative (group of affiliated cooperatives) in order to assess the alignment of (relational) governance structures and coordination mechanisms in these chains with supply chain management (SCM) principles. The theoretical framework proposes an integrative approach by drawing on the Relational

  13. The agrifood cooperative netchain. A theoretical framework to study its configuration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ana Maria Garcia Perez; Marian Garcia Martinez

    2007-01-01

    This paper proposes a research framework of the design and configuration of agrifood chains where the focal firm is a second-tier cooperative (group of affiliated cooperatives) in order to assess the alignment of (relational) governance structures and coordination mechanisms in these chains with supply chain management (SCM) principles. The theoretical framework draws on the Relational View of inter-organizational competitive advantage

  14. Towards a Theoretical Framework for Informal Language Learning via Interactive Television

    E-print Network

    Masthoff, Judith

    television. We argue that mapping current language learning theories onto learners' expressed attitudes to aTowards a Theoretical Framework for Informal Language Learning via Interactive Television ABSTRACT This paper proposes a pedagogical framework for informal language learning services via interactive

  15. A game theoretic framework for bandwidth allocation and pricing in broadband networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Haïkel Yaïche; Ravi R. Mazumdar; Catherine Rosenberg

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, we present a game theoretic framework for bandwidth allocation for elastic services in high-speed net- works. The framework is based on the idea of the Nash bargaining solution from cooperative game theory, which not only provides the rate settings of users that are Pareto optimal from the point of view of the whole system, but are also

  16. Upping the "Anti-": The Value of an Anti-Racist Theoretical Framework in Music Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hess, Juliet

    2015-01-01

    In a time that some have argued is "postracial" following the election and reelection of Barack Obama (see Wise 2010, for discussion), this paper argues that antiracism is a crucial theoretical framework for music education. I explore three areas of music education, in which such a framework can push toward change. The first area speaks…

  17. Nonlocal approach to the analysis of the stress distribution in granular systems. I. Theoretical framework

    E-print Network

    Kenkre, V.M.

    with continuum mechanics as in the analysis of Ref. 8 . We focus attention on the stress tensor, whichNonlocal approach to the analysis of the stress distribution in granular systems. I. Theoretical, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 Received 22 August 1997 A theoretical framework for the analysis of the stress

  18. A Computational Game-Theoretic Framework for Cryptography Joseph Y. Halpern

    E-print Network

    Keinan, Alon

    A Computational Game-Theoretic Framework for Cryptography Joseph Y. Halpern Cornell University; and computational security considers only adversaries that can be implemented by The traditional game develop a definition of protocol security relying on game-theoretic notions of implemen- tation. We show

  19. Toward a Theoretical Framework for Information Retrieval (IR) Evaluation in an Information Seeking Context

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amanda Spink; T. D. Wilson

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents work in progress toward the development of the information retrieval (IR) evaluation measure - Information Problem Shift- within a theoretical framework and model for conceptualizing and researching information retrieval (IR) within an information seeking context. The theoretical model consists of a set of situated actions by information-seekers within interactive search sessions with information retrieval (IR) systems over

  20. Theoretical Analysis and Practical Insights on EAP Estimation via a Unified HARDI Framework

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    of Automation, Chinese Academy of Sciences, China 2 Athena Project Team, INRIA Sophia Antipolis ­ M to analytically solve the Fourier transform. To our knowledge, there is no theoretical analysis and practicalTheoretical Analysis and Practical Insights on EAP Estimation via a Unified HARDI Framework Jian

  1. A Supply Chain Network Game Theoretic Framework for Time-Based Competition with

    E-print Network

    Nagurney, Anna

    A Supply Chain Network Game Theoretic Framework for Time-Based Competition with Transportation and Background The Supply Chain Network Game Theoretic Model with Product Differentiation and Delivery Times emerged as a paradigm for strategizing about and operationalizing supply chain networks in which

  2. CONTOUR LINES BETWEEN A MODEL AS A THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK AND THE SAME MODEL AS METHODOLOGICAL TOOL

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rina Hershkowitz

    Research today is quite flexible concerning the methodologies in use. It is very common for researchers to use a combination of research methodologies and for this combination to change from one piece of research to another depending upon their research goals, research interest and the theoretical framework. In addition when a theoretical research model is inferred from empirical data, this

  3. Towards Culturally Relevant Classroom Science: A Theoretical Framework Focusing on Traditional Plant Healing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mpofu, Vongai; Otulaja, Femi S.; Mushayikwa, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    A theoretical framework is an important component of a research study. It grounds the study and guides the methodological design. It also forms a reference point for the interpretation of the research findings. This paper conceptually examines the process of constructing a multi-focal theoretical lens for guiding studies that aim to accommodate…

  4. Use of Theoretical Frameworks as a Pragmatic Guide for Mixed Methods Studies: A Methodological Necessity?

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Bronwynne C.; Coon, David W.; Ume, Ebere

    2011-01-01

    There is a growing acceptance of the utility of mixed methods in health sciences but there is no widely accepted set of ideas in regard to use of a conceptual or theoretical framework to guide inquiry. Few mixed methods health science articles report the use of such a framework. Lack of available conceptual maps provided by theoretical frameworks, necessary intricacy of design, and the qualitative “black box” tradition all contribute to a dearth of methodological guidance in such studies. This article uses a funded National Institutes of Health study as an example to explain the utility of a theoretical framework in conceptualizing a study, making design decisions such as sampling and recruitment, collecting and analyzing data, and data interpretation. PMID:22368533

  5. Unified Theoretical Framework for Shape Entropy in Colloids

    E-print Network

    van Anders, Greg; Klotsa, Daphne; Engel, Michael; Glotzer, Sharon C

    2013-01-01

    Entropy has long been known to lead to the ordering of colloidal systems ranging from dense suspensions of hard particles to dilute suspensions of spheres in the presence of smaller polymeric depletants. Entropic ordering of hard anisotropic particles into complex structures has been demonstrated in simulations and experiments. It has been proposed that nonspherical particles order due to the emergence of directional entropic forces (DEFs) that depend upon particle shape, yet these forces have not been rigorously defined or quantified, hindering their use in the understanding of entropic self assembly. We present a framework for treating entropic forces in systems of colloidal shapes. Through the introduction of an effective potential of mean force and torque (PMFT) we demonstrate quantitatively that the microscopic origin of entropic ordering of anisotropic shapes is the emergence of DEFs tending to align neighboring particles. We rigorously define and compute these forces and show they are at least several ...

  6. Winds of Main-Sequence Stars: Observational Limits and a Path to Theoretical Prediction

    E-print Network

    Steven R. Cranmer

    2007-01-19

    It is notoriously difficult to measure the winds of solar-type stars. Traditional spectroscopic and radio continuum techniques are sensitive to mass loss rates at least two to three orders of magnitude stronger than the Sun's relatively feeble wind. Much has been done with these methods to probe the more massive outflows of younger (T Tauri) and older (giant, AGB, supergiant) cool stars, but the main sequence remains terra incognita. This presentation reviews the limits on traditional diagnostics and outlines more recent ideas such as Lyman alpha astrospheres and charge-exchange X-ray emission. In addition, there are hybrid constraints on mass loss rates that combine existing observables and theoretical models. The Sackmann/Boothroyd conjecture of a more massive young Sun (and thus a much stronger ZAMS wind) is one such idea that needs to be tested further. Another set of ideas involves a strong proposed coupling between coronal heating and stellar mass loss rates, where the former is easier to measure in stars down to solar-like values. The combined modeling of stellar coronae and stellar winds is developing rapidly, and it seems to be approaching a level of development where the only remaining ``free parameters'' involve the sub-photospheric convection. This talk will also summarize these theoretical efforts to predict the properties of solar-type main-sequence winds.

  7. Information theoretic framework of trust modeling and evaluation for ad hoc networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yan Lindsay Sun; Wei Yu; Zhu Han; K. J. Ray Liu

    2006-01-01

    Abstract, The performance of ad hoc networks depends on co-operation and trust among distributed nodes. To enhance secu-rity in ad hoc networks, it is important to evaluate trustworthi-ness of other nodes without centralized authorities. In this paper, we present an information theoretic framework to quantitatively measure trust and model trust propagation in ad hoc networks. In the proposed framework, trust

  8. A Research Framework on Social Networking Sites Usage: Critical Review and Theoretical Extension

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kathy Ning Shen; Mohamed Khalifa

    2010-01-01

    \\u000a Despite the worldwide popularity and rapid proliferation of social networking sites (SNS), e.g., Facebook, our understanding\\u000a about what drive people to SNS and how they use them remains limited. This study aims at establishing a theoretical framework\\u000a guiding the research on SNS usage. Built upon the Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT), the framework makes\\u000a following major extensions:

  9. Understanding the Role of Numeracy in Health: Proposed Theoretical Framework and Practical Insights

    PubMed Central

    Lipkus, Isaac M.; Peters, Ellen

    2009-01-01

    Numeracy, that is how facile people are with mathematical concepts and their applications, is gaining importance in medical decision making and risk communication. This paper proposes six critical functions of health numeracy. These functions are integrated into a theoretical framework on health numeracy that has implications for risk-communication and medical-decision-making processes. We examine practical underpinnings for targeted interventions aimed at improving such processes as a function of health numeracy. It is hoped that the proposed functions and theoretical framework will spur more research to determine how an understanding of health numeracy can lead to more effective communication and decision outcomes. PMID:19834054

  10. Variation Theory: A Theory of Learning and a Useful Theoretical Framework for Chemical Education Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bussey, Thomas J.; Orgill, MaryKay; Crippen, Kent J.

    2013-01-01

    Instructors are constantly baffled by the fact that two students who are sitting in the same class, who have access to the same materials, can come to understand a particular chemistry concept differently. Variation theory offers a theoretical framework from which to explore possible variations in experience and the resulting differences in…

  11. Analysing Theoretical Frameworks of Moral Education through Lakatos's Philosophy of Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, Hyemin

    2014-01-01

    The structure of studies of moral education is basically interdisciplinary; it includes moral philosophy, psychology, and educational research. This article systematically analyses the structure of studies of moral educational from the vantage points of philosophy of science. Among the various theoretical frameworks in the field of philosophy of…

  12. Towards a Theoretical Framework for Teaching Controversial Socio-scientific Issues

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ralph Levinson

    2006-01-01

    This paper develops a conceptual basis for a model on the teaching of socio-scientific controversial issues for secondary or high school students. I argue that the teaching of controversial issues needs a stronger theoretical base. Drawing on a liberal democratic conception of possible sources of conflict, three strands are developed that provide a framework for teachers when teaching socio-scientific issues:

  13. Model-Based Recognition of Multiple Deformable Objects Using a Game-Theoretic Framework

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Isil Bozma; James S. Duncan

    1991-01-01

    Image analysis systems aimed at robust segmentation via model-based recognition of multiple deformable objects require integration of a variety of modules. One approach to modularity and integration is based on decomposing the task into a set of coupled modules with their corresponding objectives, and then integrating them within a unifying framework. Although both theoretical and computational considerations indicate the importance

  14. Sharpening Thermal Imageries: A Generalized Theoretical Framework From an Assimilation Perspective

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wenfeng Zhan; Yunhao Chen; Ji Zhou; Jing Li; Wenyu Liu

    2011-01-01

    Land surface temperature (LST) plays an important role in many fields. However, thermal bands in prevailing sensors that are onboard satellites have limited spatial resolutions, which seriously impede their potential applications. Many approaches that aim to downscale thermal imageries to finer spatial resolution levels have been developed in recent years. This paper managed to construct a Generalized Theoretical Framework from

  15. Memory and the Self in Autism: A Review and Theoretical Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lind, Sophie E.

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews research on (a) autobiographical episodic and semantic memory, (b) the self-reference effect, (c) memory for the actions of self versus other (the self-enactment effect), and (d) non-autobiographical episodic memory in autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and provides a theoretical framework to account for the bidirectional…

  16. In Search of Theoretical Framework: A Case Study of Chinese Mothers' Experiences in Immigration and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Shujun

    2010-01-01

    This paper seeks to develop a theoretical framework that is applicable to research on recent immigrant Chinese mothers in the United States. Although Black, Chicana, and transnational feminist epistemologies exist in previous scholarship, there is no comparable discourse in the study of Chinese mothers' experiences in the United States. In this…

  17. Reliability Modeling of Cyber-Physical Electric Power Systems: A System-Theoretic Framework

    E-print Network

    Liberzon, Daniel

    1 Reliability Modeling of Cyber-Physical Electric Power Systems: A System-Theoretic Framework systematic reliability analysis tools to address planning and operation challenges of future electric power and the introduction of new sources of uncertainty in systems already inherently complex. Current reliability analysis

  18. Espoused Theoretical Frameworks and the Leadership Behaviors of Principals in Achieving Urban Elementary Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pavan, Barbara Nelson; Reid, Nancy Andrade

    The dominant theoretical frameworks (structural, human resources, political, or cultural) espoused by elementary school principals are studied; and the platforms are compared with data previously collected on leadership behaviors and time usage. Data for 5 principals and 151 teachers in 5 elementary schools in Philadelphia (Pennsylvania) on the…

  19. Information Theoretic Framework of Trust Modeling and Evaluation for Ad Hoc Networks

    E-print Network

    Sun, Yan Lindsay

    that defines trust metrics using information theory and develops trust models of trust propagation in ad hoc1 Information Theoretic Framework of Trust Modeling and Evaluation for Ad Hoc Networks Yan Lindsay-- The performance of ad hoc networks depends on co- operation and trust among distributed nodes. To enhance security

  20. On performing accurate Bayesian estimation using set theoretic framework. Application to Kalman

    E-print Network

    Gutkin, Boris

    ], particularly for 1-D signal from X-ray fluoroscopy [5] and for image reconstruction in tomography [15On performing accurate Bayesian estimation using set theoretic framework. Application to Kalman adopted and the application to deal with. For instance in tracking and navigation problems, Bayes filters

  1. An Information-Theoretic Framework for Analyzing Leak of Privacy in Distributed Hash Tables

    E-print Network

    Zhang, Zhao

    An Information-Theoretic Framework for Analyzing Leak of Privacy in Distributed Hash Tables Souvik networks is to provide anonymity to the storage nodes. Compromised routing tables in those DHTs leak information the- ory to build a model to quantify the information leak from compromised routing tables

  2. A Test for Theoretical Integration: Systems Theory Framework and Dialogical Self

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIlveen, Peter

    2007-01-01

    The Systems Theory Framework (STF) is presented as an integrating and organising concept for the predominant theories of career. In order to test the integrative capacity of the STF, this research merges the STF's theoretical element of story with the Theory of Dialogical Self's model of personality. Implications for the practice of career…

  3. Understanding, Selecting, and Integrating a Theoretical Framework in Dissertation Research: Creating the Blueprint for Your "House"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Cynthia; Osanloo, Azadeh

    2014-01-01

    The theoretical framework is one of the most important aspects in the research process, yet is often misunderstood by doctoral candidates as they prepare their dissertation research study. The importance of theory-driven thinking and acting is emphasized in relation to the selection of a topic, the development of research questions, the…

  4. LeZi-Update: An Information-Theoretic Framework for Personal Mobility Tracking in PCS Networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amiya Bhattacharya; Sajal K. Das

    2002-01-01

    The complexity of the mobility tracking problem in a cellular environment has been characterized under an information-theoretic framework. Shannon's entropy measure is identified as a basis for comparing user mobility models. By building and maintaining a dictionary of individual user's path updates (as opposed to the widely used location updates), the proposed adaptive on-line algorithm can learn subscribers' profiles. This

  5. NLPIR: A Theoretical Framework for Applying Natural Language Processing to Information Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Lina; Zhang, Dongsong

    2003-01-01

    Proposes a theoretical framework called NLPIR that integrates natural language processing (NLP) into information retrieval (IR) based on the assumption that there exists representation distance between queries and documents. Discusses problems in traditional keyword-based IR, including relevance, and describes some existing NLP techniques.…

  6. A fractal-based theoretical framework for retrieval of surface parameters from electromagnetic backscattering data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Giorgio Franceschetti; Antonio Iodice; Stefania Maddaluno; Daniele Riccio

    2000-01-01

    A new theoretical framework for retrieval of dielectric and geometric surface parameters from electromagnetic backscattering data is presented. Use is made of fractal geometry for description of the surface. The suggested scheme leads to a two-step procedure that allows the authors to retrieve the surface complex permittivity and the fractal parameters. Limits of validity for the procedure applicability are presented.

  7. A THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK FOR UTILIZING DATA WAREHOUSING TO PREDICT INFORMATION SECURITY THREATS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lee Jonathon Steen; Philip S. Kim

    2009-01-01

    Many organizations have implemented information security countermeasures to detect, minimize, and defend against information security threats, or breaches. Most of these countermeasures have traditionally adopted a passive approach to securing corporate data. This paper proposes a theoretical framework for utilizing an information security data warehouse to identify security breach patterns, in order to predict when potential breaches are most likely

  8. A THEORETICAL AND COMPUTATIONAL FRAMEWORK FOR ISOMETRY INVARIANT RECOGNITION OF POINT CLOUD DATA

    E-print Network

    A THEORETICAL AND COMPUTATIONAL FRAMEWORK FOR ISOMETRY INVARIANT RECOGNITION OF POINT CLOUD DATA; # ########### ### ############# ######### ### ######## ######### ########### ## ##### ##### #### Facundo M#19;emoli # Guillermo Sapiro # ######## Point clouds are one of the most primitive and fundamental manifold representations. A popular source of point clouds are three dimensional shape acquisition

  9. A theoretical framework for performance characterization of elastography: the strain filter

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tomy Varghese; Jonathan Ophir

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents a theoretical framework for performance characterization in strain estimation, which includes the effect of signal decorrelation, quantization errors due to the finite temporal sampling rate, and electronic noise. An upper bound on the performance of the strain estimator in elastography is obtained from a strain filter constructed using these limits. The strain filter is a term used

  10. Search for A Lyapunov Function through Empirical Approximation by Artificial Neural Nets: Theoretical Framework

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gursel Serpen

    Abstract - An ,artificial neural network is proposed ,as a ,function approximator for empirical modeling of a ,Lyapunov function for a nonlinear dynamic system that projects stable behavior as potentially observable in its ,state space. Theoretical framework ,for the methodology of designing the so-called Lyapunov neural network, which empirically models a Lyapunov function, is described. Algorithms for training the Lyapunov

  11. A Theoretical Framework for Building Online Communities of Practice with Social Networking Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunawardena, Charlotte N.; Hermans, Mary Beth; Sanchez, Damien; Richmond, Carol; Bohley, Maribeth; Tuttle, Rebekah

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposes a theoretical framework as a foundation for building online communities of practice when a suite of social networking applications referred to as collective intelligence tools are utilized to develop a product or solutions to a problem. Drawing on recent developments in Web 2.0 tools, research on communities of practice and…

  12. A Theoretical Approach to Human-Robot Interaction Based on the Bipolar Man Framework

    E-print Network

    Amigoni, Francesco

    A Theoretical Approach to Human-Robot Interaction Based on the Bipolar Man Framework Francesco "philosophical" position ex- pressed by the concept of bipolar man, which has an im- pact on both the analysis on the concept of bipolar man [1] able both to potentially describe the current human-robot in- teraction

  13. Towards a theoretical framework for knowledge transfer in the field of CSR and sustainability

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Katerina Nicolopoulou

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – The present paper seeks to focus on the processes involved in the knowledge transfer of CSR and sustainability programs and theorises about a conceptual framework that addresses three aspects of such a knowledge transfer process: the “thinking”, the “doing” and the “being”. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper is a theoretical interdisciplinary study, which combines insights from the theory of

  14. Human development through occupation: theoretical frameworks in contemporary occupational therapy practice, part 1.

    PubMed

    Clark, P N

    1979-08-01

    In 1968, the report of a conference sponsored by the American Occupational Therapy Association called for the development of an integrated theory of occupational therapy. A review of the practical problems faced by therapists today, contrasted with major developments in the art and science of the field during the past decade, suggests that this goal has not been attained. However, three major theoretical frameworks for therapy have evolved through the work of Fidler and Mosey, Wilbarger, and Llorens, who participated in the conference on theory. Reilly and associates developed a fourth framework of significance. Through analysis of theoretical constructs, generic concepts that characterize occupational therapy can be identified. Theoretical constructs and research validation of the four approaches to occupational therapy are discussed in this article. A second article to appear in a subsequent issue of AJOT illustrates the use of the four theoretical frameworks to derive a philosophical basis for practice and a model of the practice process called "human development through occupation." PMID:484411

  15. Framework for a U.S. Geological Survey Hydrologic Climate-Response Program in Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hodgkins, Glenn A.; Lent, Robert M.; Dudley, Robert W.; Schalk, Charles W.

    2009-01-01

    This report presents a framework for a U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) hydrologic climate-response program designed to provide early warning of changes in the seasonal water cycle of Maine. Climate-related hydrologic changes on Maine's rivers and lakes in the winter and spring during the last century are well documented, and several river and lake variables have been shown to be sensitive to air-temperature changes. Monitoring of relevant hydrologic data would provide important baseline information against which future climate change can be measured. The framework of the hydrologic climate-response program presented here consists of four major parts: (1) identifying homogeneous climate-response regions; (2) identifying hydrologic components and key variables of those components that would be included in a hydrologic climate-response data network - as an example, streamflow has been identified as a primary component, with a key variable of streamflow being winter-spring streamflow timing; the data network would be created by maintaining existing USGS data-collection stations and establishing new ones to fill data gaps; (3) regularly updating historical trends of hydrologic data network variables; and (4) establishing basins for process-based studies. Components proposed for inclusion in the hydrologic climate-response data network have at least one key variable for which substantial historical data are available. The proposed components are streamflow, lake ice, river ice, snowpack, and groundwater. The proposed key variables of each component have extensive historical data at multiple sites and are expected to be responsive to climate change in the next few decades. These variables are also important for human water use and (or) ecosystem function. Maine would be divided into seven climate-response regions that follow major river-basin boundaries (basins subdivided to hydrologic units with 8-digit codes or larger) and have relatively homogeneous climates. Key hydrologic variables within each climate-response region would be analyzed regularly to maintain up-to-date analyses of year-to-year variability, decadal variability, and longer term trends. Finally, one basin in each climate-response region would be identified for process-based hydrologic and ecological studies.

  16. Analysis of poetic literature using B. F. Skinner's theoretical framework from verbal behavior

    PubMed Central

    Luke, Nicole M.

    2003-01-01

    This paper examines Skinner's work on verbal behavior in the context of literature as a particular class of written verbal behavior. It looks at contemporary literary theory and analysis and the contributions that Skinner's theoretical framework can make. Two diverse examples of poetic literature are chosen and analyzed following Skinner's framework, examining the dynamic interplay between the writer and reader that take place within the bounds of the work presented. It is concluded that Skinner's hypotheses about verbal behavior and the functional approach to understanding it have much to offer literary theorists in their efforts to understand literary works and should be more carefully examined.

  17. Measuring instructional congruence in elementary science classrooms: Pedagogical and methodological components of a theoretical framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luykx, Aurolyn; Lee, Okhee

    2007-03-01

    This article is situated within a theoretical framework, instructional congruence, articulating issues of student diversity with the demands of academic disciplines. In the context of a large-scale study targeting elementary school science, the article describes a research instrument that aims to combine the strengths of both quantitative and qualitative approaches to classroom data. The project-developed classroom observation guideline is a series of detailed scales that produce numerical ratings based on qualitative observations of different aspects of classroom practice. The article's objectives are both pedagogical and methodological, reflecting the dual functionality of the instrument: (a) to concretize theoretical constructs articulating academic disciplines with student diversity in ways that are useful for rethinking classroom practice; and (b) to take advantage of the strengths of qualitative educational research, but within a quantitative analytical framework that may be applied across large numbers of classrooms.

  18. Praxis and reflexivity for interprofessional education: towards an inclusive theoretical framework for learning.

    PubMed

    Hutchings, Maggie; Scammell, Janet; Quinney, Anne

    2013-09-01

    While there is growing evidence of theoretical perspectives adopted in interprofessional education, learning theories tend to foreground the individual, focusing on psycho-social aspects of individual differences and professional identity to the detriment of considering social-structural factors at work in social practices. Conversely socially situated practice is criticised for being context-specific, making it difficult to draw generalisable conclusions for improving interprofessional education. This article builds on a theoretical framework derived from earlier research, drawing on the dynamics of Dewey's experiential learning theory and Archer's critical realist social theory, to make a case for a meta-theoretical framework enabling social-constructivist and situated learning theories to be interlinked and integrated through praxis and reflexivity. Our current analysis is grounded in an interprofessional curriculum initiative mediated by a virtual community peopled by health and social care users. Student perceptions, captured through quantitative and qualitative data, suggest three major disruptive themes, creating opportunities for congruence and disjuncture and generating a model of zones of interlinked praxis associated with professional differences and identity, pedagogic strategies and technology-mediated approaches. This model contributes to a framework for understanding the complexity of interprofessional learning and offers bridges between individual and structural factors for engaging with the enablements and constraints at work in communities of practice and networks for interprofessional education. PMID:23679676

  19. A theoretical framework for modeling dilution enhancement of non-reactive solutes in heterogeneous porous media.

    PubMed

    de Barros, F P J; Fiori, A; Boso, F; Bellin, A

    2015-01-01

    Spatial heterogeneity of the hydraulic properties of geological porous formations leads to erratically shaped solute clouds, thus increasing the edge area of the solute body and augmenting the dilution rate. In this study, we provide a theoretical framework to quantify dilution of a non-reactive solute within a steady state flow as affected by the spatial variability of the hydraulic conductivity. Embracing the Lagrangian concentration framework, we obtain explicit semi-analytical expressions for the dilution index as a function of the structural parameters of the random hydraulic conductivity field, under the assumptions of uniform-in-the-average flow, small injection source and weak-to-mild heterogeneity. Results show how the dilution enhancement of the solute cloud is strongly dependent on both the statistical anisotropy ratio and the heterogeneity level of the porous medium. The explicit semi-analytical solution also captures the temporal evolution of the dilution rate; for the early- and late-time limits, the proposed solution recovers previous results from the literature, while at intermediate times it reflects the increasing interplay between large-scale advection and local-scale dispersion. The performance of the theoretical framework is verified with high resolution numerical results and successfully tested against the Cape Cod field data. PMID:25795562

  20. Towards culturally relevant classroom science: a theoretical framework focusing on traditional plant healing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mpofu, Vongai; Otulaja, Femi S.; Mushayikwa, Emmanuel

    2014-03-01

    A theoretical framework is an important component of a research study. It grounds the study and guides the methodological design. It also forms a reference point for the interpretation of the research findings. This paper conceptually examines the process of constructing a multi-focal theoretical lens for guiding studies that aim to accommodate local culture in science classrooms. A multi-focal approach is adopted because the integration of indigenous knowledge and modern classroom science is complex. The central argument in this paper is that a multi-focal lens accommodates the multifaceted nature of integrating indigenous knowledge and western oriented classroom science. The objective of the paper, therefore, is to construct a theoretical framework that can be used to guide and inform the integration of indigenous knowledge and western science at classroom science level. The traditional plant healing form of indigenous knowledge is used as a case study. The paper is important for raising the complexities, tensions and dilemmas inherent in the design and implementation of indigenous knowledge-science integrated curricula. An understanding of the issues raised will pave the way towards achieving culturally relevant classroom science.

  1. Gaming the System: Video Games as a Theoretical Framework for Instructional Design

    E-print Network

    Beatty, Ian D

    2014-01-01

    In order to facilitate analyzing video games as learning systems and instructional designs as games, we present a theoretical framework that integrates ideas from a broad range of literature. The framework describes games in terms of four layers, all sharing similar structural elements and dynamics: a micro-level game focused on immediate problem-solving and skill development, a macro-level game focused on the experience of the game world and story and identity development, and two meta-level games focused on building or modifying the game and on social interactions around it. Each layer casts gameplay as a co-construction of the game and the player, and contains three dynamical feedback loops: an exploratory learning loop, an intrinsic motivation loop, and an identity loop.

  2. A second gradient theoretical framework for hierarchical multiscale modeling of materials

    SciTech Connect

    Luscher, Darby J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bronkhorst, Curt A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mc Dowell, David L [GEORGIA TECH

    2009-01-01

    A theoretical framework for the hierarchical multiscale modeling of inelastic response of heterogeneous materials has been presented. Within this multiscale framework, the second gradient is used as a non local kinematic link between the response of a material point at the coarse scale and the response of a neighborhood of material points at the fine scale. Kinematic consistency between these scales results in specific requirements for constraints on the fluctuation field. The wryness tensor serves as a second-order measure of strain. The nature of the second-order strain induces anti-symmetry in the first order stress at the coarse scale. The multiscale ISV constitutive theory is couched in the coarse scale intermediate configuration, from which an important new concept in scale transitions emerges, namely scale invariance of dissipation. Finally, a strategy for developing meaningful kinematic ISVs and the proper free energy functions and evolution kinetics is presented.

  3. Very Long (> 48 hours) Shifts and Cardiovascular Strain in Firefighters: a Theoretical Framework

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Shift work and overtime have been implicated as important work-related risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Many firefighters who contractually work on a 24-hr work schedule, often do overtime (additional 24-hr shifts) which can result in working multiple, consecutive 24-hr shifts. Very little research has been conducted on firefighters at work that examines the impact of performing consecutive 24-hr shifts on cardiovascular physiology. Also, there have been no standard field methods for assessing in firefighters the cardiovascular changes that result from 24-hr shifts, what we call “cardiovascular strain”. The objective of this study, as the first step toward elucidating the role of very long (> 48 hrs) shifts in the development of CVD in firefighters, is to develop and describe a theoretical framework for studying cardiovascular strain in firefighters on very long shifts (i.e., > 2 consecutive 24-hr shifts). The developed theoretical framework was built on an extensive literature review, our recently completed studies with firefighters in Southern California, e-mail and discussions with several firefighters on their experiences of consecutive shifts, and our recently conducted feasibility study in a small group of firefighters of several ambulatory cardiovascular strain biomarkers (heart rate, heart rate variability, blood pressure, salivary cortisol, and salivary C-reactive protein). The theoretical framework developed in this study will facilitate future field studies on consecutive 24-hr shifts and cardiovascular health in firefighters. Also it will increase our understanding of the mechanisms by which shift work or long work hours can affect CVD, particularly through CVD biological risk factors, and thereby inform policy about sustainable work and rest schedules for firefighters. PMID:24602344

  4. Theoretical framework and methodological development of common subjective health outcome measures in osteoarthritis: a critical review.

    PubMed

    Pollard, Beth; Johnston, Marie; Dixon, Diane

    2007-01-01

    Subjective measures involving clinician ratings or patient self-assessments have become recognised as an important tool for the assessment of health outcome. The value of a health outcome measure is usually assessed by a psychometric evaluation of its reliability, validity and responsiveness. However, psychometric testing involves an accumulation of evidence and has recognised limitations. It has been suggested that an evaluation of how well a measure has been developed would be a useful additional criteria in assessing the value of a measure. This paper explored the theoretical background and methodological development of subjective health status measures commonly used in osteoarthritis research. Fourteen subjective health outcome measures commonly used in osteoarthritis research were examined. Each measure was explored on the basis of their i) theoretical framework (was there a definition of what was being assessed and was it part of a theoretical model?) and ii) methodological development (what was the scaling strategy, how were the items generated and reduced, what was the response format and what was the scoring method?). Only the AIMS, SF-36 and WHOQOL defined what they were assessing (i.e. the construct of interest) and no measure assessed was part of a theoretical model. None of the clinician report measures appeared to have implemented a scaling procedure or described the rationale for the items selected or scoring system. Of the patient self-report measures, the AIMS, MPQ, OXFORD, SF-36, WHOQOL and WOMAC appeared to follow a standard psychometric scaling method. The DRP and EuroQol used alternative scaling methods. The review highlighted the general lack of theoretical framework for both clinician report and patient self-report measures. This review also drew attention to the wide variation in the methodological development of commonly used measures in OA. While, in general the patient self-report measures had good methodological development, the clinician report measures appeared less well developed. It would be of value if new measures defined the construct of interest and, that the construct, be part of theoretical model. By ensuring measures are both theoretically and empirically valid then improvements in subjective health outcome measures should be possible. PMID:17343739

  5. Search with Evolutionary Ruin and Stochastic Rebuild: a Theoretic Framework and a Case Study on Exam Timetabling

    E-print Network

    Qu, Rong

    Search with Evolutionary Ruin and Stochastic Rebuild: a Theoretic Framework and a Case Study on Exam Timetabling Jingpeng Li* Ruibin Bai Division of Computing Science & Mathematics Division of Control Science & Engineering School of Computer Science Huazhong University of Science & Technology

  6. Theoretical and experimental analysis of H2 binding in a prototype metal organic framework material

    SciTech Connect

    Kong, Dr. Lingzhu [Rutgers University; Cooper, Valentino R [ORNL; Nijem, Nour [University of Texas, Dallas; Li, Kunhao [Rutgers University; Li, Jing [Rutgers University; Chabal, Yves J. [University of Texas, Dallas; Langreth, David C. [Rutgers University

    2009-01-01

    Hydrogen adsorption by the metal organic framework (MOF) structure Zn2(BDC)2(TED) is investigated using a combination of experimental and theoretical methods. By use of the nonempirical van der Waals density-functional (vdW-DF) approach, it is found that the locus of deepest H2 binding positions lies within two types of narrow channel. The energies of the most stable binding sites, as well as the number of such binding sites, are consistent with the values obtained from experimental adsorption isotherms and heat of adsorption data. Calculations of the shift of the H H stretch frequency when adsorbed in the MOF give a value of approximately ?30 cm?1 at the strongest binding point in each of the two channels. Ambient temperature infrared absorption spectroscopy measurements give a hydrogen peak centered at 4120 cm?1, implying a shift consistent with the theoretical calculations.

  7. A theoretical framework for a virtual diabetes self-management community intervention.

    PubMed

    Vorderstrasse, Allison; Shaw, Ryan J; Blascovich, Jim; Johnson, Constance M

    2014-10-01

    Due to its high prevalence, chronic nature, potential complications, and self-management challenges for patients, diabetes presents significant health education and support issues. We developed and pilot-tested a virtual community for adults with type 2 diabetes to promote self-management education and provide social support. Although digital-based programs such as virtual environments can address significant barriers to reaching patients (i.e., child care, transportation, location), they must be strongly grounded in a theoretical basis to be well-developed and effective. In this article, we discuss how we synthesized behavioral and virtual environment theoretical frameworks to guide the development of SLIDES (Second Life Impacts Diabetes Education and Support). PMID:24451083

  8. The Community-First Land-Centred Theoretical Framework: Bringing a "Good Mind" to Indigenous Education Research?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Styres, Sandra D.; Zinga, Dawn M.

    2013-01-01

    This article introduces an emergent research theoretical framework, the community-first Land-centred research framework. Carefully examining the literature within Indigenous educational research, we noted the limited approaches for engaging in culturally aligned and relevant research within Indigenous communities. The community-first Land-centred…

  9. Intuitive Decision Making as the Culmination of Continuing Education: A Theoretical Framework.

    PubMed

    Payne, Leslie Karns

    2015-07-01

    The ability to make sound clinical decisions is the cornerstone of excellent nursing care and the goal of continuing nurse educators. Research has revealed that expert nurses make fewer errors in decision making; it also has shown differences in the decision-making process of expert nurses, compared with novice nurses. Specifically, expert nurses report a greater use of intuitive decision making. Accordingly, an important goal for continuing nurse educators is the development of intuitive decision making by nurses. This article proposes a pattern-based, constructivist educational framework that synthesizes Benner's novice to expert (NTE) theory, Damascio's somatic marker hypothesis (SMH), and Hammond's cognitive continuum theory (CCT). This framework provides a foundation for continuing education that fosters the development of intuitive decision making in nurses. Although this framework needs further empirical validation, it is theoretically sound and applicable to all areas of nursing, and its implementation could help reduce errors in decision making by nurses, thus improving patient outcomes. J Contin Educ Nurs. 2015;46(7):326-332. PMID:26154676

  10. A unifying theoretical and algorithmic framework for least squares methods of estimation in diffusion tensor imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koay, Cheng Guan; Chang, Lin-Ching; Carew, John D.; Pierpaoli, Carlo; Basser, Peter J.

    2006-09-01

    A unifying theoretical and algorithmic framework for diffusion tensor estimation is presented. Theoretical connections among the least squares (LS) methods, (linear least squares (LLS), weighted linear least squares (WLLS), nonlinear least squares (NLS) and their constrained counterparts), are established through their respective objective functions, and higher order derivatives of these objective functions, i.e., Hessian matrices. These theoretical connections provide new insights in designing efficient algorithms for NLS and constrained NLS (CNLS) estimation. Here, we propose novel algorithms of full Newton-type for the NLS and CNLS estimations, which are evaluated with Monte Carlo simulations and compared with the commonly used Levenberg-Marquardt method. The proposed methods have a lower percent of relative error in estimating the trace and lower reduced ?2 value than those of the Levenberg-Marquardt method. These results also demonstrate that the accuracy of an estimate, particularly in a nonlinear estimation problem, is greatly affected by the Hessian matrix. In other words, the accuracy of a nonlinear estimation is algorithm-dependent. Further, this study shows that the noise variance in diffusion weighted signals is orientation dependent when signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is low (?5). A new experimental design is, therefore, proposed to properly account for the directional dependence in diffusion weighted signal variance.

