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1

Maternal filicide theoretical framework.  

PubMed

The maternal filicide theoretical framework (MFTF) was developed to enrich the understanding of how traumatic experiences during formative years can affect a woman's relationship with her own child. Exposure to a known set of vulnerabilities can foster triggers that predispose a woman to respond impulsively and violently toward her child. Comprehensive assessment of vulnerable families is essential for the prevention of fatal and nonfatal abuse. The MFTF may be applied to both crimes. PMID:18522605

Mugavin, Marie

2008-01-01

2

Policy Analysis: A Theoretic Framework and Some Basic Concepts.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The paper is a preliminary attempt to appreciate the meanings and significance of policy analysis. Policy analysis is presented within a broad theoretic framework, some basic concepts of policy analysis are explored, and a few main implications of the dev...

Y. Dror

1969-01-01

3

Theoretical framework for quantum networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a framework to treat quantum networks and all possible transformations thereof, including as special cases all possible manipulations of quantum states, measurements, and channels, such as, e.g., cloning, discrimination, estimation, and tomography. Our framework is based on the concepts of quantum comb—which describes all transformations achievable by a given quantum network—and link product—the operation of connecting two quantum networks. Quantum networks are treated both from a constructive point of view—based on connections of elementary circuits—and from an axiomatic one—based on a hierarchy of admissible quantum maps. In the axiomatic context a fundamental property is shown, which we call universality of quantum memory channels: any admissible transformation of quantum networks can be realized by a suitable sequence of memory channels. The open problem whether this property fails for some nonquantum theory, e.g., for no-signaling boxes, is posed.

Chiribella, Giulio; D'Ariano, Giacomo Mauro; Perinotti, Paolo

2009-08-01

4

Unifying different theories of learning: theoretical framework and empirical evidence  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main aim of this research study was to test out a conceptual model encompassing the theoretical frameworks of achievement goals, study processing strategies, effort, and reflective thinking practice. In particular, it was postulated that the causal influences of achievement goals on academic performance are direct and indirect through study strategies, effort, and reflective thinking. Furthermore, the effects of study

Huy Phuong Phan

2008-01-01

5

Theoretical models and operational frameworks in public health ethics.  

PubMed

The article is divided into three sections: (i) an overview of the main ethical models in public health (theoretical foundations); (ii) a summary of several published frameworks for public health ethics (practical frameworks); and (iii) a few general remarks. Rather than maintaining the superiority of one position over the others, the main aim of the article is to summarize the basic approaches proposed thus far concerning the development of public health ethics by describing and comparing the various ideas in the literature. With this in mind, an extensive list of references is provided. PMID:20195441

Petrini, Carlo

2010-01-18

6

Theoretical framework for microscopic osmotic phenomena  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The basic ingredient of osmotic pressure is a solvent fluid with a soluble molecular species which is restricted to a chamber by a boundary which is permeable to the solvent fluid but impermeable to the solute molecules. For macroscopic systems at equilibrium, the osmotic pressure is given by the classical van ’t Hoff law, which states that the pressure is proportional to the product of the temperature and the difference of the solute concentrations inside and outside the chamber. For microscopic systems the diameter of the chamber may be comparable to the length scale associated with the solute-wall interactions or solute molecular interactions. In each of these cases, the assumptions underlying the classical van ’t Hoff law may no longer hold. We develop a general theoretical framework which captures corrections to the classical theory for osmotic pressure under more general relationships between the size of the chamber and the interaction length scales. We also show that notions of osmotic pressure based on the hydrostatic pressure of the fluid and the mechanical pressure on the bounding walls of the chamber must be distinguished for microscopic systems. To demonstrate how the theoretical framework can be applied, numerical results are presented for the osmotic pressure associated with a polymer of N monomers confined in a spherical chamber as the bond strength is varied.

Atzberger, Paul J.; Kramer, Peter R.

2007-06-01

7

Theoretical framework for R-parity violation  

SciTech Connect

We propose a theoretical framework for R-parity violation. It is realized by a class of Calabi-Yau compactification of heterotic string theory. Trilinear R-parity violation in superpotential is either absent or negligibly small without an unbroken symmetry, due to a selection rule based on charge counting of a spontaneously broken U(1) symmetry. Although such a selection rule cannot be applied in general to nonrenormalizable operators in the low-energy effective superpotential, it is valid for terms trilinear in low-energy degrees of freedom, and hence can be used as a solution to the dimension-4 proton decay problem in the minimal supersymmetric standard model. Bilinear R-parity violation is generated, but there are good reasons why it is small enough to satisfy its upper bounds from neutrino mass and washout of baryon/lepton asymmetry. All R-parity violating dimension-5 operators can be generated. In this theoretical framework, nucleons can decay through squark-exchange diagrams combining dimension-5 and bilinear R-parity violating operators. B-L breaking neutron decay is predicted.

Kurimaya, Minoru; Nakajima, Hiroto; Watari, Taizan [Department of Physics, University of Tokyo, Tokyo, 113-0033 (Japan)

2009-04-01

8

A Theoretical Framework for an Occupational Orientation Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A theoretical framework for an occupational orientation program was developed by reviewing the literature on theory and theoretical frameworks, by synthesizing occupational choice theory, and by devising the timing and elements of the framework. Occupational choice theory was synthesized by considering the trait-factor, sociological,…

Key, James Perry

9

Knowledge management and organizational culture: a theoretical integrative framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Organizational culture is a critical factor in building and reinforcing knowledge management in organizations. However, there is no theoretical framework that comprehensively explains the effect of organizational culture on knowledge management in organizations. This paper endeavors to develop a theoretical integrative framework for organizational knowledge management and organizational culture. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – This is a conceptual paper. It modifies

Rajnish Kumar Rai

2011-01-01

10

Affect in Mathematics Education--Exploring Theoretical Frameworks. Research Forum  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document brings into a dialogue some of the theoretical frameworks used to study affect in mathematics education. It presents affect as a representational system, affect as one regulator of the dynamic self, affect in a socio-constructivist framework, and affect as embodied. It also evaluates these frameworks from different perspectives:…

Hannula, Markku; Evans, Jeff; Philippou, George; Zan, Rosetta

2004-01-01

11

RF01: AFFECT IN MATHEMATICS EDUCATION - EXPLORING THEORETICAL FRAMEWORKS1  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article brings into a dialogue some of the theoretical frameworks used to study affect in mathematics education. We shall present affect as a representational system, affect as one regulator of the dynamic self, affect in a socio-constructivist framework, and affect as embodied. We also evaluate these frameworks from different perspectives: mathematical thinking, students with special needs, and methodology.

Markku Hannula; Jeff Evans; George Philippou; Rosetta Zan

12

Real Estate Settlement Pricing: A Theoretical Framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the pricing of real estate settlement services. Prices charged by real estate brokers, title insurers, private mortgage companies and other settlement service providers have been a public policy issue for a decade. The Real Estate Settlement Procedures Act of 1974 did little to alleviate public concerns or change pricing practices.The paper provides both a conceptual framework and

Kevin E. Villani; John Simonson

1982-01-01

13

Democracy and development: A theoretical framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple framework is set up to discuss the relationship between democracy, material welfare, and development. Democracy is regarded both as a good in its own right, and as an input in the production of material welfare. The optimum level of democracy is then related to the level of development. At the optimum point, the marginal cost of democracy in

Jean-Paul Azam

1994-01-01

14

EDUCATIONAL CARTOGRAPHY: MAPPING A THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although school atlases represent a major sector in cartographic publishing, we know little about how these materials are developed. This is partly because the number of people directly involved in research and development worldwide is relatively small, partly because commercial competition has generally stifled debate and partly because theoretical perspectives on map design for young people remain underdeveloped. Although the

Patrick Wiegand

15

Toward a theoretical framework for interprofessional education.  

PubMed

This paper searches for the antecedents of some of many diverse theoretical perspectives being brought to bear to understand interprofessional education (IPE) toward developing a coherent, compatible and inclusive frame of reference. Some of the sources cited are original, "leaving everything to play for" in applying them to IPE. Others apply one or more of those sources to interprofessional learning or the context in which it is delivered. Combining perspectives in this way is helpful insofar as it furthers coherence across disciplinary boundaries, but leaves the serious scholar to trace each back to its roots. Considerations of space preclude a definitive review of the ever-increasing repertoire of theoretical perspectives being introduced into IPE from anthropology education, psychology, sociology and other academic disciplines. This paper focuses on those theories which elucidate the learning process and the learning context. PMID:22747337

Barr, Hugh

2012-07-02

16

A Theoretical Framework for Simulated Annealing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Simulated Annealing has been a very successful general algorithm for the solution of large, complex combinatorial optimization\\u000a problems. Since its introduction, several applications in different fields of engineering, such as integrated circuit placement,\\u000a optimal encoding, resource allocation, logic synthesis, have been developed. In parallel, theoretical studies have been focusing\\u000a on the reasons for the excellent behavior of the algorithm. This

Fabio Romeo; Alberto L. Sangiovanni-vincentelli

1991-01-01

17

Theoretical seismic properties of pre-main sequence ? Doradus pulsators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Context. The late A and F-type ? Doradus (? Dor) stars pulsate with high-order gravity modes (g-modes). The existence of different evolutionary phases crossing the ? Dor instability strip raises the question whether pre-main sequence (PMS) ? Dor stars exist. Aims: We intend to study the differences between the asteroseismic behaviour of PMS and main sequence (MS) ? Dor pulsators as predicted by the current theory of stellar evolution and stability. Methods: We explore the adiabatic and non-adiabatic properties of high-order g-modes in a grid of PMS and MS models covering the mass range 1.2 M? < M? < 2.5 M?. Results: We have derived the theoretical instability strip (IS) for the PMS ? Dor pulsators. This IS covers the same effective temperature range as the MS ? Dor one. Nevertheless, the frequency domain of unstable modes in PMS models with a fully radiative core is greater than in MS models, even if they present the same number of unstable modes. Moreover, the differences between MS and PMS internal structures are reflected in the average values of the period spacing, as well as in the dependence of the period spacing on the radial order of the modes, opening the window to determination of the evolutionary phase of ? Dor stars from their pulsation spectra.

Bouabid, M.-P.; Montalbán, J.; Miglio, A.; Dupret, M.-A.; Grigahcène, A.; Noels, A.

2011-07-01

18

A Theoretical Framework for Physics Education Research: Modeling Student Thinking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Education is a goal-oriented field. But if we want to treat education\\u000ascientifically so we can accumulate, evaluate, and refine what we learn, then\\u000awe must develop a theoretical framework that is strongly rooted in objective\\u000aobservations and through which different theoretical models of student thinking\\u000acan be compared. Much that is known in the behavioral sciences is robust and

Edward F. Redish

2004-01-01

19

Alternative theoretical frameworks for the interpretation of random utility models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Orthodox demand theory has received greater flexibility and adaptability to different choice situations from the broad family of Additive Random Utility Models. But this development leaves the major open issues in demand analysis still unresolved. In this contribution special attention is given to alternative theoretical frameworks for the interpretation of Random Utility Models. The analysis conducted opens the way for

E. Fabio Arcangeli; Giorgio Leonardi; Aura Reggiani

1985-01-01

20

A theoretical framework for an intelligent design catalogue  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper outlines continuing work on the intelligent design catalogue. The intelligent design catalogue seeks to create a virtual design environment that is linked to a catalogue of standard parts. The theoretical framework for this research draws on several engineering areas. Within manufacturing, process plans can be developed in a virtual environment independently of the machines on the shop floor

Paul Winkelman; Ian Yellowley

2011-01-01

21

The impact of Greek Orthodoxy on entrepreneurship: a theoretical framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to offer a theoretical framework for the analysis of the eventual implications of Greek Orthodoxy for business and entrepreneurial activities in general. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper examines the basic concepts, tenets and principles – in particular, those being of interest to business and entrepreneurship – of a specific religious worldview, Greek Orthodoxy.