  11. The theoretical calculation of the Rossby number and the `non-local' convective overturn time for pre-main sequence and early post-main sequence stars

    E-print Network

    Yong -Cheol Kim; Pierre Demarque

    1995-07-24

    This paper provides estimates of convective turnover time scales for Sun-like stars in the pre-main sequence and early post-main sequence phases of evolution, based on up-to-date physical input for the stellar models. In this first study, all models have solar abundances, which is typical of the stars in the Galactic disk where most of the available data have been collected. A new feature of these models is the inclusion of rotation in the evolutionary sequences, thus making it possible to derive theoretically the Rossby number for each star along its evolutionary track, based on its calculated rotation rate and its local convective turnover time near the base of the convection zone. Global turnover times are also calculated for the complete convection zone. This information should make possible a new class of observational tests of stellar theory which were previously impossible with semi-empirical models, particularly in the study of stellar activity and in research related to angular momentum transfer in stellar interiors during the course of stellar evolution.

  12. Theoretical Framework for the Assessment of Uncertainties in Snow Depth Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trujillo, E.; Lehning, M.

    2014-12-01

    In recent years, marked improvements in our knowledge of the statistical properties of the spatial distribution of snow properties have been achieved thanks to improvements in measuring technologies (e.g., LIDAR, TLS, and GPR). Despite of this, objective and quantitative frameworks for the evaluation of uncertainties in snow measurements have been lacking. Here, we present a theoretical framework for quantitative evaluations of the uncertainty of point measurements of snow depth when used to represent the average depth over a profile section or an area. We define the error as the expected value of the squared difference between the real mean of the profile/field and the sample mean from a limited number of measurements. The model is tested for one and two dimensional survey designs that range from a single measurement to an increasing number of regularly-spaced measurements. Using high-resolution (~ 1m) LIDAR snow depths at three locations in Colorado, we show that the sample errors follow the theoretical behavior. Furthermore, we show how the determination of the spatial location of the measurements can be reduced to an optimization problem for the case of a predefined number of measurements, or to the designation of an acceptable uncertainty level to determine the total number of regularly-spaced measurements required to achieve such error. On this basis, a series of figures are presented that can be used to aid in the determination of the survey design under the conditions described, and under the assumption of prior knowledge of the spatial covariance/correlation properties. With this methodology, better objective survey designs can be accomplished, tailored to the specific applications for which the measurements are going to be used. Although we discuss the proposed methodology in the context of snow depth, the theoretical framework can be extended to other spatially distributed snow variables (e.g., SWE and/or snow depth) or hydrologic variables (e.g., soil moisture) whose statistical properties can be compared to those of snow depth. Applications of the methodology will be discussed, such as the selection of the location of snow/meteorological stations in mountain environments or survey design to be able to capture watershed scale means.

  13. Pain judgements of patients' relatives: examining the use of social contract theory as theoretical framework.

    PubMed

    Kappesser, Judith; de C Williams, Amanda C

    2008-08-01

    Observer underestimation of others' pain was studied using a concept from evolutionary psychology: a cheater detection mechanism from social contract theory, applied to relatives and friends of chronic pain patients. 127 participants estimated characters' pain intensity and fairness of behaviour after reading four vignettes describing characters suffering from pain. Four cues were systematically varied: the character continuing or stopping liked tasks; continuing or stopping disliked tasks; availability of medical evidence; and pain intensity as rated by characters. Results revealed that pain intensity and the two behavioural variables had an effect on pain estimates: high pain self-reports and stopping all tasks led to high pain estimates; pain was estimated to be lowest when characters stopped disliked but continued with liked tasks. This combination was also rated least fair. Results support the use of social contract theory as a theoretical framework to explore pain judgements. PMID:18483846

  14. Fundamental theoretical bias in gravitational wave astrophysics and the parametrized post-Einsteinian framework

    SciTech Connect

    Yunes, Nicolas; Pretorius, Frans [Department of Physics, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States)

    2009-12-15

    We consider the concept of fundamental bias in gravitational wave astrophysics as the assumption that general relativity is the correct theory of gravity during the entire wave-generation and propagation regime. Such an assumption is valid in the weak field, as verified by precision experiments and observations, but it need not hold in the dynamical strong-field regime where tests are lacking. Fundamental bias can cause systematic errors in the detection and parameter estimation of signals, which can lead to a mischaracterization of the Universe through incorrect inferences about source event rates and populations. We propose a remedy through the introduction of the parametrized post-Einsteinian framework, which consists of the enhancement of waveform templates via the inclusion of post-Einsteinian parameters. These parameters would ostensibly be designed to interpolate between templates constructed in general relativity and well-motivated alternative theories of gravity, and also include extrapolations that follow sound theoretical principles, such as consistency with conservation laws and symmetries. As an example, we construct parametrized post-Einsteinian templates for the binary coalescence of equal-mass, nonspinning compact objects in a quasicircular inspiral. The parametrized post-Einsteinian framework should allow matched filtered data to select a specific set of post-Einsteinian parameters without a priori assuming the validity of the former, thus either verifying general relativity or pointing to possible dynamical strong-field deviations.

  15. An Information-Theoretic Framework for Improving Imperfect Dynamical Predictions Via Multi-Model Ensemble Forecasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Branicki, Michal; Majda, Andrew J.

    2015-06-01

    This work focuses on elucidating issues related to an increasingly common technique of multi-model ensemble (MME) forecasting. The MME approach is aimed at improving the statistical accuracy of imperfect time-dependent predictions by combining information from a collection of reduced-order dynamical models. Despite some operational evidence in support of the MME strategy for mitigating the prediction error, the mathematical framework justifying this approach has been lacking. Here, this problem is considered within a probabilistic/stochastic framework which exploits tools from information theory to derive a set of criteria for improving probabilistic MME predictions relative to single-model predictions. The emphasis is on a systematic understanding of the benefits and limitations associated with the MME approach, on uncertainty quantification, and on the development of practical design principles for constructing an MME with improved predictive performance. The conditions for prediction improvement via the MME approach stem from the convexity of the relative entropy which is used here as a measure of the lack of information in the imperfect models relative to the resolved characteristics of the truth dynamics. It is also shown how practical guidelines for MME prediction improvement can be implemented in the context of forced response predictions from equilibrium with the help of the linear response theory utilizing the fluctuation-dissipation formulas at the unperturbed equilibrium. The general theoretical results are illustrated using exactly solvable stochastic non-Gaussian test models.

  16. Patient centredness in integrated care: results of a qualitative study based on a systems theoretical framework

    PubMed Central

    Lüdecke, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Health care providers seek to improve patient-centred care. Due to fragmentation of services, this can only be achieved by establishing integrated care partnerships. The challenge is both to control costs while enhancing the quality of care and to coordinate this process in a setting with many organisations involved. The problem is to establish control mechanisms, which ensure sufficiently consideration of patient centredness. Theory and methods Seventeen qualitative interviews have been conducted in hospitals of metropolitan areas in northern Germany. The documentary method, embedded into a systems theoretical framework, was used to describe and analyse the data and to provide an insight into the specific perception of organisational behaviour in integrated care. Results The findings suggest that integrated care partnerships rely on networks based on professional autonomy in the context of reliability. The relationships of network partners are heavily based on informality. This correlates with a systems theoretical conception of organisations, which are assumed autonomous in their decision-making. Conclusion and discussion Networks based on formal contracts may restrict professional autonomy and competition. Contractual bindings that suppress the competitive environment have negative consequences for patient-centred care. Drawbacks remain due to missing self-regulation of the network. To conclude, less regimentation of integrated care partnerships is recommended. PMID:25411573

  17. Inhibition of return: A phenomenon in search of a definition and a theoretical framework.

    PubMed

    Dukewich, Kristie R; Klein, Raymond M

    2015-07-01

    In a study of scientific nomenclature, we explore the diversity of perspectives researchers endorse for the phenomenon of inhibition of return (IOR). IOR is often described as an effect whereby people are slower to respond to a target presented at a recently stimulated or inspected location as compared to a target presented at a new location. Since its discovery, scores of papers have been published on IOR, and researchers have proposed, accepted and rejected a variety of potential causes, mechanisms, effects and components for the phenomenon. Experts in IOR were surveyed about their opinions regarding various aspects of IOR and the literature exploring it. We found variety both between and within experts surveyed, suggesting that most researchers hold implicit, and often quite unique assumptions about IOR. These widely varied assumptions may be hindering the creation or acceptance of a central theoretical framework regarding IOR; and this variety may portend that what has been given the label "IOR" may be more than one phenomenon requiring more than one theoretical explanation. We wonder whether scientific progress in domains other than IOR might be affected by too broad (or perhaps too narrow) a range of phenomena to which our nomenclature is applied. PMID:25832184

  18. A theoretical framework for the incorporation of history in science education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klassen, James Stephen

    This thesis formulates a theoretical framework for the incorporation of history of science in science teaching, which, it is argued, is essential to laying a stable foundation for instructional design and future empirical studies. It is assumed that the historical approach to teaching science no longer needs defending and that contextual methods are a pedagogically sound approach to learning. Various cognitive and learning theories suggest that there are five distinct contexts that are important in engaging learners: the theoretical, practical, social, historical, and affective. On the basis of these five contexts, a model for teaching and learning is constructed, in which the story assumes a major role in engaging the learner affectively. This model is named the Story-Driven Contextual Approach (SDCA). The SDCA is introduced to students by means of a narrative, encouraging students to become actively engaged with the five contexts. In the SDCA, students are seen as novice researchers and the teacher as a research director. The place and nature of the historical science story in science education is a relatively undeveloped area in the literature. This thesis argues that the development of the events in a story proceed in the same fashion as the steps in learning a concept. A structural model of a story consisting of a three-stage temporal sequence, which includes a causative element, is presented and developed. It is argued that the conceptual change process, from a temporal perspective, can also be viewed as a three-stage sequence similar to the story. The story can, in this light, be thought of as the re-enactment of a particular type of learning process. This knowledge about the nature of stories can serve as a guiding principle in the designing and writing of effective stories based on the history of science, which are to be incorporated with the SDCA. The SDCA was tested in a university physics class using a constructed story which portrays the heroic personal and scientific efforts of the nineteenth century physicist Lord Kelvin in laying the first successful trans-Atlantic cable. Students designed and undertook various practical and theoretical exercises in the SDCA and observations on its implementation are reported.

  19. Theoretical and Conceptual Framework for a High School Pathways to Pharmacy Program

    PubMed Central

    Bauman, Jerry

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To determine whether participation in the University of Illinois at Chicago College of Pharmacy (UIC-COP) Pathways to Pharmacy, an early urban pipeline program, motivated underrepresented minority students to pursue a prepharmacy curriculum in college and choose pharmacy as a career. Methods Over a 4-year period, underrepresented minority high school students participated in a comprehensive 6-week program that included 3 weeks of prepharmacy curriculum and intensive socialization and 3 weeks working as a pharmacy technician in a chain pharmacy. The High School Survey of Student Engagement (HSSSE) was administered 3 times to 120 program participants from 2005-2008, with 4 open-ended questions added to the pretest, 3 open-ended questions added to the test administered at the midpoint of the program, and 7 open-ended questions added to the posttest. Results After completing the program, 88 (75%) of the 120 students enrolled in the college's prepharmacy curriculum and planned to pursue a career in pharmacy, 10 (8%) were not interested in pursuing a career in pharmacy, and 20 (17%) were undecided, compared to the pretest data which showed that 40 (33%) were interested in a career in pharmacy, and 80 (67%) were undecided (p < 0.0001). Conclusions Participation in a Pathways to Pharmacy program grounded in both a theoretical and conceptual socialization model framework increased the number of underrepresented minority students in the pipeline to pharmacy schools. PMID:21179260

  20. Toward an Accurate Theoretical Framework for Describing Ensembles for Proteins under Strongly Denaturing Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Hoang T.; Pappu, Rohit V.

    2006-01-01

    Our focus is on an appropriate theoretical framework for describing highly denatured proteins. In high concentrations of denaturants, proteins behave like polymers in a good solvent and ensembles for denatured proteins can be modeled by ignoring all interactions except excluded volume (EV) effects. To assay conformational preferences of highly denatured proteins, we quantify a variety of properties for EV-limit ensembles of 23 two-state proteins. We find that modeled denatured proteins can be best described as follows. Average shapes are consistent with prolate ellipsoids. Ensembles are characterized by large correlated fluctuations. Sequence-specific conformational preferences are restricted to local length scales that span five to nine residues. Beyond local length scales, chain properties follow well-defined power laws that are expected for generic polymers in the EV limit. The average available volume is filled inefficiently, and cavities of all sizes are found within the interiors of denatured proteins. All properties characterized from simulated ensembles match predictions from rigorous field theories. We use our results to resolve between conflicting proposals for structure in ensembles for highly denatured states. PMID:16766618

  1. Theoretical framework and diagnostic criteria for the identification of palaeo-subglacial lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livingstone, Stephen J.; Clark, Chris D.; Piotrowski, Jan A.; Tranter, Martyn; Bentley, Michael J.; Hodson, Andy; Swift, Darrel A.; Woodward, John

    2012-10-01

    The Antarctic Ice Sheet is underlain by numerous subglacial lakes, which comprise a significant and active component of its hydrological network. These lakes are widespread and occur at a range of scales under a variety of conditions. At present much glaciological research is concerned with the role of modern subglacial lake systems in Antarctica. Another approach to the exploration of subglacial lakes involves identification of the geological record of subglacial lakes that once existed beneath former ice sheets. This is challenging, both conceptually, in identifying whether and where subglacial lakes may have formed, and also distinguishing the signature of former subglacial lakes in the geological record. In this work we provide a synthesis of subglacial lake types that have been identified or may theoretically exist beneath contemporary or palaeo-ice sheets. This includes a discussion of the formative mechanisms that could trigger onset of (or drain) subglacial lakes. These concepts provide a framework for discussing the probability that subglacial lakes exist(ed) beneath other (palaeo-)ice sheets. Indeed we conclude that the former mid-latitude ice sheets are likely to have hosted subglacial lakes, although the spatial distribution, frequency and type of lakes may have differed from today's ice sheets and between palaeo-ice sheets. Given this possibility, we propose diagnostic criteria for identifying palaeo-subglacial lakes in the geological record. These criteria are derived from contemporary observations, hydrological theory and process-analogues and provide an observational template for detailed field investigations.

  2. Minute observations and theoretical framework of Darwin's studies on climbing plants.

    PubMed

    Drouin, Jean-Marc; Deroin, Thierry

    2010-02-01

    The role of movement in plants was unrecognised for a long time, due to the relative slowness of such movements by comparison with those of active animals such as insects and vertebrates, and to the difficulty with which they are distinguished from mere growth processes. Given this, the pioneer work of Darwin (On the Movements and Habits of Climbing Plants1865) is a milestone in botany. It is always cited as the beginning of any rigorous analysis of plant movement. Such a successful approach results at once from Darwin's broad knowledge of natural history, his use of numerous direct observations and simple experiments, but also from his own talent, which compensated for technical gaps in several instances. His use of metaphorical descriptions was a response to the lack of a firm theoretical background. It facilitated a preliminary classification of plant movement and a comparison of observations. Perhaps his most fruitful metaphors were those drawn from economic concepts, such as division of labour. Darwin's legacy in plant physiology is impressive, as even the most recent biophysical interpretations of climbing plants (e.g. tendril perversion) take place inside the framework he constructed. PMID:20338526

  3. Can the theoretical domains framework account for the implementation of clinical quality interventions?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The health care quality improvement movement is a complex enterprise. Implementing clinical quality initiatives requires attitude and behaviour change on the part of clinicians, but this has proven to be difficult. In an attempt to solve this kind of behavioural challenge, the theoretical domains framework (TDF) has been developed. The TDF consists of 14 domains from psychological and organisational theory said to influence behaviour change. No systematic research has been conducted into the ways in which clinical quality initiatives map on to the domains of the framework. We therefore conducted a qualitative mapping experiment to determine to what extent, and in what ways, the TDF is relevant to the implementation of clinical quality interventions. Methods We conducted a thematic synthesis of the qualitative literature exploring clinicians’ perceptions of various clinical quality interventions. We analysed and synthesised 50 studies in total, in five domains of clinical quality interventions: clinical quality interventions in general, structural interventions, audit-type interventions, interventions aimed at making practice more evidence-based, and risk management interventions. Data were analysed thematically, followed by synthesis of these themes into categories and concepts, which were then mapped to the domains of the TDF. Results Our results suggest that the TDF is highly relevant to the implementation of clinical quality interventions. It can be used to map most, if not all, of the attitudinal and behavioural barriers and facilitators of uptake of clinical quality interventions. Each of these 14 domains appeared to be relevant to many different types of clinical quality interventions. One possible additional domain might relate to perceived trustworthiness of those instituting clinical quality interventions. Conclusions The TDF can be usefully applied to a wide range of clinical quality interventions. Because all 14 of the domains emerged as relevant, and we did not identify any obvious differences between different kinds of clinical quality interventions, our findings support an initially broad approach to identifying barriers and facilitators, followed by a “drilling down” to what is most contextually salient. In future, it may be possible to establish a model of clinical quality policy implementation using the TDF. PMID:24359085

  4. A Research Framework on Social Networking Sites Usage: Critical Review and Theoretical Extension

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    (UTAUT), the framework makes following major extensions: 1) taking a feature-centric perspective of Technology (UTAUT) [6], to accounts for the uniqueness of SNS usage. Particularly, the proposed framework

  5. A theoretical framework to describe communication processes during medical disability assessment interviews

    PubMed Central

    van Rijssen, H Jolanda; Schellart, Antonius JM; Anema, Johannes R; van der Beek, Allard J

    2009-01-01

    Background Research in different fields of medicine suggests that communication is important in physician-patient encounters and influences satisfaction with these encounters. It is argued that this also applies to the non-curative tasks that physicians perform, such as sickness certification and medical disability assessments. However, there is no conceptualised theoretical framework that can be used to describe intentions with regard to communication behaviour, communication behaviour itself, and satisfaction with communication behaviour in a medical disability assessment context. Objective The objective of this paper is to describe the conceptualisation of a model for the communication behaviour of physicians performing medical disability assessments in a social insurance context and of their claimants, in face-to-face encounters during medical disability assessment interviews and the preparation thereof. Conceptualisation The behavioural model, based on the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB), is conceptualised for the communication behaviour of social insurance physicians and claimants separately, but also combined during the assessment interview. Other important concepts in the model are the evaluation of communication behaviour (satisfaction), intentions, attitudes, skills, and barriers for communication. Conclusion The conceptualisation of the TPB-based behavioural model will help to provide insight into the communication behaviour of social insurance physicians and claimants during disability assessment interviews. After empirical testing of the relationships in the model, it can be used in other studies to obtain more insight into communication behaviour in non-curative medicine, and it could help social insurance physicians to adapt their communication behaviour to their task when performing disability assessments. PMID:19807905

  6. Recovering from childhood sexual abuse: a theoretical framework for practice and research.

    PubMed

    Chouliara, Z; Karatzias, T; Gullone, A

    2014-02-01

    Research on survivors' experiences of recovering from childhood sexual abuse (CSA) has been limited and focused on those with severe mental health difficulties. This study elicited experiences of recovery from CSA in male and female survivors who have/have not utilized mental health services. The tangible end-point was to propose a theoretical model of personally meaningful recovery. This is a qualitative study, which utilized semi-structured individual interviews following the critical incident technique. Transcripts were analysed using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis to identify recurrent themes. A total 22 adult survivors of CSA. Main themes identified were: The Affected Self, Factors Hindering Recovery, Factors Enhancing Recovery, The Hurdles of Recovery and the Recovering Self. The affected self included: lack of boundary awareness and self-blame, over self-reliance, over-vigilance and guilt, shame, aloneness and social stigma. The recovering self was characterized by increasing confidence, assertiveness, ability to self-care and self-acceptance, and by embracing vulnerability. These findings have potentially major implications for clinical practice, service provision, policy development and professional training in this field. The importance of disclosure in the healing process seemed paramount and can have major implications for current service protocols. PMID:23379783

  7. Theoretical study of air forces on an oscillating or steady thin wing in a supersonic main stream

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garrick, I E; Rubinow, S I

    1947-01-01

    A theoretical study, based on the linearized equations of motion for small disturbance, is made of the air forces on wings of general plan forms moving forward at a constant supersonic speed. The boundary problem is set up for both the harmonically oscillating and the steady conditions. Two types of boundary conditions are distinguished, which are designated "purely supersonic" and "mixed supersonic." the method is illustrated by applications to a number of examples for both the steady and the oscillating conditions. The purely supersonic case involves independence of action of the upper and lower surfaces of the airfoil and present analysis is mainly concerned with this case. A discussion is first given of the fundamental or elementary solution corresponding to a moving source. The solutions for the velocity potential are then synthesized by means of integration of the fundamental solution for the moving source. The method is illustrated by applications to a number of examples for both the steady and the oscillating cases and for various plan forms, including swept wings and rectangular and triangular plan forms. The special results of a number of authors are shown to be included in the analysis.

  8. Organizational culture and organizational effectiveness: a meta-analytic investigation of the competing values framework's theoretical suppositions.

    PubMed

    Hartnell, Chad A; Ou, Amy Yi; Kinicki, Angelo

    2011-07-01

    We apply Quinn and Rohrbaugh's (1983) competing values framework (CVF) as an organizing taxonomy to meta-analytically test hypotheses about the relationship between 3 culture types and 3 major indices of organizational effectiveness (employee attitudes, operational performance [i.e., innovation and product and service quality], and financial performance). The paper also tests theoretical suppositions undergirding the CVF by investigating the framework's nomological validity and proposed internal structure (i.e., interrelationships among culture types). Results based on data from 84 empirical studies with 94 independent samples indicate that clan, adhocracy, and market cultures are differentially and positively associated with the effectiveness criteria, though not always as hypothesized. The findings provide mixed support for the CVF's nomological validity and fail to support aspects of the CVF's proposed internal structure. We propose an alternative theoretical approach to the CVF and delineate directions for future research. PMID:21244127

  9. Exploring the theoretical and philosophical frameworks that influence private practitioners' mental health treatment of middle-class African American women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aisha D. Williams

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the theoretical philosophical frameworks, treatment, engagement, and diagnostic approaches of private practice therapists who treat middle-class African-American women. This qualitative study consisted of eight in-depth interviews with private practitioners who were purposefully selected. The interviews took place over the course of three months and were the sole source of data for

  10. A theoretical framework and research agenda for studying team attributions in sport

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark S. Allen; Iain Greenlees

    2012-01-01

    The attributions made for group outcomes have attracted a great deal of interest in recent years. In this article we bring together much of the current research on attribution theory in sport and outline a new conceptual framework and research agenda for investigating the attributions of team members. The proposed framework draws on multiple conceptual approaches including models of attribution,

  11. A Theoretical Framework of the Relation between Socioeconomic Status and Academic Achievement of Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Gigi

    2014-01-01

    A socio-psychological analytical framework will be adopted to illuminate the relation between socioeconomic status and academic achievement. The framework puts the emphasis to incorporate micro familial factors into macro factor of the tracking system. Initially, children of the poor families always lack major prerequisite: diminution of cognitive…

  12. The supply chain crisis and disaster pyramid : A theoretical framework for understanding preparedness and recovery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Glenn Richey Jr

    2009-01-01

    Purpose – The research on supply chains concerning disaster and crisis situations is in its infancy, but rapidly expanding on the backs of top researchers in the field. As with most young research streams there is very little theoretical grounding in extant studies. The purpose of this research is to integrate four prominent existing theoretical perspectives to provide a concise

  13. A theoretical framework for antigay aggression: Review of established and hypothesized effects within the context of the general aggression model?

    PubMed Central

    Parrott, Dominic J.

    2008-01-01

    Theory and research on antigay aggression has identified different motives that facilitate aggression based on sexual orientation. However, the individual and situational determinants of antigay aggression associated with these motivations have yet to be organized within a single theoretical framework. This limits researchers’ ability to organize existing knowledge, link that knowledge with related aggression theory, and guide the application of new findings. To address these limitations, this article argues for the use of an existing conceptual framework to guide thinking and generate new research in this area of study. Contemporary theories of antigay aggression, and empirical support for these theories, are reviewed and interpreted within the unifying framework of the general aggression model [Anderson, C.A. & Bushman, B.J. (2002). Human aggression. Annual Review of Psychology, 53, 27–51.]. It is concluded that this conceptual framework will facilitate investigation of individual and situational risk factors that may contribute to antigay aggression and guide development of individual-level intervention. PMID:18355952

  14. Social marketing and social influences: Using social ecology as a theoretical framework

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Katie Collins; Alan Tapp; Ashley Pressley

    2010-01-01

    Social marketing has traditionally been dominated by an individualistic model of design. In this work, the authors apply a social ecology model to the theory and practice of social marketing, demonstrating that a multilevel framework is required to fully expose and account for the complexity of sociocultural and environmental effects. The authors have generated a diagnostic tool for this use.

  15. Measuring demand for sanitation in developing countries: A new theoretical and methodological framework for contingent valuation

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    framework for contingent valuation surveys Julien Milanesi PhD, Centre d'analyse théorique et traitement des that contingent valuation (CV) studies implemented in developing countries are generally used to measure demands (for water, sanitation or health services) and neglect the valuation of nonmarket goods (like

  16. The Value of Fiction as Therapeutic Recreation and Developmental Mediator: A Theoretical Framework.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gold, Joseph

    1988-01-01

    Suggests that fiction has developed as a human medium of expression to assist people in adapting to the complexities of social organization. Argues that fiction reading leads to improved problem-solving skills, a greater sense of normality, a breakup of rigid and confusing cognitive frameworks, improved socialization, and increased…

  17. HIV-related stigma: Adapting a theoretical framework for use in India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wayne T. Steward; Gregory M. Herek; Jayashree Ramakrishna; Shalini Bharat; Sara Chandy; Judith Wrubel; Maria L. Ekstrand

    2008-01-01

    Stigma complicates the treatment of HIV worldwide. We examined whether a multi-component framework, initially consisting of enacted, felt normative, and internalized forms of individual stigma experiences, could be used to understand HIV-related stigma in Southern India. In Study 1, qualitative interviews with a convenience sample of 16 people living with HIV revealed instances of all three types of stigma. Experiences

  18. A Preisach method for estimating absolute paleofield intensity under the constraint of using only isothermal measurements: 1. Theoretical framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muxworthy, Adrian R.; Heslop, David

    2011-04-01

    The theoretical framework for a new nonheating method of determining absolute ancient magnetic field intensities (paleointensities) is described. The approach is based on a thermally activated Preisach model for interacting, randomly orientated single-domain grains with uniaxial anisotropy. The model includes theoretical features not accommodated by previous nonheating paleointensity methods; for example, it includes magnetostatic interactions, allows for variable cooling rates, and can identify, isolate, and reject unstable remanence carriers, i.e., multidomain and superparamagnetic contributions. The input Preisach distribution from which the acquisition of a thermal remanent magnetization (TRM) of a given rock sample can be simulated is obtained from information contained in the sample's first-order reversal curve distribution. The paleointensity estimate is determined by comparing the alternating field demagnetization spectrum of the sample's natural remanent magnetization and its simulated TRM. In the companion paper, the protocol is rigorously tested using a suite of historical samples.

  19. How to pay for the peace? A theoretical framework with references to African countries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jean-Paul Azam

    1995-01-01

    This paper analyses a simple game-theoretic model to highlight the choice of the government between raising its defence expenditures or giving away some “gifts” to his opponents, as a means to defend his position in power. If the government is a Cournot-Nash player, then there is no gift in equilibrium, and any increase in the budget will lead to more

  20. MINDING THE BABY: Mentalization-based treatment in families with parental substance use disorder: Theoretical framework

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kerstin Söderström; Finn Skårderud

    2009-01-01

    The primary aim of this article is to give a theoretical and empirical background for clinical interventions in family-oriented treatment for substance use disorders. The article refers to an ongoing research project, which is based on the concepts of mentalization and parental reflective functioning. Theory of mentalization and attachment theory is explored as explanatory tools of both addictive problem and

  1. Framework of a Decision-Theoretic Tutoring System for Learning of Mechanics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pek, Peng-Kiat; Poh, Kim-Leng

    2000-01-01

    Presents the application of decision-theoretic technique to a computer-based tutoring system for elementary mechanics. Uses sound probabilistic reasoning and a student model to identify learners' misconceptions. Focuses on the integration of Bayesian belief networks, item response theory, decision analysis, and database management systems in…

  2. Phenotypic diversity and ecosystem functioning in changing environments: A theoretical framework

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jon Norberg; Dennis P. Swaney; Jonathan Dushoff; Juan Lin; Renato Casagrandi; Simon A. Levin

    2001-01-01

    Biodiversity plays a vital role for ecosystem functioning in a changing environment. Yet theoretical approaches that incorpo- rate diversity into classical ecosystem theory do not provide a general dynamic theory based on mechanistic principles. In this paper, we suggest that approaches developed for quantitative genetics can be extended to ecosystem functioning by modeling the means and variances of phenotypes within

  3. Health disparities in Canada today: Some evidence and a theoretical framework

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Katherine L. Frohlich; Nancy Ross; Chantelle Richmond

    2006-01-01

    This paper documents contemporary evidence on patterns of health disparities in Canada and suggests theoretical mechanisms that give rise to these patterns. The overall health of Canadians, as measured by life expectancy or mortality, has improved dramatically over the past 30 years and some disparities have diminished slightly (e.g., life expectancy by income group for men), while others have increased

  4. A Contrastive Lexical Approach to Second Language Acquisition: A Theoretical Framework and Related Techniques

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maftoon, Parviz; Ziafar, Meisam

    2014-01-01

    Despite criticisms set against methods by postmethodologists who believe that teaching methods must be cast aside, new methods can be proposed that better meet learners' needs as a continuation of the chain of former methods introduced in the past. The present study proposes some language teaching techniques after introducing the theoretical

  5. Exploring Asynchrony as a Theoretical Framework for Understanding Giftedness: A Case of Cognitive Dissonance?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andronaco, Julie A.; Shute, Rosalyn; McLachlan, Angus

    2014-01-01

    Asynchrony is a theoretical construct that views the intellectually gifted child as inherently vulnerable because of disparities arising from the mismatch between his or her chronological age and mental age. Such disparities, for example, between wanting to belong but being intellectually out of step with peers, are said to give rise to a…

  6. Predicting Child Abuse Potential: An Empirical Investigation of Two Theoretical Frameworks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Angela Moreland Begle; Jean E. Dumas; Rochelle F. Hanson

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated two theoretical risk models predicting child maltreatment potential: (a) Belsky's (1993) developmental-ecological model and (b) the cumulative risk model in a sample of 610 caregivers (49% African American, 46% European American; 53% single) with a child between 3 and 6 years old. Results extend the literature by using a widely accepted and valid risk instrument rather than

  7. Theoretical Perspectives on the Education of Choral Conductors: A Suggested Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varvarigou, Maria; Durrant, Colin

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents theoretical perspectives for choral conducting education. A wide range of related literature on choral practice and education in higher education contexts, as well as training in the workplace is reviewed. Whilst various attributes for effective choral conducting practice have been identified by research studies, there has been…

  8. A Theoretical Framework for Educational Output Measurement. AIR Forum Paper 1978.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reece, William S.

    Construction of a theoretical measure of educational output is attempted in this paper. The effort begins by specifying the purpose for which this measure is intended: centralized allocation, according to the equimarginal principle, of limited resources to alternative units producing education. It then specifies a simple and narrow goal that…

  9. Abstract Game theoretical models predict that the main function of fighting behaviour is to assess the relative

    E-print Network

    Kotiaho, Janne S.

    , theory (Zahavi 1975, 1977; Nur and Hasson 1984; Pomiankowski 1987; Grafen 1990a,b; Iwasa et al. 1991; Johnstone and Grafen 1992), the framework of which can be applied to agonistic signalling. Honest signalling compensated for by the consequences of sig- nalling on the outcome of the fight (Grafen 1990a; Johnstone

  10. Effects of firm and IT characteristics on the value of e-commerce initiatives: An inductive theoretical framework

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Francis Kofi Andoh-Baidoo; Kweku-Muata Osei-Bryson; Kwasi Amoako-Gyampah

    We explore the theoretical foundations on how firm and IT characteristics explain the market value variations in e-commerce\\u000a initiatives by examining the announcements of 946 e-commerce initiatives in the public media. Our approach combines the Event\\u000a study methodology and Decision tree induction to examine the main and interaction effects of IT and firm characteristics on\\u000a Cumulative Abnormal Returns (CAR). In

  11. A theoretical framework for the regulation of Shh morphogen-controlled gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Michael; Page, Karen M.; Perez-Carrasco, Ruben; Barnes, Chris P.; Briscoe, James

    2014-01-01

    How morphogen gradients govern the pattern of gene expression in developing tissues is not well understood. Here, we describe a statistical thermodynamic model of gene regulation that combines the activity of a morphogen with the transcriptional network it controls. Using Sonic hedgehog (Shh) patterning of the ventral neural tube as an example, we show that the framework can be used together with the principled parameter selection technique of approximate Bayesian computation to obtain a dynamical model that accurately predicts tissue patterning. The analysis indicates that, for each target gene regulated by Gli, which is the transcriptional effector of Shh signalling, there is a neutral point in the gradient, either side of which altering the Gli binding affinity has opposite effects on gene expression. This explains recent counterintuitive experimental observations. The approach is broadly applicable and provides a unifying framework to explain the temporospatial pattern of morphogen-regulated gene expression. PMID:25294939

  12. The theoretical underpinnings of customer asset management: A framework and propositions for future research

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ruth N. Bolton; Katherine N. Lemon; Peter C. Verhoef

    2004-01-01

    Most research in customer asset management has focused on specific aspects of the value of the customer to the company. The\\u000a purpose of this article is to propose an integrated framework, called CUSAMS (customer asset management of services), that\\u000a enables service organizations (1) to make a comprehensive assessment of the value of their customer assets and (2) to understand\\u000a the

  13. Integrating Sediment Connectivity into Water Resources Management Trough a Graph Theoretic, Stochastic Modeling Framework.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitt, R. J. P.; Castelletti, A.; Bizzi, S.

    2014-12-01

    Understanding sediment transport processes at the river basin scale, their temporal spectra and spatial patterns is key to identify and minimize morphologic risks associated to channel adjustments processes. This work contributes a stochastic framework for modeling bed-load connectivity based on recent advances in the field (e.g., Bizzi & Lerner, 2013; Czubas & Foufoulas-Georgiu, 2014). It presents river managers with novel indicators from reach scale vulnerability to channel adjustment in large river networks with sparse hydrologic and sediment observations. The framework comprises three steps. First, based on a distributed hydrological model and remotely sensed information, the framework identifies a representative grain size class for each reach. Second, sediment residence time distributions are calculated for each reach in a Monte-Carlo approach applying standard sediment transport equations driven by local hydraulic conditions. Third, a network analysis defines the up- and downstream connectivity for various travel times resulting in characteristic up/downstream connectivity signatures for each reach. Channel vulnerability indicators quantify the imbalance between up/downstream connectivity for each travel time domain, representing process dependent latency of morphologic response. Last, based on the stochastic core of the model, a sensitivity analysis identifies drivers of change and major sources of uncertainty in order to target key detrimental processes and to guide effective gathering of additional data. The application, limitation and integration into a decision analytic framework is demonstrated for a major part of the Red River Basin in Northern Vietnam (179.000 km2). Here, a plethora of anthropic alterations ranging from large reservoir construction to land-use changes results in major downstream deterioration and calls for deriving concerted sediment management strategies to mitigate current and limit future morphologic alterations.

  14. An Experimental and Theoretical Framework for Manufacturing Prosthetic Sockets for Transtibial Amputees

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mario C. Faustini; Richard R. Neptune; Richard H. Crawford; William E. Rogers; Gordon Bosker

    2006-01-01

    Selective laser sintering (SLS) is a powerful manufacturing technology that does not require part-specific tooling or significant human intervention and provides the ability to easily generate parts with complex geometric designs. The present work focuses on developing a manufacturing framework using this technology to produce subject-specific transtibial amputee prosthetic sockets made of Duraform PA, which is a nylon-based material. The

  15. [Relational Frame Theory - A Theoretical Framework for Contextual Behavioral Science].

    PubMed

    Kensche, M; Schweiger, U

    2015-07-01

    Therapists have to deal with verbal systems and often work with verbal exchange. Therefore, a psychological theory is required, which teaches the therapist how to accomplish this task. The BRT is a theory of human language and cognition that explains how people use their verbal behavior as stimuli in their interrelations and how they act and react, based on the resulting relationships. This behavior is learned very early in the course of language acquisition and functions as a generalized operant. A prerequisite for this is the ability of people to undergo mental simulation. This enables them to construct diverse relational frameworks between individual stimuli. Without relational frameworks, people cannot function. The ability to establish a relational framework is a prerequisite for the formation of rule-governed behavior. Rule-governed behavior economizes complex decision processes, creates interpersonal security and enables dealing with events before they take place. On the other hand, the same properties that enable people to solve problems effectively can also contribute to rigid adherence to rules and experience avoidance. Relational frameworks, once established, outweigh other sources of behavioral regulation. Thus, it can become the basis of psychopathology. Poor contextual control makes it difficult for people to devote flexible, focused and voluntary attention to the present and align their actions with the immediate present. Contextual psychotherapy methods that are based on the BRT start precisely at this point: Targeted establishment of new contingencies in the therapeutic interaction through systematic strengthening of metacognitive mode and through the establishment of new rules that make possible a change in the rule-governed behavior enable undermining of dysfunctional rule-governed behavior and build up desirable behavior. This allows any therapeutic process to be more effective - regardless of the patient's expressed symptoms. PMID:26158614

  16. [Relational Frame Theory - A Theoretical Framework for Contextual Behavioral Science].