George Gotsis; Zoe Kortezi

2009-01-01

22

CERC as a Theoretical Framework for Research and Practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Health communicators at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) have developed an integrated model titled Crisis and Emergency Risk Communication (CERC) as a tool to educate and equip public health professionals for the expanding communication responsibilities of public health in emergency situations. This essay focuses on CERC as a general theoretical framework for explaining how health communication functions

Shari Veil; Barbara Reynolds; Timothy L. Sellnow; Matthew W. Seeger

2008-01-01

23

Educational Communities of Inquiry: Theoretical Framework, Research and Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Communications technologies have been continuously integrated into learning and training environments which has revealed the need for a clear understanding of the process. The Community of Inquiry (COI) Theoretical Framework has a philosophical foundation which provides planned guidelines and principles to development useful learning environments…

Akyol, Zehra; Garrison, D. Randy

2013-01-01

24

Toward a Theoretical Framework for Geographic Entity Types  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper develops a theoretical framework for defining and representing kinds of geographic entities. The Spatial Data Transfer Standard (SDTS) of the United States is used. as. a starting point for discussion. SDTS defines entities in the world, objects as mathematical or computational constructs, and features as both entities and the objects that represent them. The paper reviews the central

David M. Mark

1993-01-01

25

Innovative capability development for entrepreneurship : A theoretical framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to integrate three streams of literature – organizational capabilities based in resource-based view (RBV) and the team- and organization-level innovation – to provide a theoretical framework of how firms invest in developing innovative capabilities for entrepreneurship and change management. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – This is a conceptual paper based on the RBV and the

C. Annique Un; Angeles Montoro-Sanchez

2010-01-01

26

Internet Use and Cognitive Development: A Theoretical Framework  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The number of children and adolescents accessing the Internet as well as the amount of time online are steadily increasing. The most common online activities include playing video games, accessing web sites, and communicating via chat rooms, email, and instant messaging. A theoretical framework for understanding the effects of Internet use on…

Johnson, Genevieve

2006-01-01

27

Dialogue: A Theoretical Framework for Distance Education Instructional Systems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper presents a theoretical framework for viewing elements that comprise distance education instructional systems in terms of dialogue. It is assumed that learning is mediated by intrapersonal dialogue and facilitated by interpersonal dialogue. Every resource in a distance education instructional system (eg, instructor availability,…

Gorsky, Paul; Caspi, Avner

2005-01-01

28

Toward a theoretical framework for trustworthy cyber sensing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cyberspace is an indispensable part of the economy and society, but has been "polluted" with many compromised computers that can be abused to launch further attacks against the others. Since it is likely that there always are compromised computers, it is important to be aware of the (dynamic) cyber security-related situation, which is however challenging because cyberspace is an extremely large-scale complex system. Our project aims to investigate a theoretical framework for trustworthy cyber sensing. With the perspective of treating cyberspace as a large-scale complex system, the core question we aim to address is: What would be a competent theoretical (mathematical and algorithmic) framework for designing, analyzing, deploying, managing, and adapting cyber sensor systems so as to provide trustworthy information or input to the higher layer of cyber situation-awareness management, even in the presence of sophisticated malicious attacks against the cyber sensor systems?

Xu, Shouhuai

2010-04-01

29

CERC as a theoretical framework for research and practice.  

PubMed

Health communicators at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) have developed an integrated model titled Crisis and Emergency Risk Communication (CERC) as a tool to educate and equip public health professionals for the expanding communication responsibilities of public health in emergency situations. This essay focuses on CERC as a general theoretical framework for explaining how health communication functions within the contexts of risk and crisis. Specifically, the authors provide an overview of CERC and examine the relationship of risk communication to crisis communication, the role of communication in emergency response, and the theoretical underpinnings of CERC. The article offers an initial set of propositions based on the CERC framework and concludes with a discussion of future directions. PMID:18936257

Veil, Shari; Reynolds, Barbara; Sellnow, Timothy L; Seeger, Matthew W

2008-10-01

30

Extended physics as a theoretical framework for systems biology?  

PubMed

In this essay we examine whether a theoretical and conceptual framework for systems biology could be built from the Bailly and Longo (2008, 2009) proposal. These authors aim to understand life as a coherent critical structure, and propose to develop an extended physical approach of evolution, as a diffusion of biomass in a space of complexity. Their attempt leads to a simple mathematical reconstruction of Gould's assumption (1989) concerning the bacterial world as a "left wall of least complexity" that we will examine. Extended physical systems are characterized by their constructive properties. Time is acting and new properties emerge by their history that can open the list of their initial properties. This conceptual and theoretical framework is nothing more than a philosophical assumption, but as such it provides a new and exciting approach concerning the evolution of life, and the transition between physics and biology. PMID:21463648

Miquel, Paul-Antoine

2011-04-02

31

An information-theoretic framework for flow visualization.  

PubMed

The process of visualization can be seen as a visual communication channel where the input to the channel is the raw data, and the output is the result of a visualization algorithm. From this point of view, we can evaluate the effectiveness of visualization by measuring how much information in the original data is being communicated through the visual communication channel. In this paper, we present an information-theoretic framework for flow visualization with a special focus on streamline generation. In our framework, a vector field is modeled as a distribution of directions from which Shannon's entropy is used to measure the information content in the field. The effectiveness of the streamlines displayed in visualization can be measured by first constructing a new distribution of vectors derived from the existing streamlines, and then comparing this distribution with that of the original data set using the conditional entropy. The conditional entropy between these two distributions indicates how much information in the original data remains hidden after the selected streamlines are displayed. The quality of the visualization can be improved by progressively introducing new streamlines until the conditional entropy converges to a small value. We describe the key components of our framework with detailed analysis, and show that the framework can effectively visualize 2D and 3D flow data. PMID:20975161

Xu, Lijie; Lee, Teng-Yok; Shen, Han-Wei

32

A framework for theoretical analysis of content fingerprinting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The popularity of video sharing platforms such as Youtube has prompted the need for the development of efficient techniques for multimedia identification. Content fingerprinting is a promising solution for this problem, whereby a short "fingerprint" that captures robust and unique characteristics of a signal is computed from each multimedia document. This fingerprint is then compared with a database to identify the multimedia. Several fingerprinting techniques have been proposed in the literature and have been evaluated using experiments. To complement these experimental evaluations and gain a deeper understanding, this paper proposes a framework for theoretical modeling and analysis of content fingerprinting schemes. Analysis of some key modules for fingerprint encoding and matching are also presented under this framework.

Varna, Avinash L.; Chuang, Wei-Hong; Wu, Min

2010-02-01

33

Distributed cognition as a theoretical framework for information visualization.  

PubMed

Even though information visualization (InfoVis) research has matured in recent years, it is generally acknowledged that the field still lacks supporting, encompassing theories. In this paper, we argue that the distributed cognition framework can be used to substantiate the theoretical foundation of InfoVis. We highlight fundamental assumptions and theoretical constructs of the distributed cognition approach, based on the cognitive science literature and a real life scenario. We then discuss how the distributed cognition framework can have an impact on the research directions and methodologies we take as InfoVis researchers. Our contributions are as follows. First, we highlight the view that cognition is more an emergent property of interaction than a property of the human mind. Second, we argue that a reductionist approach to study the abstract properties of isolated human minds may not be useful in informing InfoVis design. Finally we propose to make cognition an explicit research agenda, and discuss the implications on how we perform evaluation and theory building. PMID:18988961

Liu, Zhicheng; Nersessian, Nancy; Stasko, John

34

Exploring the UMLS: a rough sets based theoretical framework.  

PubMed Central

The Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) [1] has a unique and leading position in the evolution of thesauri and metathesauri. Features that set it apart are: its composition from more than fifty component health care vocabularies; the sophisticated UMLS ontology linking the Metathesaurus with structures such as the Semantic Network and the SPECIALIST lexicon; and the high level of social collaboration invested in its construction and growth. It is our thesis that in order to successfully harness such a complex vocabulary for text retrieval we need sophisticated methods derived from a deeper understanding of the UMLS system. Thus we propose a theoretical framework based on the theory of rough sets, that supports the systematic and exploratory investigation of the UMLS Metathesaurus for text retrieval. Our goal is to make it more feasible for individuals such as patients and health care professionals to access relevant information at the point of need.

Srinivasan, P.

1999-01-01

35

Development of a theoretical framework for analyzing cerebrospinal fluid dynamics  

PubMed Central

Background To date hydrocephalus researchers acknowledge the need for rigorous but utilitarian fluid mechanics understanding and methodologies in studying normal and hydrocephalic intracranial dynamics. Pressure volume models and electric circuit analogs introduced pressure into volume conservation; but control volume analysis enforces independent conditions on pressure and volume. Previously, utilization of clinical measurements has been limited to understanding of the relative amplitude and timing of flow, volume and pressure waveforms; qualitative approaches without a clear framework for meaningful quantitative comparison. Methods Control volume analysis is presented to introduce the reader to the theoretical background of this foundational fluid mechanics technique for application to general control volumes. This approach is able to directly incorporate the diverse measurements obtained by clinicians to better elucidate intracranial dynamics and progression to disorder. Results Several examples of meaningful intracranial control volumes and the particular measurement sets needed for the analysis are discussed. Conclusion Control volume analysis provides a framework to guide the type and location of measurements and also a way to interpret the resulting data within a fundamental fluid physics analysis.

Cohen, Benjamin; Voorhees, Abram; Vedel, S?ren; Wei, Timothy

2009-01-01

36

The hydraulic system of trees: theoretical framework and numerical simulation  

PubMed

Empirical studies pose the problem of the physiological integration of the tree organism, which is also important on the scale of ecosystems. Recently, spatially distributed models emerged, which approach this problem by reflecting the close linkage between physiological processes and the structures of trees and tree stands. In the case of water flow, the tree organism can be regarded as hydraulic system and the branched tree architecture as hydraulic network. Previous models of the hydraulic system either did not take into account the network structure, or they had shortcomings regarding the translation of the underlying physiological assumptions by the discrete computation method. We have developed a theoretical framework which takes the form of a numerical simulation model of tree water flow. A discrete initial boundary value problem (IBVP) combines the phenomena of Darcy flow, water storage and conductivity losses in the hydraulic network. The software HYDRA computes the solution of the IBVP. The theoretical derivation and model tests corroborate the consistent translation of the physiological assumptions by the computational method. Simulation studies enabled us to formulate hypotheses on the following points: (1) differences in the hydraulic segmentation between Picea abies and Thuja occidentalis, (2) responses of the hydraulic system to rapid transpiration changes and to a scenario of drought stress, and (3) how these responses depend on architectural quantities of the trees. The simulation studies demonstrated our possibilities of deriving theoretically well-founded hypotheses about the functioning of the hydraulic system and its relation to system structure. The numerical simulation model is designed as a tool for structure-function studies, which is able to treat tree architecture as independent variable. The model supports the integration of data on tree level, and it can be used for computer experiments which quantify the dynamics of the hydraulic system according to the concepts of system theory. Copyright 1999 Academic Press. PMID:10610755

Fruh; Kurth

1999-12-21

37

A Systems-Theoretical Framework for Health and Disease  

PubMed Central

Modern advances in molecular biology have produced enormous amounts of data characterizing physiological and disease states in cells and organisms. While bioinformatics has facilitated the organizing and mining of these data, it is the task of systems biology to merge the available information into dynamic, explanatory and predictive models. This article takes a step into this direction. It proposes a conceptual approach toward formalizing health and disease and illustrates it in the context of inflammation and preconditioning. Instead of defining health and disease states, the emphasis is on simplexes in a high-dimensional biomarker space. These simplexes are bounded by physiological constraints and permit the quantitative characterization of personalized health trajectories, health risk profiles that change with age, and the efficacy of different treatment options. The article mainly focuses on concepts but also briefly describes how the proposed concepts might be formulated rigorously within a mathematical framework.