    PubMed

    Kensche, M; Schweiger, U

    2015-05-01

    Therapists have to deal with verbal systems and often work with verbal exchange. Therefore, a psychological theory is required, which teaches the therapist how to accomplish this task. The BRT is a theory of human language and cognition that explains how people use their verbal behavior as stimuli in their interrelations and how they act and react, based on the resulting relationships. This behavior is learned very early in the course of language acquisition and functions as a generalized operant. A prerequisite for this is the ability of people to undergo mental simulation. This enables them to construct diverse relational frameworks between individual stimuli. Without relational frameworks, people cannot function. The ability to establish a relational framework is a prerequisite for the formation of rule-governed behavior. Rule-governed behavior economizes complex decision processes, creates interpersonal security and enables dealing with events before they take place. On the other hand, the same properties that enable people to solve problems effectively can also contribute to rigid adherence to rules and experience avoidance. Relational frameworks, once established, outweigh other sources of behavioral regulation. Thus, it can become the basis of psychopathology. Poor contextual control makes it difficult for people to devote flexible, focused and voluntary attention to the present and align their actions with the immediate present. Contextual psychotherapy methods that are based on the BRT start precisely at this point: Targeted establishment of new contingencies in the therapeutic interaction through systematic strengthening of metacognitive mode and through the establishment of new rules that make possible a change in the rule-governed behavior enable undermining of dysfunctional rule-governed behavior and build up desirable behavior. This allows any therapeutic process to be more effective - regardless of the patient's expressed symptoms. PMID:26018397

  17. Supportive Non-Parental Adults and Adolescent Psychosocial Functioning: Using Social Support as a Theoretical Framework

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Emma M. Sterrett; Deborah J. Jones; Laura G. McKee; Carlye Kincaid

    Supportive Non-Parental Adults (SNPAs), or non-parental adults who provide social support to youth, are present in the lives\\u000a of many adolescents; yet to date, a guiding framework for organizing the existing literature on the provision of support provided\\u000a by multiple types of SNPAS, such as teachers, natural mentors, and extended family members, as well as to inform future research\\u000a efforts,

  18. Networking strategies and methods for connecting theoretical approaches: first steps towards a conceptual framework

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susanne Prediger; Angelika Bikner-Ahsbahs; Ferdinando Arzarello

    2008-01-01

    The article contributes to the ongoing discussion on ways to deal with the diversity of theories in mathematics education\\u000a research. It introduces and systematizes a collection of case studies using different strategies and methods for networking\\u000a theoretical approaches which all frame (qualitative) empirical research. The term ‘networking strategies’ is used to conceptualize\\u000a those connecting strategies, which aim at reducing the

  19. Theory of mind and paranoia in schizophrenia: A game theoretical investigation framework

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kevin K. S. Chan; Eric Y. H. Chen

    2011-01-01

    Introduction. Ample evidence already shows that theory of mind (ToM) is impaired in people with schizophrenia. Our aim was to critically review this literature.Method. We completed a selected review of the research literature on ToM in schizophrenia.Results. Gaps in ToM research were identified. A specific relationship between impaired ToM and paranoid delusions, although intuitively reasonable from a theoretical basis, has

  20. [Disasters and public health: an approach from the theoretical framework of epidemiology].

    PubMed

    Arcos González, Pedro Ignacio; Castro Delgado, Rafael; del Busto Prado, Francisco

    2002-01-01

    Throughout the 1990-2000 period, disasters (catastrophes) caused an average of 75,000 deaths yearly, injuring an average of 256 million people a year and causing economic losses totaling more than 650 billion euros. The magnitude of this problem, its impact on public health and on the degree of development of the populations involved are of such major importance as to warrant special interest from the public health standpoint, especially as a result of what are known as complex emergencies. The objective of this study is that of reviewing the definitions, the main concepts and the basic characteristics of disaster epidemiology. An analysis is also made of the risk factors involved in disasters, the impacts on public health of the main types of disasters and the main preventive strategies in terms of the different stages of the disaster cycle. PMID:12025262

  1. Global sensitivity analysis in hydrological modeling: Review of concepts, methods, theoretical framework, and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Xiaomeng; Zhang, Jianyun; Zhan, Chesheng; Xuan, Yunqing; Ye, Ming; Xu, Chonggang

    2015-04-01

    Sensitivity analysis (SA) aims to identify the key parameters that affect model performance and it plays important roles in model parameterization, calibration, optimization, and uncertainty quantification. However, the increasing complexity of hydrological models means that a large number of parameters need to be estimated. To better understand how these complex models work, efficient SA methods should be applied before the application of hydrological modeling. This study provides a comprehensive review of global SA methods in the field of hydrological modeling. The common definitions of SA and the typical categories of SA methods are described. A wide variety of global SA methods have been introduced to provide a more efficient evaluation framework for hydrological modeling. We review, analyze, and categorize research into global SA methods and their applications, with an emphasis on the research accomplished in the hydrological modeling field. The advantages and disadvantages are also discussed and summarized. An application framework and the typical practical steps involved in SA for hydrological modeling are outlined. Further discussions cover several important and often overlooked topics, including the relationship between parameter identification, uncertainty analysis, and optimization in hydrological modeling, how to deal with correlated parameters, and time-varying SA. Finally, some conclusions and guidance recommendations on SA in hydrological modeling are provided, as well as a list of important future research directions that may facilitate more robust analyses when assessing hydrological modeling performance.

  2. Development of habits through apprenticeship in a community: DHAC theoretical framework of physics teacher preparation

    E-print Network

    Etkina, Eugenia; Vokos, Stamatis

    2015-01-01

    The DHAC framework builds on the contemporary understanding of teacher preparation and strives to provide a better understanding of the process of learning to teach physics. Extant literature on teacher preparation suggests that pre-service teachers learn best when they are immersed in a community that allows them to develop dispositions, knowledge and practical skills and share with the community a strong vision of what good teaching means. However, despite having developed the requisite dispositions, knowledge and skills in pursuing the shared vision of good teaching, the professional demands on a teacher's time are so great out of and so complex during class time that if every decision requires multiple considerations and deliberations with oneself, the productive decisions might not materialize. We therefore argue that the missing link between intentional decision-making and actual teaching practice are the teacher's habits (spontaneous responses to situational cues). Teachers unavoidably develop habits w...

  3. [Marxism as a theoretical and methodological framework in collective health: implications for systematic review and synthesis of evidence].

    PubMed

    Soares, Cassia Baldini; Campos, Celia Maria Sivalli; Yonekura, Tatiana

    2013-12-01

    In this study, we discuss the integration in systematic reviews of research developed from a Marxist perspective of knowledge production and their results as evidence in healthcare. The study objectives are to review the assumptions of dialectical and historical materialism (DHM) and discuss the implications of dialectics for a literature review and the synthesis of evidence. DHM is a powerful framework for knowledge generation and transformation of policies and practices in healthcare. It assumes that social contradictions underlie the health-disease process, the fundamental theoretical construction in the field of collective health. Currently, we observe a considerable influence of the critical paradigm, of Marxist origin, in the construction of knowledge in health. Studies based on this critical paradigm incorporate complex methods, which are inherent to the guidelines of dialect, to identify the object and arrive at results that constitute evidence in healthcare. Systematic reviews should address the methodological difficulties associated with entirely integrating these results to healthcare. PMID:24626368

  4. Experimental and theoretical study on hydrogen interaction with unsaturated Metal Organic Frameworks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nijem, Nour; François Veyan, Jean; Zhao, Yonggang; Kong, Lingzhu; Li, Jing; Langreth, David C.; Chabal, Yves J.

    2010-03-01

    Infrared absorption spectroscopy (IRAS) is useful to study the interaction of H2 molecules inside various materials, since the frequency of its internal stretch mode depends on the adsorption site. Unsaturated Metal Organic Frameworks (MOFs) are particularly interesting due to their high H2 uptakes with relatively large isosteric heats of adsorption (Qst >8 kJ/mol). Our study focuses on H2 in M2(dhtp), dhtp=2,5-dihydroxyterephthalate (M= Zn, Ni, Co, Mg) and combines temperature-dependent IRAS measurements and vdW-DF calculations. Results show that the H2 stretch frequencies are very sensitive to the chemical environment, with no correlation between binding energies and frequency shifts, as previously observed for saturated MOFs.footnotetext N. Nijem et al. submitted to J.A.C.S 2009 Moreover, the H2 stretch vibration closest to the metal site exhibits a strong shift from -30 cm-1 to -68 cm-1 upon population of neighboring sites (e.g. ``oxygen'' site).

  5. Theoretical framework to analyze searches for hidden light gauge bosons in electron scattering fixed target experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beranek, T.; Merkel, H.; Vanderhaeghen, M.

    2013-07-01

    Motivated by anomalies in cosmic ray observations and by attempts to solve questions of the Standard Model of particle physics like the (g-2)? discrepancy, U(1) extensions of the Standard Model have been proposed in recent years. Such U(1) extensions allow for the interaction of dark matter by exchange of a photonlike massive force carrier ?' not included in the Standard Model. In order to search for ?' bosons, various experimental programs have been started. One approach is the dedicated search at fixed-target experiments at modest energies as performed at microtron (MAMI) or at the Jefferson Lab. In these experiments the process e(A,Z)?e(A,Z)l+l- is investigated, and a search for a very narrow resonance in the invariant mass distribution of the l+l- pair is performed. In this work we analyze this process in terms of signal and background in order to describe existing data obtained by the A1 experiment at MAMI with the aim to give accurate predictions for exclusion limits in the ?' parameter space. We present a detailed theoretical analysis of the cross sections entering in the description of such processes.

  6. Theoretical framework to analyze searches for hidden light gauge bosons in electron scattering fixed target experiments

    E-print Network

    T. Beranek; H. Merkel; M. Vanderhaeghen

    2013-03-11

    Motivated by anomalies in cosmic ray observations and by attempts to solve questions of the Standad Model of particle physics like the (g-2)_mu discrepancy, U(1) extensions of the Standard Model have been proposed in recent years. Such U(1) extensions allow for the interaction of Dark Matter by exchange of a photon-like massive force carrier \\gamma' not included in the Standard Model. In order to search for \\gamma' bosons various experimental programs have been started. One approach is the dedicated search at fixed-target experiments at modest energies as performed at MAMI or at the Jefferson Lab. In these experiments the process e(A,Z)->e(A,Z)l^+l^- is investigated and a search for a very narrow resonance in the invariant mass distribution of the l^+l^- pair is performed. In this work we analyze this process in terms of signal and background in order to describe existing data obtained by the A1 experiment at MAMI with the aim to give accurate predictions for exclusion limits in the \\gamma' parameter space. We present a detailed theoretical analysis of the cross sections entering in the description of such processes.

  7. Theoretical framework of entangled-photon generation from biexcitons in nano-to-bulk crossover regime with planar geometry

    E-print Network

    Motoaki Bamba; Hajime Ishihara

    2011-05-13

    We have constructed a theoretical framework of the biexciton-resonant hyperparametric scattering for the pursuit of high-power and high-quality generation of entangled photon pairs. Our framework is applicable to nano-to-bulk crossover regime where the center-of-mass motion of excitons and biexcitons is confined. Material surroundings and the polarization correlation of generated photons can be considered. We have analyzed the entangled-photon generation from CuCl film, by which ultraviolet entangled-photon pairs are generated, and from dielectric microcavity embedding a CuCl layer. We have revealed that in the nano-to-bulk crossover regime we generally get a high performance from the viewpoint of statistical accuracy, and the generation efficiency can be enhanced by the optical cavity with maintaining the high performance. The nano-to-bulk crossover regime has a variety of degrees of freedom to tune the entangled-photon generation, and the scattering spectra explicitly reflect quantized exciton-photon coupled modes in the finite structure.

  8. A theoretical framework for the sampling error variance for three-dimensional climate averages of ICOADS monthly ship data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrissey, Mark L.; Greene, J. Scott

    2009-05-01

    Meteorological and oceanographic data from ships of opportunity are the largest contributor to the world’s ocean surface database and thus are extensively used to estimate the change in climatic properties over the world’s oceans during the previous 150 years. The importance of these data for climate change studies underscores the need to fully understand the error associated with averages of these data. The sampling error problem is especially acute for ship data due to the fact that ships are moving platforms and, thus, report observations from constantly varying locations with time. This paper develops a theoretical framework for assessing the averaged sampling error associated with monthly, 1°×1° latitude-longitude box averaged ship data. It should be noted that the time-space distribution of ships within the averaging domain strongly affects the sampling error. This is shown in our derivation. The framework developed here can be used to improve upon existing methods for estimating the sampling error associated with three-dimensional box averages of meteorological and oceanographic data obtained from ship records. The framework is complimentary to existing methods of assessing biases and random error due to instrumentation, recording, etc. It is demonstrated mathematically that the uncertainty due to incomplete sampling is primarily a trade off between of the number of observations and their relative locations within the box as well as the inherent time-space correlation structure of the variable of interest. This work differs from other studies in that the three-dimensional interdependence of data is taken into account in deriving an expression for the sampling error.

  9. Understanding the Canadian adult CT head rule trial: use of the theoretical domains framework for process evaluation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The Canadian CT Head Rule was prospectively derived and validated to assist clinicians with diagnostic decision-making regarding the use of computed tomography (CT) in adult patients with minor head injury. A recent intervention trial failed to demonstrate a decrease in the rate of head CTs following implementation of the rule in Canadian emergency departments. Yet, the same intervention, which included a one-hour educational session and reminders at the point of requisition, was successful in reducing cervical spine imaging rates in the same emergency departments. The reason for the varied effect of the intervention across these two behaviours is unclear. There is an increasing appreciation for the use of theory to conduct process evaluations to better understand how strategies are linked with outcomes in implementation trials. The Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF) has been used to explore health professional behaviour and to design behaviour change interventions but, to date, has not been used to guide a theory-based process evaluation. In this proof of concept study, we explored whether the TDF could be used to guide a retrospective process evaluation to better understand emergency physicians’ responses to the interventions employed in the Canadian CT Head Rule trial. Methods A semi-structured interview guide, based on the 12 domains from the TDF, was used to conduct telephone interviews with project leads and physician participants from the intervention sites in the Canadian CT Head Rule trial. Two reviewers independently coded the anonymised interview transcripts using the TDF as a coding framework. Relevant domains were identified by: the presence of conflicting beliefs within a domain; the frequency of beliefs; and the likely strength of the impact of a belief on the behaviour. Results Eight physicians from four of the intervention sites in the Canadian CT Head Rule trial participated in the interviews. Barriers likely to assist with understanding physicians’ responses to the intervention in the trial were identified in six of the theoretical domains: beliefs about consequences; beliefs about capabilities; behavioural regulation; memory, attention and decision processes; environmental context and resources; and social influences. Despite knowledge that the Canadian CT Head Rule was highly sensitive and reliable for identifying clinically important brain injuries and strong beliefs about the benefits for using the rule, a number of barriers were identified that may have prevented physicians from consistently applying the rule. Conclusion This proof of concept study demonstrates the use of the TDF as a guiding framework to design a retrospective theory-based process evaluation. There is a need for further development and testing of methods for using the TDF to guide theory-based process evaluations running alongside behaviour change intervention trials. PMID:23433082

  10. Algebraic structures, physics and geometry from a Unified Field Theoretical framework

    E-print Network

    Diego Julio Cirilo-Lombardo

    2015-03-16

    Starting from a Unified Field Theory (UFT) proposed previously by the author, the possible fermionic representations arising from the same spacetime are considered from the algebraic and geometrical viewpoint. We specifically demonstrate in this UFT general context that the underlying basis of the single geometrical structure P (G,M) (the principal fiber bundle over the real spacetime manifold M with structural group G) reflecting the symmetries of the different fields carry naturally a biquaternionic structure instead of a complex one. This fact allows us to analyze algebraically and to interpret physically in a straighforward way the Majorana and Dirac representations and the relation of such structures with the spacetime signature and non-hermitian (CP) dynamic operators. Also, from the underlying structure of the tangent space, the existence of hidden (super) symmetries and the possibility of supersymmetric extensions of these UFT models are given showing that Rothstein's theorem is incomplete for that description. The importance of the Clifford algebras in the description of all symmetries, mainly the interaction of gravity with the other fields, is briefly discussed.

  11. Understanding diagnosis and management of dementia and guideline implementation in general practice: a qualitative study using the theoretical domains framework

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Dementia is a growing problem, causing substantial burden for patients, their families, and society. General practitioners (GPs) play an important role in diagnosing and managing dementia; however, there are gaps between recommended and current practice. The aim of this study was to explore GPs’ reported practice in diagnosing and managing dementia and to describe, in theoretical terms, the proposed explanations for practice that was and was not consistent with evidence-based guidelines. Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted with GPs in Victoria, Australia. The Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF) guided data collection and analysis. Interviews explored the factors hindering and enabling achievement of 13 recommended behaviours. Data were analysed using content and thematic analysis. This paper presents an in-depth description of the factors influencing two behaviours, assessing co-morbid depression using a validated tool, and conducting a formal cognitive assessment using a validated scale. Results A total of 30 GPs were interviewed. Most GPs reported that they did not assess for co-morbid depression using a validated tool as per recommended guidance. Barriers included the belief that depression can be adequately assessed using general clinical indicators and that validated tools provide little additional information (theoretical domain of ‘Beliefs about consequences’); discomfort in using validated tools (‘Emotion’), possibly due to limited training and confidence (‘Skills’; ‘Beliefs about capabilities’); limited awareness of the need for, and forgetting to conduct, a depression assessment (‘Knowledge’; ‘Memory, attention and decision processes’). Most reported practising in a manner consistent with the recommendation that a formal cognitive assessment using a validated scale be undertaken. Key factors enabling this were having an awareness of the need to conduct a cognitive assessment (‘Knowledge’); possessing the necessary skills and confidence (‘Skills’; ‘Beliefs about capabilities’); and having adequate time and resources (‘Environmental context and resources’). Conclusions This is the first study to our knowledge to use a theoretical approach to investigate the barriers and enablers to guideline-recommended diagnosis and management of dementia in general practice. It has identified key factors likely to explain GPs’ uptake of the guidelines. The results have informed the design of an intervention aimed at supporting practice change in line with dementia guidelines, which is currently being evaluated in a cluster randomised trial. PMID:24581339

  12. A theoretical framework for the net land-to-atmosphere CO2 flux and its implications in the definition of "emissions from land-use change"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gasser, T.; Ciais, P.

    2013-06-01

    We develop a theoretical framework and analysis of the net land-to-atmosphere CO2 flux in order to discuss possible definitions of "emissions from land-use change". The terrestrial biosphere is affected by two perturbations: the perturbation of the global carbon-climate-nitrogen system (CCN) with elevated atmospheric CO2, climate change and nitrogen deposition; and the land-use change perturbation (LUC). Here, we progressively establish mathematical definitions of four generic components of the net land-to-atmosphere CO2 flux. The two first components are the fluxes that would be observed if only one perturbation occurred. The two other components are due to the coupling of the CCN and LUC perturbations, which shows the non-linear response of the terrestrial carbon cycle. Thanks to these four components, we introduce three possible definitions of "emissions from land-use change" that are indeed used in the scientific literature, often without clear distinctions, and we draw conclusions as for their absolute and relative behaviors. Thanks to the OSCAR v2 model, we provide quantitative estimates of the differences between the three definitions, and we find that comparing results from studies that do not use the same definition can lead to a bias of up to 20% between estimates of those emissions. After discussion of the limitations of the framework, we conclude on the three major points of this study that should help the community to reconcile modeling and observation of emissions from land-use change. The appendix mainly provides more detailed mathematical expressions of the four components of the net land-to-atmosphere CO2 flux.

  13. A theoretical framework for the net land-to-atmosphere CO2 flux and its implications in the definition of "emissions from land-use change"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gasser, T.; Ciais, P.

    2013-01-01

    We develop a theoretical framework and analysis of the net land-to-atmosphere CO2 flux in order to discuss possible definitions of "emissions from land-use change". The terrestrial biosphere is affected by two perturbations: the perturbation of the global Carbon-Climate-Nitrogen system (CCN) with elevated atmospheric CO2, climate change and nitrogen deposition; and the Land-Use Change perturbation (LUC). Here, we progressively establish mathematical definitions of four generic components of the net land-to-atmosphere CO2 flux. The two first components are the fluxes that would be observed if only one perturbation occurred. The two other components are due to the coupling of the CCN and LUC perturbations, which shows the non-linear response of the terrestrial carbon cycle. Thanks to these four components, we introduce three possible definitions of "emissions from land-use change", that are indeed used in the scientific literature, often without clear distinctions, and we draw conclusions as for their absolute and relative behaviors. Thanks to the OSCAR v2 model, we provide quantitative estimates of the differences between the three definitions, and we find that comparing results from studies that do not use the same definition can lead to a bias of up to 20% between estimates of those emissions. After discussion of the limitations of the framework, we conclude on the three major points of this study that should help the community to reconcile modeling and observation of emissions from land-use change. The Appendix mainly provides more detailed mathematical expressions of the four components of the net land-to-atmosphere CO2 flux.

  14. Dietary lipid composition and avian migratory flight performance: Development of a theoretical framework for avian fat storage.

    PubMed

    Price, Edwin R

    2010-12-01

    Birds rely substantially on fat to fuel migratory flights. The importance of the composition of those fat stores to flight performance is a field of recent interest. Here I review the evidence that dietary lipid fat composition affects exercise in birds. Seasonal changes in adipose composition and diet choice experiments have yet to provide strong evidence that fatty acid composition can affect flight performance. Direct manipulations of dietary fat, however, have been demonstrated to affect exercise performance in both avian and non-avian species. I also describe the major hypotheses for the mechanisms by which dietary fat affects exercise, focusing on the role of fatty acids as oxidative substrates and as structural components of membranes. Evidence is accumulating that fatty acids that are shorter or have more double bonds increase peak performance due to their higher transport rates en route to oxidation. Endurance and efficiency of flight may or may not be affected in similar ways. Other mechanisms requiring further investigation include membrane composition, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors, and eicosanoid-mediated inflammation. Finally, I develop a theoretical framework for studying the composition of fat stores in migrants, focusing on the tradeoffs between fatty acid transport rates, energy storage, and assimilation during stopover refueling. PMID:20561892

  15. A HIGHLY CONSISTENT FRAMEWORK FOR THE EVOLUTION OF THE STAR-FORMING ''MAIN SEQUENCE'' FROM z ? 0-6

    SciTech Connect

    Speagle, J. S. [Harvard University Department of Astronomy, 60 Garden Street, MS 46, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Steinhardt, C. L.; Silverman, J. D. [Kavli IPMU, University of Tokyo, Kashiwanoha 5-1-5, Kashiwa-shi, Chiba 277-8583 (Japan); Capak, P. L., E-mail: jspeagle@cfa.harvard.edu [California Institute of Technology, MC 105-24, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2014-10-01

    Using a compilation of 25 studies from the literature, we investigate the evolution of the star-forming galaxy (SFG) main sequence (MS) in stellar mass and star formation rate (SFR) out to z ? 6. After converting all observations to a common set of calibrations, we find a remarkable consensus among MS observations (?0.1 dex 1? interpublication scatter). By fitting for time evolution of the MS in bins of constant mass, we deconvolve the observed scatter about the MS within each observed redshift bin. After accounting for observed scatter between different SFR indicators, we find the width of the MS distribution is ?0.2 dex and remains constant over cosmic time. Our best fits indicate the slope of the MS is likely time-dependent, with our best-fit log SFR(M {sub *}, t) = (0.84 ± 0.02 – 0.026 ± 0.003 × t)log M {sub *} – (6.51 ± 0.24 – 0.11 ± 0.03 × t), where t is the age of the universe in Gyr. We use our fits to create empirical evolutionary tracks in order to constrain MS galaxy star formation histories (SFHs), finding that (1) the most accurate representations of MS SFHs are given by delayed-? models, (2) the decline in fractional stellar mass growth for a ''typical'' MS galaxy today is approximately linear for most of its lifetime, and (3) scatter about the MS can be generated by galaxies evolving along identical evolutionary tracks assuming an initial 1? spread in formation times of ?1.4 Gyr.

  16. A theoretical framework for quantifying the relative importance of dissolution and mechanical erosion in soluble bedrock channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Covington, M. D.; Gabrovšek, F.; Gulley, J. D.

    2013-12-01

    Models of erosion in surface streams typically assume that the rates of stream incision via dissolution are negligibly small in comparison to mechanical erosion rates. On the contrary, numerical models of the formation and evolution of cave channels in karst landscapes have not typically considered mechanical processes. The disconnect in the assumptions made by these two communities is indicative of a switch in the importance of these two types of processes as channels grow. However, the parameters that control this switch, and the typical settings in which chemical or mechanical incision will dominate are unknown. Here we construct a theoretical framework to allow a systematic study of the role of climatic and lithological factors in controlling the relative importance of dissolution and mechanical processes in channels in highly soluble rock. We begin by characterizing the relationship between saturation state and discharge in a wide variety of streams using data from the USGS Water Quality database. Using this characterization, we have developed a stochastic model for dissolution in streams that enables calculation of rates averaged over all discharges. This model is compared against similar models for mechanical erosion that employ a stream power erosion law. The model shows that at sufficiently high discharges, or shear stresses, mechanical erosion dominates. Similarly, channel dissolution is relatively insensitive to extreme events. However, at low discharges, significant dissolution can occur if the stream is undersaturated. Consequently, the average saturation state of the stream, the critical threshold for the onset of mechanical erosion, and the time distribution of discharges all play crucial roles. We conclude with a preliminary examination of the distribution of characteristic chemical and mechanical erosion features within soluble bedrock channels as a function of lithological, hydraulic, chemical, and sediment properties.

  17. Budget impact of rare diseases: propo-sal for a theoretical framework based on evidence from bulgaria.

    PubMed

    Iskrov, G; Jessop, E; Miteva-Katrandzhieva, T; Stefanov, R

    2015-05-01

    This study aimed to estimate the impact of rare disease (RD) drugs on Bulgaria's National Health Insurance Fund's (NHIF) total drug budget for 2011-2014. While standard budget impact analysis is usually used in a prospective way, assessing the impact of new health technologies on the health system's sustainability, we adopted a retrospective approach instead. Budget impact was quantified from a NHIF perspective. Descriptive statistics was used to analyse cost details, while dynamics was studied, using chain-linked growth rates (every period preceding the accounting period serves as a base). NHIF costs for RD therapies were expected to increase up to 74.5 million BGN in 2014 (7.8% of NHIF's total pharmaceutical expenditure). Greatest increase in cost per patient and number of patients treated was observed in conditions, for which there were newly approved for funding therapies. While simple cost drivers are well known - number of patients treated and mean cost per patient - in real-world settings these two factors are likely to depend on the availability and accessibility of effective innovative therapies. As RD were historically underdiagnosed, undertreated and underfunded in Bulgaria, improved access to RD drugs will inevitably lead to increasing budget burden for payers. Based on the evidence from this study, we propose a theoretical framework of a budget impact study for RD. First, a retrospective analysis could provide essential health policy insights in terms of impact on accessibility and population health, which are significant benchmarks in shaping funding decisions in healthcare. We suggest an interaction between the classical prospective BIA with the retrospective analysis in order to optimise health policy decision-making. Second, we recommend budget impact studies to focus on RD rather than orphan drugs (OD). In policy context, RD are the public health priority. OD are just one of the tools to address the complex issues of RD. Moreover, OD is a dynamic characteristic and compromises the consistency and comparability of the calculated budget indicators. PMID:26042447

  18. Population mixing and the adaptive divergence of quantitative traits in discrete populations: a theoretical framework for empirical tests.

    PubMed

    Hendry, A P; Day, T; Taylor, E B

    2001-03-01

    Empirical tests for the importance of population mixing in constraining adaptive divergence have not been well grounded in theory for quantitative traits in spatially discrete populations. We develop quantitative-genetic models to examine the equilibrium difference between two populations that are experiencing different selective regimes and exchanging individuals. These models demonstrate that adaptive divergence is negatively correlated with the rate of population mixing (m, most strongly so when m is low), positively correlated with the difference in phenotypic optima between populations, and positively correlated with the amount of additive genetic variance (G, most strongly so when G is low). The approach to equilibrium is quite rapid (fewer than 50 generations for two populations to evolve 90% of the distance to equilibrium) when either heritability or mixing are not too low (h2 > 0.2 or m > 0.05). The theory can be used to aid empirical tests that: (1) compare observed divergence to that predicted using estimates of population mixing, additive genetic variance/covariance, and selection; (2) test for a negative correlation between population mixing and adaptive divergence across multiple independent population pairs; and (3) experimentally manipulate the rate of mixing. Application of the first two of these approaches to data from two well-studied natural systems suggests that population mixing has constrained adaptive divergence for color patterns in Lake Erie water snakes (Nerodia sipedon), but not for trophic traits in sympatric pairs of benthic and limnetic stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus). The theoretical framework we outline should provide an improved basis for future empirical tests of the role of population mixing in adaptive divergence. PMID:11327154

  19. River restoration in Spain: theoretical and practical approach in the context of the European water framework directive.

    PubMed

    González Del Tánago, Marta; García de Jalón, Diego; Román, Mercedes

    2012-07-01

    River restoration is becoming a priority in many countries because of increasing the awareness of environmental degradation. In Europe, the EU Water Framework Directive (WFD) has significantly reinforced river restoration, encouraging the improvement of ecological status for water bodies. To fulfill the WFD requirements, the Spanish Ministry of the Environment developed in 2006 a National Strategy for River Restoration whose design and implementation are described in this paper. At the same time many restoration projects have been conducted, and sixty of them have been evaluated in terms of stated objectives and pressures and implemented restoration measures. Riparian vegetation enhancement, weir removal and fish passes were the most frequently implemented restoration measures, although the greatest pressures came from hydrologic alteration caused by flow regulation for irrigation purposes. Water deficits in quantity and quality associated with uncontrolled water demands seriously affect Mediterranean rivers and represent the main constraint to achieving good ecological status of Spanish rivers, most of them intensively regulated. Proper environmental allocation of in-stream flows would need deep restrictions in agricultural water use which seem to be of very difficult social acceptance. This situation highlights the need to integrate land-use and rural development policies with water resources and river management, and identifies additional difficulties in achieving the WFD objectives and good ecological status of rivers in Mediterranean countries. PMID:22569704

  20. Assessing Students' Understandings of Biological Models and Their Use in Science to Evaluate a Theoretical Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grünkorn, Juliane; Upmeier zu Belzen, Annette; Krüger, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    Research in the field of students' understandings of models and their use in science describes different frameworks concerning these understandings. Currently, there is no conjoint framework that combines these structures and so far, no investigation has focused on whether it reflects students' understandings sufficiently (empirical…

  1. A Theoretical Framework of Training Needs Analysis for African Para-Medical Personnel through Distance Education Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braimoh, Dele

    1994-01-01

    A theoretical conceptualization of training needs assessment is developed using the example of distance education of paramedical personnel (nurses) in the developing countries of Africa. Accurate training needs analysis and a baseline survey are essential for program development. (SLD)

  2. Organizational Culture and Organizational Effectiveness: A Meta-Analytic Investigation of the Competing Values Framework's Theoretical Suppositions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartnell, Chad A.; Ou, Amy Yi; Kinicki, Angelo

    2011-01-01

    We apply Quinn and Rohrbaugh's (1983) competing values framework (CVF) as an organizing taxonomy to meta-analytically test hypotheses about the relationship between 3 culture types and 3 major indices of organizational effectiveness (employee attitudes, operational performance [i.e., innovation and product and service quality], and financial…

  3. Maximum likelihood localization of 2-D patterns in the Gauss-Laguerre Transform domain: theoretic framework and preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Neri, Alessandro; Jacovitti, Giovanni

    2004-01-01

    Usual approaches to localization, i.e., joint estimation of position, orientation and scale of a bidimensional pattern employ suboptimum techniques based on invariant signatures, which allow for position estimation independent of scale and orientation. In this paper a Maximum Likelihood method for pattern localization working in the Gauss-Laguerre Transform (GLT) domain is presented. The GLT is based on an orthogonal family of Circular Harmonic Functions with specific radial profiles, which permits optimum joint estimation of position and scale/rotation parameters looking at the maxima of a "Gauss-Laguerre Likelihood Map." The Fisher information matrix for any given pattern is given and the theoretical asymptotic accuracy of the parameter estimates is calculated through the Cramer Rao Lower Bound. Application of the ML estimation method is discussed and an example is provided. PMID:15376959

  4. A general theory of image segmentation: level set segmentation in the fuzzy connectedness framework

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Krzysztof Chris Ciesielski; Jayaram K. Udupa

    2007-01-01

    In the current vast image segmentation literature, there is a serious lack of methods that would allow theoretical comparison of the algorithms introduced by using different mathematical methodologies. The main goal of this article is to introduce a general theoretical framework for image segmentation that would allow such comparison. The framework is based on the formal definitions designed to answer

  5. Barriers and enablers to delivery of the Healthy Kids Check: an analysis informed by the Theoretical Domains Framework and COM-B model

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background More than a fifth of Australian children arrive at school developmentally vulnerable. To counteract this, the Healthy Kids Check (HKC), a one-off health assessment aimed at preschool children, was introduced in 2008 into Australian general practice. Delivery of services has, however, remained low. The Theoretical Domains Framework, which provides a method to understand behaviours theoretically, can be condensed into three core components: capability, opportunity and motivation, and the COM-B model. Utilising this system, this study aimed to determine the barriers and enablers to delivery of the HKC, to inform the design of an intervention to promote provision of HKC services in Australian general practice. Methods Data from 6 focus group discussions with 40 practitioners from general practices in socio-culturally diverse areas of Melbourne, Victoria, were analysed using thematic analysis. Results Many practitioners expressed uncertainty regarding their capabilities and the practicalities of delivering HKCs, but in some cases HKCs had acted as a catalyst for professional development. Key connections between immunisation services and delivery of HKCs prompted practices to have systems of recall and reminder in place. Standardisation of methods for developmental assessment and streamlined referral pathways affected practitioners’ confidence and motivation to perform HKCs. Conclusion Application of a systematic framework effectively demonstrated how a number of behaviours could be targeted to increase delivery of HKCs. Interventions need to target practice systems, the support of office staff and referral options, as well as practitioners’ training. Many behavioural changes could be applied through a single intervention programme delivered by the primary healthcare organisations charged with local healthcare needs (Medicare Locals) providing vital links between general practice, community and the health of young children. PMID:24886520

  6. Back to the basics: identifying positive youth development as the theoretical framework for a youth drug prevention program in rural Saskatchewan, Canada amidst a program evaluation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite endorsement by the Saskatchewan government to apply empirically-based approaches to youth drug prevention services in the province, programs are sometimes delivered prior to the establishment of evidence-informed goals and objectives. This paper shares the 'preptory’ outcomes of our team’s program evaluation of the Prince Albert Parkland Health Region Mental Health and Addiction Services’ Outreach Worker Service (OWS) in eight rural, community schools three years following its implementation. Before our independent evaluation team could assess whether expectations of the OWS were being met, we had to assist with establishing its overarching program goals and objectives and 'at-risk’ student population, alongside its alliance with an empirically-informed theoretical framework. Methods A mixed-methods approach was applied, beginning with in-depth focus groups with the OWS staff to identify the program’s goals and objectives and targeted student population. These were supplemented with OWS and school administrator interviews and focus groups with school staff. Alignment with a theoretical focus was determined though a review of the OWS’s work to date and explored in focus groups between our evaluation team and the OWS staff and validated with the school staff and OWS and school administration. Results With improved understanding of the OWS’s goals and objectives, our evaluation team and the OWS staff aligned the program with the Positive Youth Development theoretical evidence-base, emphasizing the program’s universality, systems focus, strength base, and promotion of assets. Together we also gained clarity about the OWS’s definition of and engagement with its 'at-risk’ student population. Conclusions It is important to draw on expert knowledge to develop youth drug prevention programming, but attention must also be paid to aligning professional health care services with a theoretically informed evidence-base for evaluation purposes. If time does not permit for the establishment of evidence-informed goals and objectives at the start-up of a program, obtaining insight and expertise from program personnel and school staff and administrators can bring the program to a point where this can still be achieved and theoretical linkages made after a program has been implemented. This is a necessary foundation for measuring an intervention’s success. PMID:24148918

  7. A theoretical framework for whole-plant carbon assimilation efficiency based on metabolic scaling theory: a test case using Picea seedlings.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhiqiang; Ji, Mingfei; Deng, Jianming; Milne, Richard I; Ran, Jinzhi; Zhang, Qiang; Fan, Zhexuan; Zhang, Xiaowei; Li, Jiangtao; Huang, Heng; Cheng, Dongliang; Niklas, Karl J

    2015-06-01

    Simultaneous and accurate measurements of whole-plant instantaneous carbon-use efficiency (ICUE) and annual total carbon-use efficiency (TCUE) are difficult to make, especially for trees. One usually estimates ICUE based on the net photosynthetic rate or the assumed proportional relationship between growth efficiency and ICUE. However, thus far, protocols for easily estimating annual TCUE remain problematic. Here, we present a theoretical framework (based on the metabolic scaling theory) to predict whole-plant annual TCUE by directly measuring instantaneous net photosynthetic and respiratory rates. This framework makes four predictions, which were evaluated empirically using seedlings of nine Picea taxa: (i) the flux rates of CO2 and energy will scale isometrically as a function of plant size, (ii) whole-plant net and gross photosynthetic rates and the net primary productivity will scale isometrically with respect to total leaf mass, (iii) these scaling relationships will be independent of ambient temperature and humidity fluctuations (as measured within an experimental chamber) regardless of the instantaneous net photosynthetic rate or dark respiratory rate, or overall growth rate and (iv) TCUE will scale isometrically with respect to instantaneous efficiency of carbon use (i.e., the latter can be used to predict the former) across diverse species. These predictions were experimentally verified. We also found that the ranking of the nine taxa based on net photosynthetic rates differed from ranking based on either ICUE or TCUE. In addition, the absolute values of ICUE and TCUE significantly differed among the nine taxa, with both ICUE and temperature-corrected ICUE being highest for Picea abies and lowest for Picea schrenkiana. Nevertheless, the data are consistent with the predictions of our general theoretical framework, which can be used to access annual carbon-use efficiency of different species at the level of an individual plant based on simple, direct measurements. Moreover, we believe that our approach provides a way to cope with the complexities of different ecosystems, provided that sufficient measurements are taken to calibrate our approach to that of the system being studied. PMID:25939866