Voit, Eberhard O.

2009-01-01

38

Building a Theoretical Framework for Melting of Chemically Heterogeneous Mantle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Variations in trace element and isotopic signatures of ocean island basalt (OIB) are often linked with mantle lithological heterogeneities derived from recycled oceanic crust. Recent experimental studies have revealed that partial melting of mafic lithologies such as pyroxenites can also account for OIB major element diversity and have also addressed modification of mafic components via interaction with peridotites. However, the ultimate dynamic fate of mafic bodies interacting with surrounding mantle peridotites, along with the implications for terrestrial magmatism at large, is yet to be explored in a systematic way. As a first step towards building a theoretical framework, we perform a series of calculations that link multicomponent phase equilibria to mass and energy balances during isenthalpic equilibration of mafic and peridotitic compositions. The calculations are based on the self-consistent pMELTS thermodynamic algorithm of Ghiorso et al. (2002). In each calculation, basaltic and peridotitic compositions are first equilibrated separately at a given temperature and pressure to obtain a reference state. These two components are then mixed at a range of mass proportions and reequilibrated under identical conditions of T and P. The nature of chemical reaction between mafic bodies and peridotite matrix can be identified via comparison of the reequilibrated and reference states. We explore the influence of imposed constraints including pressure, mass proportion of basaltic material compared to peridotite, and initial mafic and peridotite compositions. In general, the bulk of modern subducted oceanic crust is of MORB-like composition, but removal of small degree partial melts or siliceous fluids during subduction can lead to silica-deficient compositions dominated by garnet and clinopyroxene. Accordingly, we examine MORB-like and silica deficient garnet pyroxenite compositions. We also test an Fe-rich Archaean basalt. We discuss the results with respect to the partial melting behaviour of the two-component mantle.

Fowler, S.; Korenaga, J.

2009-05-01

39

Psychic distance and the performance of international retailers – A suggested theoretical framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research into firm internationalisation has identified psychic distance as a key factor in explaining variations in both expansion patterns and organisational performance. Despite the substantial growth in research on the internationalisation of retailing, most contributions have been highly descriptive and generally bereft of coherent theoretical frameworks. This paper postulates that the psychic distance concept may provide an appropriate theoretical framework

Jody Evans; Alan Treadgold; Felix T. Mavondo

2000-01-01

40

Multiagent Reinforcement Learning: Theoretical Framework and an Algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we adopt general-sum stochasticgames as a framework for multiagent reinforcementlearning. Our work extends previouswork by Littman on zero-sum stochasticgames to a broader framework. We designa multiagent Q-learning method underthis framework, and prove that it convergesto a Nash equilibrium under specified conditions.This algorithm is useful for finding theoptimal strategy when there exists a uniqueNash equilibrium in the game.

Junling Hu; Michael P. Wellman

1998-01-01

41

A theoretical framework of pedagogical agents based on psychological incentive mechanism and Artificial Psychology theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes an innovative teaching and learning theoretical framework based on psychological incentive mechanism and Artificial Psychology theory. Related works about these two areas will be addressed in section 2. This framework includes three type pedagogical agents, namely the Expert agent, the Mentor agent and the Motivator agent. This framework is intended to create a positive and personalized study

Tao Xiaome; Niu Qinzhou; Mike Jackson; Bin Hu

2008-01-01

42

A Theoretical Framework for the Studio as a Learning Environment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this article we describe a holistic, ecological framework that takes into account the surface structures and pedagogical approaches in the studio and how these elements are connected to the construction of design knowledge: epistemology. In our development of this framework, we came to understand how disciplinary underpinnings and academic…

Brandt, Carol B.; Cennamo, Katherine; Douglas, Sarah; Vernon, Mitzi; McGrath, Margarita; Reimer, Yolanda

2013-01-01

43

A Theoretical Framework for LMS MIMO Communication Systems Performance Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A statistical model for Land Mobile Satellite (LMS) channels, where transmitters and receivers are equipped with multiple antennas, is introduced. Several spectral statistics are given, which allow the theoretical performance analysis of the newly proposed channel model from both a communication and an information-theoretic point of view. Specifically, joint and marginal statistics of the squared singular-values of the channel matrix

Giuseppa Alfano; Antonio De Maio; Antonia Maria Tulino

2010-01-01

44

Towards an Information-Theoretic Framework for Analyzing Intrusion Detection Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

IDS research still needs to strengthen mathematical foundations and theoretic guidelines. In this paper, we build a formal framework, based on information theory, for analyzing and quantifying the effectiveness of an IDS. We firstly present a formal IDS model, then analyze it following an information- theoretic approach. Thus, we propose a set of information-theoretic metrics that can quantitatively measure the

Guofei Gu; Prahlad Fogla; David Dagon; Wenke Lee; Boris Skoric

2006-01-01

45

Framework for a U.S. Geological Survey Hydrologic Climate-Response Program in Maine.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents a framework for a U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) hydrologic climate-response program designed to provide early warning of changes in the seasonal water cycle of Maine. Climate-related hydrologic changes on Maines rivers and lakes in th...

C. W. Schalk G. A. Hodgkins R. M. Lent R. W. Dudley

2009-01-01

46

Proposing an Integrated Research Framework for Connectivism: Utilising Theoretical Synergies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Connectivism is receiving acknowledgement as a fresh way of conceptualising learning in the digital age. Thus, as a relatively new instructional framework, it is imperative that research on its applicability and effectiveness in a variety of educational contexts is advanced. In particular, a high premium should be placed on context-specific…

Boitshwarelo, Bopelo

2011-01-01

47

A New Theoretical Framework For Explicit and Implicit Memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

A framework to explain item-specific implicit and explicit memory is proposed. It explores the mutual implications of four kinds of processing mechanism that are familiar in the literature. The first kind of mechanisms are those related to memory representation which include the kind of storage processes that subserve the maintenance of different types of information in memory. It is argued

Andrew R. Mayes; Patricia A. Gooding; Rob van Eijk

1997-01-01

48

Immigrant Students' Experience of Schooling: A Narrative Inquiry Theoretical Framework  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|We explore immigrant students' experience of schooling focusing on Yang Yang and his family. We present insights into immigrant Chinese educational experience in Canada and bring forward a narrative-inquiry framework for the study of student experience. We find that--contrary to some of the expectations of Chinese immigrants--family relations,…

Xu, Shijing; Connelly, F. Michael; He, Ming Fang; Phillion, JoAnn

2007-01-01

49

Understanding biosystem organization Part 2: towards a theoretical framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

The notion of biosystem organization is poorly understood by students and so its exploitation as an integrative concept is far from complete. In an attempt to go some way towards removing this problem, this paper presents a framework for analysing and describing biosystem organization. Taking biosystems to be models, the nature of the modelling process is reviewed from one perspective

R. C. Paton

1993-01-01

50

A Decision Theoretic Framework for Ranking using Implicit Feedback  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a decision theoretic ranking system that incorporates both explicit and implicit feedback. The system has a model that predicts, given all available data at query time, different interactions a person might have with search results. Possible interactions include relevance labelling and clicking. We define a utility function that takes as input the outputs of the interaction model

Onno Zoeter; Michael Taylor; Ed Snelson; John Guiver; Nick Craswell; Martin Szummer

2008-01-01

51

Language Learner Strategies: Adhering to a Theoretical Framework  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The editors and guest editors of Volume 35 have very kindly asked me to write an end-piece to this special issue of "The Language Learning Journal" that has focused on language learner strategies (LLS). Particularly they have asked me to evaluate the extent to which the papers presented in this volume adhere to some sort of theoretical consensus.…

Macaro, Ernesto

2007-01-01

52

Theories of behaviour change synthesised into a set of theoretical groupings: introducing a thematic series on the theoretical domains framework  

PubMed Central

Behaviour change is key to increasing the uptake of evidence into healthcare practice. Designing behaviour-change interventions first requires problem analysis, ideally informed by theory. Yet the large number of partly overlapping theories of behaviour makes it difficult to select the most appropriate theory. The need for an overarching theoretical framework of behaviour change was addressed in research in which 128 explanatory constructs from 33 theories of behaviour were identified and grouped. The resulting Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF) appears to be a helpful basis for investigating implementation problems. Research groups in several countries have conducted TDF-based studies. It seems timely to bring together the experience of these teams in a thematic series to demonstrate further applications and to report key developments. This overview article describes the TDF, provides a brief critique of the framework, and introduces this thematic series. In a brief review to assess the extent of TDF-based research, we identified 133 papers that cite the framework. Of these, 17 used the TDF as the basis for empirical studies to explore health professionals’ behaviour. The identified papers provide evidence of the impact of the TDF on implementation research. Two major strengths of the framework are its theoretical coverage and its capacity to elicit beliefs that could signify key mediators of behaviour change. The TDF provides a useful conceptual basis for assessing implementation problems, designing interventions to enhance healthcare practice, and understanding behaviour-change processes. We discuss limitations and research challenges and introduce papers in this series.

2012-01-01

53

Signal interception: a unifying theoretical framework for feature detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

The unifying framework of the spectral-correlation theory of cyclostationary signals is used to present a broad treatment of weak, random signal detection for interception purposes. The relationships among a variety of previously proposed ad hoc detectors, optimum detectors, and newly proposed detectors are established. The spectral-correlation-plane approach to the interception problem is put forth as especially promising for detection, classification,

WILLIAM A. GARDNER

1988-01-01

54

MOTIVATION IN THE ELDERLY: A THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK AND SOME PROMISING FINDINGS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite a widespread concern with the well-being of elderly people, very little is known about the motivation behind everyday behaviours in old age. In this paper a theoretical framework that has been found useful in research on young adults is suggested as a promising direction for research on the psychology of motivation in the elderly. This framework (Deci & Ryan,

ROBERT J. VALLERAND; BRIAN P. OCONNOR

1989-01-01

55

A game theoretic framework for bandwidth allocation and pricing in broadband networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present a game theoretic framework for bandwidth allocation for elastic services in high-speed net- works. The framework is based on the idea of the Nash bargaining solution from cooperative game theory, which not only provides the rate settings of users that are Pareto optimal from the point of view of the whole system, but are also

Haïkel Yaïche; Ravi R. Mazumdar; Catherine Rosenberg

2000-01-01

56

Educating students with insecure attachment histories: toward an interdisciplinary theoretical framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

Middle school students with insecure attachment histories present a particular challenge for school personnel. These students frequently cause behavioural disruptions and fail to academically engage in course content. This paper draws from attachment theory, as well as literature in the fields of education, neurobiology and psychology, to establish a theoretical framework for future research on teachers and attachment. The framework

Brianna L. Kennedy

2008-01-01

57

Stretching the IR Theoretical Spectrum on Irish Neutrality: A Critical Social Constructivist Framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a 2006 International Political Science Review article, entitled “Choosing to Go It Alone: Irish Neutrality in Theoretical and Comparative Perspective,” Neal G. Jesse argues that Irish neutrality is best understood through a neoliberal rather than a neorealist international relations theory framework. This article posits an alternative “critical social constructivist” framework for understanding Irish neutrality. The first part of the

Karen Devine

2008-01-01

58

Biological stoichiometry: a theoretical framework connecting ecosystem ecology, evolution, and biochemistry for application in astrobiology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Astrobiology is an extremely wide-ranging field and thus is in special need of conceptual and theoretical frameworks that can integrate its various arenas of study. In this paper I review recent work associated with a conceptual framework known as \\

James J. Elser

2003-01-01

59

An Integrative Theoretical Framework for Understanding Sexual Motivation, Arousal, and Behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

An integrative theoretical framework and model for understanding sexual motivation, arousal, and behavior is presented, combining the principles of incentive motivation theory and the hierarchical control of behavior. It is intended to stimulate discussion. The framework can serve as a “route map” in understanding the links between different component processes and their interactions, as well as the relations between different

Frederick Toates

2009-01-01

60

A Theoretical Framework for Unsupervised Change Detection Based on Change Vector Analysis in the Polar Domain  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses unsupervised change detection by proposing a proper framework for a formal definition and a theoretical study of the change vector analysis (CVA) technique. This framework, which is based on the representation of the CVA in polar coordinates, aims at: 1) introducing a set of formal definitions in the polar domain (which are linked to the properties of

Francesca Bovolo; Lorenzo Bruzzone

2007-01-01

61

The importance of the theoretical framework in the formulation of clinical inferences in psychotherapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explores the importance of psychotherapists’ theoretical framework as it pertains to the development of their clinical inferences and construction of working inferences. Therapists in this study came from two different theoretical groups: those with cognitive training and those with psychoanalytic training. After presenting inferences in relation to an initial session of a psychotherapeutic treatment, psychotherapists’ inferences were analyzed

Andres Jorge Roussos; Lucila Boffi Lissin; Adela Leibovich de Duarte

2007-01-01

62

Towards Developing a Theoretical Framework for Measuring Public Sector Managers' Career Success  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to develop a theoretical framework for measuring public sector managers' career success. Design/methodology/approach: The theoretical foundation used in this study is social cognitive career theory. To conduct a literature search, several keywords were identified, i.e. career success, objective and subjective…

Rasdi, Roziah Mohd; Ismail, Maimunah; Uli, Jegak; Noah, Sidek Mohd

2009-01-01

63

Towards developing a theoretical framework for measuring public sector managers' career success  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to develop a theoretical framework for measuring public sector managers' career success. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The theoretical foundation used in this study is social cognitive career theory. To conduct a literature search, several keywords were identified, i.e. career success, objective and subjective career success, managers, managerial career development and social cognitive career theory.