  8. An Analysis of the Main Drivers for ISO 9001 and other Isomorphic Metastandards

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Inaki HERAS-SAIZARBITORIA; German ARANA; Eduardo SAN MIGUEL

    2010-01-01

    Research on the adoption of metastandards (e.g. ISO 9001, ISO 14001, OHSAS 18001, SA 8000) has used a variety of theoretical perspectives to identify the main driving forces or motivations. While the majority of existing studies on this subject are of an empirical character with little development of a theoretical framework, there are nonetheless a certain number of noteworthy studies

  9. Euratom Framework Programme research in reactor safety: main achievements of FP4 ('94–'98), preliminary results of FP5 ('98–'02) and prospects for beyond 2002

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G Van Goethem; A Zurita; J Martin Bermejo

    2001-01-01

    In this paper an overview is given of the most important aspects of the research activities organised by the European Union (EU) in the area of reactor safety under both the past 4th and the current 5th Euratom Framework Programmes (FP). This research consists of the following four areas: reactor safety; waste management; future systems; and radiation protection. Under FP-4

  10. A cross-country comparison of intensive care physicians’ beliefs about their transfusion behaviour: A qualitative study using the theoretical domains framework

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Evidence of variations in red blood cell transfusion practices have been reported in a wide range of clinical settings. Parallel studies in Canada and the United Kingdom were designed to explore transfusion behaviour in intensive care physicians. The aim of this paper is three-fold: first, to explore beliefs that influence Canadian intensive care physicians’ transfusion behaviour; second, to systematically select relevant theories and models using the Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF) to inform a future predictive study; and third, to compare its results with the UK study. Methods Ten intensive care unit (ICU) physicians throughout Canada were interviewed. Physicians’ responses were coded into theoretical domains, and specific beliefs were generated for each response. Theoretical domains relevant to behaviour change were identified, and specific constructs from the relevant domains were used to select psychological theories. The results from Canada and the United Kingdom were compared. Results Seven theoretical domains populated by 31 specific beliefs were identified as relevant to the target behaviour. The domains Beliefs about capabilities (confident to not transfuse if patients’ clinical condition is stable), Beliefs about consequences (positive beliefs of reducing infection and saving resources and negative beliefs about risking patients’ clinical outcome and potentially more work), Social influences (transfusion decision is influenced by team members and patients’ relatives), and Behavioural regulation (wide range of approaches to encourage restrictive transfusion) that were identified in the UK study were also relevant in the Canadian context. Three additional domains, Knowledge (it requires more evidence to support restrictive transfusion), Social/professional role and identity (conflicting beliefs about not adhering to guidelines, referring to evidence, believing restrictive transfusion as professional standard, and believing that guideline is important for other professionals), and Motivation and goals (opposing beliefs about the importance of restrictive transfusion and compatibility with other goals), were also identified in this study. Similar to the UK study, the Theory of Planned Behaviour, Social Cognitive Theory, Operant Learning Theory, Action Planning, and Knowledge-Attitude-Behaviour model were identified as potentially relevant theories and models for further study. Personal project analysis was added to the Canadian study to explore the Motivation and goals domain in further detail. Conclusions A wide range of beliefs was identified by the Canadian ICU physicians as likely to influence their transfusion behaviour. We were able to demonstrate similar though not identical results in a cross-country comparison. Designing targeted behaviour-change interventions based on unique beliefs identified by physicians from two countries are more likely to encourage restrictive transfusion in ICU physicians in respective countries. This needs to be tested in future prospective clinical trials. PMID:22999460

  11. A clinical decision framework for the identification of main problems and treatment goals for ambulant children with bilateral spastic cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Franki, Inge; De Cat, Josse; Deschepper, Ellen; Molenaers, Guy; Desloovere, Kaat; Himpens, Eveline; Vanderstraeten, Guy; Van den Broeck, Chris

    2014-05-01

    The primary aim of the study was to investigate how a clinical decision process based on the International Classification of Function, Disability and Health (ICF) and the Hypothesis-Oriented Algorithm for Clinicians (HOAC-II) can contribute to a reliable identification of main problems in ambulant children with cerebral palsy (CP). As a secondary aim, to evaluate how the additional information from three-dimensional gait analysis (3DGA) can influence the reliability. Twenty-two physical therapists individually defined the main problems and specific goals of eight children with bilateral spastic CP. In four children, the results of 3DGA were provided additionally to the results of the clinical examination and the GMFM-88 (gross motor function measure-88). Frequency analysis was used to evaluate the selected main problems and goals. For the main problems, pair-wise agreement was calculated by the number of corresponding problems between the different therapists and using positive and negative agreement per problem. Cluster analysis using Ward's method was used to evaluate correspondence between the main problems and specific goals. The pair-wise agreement revealed frequencies of 47%, 32% and 3% for the identification of one, two or three corresponding main problems. The number of corresponding main problems was higher when additional information of 3DGA was provided. Most of the specific goals were targeting strength (34%), followed by range of motion (15.2%) and GMFM-D (11.8%). In 29.7% of the cases, therapists could not prioritize and exceeded the number of eight specific goals. Cluster analysis revealed a logic connection between the selection of strength as a main problem and as specific goal parameters. Alignment as a main problem was very often associated with specific parameters like ROM and muscle length and with hypertonia as a main problem. The results show a moderate agreement for the selection of main problems. Therapists are able to use the proposed model for a logic and structured clinical reasoning. Setting priorities in the definition of specific goals is revealed as a remaining difficulty. Further research is required to investigate the additional value of 3DGA and to improve priority setting. PMID:24631275

  12. Implementation of pregnancy weight management and obesity guidelines: a meta-synthesis of healthcare professionals' barriers and facilitators using the Theoretical Domains Framework.

    PubMed

    Heslehurst, N; Newham, J; Maniatopoulos, G; Fleetwood, C; Robalino, S; Rankin, J

    2014-06-01

    Obesity in pregnancy is rising and is associated with severe health consequences for both the mother and the child. There is an increasing international focus on guidelines to manage the clinical risks of maternal obesity, and for pregnancy weight management. However, passive dissemination of guidelines is not effective and more active strategies are required for effective guideline implementation into practice. Implementation of guidelines is a form of healthcare professional behaviour change, and therefore implementation strategies should be based on appropriate behaviour change theory. This systematic review aimed to identify the determinants of healthcare professionals' behaviours in relation to maternal obesity and weight management. Twenty-five studies were included. Data synthesis of the existing international qualitative and quantitative evidence base used the Theoretical Domains Framework to identify the barriers and facilitators to healthcare professionals' maternal obesity and weight management practice. The domains most frequently identified included 'knowledge', 'beliefs about consequences' and 'environmental context and resources'. Healthcare professionals' weight management practice had the most barriers compared with any other area of maternal obesity practice. The results of this review will be used to inform the development of an intervention to support healthcare professional behaviour change. PMID:24629076

  13. "Because I am worth it": a theoretical framework and empirical review of a justification-based account of self-regulation failure.

    PubMed

    De Witt Huberts, Jessie C; Evers, Catharine; De Ridder, Denise T D

    2014-05-01

    Self-regulation failure is often explained as being overwhelmed by impulse. The present article proposes a novel pathway, presenting a theoretical framework and empirical review of a justification-based account of self-regulation failure. With justification we refer to making excuses for one's discrepant behavior, so that when experiencing a self-regulation dilemma between immediate impulses and long-term intentions, people resolve the conflict by developing and employing justifications that allow violations of the goal they endorse. Accordingly, rather than inhibiting motivations from the impulsive system, the reflective system can also facilitate them, leading to self-regulation failure. We bring together empirical evidence from various domains demonstrating that justifications can instigate self-regulation failure and rule out alternative accounts. Having established that justification processes contribute to self-regulation failure, we then propose several mechanisms that may fuel the effect. Finally, routes for future research and the conceptual and practical implications of these novel insights for self-regulation are discussed. PMID:24214148

  14. Teaching Main Idea Comprehension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baumann, James F., Ed.

    Intended to help classroom teachers, curriculum developers, and researchers, this book provides current information on theoretical and instructional aspects of main idea comprehension. Titles and authors are as follows: "The Confused World of Main Idea" (James W. Cunningham and David W. Moore); "The Comprehension of Important Information in…

  15. Identifying factors likely to influence compliance with diagnostic imaging guideline recommendations for spine disorders among chiropractors in North America: a focus group study using the Theoretical Domains Framework

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF) was developed to investigate determinants of specific clinical behaviors and inform the design of interventions to change professional behavior. This framework was used to explore the beliefs of chiropractors in an American Provider Network and two Canadian provinces about their adherence to evidence-based recommendations for spine radiography for uncomplicated back pain. The primary objective of the study was to identify chiropractors’ beliefs about managing uncomplicated back pain without x-rays and to explore barriers and facilitators to implementing evidence-based recommendations on lumbar spine x-rays. A secondary objective was to compare chiropractors in the United States and Canada on their beliefs regarding the use of spine x-rays. Methods Six focus groups exploring beliefs about managing back pain without x-rays were conducted with a purposive sample. The interview guide was based upon the TDF. Focus groups were digitally recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed by two independent assessors using thematic content analysis based on the TDF. Results Five domains were identified as likely relevant. Key beliefs within these domains included the following: conflicting comments about the potential consequences of not ordering x-rays (risk of missing a pathology, avoiding adverse treatment effects, risks of litigation, determining the treatment plan, and using x-ray-driven techniques contrasted with perceived benefits of minimizing patient radiation exposure and reducing costs; beliefs about consequences); beliefs regarding professional autonomy, professional credibility, lack of standardization, and agreement with guidelines widely varied ( social/professional role & identity); the influence of formal training, colleagues, and patients also appeared to be important factors ( social influences); conflicting comments regarding levels of confidence and comfort in managing patients without x-rays ( belief about capabilities); and guideline awareness and agreements ( knowledge). Conclusions Chiropractors’ use of diagnostic imaging appears to be influenced by a number of factors. Five key domains may be important considering the presence of conflicting beliefs, evidence of strong beliefs likely to impact the behavior of interest, and high frequency of beliefs. The results will inform the development of a theory-based survey to help identify potential targets for behavioral-change strategies. PMID:22938135

  16. Effect of temperature on formation of two new lanthanide metal-organic frameworks: Synthesis, characterization and theoretical studies of Tm(III)-succinate

    SciTech Connect

    Oliveira, Carlos Alberto F. de; Silva, Fausthon Fred da; Malvestiti, Ivani [Department of Fundamental Chemistry, UFPE, 50590-470 Recife, PE (Brazil); Malta, Valeria Rodrigues dos S. [Institute of Chemistry and Biotechnology, UFAL, 57062-970 Maceio, AL (Brazil); Dutra, Jose Diogo L.; Costa, Nivan B. da; Freire, Ricardo O. [Department of Chemistry, UFS, 49100-000 Sao Cristovao, SE (Brazil); Junior, Severino A., E-mail: salvesjr@ufpe.br [Department of Fundamental Chemistry, UFPE, 50590-470 Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2013-01-15

    Two new metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have been synthesized under different hydrothermal conditions and characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, scanning electron microscopy and elemental analysis. Compound 1, crystallized in space group P1-bar with the formula [Tm{sub 2}(L){sub 3}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}]{center_dot}H{sub 2}O, (H{sub 2}L=succinic acid), has triclinic cell parameters of a=7.61780(10), b=10.58050(10), c=12.71030(10), {alpha}=95.3130(10), {beta}=107.4370(10), {gamma}=111.0960(10) and a cell volume of 888.446(16) A{sup 3}. Compound 2, crystallized in space group I2/a with the same formula, is monoclinic, with cell parameters of a=13.77020(10), b=7.63170(10), c=17.2410(2), {beta}=101.303(10) and a cell volume of 1776.72(3) A{sup 3}. The results of this work indicate that a flexible succinate ligand that provides several modes of coordination can lead to different conformations, depending on the temperature used in the reaction. In the theoretical part of this study, semiempirical quantum chemistry methods using AM1, PM3 and PM6 models are employed to predict the structure of MOFs, calculate the geometric and crystallographic parameters, and make comparisons with experimental data. - Graphical abstract: Scheme of obtaining [Tm{sub 2}(C{sub 4}H{sub 4}O{sub 4}){sub 3}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}]H{sub 2}O in two different crystalline phases under the influence of reaction temperature. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Was synthesized new MOFs based on Tm{sup 3+} ions and succinic acid in different temperature. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The change in the temperature leads to two compounds with different crystalline systems. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The Sparkle AM1, PM3 and PM6 models were used to comparison of the theoretical and experimental cell.

  17. Introduction Legal Framework

    E-print Network

    Hoepman, Jaap-Henk

    · Facebook, Google, Twitter, Whatsapp, etc... #12;Introduction Legal Framework Privacy Enhancing Technologies Social Networks 3 / 54 · Facebook, Google, Twitter, Whatsapp, etc... · "... is a theoretical concept May 2014 Social Networks 3 / 54 · Facebook, Google, Twitter, Whatsapp, etc... · "... is a theoretical

  18. Forensic intelligence framework. Part II: Study of the main generic building blocks and challenges through the examples of illicit drugs and false identity documents monitoring.

    PubMed

    Baechler, Simon; Morelato, Marie; Ribaux, Olivier; Beavis, Alison; Tahtouh, Mark; Kirkbride, K Paul; Esseiva, Pierre; Margot, Pierre; Roux, Claude

    2015-05-01

    The development of forensic intelligence relies on the expression of suitable models that better represent the contribution of forensic intelligence in relation to the criminal justice system, policing and security. Such models assist in comparing and evaluating methods and new technologies, provide transparency and foster the development of new applications. Interestingly, strong similarities between two separate projects focusing on specific forensic science areas were recently observed. These observations have led to the induction of a general model (Part I) that could guide the use of any forensic science case data in an intelligence perspective. The present article builds upon this general approach by focusing on decisional and organisational issues. The article investigates the comparison process and evaluation system that lay at the heart of the forensic intelligence framework, advocating scientific decision criteria and a structured but flexible and dynamic architecture. These building blocks are crucial and clearly lay within the expertise of forensic scientists. However, it is only part of the problem. Forensic intelligence includes other blocks with their respective interactions, decision points and tensions (e.g. regarding how to guide detection and how to integrate forensic information with other information). Formalising these blocks identifies many questions and potential answers. Addressing these questions is essential for the progress of the discipline. Such a process requires clarifying the role and place of the forensic scientist within the whole process and their relationship to other stakeholders. PMID:25800712

  19. Information-theoretic data-hiding for public network security, services control and secure communications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sviatoslav Voloshynovskiyl; F. Deguillaume; O. Koval; T. Pun

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we introduce and develop a framework for the data-hiding technologies that aim at resolving emerging problems of modern public networks. First, we emphasize the main open issues in public network security, quality of services control and secure communications. Secondly, we formulate digital data hiding as communications with side information and advocate an appropriate information-theoretic framework for the

  20. MAINE AQUIFERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    AQFRS24 contains polygons of significant aquifers in Maine (glacial deposits that are a significant ground water resource) mapped at a scale 1:24,000. This statewide coverage was derived from aquifer boundaries delineated and digitized by the Maine Geological Survey from data com...

  1. Kernel-Based Framework for Multitemporal and Multisource Remote Sensing Data Classification and Change Detection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gustavo Camps-Valls; Luis Gómez-Chova; José Luis Rojo-Álvarez; Manel Martínez-Ramón

    2008-01-01

    The multitemporal classification of remote sensing images is a challenging problem, in which the efficient combination of different sources of information (e.g., temporal, contextual, or multisensor) can improve the results. In this paper, we present a general framework based on kernel methods for the integration of heterogeneous sources of information. Using the theoretical prin- ciples in this framework, three main

  2. Kernel-Based Framework for Multitemporal and Multisource Remote Sensing Data Classification and Change Detection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gustavo Camps-Valls; Luis Gomez-Chova; Jordi Munoz-Mari; JosÉ Luis Rojo-Alvarez; Manel Martinez-Ramon

    2008-01-01

    The multitemporal classification of remote sensing images is a challenging problem, in which the efficient combination of different sources of information (e.g., temporal, contextual, or multisensor) can improve the results. In this paper, we present a general framework based on kernel methods for the integration of heterogeneous sources of information. Using the theoretical principles in this framework, three main contributions

  3. A GENERAL THEORY OF IMAGE SEGMENTATION: LEVEL SET SEGMENTATION IN THE FUZZY CONNECTEDNESS FRAMEWORK

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Krzysztof Chris Ciesielski; Jayaram K. Udupa

    Abstract In the current vast image segmentation literature, there is a seri- ous lack of methods that would allow theoretical comparison of the algorithms introduced by using dierent,mathematical methodologies. The main goal of this article is to introduce a general theoretical frame- work for image segmentation that would allow such comparison. The framework is based on the formal definitions designed

  4. MAINE HYDROGRAPHY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hydronet_me24 and Hydropoly_me24 depict Maine's hydrography data, based on 8-digit hydrological unit codes (HUC's) at the 1:24,000 scale. Some New Hampshire and New Brunswick hydrography data are also included. The NHD hydrography data was compiled from previous ArcIn...

  5. Defining the Nature and Impact of Goals in Children and Adolescents with a Chronic Health Condition: A Review of Research and a Theoretical Framework

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lisa Schwartz; Dennis Drotar

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a review of research related to goals in youth with a chronic health condition (CHC) and a related framework to inform theory and research. Performed literature review using PsychINFO and Medline with a combination of many key words related to health, goals, and youth. Sixteen studies related to goals in youth with a CHC were identified. An

  6. A Theoretical Framework for Electro-Acoustic Music Mary H. Simoni (msimoni@umich.edu), Benjamin Broening (broening@umich.edu),

    E-print Network

    Rozell, Christopher J.

    in the early days of music analysis, so too are they similarly privileged in the analysis of contemporary music differently in each genre. How then are we to understand the formal organization of electro-acoustic music processing to develop an analytic framework for the analysis of electro-acoustic music. Through this marriage

  7. Synthesis, structural characterization, luminescent properties and theoretical study of three novel lanthanide metal-organic frameworks of Ho(III), Gd(III) and Eu(III) with 2,5-thiophenedicarboxylate anion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marques, Lippy F.; Correa, Charlane C.; Ribeiro, Sidney J. L.; dos Santos, Molíria V.; Dutra, José Diogo L.; Freire, Ricardo O.; Machado, Flávia C.

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, the synthesis of three new metal-organic frameworks of lanthanides (LnMOFs) {[Ln2(2,5-tdc)3(dmso)2]·H2O}n (Ln=Ho (1); Gd (2); Eu (3); 2,5-tdc=2,5-thiophenedicarboxylate anion; dmso=dimethylsulfoxide), and their complete characterization, including single crystal X-ray diffraction, FTIR spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis are reported. In especial, photophysical properties of Eu(III) complex have been studied in detail via both theoretical and experimental approaches. Crystal structure of (1) reveals that each lanthanide ion is seven-coordinated by oxygen atoms in an overall distorted capped trigonal - prismatic geometry. The 2,5-tdc2- ligands connect four Ln(III) centers, adopting (?1-?1)-(?1-?1)-?4 coordination mode, generating an 8-connected uninodal 3D network. In addition, theoretical studies for Eu(III) complex were performed using the Sparkle model for lanthanide complexes.

  8. Design Framework Design Framework

    E-print Network

    van Sinderen, Marten

    Design Framework 99 Chapter 5 Design Framework This chapter presents a general framework for the design of application protocols. The framework identifies and defines two dimensions in which design levels, an application protocol design trajectory is defined, consisting of a sequence of design steps

  9. A framework for quality regulation in electricity distribution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rodrigo López; Jean-Michel Glachant; Yannick Pérez

    2008-01-01

    To supply quality service is the main goal of the electricity distribution sector, but the diversity and characteristics of the distribution networks pose a huge problem of regulation to be studied. This paper establishes a theoretical framework for technical-economic analysis on quality regulation in electricity distribution sector. Depending on the regulation model, the quality of electricity is simply left to

  10. A Framework to Implement Cross-Cultural Pedagogy: The Case of Implementing Learning Reform at Confucian Heritage Culture Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thanh, Pham Thi Hong

    2012-01-01

    This article proposes an applied theoretical framework that could assist education reformers in Confucian heritage culture (CHC) countries to adopt Western-developed learning practices successfully. This framework is needed because the literature has recently documented a large number of failures in educational reforms at CHC colleges. The main

  11. Details for Manuscript Number SSM-D-07-01631R1 “HIV-Related Stigma: Adapting a Theoretical Framework for Use in India”

    PubMed Central

    Herek, Gregory M; Ramakrishna, Jayashree; Bharat, Shalini; Chandy, Sara; Wrubel, Judith; Ekstrand, Maria L

    2008-01-01

    Stigma complicates the treatment of HIV worldwide. We examined whether a multi-component framework, initially consisting of enacted, felt normative, and internalized forms of individual stigma experiences, could be used to understand HIV-related stigma in Southern India. In Study 1, qualitative interviews with a convenience sample of 16 people living with HIV revealed instances of all three types of stigma. Experiences of discrimination (enacted stigma) were reported relatively infrequently. Rather, perceptions of high levels of stigma (felt normative stigma) motivated people to avoid disclosing their HIV status. These perceptions often were shaped by stories of discrimination against others HIV-infected individuals, which we adapted as an additional component of our framework (vicarious stigma). Participants also varied in their acceptance of HIV stigma as legitimate (internalized stigma). In Study 2, newly-developed measures of the stigma components were administered in a survey to 229 people living with HIV. Findings suggested that enacted and vicarious stigma influenced felt normative stigma; that enacted, felt normative, and internalized stigma were associated with higher levels of depression; and that the associations of depression with felt normative and internalized forms of stigma were mediated by the use of coping strategies designed to avoid disclosure of one's HIV serostatus. PMID:18599171

  12. Main Report

    PubMed Central

    2006-01-01

    Background: States vary widely in their use of newborn screening tests, with some mandating screening for as few as three conditions and others mandating as many as 43 conditions, including varying numbers of the 40+ conditions that can be detected by tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). There has been no national guidance on the best candidate conditions for newborn screening since the National Academy of Sciences report of 19751 and the United States Congress Office of Technology Assessment report of 1988,2 despite rapid developments since then in genetics, in screening technologies, and in some treatments. Objectives: In 2002, the Maternal and Child Health Bureau (MCHB) of the Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) of the United States Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) commissioned the American College of Medical Genetics (ACMG) to: Conduct an analysis of the scientific literature on the effectiveness of newborn screening.Gather expert opinion to delineate the best evidence for screening for specified conditions and develop recommendations focused on newborn screening, including but not limited to the development of a uniform condition panel.Consider other components of the newborn screening system that are critical to achieving the expected outcomes in those screened. Methods: A group of experts in various areas of subspecialty medicine and primary care, health policy, law, public health, and consumers worked with a steering committee and several expert work groups, using a two-tiered approach to assess and rank conditions. A first step was developing a set of principles to guide the analysis. This was followed by developing criteria by which conditions could be evaluated, and then identifying the conditions to be evaluated. A large and broadly representative group of experts was asked to provide their opinions on the extent to which particular conditions met the selected criteria, relying on supporting evidence and references from the scientific literature. The criteria were distributed among three main categories for each condition: The availability and characteristics of the screening test;The availability and complexity of diagnostic services; andThe availability and efficacy of treatments related to the conditions. A survey process utilizing a data collection instrument was used to gather expert opinion on the conditions in the first tier of the assessment. The data collection format and survey provided the opportunity to quantify expert opinion and to obtain the views of a diverse set of interest groups (necessary due to the subjective nature of some of the criteria). Statistical analysis of data produced a score for each condition, which determined its ranking and initial placement in one of three categories (high scoring, moderately scoring, or low scoring/absence of a newborn screening test). In the second tier of these analyses, the evidence base related to each condition was assessed in depth (e.g., via systematic reviews of reference lists including MedLine, PubMed and others; books; Internet searches; professional guidelines; clinical evidence; and cost/economic evidence and modeling). The fact sheets reflecting these analyses were evaluated by at least two acknowledged experts for each condition. These experts assessed the data and the associated references related to each criterion and provided corrections where appropriate, assigned a value to the level of evidence and the quality of the studies that established the evidence base, and determined whether there were significant variances from the survey data. Survey results were subsequently realigned with the evidence obtained from the scientific literature during the second-tier analysis for all objective criteria, based on input from at least three acknowledged experts in each condition. The information from these two tiers of assessment was then considered with regard to the overriding principles and other technology or condition-specific recommendations. On the basis of this information, conditions were assigned to one of thr

  13. A theoretical framework to distinguish direct and indirect anthropogenic perturbations of the terrestrial carbon cycle; and its implications in the definition of "emissions from land-use change"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gasser, Thomas; Ciais, Philippe; Viovy, Nicolas

    2013-04-01

    We present a theoretical analysis of the net land-to-atmosphere CO2 flux, so as to discuss possible definitions of "emissions from land-use change" at global scale. Our work is based on the fact that the terrestrial carbon cycle is affected by two anthropogenic perturbations. The first is the perturbation of the global Carbon-Climate-Nitrogen (CCN) system as observed with elevated CO2, climate change and increased nitrogen deposition; it impacts the intensive parameters of the terrestrial biosphere. The second is the Land-Use and Land-Use Change (LUC) perturbation induced by human activities; impacting the extensive parameters of the biosphere. Previous global carbon budgets tried to separate these two perturbations by defining two CO2 fluxes: the emissions from land-use change (LUC perturbation) and the land sink (CCN perturbation). Here, through successive mathematical demonstrations, we isolate four (not two) generic components of the net land-to-atmosphere CO2 flux. The two first components are the fluxes that would be observed if only one perturbation occurred. The two other components are due to the coupling of the CCN and LUC perturbations, highlighting the non-linear behavior of the terrestrial carbon cycle. Thanks to this, we introduce three possible definitions of "emissions from land-use change", that are indeed used in the scientific literature (often without clear distinctions), and we draw conclusions as for their absolute and relative behaviors. Finally, we illustrate our theoretical results thanks to two models: a simple carbon-climate model using a book-keeping module to estimate emissions from land-use change (named OSCAR), and the spatialized land-surface model ORCHIDEE. Our preliminary results show that comparing results from studies that do not use the same definition can lead to a bias of up to 20% between estimates of "emissions from land-use change". This makes our study of major interest to reconcile modeling and observation of "emissions from land-use change", and ultimately to distinguish direct and indirect effects of anthropogenic activities.

  14. The Co-Emergence of Machine Techniques, Paper-and-Pencil Techniques, and Theoretical Reflection: A Study of CAS Use in Secondary School Algebra

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kieran, Carolyn; Drijvers, Paul

    2006-01-01

    This paper addresses the dialectical relation between theoretical thinking and technique, as they co-emerge in a combined computer algebra (CAS) and paper-and-pencil environment. The theoretical framework in this ongoing study consists of the instrumental approach to tool use and an adaptation of Chevallard's anthropological theory. The main aim…

  15. Framework for Supporting Web-Based Collaborative Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Wei

    The article proposes an intelligent framework for supporting Web-based applications. The framework focuses on innovative use of existing resources and technologies in the form of services and takes the leverage of theoretical foundation of services science and the research from services computing. The main focus of the framework is to deliver benefits to users with various roles such as service requesters, service providers, and business owners to maximize their productivity when engaging with each other via the Web. The article opens up with research motivations and questions, analyses the existing state of research in the field, and describes the approach in implementing the proposed framework. Finally, an e-health application is discussed to evaluate the effectiveness of the framework where participants such as general practitioners (GPs), patients, and health-care workers collaborate via the Web.

  16. On the Grammar and Model-Theoretic Semantics of Children's Noun Phrases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suppes, Patrick

    The paper shows informally how model-theoretical semantics may be used by a computer to give a straight-forward analysis of the meaning of children's language. This approach to semantics grows out of the main thrust of work in mathematical logic. It is discussed in the framework of generative grammar and is based on the application of the…

  17. Ecological interface design: theoretical foundations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kim J. Vicente; Jens Rasmussen

    1992-01-01

    A theoretical framework for designing interfaces for complex human-machine systems is proposed. The framework, called ecological interface design (EID), is based on the skills, rules, and knowledge taxonomy of cognitive control. The basic goals of EID are not to force processing to a higher level than the demands of the task require, and to support each of the three levels

  18. Framework for the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuller, Tom

    2008-01-01

    The main goal of the Inquiry into the Future for Lifelong Learning is to provide a "strategic framework" for the future. In this article, the author considers the key components that will make up the framework. These are: (1) a statement of vision and values; (2) a stock-take of the current position; (3) an "investment rationale"; (4) some…

  19. A Hybrid Metalogical Framework

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jason Reed

    The methodology by which deductive systems and metatheorems about them are encoded in the logical framework LF is well understood. Many (but not all) of these ideas have already been successfully extended to the case of encoding stateful deductive systems in the linear logical framework LLF. The main gap is the heretofore open question of whether one can bring to

  20. THEORETICAL PHYSICS Faculty of Physics

    E-print Network

    Pachucki, Krzysztof

    INSTITUTE OF THEORETICAL PHYSICS Faculty of Physics Warsaw University 1998-1999 Warsaw 2000 #12;INSTITUTE OF THEORETICAL PHYSICS Address: Hoza 69, PL-00 681 Warsaw, Poland Phone: (+48 22) 628 33 96 Fax of Theoretical Physics, organize at alternate years a symposium in which their main research topics

  1. A Theoretical Framework for Facilitating Methodological Choice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steve Clarke; Brian Lehaney; Steve Martin

    1998-01-01

    Total Systems Intervention, in a recent version, facilitates the intervention process via three modes: problem solving, critical reflection, and critical review. Of these modes, there has been relatively little attention paid to the critical review mode, the purpose of which is to assess the value of different methodologies within a given problem situation. This paper takes as its basis the

  2. Contributions to a Theoretical Framework for CSCL

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gerry Stahl

    2002-01-01

    Looking at computer support for collaborative learning (CSCL) in terms of (a) collaborative knowledge building, (b) group and personal perspectives, (c) mediation by artifacts and (d) micro-analysis of conversation provides a rich, multi-dimensional starting point for conceptualizing and studying CSCL. The notion of collaborative knowledge building defines a useful paradigm for conceptualizing learning as social practice. The social interactions and

  3. Theoretical Frameworks for Studying Female Marriage Migrants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merali, Noorfarah

    2008-01-01

    Transnational marriages account for a significant proportion of family-based immigration to North America. An increasing number of immigrant men are choosing to marry women from their countries of origin, and an increasing number of nonimmigrant men are choosing to marry women from other countries. Existing studies on the experiences of foreign…

  4. The ASA Framework as Rhetoric

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patrick Nelson; Jon Billsberry

    Ben Schneider's ASA framework and the associated idea of homogeneity is a theoretical cornerstone on which most organisational person-environment (PE) fit studies are built. However, whilst it is commonly used to justify studies and to explain empirical findings, very few PE fit studies have moved the underlying ASA framework forward. More than 20 years on, the theory remains intact and

  5. Monotone Data Flow Analysis Frameworks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John B. Kam; Jeffrey D. Ullman

    1977-01-01

    We consider a generalization of Kildall's lattice theoretic approach to data flow analysis, which we call monotone data flow analysis frameworks. Many flow analysis problems which appear in practice meet the monotonicity condition but not Kildall's condition called distributivity. We show that the maximal fixed point solution exists for every instance of every monotone framework, and that it can be

  6. Preliminaries Main Theorem

    E-print Network

    Nevins, Monica

    Preliminaries Main Theorem W-Graphs and their -Invariants Proof of the Main Theorem Type;Preliminaries Main Theorem W-Graphs and their -Invariants Proof of the Main Theorem Type An The other classical Jackson Todor MilevTau Signatures and Characters of Weyl Groups #12;Preliminaries Main Theorem W

  7. Introduction Main Result

    E-print Network

    Yan, Catherine Huafei

    Introduction Main Result Enumeration Crossings and Nestings of Two Edges in Set Partitions Yan Crossings and Nestings of Set Partitions #12;Introduction Main Result Enumeration Definition} Catherine Yan Crossings and Nestings of Set Partitions #12;Introduction Main Result Enumeration Definition

  8. Experimental and theoretical analyses of PrAl2 and NdAl2 composite for use as an active magnetic regenerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carvalho, A. Magnus G.; Campoy, J. C. P.; Coelho, A. A.; Plaza, E. J. R.; Gama, S.; von Ranke, P. J.

    2005-04-01

    We report the theoretical and experimental investigations on the magnetocaloric effect in the PrAl2 and NdAl2 compounds and a composite of these compounds for use as an active magnetic regenerator. The theoretical calculations were performed considering the crystalline electrical field anisotropy and the magnetocaloric potentials were calculated in the three main crystallographic directions. The experimental data, obtained for the polycrystalline samples, are in good agreement with the theoretical results. Also, an optimum molar fraction of the PrAl2 and NdAl2 composite was determined theoretically and experimentally and discussed in the framework of the optimum regeneration Ericsson cycle.

  9. Definitions Main Result

    E-print Network

    Heubach, Silvia

    Background Definitions Main Result Special Types of Patterns Summary Avoidance of partially ordered Avoidance of partially ordered patterns in compositions #12;Background Definitions Main Result Special Types of Patterns Summary Outline 1 Background 2 Definitions 3 Main Result Preliminaries Main Result 4 Special Types

  10. Intelligent agent based framework for manufacturing systems control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sunderesh S. Heragu; Robert J. Graves; Byung-in Kim; Art St. Onge

    2002-01-01

    Existing modeling frameworks for manufacturing system control can be classified into hierarchical, heterarchical, and hybrid control frameworks. The main drawbacks of existing frameworks are discussed in this paper. A new hybrid modeling framework is also described. It is a hybrid of the two: hierarchical and heterarchical frameworks. In this proposed framework, entities (e.g., parts) and resources (e.g., material handling devices,

  11. Institute for Theoretical Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Giddings, S.B.; Ooguri, H.; Peet, A.W.; Schwarz, J.H.

    1998-06-01

    String theory is the only serious candidate for a unified description of all known fundamental particles and interactions, including gravity, in a single theoretical framework. Over the past two years, activity in this subject has grown rapidly, thanks to dramatic advances in understanding the dynamics of supersymmetric field theories and string theories. The cornerstone of these new developments is the discovery of duality which relates apparently different string theories and transforms difficult strongly coupled problems of one theory into weakly coupled problems of another theory.

  12. Theoretical spectra of terrestrial exoplanet surfaces

    E-print Network

    Hu, Renyu

    We investigate spectra of airless rocky exoplanets with a theoretical framework that self-consistently treats reflection and thermal emission. We find that a silicate surface on an exoplanet is spectroscopically detectable ...

  13. FACILITIES MAINTENANCE MAIN WAREHOUSE

    E-print Network

    Hemmers, Oliver

    FACILITIES MAINTENANCE MAIN WAREHOUSE Workload Measurement, Validation, and Process Analysis, and process analysis/improvement study be conducted in the Facilities Maintenance Main Warehouse. This study was conducted from 15 February ­ 30 April 2007. Mr. Storlie is the process owner for the main warehouse. 2

  14. A framework for community design : Worcester's Main South neighborhood

    E-print Network

    DeSollar, Samuel Joseph

    1997-01-01

    Communities and the connections between them act as the foundation for the fabric of great cities. Suburbs were originally intended as a utopian alternative to crowded urban conditions. However, the current model of ...

  15. Theoretical Analysis of Driven Magnetic Reconnection Experiments.

    E-print Network

    Theoretical Analysis of Driven Magnetic Reconnection Experiments. Dmitri A. Uzdensky, Russell M a theoretical framework for the Magnetic Reconnection Experi- ment (MRX) in order to understand the basic physics of the experiment, including the eect of the external driving force, and the dierence between co

  16. Theoretical Analysis of Driven Magnetic Reconnection Experiments.

    E-print Network

    Theoretical Analysis of Driven Magnetic Reconnection Experiments. Dmitri A. Uzdensky, Russell M a theoretical framework for the Magnetic Reconnection Experi­ ment (MRX) in order to understand the basic physics of the experiment, including the effect of the external driving force, and the difference between

  17. Scaling Up Decision Theoretic Planning to Planetary Rover Problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meuleau, Nicolas; Dearden, Richard; Washington, Rich

    2004-01-01

    Because of communication limits, planetary rovers must operate autonomously during consequent durations. The ability to plan under uncertainty is one of the main components of autonomy. Previous approaches to planning under uncertainty in NASA applications are not able to address the challenges of future missions, because of several apparent limits. On another side, decision theory provides a solid principle framework for reasoning about uncertainty and rewards. Unfortunately, there are several obstacles to a direct application of decision-theoretic techniques to the rover domain. This paper focuses on the issues of structure and concurrency, and continuous state variables. We describes two techniques currently under development that address specifically these issues and allow scaling-up decision theoretic solution techniques to planetary rover planning problems involving a small number of goals.

  18. The Maine Event

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McHale, Tom

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author describes the successful laptop program employed at Mt. Abram High School in Strong, Maine. Through the Maine Learning Technology Initiative, the school has issued laptops to all 36,000 teachers and students in grades 7-8. This program has helped level the playing field for a student population that is 50 percent to 55…

  19. MAINE MARINE WORM HABITAT

    EPA Science Inventory

    WORM provides a generalized representation at 1:24,000 scale of commercially harvested marine worm habitat in Maine, based on Maine Department of Marine Resources data from 1970's. Original maps were created by MDMR and published by USF&WS as part of the ""&quo...

  20. Main results An application

    E-print Network

    Borne, Niels

    diagram: (X, x) // PX spec k (x,x) // X Ã?k X Niels Borne, Angelo Vistoli The Nori fundamental gerbe #12Motivation Main results An application Beyond the profinite fundamental gerbe The Nori fundamental on the fundamental group scheme, 5.5.2014 Niels Borne, Angelo Vistoli The Nori fundamental gerbe #12;Motivation Main

  1. Gulf of Maine: Weather

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Lessons and activities from the Gulf of Maine Research Institute (formerly Gulf of Maine Aquarium), focused on hurricanes, El Nino, fog, and volcanic eruptions. Emphasis on important hurricanes of the past. Resources include lessons, guides for simple experiments, and a student weather network. Downloadable materials and additional webpages also provided.

  2. NA57 main results

    E-print Network

    G. E. Bruno; for the NA57 Collaboration

    2007-10-15

    The CERN NA57 experiment was designed to study the production of strange and multi-strange particles in heavy ion collisions at SPS energies; its physics programme is essentially completed. A review of the main results is presented.

  3. MAINE WEIRS 1990

    EPA Science Inventory

    WEIR90 shows point locations of herring weirs in Maine based on 1990 overflight by MDMR Marine Patrol, mapped at an approximate scale of 1:100,000. Data were screen digitized from paper maps used during the overflight....

  4. Landmark Main Idea

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Amanda Shipley

    2012-07-23

    In this lesson, students will use key details to determine the main idea of informational text about landmarks. For the summative assessment, students will work in small groups to read an informational text about landmarks, fill out a Main Idea Pyramid Graphic Organizer, and then create a poster in the shape of the landmark they read about. Students will utilize the information on their graphic organizer when creating their poster.

  5. Community policing: a conceptual framework

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Willard M. Oliver; Elaine Bartgis

    1998-01-01

    The theoretical framework for community policing attempts to answer many of the questions revolving around the new paradigm in policing. The paper traces the evolution of community policing as a paradigm in the Kuhnian sense, then proceeds to articulate how it has moved from “revolutionary science” to “normal science”. It then articulates some of the current research in community policing

  6. Sulawesi: A Wearable Application Integration Framework

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Neill J. Newman; Adrian F. Clark

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes Sulawesi, a framework for developing applications for wearable computing that are capable of multi-modal interaction with the user. The design principles of the framework are described along with its main features, and some example applications that exploit the capabilities of the framework are outlined

  7. Main sequence mass loss

    SciTech Connect

    Brunish, W.M.; Guzik, J.A.; Willson, L.A.; Bowen, G.

    1987-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that variable stars may experience mass loss, driven, at least in part, by oscillations. The class of stars we are discussing here are the delta Scuti variables. These are variable stars with masses between about 1.2 and 2.25 M/sub theta/, lying on or very near the main sequence. According to this theory, high rotation rates enhance the rate of mass loss, so main sequence stars born in this mass range would have a range of mass loss rates, depending on their initial rotation velocity and the amplitude of the oscillations. The stars would evolve rapidly down the main sequence until (at about 1.25 M/sub theta/) a surface convection zone began to form. The presence of this convective region would slow the rotation, perhaps allowing magnetic braking to occur, and thus sharply reduce the mass loss rate. 7 refs.

  8. Women and Men Speaking: Frameworks for Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kramarae, Cheris

    This book discusses the relationship between gender and language use in a framework of social interaction. In so doing, it reports on research concerned with sexism in language, the use of language by women and men, and the evaluations of language use by women and men. Language is considered within four theoretical frameworks in which assumptions…

  9. Decision support models for solid waste management: review and game-theoretic approaches.

    PubMed

    Karmperis, Athanasios C; Aravossis, Konstantinos; Tatsiopoulos, Ilias P; Sotirchos, Anastasios

    2013-05-01

    This paper surveys decision support models that are commonly used in the solid waste management area. Most models are mainly developed within three decision support frameworks, which are the life-cycle assessment, the cost-benefit analysis and the multi-criteria decision-making. These frameworks are reviewed and their strengths and weaknesses as well as their critical issues are analyzed, while their possible combinations and extensions are also discussed. Furthermore, the paper presents how cooperative and non-cooperative game-theoretic approaches can be used for the purpose of modeling and analyzing decision-making in situations with multiple stakeholders. Specifically, since a waste management model is sustainable when considering not only environmental and economic but also social aspects, the waste management bargaining game is introduced as a specific decision support framework in which future models can be developed. PMID:23462269

  10. Main features of meiosis

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 17, outlines the main features of meiosis, beginning with its significance and proceeding through the meiotic stages. Meiosis is the most important modification of mitosis because it is the reduction division that gives rise to the haploid generation in the life cycle. 17 refs., 6 figs.

  11. Disseminating research findings: what should researchers do? A systematic scoping review of conceptual frameworks

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Addressing deficiencies in the dissemination and transfer of research-based knowledge into routine clinical practice is high on the policy agenda both in the UK and internationally. However, there is lack of clarity between funding agencies as to what represents dissemination. Moreover, the expectations and guidance provided to researchers vary from one agency to another. Against this background, we performed a systematic scoping to identify and describe any conceptual/organising frameworks that could be used by researchers to guide their dissemination activity. Methods We searched twelve electronic databases (including MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and PsycINFO), the reference lists of included studies and of individual funding agency websites to identify potential studies for inclusion. To be included, papers had to present an explicit framework or plan either designed for use by researchers or that could be used to guide dissemination activity. Papers which mentioned dissemination (but did not provide any detail) in the context of a wider knowledge translation framework, were excluded. References were screened independently by at least two reviewers; disagreements were resolved by discussion. For each included paper, the source, the date of publication, a description of the main elements of the framework, and whether there was any implicit/explicit reference to theory were extracted. A narrative synthesis was undertaken. Results Thirty-three frameworks met our inclusion criteria, 20 of which were designed to be used by researchers to guide their dissemination activities. Twenty-eight included frameworks were underpinned at least in part by one or more of three different theoretical approaches, namely persuasive communication, diffusion of innovations theory, and social marketing. Conclusions There are currently a number of theoretically-informed frameworks available to researchers that can be used to help guide their dissemination planning and activity. Given the current emphasis on enhancing the uptake of knowledge about the effects of interventions into routine practice, funders could consider encouraging researchers to adopt a theoretically-informed approach to their research dissemination. PMID:21092164

  12. Maine Humanities Council

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Formed as a private nonprofit organization, the Maine Humanities Council (MHC) "promotes strong communities and informed citizens by providing Mainers with opportunities to explore the power and pleasure of ideas." Their work is supported by volunteer board members, and their projects include programs to promote reading and writing, guest lectures around the state, and online newsletters and discussion groups. In the "Programs" area, visitors can learn about these programs, and educators can check out the resources created especially for them. The "Connections" area contains links to their thoughtful blog, their "Humanities on Demand" podcasts, and their periodic newsletter "Synapse", which deals with medicine and literature. The podcasts are quite fun, and they include "Franco-American Women's Words in Maine" and a talk by Professor Dianne Sadoff of Rutgers University on Middlemarch, by George Eliot.

  13. Windows on Maine

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Created with funds provided by the Institute of Museum and Library Services (IMLS), Windows on Maine contains interesting and informative programs and video clips from Maine Public Broadcasting and other partners. On their homepage, visitors can use their interactive map and timeline to locate video clips of interest, and they can also search the entire collection for specific items. Visitors can also use the subject category menu to look over 25 different headings, including "earth sciences", "land disputes", and "Penobscot tribe". The map feature is a real pip, and visitors can customize their search by location and date, and it's a great way to learn about different regions, including Aroostook County (also known as "the County") and Downeast. Also, many of the videos also have additional resources attached to them, such as railroad timetables, historic photographs, and so on.

  14. Jupiter's Main Ring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    A mosaic of four images taken through the clear filter (610 nanometers) of the solid state imaging (CCD) system aboard NASA's Galileo spacecraft on November 8, 1996, at a resolution of approximately 46 kilometers (km) per picture element (pixel) along the rings; however, because the spacecraft was only about 0.5 degrees above the ring plane, the image is highly foreshortened in the vertical direction. The images were obtained when Galileo was in Jupiter's shadow peering back toward the Sun; the ring was approximately 2,300,000 kilometers (km) away. The arc on the far right of the image is produced by sunlight scattered by small particles comprising Jupiter's upper atmospheric haze. The ring also efficiently scatters light, indicating that much of its brightness is due to particles that are microns or less in diameter. Such small particles are believed to have human-scale lifetimes, i.e., very brief compared to the solar system's age.

    Jupiter's ring system is composed of three parts -- a flat main ring, a lenticular halo interior to the main ring, and the gossamer ring, which lies exterior to the main ring. The near and far arms of Jupiter's main ring extend horizontally across the mosaic, joining together at the ring's ansa, on the far left side of the figure. The near arm of the ring appears to be abruptly truncated close to the planet, at the point where it passes into Jupiter's shadow. Some radial structure is barely visible across the ring's ansa. A faint mist of particles can be seen above and below the main rings; this vertically extended 'halo' is unusual in planetary rings, and is probably caused by electromagnetic forces pushing the smallest grains out of the ring plane. Because of shadowing, the halo is not visible close to Jupiter in the lower right part of the mosaic.

    Jupiter's main ring is a thin strand of material encircling the planet. The diffuse innermost boundary begins at approximately 123,000 km. The main ring's outer radius is found to be at 128,940 +/-50 km, slightly less than the Voyager value of 129,130 +/-100 km, but very close to the orbit of the satellite Adrastea (128,980 km). The main ring exhibits a marked drop in brightness at 127,849 +/-50 km, lying almost atop the orbit of the Jovian moon Metis at 127,978 km. Satellites seem to affect the structure of even tenuous rings like that found at Jupiter.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC.

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at: http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov. Background information and educational context for the images can be found at: http:/ /www.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo/sepo.

  15. Main roads to melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Palmieri, Giuseppe; Capone, Mariaelena; Ascierto, Maria Libera; Gentilcore, Giusy; Stroncek, David F; Casula, Milena; Sini, Maria Cristina; Palla, Marco; Mozzillo, Nicola; Ascierto, Paolo A

    2009-01-01

    The characterization of the molecular mechanisms involved in development and progression of melanoma could be helpful to identify the molecular profiles underlying aggressiveness, clinical behavior, and response to therapy as well as to better classify the subsets of melanoma patients with different prognosis and/or clinical outcome. Actually, some aspects regarding the main molecular changes responsible for the onset as well as the progression of melanoma toward a more aggressive phenotype have been described. Genes and molecules which control either cell proliferation, apoptosis, or cell senescence have been implicated. Here we provided an overview of the main molecular changes underlying the pathogenesis of melanoma. All evidence clearly indicates the existence of a complex molecular machinery that provides checks and balances in normal melanocytes. Progression from normal melanocytes to malignant metastatic cells in melanoma patients is the result of a combination of down- or up-regulation of various effectors acting on different molecular pathways. PMID:19828018

  16. Main-group pallasites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John T. Wasson; Byeon-Gak Choi

    2003-01-01

    We used neutron activation to characterize the metal of 33 main-group pallasites (PMG), widely held to be samples of a core–mantle interface. Most PMG cluster in a narrow range of metal and silicate compositions, but 6 are assigned to an anomalous subset (PMG-am) because of their deviant metal compositions, and 4 others to another anomalous subset (PMG-as) because of their

  17. Main graphs: Quadratic equation

    E-print Network

    Utrecht, Universiteit

    Main graphs: Quadratic equation: Equation A2 +B+C = 0, has solutions given by the following 'abc equations: Equation dN dt = kN has the solution: N(t) = N0ekt; N0 is an (arbitrary) initial value of N. Characteristic time of change is = 1/k. Systems of linear differential equations: For system dx dt = ax+by dy dt

  18. Aquarius Main Structure Configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eremenko, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    The Aquarius/SAC-D Observatory is a joint US-Argentine mission to map the salinity at the ocean surface. This information is critical to improving our understanding of two major components of Earth's climate system - the water cycle and ocean circulation. By measuring ocean salinity from space, the Aquarius/SAC-D Mission will provide new insights into how the massive natural exchange of freshwater between the ocean, atmosphere and sea ice influences ocean circulation, weather and climate. Aquarius is the primary instrument on the SAC-D spacecraft. It consists of a Passive Microwave Radiometer to detect the surface emission that is used to obtain salinity and an Active Scatterometer to measure the ocean waves that affect the precision of the salinity measurement. The Aquarius Primary Structure houses instrument electronics, feed assemblies, and supports a deployable boom with a 2.5 m Reflector, and provides the structural interface to the SAC-D Spacecraft. The key challenge for the Aquarius main structure configuration is to satisfy the needs of component accommodations, ensuring that the instrument can meet all operational, pointing, environmental, and launch vehicle requirements. This paper describes the evolution of the Aquarius main structure configuration, the challenges of balancing the conflicting requirements, and the major configuration driving decisions and compromises.

  19. A Control Framework for Digital Forensics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Solms, Sebastiaan; Louwrens, Cecil; Reekie, Colette; Grobler, Talania

    This paper introduces a control framework for digital forensics. It proposes a taxonomy for control objectives, categorized within the phases of the digital forensic process: planning and preparation, incident response, investigation and juridical/evidentiary. Using the taxonomy as a basis, a digital forensic reference framework, consisting of control groupings, control objectives and detailed control objectives, is defined. The control framework is intended to provide a sound theoretical basis for digital forensics as well as a reference framework for digital forensics governance within organizations.

  20. Interactive visualization of design patterns can help in framework understanding

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Danny B. Lange; Yuichi Nakamura

    1995-01-01

    Framework programming is regarded as one the main advantages of object-oriented software engineering, and is expected to increase software reuse. In exploiting frameworks, however, programmers often face difficulties caused by the complexity of the hidden architecture and the multiplicity of the design decisions that are embedded in a framework. Interactive visualization of design patterns occurring in a framework shows how

  1. Decades of Theoretical Work on Protonated Hydrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochanski, E.; Kelterbaum, R.; Klein, S.; Rohmer, M. M.; Rahmouni, A.

    Theoretical studies on protonated hydrates (PH) are illustrative of the progress realized in theoretical chemistry over several decades. The evolution of such studies is presented. The main methods used (quantum chemistry, Monte Carlo or Molecular Dynamics calculations...) and the problems encountered are briefly recalled. Some of the results obtained are commented.

  2. Information-theoretic postulates for quantum theory

    E-print Network

    Markus P. Mueller; Lluis Masanes

    2013-04-23

    Why are the laws of physics formulated in terms of complex Hilbert spaces? Are there natural and consistent modifications of quantum theory that could be tested experimentally? This book chapter gives a self-contained and accessible summary of our paper [New J. Phys. 13, 063001, 2011] addressing these questions, presenting the main ideas, but dropping many technical details. We show that the formalism of quantum theory can be reconstructed from four natural postulates, which do not refer to the mathematical formalism, but only to the information-theoretic content of the physical theory. Our starting point is to assume that there exist physical events (such as measurement outcomes) that happen probabilistically, yielding the mathematical framework of "convex state spaces". Then, quantum theory can be reconstructed by assuming that (i) global states are determined by correlations between local measurements, (ii) systems that carry the same amount of information have equivalent state spaces, (iii) reversible time evolution can map every pure state to every other, and (iv) positivity of probabilities is the only restriction on the possible measurements.

  3. Theoretical underpinnings for women's health.

    PubMed

    McBride, A B; McBride, W L

    1981-01-01

    A theoretical framework for considerations of women's health is proposed, the central premise of which is that "women's health" at the core means taking women's lived experience as the starting point for all health efforts. Elaboration of this thesis involves: (1) surveying our philosophical roots for an understanding of what the lived experience means, (2) exploring the methodological consequences of a focus on the lived experience, and (3) applying these insights to the situations of woman as mother and of the overweight woman. PMID:7052984

  4. Designing Optimal Sales Contests: A Theoretical Perspective

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ajay Kalra; Mengze Shi

    2001-01-01

    Sales contests are commonly used by firms as a short-term motivational device to increase salespeople's efforts. Conceptually, sales contests and piece-rate schemes, such as salary, commission, or quotas, differ in that in sales contests payment to salespeople is based on relative rather than absolute sales levels. Using the agency theoretic framework where the firm is risk neutral and the salespeople

  5. Theoretical Foundations of an International Entrepreneurial Culture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pavlos Dimitratos; Emmanuella Plakoyiannaki

    2003-01-01

    The seeming absence of theoretical foundations in the international entrepreneurship (IE) field significantly accounts for the fragmentation of research in the area. We seek to address this deficiency through an exploration of the IE concept in the overall context in which it is embedded, namely organizational culture. We develop and discuss a conceptual framework of an International Entrepreneurial Culture, which

  6. Game-theoretic probability and defensive forecasting

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Glenn Shafer

    2007-01-01

    In 2001, Vladimir Vovk and I demonstrated how game theory can replace measure theory as a foundation for classical probability theory, discrete and continuous (Probability and Finance: Its Only a Game!, Wiley 2001). In the game-theoretic framework, classical probability theorems are proven by betting strategies that make a player rich without risking bankruptcy if the theorem's prediction fails. These strategies

  7. Game-theoretic probability and defensive forecasting

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Glenn Shafer

    2007-01-01

    In 2001, Vladimir Vovk and I demonstrated how game theory can replace measure theory as a foundation for clas- sical probability theory, discrete and continuous (Probabil- ity and Finance: Its Only a Game!, Wiley 2001). In the game-theoretic framework, classical probability theorems are proven by betting strategies that make a player rich without risking bankruptcy if the theorem's prediction fails.

  8. The theoretical treatment of particle swarms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. D. Shelton; A. L. Arbuckle

    1979-01-01

    Particle swarms come into consideration when a group of independent particles move without collision in a force field such that a fluid Hamiltonian can be written to represent the motion. Typical problems from several fields are collected and united under a single theoretical framework. The fields include such problems as fragment distributions from an exploding warhead, micrometeoroid distributions in the

  9. Relationships among Classical Test Theory and Item Response Theory Frameworks via Factor Analytic Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kohli, Nidhi; Koran, Jennifer; Henn, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    There are well-defined theoretical differences between the classical test theory (CTT) and item response theory (IRT) frameworks. It is understood that in the CTT framework, person and item statistics are test- and sample-dependent. This is not the perception with IRT. For this reason, the IRT framework is considered to be theoretically superior…

  10. Handbook of Time Series Analysis Recent Theoretical Developments and Applications

    E-print Network

    Bressler, Steven L.

    Handbook of Time Series Analysis Recent Theoretical Developments and Applications ion Theory Edited time series analysis provides the basic framework for analyzing the patterns of neural interactions in the form of multiple simultaneous time series. To evaluatethe statistical interdependenceamong

  11. Emerging theoretical basis for monitoring the changing states (health) of large marine ecosystems. Technical memo

    SciTech Connect

    Sherman, K.

    1993-09-01

    ;Contents: Workshop Objective; Overview and Background; North Sea Ecosystem Case Study; Great Lakes Basin Ecosystem Case Study; Theoretical Framework; Plankton Recorder Technology; Data Analyses; Summary.

  12. DaimaruDaimaru Agriculture Main GateMain Gate

    E-print Network

    Tachizawa, Kazuya

    JR Sapporo Sta. JR Sapporo Sta. DaimaruDaimaru Agriculture Main GateMain Gate Kita13-jo Gate 12-jo Sta. Kita 18-jo Sta. International Student Center MainCampusStreet PoplarAvenue Ginkgo AvenueGinkgo Avenue Ono Pond Ono Pond Bust of Dr. Clark The main Bldg. of facutly of Science (The Hokkaido Univ

  13. March 29, 2008 Operating Systems: Main Memory 1 Main Memory

    E-print Network

    Adam, Salah

    March 29, 2008 Operating Systems: Main Memory 1 Main Memory Chapter 8 #12;March 29, 2008 Operating Systems: Main Memory 2 Chapter Outline Background Contiguous Memory Allocation Paging Structure of the Page Table Segmentation #12;March 29, 2008 Operating Systems: Main Memory 3 Objectives To provide

  14. Revenge after trauma: Theoretical outline

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ira Gäbler; Andreas Maercker

    \\u000a Tis chapter focuses on revenge, a somewhat neglected psychological phenomenon ofen occurring in the context of embitterment\\u000a that has been observed to be associated with traumatization and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). Recent theoretical approaches\\u000a to and research findings on revenge and its specific relationship to embitterment phenomena are summarized, and therapeutic\\u000a implications are discussed. The main objective of the chapter

  15. TrustBuilder2: A Reconfigurable Framework for Trust Negotiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Adam J.; Winslett, Marianne; Perano, Kenneth J.

    To date, research in trust negotiation has focused mainly on the theoretical aspects of the trust negotiation process, and the development of proof of concept implementations. These theoretical works and proofs of concept have been quite successful from a research perspective, and thus researchers must now begin to address the systems constraints that act as barriers to the deployment of these systems. To this end, we present TrustBuilder2, a fully-configurable and extensible framework for prototyping and evaluating trust negotiation systems. TrustBuilder2 leverages a plug-in based architecture, extensible data type hierarchy, and flexible communication protocol to provide a framework within which numerous trust negotiation protocols and system configurations can be quantitatively analyzed. In this paper, we discuss the design and implementation of TrustBuilder2, study its performance, examine the costs associated with flexible authorization systems, and leverage this knowledge to identify potential topics for future research, as well as a novel method for attacking trust negotiation systems.

  16. Development of integrated rotorcraft design and virtual manufacturing framework

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ngoc Anh Vu; Abdulaziz Azamatov; Tun Lwin; Jae-Woo Lee

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to develop an integrated rotorcraft design and virtual manufacturing framework. The framework consists of two major sub-frameworks which are e-design and virtual manufacturing frameworks. This paper aims to describe the process of generating a specific framework for helicopter design and manufacturing in general, and a method for main rotor blade design. Design\\/methodology\\/approach

  17. University of Maine Cooperative Extension

    E-print Network

    Leistikow, Bruce N.

    University of Maine Cooperative Extension Hand Signals Useful for Farmers Bulletin #2335 by Dawna L of Congress of May 8 and June 30, 1914, by the University of Maine Cooperative Extension, Vaughn H. Holyoke, Director for the University of Maine Cooperative Extension, the Land Grant University of the state of Maine

  18. Main Campus CO Cowell Hall

    E-print Network

    Galles, David

    Main Campus CO Cowell Hall CSI John Lo Schiavo, S.J Center for Science and Innovation FR Fromm Hall Main Bldg/Classrooms/Study Hall LMN Lone Mountain North LMP Pacific Wing LMR Rossi Wing Academic and Enrollment Services Lone Mountain Main Admission Office Lone Mountain Main Alumni Office Lone

  19. 6. MAIN AND SOUTH BAYS. DETAIL OF TOP OF MAIN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. MAIN AND SOUTH BAYS. DETAIL OF TOP OF MAIN BAY COLUMN, GIRDER FOR ELECTRIC OVERHEAD TRAVEL CRANE, AND ROOF GIRDERS - Oldman Boiler Works, Fabricating Shop, 32 Illinois Street, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

  20. University of Maine at Farmington University of Southern Maine

    E-print Network

    New Hampshire, University of

    University of Maine at Farmington University of Southern Maine Plymouth State University University of New Hampshire University of Massachusetts at Boston University of Massachusetts at Amherst Worcester State University Massachusetts College of Liberal Arts Bridgewater State University Westfield State

  1. 22. View showing main anchor arm, as viewed from main ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. View showing main anchor arm, as viewed from main cantilever arm looking south. Note upper chord eyebar arrangement. - Williamstown-Marietta Bridge, Spanning Ohio River between Williamstown & Marietta, Williamstown, Wood County, WV

  2. 37. Fore and main masts, and main boom lying in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    37. Fore and main masts, and main boom lying in storage yard. Stern of Museum Ship Wavetreet to left in photograph. - Schooner "Lettie G. Howard", South Street Seaport Museum, New York, New York County, NY

  3. A Decision Theoretic Approach to Causality Vanessa Didelez

    E-print Network

    Chambaz, Antoine

    ). Identifying the consequences of dynamic treatment strategies: A decision theoretic overview. Statistics;Overview Part 1: Decision theoretic framework for causal inference Part 2: Graphical models and influence what conditons? ­ HIV patients: start HAART when CD4-counts below what threshold? ­ hormone replacement

  4. Participation in Heterogeneous and Homogeneous Groups: A Theoretical Integration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisek, M. Hamit; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Presents a theoretical formulation that integrates, within the framework of expectation states theory, theories of the emergence of power-and-prestige orders in status-heterogeneous and homogeneous task-oriented groups. Discusses a model based on this theoretic formulation. Offers a model for predicting participation rates in open interaction…

  5. Rethinking Theoretical Approaches to Stigma

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Jack K; Lang, Annie; Olafsdottir, Sigrun

    2008-01-01

    A resurgence of research and policy efforts on stigma both facilitates and forces a reconsideration of the levels and types of factors that shape reactions to persons with conditions that engender prejudice and discrimination. Focusing on the case of mental illness but drawing from theories and studies of stigma across the social sciences, we propose a framework that brings together theoretical insights from micro, meso and macro level research: Framework Integrating Normative Influences on Stigma (FINIS) starts with Goffman’s notion that understanding stigma requires a language of social relationships, but acknowledges that individuals do not come to social interaction devoid of affect and motivation. Further, all social interactions take place in a context in which organizations, media and larger cultures structure normative expectations which create the possibility of marking “difference”. Labelling theory, social network theory, the limited capacity model of media influence, the social psychology of prejudice and discrimination, and theories of the welfare state all contribute to an understanding of the complex web of expectations shaping stigma. FINIS offers the potential to build a broad-based scientific foundation based on understanding the effects of stigma on the lives of persons with mental illness, the resources devoted to the organizations and families who care for them, and policies and programs designed to combat stigma. We end by discussing the clear implications this framework holds for stigma reduction, even in the face of conflicting results. PMID:18436358

  6. Toward a Comprehensive Theoretical Framework for Disability Research: Bronfenbrenner Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sontag, Joanne Curry

    1996-01-01

    This article critiques Bronfenbrenner's ecological theory of human development as it relates to children with disabilities. Discusses the recently expanded theory, including the identification of ecological niches that differentially influence children with particular personal characteristics. Studies from the disability literature illustrate…

  7. Binary collision rates of relativistic thermal plasmas. I Theoretical framework

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dermer, C. D.

    1985-01-01

    Binary collision rates for arbitrary scattering cross sections are derived in the case of a beam of particles interacting with a Maxwell-Boltzmann (MB) plasma, or in the case of two MB plasmas interacting at generally different temperatures. The expressions are valid for all beam energies and plasma temperatures, from the nonrelativistic to the extreme relativistic limits. The calculated quantities include the reaction rate, the energy exchange rate, and the average rate of change of the squared transverse momentum component of a monoenergetic particle beam as a result of scatterings with particles of a MB plasma. Results are specialized to elastic scattering processes, two-temperature reaction rates, or the cold plasma limit, reproducing previous work.

  8. Design theoretic analysis of three system modeling frameworks.

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, Michael James

    2007-05-01

    This paper analyzes three simulation architectures from the context of modeling scalability to address System of System (SoS) and Complex System problems. The paper first provides an overview of the SoS problem domain and reviews past work in analyzing model and general system complexity issues. It then identifies and explores the issues of vertical and horizontal integration as well as coupling and hierarchical decomposition as the system characteristics and metrics against which the tools are evaluated. In addition, it applies Nam Suh's Axiomatic Design theory as a construct for understanding coupling and its relationship to system feasibility. Next it describes the application of MATLAB, Swarm, and Umbra (three modeling and simulation approaches) to modeling swarms of Unmanned Flying Vehicle (UAV) agents in relation to the chosen characteristics and metrics. Finally, it draws general conclusions for analyzing model architectures that go beyond those analyzed. In particular, it identifies decomposition along phenomena of interaction and modular system composition as enabling features for modeling large heterogeneous complex systems.

  9. The Hydraulic System of Trees: Theoretical Framework and Numerical Simulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    THOMAS FRÜH; WINFRIED KURTH

    1999-01-01

    Empirical studies pose the problem of the physiological integration of the tree organism, which is also important on the scale of ecosystems. Recently, spatially distributed models emerged, which approach this problem by reflecting the close linkage between physiological processes and the structures of trees and tree stands. In the case of water flow, the tree organism can be regarded as

  10. Understanding New Media Literacy: An Explorative Theoretical Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Tzu-Bin; Li, Jen-Yi; Deng, Feng; Lee, Ling

    2013-01-01

    With the advent of new media technologies, the role of media in a society has been changed that leads researchers to re-construct the meaning of literacy from classic literacy to new media literacy. There have been continuing efforts to understand new media and promote the importance of becoming new media literate among researchers, educators,…

  11. A theoretical framework of component-based software development phases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jason H. Sharp; Sherry D. Ryan

    2010-01-01

    Component-Based Software Development (CBSD) is considered by many as the next revolution in systems development. Its focus is on the integration of pre-fabricated software components to build systems that increase portability and flexibility. CBSD purports to address the problem of systems which are delivered behind schedule, over-budget, and inadequately meeting user requirements. A major contribution of this work is providing

  12. Reliability Calculus: A Theoretical Framework To Analyze Communication Reliability

    E-print Network

    Liu, Xue

    processing and operation management [1]. Cyber-physical systems are composed of and interconnected by various plants, highway traffic, embedded medical devices, oil refiners, power grids, and healthcare in network systems, such as cyber-physical systems, where network components, sensors, actuators, controllers

  13. A Lattice-Theoretic Framework For Circular Assume-Guarantee

    E-print Network

    St Andrews, University of

    . Andreas Podelski Sriram K. Rajamani, Ph.D. #12;Kurzzusammenfassung Wir entwickeln einen abstrakten of brilliant questions. There is no answer without a ques- tion -- many of the ideas in this thesis emerged while thinking about Harald's questions. I was most fortunate to have Prof. Dr. Andreas Podelski as my

  14. Situated Learning as a Theoretical Framework for Sport Education

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Kirk; Gary Kinchin

    2003-01-01

    The article seeks to establish the usefulness of situated learning theory as a means of thinking differently about the alleged abstraction of school learning in a range of subjects including physical education, and the issue of transfer of learning. Following a discussion of Lave and Wenger’s notion of situated learning as legitimate peripheral participation in communities of practice, the article

  15. Theoretical framework for mapping pulse shapes in semiconductor radiation detectors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. H. Prettyman

    1999-01-01

    An efficient method for calculating of charge pulses produced by semiconductor detectors is presented. The method is based on a quasi-steady-state model for semiconductor detector operation. A complete description of the model and underlying assumptions is given. Mapping of charge pulses is accomplished by solving an adjoint carrier continuity equation. The solution of the adjoint equation yields Green's function, a

  16. Polarimetry With Phased Array Antennas: Theoretical Framework and Definitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warnick, Karl F.; Ivashina, Marianna V.; Wijnholds, Stefan J.; Maaskant, Rob

    2012-01-01

    For phased array receivers, the accuracy with which the polarization state of a received signal can be measured depends on the antenna configuration, array calibration process, and beamforming algorithms. A signal and noise model for a dual-polarized array is developed and related to standard polarimetric antenna figures of merit, and the ideal polarimetrically calibrated, maximum-sensitivity beamforming solution for a dual-polarized phased array feed is derived. A practical polarimetric beamformer solution that does not require exact knowledge of the array polarimetric response is shown to be equivalent to the optimal solution in the sense that when the practical beamformers are calibrated, the optimal solution is obtained. To provide a rough initial polarimetric calibration for the practical beamformer solution, an approximate single-source polarimetric calibration method is developed. The modeled instrumental polarization error for a dipole phased array feed with the practical beamformer solution and single-source polarimetric calibration was -10 dB or lower over the array field of view for elements with alignments perturbed by random rotations with 5 degree standard deviation.

  17. Non-state actors in international politics: a theoretical framework 

    E-print Network

    Paley, Abram Wil

    2009-05-15

    for such terrorist attacks on U.S. soil as early as 1995. Both the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) and the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) had detailed information about the possible use of hijack/suicide attacks by terrorists connected to Osama bin Laden..."(Ahmed 2002). It is even more startling that inquiry has also revealed that the FBI had advance indications of plans to hijack U.S. airliners and use them as weapons, but neither acted on them nor distributed the intelligence to local police agencies (Ahmed...

  18. Research Leadership in Writing for Publication: A Theoretical Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Rowena; Steckley, Laura; MacLeod, Iain

    2012-01-01

    Academics experience difficulty in managing competing tasks, particularly in relation to writing for publication. In a study conducted on a writing retreat, analysis of data obtained from academic writers revealed that facilitative leadership provided at a writing retreat was central to managing task complexity and writing-related anxiety. The…

  19. Binary collision rates of relativistic thermal plasmas. I. Theoretical framework

    SciTech Connect

    Dermer, C.D.

    1985-08-01

    Binary collision rates for arbitrary scattering cross sections are derived in the case of a beam of particles interacting with a Maxwell-Boltzmann (MB) plasma, or in the case of two MB plasmas interacting at generally different temperatures. The expressions are valid for all beam energies and plasma temperatures, from the nonrelativistic to the extreme relativistic limits. The calculated quantities include the reaction rate, the energy exchange rate, and the average rate of change of the squared transverse momentum component of a monoenergetic particle beam as a result of scatterings with particles of a MB plasma. Results are specialized to elastic scattering processes, two-temperature reaction rates, or the cold plasma limit, reproducing previous work.

  20. ICW eHealth Framework.

    PubMed

    Klein, Karsten; Wolff, Astrid C; Ziebold, Oliver; Liebscher, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    The ICW eHealth Framework (eHF) is a powerful infrastructure and platform for the development of service-oriented solutions in the health care business. It is the culmination of many years of experience of ICW in the development and use of in-house health care solutions and represents the foundation of ICW product developments based on the Java Enterprise Edition (Java EE). The ICW eHealth Framework has been leveraged to allow development by external partners - enabling adopters a straightforward integration into ICW solutions. The ICW eHealth Framework consists of reusable software components, development tools, architectural guidelines and conventions defining a full software-development and product lifecycle. From the perspective of a partner, the framework provides services and infrastructure capabilities for integrating applications within an eHF-based solution. This article introduces the ICW eHealth Framework's basic architectural concepts and technologies. It provides an overview of its module and component model, describes the development platform that supports the complete software development lifecycle of health care applications and outlines technological aspects, mainly focusing on application development frameworks and open standards. PMID:18376045

  1. An impulse framework for hydrodynamic force analysis : fish propulsion, water entry of spheres, and marine propellers

    E-print Network

    Epps, Brenden P

    2010-01-01

    This thesis presents an impulse framework for analyzing the hydrodynamic forces on bodies in flow. This general theoretical framework is widely applicable, and it is used to address the hydrodynamics of fish propulsion, ...

  2. Energy as a Framework for Prioritizing Conservation Vulnerabilities and Management Strategies

    E-print Network

    Hansen, Andrew J.

    Energy as a Framework for Prioritizing Conservation Vulnerabilities and Management Strategies - trophic structure - evolutionary processes - available energy. Theoretical Roots of Conservation Biology of Conservation Biology #12;· A framework to grouping ecological systems based on ecosystem energy and habitat

  3. Cybersecurity Framework Development Overview

    E-print Network

    Collect, Categorize, and Post RFI Responses Analyze RFI Responses Select Framework Components Prepare and Publish Preliminary Framework NIST Issues RFI ­ February 26, 2013 1st Framework Workshop ­ April 03, 2013

  4. A Framework for Multi Robot Guidance Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keskin, Onur; Uyar, Erol

    In this paper we present a framework for path planning and path finding for multiple mobile robots with global vision. Our framework model considers the agents’ dynamic status and their environment with obstacles to perform given tasks. The global vision system provides feedback to main controller computer and mobile robots are directed towards to their tasks with avoiding obstacles and without any collision. Different kinds of scenario are prepared to simulate manipulating tasks and non-collision behavior with our framework. Experiment results with Lego Mindstorms NXT shows that our framework can be used where a multi robot system is needed with minimum resources.

  5. From Guindy IIT MADRAS MAIN

    E-print Network

    Kumar, M. Jagadesh

    From Guindy IIT MADRAS MAIN ENTRANCE From Adyar MADHYA KAILASH SIGNAL MADHYA KAILASH TEMPLE From Technology and Business Incubator From Guindy IIT MADRAS MAIN ENTRANCE From Adyar MADHYA KAILASH SIGNAL

  6. MAIN CHAMBER NEUTRAL PRESSURE IN

    E-print Network

    Pitcher, C. S.

    MAIN CHAMBER NEUTRAL PRESSURE IN ALCATOR C-MOD AND JET C S Pitcher, S K Erents*, W Fundamenski*, B on Controlled Fusion and Plasma Physics 18 ­ 22 June 1999, Madeira, Portugal MAIN CHAMBER NEUTRAL PRESSURE Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3DB,UK #12;(1) Introduction · main chamber gas can have a number

  7. UC Santa Cruz Main Entrance

    E-print Network

    Wilmers, Chris

    UC Santa Cruz West Entrance Em pire Grade Main Entrance HagarDrive Coolid geDrive P PLAZA WEST. At the Main Entrance, proceed west on Empire Grade, then turn right on Heller (the West Entrance). Turn right-day visitor permits may be purchased at the main entrance kiosk or at the TAPS Sales Office (located in the H

  8. MAINE MUSSEL SEED CONSERVATION AREAS

    EPA Science Inventory

    SEED shows point locations of Maine mussel seed conservation areas at 1:24,000 scale. Data for this coverage were screen digitized on a 1:24000 scale base using descriptions contained in Maine Department of Marine Resources (MDMR) rules. Coastal arcs from Maine Office of GIS 1:24...