Roziah Mohd Rasdi; Maimunah Ismail; Jegak Uli; Sidek Mohd Noah

2009-01-01

64

Information theoretic framework for the analysis of a slow-light delay device  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a framework for the information theoretic analysis of slow-light devices. We employ a model in which the device input is a binary-valued data sequence and the device output is considered within a window of finite duration. We use the mutual information between these two quantities to measure information con- tent. This approach enables the information theoretic definitions of

Mark A. Neifeld; Myungjun Lee

2008-01-01

65

Exploring theoretical frameworks for the analysis of fertility fluctuations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analysis of scientific debate on the determinants of procreational choice leads the author to identify four main decisional logics: primary adaptation, economic rationality, norm internalization and identity reinforcement. Revisiting the classics supports the hypothesis of a bipolarity of strategical principles governing fluctuating reproductive behaviour. In particular, dialectics between the two endogenous strategies — economic rationality and identity rationality — suggests

Giuseppe A. Micheli

1988-01-01

66

A theoretical framework for ?-glucan degradation during barley malting  

Microsoft Academic Search

During malting, barley germinates and produces hydrolytic enzymes that de-structure the endosperm, making the grains soft\\u000a and friable. This process starts close to the embryo and spreads throughout the whole grain. It is leaded by the degradation\\u000a of cell walls, which are mainly constituted of ?-glucans. Fast and extended breakdown of ?-glucans occurs by means of an expanding\\u000a reaction front

Alberto Gianinetti

2009-01-01

67

Theoretical study of ? Doradus pulsations in pre-main sequence stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The question of the existence of the pre-main sequence (PMS) ? Doradus (? Dor) pulsators has been raised by observations of young clusters such as NGC 884 hosting ? Dor members. We have explored the properties of ? Dor-type pulsations with a grid of PMS models covering the mass range {1.2 < M_*/M_? < 2.5} and we derive the theoretical instability strip (IS) for the PMS ? Dor pulsators. We explore the possibility of distinguishing between PMS and MS ? Dor by the behaviour of the period spacing of their high order gravity modes (g-modes).

Bouabid, M.-P.; Montalbán, J.; Miglio, A.; Dupret, M.-A.; Grigahcène, A.; Noels, A.

2010-12-01

68

A Theoretical Framework for End-to-End Video Quality Prediction of MPEG-based Sequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a novel theoretical framework for end-to-end video quality prediction of MPEG-based video sequences. The proposed framework encloses two discrete models: i) A model for predicting the video quality of an encoded signal at a pre-encoding stage and ii) A model for mapping QoS- sensitive network parameters (i.e. packet loss) to video quality degradation. The efficiency of both

Harilaos Koumaras; Anastasios Kourtis; Cheng-han Lin; Ce-kuen Shieh

2007-01-01

69

A theoretical framework for building online communities of practice with social networking tools  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a theoretical framework as a foundation for building online communities of practice when a suite of social networking applications referred to as collective intelligence tools are utilized to develop a product or solutions to a problem. Drawing on recent developments in Web 2.0 tools, research on communities of practice and relevant theories of learning, and the authors'

Charlotte N. Gunawardena; Mary Beth Hermans; Damien Sanchez; Carol Richmond; Maribeth Bohley; Rebekah Tuttle

2009-01-01

70

Time To Speak Up: A Theoretical Framework of Situated Pedagogy and Practice for Communication.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses a theoretical framework of situated pedagogy and practice for communication across the curriculum (CXC). Gives principles of a situated communication pedagogy. Examines implications of a situated communication pedagogy for communication in the disciplines (CID) practice. Notes the benefits of a situated communication pedagogy and…

Dannels, Deanna P.

2001-01-01

71

Towards a theoretical framework for knowledge transfer in the field of CSR and sustainability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The present paper seeks to focus on the processes involved in the knowledge transfer of CSR and sustainability programs and theorises about a conceptual framework that addresses three aspects of such a knowledge transfer process: the “thinking”, the “doing” and the “being”. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper is a theoretical interdisciplinary study, which combines insights from the theory of

Katerina Nicolopoulou

2011-01-01

72

Theoretical Frameworks for Learning-Based Approaches to Change in Industrialised-Country Agricultures  

Microsoft Academic Search

A range of theoretical perspectives on learning and change are reviewed and explored within a framework that owes much to the second order cybernetic claim that all knowing is doing. It is the aspiration of the authors to enable distinctions by the reader that illuminate their practice or their reading of the case study chapters that follow. Our ambition is

R. L. ISON; C. P. BLACKMORE; M. CERF

73

Proposing a Theoretical Framework for Digital Age Youth Information Behavior Building upon Radical Change Theory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Contemporary young people are engaged in a variety of information behaviors, such as information seeking, using, sharing, and creating. The ways youth interact with information have transformed in the shifting digital information environment; however, relatively little empirical research exists and no theoretical framework adequately explains…

Koh, Kyungwon

2011-01-01

74

Epistemologically Authentic Inquiry in Schools: A Theoretical Framework for Evaluating Inquiry Tasks.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents a theoretical framework for evaluating inquiry tasks and how similar they are to authentic science. Suggests that inquiry tasks commonly used in schools evoke reasoning processes that are qualitatively different from the processes employed in real scientific inquiry, and school reasoning tasks appear to be based on epistemology that…

Chinn, Clark A.; Malhotra, Betina A.

2002-01-01

75

A general theoretical framework for decoherence in open and closed systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A general theoretical framework for decoherence is proposed, which encompasses formalisms originally devised to deal just with open or closed systems. The conditions for decoherence are clearly stated and the relaxation and decoherence times are compared. Finally, the spin-bath model is developed in detail from the new perspective.

Castagnino, Mario; Fortin, Sebastian; Laura, Roberto; Lombardi, Olimpia

2008-08-01

76

Memory and the Self in Autism: A Review and Theoretical Framework  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reviews research on (a) autobiographical episodic and semantic memory, (b) the self-reference effect, (c) memory for the actions of self versus other (the self-enactment effect), and (d) non-autobiographical episodic memory in autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and provides a theoretical framework to account for the bidirectional…

Lind, Sophie E.

2010-01-01

77

Cross-layer optimization for OFDM wireless networks-part I: theoretical framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we provide a theoretical framework for cross-layer optimization for orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) wireless networks. The utility is used in our study to build a bridge between the physical layer and the media access control (MAC) layer and to balance the efficiency and fairness of wireless resource allocation. We formulate the cross-layer optimization problem as one

Guocong Song; Ye Li

2005-01-01

78

A general theoretical framework for decoherence in open and closed systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A general theoretical framework for decoherence is proposed, which encompasses formalisms originally devised to deal just with open or closed systems. The conditions for decoherence are clearly stated and the relaxation and decoherence times are compared. Finally, the spin-bath model is developed in detail from the new perspective.

Mario Castagnino; Sebastian Fortin; Roberto Laura; Olimpia Lombardi

2008-01-01

79

SUPPORTING COHERENCE FORMATION IN MULTIMEDIA LEARNING A Theoretical Framework and First Experimental Results  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multimedia learning environments usually combine multiple forms of representations like texts, pictures, animations, tables or formulas. However, knowledge acquisition from multiple representations requires the integration of these sources in order to construct a coherent mental representation. The present paper therefore outlines a first theoretical framework for the process of coherence formation within cognitive load theory. Despite the benefits of dealing

T. SEUFERT; R. BRÜNKEN

80

Majoring in fashion: a theoretical framework for understanding the decision-making process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Choosing a college major can be a complex decision and one that has the potential to determine an individual's professional future. The purpose of this study was to develop a theoretical framework for mapping the decision-making process. Grounded in findings from a previously published study of interviews with students majoring in fashion and the existing literature on the process of

Nancy Hodges; Elena Karpova

2010-01-01

81

Ritual performances and collective intelligence: theoretical frameworks for analysing emerging activity patterns in Cloudworks  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides an overview of emerging activity patterns on Cloudworks, a specialised site for sharing and debating ideas as well as resources on teaching, learning and scholarship in education. It provides an overview of activities such as 'flash debates', 'blended workshops' and 'open reviews' and seeks to situate dialogic interchanges and structures of involvement within the following theoretical frameworks:

Panagiota Alevizou; Gráinne Conole; Juliette Culver; Rebecca Galley

82

Toward a decision-theoretic framework for affect recognition and user assistance  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is an increasing interest in developing intelligent human-computer interaction systems that can fulfill two functions— recognizing user affective states and providing the user with timely and appropriate assistance. In this paper, we present a general unified decision-theoretic framework based on influence diagrams for simultaneously modeling user affect recognition and assistance. Affective state recognition is achieved through active probabilistic inference

Wenhui Liao; Weihong Zhang; Zhiwei Zhu; Qiang Ji; Wayne D. Gray

83

A Study of the Model of Mastery as a Theoretical Framework for Coaching Teachers Writing Workshop  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The study investigated a coach's use of a theoretical framework called the Model of Mastery to assist three teachers in becoming self-regulated in the teaching of writing workshop by moving them through three settings: acquisition, consolidation, and consultation. The goal of the coach was to assist teachers in developing expertise in procedural,…

Kimbrell, Jennifer L.

2010-01-01

84

A Theoretical Framework for an Access Programme Encompassing Further Education Training: Remedy for Educational Wastage?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes research aimed at developing a theoretical framework for Further Education and Training (FET) options within South African higher education. These alternative options could broaden the scope, value, and outcomes of current programs designed to increase access to further education by lower achievers and other unprepared students. (EV)|

Nair, P. A. P.