  9. 2014 Maine Earth Science Day

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    On October 15, 2014 Maine Earth Science Day was held at the Maine State Museum in Augusta. The USGS was represented by Charlie Culbertson, left, and Nick Waldron, right. This photo was taken as the two were packing up for the day, and shows a main feature of the table, a touch screen display with th...

  10. A Framework for Dynamizing Succinct Data Structures (Extended Abstract)

    E-print Network

    Gupta, Ankur; Hon, Wing-Kai; Shah, Rahul; Vitter, Jeffrey Scott

    2007-01-01

    for dictionaries, ordinal trees, labeled trees, and text collections. Of particular note is its direct application to XML indexing structures that answer subpath queries [2]. Our framework focuses on achieving information-theoretically optimal space along with near-optimal...

  11. SEMIFRAGILE HIERARCHICAL WATERMARKING IN A SET THEORETIC Oktay Altun, Gaurav Sharma, Mehmet Celik, Mark Bocko

    E-print Network

    Sharma, Gaurav

    SEMIFRAGILE HIERARCHICAL WATERMARKING IN A SET THEORETIC FRAMEWORK Oktay Altun, Gaurav Sharma a set theoretic framework for watermarking and illustrate its effectiveness by designing a hierarchical semi-fragile watermark that is tolerant to compression and allows tamper local- ization. Using a quad

  12. Human Behavior Models for Game Theoretic Agents: Case of Crowd Tipping

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barry G. Silverman; Michael Johns; Ransom Weaver; Kevin O'Brien; Rachel Silverman

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes an effort to integrate human behavior models from a range of ability, stress, emotion, decision theoretic, and motivation literatures into a game -theoretic framework. Our goal is to create a common mathematical framework (CMF) and a simulation environment that allows one to research and explore alternative behavior models to add realism to software agents - e.g., human

  13. Data Flow Analysis Frameworks for Concurrent Programs

    E-print Network

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    Data Flow Analysis Frameworks for Concurrent Programs 1 Matthew B. Dwyer Department of Computer Science University of Massachusetts, Amherst Abstract Data ow analysis is a well studied family of static program analyses. A rich theoretical basis for data ow analysis has been developed. Central to this theory

  14. Measuring Morality: Moral Frameworks in Videogames

    E-print Network

    Whittle, John C.

    2010-07-14

    ................................................. 13 Morality in Recent Games .............................................................. 13 Theories of Ethics ........................................................................... 16 Ethical Triangulation... their operation. Chapter IV will create a theoretical framework in which this thesis may be interpreted. When working in an interdisciplinary fashion with literature from fields such as media studies, video game studies, Ludology, literary analysis, ethics...

  15. An analytical framework for local feedforward networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Scott Weaver; Leemon Baird; Marios M. Polycarpou

    1998-01-01

    Interference in neural networks occurs when learning in one area of the input space causes unlearning in another area. Networks that are less susceptible to interference are referred to as spatially local networks. To obtain a better understanding of these properties, a theoretical framework, consisting of a measure of interference and a measure of network localization, is developed. These measures

  16. Human-Centered Fusion Framework

    SciTech Connect

    Posse, Christian; White, Amanda M.; Beagley, Nathaniel

    2007-05-16

    In recent years the benefits of fusing signatures extracted from large amounts of distributed and/or heterogeneous data sources have been largely documented in various problems ranging from biological protein function prediction to cyberspace monitoring. In spite of significant progress in information fusion research, there is still no formal theoretical framework for defining various types of information fusion systems, defining and analyzing relations among such types, and designing information fusion systems using a formal method approach. Consequently, fusion systems are often poorly understood, are less than optimal, and/or do not suit user needs. To start addressing these issues, we outline a formal humancentered fusion framework for reasoning about fusion strategies. Our approach relies on a new taxonomy for fusion strategies, an alternative definition of information fusion in terms of parameterized paths in signature related spaces, an algorithmic formalization of fusion strategies and a library of numeric and dynamic visual tools measuring the impact as well as the impact behavior of fusion strategies. Using a real case of intelligence analysis we demonstrate that the proposed framework enables end users to rapidly 1) develop and implement alternative fusion strategies, 2) understand the impact of each strategy, 3) compare the various strategies, and 4) perform the above steps without having to know the mathematical foundations of the framework. We also demonstrate that the human impact on a fusion system is critical in the sense that small changes in strategies do not necessarily correspond to small changes in results.

  17. European Corporate Sustainability Framework

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marcel Van Marrewijk; Teun W. Hardjono

    abstract The European Corporate Sustainability Framework (ECSF) is a new generation management framework, aimed to meet increased corporate complexity and support corporate transformation towards more sustainable ways of doing business. It is a multi-layer, integral business framework with an analytical, contextual, situational and dynamic dimension. Analytically, the framework is structured according to four focus points - the constitutional, conceptual, behavioural

  18. An Information Theoretic Location Verification System for Wireless Networks

    E-print Network

    Yan, Shihao; Nevat, Ido; Peters, Gareth W

    2012-01-01

    As location-based applications become ubiquitous in emerging wireless networks, Location Verification Systems (LVS) are of growing importance. In this paper we propose, for the first time, a rigorous information-theoretic framework for an LVS. The theoretical framework we develop illustrates how the threshold used in the detection of a spoofed location can be optimized in terms of the mutual information between the input and output data of the LVS. In order to verify the legitimacy of our analytical framework we have carried out detailed numerical simulations. Our simulations mimic the practical scenario where a system deployed using our framework must make a binary Yes/No "malicious decision" to each snapshot of the signal strength values obtained by base stations. The comparison between simulation and analysis shows excellent agreement. Our optimized LVS framework provides a defence against location spoofing attacks in emerging wireless networks such as those envisioned for Intelligent Transport Systems, wh...

  19. Contribution of Alenia: Main results obtained within the project

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Ceresola

    In this chapter the main outcomes of the activity made by Alenia in the framework of Flomania project are outlined.\\u000a \\u000a The main technical achievements that have been obtained are: 1. Validation of CFD methods and assessment of their application\\u000a envelope in cases which present critical features with respect of turbulence modelling. 2. Improvement of the quality of CFD\\u000a simulation codes

  20. Theoretical Review of CP Violation

    E-print Network

    Robert Fleischer

    2003-10-28

    The focus of our considerations is the B-meson system, which will provide stringent tests of the Kobayashi-Maskawa mechanism of CP violation in this decade. After a classification of the main possible strategies to achieve this goal, we discuss the status of the B-factory benchmark modes in view of the current experimental data. We shall then turn to the "El Dorado" for B-decay studies at hadron colliders, the Bs-meson system, where we will also address new, theoretically clean strategies to explore CP violation.

  1. Coding for system-on-chip networks: a unified framework

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Srinivasa R. Sridhara; Naresh R. Shanbhag

    2005-01-01

    ABSTRACT In this paper, we present a coding framework derived from a communication-theoretic view of a DSM bus to jointly address power, delay, and reliability. In this framework, the data is first passed through a nonlinear source coder that reduces self and coupling transition activity and im- poses a constraint on the peak coupling transitions on the bus. Next, a

  2. EXPLORATORY FISHING FOR MAINE HERRING

    E-print Network

    463 EXPLORATORY FISHING FOR MAINE HERRING by Keith A. Smith Marine Biolcgica! Labcratory Ul a R AR. McKernan, Director EXPLORATORY FISHING FOR MAINE HERRING by Keith A. Smith International Inshore explorations 1 Herring winter habitat 6 Coastal gill net fishing 8 Summary 9 lii #12

  3. Geospatial evaluations of potato production systems in Maine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Maine consistently ranks in the top ten potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) production areas though yields are substantially lower than the mid- and western USA. Geospatial frameworks help resolve patterns and trends in production environments (at multiple scales) that may enable improvements in adaptive ...

  4. Main Propulsion Test Article (MPTA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snoddy, Cynthia

    2010-01-01

    Scope: The Main Propulsion Test Article integrated the main propulsion subsystem with the clustered Space Shuttle Main Engines, the External Tank and associated GSE. The test program consisted of cryogenic tanking tests and short- and long duration static firings including gimbaling and throttling. The test program was conducted on the S1-C test stand (Position B-2) at the National Space Technology Laboratories (NSTL)/Stennis Space Center. 3 tanking tests and 20 hot fire tests conducted between December 21 1 1977 and December 17, 1980 Configuration: The main propulsion test article consisted of the three space shuttle main engines, flightweight external tank, flightweight aft fuselage, interface section and a boilerplate mid/fwd fuselage truss structure.

  5. Theoretical Perspectives on the Internationalization of Firms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rask, Morten; Strandskov, Jesper; Hakonsson, Dorthe Dojbak

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to build a coherent framework of the four main theories relating to the internationalization of firms, in order to facilitate better business teaching and research. Yet, theories of the internationalization of firms are broad and rest on different underlying assumptions. With the purpose of clarifying the potential…

  6. Theoretical Perspectives on Protein Folding

    E-print Network

    D. Thirumalai; Edward P. O'Brien; Greg Morrison; Changbong Hyeon

    2010-07-18

    Understanding how monomeric proteins fold under in vitro conditions is crucial to describing their functions in the cellular context. Significant advances both in theory and experiments have resulted in a conceptual framework for describing the folding mechanisms of globular proteins. The experimental data and theoretical methods have revealed the multifaceted character of proteins. Proteins exhibit universal features that can be determined using only the number of amino acid residues (N) and polymer concepts. The sizes of proteins in the denatured and folded states, cooperativity of the folding transition, dispersions in the melting temperatures at the residue level, and time scales of folding are to a large extent determined by N. The consequences of finite N especially on how individual residues order upon folding depends on the topology of the folded states. Such intricate details can be predicted using the Molecular Transfer Model that combines simulations with measured transfer free energies of protein building blocks from water to the desired concentration of the denaturant. By watching one molecule fold at a time, using single molecule methods, the validity of the theoretically anticipated heterogeneity in the folding routes, and the N-dependent time scales for the three stages in the approach to the native state have been established. Despite the successes of theory, of which only a few examples are documented here, we conclude that much remains to be done to solve the "protein folding problem" in the broadest sense.

  7. Advances in theoretical models of network science

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jin-Qing Fang; Qiao Bi; Yong Li

    2007-01-01

    In this review article, we will summarize the main advances in network science investigated by the CIAE Group of Complex Network\\u000a in this field. Several theoretical models of network science were proposed and their topological and dynamical properties\\u000a are reviewed and compared with the other models. Our models mainly include a harmonious unifying hybrid preferential model,\\u000a a large unifying hybrid

  8. EXHAUST MAIN PERSONNEL EXPOSURE CALCULATION

    SciTech Connect

    S. Su

    1999-09-29

    The purpose of this activity is to identify and determine potential radiation hazards in the service exhaust main due to a waste package leakage from an emplacement drift. This work supports the subsurface ventilation system design for the EDA II, which consists of an accessible service exhaust main for personnel, and an exhaust main for hot air flow. The objective is to provide the necessary radiation exposure calculations to determine if the service exhaust main is accessible following a waste package leak. This work includes the following items responsive to the stated purpose and objective: Calculate the limiting transient radiation exposure of personnel in the service exhaust main due to the passage of airborne radioactive material through the ventilation raise and connecting horizontal raise to the exhaust main in the event of a leaking waste package Calculate the potential exposures to maintenance workers in the service exhaust main from residual radioactive material deposited inside of the ventilation raise and connecting horizontal raise This calculation is limited to external radiation only, since the airborne and contamination sources will be contained in the ventilation raise and connecting horizontal raise.

  9. Pre-Main Sequence Stars Seen by ISO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenzetti, Dario

    2005-08-01

    Observations of pre-main sequence objects (T Tauri, Herbig Ae/Be and FU Orionis stars) obtained with the instrumentation on board the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) are reviewed. All the observations have been mainly carried out by using the two spectrographs SWS and LWS, adopting their low resolution modes and such data have been used both for lines detection and to reconstruct the spectral energy distributions. Line emission and photometric behaviour of pre-main sequence objects have been analyzed in the framework of the current models, discussing the agreement (or disagreement) with them and trying to derive the questions which should be answered by the forthcoming FIR instrumentation.

  10. EAF2- A Framework for Categorizing Enterprise Architecture Frameworks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ulrik Franke; David Höök; Johan König; Robert Lagerström; Per Närman; Johan Ullberg; Pia Gustafsson; Mathias Ekstedt

    2009-01-01

    What constitutes an enterprise architecture framework is a contested subject. The contents of present enterprise architecture frameworks thus differ substantially. This paper aims to alleviate the confusion regarding which framework contains what by proposing a meta framework for enterprise architecture frameworks. By using this meta framework, decision makers are able to express their requirements on what their enterprise architecture framework

  11. Virtual Tour of Maine Geology

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This selection of slide shows provides a photographic tour of Maine geology. Users can choose slide shows on surficial, bedrock, and coastal geology; fossils, geologic hazards, groundwater and wells; or mineral collecting, mining, and quarrying.

  12. Humboldt River main stem, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Warmath, Eric; Medina, Rose L.

    2001-01-01

    This data set contains the main stem of the Humboldt River as defined by Humboldt Project personnel of the U.S. Geological Survey Nevada District, 2001. The data set was digitized on screen using digital orthophoto quadrangles from 1994.

  13. Measurements of the main parameters of the RT70 antenna

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. M. Aslanyan; A. G. Gulyan; A. N. Kozlov; V. B. Tarasov; R. M. Martirosyan; V. A. Grishmanovskii; B. G. Sergeev

    1984-01-01

    The main electrical characteristics of the RT-70 antenna at wavelengths of 3, 5, 6, and 40 cm were measured by radio-astronomical methods. Analytical expressions for the antenna charateristics as a function of elevation are found from the measurement results and by the method of least squares. Good agreement is obtained between the results of the experimental research and theoretical calculations.

  14. Economic Impact Reporting Framework

    E-print Network

    ....................................................................................................5 2.2: Human Capital (human capital); 4. Investment in the research base and innovation; 5. Framework conditions (public

  15. Choices, frameworks and refinement

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roy H. Campbell; Nayeem Islam; Ralph Johnson; Panos Kougiouris; Peter Madany

    1991-01-01

    Presents a method for designing operating systems using object-oriented frameworks. A framework can be refined into subframeworks. Constraints specify the interactions between the subframeworks. The authors describe how they used object-oriented frameworks to design Choices, an object-oriented operating system

  16. Choices, Frameworks and Refinement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Roy H.; Islam, Nayeem; Johnson, Ralph; Kougiouris, Panos; Madany, Peter

    1991-01-01

    In this paper we present a method for designing operating systems using object-oriented frameworks. A framework can be refined into subframeworks. Constraints specify the interactions between the subframeworks. We describe how we used object-oriented frameworks to design Choices, an object-oriented operating system.

  17. Journal of Theoretical Biology ] (

    E-print Network

    Swigon, David

    focuses on the control of the infection by the innate and adaptive immunity. Innate immunity of infected cells by effector cells (cytotoxic T-cells and natural killer cells). Adaptive immunityJournal of Theoretical Biology ] (

  18. High frequency variations of the main magnetic field: convergence of observations and theory (Petrus Peregrinus Medal Lecture)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jault, Dominique

    2013-04-01

    Understanding the main magnetic field variations has been hindered by the discrepancy between the periods (from months to years) of the simplest linear wave phenomena and the relatively long time intervals (10 to 100 years) over which magnetic field changes can be confidently monitored. A theoretical description of short-period waves within the Earth's fluid core is at hand. Quasi-geostrophic inertial waves (akin to Rossby waves in the atmosphere) are slightly modified in the presence of magnetic fields and torsional oscillations consist of differential motion between coaxial rigid cylindrical annuli. Torsional oscillations are sensitive to the whole magnetic field that they shear in the course of their propagation. From their modelling, we have thus gained an estimate for the magnetic field strength in the core interior. There is now ongoing work to extend the theoretical framework to longer times. Furthermore, data collected from the Swarm constellation of three satellites to be launched this year by ESA will permit to better separate the internal and external magnetic signals. We may thus dream to detect quasi-geostrophic inertial waves. As the spectral ranges of theoretical models and observations begin to overlap, we can now go beyond the understanding of the magnetic field variations as the juxtaposition of partial models, arranged as a set of nested Matryoshka dolls. This talk will give illustrations for this statement, among which the question of induction in the lower mantle.

  19. Contextual analysis framework for bursty dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jo, Hang-Hyun; Pan, Raj Kumar; Perotti, Juan I.; Kaski, Kimmo

    2013-06-01

    To understand the origin of bursty dynamics in natural and social processes we provide a general analysis framework in which the temporal process is decomposed into subprocesses and then the bursts in subprocesses, called contextual bursts, are combined to collective bursts in the original process. For the combination of subprocesses, it is required to consider the distribution of different contexts over the original process. Based on minimal assumptions for interevent time statistics, we present a theoretical analysis for the relationship between contextual and collective interevent time distributions. Our analysis framework helps to exploit contextual information available in decomposable bursty dynamics.

  20. ORFEUS-SPAS MAIN TELESCOPE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    In the Multi-Payload Processing Facility (MPPF) at KSC, technicians hoist the orbiting and Retrievable Far and Extreme Ultraviolet Spectrograph-Shuttle Pallet Satellite (ORFEUS-SPAS) II main telescope to a vertical position prior to installing it atop the Astronomy Shuttle Pallet Satellite (ASTRO-SPAS) platform. Two spectrographs share the main telescope: the Extreme Ultraviolet Spectrograph (EUV) provided by the University of California at Berkeley, and the Far Ultraviolet Spectrograph (FUV) designed by German institutions the University of Tubingen and Landessternwarte Heidelberg and built by German company Kayser-Threde. The main telescope has a primary mirror approximately one yard (one meter) in diameter, coated with iridium to improve its light-gathering power in the ultraviolet. During the flight of ORFEUS-SPAS II on Space Shuttle Mission STS- 80, these two spectrographs -- along with a third installed separately on the ASTRO-SPAS -- will gather data about the life cycle of stars.

  1. New Main Ring control system

    SciTech Connect

    Seino, K.; Anderson, L.; Ducar, R.; Franck, A.; Gomilar, J.; Hendricks, B.; Smedinghoff, J.

    1990-03-01

    The Fermilab Main Ring control system has been operational for over sixteen years. Aging and obsolescence of the equipment make the maintenance difficult. Since the advent of the Tevatron, considerable upgrades have been made to the controls of all the Fermilab accelerators except the Main Ring. Modernization of the equipment and standardization of the hardware and software have thus become inevitable. The Tevatron CAMAC serial system has been chosen as a basic foundation in order to make the Main Ring control system compatible with the rest of the accelerator complex. New hardware pieces including intelligent CAMAC modules have been designed to satisfy unique requirements. Fiber optic cable and repeaters have been installed in order to accommodate new channel requirements onto the already saturated communication medium system. 8 refs., 2 figs.

  2. Computational and theoretical methods for protein folding.

    PubMed

    Compiani, Mario; Capriotti, Emidio

    2013-12-01

    A computational approach is essential whenever the complexity of the process under study is such that direct theoretical or experimental approaches are not viable. This is the case for protein folding, for which a significant amount of data are being collected. This paper reports on the essential role of in silico methods and the unprecedented interplay of computational and theoretical approaches, which is a defining point of the interdisciplinary investigations of the protein folding process. Besides giving an overview of the available computational methods and tools, we argue that computation plays not merely an ancillary role but has a more constructive function in that computational work may precede theory and experiments. More precisely, computation can provide the primary conceptual clues to inspire subsequent theoretical and experimental work even in a case where no preexisting evidence or theoretical frameworks are available. This is cogently manifested in the application of machine learning methods to come to grips with the folding dynamics. These close relationships suggested complementing the review of computational methods within the appropriate theoretical context to provide a self-contained outlook of the basic concepts that have converged into a unified description of folding and have grown in a synergic relationship with their computational counterpart. Finally, the advantages and limitations of current computational methodologies are discussed to show how the smart analysis of large amounts of data and the development of more effective algorithms can improve our understanding of protein folding. PMID:24187909

  3. A Systems Framework for Evaluating Nursing Care Quality in Nursing Homes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lynn Unruh; Thomas T. H. Wan

    2004-01-01

    Given the ongoing concerns about the quality of care in nursing homes, a theoretical framework to guide a systems approach to quality is important. Existing frameworks either do not model causality, or do so in a linear fashion in which the actual linkages between components of quality may not be well specified. Through a review of frameworks for nursing home

  4. Strategic petroleum reserves in Maine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tibbetts

    1977-01-01

    An evaluation was made to determine if the State of Maine should develop a State petroleum storage reserve to protect its economic and social vitality against future petroleum shortages. The requirements for residual oil are delineated and alternate storage options are described. The adequacy of the National Strategic Petroleum Reserve Program (S.P.R.) as a tool for alleviating shortfalls of residual

  5. The EMMA Main Ring Lattice.

    SciTech Connect

    Berg,J.S.

    2008-02-21

    I give a brief introduction to the purpose and goals of the EMMA experiment and describe how they will impact the design of the main EMMA ring. I then describe the mathematical model that is used to describe the EMMA lattice. Finally, I show how the different lattice configurations were obtained and list their parameters.

  6. Abolishing Mandatory Retirement in Maine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riley, Patricia A.

    1978-01-01

    The Maine Committee on Aging, a statewide citizen advisory agency, successfully proposed legislation to abolish mandatory retirement in the public sector by July 1, 1978. The legislation also orders that a study containing recommendations for possible mandatory retirement abolition in the private sector be completed by 1979. This article discusses…

  7. Main Campus Raleigh-Durham

    E-print Network

    Velev, Orlin D.

    Centennial Campus Research Dr. Research IV Research III Research II Research I Partners I ABB Building VarsityDr. Main Campus Dr. Venture Complex Partners II Wade Ave. Hillsborough St. GormanSt. FairclothSt. Western Blvd. Western Blvd. Centennial Parkway GormanSt. Avent Ferry Rd. NC State University Solar House

  8. Architectural Portfolio 2001: Main Winners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American School & University, 2001

    2001-01-01

    Presents descriptions and photographs of the following two American School and University Architectural Portfolio main winners for 2001: Chesterton, Indiana's Chesterton High School and Lied Library at the University of Nevada, Las Vegas. Included are each project's vital statistics, the architectural firm involved, and a list of designers.(GR)

  9. Protéger les mains au travail

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. B. Cleenewerck

    2009-01-01

    Hands are the main tools of most of manual workers. Application of individual skin preventive measures is essential in many jobs. A strategic program for protection of the skin of the hands will be proposed. Before and during work, the use of protective creams and\\/or gels as well as protective gloves represents the first step. After work, the use of

  10. Library Site Finder MAIN LIBRARY

    E-print Network

    Sidorov, Nikita

    Library Site Finder MAIN LIBRARY Burlington Street Tel: 0161 275 3751 THE ALAN GILBERT LEARNING COMMONS Oxford Road Tel: 0161 306 4306 ART & ARCHAEOLOGY LIBRARY Mansfield Cooper Building Tel: 0161 275 3657 BRADDICK LIBRARY School of Physics & Astronomy Brunswick Street Tel: 0161 275 4078 EDDIE DAVIES

  11. Distributed visualization framework architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishchenko, Oleg; Raman, Sundaresan; Crawfis, Roger

    2010-01-01

    An architecture for distributed and collaborative visualization is presented. The design goals of the system are to create a lightweight, easy to use and extensible framework for reasearch in scientific visualization. The system provides both single user and collaborative distributed environment. System architecture employs a client-server model. Visualization projects can be synchronously accessed and modified from different client machines. We present a set of visualization use cases that illustrate the flexibility of our system. The framework provides a rich set of reusable components for creating new applications. These components make heavy use of leading design patterns. All components are based on the functionality of a small set of interfaces. This allows new components to be integrated seamlessly with little to no effort. All user input and higher-level control functionality interface with proxy objects supporting a concrete implementation of these interfaces. These light-weight objects can be easily streamed across the web and even integrated with smart clients running on a user's cell phone. The back-end is supported by concrete implementations wherever needed (for instance for rendering). A middle-tier manages any communication and synchronization with the proxy objects. In addition to the data components, we have developed several first-class GUI components for visualization. These include a layer compositor editor, a programmable shader editor, a material editor and various drawable editors. These GUI components interact strictly with the interfaces. Access to the various entities in the system is provided by an AssetManager. The asset manager keeps track of all of the registered proxies and responds to queries on the overall system. This allows all user components to be populated automatically. Hence if a new component is added that supports the IMaterial interface, any instances of this can be used in the various GUI components that work with this interface. One of the main features is an interactive shader designer. This allows rapid prototyping of new visualization renderings that are shader-based and greatly accelerates the development and debug cycle.

  12. A comparison of justice frameworks for international research.

    PubMed

    Pratt, Bridget; Loff, Bebe

    2015-07-01

    Justice frameworks have been developed for international research that provide guidance on the selection of research targets, ancillary care, research capacity strengthening, and post-trial benefits. Yet there has been limited comparison of the different frameworks. This paper examines the underlying aims and theoretical bases of three such frameworks-the fair benefits framework, the human development approach and research for health justice-and considers how their aims impact their guidance on the aforementioned four ethical issues. It shows that the frameworks' underlying objectives vary across two dimensions. First, whether they seek to prevent harmful or exploitative international research or to promote international research with health benefits for low and middle-income countries. Second, whether they address justice at the micro level or the macro level. The fair benefits framework focuses on reforming contractual elements in individual international research collaborations to ensure fairness, whereas the other two frameworks aim to connect international research with the reduction of global health inequities. The paper then highlights where there is overlap between the frameworks' requirements and where differences in the strength and content of the obligations they identify arise as a result of their varying objectives and theoretical bases. In doing so, it does not offer a critical comparison of the frameworks but rather seeks to add clarity to current debates on justice and international research by showing how they are positioned relative to one another. PMID:25378552

  13. Gulf of Maine Research Institute

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2003-05-01

    This web site contains illustrated information and classroom-ready activities for teachers, students, and anyone who want to learn about aquatic environments. The site is divided into seven topical sites, either by habitat or species. "Space Available" focuses on using satellite imagery to study the oceans and includes sections on the human impact on oceans, weather, remote sensing, and how satellites work. "All About Lobsters" includes information on the life cycle of lobsters, lobster trivia, and fishery information. "All About Turtles" includes a section on turtle anatomy, defenses, and species, and how you can help turtles. The "On Location" section includes information on coral reefs in Belize, global climate change, Israel and the Red Sea, and information on the deep submergence vehicle, ALVIN. "Katahdin to the Sea" looks at streams, ponds, aquifers, bogs, estuaries, beaches, tidepools, and the Gulf of Maine. The "Streams" section includes information on the history of Maine and water, and information on pollution and water.

  14. LSRA with Shuttle main gear

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    A space shuttle landing gear system is visible between the two main landing gear components on this NASA CV-990, modified as a Landing Systems Research Aircraft (LSRA). The space shuttle landing gear test unit, operated by a high-pressure hydraulic system, allowed engineers to assess and document the performance of space shuttle main and nose landing gear systems, tires and wheel assemblies, plus braking and nose wheel steering performance. The series of 155 test missions for the space shuttle program, conducted at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, provided extensive data about the life and endurance of the shuttle tire systems and helped raise the shuttle crosswind landing limits at Kennedy.

  15. Main Results of Grossversuch IV.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Federer, B.; Waldvogel, A.; Schmid, W.; Schiesser, H. H.; Hampel, F.; Schweingruber, Marianne; Stahel, W.; Bader, J.; Mezeix, J. F.; Doras, Nadie; D'Aubigny, G.; Dermegreditchian, G.; Vento, D.

    1986-07-01

    The main results of a randomized hail suppression experiment, Grossversuch IV, are presented in this paper. Grossversuch IV tested the `Soviet' hail prevention method during five years (1977-81). The field experiment took place in central Switzerland with the participation of research groups from France, Italy and Switzerland.A very dense hailpad network (330 hailpads over 1300 km2) and a carefully calibrated 10-cm radar were used to measure in two independent ways the hail kinetic energy of seeded and unseeded hail cells. The total sample included 216 cells. The main result of the confirmatory as well as most of the exploratory analyses is that there is no statistically significant difference between seeded and unseeded hail cells. A detailed discussion of the reliability of the measurements, tests and methods is given together with a discussion about possibilities of future evaluations of the Grossversuch IV data and other cloud seeding experiments.

  16. Theoretical Aspects of Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Deem, Michael W.; Hejazi, Pooya

    2015-01-01

    The immune system recognizes a myriad of invading pathogens and their toxic products. It does so with a finite repertoire of antibodies and T cell receptors. We here describe theories that quantify the immune system dynamics. We describe how the immune system recognizes antigens by searching the large space of receptor molecules. We consider in some detail the theories that quantify the immune response to influenza and dengue fever. We review theoretical descriptions of the complementary evolution of pathogens that occurs in response to immune system pressure. Methods including bioinformatics, molecular simulation, random energy models, and quantum field theory contribute to a theoretical understanding of aspects of immunity. PMID:22432581

  17. IBRD Operational Decision Framework

    SciTech Connect

    Greenwalt, R; Hibbard, W; Raber, E; Carlsen, T; Folks, K; MacQueen, D; Mancieri, S; Bunt, T; Richards, J; Hirabayashi-Dethier, J

    2010-11-12

    The IBRD Operational Decision Framework in this document is an expansion of an emerging general risk management framework under development by an interagency working group. It provides the level of detail necessary to develop a general Consequence Management Guidance Document for biological contamination remediation and restoration. It is the intent of this document to support both wide area and individual site remediation and restoration activities. This product was initiated as a portion of the IBRD Task 1 Systems Analysis to aid in identification of wide area remediation and restoration shortcomings and gaps. The draft interagency general risk management framework was used as the basis for the analysis. The initial Task 1 analysis document expanded the draft interagency framework to a higher level of resolution, building on both the logic structure and the accompanying text explanations. It was then employed in a qualitative manner to identify responsible agencies, data requirements, tool requirements, and current capabilities for each decision and task. This resulted in identifying shortcomings and gaps needing resolution. Several meetings of a joint LLNL/SNL working group reviewed and approved the initial content of this analysis. At the conclusion of Task 1, work continued on the expanded framework to generate this Operational Decision Framework which is consistent with the existing interagency general risk management framework. A large LLNL task group met repeatedly over a three-month period to develop the expanded framework, coordinate the framework with the biological remediation checklist, and synchronize the logic with the Consequence Management Plan table of contents. The expanded framework was briefed at a large table top exercise reviewing the interagency risk management framework. This exercise had representation from major US metropolitan areas as well as national agencies. This product received positive comments from the participants. Upon completion of the Operational Decision Framework, another joint LLNL/SNL working group conducted a day-long review. Identified modifications were made to the document, resulting in the included product.

  18. Heavy hydrocarbon main injector technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, S. C.; Arbit, H. A.

    1988-01-01

    One of the key components of the Advanced Launch System (ALS) is a large liquid rocket, booster engine. To keep the overall vehicle size and cost down, this engine will probably use liquid oxygen (LOX) and a heavy hydrocarbon, such as RP-1, as propellants and operate at relatively high chamber pressures to increase overall performance. A technology program (Heavy Hydrocarbon Main Injector Technology) is being studied. The main objective of this effort is to develop a logic plan and supporting experimental data base to reduce the risk of developing a large scale (approximately 750,000 lb thrust), high performance main injector system. The overall approach and program plan, from initial analyses to large scale, two dimensional combustor design and test, and the current status of the program are discussed. Progress includes performance and stability analyses, cold flow tests of injector model, design and fabrication of subscale injectors and calorimeter combustors for performance, heat transfer, and dynamic stability tests, and preparation of hot fire test plans. Related, current, high pressure, LOX/RP-1 injector technology efforts are also briefly discussed.

  19. 78 FR 70545 - KEI (Maine) Power Management (I) LLC, KEI (Maine) Power Management (II) LLC, KEI (Maine) Power...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-26

    ...11472-060, 11132-028, 11482-030, 4202-023, 3562-024] KEI (Maine) Power Management (I) LLC, KEI (Maine) Power Management (II) LLC, KEI (Maine) Power Management (III) LLC, KEI (Maine) Power Management (IV)...

  20. A Review of Telehealth Service Implementation Frameworks

    PubMed Central

    van Dyk, Liezl

    2014-01-01

    Despite the potential of telehealth services to increase the quality and accessibility of healthcare, the success rate of such services has been disappointing. The purpose of this paper is to find and compare existing frameworks for the implementation of telehealth services that can contribute to the success rate of future endeavors. After a thorough discussion of these frameworks, this paper outlines the development methodologies in terms of theoretical background, methodology and validation. Finally, the common themes and formats are identified for consideration in future implementation. It was confirmed that a holistic implementation approach is needed, which includes technology, organizational structures, change management, economic feasibility, societal impacts, perceptions, user-friendliness, evaluation and evidence, legislation, policy and governance. Furthermore, there is some scope for scientifically rigorous framework development and validation approaches. PMID:24464237

  1. A review of telehealth service implementation frameworks.

    PubMed

    van Dyk, Liezl

    2014-02-01

    Despite the potential of telehealth services to increase the quality and accessibility of healthcare, the success rate of such services has been disappointing. The purpose of this paper is to find and compare existing frameworks for the implementation of telehealth services that can contribute to the success rate of future endeavors. After a thorough discussion of these frameworks, this paper outlines the development methodologies in terms of theoretical background, methodology and validation. Finally, the common themes and formats are identified for consideration in future implementation. It was confirmed that a holistic implementation approach is needed, which includes technology, organizational structures, change management, economic feasibility, societal impacts, perceptions, user-friendliness, evaluation and evidence, legislation, policy and governance. Furthermore, there is some scope for scientifically rigorous framework development and validation approaches. PMID:24464237

  2. Free Parameters and Frameworks in Minimal Supersymmetry

    E-print Network

    California at Berkeley, University of

    405 Appendix A Free Parameters and Frameworks in Minimal Supersymmetry It is useful to discuss what the various schemes that exist for reducing the set of free parameters to a manageable number. The information, and so is fixed by experiment. The free parameters consist mainly of the coe#cients of the ``soft

  3. Free Parameters and Frameworks in Minimal Supersymmetry

    E-print Network

    California at Berkeley, University of

    405 Appendix A Free Parameters and Frameworks in Minimal Supersymmetry It is useful to discuss what the various schemes that exist for reducing the set of free parameters to a manageable number. The information, and so is fixed by experiment. The free parameters consist mainly of the coefficients of the "soft

  4. Mechatronics-a powerful concurrent engineering framework

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hendrik M. J. Van Brussel

    1996-01-01

    Mechatronics is emerging as a concurrent-engineering thinking framework in the process of designing complex machines. It is argued that mechatronics can be defined as the science of motion control. The different steps in the evolution from smart machines to intelligent autonomous systems are discussed and illustrated with many examples, mainly taken from the author's research experience.

  5. A conceptual framework for marine agronomy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Santelices

    1999-01-01

    Between the late 1960s and the early 1980s, several generations of phycologists in Hawaii and the Philippines, associated with M. S. Doty, contributed to developing a new approach, and to advance concepts in marine agronomy. This study reviews the approach and the main concepts contributed. Integrating these contributions with others, a basic conceptual framework for marine agronomy is presented.

  6. Compulsory Elective Theoretical Physics

    E-print Network

    Dutz, Hartmut

    Aug Sep Compulsory Elective Theoretical Physics (physics606 or - if done previously - 1 module out of physics751, physics754, physics755, physics760, physics7501) 7 cp Specialization (at least 24 cp out of physics61a, -61b, -61c and/or physics62a, -62b, -62c) 24 cp Elective Advanced Lectures (at least 18 cp out

  7. A Theoretical Trombone

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LoPresto, Michael C.

    2014-01-01

    What follows is a description of a theoretical model designed to calculate the playing frequencies of the musical pitches produced by a trombone. The model is based on quantitative treatments that demonstrate the effects of the flaring bell and cup-shaped mouthpiece sections on these frequencies and can be used to calculate frequencies that…

  8. Information-Theoretic Learning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jose C. Principe; Dongxin Xu; John W. Fisher

    This chapter seeks to extend the ubiquitous mean-square error criterion (MSE) to cost functions that include more information about the training data. Since the learning process ultimately should transfer the information carried in the data samples onto the system's parameters, a natural goal is to find cost functions that directly manipulate information. Hence the name information- theoretic learning (ITL). In

  9. Measuring user experience in digital gaming: theoretical and methodological issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takatalo, Jari; Häkkinen, Jukka; Kaistinen, Jyrki; Nyman, Göte

    2007-01-01

    There are innumerable concepts, terms and definitions for user experience. Few of them have a solid empirical foundation. In trying to understand user experience in interactive technologies such as computer games and virtual environments, reliable and valid concepts are needed for measuring relevant user reactions and experiences. Here we present our approach to create both theoretically and methodologically sound methods for quantification of the rich user experience in different digital environments. Our approach is based on the idea that the experience received from a content presented with a specific technology is always a result of a complex psychological interpretation process, which components should be understood. The main aim of our approach is to grasp the complex and multivariate nature of the experience and make it measurable. We will present our two basic measurement frameworks, which have been developed and tested in large data set (n=2182). The 15 measurement scales extracted from these models are applied to digital gaming with a head-mounted display and a table-top display. The results show how it is possible to map between experience, technology variables and the background of the user (e.g., gender). This approach can help to optimize, for example, the contents for specific viewing devices or viewing situations.

  10. Mount Apatite Park, Auburn, Maine

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This guide discusses the geology, mineralogy, and mineral collecting opportunities of the Mount Apatite quarries at Auburn, Maine. Topics include the history and occurrence of the granite pegmatites, which contain collectible specimens of apatite, tourmaline, lepidolite, and other minerals; the history of glaciation in the area; and the history of the mining industry in Auburn, an important producer of commercial feldspar in the early 1900s. There is also information for mineral collectors, including permission and access, directions, and information on the exposures and how to extract specimens from them. References and links to additonal information are included.