2002-01-01

85

Behaviour of cemented clay simulated via the theoretical framework of the Structured Cam Clay model  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the mechanical properties of cemented clay are studied. The theoretical framework of the Structured Cam Clay (SCC) model is extended to describe the behaviour of cemented clay. The SCC model is modified to take into account special features of the behaviour of cemented clay. The widely used mean effective stress parameter is modified to include the influence

Suksun Horpibulsuk; Martin D. Liu; Deepa S. Liyanapathirana; Jirayut Suebsuk

2010-01-01

86

Proposing a Theoretical Framework for Digital Age Youth Information Behavior Building upon Radical Change Theory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Contemporary young people are engaged in a variety of information behaviors, such as information seeking, using, sharing, and creating. The ways youth interact with information have transformed in the shifting digital information environment; however, relatively little empirical research exists and no theoretical framework adequately explains…

Koh, Kyungwon

2011-01-01

87

Integrative framework for assessing firms' potential to undertake Green IT initiatives via virtualization - A theoretical perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Green IT (information technology) has recently emerged into an active research area in the information systems (IS) discipline. A major gap that exists in the Green IT research literature today is the absence of a theoretical framework that can be used to assist organizations in assessing their potential for undertaking Green IT initiatives and implementing them via modern technological means

Ranjit Bose; Xin Luo

2011-01-01

88

A Theoretical Framework for Building Online Communities of Practice with Social Networking Tools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper proposes a theoretical framework as a foundation for building online communities of practice when a suite of social networking applications referred to as collective intelligence tools are utilized to develop a product or solutions to a problem. Drawing on recent developments in Web 2.0 tools, research on communities of practice and…

Gunawardena, Charlotte N.; Hermans, Mary Beth; Sanchez, Damien; Richmond, Carol; Bohley, Maribeth; Tuttle, Rebekah

2009-01-01

89

First-Year Biology Students' Understandings of Meiosis: An Investigation Using a Structural Theoretical Framework  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Meiosis is a biological concept that is both complex and important for students to learn. This study aims to explore first-year biology students' explanations of the process of meiosis, using an explicit theoretical framework provided by the Structure of the Observed Learning Outcome (SOLO) model. The research was based on responses of 334…

Quinn, Frances; Pegg, John; Panizzon, Debra

2009-01-01

90

In Search of Theoretical Framework: A Case Study of Chinese Mothers' Experiences in Immigration and Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper seeks to develop a theoretical framework that is applicable to research on recent immigrant Chinese mothers in the United States. Although Black, Chicana, and transnational feminist epistemologies exist in previous scholarship, there is no comparable discourse in the study of Chinese mothers' experiences in the United States. In this…

Chen, Shujun

2010-01-01

91

Trust relations in health care: developing a theoretical framework for the “new” NHS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This paper seeks to address how and why trust relations in the NHS may be changing and presents a theoretical framework for exploring them in future empirical research. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – This paper provides a conceptual analysis. It proposes that public and patient trust in health care in the UK appears to be shaped by a variety of factors.

Rosemary Rowe; Michael Calnan

2006-01-01

92

First-year Biology Students' Understandings of Meiosis: An investigation using a structural theoretical framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

Meiosis is a biological concept that is both complex and important for students to learn. This study aims to explore first?year biology students’ explanations of the process of meiosis, using an explicit theoretical framework provided by the Structure of the Observed Learning Outcome (SOLO) model. The research was based on responses of 334 first?year biology students to practical and examination

Frances Quinn; John Pegg; Debra Panizzon

2009-01-01

93

A theoretical framework to describe communication processes during medical disability assessment interviews  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Research in different fields of medicine suggests that communication is important in physician-patient encounters and influences satisfaction with these encounters. It is argued that this also applies to the non-curative tasks that physicians perform, such as sickness certification and medical disability assessments. However, there is no conceptualised theoretical framework that can be used to describe intentions with regard to

H Jolanda van Rijssen; Antonius JM Schellart; Johannes R Anema; Allard J van der Beek

2009-01-01

94

Proposing a Theoretical Framework for Digital Age Youth Information Behavior Building upon Radical Change Theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contemporary young people are engaged in a variety of information behaviors, such as information seeking, using, sharing, and creating. The ways youth interact with information have transformed in the shifting digital information environment; however, relatively little empirical research exists and no theoretical framework adequately explains digital age youth information behaviors from a holistic perspective. In order to bridge the empirical

Kyungwon Koh

2011-01-01

95

Towards a Theoretical Framework for Teaching Controversial Socio-scientific Issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper develops a conceptual basis for a model on the teaching of socio-scientific controversial issues for secondary or high school students. I argue that the teaching of controversial issues needs a stronger theoretical base. Drawing on a liberal democratic conception of possible sources of conflict, three strands are developed that provide a framework for teachers when teaching socio-scientific issues:

Ralph Levinson

2006-01-01

96

Intellect: a theoretical framework for personality traits related to intellectual achievements.  

PubMed

The present article develops a theoretical framework for the structure of personality traits related to intellectual achievements. We postulate a 2-dimensional model, differentiating between 2 processes (Seek and Conquer) and 3 operations (Think, Learn, and Create). The framework was operationalized by a newly developed measure, which was validated based on 2 samples. Subsequently, in 3 studies (overall N = 1,478), the 2-dimensional structure of the Intellect framework was generally supported. Additionally, subdimensions of the Intellect framework specifically predicted conceptually related criteria, including scholastic performance, vocational interest, and leisure activities. Furthermore, results from multidimensional scaling and higher order confirmatory factor analyses show that the framework allows for the incorporation of several constructs that have been proposed on different theoretical backgrounds, such as need for cognition, typical intellectual engagement, curiosity, intrinsic motivation, goal orientation, and openness to ideas. It is concluded that based on the Intellect framework, these constructs, which have been researched separately in the literature, can be meaningfully integrated. PMID:23527846

Mussel, Patrick

2013-03-25

97

Obesity in sub-Saharan Africa: development of an ecological theoretical framework.  

PubMed

The prevalence of overweight and obesity is increasing in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). There is a need for theoretical frameworks to catalyze further research and to inform the development of multi-level, context-appropriate interventions. In this commentary, we propose a preliminary ecological theoretical framework to conceptualize factors that contribute to increases in overweight and obesity in SSA. The framework is based on a Causality Continuum model [Coreil et al. Social and Behavioral Foundations of Public Health. Sage Publications, Thousand Oaks] that considers distant, intermediate and proximate influences. The influences incorporated in the model include globalization and urbanization as distant factors; occupation, social relationships, built environment and cultural perceptions of weight as intermediate factors and caloric intake, physical inactivity and genetics as proximate factors. The model illustrates the interaction of factors along a continuum, from the individual to the global marketplace, in shaping trends in overweight and obesity in SSA. The framework will be presented, each influence elucidated and implications for research and intervention development discussed. There is a tremendous need for further research on obesity in SSA. An improved evidence base will serve to validate and develop the proposed framework further. PMID:22933446

Scott, Alison; Ejikeme, Chinwe Stella; Clottey, Emmanuel Nii; Thomas, Joy Goens

2012-08-29

98

Analysis of poetic literature using B. F. Skinner's theoretical framework from verbal behavior  

PubMed Central

This paper examines Skinner's work on verbal behavior in the context of literature as a particular class of written verbal behavior. It looks at contemporary literary theory and analysis and the contributions that Skinner's theoretical framework can make. Two diverse examples of poetic literature are chosen and analyzed following Skinner's framework, examining the dynamic interplay between the writer and reader that take place within the bounds of the work presented. It is concluded that Skinner's hypotheses about verbal behavior and the functional approach to understanding it have much to offer literary theorists in their efforts to understand literary works and should be more carefully examined.

Luke, Nicole M.

2003-01-01

99

Theoretical framework for the histone modification network: modifications in the unstructured histone tails form a robust scale-free network  

Microsoft Academic Search

A rapid increase in research on the relationship between histone modifications and their subsequent reactions in the nucleus has revealed that the histone modification system is complex, and robust against point mutations. The prevailing theoretical framework (the histone code hypothesis) is inadequate to explain either the complexity or robustness, making the formulation of a new theoretical framework both necessary and

Yohei Hayashi; Toshiya Senda; Norihiko Sano; Masami Horikoshi

2009-01-01

100

Measuring instructional congruence in elementary science classrooms: Pedagogical and methodological components of a theoretical framework  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article is situated within a theoretical framework, instructional congruence, articulating issues of student diversity with the demands of academic disciplines. In the context of a large-scale study targeting elementary school science, the article describes a research instrument that aims to combine the strengths of both quantitative and qualitative approaches to classroom data. The project-developed classroom observation guideline is a series of detailed scales that produce numerical ratings based on qualitative observations of different aspects of classroom practice. The article's objectives are both pedagogical and methodological, reflecting the dual functionality of the instrument: (a) to concretize theoretical constructs articulating academic disciplines with student diversity in ways that are useful for rethinking classroom practice; and (b) to take advantage of the strengths of qualitative educational research, but within a quantitative analytical framework that may be applied across large numbers of classrooms.

Luykx, Aurolyn; Lee, Okhee

2007-03-01

101

Surface Tension of Liquid Alkali, Alkaline, and Main Group Metals: Theoretical Treatment and Relationship Investigations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An improved theoretical method for calculating the surface tension of liquid metals is proposed. A recently derived equation that allows an accurate estimate of surface tension to be made for the large number of elements, based on statistical thermodynamics, is used for a means of calculating reliable values for the surface tension of pure liquid alkali, alkaline earth, and main group metals at the melting point, In order to increase the validity of the model, the surface tension of liquid lithium was calculated in the temperature range 454 K to 1300 K (181 °C to 1027 °C), where the calculated surface tension values follow a straight line behavior given by ? = 441 - 0.15 (T-Tm) (mJ m-2). The calculated surface excess entropy of liquid Li (- d?/ dT) was found to be 0.15 mJ m-2 K-1, which agrees well with the reported experimental value (0.147 mJ/m2 K). Moreover, the relations of the calculated surface tension of alkali metals to atomic radius, heat of fusion, and specific heat capacity are described. The results are in excellent agreement with the existing experimental data.

Aqra, Fathi; Ayyad, Ahmed

2011-09-01

102

Developing a theoretical framework on postpartum care from Tanzanian midwives' views on their role  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: to describe a theoretical framework developed from the views of midwives in relation to provision of systematic postpartum care.Design: qualitative focus group study using grounded theory approach.Setting: Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.Participants: 49 nurse-midwives in five focus group discussions each having 9–11 participants.Findings: the components of the Basic Social Process of ‘Becoming a good resource and support person for the

Helen I Lugina; Eva Johansson; Gunilla Lindmark; Kyllike Christensson

2002-01-01

103

On the Distinction between Model-Theoretic and Generative-Enumerative Syntactic Frameworks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two kinds of framework for stating grammars of natural lan- guages emerged during the 20th century. Here we call them generative- enumerative syntax (GES)and model-theoretic syntax (MTS). They are based on very different mathematics. GES developed in the 1950s out of Post's work on the syntactic side of logic. MTS arose somewhat later out of the semantic side of logic.

Geoffrey K. Pullum; Barbara C. Scholz

2001-01-01

104

Toward a decision-theoretic framework for affect recognition and user assistance  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is an increasing interest in developing intelligent human-computer interaction systems that can fulflll two functions { recognizing user afiective states and providing the user with timely and appropriate assistance. In this paper, we present a general unifled decision-theoretic framework based on In?uence Diagrams for simultane- ously modeling user afiect recognition and assistance. Afiective state recognition is achieved through active

Wenhui Liao; Weihong Zhang; Zhiwei Zhu; Qiang Ji; Wayne D. Gray

2006-01-01

105

Memory and the self in autismA review and theoretical framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reviews research on (a) autobiographical episodic and semantic memory, (b) the self-reference effect, (c) memory for the actions of self versus other (the self-enactment effect), and (d) non-autobiographical episodic memory in autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and provides a theoretical framework to account for the bidirectional relationship between memory and the self in ASD. It is argued that individuals

Sophie E. Lind

2010-01-01

106

Spatio-temporal channel characterization: theoretical framework and applications in MIMO system design  

Microsoft Academic Search

The utilization of multiple antennas and space–time codes in multiple-input and multiple-output (MIMO) communication systems\\u000a significantly improves the transmission channel capacity without using additional bandwidth and power. The improvement is\\u000a achieved by decomposing the spatial structure of transmission channels and performing appropriate temporal and spatial multiplexing.\\u000a In this paper, we propose a novel theoretical framework for MIMO channel modeling and

Viet-Ha Pham; Jean-Yves Chouinard; Dominic Grenier; Huu-Tue Huynh; Xianbin Wang; Yiyan Wu

107

A Game Theoretic Framework for Multi-agent Deployment in Intrusion Detection Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Due to cost considerations there must exist in intrusion detection system, a trade-off between the user’s ease of access and\\u000a capability of detecting attacks. The proposed framework applies two game theoretic models for economic deployment of intrusion\\u000a detection agent. The first scheme models and analyzes the interaction behaviors between an attacker and intrusion detection\\u000a agent within a non-cooperative game, and

Yi-Ming Chen; Dachrahn Wu; Cheng-Kuang Wu

108

Field Computation: A Theoretical Framework for Massively Parallel Analog Computation Parts I -- IV  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report comprises the first four parts of a systematic presentation offield computation, a theoretical framework for understanding and designingmassively parallel analog computers. This theory treats computation as thecontinuous transformation of fields: continuous ensembles of continuous-valueddata. This theory is technology-independent in that it can be realized throughoptical and molecular processes, as well as through large neural networks.Part I is an

Bruce Maclennan

1990-01-01

109

Praxis and reflexivity for interprofessional education: towards an inclusive theoretical framework for learning.  