  11. Bald Mountain, Washington Plantation, Maine

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This guide provides information on the geology of Bald Mountain, an outstanding example of an unvegetated mountain summit in western Maine. Topics include the petrology of the metamorphic rocks exposed on the mountain (layered quartzite and schist), which preserve evidence of their sedimentary origin (graded bedding, cross-bedding). There is also information on the glacial history of the area, as indicated by the presence of glacial striations and erratics. For visitors, there is information on permission and access, directions, sampling information, and activities. References are included.

  12. Space Shuttle Main Engine. Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Eugene D.

    An overview of the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) is presented. The Space Shuttle propulsion system consists of two large solid booster motors, three SSME's, two orbital maneuvering system engines, and 44 reaction control system thrusters. The three SSME's burn liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen from the external tank and are sequentially started at launch. Engine thrust is throttleable. The major components and some of their key features and operational parameters are outlined. The life and reliability being achieved by the SSME are presented.

  13. TQM as a competitive factor : A theoretical and empirical analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ana Belén Escrig-Tena

    2004-01-01

    The influence of total quality management (TQM) on performance has been a prominent topic in numerous empirical studies, most of which have shown the relationships between the two concepts to be positive. Nevertheless, the empirical evidence is not always conclusive and, in general, there is no theoretical framework on which to base a solid argument that justifies these relationships. In

  14. Bibliographic Instruction and Mass Media News Literacy: A Theoretical Background.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dilevko, Juris

    1998-01-01

    Presents a theoretical framework for understanding mass media news influence; explores the concepts of agenda setting, priming, framing, asymmetrical selection, binary oppositionalism, and institutional hegemony in a survey of literature in journalism and communications; and outlines a teaching strategy that highlights one news event and compares…

  15. Organizational Design Principles and Techniques for Decision-Theoretic Agents

    E-print Network

    Durfee, Edmund H.

    Organizational Design Principles and Techniques for Decision-Theoretic Agents Jason Sleight precisely into exactly which parts of an agent's model should be organizationally influenced, and asserts be sanctioned to influence. We present a formal framework for specifying factored organizational influences

  16. A Theoretical Analysis of Cooperative Diversity in Wireless Sensor Networks

    E-print Network

    Adve, Raviraj

    the energy efficiency of large scale WSNs [2]­[5]. Multi-hop routing is necessary because nodes have. This paper presents a theoretical framework to model routing behavior and cooperative relay selection, using networks (WSNs) refer to a broad class of wireless networks consisting of small, inexpensive and energy

  17. A new graph-theoretic approach to clustering and segmentation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Massimiliano Pavan; Marcello Pelillo

    2003-01-01

    We develop a framework for the image segmentation problem based on a new graph-theoretic formulation of clustering. The approach is motivated by the analogies between the intuitive concept of a cluster and that of a dominant set of vertices, a notion that generalizes that of a maximal complete subgraph to edge-weighted graphs. We also establish a correspondence between dominant sets

  18. Graph-Theoretic Approach to Clustering and Segmentation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Massimiliano Pavan; Marcello Pelillo

    2003-01-01

    We develop a framework for the image segmentation problem based on a new graph-theoretic formulation of clustering. The approach is motivated by the analogies be- tween the intuitive concept of a cluster and that of a domi- nant set of vertices, a novel notion that generalizes that of a maximal complete subgraph to edge-weighted graphs. We also establish a correspondence

  19. The theoretical treatment of particle swarms. Final report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. D. Shelton; A. L. Arbuckle

    1979-01-01

    Particle swarms come into consideration when a group of independent particles move without collision in a force field such that a fluid Hamiltonian can be written to represent the motion. Typical problems from several fields are collected and united under a single theoretical framework. The fields include such problems as fragment distributions from an exploding warhead, micrometeoroid distributions in the

  20. Information-Theoretic Security Analysis of Physical Uncloneable Functions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pim Tuyls; Boris Skoric; S. Stallinga; Anton H. M. Akkermans; W. Ophey

    2005-01-01

    We propose a general theoretical framework to analyze the security of Physical Uncloneable Functions (PUFs). We apply the frame- work to optical PUFs. In particular we present a derivation, based on the physics governing multiple scattering processes, of the number of in- dependent challenge-response pairs supported by a PUF. We flnd that the number of independent challenge-response pairs is proportional

  1. Contradiction in Argumentation Frameworks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Jakobovits; D. Vermeir

    1996-01-01

    We present a theory of argumentation that can deal with contradiction within an argumentation framework, thus solving a problem posed in (1). By representing logic programs as sets of in- teracting arguments, we can apply our results for general argumentation frameworks to logic- programming semantics. This yields a new se- mantics for logic programs that properly extends traditional approaches such

  2. Preschool Curriculum Framework.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shasta County Office of Education, Redding, CA.

    Designed for use in curriculum development and as an instructional guide for preschool programs in Shasta County, California, this framework provides information on curriculum areas, developmental indicators, and appropriate activities at the preschool level. Specifically, this framework represents a resource for teachers, curriculum specialists,…

  3. Mach Scheduling Framework1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rob Haydt; Joseph CaraDonna; Franklin Reynolds

    The Mach scheduling subsystem provides the policies and mechanisms to schedule and control threads. This paper describes the Mach Scheduling Framework which restruc- tures the subsystem to separate the policies from mechanisms, supports multiple indepen- dent scheduling policies, and provides new functionality for real-time support in Mach. The Scheduling Framework is an evolution of the Mach 3 scheduling system. The

  4. The .NET Compact Framework

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Neable

    2002-01-01

    The .NET Compact Framework lets developers easily and efficiently build robust applications that call XML Web services, thereby letting end users effectively access remote data, cache it locally for use when offline, and interact with it via rich user interfaces. This paper highlights the .NET Compact Framework's design goals, sheds light on what the first version contains, and speculates on

  5. Electronic CAD frameworks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    DAVID S. HARRISON; A. RICHARD NEWTON; R. L. Spickelmier; T. J. Barnes

    1990-01-01

    The CAD framework, i.e. the underlying facilities provided to the CAD tool developer, the CAD system integrator, and the end-user (IC or system designer) to facilitate their tasks, is discussed. The development of the CAD framework concept in the domain of electronic circuit design is reviewed. The most important work in the area is briefly described. The major components of

  6. Oracle Media Server Framework

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew Laursen; Jeffrey Olkin; Mark Porter

    1995-01-01

    The oracle media server framework provides distributed object-oriented access to new media data and services over a wide range of client-server networks. This framework is built on the oracle media server which has complete support for all new media data types, including audio, video, images, and text; as well as the more conventional relational data types. Oracle media net provides

  7. Preparations and main results Some useful stuff

    E-print Network

    Neunhöffer, Max

    Preparations and main results Some useful stuff Proofs Kazhdan-Lusztig basis and Wedderburn and main results Some useful stuff Proofs Preparations Main results Setup Let W, S be a finite Coxeter and main results Some useful stuff Proofs Preparations Main results Main results I Proposition 1 : B := (Cd

  8. Missouri's Framework for Curriculum Development in Fine Arts K-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri State Dept. of Elementary and Secondary Education, Jefferson City.

    This K-12 framework focuses on educating students regarding the importance of fine arts in a global society and encourages the integration of all subject matter throughout the curriculum. The fine arts framework addresses what students in Missouri are expected to know and be able to do in the fine arts areas when they leave school. The main

  9. Engineering a common intermediate representation for the Ovm framework

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Krzysztof Palacz; Jason Baker; Chapman Flack; Christian Grothoff; Hiroshi Yamauchi; Jan Vitek

    2005-01-01

    The Ovm framework is a set of tools and components for building language runtimes. We present the common intermediate representation of this framework and software design patterns used throughout Ovm. One of the main themes in this work has been to support experimentation with new linguistic constructs and implementation techniques. To this end, Ovm components were designed to be parametric

  10. A Framework for Integrating Artificial Intelligence and Simulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Georgios I. Doukidis; Marios C. Angelides

    1994-01-01

    Both Simulation and Artificial Intelligence try to model reality for problem solving and decision making. In this paper, we propose a framework for integrating the two areas by uncovering fundamental similarities between them and opportunities for combining them which can be mutually useful. The framework also shows the potential gains for Simulation by applying Artificial Intelligence concepts (mainly expert systems)

  11. Framework for Alternate Execution of Workflows Under Threat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sohail Safdar; Mohd Fadzil Hassan; Muhammad Aasim Qureshi; Rehan Akbar

    2010-01-01

    The main objective of the research is to propose an execution framework for workflow systems under threat. When the threat (intrusion) is detected, the workflow system needs to be stopped immediately to avoid any possible loss of enterprise data. The system becomes active again, once it is completely recovered from the threat. This proposed framework overcomes the problem of discontinuity

  12. Parallel between two SAP Frameworks that use MVC paradigm

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. D. Cristea; A. D. Berdie; M. Osaci

    2010-01-01

    It is usually said that the two SAP Frameworks (Web Dynpro ABAP and Web Dynpro Java) used to develop “state of the art” web business applications have more or less the same functionalities. The purpose of the present paper is to present the main differences and similarities between these two SAP frameworks, highlighting, in the same time, the premises of

  13. Measurement of the main parameters of the RT70 antenna

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. M. Aslanian; A. G. Gulian; A. N. Kozlov; V. B. Tarasov; R. M. Martirosian; V. A. Grishmanovskii; B. G. Sergeev

    1984-01-01

    Measurements of the main electrical characteristics of the RT-70 radio-telescope antenna (a two-reflector quasi-parabolic Gregory system) were made at wavelengths of 3, 5, 6, and 40 cm using a radio-astronomical technique. Expressions for the elevation-angle dependences of the antenna characteristics are obtained on the basis of the least squares method. Good agreement between experimental and theoretical results is shown. Gravitational

  14. Online Auctions: Theoretical and Empirical Investigations

    E-print Network

    Zhang, Yu

    2010-10-12

    assuming risk neutral or CARA risk averse. The main findings are as follows. If the seller sets the BIN price less than the maximum certainty equivalent payment, there exists a unique equilibrium cutoff for the early bidders to accept the BIN price as long... auctions assume that the bidder utility functions are in special forms such as linear functions and CARA utility functions, our theoretical results are derived with general concave utilty functions. We establish the existence and uniqueness of a cutoff...

  15. Bedrock Geologic Map of Maine

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    In this activity students study a map of bedrock geology which describes the types of rocks that exist in a given area. It shows these rock units as well as their known and inferred contacts. Consideration is also given to folding, faulting, unconformities, and similar rock relationships. These features are often included in bedrock geology maps. Students study the legend and scale and become aware of the other information that is included on the map such as the stratigraphic column, list of formations, and inset map of metamorphic grade. Students then locate their city or town and draw a 40-mile diameter circle around it and identify all the symbols inside the circle and the age of the various rocks. Student question sheets are available at this site. Although this activity was written for a map of Maine, it will work in any state where geological maps are available.

  16. Space shuttle main engine controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mattox, R. M.; White, J. B.

    1981-01-01

    A technical description of the space shuttle main engine controller, which provides engine checkout prior to launch, engine control and monitoring during launch, and engine safety and monitoring in orbit, is presented. Each of the major controller subassemblies, the central processing unit, the computer interface electronics, the input electronics, the output electronics, and the power supplies are described and discussed in detail along with engine and orbiter interfaces and operational requirements. The controller represents a unique application of digital concepts, techniques, and technology in monitoring, managing, and controlling a high performance rocket engine propulsion system. The operational requirements placed on the controller, the extremely harsh operating environment to which it is exposed, and the reliability demanded, result in the most complex and rugged digital system ever designed, fabricated, and flown.

  17. Decision-Theoretic Troubleshooting

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John S. Breese; David Heckerman

    1999-01-01

    We describe a decision-theoretic methodology for case-based reasoning in diagnosis and troubleshooting applications. The system utilizes a special-structure Bayesian network to represent diagnostic cases, with nodes representing issues, causes, and symptoms. Dirichlet distributions are assessed at knowledge acquisition time to indicate the strength of relationships between variables. During a diagnosis session, a relevant subnetwork is extracted from a Bayesian-network database

  18. Strategies comparison for game theoretic cyber situational awareness and impact assessment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dan Shen; Genshe Chen; Leonard Haynes; Erik Blasch

    2007-01-01

    This paper compares different defense strategies against various attacks utilizing a dynamic game theoretic data fusion framework for Cyber network defense. In our game theoretic framework, alerts generated by intrusion detection sensors (IDSs) or intrusion prevention sensors (IPSs) are fed into the data refinement (Level 0) and object assessment (LI) data fusion components. High-level situation\\/threat assessment (L2\\/L3) data fusion based

  19. Effective virtual new product development teams: an integrated framework

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vishag Badrinarayanan; Dennis B. Arnett

    2008-01-01

    Purpose – Research on virtual teams is still in its nascent stages. The purpose of this paper is to develop a theoretically grounded integrative framework of key factors influencing the effectiveness of virtual new product development teams. \\u000d\\u000a\\u000d\\u000aDesign\\/methodology\\/approach – The framework is developed by integrating perspectives from several research streams, including relationship marketing, new product development, knowledge management, the resource-based

  20. GASP- General Aviation Synthesis Program. Volume 1: Main program. Part 1: Theoretical development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hague, D.

    1978-01-01

    The General Aviation synthesis program performs tasks generally associated with aircraft preliminary design and allows an analyst the capability of performing parametric studies in a rapid manner. GASP emphasizes small fixed-wing aircraft employing propulsion systems varying froma single piston engine with fixed pitch propeller through twin turboprop/ turbofan powered business or transport type aircraft. The program, which may be operated from a computer terminal in either the batch or interactive graphic mode, is comprised of modules representing the various technical disciplines integrated into a computational flow which ensures that the interacting effects of design variables are continuously accounted for in the aircraft sizing procedure. The model is a useful tool for comparing configurations, assessing aircraft performance and economics, performing tradeoff and sensitivity studies, and assessing the impact of advanced technologies on aircraft performance and economics.

  1. Argumentation in Science Education: A Model-based Framework

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Florian Böttcher; Anke Meisert

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this article is threefold: First, the theoretical background for a model-based framework of argumentation to describe\\u000a and evaluate argumentative processes in science education is presented. Based on the general model-based perspective in cognitive\\u000a science and the philosophy of science, it is proposed to understand arguments as reasons for the appropriateness of a theoretical\\u000a model which explains a

  2. Dravet syndrome: the main issues.

    PubMed

    Guerrini, Renzo

    2012-09-01

    Dravet syndrome (DS) is a severe form of infantile onset epilepsy characterized by multiple seizure types, prolonged convulsive seizures and frequent episodes of status epilepticus. Seizures precipitated by fever are a main characteristic. Affected children exhibit normal early development. Cognitive impairment, behavioral disturbances with hyperactivity and sometimes autistic traits occur after seizure onset. Seizures persist into adulthood but become less frequent. In about 85% of patients, a mutation of the SCN1A gene is present. DS fully illustrates the concept of epileptic encephalopathy. However, it is difficult to determine the causative role of the underlying sodium channel dysfunction and that of the consequent seizures in influencing cognitive outcome. An overwhelmingly high number of SCN1A mutations have been associated with DS. Intragenic or whole gene deletions, duplications and amplifications are additional rare molecular mechanisms. Most mutations are de novo, but familial mutations also occur. Somatic mosaic mutations should be considered when estimating the recurrence. MRI imaging is usually normal, and no neuropathologic signature of the condition seems to exist. In heterozygous Scn1a+/- mice, GABAergic interneurons exhibit substantially reduced sodium current density with reduced ability for sustained action potential firing. GABAergic output is reduced and excitability of downstream synaptic targets increased. Stiripentol was effective in combination with valproate and clobazam in two pivotal phase III trials. Phenytoin, carbamazepine, and lamotrigine can worsen seizures and should be avoided. Prospective studies will clarify to what extent earlier diagnosis and efforts at seizure control with the most appropriate drug combinations will reduce clinical deterioration. PMID:22705271

  3. Main memory unit. [hybrid computers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The development of a main memory unit (MMU) for the space ultrareliable module computer (SUMC) model HTC is discussed. The design, fabrication, and test of basic memory modules (BMM) which were to be used in the design and construction of the MMU are described. The BMM was designed from state-of-the-art technologies which included large scale integration devices mounted and interconnected on a substrate to form a functional module to be utilized in the MMU development. A SUMC memory system design study is discussed which addressed itself to the BMM design and analysis to be conducted to determine the most efficient organization of the BMM in order to establish such modularity features as: word length expandability without redesign, high reliability, and fault tolerance. One MMU was designed, fabricated, tested, and delivered which will be electrical and mechanically compatible with the hybrid technology computer (HTC) model of the SUMC family of computers. The MMU will contain a storage capacity of 8196 36 bit words which includes a parity bit for each 8 bit byte of data.

  4. Main Dangers of Our Times.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Synek, Miroslav

    2003-03-01

    Terrorism and threatening dictatorships are the main, man-made, dangers of our times. They are run by master demagogues, or, brain-washing manipulators. ----- Our next step in coping with terrorism is to counter master demagoguery. Therefore, supporting EDUCATION that would emphasize the most unifying (and the least controversial), yet, BASIC CIVIC RESPECT for lives of people in a civilian human society, is a priority everywhere on our planet. ----- At the same time we start facing mostly small, threatening, dictatorships, capable of producing weapons of mass destruction. Therefore, we have to try to contribute to developing systems of FREE ELECTIONS, controlling weapons of mass destruction, wherever such dangers exist. ----- In a foreseeable future, unfortunately, we are facing a danger even by orders of magnitude greater. We are facing a possibility of a mass-produced heavy accumulation of inter-continental nuclear missiles, on a computerized "push-button" control, by a very powerful (and, quite possibly, miscalculating, or, suicidal) dictator, dangerous to the very existence of humanity on our planet. Therefore, it is a historical urgency that such a technological power be under the control by a government of the people, by the people and for the people, based on a sufficiently reliable system of FREE ELECTIONS, wherever, on our planet, such a potential danger may originate.

  5. 75 FR 27863 - Savings Bank of Maine, MHC and Savings Bank of Maine, Gardiner, Maine; Approval of Conversion...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-18

    ...TREASURY Office of Thrift Supervision [AC-38: OTS Nos. 06947 and H 4709] Savings Bank of Maine, MHC and Savings Bank of Maine, Gardiner, Maine; Approval of Conversion Application Notice is hereby given that on May 7, 2010, the...

  6. Cybersecurity Framework Development Overview

    E-print Network

    Bentz, Dale P.

    Cybersecurity Framework Development Overview NIST's Role in Implementing Executive Order 13636 "Improving Critical Infrastructure Cybersecurity" #12;Executive Order 13636: Improving Critical Infrastructure Cybersecurity - February 12, 2013 "The cyber threat to critical infrastructure continues to grow

  7. European Vocational Training "Systems"--Some Thoughts on the Theoretical Context of Their Historical Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greinert, Wolf-Dietrich

    2004-01-01

    There are few long-term studies in which the development of vocational education and training (VET) is placed in a larger societal framework. Consequently, there is limited understanding as to why VET has evolved quite differently even in countries with similar economic and social development. In his reflections on a possible theoretical framework

  8. Spring MVC Framework

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gary Mak

    \\u000a In this chapter, you will learn web-based application development using the Spring MVC framework. Spring MVC is one of the\\u000a most important modules of the Spring framework. It builds on the powerful Spring IoC container and makes extensive use of\\u000a the container features to simplify its configuration. Most Spring MVC configurations are written in bean configuration files.

  9. Inverse Spectral Problem Proof of Main Result

    E-print Network

    Stanhope, Liz

    Inverse Spectral Problem Proof of Main Result Geodesics on Weighted Projective Spaces Zuoqin Wang of Main Result Inverse Spectral Geometry Main Result Inverse Spectral Geometry Manifold setting: (M, g Proof of Main Result Inverse Spectral Geometry Main Result Inverse Spectral Geometry Manifold setting

  10. Mapping and monitoring potato cropping systems in Maine: geospatial methods and land use assessments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Geospatial frameworks and GIS-based approaches were used to assess current cropping practices in potato production systems in Maine. Results from the geospatial integration of remotely-sensed cropland layers (2008-2011) and soil datasets for Maine revealed a four-year potato systems footprint estima...

  11. A Box Particle Filter for Stochastic and Set-theoretic Measurements with Association

    E-print Network

    Mihaylova, Lyudmila

    measurements with association uncertainty. The optimal theoretical solution can be formulated in the framework of random set theory as the Bernoulli filter for interval measurements. The straightforward particle filter to as the set-theoretic uncertainty [3], vagueness [4] or imprecision [5]. The importance and distinctness

  12. The system management approach of biological weed control: Some theoretical considerations and aspects of application

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Frantzen; N. D. Paul; H. Müller-schärer

    2001-01-01

    Theoretical considerations behind the system management approach of biological weed control are presented. These include, a part describing and explaining the effects of parasitic fungi on crop – weed competition, a part describing and explaining the epidemic spread of parasitic fungi on weeds, and a part relating crop – weed competition at the population level to epidemics. The theoretical framework

  13. Some New Theoretical Issues in Systems Thinking Relevant for Modelling Corporate Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minati, Gianfranco

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to describe fundamental concepts and theoretical challenges with regard to systems, and to build on these in proposing new theoretical frameworks relevant to learning, for example in so-called learning organizations. Design/methodology/approach: The paper focuses on some crucial fundamental aspects introduced…

  14. Theoretical and Empirical Analysis of the Multiperiod Pricing Pattern in the Real Estate Market

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Danny Ben-Shahar

    2002-01-01

    We examine empirically and theoretically the multiperiod pricing pattern in the real estate market. First, in a game theoretic framework, we identify conditions for determining whether potential closing prices increase or decrease and marginally increase with time on market. Then, by observing rental housing transactions, we empirically find evidence that the difference between the list price and the settlement price

  15. 21 CFR 808.69 - Maine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Maine. 808.69 Section 808.69 Food and Drugs...Specific State and Local Exemptions § 808.69 Maine. (a) The following Maine medical device requirement is enforceable...

  16. 75 FR 22167 - Maine Disaster #ME-00025

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-27

    ...Disaster Declaration 12126 and 12127] Maine Disaster ME-00025 AGENCY: U.S...declaration of a disaster for the State of MAINE dated 04/19/2010. Incident: Severe...Counties: York. Contiguous Counties: Maine: Cumberland, Oxford. New...

  17. 78 FR 34701 - Maine Disaster #ME-00036

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-10

    ...Disaster Declaration 13592 and 13593] Maine Disaster ME-00036 AGENCY: U.S...declaration of a disaster for the State of Maine dated 05/30/2013. Incident: Apartment...Androscoggin. Contiguous Counties: Maine: Cumberland, Franklin, Kennebec,...

  18. 21 CFR 808.69 - Maine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Maine. 808.69 Section 808.69 Food and Drugs...Specific State and Local Exemptions § 808.69 Maine. (a) The following Maine medical device requirement is enforceable...

  19. 21 CFR 808.69 - Maine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Maine. 808.69 Section 808.69 Food and Drugs...Specific State and Local Exemptions § 808.69 Maine. (a) The following Maine medical device requirement is enforceable...

  20. 21 CFR 808.69 - Maine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Maine. 808.69 Section 808.69 Food and Drugs...Specific State and Local Exemptions § 808.69 Maine. (a) The following Maine medical device requirement is enforceable...

  1. Dark matter: theoretical perspectives.

    PubMed Central

    Turner, M S

    1993-01-01

    I both review and make the case for the current theoretical prejudice: a flat Universe whose dominant constituent is nonbaryonic dark matter, emphasizing that this is still a prejudice and not yet fact. The theoretical motivation for nonbaryonic dark matter is discussed in the context of current elementary-particle theory, stressing that (i) there are no dark-matter candidates within the "standard model" of particle physics, (ii) there are several compelling candidates within attractive extensions of the standard model of particle physics, and (iii) the motivation for these compelling candidates comes first and foremost from particle physics. The dark-matter problem is now a pressing issue in both cosmology and particle physics, and the detection of particle dark matter would provide evidence for "new physics." The compelling candidates are a very light axion (10(-6)-10(-4) eV), a light neutrino (20-90 eV), and a heavy neutralino (10 GeV-2 TeV). The production of these particles in the early Universe and the prospects for their detection are also discussed. I briefly mention more exotic possibilities for the dark matter, including a nonzero cosmological constant, superheavy magnetic monopoles, and decaying neutrinos. PMID:11607395

  2. Dark matter: Theoretical perspectives

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, M.S. [Chicago Univ., IL (United States). Enrico Fermi Inst.]|[Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (United States)

    1993-01-01

    I both review and make the case for the current theoretical prejudice: a flat Universe whose dominant constituent is nonbaryonic dark matter, emphasizing that this is still a prejudice and not yet fact. The theoretical motivation for nonbaryonic dark matter is discussed in the context of current elementary-particle theory, stressing that: (1) there are no dark matter candidates within the standard model of particle physics; (2) there are several compelling candidates within attractive extensions of the standard model of particle physics; and (3) the motivation for these compelling candidates comes first and foremost from particle physics. The dark-matter problem is now a pressing issue in both cosmology and particle physics, and the detection of particle dark matter would provide evidence for ``new physics.`` The compelling candidates are: a very light axion ( 10{sup {minus}6} eV--10{sup {minus}4} eV); a light neutrino (20 eV--90 eV); and a heavy neutralino (10 GeV--2 TeV). The production of these particles in the early Universe and the prospects for their detection are also discussed. I briefly mention more exotic possibilities for the dark matter, including a nonzero cosmological constant, superheavy magnetic monopoles, and decaying neutrinos.

  3. Theoretical resources for a globalised bioethics.

    PubMed

    Verkerk, Marian A; Lindemann, Hilde

    2011-02-01

    In an age of global capitalism, pandemics, far-flung biobanks, multinational drug trials and telemedicine it is impossible for bioethicists to ignore the global dimensions of their field. However, if they are to do good work on the issues that globalisation requires of them, they need theoretical resources that are up to the task. This paper identifies four distinct understandings of 'globalised' in the bioethics literature: (1) a focus on global issues; (2) an attempt to develop a universal ethical theory that can transcend cultural differences; (3) an awareness of how bioethics itself has expanded, with new centres and journals emerging in nearly every corner of the globe; (4) a concern to avoid cultural imperialism in encounters with other societies. Each of these approaches to globalisation has some merit, as will be shown. The difficulty with them is that the standard theoretical tools on which they rely are not designed for cross-cultural ethical reflection. As a result, they leave important considerations hidden. A set of theoretical resources is proposed to deal with the moral puzzles of globalisation. Abandoning idealised moral theory, a normative framework is developed that is sensitive enough to account for differences without losing the broader context in which ethical issues arise. An empirically nourished, self-reflexive, socially inquisitive, politically critical and inclusive ethics allows bioethicists the flexibility they need to pick up on the morally relevant particulars of this situation here without losing sight of the broader cultural contexts in which it all takes place. PMID:21109698

  4. Testing modeling frameworks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, Mary; Ye, Ming; Foglia, Laura; Lu, Dan

    2015-04-01

    Modeling frameworks include many ideas about, for example, how to parameterize models, conduct sensitivity analysis (including identifying observations and parameters important to calibration and prediction), quantify uncertainty, and so on. Of concern in this talk is meaningful testing of how ideas proposed for any modeling framework perform. The design of meaningful tests depends on the aspect of the framework being tested and the timing of system dynamics. Consider a situation in which the aspect being tested is prediction accuracy and the quantities of concern are readily measured and change quickly, such as for precipitation, floods, or hurricanes. In such cases meaningful tests involve comparing simulated and measured values and tests can be conducted daily, hourly or even more frequently. Though often challenged by measurement difficulties, this remains the simplest circumstance for conducting meaningful tests of modeling frameworks. If measurements are not readily available and(or) the system responds to changes over decades or centuries, as generally occurs for climate change, saltwater intrusion of groundwater systems, and dewatering of aquifers, prediction accuracy needs to be evaluated in other ways. Often these require high performance computing. For example, complex and simple models can be compared or cross-validation experiments can be conducted. Both can require massive computational resources for any but the simplest of problems. Testing other aspects of a modeling framework can require different types of tests. For example, testing methods of identifying observations or parameters important to model calibration or predictions might entail evaluation of many circumstances for methods that are themselves commonly computationally demanding. Again, high performance computing is needed even when the goal is to include computationally frugal methods in the modeling framework. In this talk we discuss the importance of such testing, stress the need to design and implement tests when any modeling framework is developed, and provide examples of tests from several recent publications.

  5. Theoretical Approach to Mode Identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzik, Joyce Ann

    Mode identification in pulsating stars is challenging because the modes that are predicted to be excited and visible are not all observed, and because sometimes modes that are not expected are observed. In principle, finding rotationally split multiplets can assist mode identification, but often not all of the components are observed, and rapid and differential rotation complicates the interpretation. Other challenges include distinguishing pulsations from star spots, identifying frequencies that are linear combinations of other (perhaps invisible) intrinsic modes, mode coupling, and variable mode amplitudes and frequencies. For brighter stars and modes with high signal-to-noise, spectroscopic and photometric techniques have had some success in separating l = 0, 1 and 2 modes and in identifying the azimuthal orders. The nearly equal frequency (period) spacings for high order p- (g-) mode pulsators expected from asymptotic theory can guide mode identifications. We review theoretical expectations for pulsation mode driving and damping, focusing on main-sequence variables, and compare with observational examples. Insights into mode selection and amplitudes may be possible by examining the energy partition between various processes in these stars and their contributions to driving and damping of the oscillation modes. Future progress will require two- and three-dimensional stellar models and nonadiabatic, nonlinear, and nonradial pulsation modeling.

  6. Theoretical Particle Astrophysics

    SciTech Connect

    Kamionkowski, Marc

    2013-08-07

    Abstract: Theoretical Particle Astrophysics The research carried out under this grant encompassed work on the early Universe, dark matter, and dark energy. We developed CMB probes for primordial baryon inhomogeneities, primordial non-Gaussianity, cosmic birefringence, gravitational lensing by density perturbations and gravitational waves, and departures from statistical isotropy. We studied the detectability of wiggles in the inflation potential in string-inspired inflation models. We studied novel dark-matter candidates and their phenomenology. This work helped advance the DoE's Cosmic Frontier (and also Energy and Intensity Frontiers) by finding synergies between a variety of different experimental efforts, by developing new searches, science targets, and analyses for existing/forthcoming experiments, and by generating ideas for new next-generation experiments.

  7. Theoretical Leonid entry modeling

    SciTech Connect

    ReVelle, D. O. (Douglas O.)

    2001-01-01

    In this work we present a model originally developed by ReVelle (1979, 1993) that has been applied to model large Leonid bolides with a few relatively minor modifications and one major modification which allows for catastrophic 'pancake: fragmentation processes as described below. The minor modifications include allowing the energy of ablation per unit mass for vaporization, Qvap, to be a free variable that is adjusted until agreement is obtained between the theoretical model and the statistically expected ablation coefficient for the Leonids (Group IIIB type bolide). It was found that the Qvap had to be reduced by a factor of about five times compared to the accepted value of Qvap for cometary materials. Alternative ways of achieving this degree of agreement between theory and observations are also suggested as well. In a separate paper we apply this model to a specific Leonid bolide during the 1998 storm period.

  8. A Unified Framework for Monetary Theory and Policy Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lagos, Ricardo; Wright, Randall

    2005-01-01

    Search-theoretic models of monetary exchange are based on explicit descriptions of the frictions that make money essential. However, tractable versions of these models typically make strong assumptions that render them ill suited for monetary policy analysis. We propose a new framework, based on explicit micro foundations, within which macro…

  9. A framework for implementing TQM in higher education programs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sitalakshmi Venkatraman

    2007-01-01

    Purpose – This paper aims to provide a TQM framework that stresses continuous improvements in teaching as a plausible means of TQM implementation in higher education programs. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The literature survey of the TQM philosophies and the comparative analysis of TQM adoption in industry versus higher education provide the theoretical and practical background for this work. The analysis of

  10. Dimensions of Spirituality: A Framework for Adult Educators

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tara J. Fenwick; Leona M. English

    2004-01-01

    This paper claims that although spirituality is increasingly featured in adult education literature, much is either descriptive or enthusiastically prescriptive. A rather wild eclecticism currently prevails. As educators we lack robust theoretical tools to help illuminate wide variation among spiritual orientations, each with different fundamental beliefs and values. The paper presents a framework comprising eight dimensions of spirituality, as a

  11. A Composite Framework for Behavioral Compliance with Information Security Policies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Salvatore Aurigemma; Raymond Panko

    2012-01-01

    To combat potential security threats, organizations rely upon information security policies to guide employee actions. Unfortunately, employee violations of such policies are common and costly enough that users are often considered the weakest link in information security. This paper presents a composite theoretical framework for understanding employee behavioral compliance with organizational information security policies. Building off of the theory of

  12. Mountaineering adventure tourists: a conceptual framework for research

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gill Pomfret

    2006-01-01

    Mountaineering has emerged as a popular form of adventure tourism, yet there is scant research that develops an understanding of its participants. This paper contributes to a theoretical understanding of mountaineer adventure tourists by evaluating previous work on mountaineering, mountaineers, adventure, recreation and tourism. It uses this to develop a conceptual framework to examine mountaineer adventure tourists, the key influences

  13. Board Governance of Independent Schools: A Framework for Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormick, John; Barnett, Kerry; Alavi, Seyyed Babak; Newcombe, Geoffrey

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: This paper develops a theoretical framework to guide future inquiry into board governance of independent schools. Design/methodology/approach: The authors' approach is to integrate literatures related to corporate and educational boards, motivation, leadership and group processes that are appropriate for conceptualizing independent school…

  14. School Violence Assessment: A Conceptual Framework, Instruments, and Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benbenishty, Rami; Astor, Ron Avi; Estrada, Joey Nunez

    2008-01-01

    This article outlines a philosophical and theoretical framework for conducting school violence assessments at the local level. The authors advocate that assessments employ a strong conceptual foundation based on social work values. These values include the active measurement of ecological factors inside and outside the school that reflect the…

  15. Fair Bandwidth Sharing Algorithms based on Game Theory Frameworks for Wireless Ad-hoc Networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zuyuan Fang; Brahiin Bensaou

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines the theoretical aspects of bandwidth sharing in wireless, possibly mobile, ad-hoc networks (MANETs) through a game theoretic framework. It presents some applications to show how such a framework can be invoked to design efficient media access control protocols in a non- cooperative, self-organized, topology-blind environment as well as in environments where the competing nodes share some basic

  16. Hydrogen storage inside graphene-oxide frameworks.

    PubMed

    Chan, Yue; Hill, James M

    2011-07-29

    In this paper, we use applied mathematical modelling to investigate the storage of hydrogen molecules inside graphene-oxide frameworks, which comprise two parallel graphenes rigidly separated by perpendicular ligands. Hydrogen uptake is calculated for graphene-oxide frameworks using the continuous approximation and an equation of state for both the bulk and adsorption gas phases. We first validate our approach by obtaining results for two parallel graphene sheets. This result agrees well with an existing theoretical result, namely 1.85 wt% from our calculations, and 2 wt% arising from an ab initio and grand canonical Monte Carlo calculation. This provides confidence to the determination of the hydrogen uptake for the four graphene-oxide frameworks, GOF-120, GOF-66, GOF-28 and GOF-6, and we obtain 1.68, 2, 6.33 and 0 wt%, respectively. The high value obtained for GOF-28 may be partly explained by the fact that the benzenediboronic acid pillars between graphene sheets not only provide mechanical support and porous spaces for the molecular structure but also provide the higher binding energy to enhance the hydrogen storage inside graphene-oxide frameworks. For the other three structures, this binding energy is not as large in comparison to that of GOF-28 and this effect diminishes as the ligand density decreases. In the absence of conflicting data, the present work indicates GOF-28 as a likely contender for practical hydrogen storage. PMID:21719967

  17. Hydrogen storage inside graphene-oxide frameworks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Yue; Hill, James M.

    2011-07-01

    In this paper, we use applied mathematical modelling to investigate the storage of hydrogen molecules inside graphene-oxide frameworks, which comprise two parallel graphenes rigidly separated by perpendicular ligands. Hydrogen uptake is calculated for graphene-oxide frameworks using the continuous approximation and an equation of state for both the bulk and adsorption gas phases. We first validate our approach by obtaining results for two parallel graphene sheets. This result agrees well with an existing theoretical result, namely 1.85 wt% from our calculations, and 2 wt% arising from an ab initio and grand canonical Monte Carlo calculation. This provides confidence to the determination of the hydrogen uptake for the four graphene-oxide frameworks, GOF-120, GOF-66, GOF-28 and GOF-6, and we obtain 1.68, 2, 6.33 and 0 wt%, respectively. The high value obtained for GOF-28 may be partly explained by the fact that the benzenediboronic acid pillars between graphene sheets not only provide mechanical support and porous spaces for the molecular structure but also provide the higher binding energy to enhance the hydrogen storage inside graphene-oxide frameworks. For the other three structures, this binding energy is not as large in comparison to that of GOF-28 and this effect diminishes as the ligand density decreases. In the absence of conflicting data, the present work indicates GOF-28 as a likely contender for practical hydrogen storage.

  18. MAIN THEOREM OF COMPLEX MULTIPLICATION BRIAN CONRAD

    E-print Network

    Conrad, Brian

    MAIN THEOREM OF COMPLEX MULTIPLICATION BRIAN CONRAD In [S, Ch. IV, §18] the Main Theorem of complex and abelian varieties. The aim of the Main Theorem is as follows. Let (A, i) be an abelian variety over Q Galois automorphisms. In these notes, we give a complete proof of the Main Theorem of complex

  19. Implementation techniques for main memory database systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David J DeWitt; Randy H Katz; Frank Olken; Leonard D Shapiro; Michael R Stonebraker; David A. Wood

    1984-01-01

    With the availability of very large, relatively inexpensive main memories, it is becoming possible keep large databases resident in main memory In this paper we consider the changes necessary to permit a relational database system to take advantage of large amounts of main memory We evaluate AVL vs B+-tree access methods for main memory databases, hash-based query processing strategies vs

  20. A Novel Framework for Building Distributed Data Acquisition and Monitoring Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vu Van Tan; Dae-seung Yoo; Myeong-jae Yi

    2007-01-01

    We propose a novel framework for building a distributed data acquisition and monitoring system. Our novel framework is mainly based on XML leverages and OPC (Openness, Productivity, and Connectivity) techni- ques. Correspondingly, our framework-based system allows easily aggregating more than the hundreds or thousands of the existing OPC DA (Data Access) products in use today with new OPC XML-DA products

  1. GiPSi: An Open Source\\/Open Architecture Software Development Framework for Surgical Simulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tolga Gokce Goktekin; Murat Cenk Cavusoglu; Frank Tendick; Shankar Sastry

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we propose an open source\\/open architecture framework for developing organ level surgical simulations. Our goal is to facilitate shared development of reusable models, to accommodate heterogeneous models of computation, and to provide a framework for interfacing multiple heterogeneous models. The framework provides an intuitive API for interfacing dynamic models defined over spatial do- mains. It is specifically

  2. A Framework for Rapid Development and Portable Execution of Packet-Handling Applications

    E-print Network

    Baldi, Mario

    .) on different hardware platforms. This framework is centered on the NetVM -- a novel, portable, and efficient framework is centered on the Network Virtual Machine (NetVM) that aims at combin- ing high performance of the proposed framework whose main component, the NetVM, is briefly described in Section IV. The Network

  3. Amorphous metal-organic frameworks.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Thomas D; Cheetham, Anthony K

    2014-05-20

    Crystalline metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are porous frameworks comprising an infinite array of metal nodes connected by organic linkers. The number of novel MOF structures reported per year is now in excess of 6000, despite significant increases in the complexity of both component units and molecular networks. Their regularly repeating structures give rise to chemically variable porous architectures, which have been studied extensively due to their sorption and separation potential. More recently, catalytic applications have been proposed that make use of their chemical tunability, while reports of negative linear compressibility and negative thermal expansion have further expanded interest in the field. Amorphous metal-organic frameworks (aMOFs) retain the basic building blocks and connectivity of their crystalline counterparts, though they lack any long-range periodic order. Aperiodic arrangements of atoms result in their X-ray diffraction patterns being dominated by broad "humps" caused by diffuse scattering and thus they are largely indistinguishable from one another. Amorphous MOFs offer many exciting opportunities for practical application, either as novel functional materials themselves or facilitating other processes, though the domain is largely unexplored (total aMOF reported structures amounting to under 30). Specifically, the use of crystalline MOFs to detect harmful guest species before subsequent stress-induced collapse and guest immobilization is of considerable interest, while functional luminescent and optically active glass-like materials may also be prepared in this manner. The ion transporting capacity of crystalline MOFs might be improved during partial structural collapse, while there are possibilities of preparing superstrong glasses and hybrid liquids during thermal amorphization. The tuning of release times of MOF drug delivery vehicles by partial structural collapse may be possible, and aMOFs are often more mechanically robust than crystalline materials, which is of importance for industrial applications. In this Account, we describe the preparation of aMOFs by introduction of disorder into their parent crystalline frameworks through heating, pressure (both hydrostatic and nonhydrostatic), and ball-milling. The main method of characterizing these amorphous materials (analysis of the pair distribution function) is summarized, alongside complementary techniques such as Raman spectroscopy. Detailed investigations into their properties (both chemical and mechanical) are compiled and compared with those of crystalline MOFs, while the impact of the field on the processing techniques used for crystalline MOF powders is also assessed. Crucially, the benefits amorphization may bring to existing proposed MOF applications are detailed, alongside the possibilities and research directions afforded by the combination of the unique properties of the amorphous domain with the versatility of MOF chemistry. PMID:24707980

  4. Conceptual frameworks and empirical approaches used to assess the impact of health research: an overview of reviews

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background How to assess the impact of research is of growing interest to funders, policy makers and researchers mainly to understand the value of investments and to increase accountability. Broadly speaking the term "research impact" refers to the contribution of research activities to achieve desired societal outcomes. The aim of this overview is to identify the most common approaches to research impact assessment, categories of impact and their respective indicators. Methods We systematically searched the relevant literature (PubMed, The Cochrane Library (1990-2009)) and funding agency websites. We included systematic reviews, theoretical and methodological papers, and empirical case-studies on how to evaluate research impact. We qualitatively summarised the included reports, as well the conceptual frameworks. Results We identified twenty-two reports belonging to four systematic reviews and 14 primary studies. These publications reported several theoretical frameworks and methodological approaches (bibliometrics, econometrics, ad hoc case studies). The "payback model" emerged as the most frequently used. Five broad categories of impact were identified: a) advancing knowledge, b) capacity building, c) informing decision-making, d) health benefits, e) broad socio-economic benefits. For each proposed category of impact we summarized a set of indicators whose pros and cons are presented and briefly discussed. Conclusions This overview is a comprehensive, yet descriptive, contribution to summarize the conceptual framework and taxonomy of an heterogeneous and evolving area of research. A shared and comprehensive conceptual framework does not seem to be available yet and its single components (epidemiologic, economic, and social) are often valued differently in different models. PMID:21702930

  5. PROXIMITY SERVICES WITH THE NIMBUS FRAMEWORK

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas Hadig; Jörg Roth

    Location-based applications and services are getting increasingly important for mobile users. They take into account a mobile user's current location and provide location-dependent output. Currently, location-based applications are mainly provided by mobile phone networks, but we can generalize the idea to other usage scenarios. To support developers of such services, we designed the Nimbus framework, which hides specific details of

  6. A future radio-access framework

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Astely; Erik Dahlman; Pål K. Frenger; Reiner Ludwig; Michael Meyer; Stefan Parkvall; Per Skillermark; Niclas Wiberg

    2006-01-01

    Abstract—This paper discusses the requirements on future radio access and, based on the requirements, proposes a framework for such a system. The proposed system based on orthogonal fre- quency-division multiplexing supports very low latencies and data rates up to 100 Mb\\/s with wide area coverage and 1 Gb\\/s with local area coverage. Spectrum flexibility is identified as one main re-

  7. Multimedia content description framework

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bergman, Lawrence David (Inventor); Kim, Michelle Yoonk Yung (Inventor); Li, Chung-Sheng (Inventor); Mohan, Rakesh (Inventor); Smith, John Richard (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A framework is provided for describing multimedia content and a system in which a plurality of multimedia storage devices employing the content description methods of the present invention can interoperate. In accordance with one form of the present invention, the content description framework is a description scheme (DS) for describing streams or aggregations of multimedia objects, which may comprise audio, images, video, text, time series, and various other modalities. This description scheme can accommodate an essentially limitless number of descriptors in terms of features, semantics or metadata, and facilitate content-based search, index, and retrieval, among other capabilities, for both streamed or aggregated multimedia objects.

  8. Java online monitoring framework

    SciTech Connect

    Ronan, M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (US); Kirkby, D.; Johnson, A.S.; Groot, D. de [Stanford Univ., CA (US)

    1997-10-01

    An online monitoring framework has been written in the Java Language Environment to develop applications for monitoring special purpose detectors during commissioning of the PEP-II Interaction Region. PEP-II machine parameters and signals from several of the commissioning detectors are logged through VxWorks/EPICS and displayed by Java display applications. Remote clients are able to monitor the machine and detector performance using graphical displays and analysis histogram packages. In this paper, the design and implementation of the object-oriented Java framework is described. Illustrations of data acquisition, display and histograming applications are also given.

  9. Framework for Physics Computation

    SciTech Connect

    Schwan, Karsten [Georgia Institute of Technology

    2012-01-13

    The Georgia Tech team has been working in collaboration with ORNL and Rutgers on improved I/O for petascale fusion codes, specifically, to integrate staging methods into the ADIOS framework. As part of this on-going work, we have released the DataTap server as part of the ADIOS release, and we have been working on improving the ‘in situ’ processing capabilities of the ADIOS framework. In particular, we have been moving forward with a design that adds additional metadata to describe the data layout and structure of data that is being moved for I/O purposes, building on the FFS type system developed in our past research

  10. Characterizing behavioural 'characters': an evolutionary framework.

    PubMed

    Araya-Ajoy, Yimen G; Dingemanse, Niels J

    2014-02-01

    Biologists often study phenotypic evolution assuming that phenotypes consist of a set of quasi-independent units that have been shaped by selection to accomplish a particular function. In the evolutionary literature, such quasi-independent functional units are called 'evolutionary characters', and a framework based on evolutionary principles has been developed to characterize them. This framework mainly focuses on 'fixed' characters, i.e. those that vary exclusively between individuals. In this paper, we introduce multi-level variation and thereby expand the framework to labile characters, focusing on behaviour as a worked example. We first propose a concept of 'behavioural characters' based on the original evolutionary character concept. We then detail how integration of variation between individuals (cf. 'personality') and within individuals (cf. 'individual plasticity') into the framework gives rise to a whole suite of novel testable predictions about the evolutionary character concept. We further propose a corresponding statistical methodology to test whether observed behaviours should be considered expressions of a hypothesized evolutionary character. We illustrate the application of our framework by characterizing the behavioural character 'aggressiveness' in wild great tits, Parus major. PMID:24335984

  11. 33 CFR 334.30 - Gulf of Maine off Pemaquid Point, Maine; naval sonobuoy test area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Gulf of Maine off Pemaquid Point, Maine; naval sonobuoy test area. 334.30 Section...RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.30 Gulf of Maine off Pemaquid Point, Maine; naval sonobuoy...

  12. EJB Performance Measurement Framework

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Denis Gefter; Robert Chun

    2006-01-01

    This paper addresses challenges involved with measuring the performance of an Enterprise Java Bean (EJB) based system in a production environment. These challenges include specific requirements for the measuring system to be non-intrusive, have low-overhead, and to be able to provide monitoring and visibility to all the business objects in the production system. A prototype EJB Performance Measurement Framework capable

  13. Mississippi Fine Arts Framework.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mississippi State Dept. of Education, Jackson.

    The Mississippi Fine Arts Framework is designed to develop K-12 students' interest and expertise in dance, music, theater arts, and visual arts. The introductory fine arts course, for secondary level students, explores the relationship and the function of the arts in both historical and contemporary culture through creative projects, performance,…

  14. Developing a Conceptual Framework.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenner, Kathleen

    1979-01-01

    As a screening tool for curriculum priorities, a pattern of curriculum design and redevelopment for the associate degree technical nursing program was explored. Curriculum developers examined three components: student, setting, and subject. The evolved conceptual framework, based on Orem's self-care theory, of a continuum of nursing assistance is…

  15. Addiction: the policy framework

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Emily Finch

    2007-01-01

    Addiction psychiatry operates within a policy framework. For most of the 20th century, the ‘British system’ of drug treatment operated with a small number of drug users being treated by doctors. By the 1960s formal policy set up the first drug treatment services and passed the 1971 Misuse of Drugs Act, which sorted illicit drugs into classes A to C

  16. Hypothetical binodal zeolitic frameworks.

    PubMed

    Simperler, Alexandra; Foster, Martin D; Delgado Friedrichs, Olaf; Bell, Robert G; Almeida Paz, Filipe A; Klinowski, Jacek

    2005-06-01

    Hypothetical binodal zeolitic structures (structures containing two kinds of tetrahedral sites) were systematically enumerated using tiling theory and characterized by computational chemistry methods. Each of the 109 refineable topologies based on "simple tilings" was converted into a silica polymorph and its energy minimized using the GULP program with the Sanders-Catlow silica potential. Optimized structural parameters, framework energies relative to alpha-quartz and volumes accessible to sorption have been calculated. Eleven of the 30 known binodal topologies listed in the Atlas of Zeolite Framework Types were found, leaving 98 topologies that were unknown previously. The chemical feasibility of each structure as a zeolite was evaluated by means of a feasibility factor derived from the correlation between lattice energy and framework density. Structures are divided into 15 families, based on common structural features. Many "feasible" structures contain only small pores. Several very open structures were also enumerated, although they contain three-membered rings which are thermodynamically disfavoured and not found in conventional zeolites. We believe that such topologies may be realizable as framework materials, but with different elemental compositions to those normally associated with zeolites. PMID:15914891

  17. A Volunteer Training Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deslandes, Moira; Rogers, Louise

    2008-01-01

    Volunteering SA (VSA) has responded to the need to revise and expand the training offered to volunteers. It has developed a volunteer training framework to provide structure and guidance for the sector in making policy and financial decisions about directions and type of training that volunteers require and desire, where the training can lead and…

  18. Personalized Information Retrieval Framework

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dongpyo Hong; Yun-Kyung Park; Jeongwon Lee; Vladimir Shin; Woontack Woo

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a framework of personalized information retrieval system for a wearer (a person who is equipped with a wearable computer) in ubiquitous computing environments. In ubiquitous computing environments, personalized information retrieval is indispensable for a wearer because desired or undesired information will be flooded around the wearer. Although there have been many research activities on information

  19. Preservice Teacher Education Framework.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berns, Robert G.

    A project created a framework for integrating school-to-work (STW) into the preservice curriculum for all new teachers in Ohio and conducted a professional development activity for college and university faculty involved with preparation of new teachers. A work team of teacher education faculty representing six public universities met to learn…

  20. Exploring the Science Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayes, Robert; Koballa, Thomas R., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    The vision for science education set forth in "A Framework for K-12 Science Education" (NRC 2012) makes it clear that for today's students to become the scientifically literate citizens of tomorrow their educational experiences must help them become mathematically proficient. "The focus here is on important practices, such as modeling, developing…

  1. Exploring the Science Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayes, Robert; Koballa, Thomas R., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    The vision for science education set forth in "A Framework for K-12 Science Education" (NRC 2012) makes it clear that for today's students to become the scientifically literate citizens of tomorrow, their educational experiences must help them become mathematically proficient. "The focus here is on important practices, such as modeling, developing…

  2. Exploring the Science Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Philip; Bricker, Leah; Tzou, Carrie; Lee, Tiffany; Van Horne, Katie

    2012-01-01

    The National Research Council's recent publication "A Framework for K-12 Science Education: Practices, Crosscutting Concepts, and Core Ideas" (NRC 2011), which is the foundation for the Next Generation Science Standards now being developed, places unprecedented focus on the practices involved in doing scientific and engineering work. In an effort…

  3. Beyond Leadership Frameworks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Spencer J. Maxcy

    1995-01-01

    This article argues that rather than returning to a traditional “sociology of leadership,” which is modernist and positivist in nature, seeking both to offer multiple frameworks yielding relatively true accounts of leadership as well as providing a sing positivist foundational met a narrative that attempts to underwrite this relativism as “science,” we ought to adopt a critical and pragmatic strategy

  4. Eclipse Process Framework Description

    E-print Network

    Bae, Doo-Hwan

    Library View Pers- pectives Software Engineering Lab, KAIST 9/18 Configuration view Properties view 2008Eclipse Process Framework Composer 2008. 3.12 SE Lab Chanhee Yi #12;Contents SPEM 2.0 Description Two perspectives Editing space Publishing Demo 2008-3-12 Software Engineering Lab, KAIST 2/18 #12;SPEM

  5. Field-Theoretic Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganesan, Venkat; Fredrickson, Glenn H.

    The science and engineering of materials is entering a new era of so-called "designer materials", wherein, based upon the properties required for a particular application, a material is designed by exploiting the self-assembly of appropriately chosen molecular constituents [1]. The desirable and marketable properties of such materials, which include plastic alloys, block and graft copolymers, and polyelectrolyte solutions, complexes, and gels, depend critically on the ability to control and manipulate morphology by adjusting a combination of molecular and macroscopic variables. For example, styrenebutadiene block copolymers can be devised that serve either as rigid, tough, transparent thermoplastics or as soft, flexible, thermoplastic elastomers, by appropriate control of copolymer architecture and styrene/butadiene ratio. In this case, the property profiles are intimately connected to the extent and type of nanoscale self-assembly that is established within the material. One of the main challenges confronting the successful design of nano-structured polymers is the development of a basic understanding of the relationship between the molecular details of the polymer formulation and the morphology that is achieved. Unfortunately, such relationships are still mainly determined by trial and error experimentation. A purely experimental-based program in pursuit of this objective proves cumbersome — primarily, due to the broad parameter space accessible at the time of synthesis and formulation. Consequently, there is a significant motivation for the development of computational tools that can enable a rational exploration of the parameter space.

  6. Characterizing Key Developmental Understandings and Pedagogically Powerful Ideas within a Statistical Knowledge for Teaching Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groth, Randall E.

    2013-01-01

    A hypothetical framework to characterize statistical knowledge for teaching (SKT) is described. Empirical grounding for the framework is provided by artifacts from an undergraduate course for prospective teachers that concentrated on the development of SKT. The theoretical notion of "key developmental understanding" (KDU) is used to identify…

  7. Democratization, Women's Movements, and Gender-Equitable States: A Framework for Comparison

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jocelyn Viterna; Kathleen M. Fallon

    2008-01-01

    There is a rich collection of case studies examining the relationship between democratization, women's movements, and gendered state outcomes, but the variation across cases is still poorly understood. In response, this article develops a theoreticallygrounded comparative framework to evaluate and explain cross-national variations in the gendered outcomes of democratic transitions. The framework highlights four theoretical factors—the context of the transition,

  8. Activity Theory as a potential framework for human- computer interaction research

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kari Kuutti

    1996-01-01

    During the recent years the mainstream framework for HCI research — the information- processing cognitive psychology —has gained more and more criticism because of serious problems in applying it both in research and practical design. In a debate within HCI research the capability of information processing psychology has been questioned and new theoretical frameworks searched. This paper presents an overview

  9. Continuing bonds in adaptation to bereavement: Toward theoretical integration.

    PubMed

    Stroebe, Margaret; Schut, Henk; Boerner, Kathrin

    2010-03-01

    There is lack of clarity in the scientific literature concerning the adaptive functions of continuing versus relinquishing bonds to deceased persons. It remains unclear what type of bonds or underlying processes are related to (mal)adaptive bereavement outcomes. Furthermore, empirical research has rarely been theoretically-driven. Thus, the purpose of this article is to outline a theoretical model for predicting the (mal)adaptiveness of continuing-relinquishing bonds. Attachment theory provides a generic framework for understanding patterns of individual differences in the impact of continuing bonds. Within this framework, using bereavement-specific models compatible with attachment theory, (1) ways of coping with the bond to the deceased can be linked to outcome (using the Dual Process Model, Stroebe & Schut, 1999), and (2) related cognitions about the deceased person proposed (drawing on Mental Representations Theory, Boerner & Heckhausen, 2003). This integrative model can be used to systematically examine the relationship between continuing bonds and bereavement adaptation. PMID:20034720

  10. Pre-Main Sequence Evolutions of Solar Abundance Lowmass Stars

    E-print Network

    Youn Kil Jung; Yong-Cheol Kim

    2007-02-12

    We present the Pre-Main-Sequence (PMS) evolutionary tracks of stars with 0.0065~5.0Ms. The models were evolved from the PMS stellar birthline to the onset of hydrogen burning in the core. The convective turnover timescales which enables an observational test of theoretical model, particulary in the stellar dynamic activity, are also calculated. All models have Sun-like metal abundances, typically considered as the stars in the Galactic disk and the star formation region of Population I star. The convection phenomenon is treated by the usual mixing length approximation. All evolutionary tracks are available upon request.

  11. Towards the concept of business action media - frameworks for business interaction in an electronic marketplace setting

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Johan Petersson; Mikael Lind

    2005-01-01

    This paper concerns support for understanding business interaction. The aim is to compare and enrich two existing theoretical frameworks with such a scope. The two frameworks have proven useful in interpreting interaction in contemporary business settings. Both the so-called MRM (Media Reference Model) and the BAT-model (Business interAction & Transaction framework) has been used to understand interaction on various types

  12. PRIDE: A Framework for Performance Evaluation of Intelligent Vehicles in Dynamic, On-Road Environments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Craig Schlenoff; Jerome Ajot; Raj Madhavan

    We are developing a novel framework, PRIDE (PRediction In Dynamic Environments), to perform moving object prediction for unmanned ground vehicles. The underlying concept is based upon a multi-resolutional, hierarchical approach that incorporates multiple prediction algorithms into a single, unifying framework. The lower levels of the framework utilize estimation-theoretic short-term predictions while the upper levels utilize a probabilistic prediction approach based

  13. Large volume metrology process models: A framework for integrating measurement with assembly planning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. G. Maropoulos; Y. Guo; J. Jamshidi; B. Cai

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes a generic methodology dealing with the theoretical definition of metrology process models and their systematic integration with design evaluation and assembly planning. The research resulted in the specification of a novel, theoretical framework for the specification and generation of metrology process models, especially focusing on large volume, frameless metrology that is suitable for the verification of large

  14. An open problem of theoretical physics: Modification of the QFTs so as to make their diagrams convergent

    E-print Network

    Ribari?, Marijan

    2015-01-01

    Though the scattering of the fundamental particles is the basic physical phenomenon, present QFT use formalistic regularization methods that disregard some of the main tenets of the conventional physics. Thus we provide a framework for making realistic modification of the QFTs by the Pauli-Villars type of regularizations. The starting point is Feynman atomistic conjecture that the partial differential equations of theoretical physics are actually describing smoothed-out motion of some infinitesimal entities. The kinetic theory of gases motivated us to refine this conjecture by presuming that in QFTs we ought to use the linearized Boltzmann integro-differential transport equations instead of the partial differential equations, thereby regularizing realistically QFTs and get further information about what the universe is made of by evaluating experimentally the regularization parameters.

  15. An open problem of theoretical physics Modification of the QFTs so as to make their diagrams convergent

    E-print Network

    Marijan Ribari?; Luka Šušterši?

    2015-06-03

    Though scattering of the fundamental particles is the basic physical phenomenon, present perturbative QFTs use formalistic regularization methods that disregard some of the main tenets of conventional physics. We point out a Lagrangian based framework for making realistic modification of QFTs so as to make their diagrams convergent by modifying solely the Feynman propagators as conjectured by Pauli in 1949 and suggested by Bjorken and Drell in 1965. The starting point is Feynman atomistic conjecture that the partial differential equations of theoretical physics are actually describing smoothed-out motion of some infinitesimal entities. The kinetic theory of gases motivated us to refine this conjecture by presuming that in QFTs we ought to use the relativistic linearized Boltzmann integro-differential transport equations instead of the partial differential equations, their macroscopic low-energy approximations Thereby we regularize realistically QFTs and getting some information about what the Universe is made of by the experimental values of regularization parameters.

  16. TAD- THEORETICAL AERODYNAMICS PROGRAM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrowman, J.

    1994-01-01

    This theoretical aerodynamics program, TAD, was developed to predict the aerodynamic characteristics of vehicles with sounding rocket configurations. These slender, axisymmetric finned vehicle configurations have a wide range of aeronautical applications from rockets to high speed armament. Over a given range of Mach numbers, TAD will compute the normal force coefficient derivative, the center-of-pressure, the roll forcing moment coefficient derivative, the roll damping moment coefficient derivative, and the pitch damping moment coefficient derivative of a sounding rocket configured vehicle. The vehicle may consist of a sharp pointed nose of cone or tangent ogive shape, up to nine other body divisions of conical shoulder, conical boattail, or circular cylinder shape, and fins of trapezoid planform shape with constant cross section and either three or four fins per fin set. The characteristics computed by TAD have been shown to be accurate to within ten percent of experimental data in the supersonic region. The TAD program calculates the characteristics of separate portions of the vehicle, calculates the interference between separate portions of the vehicle, and then combines the results to form a total vehicle solution. Also, TAD can be used to calculate the characteristics of the body or fins separately as an aid in the design process. Input to the TAD program consists of simple descriptions of the body and fin geometries and the Mach range of interest. Output includes the aerodynamic characteristics of the total vehicle, or user-selected portions, at specified points over the mach range. The TAD program is written in FORTRAN IV for batch execution and has been implemented on an IBM 360 computer with a central memory requirement of approximately 123K of 8 bit bytes. The TAD program was originally developed in 1967 and last updated in 1972.

  17. Theoretical investigation of some thermal effects in turbulence modeling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lionel Mathelin; Françoise Bataille; Ye Zhou

    2008-01-01

    Fluid compressibility effects arising from thermal rather than dynamical aspects are theoretically investigated in the framework\\u000a of turbulent flows. The Mach number is considered low and not to induce significant compressibility effects which here occur\\u000a due to a very high thermal gradient within the flowfield. With the use of the Two-Scale Direct Interaction Approximation approach,\\u000a essential turbulent correlations are derived

  18. Supply chain collaboration : Theoretical perspectives and empirical evidence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tage Skjoett-Larsen; Christian Thernøe; Claus Andresen

    2003-01-01

    Presents a theoretical framework for analysing interorganizational collaboration. Argues that Collaborative Planning, Forecasting and Replenishment (CPFR) should be viewed as a general approach to coordination of processes between participants in a supply chain, rather than following a slavish step-by-step model, as suggested by the organization Voluntary Inter-Industry Commerce Standards (VICS). This approach demands a deeper analysis of both integration depth

  19. Remodeling of the bone material containing microcracks: A theoretical analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramtani, S.; Zidi, M.

    1999-12-01

    The question is, what happens when the bone loses its ability for load-driven adaptation, when damage is no longer repaired as it seems to be the case for bone loss associated with age, medication or disease? In this study, we tempt to show how damage can influence the remodeling process. A thermodynamic theoretical framework is therefore provided as a basis for a consistent formulation of bone remodeling involving a chemical reaction and mass transfer between two constituents in presence of microcracks.

  20. Theoretical Quality Assessment of Myocardial Elastography with In Vivo Validation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wei-Ning Lee; Christopher M. Ingrassia; Simon D. Fung-Kee-Fung; Kevin D. Costa; Jeffrey W. Holmes; Elisa E. Konofagou

    2007-01-01

    Myocardial elastography (ME), a radio frequency (RF)-based speckle tracking technique with one-dimensional (1-D) cross correlation and novel recorrelation methods in a 2-D search was proposed to estimate and fully image 2-1) transmural deformation field and to detect abnormal cardiac function. A theoretical framework was first developed in order to evaluate the performance of 2-D myocardial elastography based on a previously

  1. Theoret. Comput. Fluid Dynamics (1998) 10: 213237 Theoretical and Computational

    E-print Network

    Pierce, Niles A.

    1998-01-01

    Theoret. Comput. Fluid Dynamics (1998) 10: 213­237 Theoretical and Computational © Springer]. The evolution of computational fluid dynamics during the last three decades has made possible the rapid-Verlag 1998 Fluid Dynamics Optimum Aerodynamic Design Using the Navier­Stokes Equations1 A. Jameson and L

  2. Theoret. Comput. Fluid Dynamics (1998) 11: 281303 Theoretical and Computational

    E-print Network

    Slinn, Donald

    1998-01-01

    Theoret. Comput. Fluid Dynamics (1998) 11: 281­303 Theoretical and Computational © Springer. Results from computational fluid dynamics experiments of internal wave reflection from sloping boundaries-Verlag 1998 Fluid Dynamics Turbulent Dynamics of a Critically Reflecting Internal Gravity Wave1 Donald N

  3. Theoretical Informatics and Applications Theoret. Informatics Appl. 37 (2003) 315336

    E-print Network

    Uustalu, Tarmo

    2003-01-01

    Theoretical Informatics and Applications Theoret. Informatics Appl. 37 (2003) 315­336 DOI: 10 as the extension operation (the free monad induced by the functor H). Moss [17] and Aczel, Ad´amek, Milius trees. This work was supported by the Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology un- der grant No

  4. 76 FR 7622 - Maine Disaster # ME-00028

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-10

    ...ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 12461 and 12462] Maine Disaster ME-00028 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration...a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for the State of Maine (FEMA-1953- DR), dated 02/01/2011. Incident:...

  5. 78 FR 20370 - Maine Disaster # ME-00035

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-04

    ...ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 13525 and 13526] Maine Disaster ME-00035 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration...a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for the State of Maine (FEMA-4108- DR), dated 03/25/2013. Incident:...

  6. 40 CFR 81.320 - Maine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...east to Dudley Street, Dudley Street south to Cedar Street, Cedar Street west to Main Street, Main Street south to Kennedy Brook, Kennedy Brook northwest crossing Presque Isle Stream to Coburn Street, Coburn Street northwest to Mechanic...

  7. Current theoretical approaches to collective behavior of dislocations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ananthakrishna, G.

    2007-03-01

    Plastic deformation is a highly dissipative process that induces a variety of patterns such as the cell structure in multislip conditions, the matrix structure and the persistent slip bands in cyclic deformation, as also the static and propagating bands in constant strain rate conditions. The diversity and the complexity of these patterns with length scales ranging from nanometers all the way to millimeters level, and time scales ranging from picoseconds to a few hours, pose serious challenges for modeling the collective behavior of dislocations. While a large body of knowledge has accumulated on the mechanics of dislocations and their interactions for a long time, describing such patterns has been slow mainly due to lack of methods to deal with the collective behavior of dislocations. The purpose of this review is to present the rich variety of dislocation patterns observed in different deformation conditions along with the recent advances in modeling using borrowed techniques traditionally used in condensed matter physics. These can be classified as statistical and dynamical approaches. The review begins with a summary of different types of patterns and their characterization. Appropriate background material is provided both in terms of basic dislocation mechanisms and theoretical methods. The latter includes the Langevin and distribution function approaches, and a host of standard dynamical methods such as the Ginzburg-Landau approach, methods of characterization of chaos and slow manifold analysis. Statistical models for the cell structure and persistent slip bands are based on Langevin dynamics and distribution function theoretic approaches. Of the dynamical models, the first set addresses the slowly emerging matrix structure and persistent slip bands. The second set of models is devoted to the study of a type of propagative instability called the Portevin-Le Chatelier effect. Generic features of the instability addressed include bistability, negative strain rate sensitivity of the flow stress, different types of bands, the dynamics and statistics of stress drops, and their characterization. Three different models all of which are dynamical in nature are discussed. While these models are quite different with regard to their frameworks, what they seek to describe and the levels of sophistication undertaken, these models capture a good variety of the observed features. The review ends with a summary and outlook.

  8. Finding the Onset of Convection in Main Sequence Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, Theodore

    2003-01-01

    The primary goal of the work performed under this grant was to locate, if possible, the onset of subphotospheric convection zones in normal main sequence stars by using the presence of emission in high temperature lines in far ultraviolet spectra from the FUSE spacecraft as a proxy for convection. The change in stellar structure represented by this boundary between radiative and convective stars has always been difficult to find by other empirical means. A search was conducted through observations of a sample of A-type stars, which were somewhat hotter and more massive than the Sun, and which were carefully chosen to bridge the theoretically expected radiative/convective boundary line along the main sequence.

  9. Demographics of Natural Disaster Hotspots in Maine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lindsay Dreiss; Caitlin Dufraine

    2008-01-01

    Natural disasters can cause extensive damage to communities and infrastructure. The state of Maine is fairly lucky because natural disasters are relatively infrequent. Maine does, however, experience earthquakes, flooding, hurricanes, and landslides. Certain areas of the state are more prone to experience natural disaster than others. Using GIS analysis, we are analyzing natural disaster hotspots in Maine to determine if

  10. In Maine, Postsecondary Success Starts before College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LePage, Paul R.

    2011-01-01

    A 2008 report from the Joint Standing Committee on Education and Culture Affairs of the Maine Legislature indicates a quarter of those who enrolled at a public university in Maine required a remedial course to catch them up to the level where they should have been when they completed high school. Regardless of how hard Maine has tried and how much…

  11. UC SAN DIEGO ELEVATOR LOCATIONS MAIN CAMPUS

    E-print Network

    Tsien, Roger Y.

    UC SAN DIEGO ELEVATOR LOCATIONS MAIN CAMPUS BUILDING # OF ELEVATORS APPLIED PHYSICS AND MATHEMATICS.R.P.S. (ROBINSON BLDG.) ADMIN. 2 I.R.P.S. (LIBRARY BLDG.) 2 ISSACS HALL (NORPAX) 1 LEICHTAG 3 MAIN GYM 2 MANDELL BUILDING # OF ELEVATORS HILLCREST MAIN HOSPITAL 16 HILLCREST AMBULATORY CARE CENTER 2 HILLCREST FACULTY

  12. July 24, 2014 MAIN STREET CONSTRUCTION UPDATE

    E-print Network

    July 24, 2014 MAIN STREET CONSTRUCTION UPDATE Third Street Connector Construction Begins Week, will begin construction of the Third Street Connector between Main St and Broadway. This phase is expected to take about 2 months to complete. PROJECT SCHEDULE Starting July 29, crews will mobilize on Main St

  13. New England: 1. Cod Gulf of Maine

    E-print Network

    New England: 1. Cod ­ Gulf of Maine 2. Cod ­ Georges Bank 3. Haddock ­ Gulf of Maine 4. Haddock New England/Middle Atlantic 8. Yellowtail flounder ­ Cape Cod/Gulf of Maine 9. White Hake 10. Windowpane Flounder ­ Southern New England/Middle Atlantic 11. Winter Flounder ­ Southern New England

  14. New England: 1. Cod Gulf of Maine

    E-print Network

    New England: 1. Cod ­ Gulf of Maine 2. Cod ­ Georges Bank 3. Yellowtail flounder ­ Southern New ­ Georges Bank 7. Winter Flounder ­ Southern New England/Middle Atlantic 8. Pollock - Gulf of Maine / Georges Bank 9. Windowpane - Gulf of Maine / Georges Bank 10. Windowpane - Southern New England / Mid

  15. Main Quantum Algorithms: Shor and Grover

    E-print Network

    de Wolf, Ronald

    Main Quantum Algorithms: Shor and Grover Ronald de Wolf Main Quantum Algorithms: Shor and Grover algorithms Today's lecture: 1. Shor's quantum algorithm for factoring 2. Grover's quantum algorithm for search 3. Other algorithms Main Quantum Algorithms: Shor and Grover ­ p. 2/2 #12;Factoring Given N = p

  16. IMPROVEMENT OF WATER MAIN INSPECTION TECHNOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document is a handout of a slide presentation that addresses improvement of water main inspection technology. The slide presentation addresses the need for improved inspection technology (e.g., 237,000 main breaks/yr); the limits on main break prevention; and, the adverse ...

  17. MAINE BEDROCK SOURCE WATER PROTECTION AREAS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bedrocksqpa_region_pws is a REGIONS SDE layer of bedrock source water protection areas in Maine with a high, moderate, or low probability of contributing water to community public water supplies. The Maine Drinking Water Program (MEDWP), in cooperation with the Maine Geological S...

  18. University of Maine Office of Human Resources

    E-print Network

    Thomas, Andrew

    University of Maine Office of Human Resources EMPLOYEE AUTHORIZATION for the University of Maine Office of Human Resources to Disclose the Identity of Spouse/Domestic Partner to the New Balance Student of Human Resources ("OHR") at the University of Maine to disclose to the New Balance Student Recreation

  19. The challenges and scope of theoretical biology.

    PubMed

    Krakauer, David C; Collins, James P; Erwin, Douglas; Flack, Jessica C; Fontana, Walter; Laubichler, Manfred D; Prohaska, Sonja J; West, Geoffrey B; Stadler, Peter F

    2011-05-01

    Scientific theories seek to provide simple explanations for significant empirical regularities based on fundamental physical and mechanistic constraints. Biological theories have rarely reached a level of generality and predictive power comparable to physical theories. This discrepancy is explained through a combination of frozen accidents, environmental heterogeneity, and widespread non-linearities observed in adaptive processes. At the same time, model building has proven to be very successful when it comes to explaining and predicting the behavior of particular biological systems. In this respect biology resembles alternative model-rich frameworks, such as economics and engineering. In this paper we explore the prospects for general theories in biology, and suggest that these take inspiration not only from physics, but also from the information sciences. Future theoretical biology is likely to represent a hybrid of parsimonious reasoning and algorithmic or rule-based explanation. An open question is whether these new frameworks will remain transparent to human reason. In this context, we discuss the role of machine learning in the early stages of scientific discovery. We argue that evolutionary history is not only a source of uncertainty, but also provides the basis, through conserved traits, for very general explanations for biological regularities, and the prospect of unified theories of life. PMID:21315730

  20. From theory to observations and vice versa: theoretical uncertainties and observational constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassisi, S.

    2014-11-01

    During these past decades, our knowledge of evolutionary and structural properties of stars of different mass and chemical composition is significantly improved. This result has been achieved as a consequence of our improved capability in understanding and describing the physical behaviour of matter in the different thermal regimes characteristic of the various stellar mass ranges and evolutionary stages. This notwithstanding, the current generation of stellar models is still affected by significant and, usually, not negligible uncertainties. These uncertainties are related to our poor knowledge of some physical proceses occurring in the real stars such as, for instance, some thermodynamical processes, nuclear reaction rates, as well as the efficiency of mixing processes. These drawbacks of stellar models have to be properly taken into account when comparing theory with observations in order to derive relevant information about the properties of both resolved and unresolved stellar populations. On the other hand, observations of both field and cluster stars can provide fundamental benchmarks for constraining the reliability and accuracy of the theoretical framework. In the following we review some important evolutionary and structural properties of very-low and low-mass stars, as well as the most important uncertainties affecting the stellar models for such stars. We show what are the main sources of uncertainty along the main evolutionary stages, and discuss the present level of agreement between theory and observations.