PubMed

While there is growing evidence of theoretical perspectives adopted in interprofessional education, learning theories tend to foreground the individual, focusing on psycho-social aspects of individual differences and professional identity to the detriment of considering social-structural factors at work in social practices. Conversely socially situated practice is criticised for being context-specific, making it difficult to draw generalisable conclusions for improving interprofessional education. This article builds on a theoretical framework derived from earlier research, drawing on the dynamics of Dewey's experiential learning theory and Archer's critical realist social theory, to make a case for a meta-theoretical framework enabling social-constructivist and situated learning theories to be interlinked and integrated through praxis and reflexivity. Our current analysis is grounded in an interprofessional curriculum initiative mediated by a virtual community peopled by health and social care users. Student perceptions, captured through quantitative and qualitative data, suggest three major disruptive themes, creating opportunities for congruence and disjuncture and generating a model of zones of interlinked praxis associated with professional differences and identity, pedagogic strategies and technology-mediated approaches. This model contributes to a framework for understanding the complexity of interprofessional learning and offers bridges between individual and structural factors for engaging with the enablements and constraints at work in communities of practice and networks for interprofessional education. PMID:23679676

Hutchings, Maggie; Scammell, Janet; Quinney, Anne

2013-05-16

110

Theoretically Informed Correlates of Hepatitis B Knowledge among Four Asian Groups: The Health Behavior Framework  

PubMed Central

Background Few studies have examined theoretically informed constructs related to hepatitis B (HBV) testing, and comparisons across studies is challenging due to lack of uniformity in constructs assessed. This analysis examines relationships among Health Behavior Framework factors across four Asian American groups to advance the development of theory-based interventions for HBV testing in at-risk populations. Methods Data were collected from 2007–2010 as part of baseline surveys during four intervention trials promoting HBV testing among Vietnamese-, Hmong-, Korean- and Cambodian-Americans (n = 1,735). Health Behavior Framework constructs assessed included: awareness of HBV, knowledge of transmission routes, perceived susceptibility, perceived severity, doctor recommendation, stigma of HBV infection, and perceived efficacy of testing. Within each group we assessed associations between our intermediate outcome of knowledge of HBV transmission and other constructs, to assess the concurrent validity of our model and instruments. Results While the absolute levels for Health Behavior Framework factors varied across groups, relationships between knowledge and other factors were generally consistent. This suggests similarities rather than differences with respect to posited drivers of HBV-related behavior. Discussion Our findings indicate that Health Behavior Framework constructs are applicable to diverse ethnic groups and provide preliminary evidence for the construct validity of the Health Behavior Framework.

Maxwell, AE; Stewart, SL; Glenn, BA; Wong, WK; Yasui, Y; Chang, LC; Taylor, VM; Nguyen, TT; Chen, MS; Bastani, R

2012-01-01

111

Towards culturally relevant classroom science: a theoretical framework focusing on traditional plant healing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A theoretical framework is an important component of a research study. It grounds the study and guides the methodological design. It also forms a reference point for the interpretation of the research findings. This paper conceptually examines the process of constructing a multi-focal theoretical lens for guiding studies that aim to accommodate local culture in science classrooms. A multi-focal approach is adopted because the integration of indigenous knowledge and modern classroom science is complex. The central argument in this paper is that a multi-focal lens accommodates the multifaceted nature of integrating indigenous knowledge and western oriented classroom science. The objective of the paper, therefore, is to construct a theoretical framework that can be used to guide and inform the integration of indigenous knowledge and western science at classroom science level. The traditional plant healing form of indigenous knowledge is used as a case study. The paper is important for raising the complexities, tensions and dilemmas inherent in the design and implementation of indigenous knowledge-science integrated curricula. An understanding of the issues raised will pave the way towards achieving culturally relevant classroom science.

Mpofu, Vongai; Otulaja, Femi S.; Mushayikwa, Emmanuel

2013-08-01

112

A second gradient theoretical framework for hierarchical multiscale modeling of materials  

SciTech Connect

A theoretical framework for the hierarchical multiscale modeling of inelastic response of heterogeneous materials has been presented. Within this multiscale framework, the second gradient is used as a non local kinematic link between the response of a material point at the coarse scale and the response of a neighborhood of material points at the fine scale. Kinematic consistency between these scales results in specific requirements for constraints on the fluctuation field. The wryness tensor serves as a second-order measure of strain. The nature of the second-order strain induces anti-symmetry in the first order stress at the coarse scale. The multiscale ISV constitutive theory is couched in the coarse scale intermediate configuration, from which an important new concept in scale transitions emerges, namely scale invariance of dissipation. Finally, a strategy for developing meaningful kinematic ISVs and the proper free energy functions and evolution kinetics is presented.

Luscher, Darby J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bronkhorst, Curt A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mc Dowell, David L [GEORGIA TECH

2009-01-01

113

Exploring Occupational and Behavioral Risk Factors for Obesity in Firefighters: A Theoretical Framework and Study Design  

PubMed Central

Firefighters and police officers have the third highest prevalence of obesity among 41 male occupational groups in the United States (US). However, few studies have examined the relationship of firefighter working conditions and health behaviors with obesity. This paper presents a theoretical framework describing the relationship between working conditions, health behaviors, and obesity in firefighters. In addition, the paper describes a detailed study plan for exploring the role of occupational and behavioral risk factors in the development of obesity in firefighters enrolled in the Orange County Fire Authority Wellness Fitness Program. The study plan will be described with emphasis on its methodological merits: adopting a participatory action research approach, developing a firefighter-specific work and health questionnaire, conducting both a cross-sectional epidemiological study using the questionnaire and a sub-study to assess the validity of the questionnaire with dietary intake and physical activity measures, and evaluating the strengths and weaknesses of the body mass index as an obesity measure in comparison to skinfold-based percent body fat. The study plan based on a theoretical framework can be an essential first step for establishing effective intervention programs for obesity among professional and voluntary firefighters.

Schnall, Peter; Dobson, Marnie; Israel, Leslie; Landsbergis, Paul; Galassetti, Pietro; Pontello, Andria; Kojaku, Stacey; Baker, Dean

2011-01-01

114

Exploring occupational and behavioral risk factors for obesity in firefighters: a theoretical framework and study design.  

PubMed

Firefighters and police officers have the third highest prevalence of obesity among 41 male occupational groups in the United States (US). However, few studies have examined the relationship of firefighter working conditions and health behaviors with obesity. This paper presents a theoretical framework describing the relationship between working conditions, health behaviors, and obesity in firefighters. In addition, the paper describes a detailed study plan for exploring the role of occupational and behavioral risk factors in the development of obesity in firefighters enrolled in the Orange County Fire Authority Wellness Fitness Program. The study plan will be described with emphasis on its methodological merits: adopting a participatory action research approach, developing a firefighter-specific work and health questionnaire, conducting both a cross-sectional epidemiological study using the questionnaire and a sub-study to assess the validity of the questionnaire with dietary intake and physical activity measures, and evaluating the strengths and weaknesses of the body mass index as an obesity measure in comparison to skinfold-based percent body fat. The study plan based on a theoretical framework can be an essential first step for establishing effective intervention programs for obesity among professional and voluntary firefighters. PMID:22953214

Choi, Bongkyoo; Schnall, Peter; Dobson, Marnie; Israel, Leslie; Landsbergis, Paul; Galassetti, Pietro; Pontello, Andria; Kojaku, Stacey; Baker, Dean

2011-12-05

115

Graph theoretic framework based cooperative control and estimation of multiple UAVs for target tracking  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Designing the control technique for nonlinear dynamic systems is a significant challenge. Approaches to designing a nonlinear controller are studied and an extensive study on backstepping based technique is performed in this research with the purpose of tracking a moving target autonomously. Our main motivation is to explore the controller for cooperative and coordinating unmanned vehicles in a target tracking application. To start with, a general theoretical framework for target tracking is studied and a controller in three dimensional environment for a single UAV is designed. This research is primarily focused on finding a generalized method which can be applied to track almost any reference trajectory. The backstepping technique is employed to derive the controller for a simplified UAV kinematic model. This controller can compute three autopilot modes i.e. velocity, ground heading (or course angle), and flight path angle for tracking the unmanned vehicle. Numerical implementation is performed in MATLAB with the assumption of having perfect and full state information of the target to investigate the accuracy of the proposed controller. This controller is then frozen for the multi-vehicle problem. Distributed or decentralized cooperative control is discussed in the context of multi-agent systems. A consensus based cooperative control is studied; such consensus based control problem can be viewed from the algebraic graph theory concepts. The communication structure between the UAVs is represented by the dynamic graph where UAVs are represented by the nodes and the communication links are represented by the edges. The previously designed controller is augmented to account for the group to obtain consensus based on their communication. A theoretical development of the controller for the cooperative group of UAVs is presented and the simulation results for different communication topologies are shown. This research also investigates the cases where the communication topology switches to a different topology over particular time instants. Lyapunov analysis is performed to show stability in all cases. Another important aspect of this dissertation research is to implement the controller for the case, where perfect or full state information is not available. This necessitates the design of an estimator to estimate the system state. A nonlinear estimator, Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) is first developed for target tracking with a single UAV. The uncertainties involved with the measurement model and dynamics model are considered as zero mean Gaussian noises with some known covariances. The measurements of the full state of the target are not available and only the range, elevation, and azimuth angle are available from an onboard seeker sensor. A separate EKF is designed to estimate the UAV's own state where the state measurement is available through on-board sensors. The controller computes the three control commands based on the estimated states of target and its own states. Estimation based control laws is also implemented for colored noise measurement uncertainties, and the controller performance is shown with the simulation results. The estimation based control approach is then extended for the cooperative target tracking case. The target information is available to the network and a separate estimator is used to estimate target states. All of the UAVs in the network apply the same control law and the only difference is that each UAV updates the commands according to their connection. The simulation is performed for both cases of fixed and time varying communication topology. Monte Carlo simulation is also performed with different sample noises to investigate the performance of the estimator. The proposed technique is shown to be simple and robust to noisy environments.

Ahmed, Mousumi

116

Patterns of Control over the Teaching-Studying-Learning Process and Classrooms as Complex Dynamic Environments: A Theoretical Framework  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this theoretical paper the role of power in classroom interactions is examined in terms of a dominance continuum to advance a theoretical framework justifying the emergence of three ways of distributing power when it comes to dealing with the control over the teaching-studying-learning (TSL) "pattern of teacher domination," "pattern of…

Harjunen, Elina

2012-01-01

117

Patterns of Control over the Teaching-Studying-Learning Process and Classrooms as Complex Dynamic Environments: A Theoretical Framework  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this theoretical paper the role of power in classroom interactions is examined in terms of a dominance continuum to advance a theoretical framework justifying the emergence of three ways of distributing power when it comes to dealing with the control over the teaching-studying-learning (TSL) "pattern of teacher domination," "pattern of…

Harjunen, Elina

2012-01-01

118

A simple theoretical framework for understanding heterogeneous differentiation of CD4+ T cells  

PubMed Central

Background CD4+ T cells have several subsets of functional phenotypes, which play critical yet diverse roles in the immune system. Pathogen-driven differentiation of these subsets of cells is often heterogeneous in terms of the induced phenotypic diversity. In vitro recapitulation of heterogeneous differentiation under homogeneous experimental conditions indicates some highly regulated mechanisms by which multiple phenotypes of CD4+ T cells can be generated from a single population of naïve CD4+ T cells. Therefore, conceptual understanding of induced heterogeneous differentiation will shed light on the mechanisms controlling the response of populations of CD4+ T cells under physiological conditions. Results We present a simple theoretical framework to show how heterogeneous differentiation in a two-master-regulator paradigm can be governed by a signaling network motif common to all subsets of CD4+ T cells. With this motif, a population of naïve CD4+ T cells can integrate the signals from their environment to generate a functionally diverse population with robust commitment of individual cells. Notably, two positive feedback loops in this network motif govern three bistable switches, which in turn, give rise to three types of heterogeneous differentiated states, depending upon particular combinations of input signals. We provide three prototype models illustrating how to use this framework to explain experimental observations and make specific testable predictions. Conclusions The process in which several types of T helper cells are generated simultaneously to mount complex immune responses upon pathogenic challenges can be highly regulated, and a simple signaling network motif can be responsible for generating all possible types of heterogeneous populations with respect to a pair of master regulators controlling CD4+ T cell differentiation. The framework provides a mathematical basis for understanding the decision-making mechanisms of CD4+ T cells, and it can be helpful for interpreting experimental results. Mathematical models based on the framework make specific testable predictions that may improve our understanding of this differentiation system.

2012-01-01

119

A theoretical framework for the role of fascia in manual therapy.  

PubMed

A theoretical framework for the role that fascia may play in apparently diverse passive manual therapies is presented. The relevant anatomy of fascia is briefly reviewed. Therapies are divided into myofascial ('soft tissue') and manipulative ('joint-based') and comparisons are made between them on a qualitative basis using measures of pain, function and 'autonomic activation'. When these three outcomes are evaluated between therapies it is observed that they are usually comparable in the quality, if not the quantity of the measures. Viewed from a patients' perspective alone the therapeutic benefits are hard to distinguish. It is proposed that a biologically plausible mechanism which may generate a significant component of the observed effects of manual therapies of all descriptions, is the therapeutic stimulation of fascia in its various forms within the body. Such considerations may help explain why diverse therapies apparently give comparable results. PMID:22196432

Simmonds, Nigel; Miller, Peter; Gemmell, Hugh

2010-09-27

120

Biological stoichiometry: a theoretical framework connecting ecosystem ecology, evolution, and biochemistry for application in astrobiology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Astrobiology is an extremely wide-ranging field and thus is in special need of conceptual and theoretical frameworks that can integrate its various arenas of study. In this paper I review recent work associated with a conceptual framework known as "ecological stoichiometry" and even more recent extensions in the development of "biological stoichiometry". Ecological stoichiometry is the study of the balance of energy and multiple chemical elements in ecological interactions and has developed rapidly in the study of nutrient cycling and energy flow in aquatic food webs. It identifies the elemental composition of interacting biota as central in understanding the nature of their interactions and dynamics, including key feedbacks via nutrient recycling. Biological stoichiometry extends this mode of thinking to all types of biological systems. It especially seeks to better understand, at the biochemical and genetic levels, the factors influencing the elemental composition of living things and the evolutionary forces that drive and constrain that elemental composition. By connecting key concepts of ecosystem ecology, evolutionary biology and biochemistry, stoichiometric theory integrates biological information into a more coherent whole that holds considerable promise for application in astrobiology. Several examples of potential astrobiological applications of stoichiometric analysis are offered, including ones related to pre-biotic evolution, the Cambrian explosion, biosignatures and biological feedbacks on planetary carbon cycling.

Elser, James J.

2003-07-01

121

Fundamental theoretical bias in gravitational wave astrophysics and the parametrized post-Einsteinian framework  

SciTech Connect

We consider the concept of fundamental bias in gravitational wave astrophysics as the assumption that general relativity is the correct theory of gravity during the entire wave-generation and propagation regime. Such an assumption is valid in the weak field, as verified by precision experiments and observations, but it need not hold in the dynamical strong-field regime where tests are lacking. Fundamental bias can cause systematic errors in the detection and parameter estimation of signals, which can lead to a mischaracterization of the Universe through incorrect inferences about source event rates and populations. We propose a remedy through the introduction of the parametrized post-Einsteinian framework, which consists of the enhancement of waveform templates via the inclusion of post-Einsteinian parameters. These parameters would ostensibly be designed to interpolate between templates constructed in general relativity and well-motivated alternative theories of gravity, and also include extrapolations that follow sound theoretical principles, such as consistency with conservation laws and symmetries. As an example, we construct parametrized post-Einsteinian templates for the binary coalescence of equal-mass, nonspinning compact objects in a quasicircular inspiral. The parametrized post-Einsteinian framework should allow matched filtered data to select a specific set of post-Einsteinian parameters without a priori assuming the validity of the former, thus either verifying general relativity or pointing to possible dynamical strong-field deviations.

Yunes, Nicolas; Pretorius, Frans [Department of Physics, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States)

2009-12-15

122

Geoscience Academic Provenance: A Theoretical Framework for Understanding Geoscience Students' Pathways  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The demand and employment opportunities for geoscientists in the United States are projected to increase 23% from 2008 to 2018 (Gonzales, 2011). Despite this trend, there is a disconnect between undergraduate geoscience students and their desire to pursue geoscience careers. A theoretical framework was developed to understand the reasons why students decide to major in the geosciences and map those decisions to their career aspirations (Houlton, 2010). A modified critical incident study was conducted to develop the pathway model from 17, one-hour long semi-structured interviews of undergraduate geoscience majors from two Midwest Research Institutions (Houlton, 2010). Geoscience Academic Provenance maps geoscience students' initial interests, entry points into the major, critical incidents and future career goals as a pathway, which elucidates the relationships between each of these components. Analyses identified three geoscience student population groups that followed distinct pathways: Natives, Immigrants and Refugees. A follow up study was conducted in 2011 to ascertain whether these students continued on their predicted pathways, and if not, reasons for attrition. Geoscientists can use this framework as a guide to inform future recruitment and retention initiatives and target these geoscience population groups for specific employment sectors.

Houlton, H.; Keane, C.

2012-04-01

123

Binding Site Graphs: A New Graph Theoretical Framework for Prediction of Transcription Factor Binding Sites  

PubMed Central

Computational prediction of nucleotide binding specificity for transcription factors remains a fundamental and largely unsolved problem. Determination of binding positions is a prerequisite for research in gene regulation, a major mechanism controlling phenotypic diversity. Furthermore, an accurate determination of binding specificities from high-throughput data sources is necessary to realize the full potential of systems biology. Unfortunately, recently performed independent evaluation showed that more than half the predictions from most widely used algorithms are false. We introduce a graph-theoretical framework to describe local sequence similarity as the pair-wise distances between nucleotides in promoter sequences, and hypothesize that densely connected subgraphs are indicative of transcription factor binding sites. Using a well-established sampling algorithm coupled with simple clustering and scoring schemes, we identify sets of closely related nucleotides and test those for known TF binding activity. Using an independent benchmark, we find our algorithm predicts yeast binding motifs considerably better than currently available techniques and without manual curation. Importantly, we reduce the number of false positive predictions in yeast to less than 30%. We also develop a framework to evaluate the statistical significance of our motif predictions. We show that our approach is robust to the choice of input promoters, and thus can be used in the context of predicting binding positions from noisy experimental data. We apply our method to identify binding sites using data from genome scale ChIP–chip experiments. Results from these experiments are publicly available at http://cagt10.bu.edu/BSG. The graphical framework developed here may be useful when combining predictions from numerous computational and experimental measures. Finally, we discuss how our algorithm can be used to improve the sensitivity of computational predictions of transcription factor binding specificities.

Reddy, Timothy E; DeLisi, Charles; Shakhnovich, Boris E

2007-01-01

124

Formal Features of a General Theoretical Framework for Decoherence in Open and Closed Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two complementary decoherence formalisms, Environment Induced Decoherence (EID) for open systems and Self Induced Decoherence (SID) for close systems are compared under a common General Theoretical Formalism for Decoherence (GTFD). The differences and similarities of EID and SID are studied, e.g. that the main difference is that EID only considers the relevant information of the proper system S and neglects the rest, while SID considers all possible information available from a certain class of measurement instruments and neglects the non-available information.

Castagnino, Mario; Fortin, Sebastian

2013-05-01

125

Theoretical investigations on the chemical bonding, electronic structure, and optical properties of the metal-organic framework MOF-5.  

PubMed

The chemical bonding, electronic structure, and optical properties of metal-organic framework-5 (MOF-5) were systematically investigated using ab initio density functional calculations. The unit cell volume and atomic positions were optimized with the Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof (PBE) functional leading to a good agreement between the experimental and the theoretical equilibrium structural parameters. The calculated bulk modulus indicates that MOF-5 is a soft material. The estimated band gap from a density of state (DOS) calculation for MOF-5 is about 3.4 eV, indicating a nonmetallic character. As MOFs are considered as potential materials for photocatalysts, active components in hybrid solar cells, and electroluminescence cells, the optical properties of this material were investigated. The detailed analysis of chemical bonding in MOF-5 reveals the nature of the Zn-O, O-C, H-C, and C-C bonds, that is, Zn-O having mainly ionic interaction whereas O-C, H-C, and C-C exhibit mainly covalent interactions. The findings in this paper may contribute to a comprehensive understanding about this kind of material and shed insight into the synthesis and application of novel and stable MOFs. PMID:20961146

Yang, Li-Ming; Vajeeston, Ponniah; Ravindran, Ponniah; Fjellvåg, Helmer; Tilset, Mats

2010-10-20

126

The Theoretical Underpinnings of the Influence of Customer Reward Programs on Customer Retention: A Framework and Propositions for Future Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a framework and propositions for future research on the influence of customer reward programs on customer\\u000a retention by reviewing the studies on the customer reward programs by employing the SEM and discrete choice dynamic programming\\u000a model. This framework will give rationale and advices theoretically on how to implement relationship marketing instrument\\u000a in CRM, further, it will enrich

Chunqing Li; Ping Zhao; Junping Ma

127

A Theoretical Framework for Combining Techniques that Probe the Link Between Galaxies and Dark Matter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We develop a theoretical framework that combines measurements of galaxy-galaxy lensing, galaxy clustering, and the galaxy stellar mass function in a self-consistent manner. While considerable effort has been invested in exploring each of these probes individually, attempts to combine them are still in their infancy. These combinations have the potential to elucidate the galaxy-dark matter connection and the galaxy formation physics responsible for it, as well as to constrain cosmological parameters and to test the nature of gravity. In this paper, we focus on a theoretical model that describes the galaxy-dark matter connection based on standard halo occupation distribution techniques. Several key modifications enable us to extract additional parameters that determine the stellar-to-halo mass relation and to simultaneously fit data from multiple probes while allowing for independent binning schemes for each probe. We construct mock catalogs from numerical simulations to investigate the effects of sample variance and covariance for each probe. Finally, we analyze how trends in each of the three observables impact the derived parameters of the model. In particular, we investigate various features of the observed galaxy stellar mass function (low-mass slope, "plateau," knee, and high-mass cutoff) and show how each feature is related to the underlying relationship between stellar and halo mass. We demonstrate that the observed "plateau" feature in the stellar mass function at M * ~ 2 × 1010 M sun is due to the transition that occurs in the stellar-to-halo mass relation at Mh ~ 1012 M sun from a low-mass power-law regime to a sub-exponential function at higher stellar mass.

Leauthaud, Alexie; Tinker, Jeremy; Behroozi, Peter S.; Busha, Michael T.; Wechsler, Risa H.

2011-09-01

128

A THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK FOR COMBINING TECHNIQUES THAT PROBE THE LINK BETWEEN GALAXIES AND DARK MATTER  

SciTech Connect

We develop a theoretical framework that combines measurements of galaxy-galaxy lensing, galaxy clustering, and the galaxy stellar mass function in a self-consistent manner. While considerable effort has been invested in exploring each of these probes individually, attempts to combine them are still in their infancy. These combinations have the potential to elucidate the galaxy-dark matter connection and the galaxy formation physics responsible for it, as well as to constrain cosmological parameters and to test the nature of gravity. In this paper, we focus on a theoretical model that describes the galaxy-dark matter connection based on standard halo occupation distribution techniques. Several key modifications enable us to extract additional parameters that determine the stellar-to-halo mass relation and to simultaneously fit data from multiple probes while allowing for independent binning schemes for each probe. We construct mock catalogs from numerical simulations to investigate the effects of sample variance and covariance for each probe. Finally, we analyze how trends in each of the three observables impact the derived parameters of the model. In particular, we investigate various features of the observed galaxy stellar mass function (low-mass slope, 'plateau', knee, and high-mass cutoff) and show how each feature is related to the underlying relationship between stellar and halo mass. We demonstrate that the observed 'plateau' feature in the stellar mass function at M{sub *} {approx} 2 x 10{sup 10} M{sub sun} is due to the transition that occurs in the stellar-to-halo mass relation at M{sub h} {approx} 10{sup 12} M{sub sun} from a low-mass power-law regime to a sub-exponential function at higher stellar mass.

Leauthaud, Alexie [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Tinker, Jeremy [Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, Department of Physics, New York University, New York, NY 10003 (United States); Behroozi, Peter S.; Busha, Michael T.; Wechsler, Risa H., E-mail: asleauthaud@lbl.gov [Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Physics Department, Stanford University, and SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States)

2011-09-01

129

A theoretical framework for the incorporation of history in science education  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis formulates a theoretical framework for the incorporation of history of science in science teaching, which, it is argued, is essential to laying a stable foundation for instructional design and future empirical studies. It is assumed that the historical approach to teaching science no longer needs defending and that contextual methods are a pedagogically sound approach to learning. Various cognitive and learning theories suggest that there are five distinct contexts that are important in engaging learners: the theoretical, practical, social, historical, and affective. On the basis of these five contexts, a model for teaching and learning is constructed, in which the story assumes a major role in engaging the learner affectively. This model is named the Story-Driven Contextual Approach (SDCA). The SDCA is introduced to students by means of a narrative, encouraging students to become actively engaged with the five contexts. In the SDCA, students are seen as novice researchers and the teacher as a research director. The place and nature of the historical science story in science education is a relatively undeveloped area in the literature. This thesis argues that the development of the events in a story proceed in the same fashion as the steps in learning a concept. A structural model of a story consisting of a three-stage temporal sequence, which includes a causative element, is presented and developed. It is argued that the conceptual change process, from a temporal perspective, can also be viewed as a three-stage sequence similar to the story. The story can, in this light, be thought of as the re-enactment of a particular type of learning process. This knowledge about the nature of stories can serve as a guiding principle in the designing and writing of effective stories based on the history of science, which are to be incorporated with the SDCA. The SDCA was tested in a university physics class using a constructed story which portrays the heroic personal and scientific efforts of the nineteenth century physicist Lord Kelvin in laying the first successful trans-Atlantic cable. Students designed and undertook various practical and theoretical exercises in the SDCA and observations on its implementation are reported.

Klassen, James Stephen

130

Memory and the self in autism: A review and theoretical framework.  

PubMed

This article reviews research on (a) autobiographical episodic and semantic memory, (b) the self-reference effect, (c) memory for the actions of self versus other (the self-enactment effect), and (d) non-autobiographical episodic memory in autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and provides a theoretical framework to account for the bidirectional relationship between memory and the self in ASD. It is argued that individuals with ASD have diminished psychological self-knowledge (as a consequence of diagnostic social and communication impairments), alongside intact physical self-knowledge, resulting in an under-elaborated self-concept. Consequently, individuals with ASD show impaired autobiographical episodic memory and a reduced self-reference effect (which may each rely on psychological aspects of the self-concept) but do not show specific impairments in memory for their own rather than others' actions (which may rely on physical aspects of the self-concept). However, it is also argued that memory impairments in ASD (e.g., in non-autobiographical episodic memory) may not be entirely accounted for in terms of self-related processes. Other factors, such as deficits in memory binding, may also play a role. Finally, it is argued that deficits in autobiographical episodic memory and future thinking may result in a diminished temporally extended self-concept in ASD. PMID:20671017

Lind, Sophie E

2010-07-29

131

Molecular recognition of adeninium cations on anionic metal-oxalato frameworks: an experimental and theoretical analysis.  

PubMed

Reactions of adenine with water-soluble oxalato complexes at acidic pH give the compounds (1H,9H-ade)2[Cu(ox)2(H2O)] (1) [H2ade=adeninium cation (1+), ox=oxalato ligand (2-)] and (3H,7H-ade)2[M(ox)2(H2O)2].2H2O [M(II)=Co (2), Zn (3)]. The X-ray single crystal analyses show that the supramolecular architecture of all compounds is built up of anionic sheets of metal-oxalato-water complexes and ribbons of cationic nucleobases among them to afford lamellar inorganic-organic hybrid materials. The molecular recognition process between the organic and the inorganic frameworks determines the isolated tautomeric form of the adeninium cation found in the crystal structures: the canonical 1H,9H for compound 1, and the first solid-state characterized 3H,7H-adeninium tautomer for compounds 2 and 3. Density functional theory calculations have been performed to study the stability of the protonated nucleobase forms and their hydrogen-bonded associations by comparing experimental and theoretical results. PMID:17375914

García-Teran, Juan P; Castillo, Oscar; Luque, Antonio; García-Couceiro, Urko; Beobide, Garikoitz; Roman, Pascual

2007-03-22

132

Phenotypic diversity and ecosystem functioning in changing environments: a theoretical framework.  

PubMed

Biodiversity plays a vital role for ecosystem functioning in a changing environment. Yet theoretical approaches that incorporate diversity into classical ecosystem theory do not provide a general dynamic theory based on mechanistic principles. In this paper, we suggest that approaches developed for quantitative genetics can be extended to ecosystem functioning by modeling the means and variances of phenotypes within a group of species. We present a framework that suggests that phenotypic variance within functional groups is linearly related to their ability to respond to environmental changes. As a result, the long-term productivity for a group of species with high phenotypic variance may be higher than for the best single species, even though high phenotypic variance decreases productivity in the short term, because suboptimal species are present. In addition, we find that in the case of accelerating environmental change, species succession in a changing environment may become discontinuous. Our work suggests that this phenomenon is related to diversity as well as to the environmental disturbance regime, both of which are affected by anthropogenic activities. By introducing new techniques for modeling the aggregate behavior of groups of species, the present approach may provide a new avenue for ecosystem analysis. PMID:11535803

Norberg, J; Swaney, D P; Dushoff, J; Lin, J; Casagrandi, R; Levin, S A

2001-09-04

133

Phenotypic diversity and ecosystem functioning in changing environments: A theoretical framework  

PubMed Central

Biodiversity plays a vital role for ecosystem functioning in a changing environment. Yet theoretical approaches that incorporate diversity into classical ecosystem theory do not provide a general dynamic theory based on mechanistic principles. In this paper, we suggest that approaches developed for quantitative genetics can be extended to ecosystem functioning by modeling the means and variances of phenotypes within a group of species. We present a framework that suggests that phenotypic variance within functional groups is linearly related to their ability to respond to environmental changes. As a result, the long-term productivity for a group of species with high phenotypic variance may be higher than for the best single species, even though high phenotypic variance decreases productivity in the short term, because suboptimal species are present. In addition, we find that in the case of accelerating environmental change, species succession in a changing environment may become discontinuous. Our work suggests that this phenomenon is related to diversity as well as to the environmental disturbance regime, both of which are affected by anthropogenic activities. By introducing new techniques for modeling the aggregate behavior of groups of species, the present approach may provide a new avenue for ecosystem analysis.

Norberg, Jon; Swaney, Dennis P.; Dushoff, Jonathan; Lin, Juan; Casagrandi, Renato; Levin, Simon A.

2001-01-01

134

Toward an Accurate Theoretical Framework for Describing Ensembles for Proteins under Strongly Denaturing Conditions  

PubMed Central

Our focus is on an appropriate theoretical framework for describing highly denatured proteins. In high concentrations of denaturants, proteins behave like polymers in a good solvent and ensembles for denatured proteins can be modeled by ignoring all interactions except excluded volume (EV) effects. To assay conformational preferences of highly denatured proteins, we quantify a variety of properties for EV-limit ensembles of 23 two-state proteins. We find that modeled denatured proteins can be best described as follows. Average shapes are consistent with prolate ellipsoids. Ensembles are characterized by large correlated fluctuations. Sequence-specific conformational preferences are restricted to local length scales that span five to nine residues. Beyond local length scales, chain properties follow well-defined power laws that are expected for generic polymers in the EV limit. The average available volume is filled inefficiently, and cavities of all sizes are found within the interiors of denatured proteins. All properties characterized from simulated ensembles match predictions from rigorous field theories. We use our results to resolve between conflicting proposals for structure in ensembles for highly denatured states.

Tran, Hoang T.; Pappu, Rohit V.

2006-01-01

135

A theoretical framework to describe communication processes during medical disability assessment interviews  

PubMed Central

Background Research in different fields of medicine suggests that communication is important in physician-patient encounters and influences satisfaction with these encounters. It is argued that this also applies to the non-curative tasks that physicians perform, such as sickness certification and medical disability assessments. However, there is no conceptualised theoretical framework that can be used to describe intentions with regard to communication behaviour, communication behaviour itself, and satisfaction with communication behaviour in a medical disability assessment context. Objective The objective of this paper is to describe the conceptualisation of a model for the communication behaviour of physicians performing medical disability assessments in a social insurance context and of their claimants, in face-to-face encounters during medical disability assessment interviews and the preparation thereof. Conceptualisation The behavioural model, based on the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB), is conceptualised for the communication behaviour of social insurance physicians and claimants separately, but also combined during the assessment interview. Other important concepts in the model are the evaluation of communication behaviour (satisfaction), intentions, attitudes, skills, and barriers for communication. Conclusion The conceptualisation of the TPB-based behavioural model will help to provide insight into the communication behaviour of social insurance physicians and claimants during disability assessment interviews. After empirical testing of the relationships in the model, it can be used in other studies to obtain more insight into communication behaviour in non-curative medicine, and it could help social insurance physicians to adapt their communication behaviour to their task when performing disability assessments.

van Rijssen, H Jolanda; Schellart, Antonius JM; Anema, Johannes R; van der Beek, Allard J

2009-01-01

136

On the theoretical and empirical framework for studying genetic interactions within and among species.  

PubMed

We present a quantitative genetic (QG) interpretation of the Bateson-Dobzhansky-Muller (BDM) genetic model of speciation in order to unify the theoretical framework for understanding how the genetic differentiation of populations is associated with the process of speciation. Specifically, we compare the QG theory of joint scaling with the Turelli-Orr mathematical formulation of the BDM model. By formally linking the two models, we show that a wealth of empirical methods from QG can be brought to bear on the study of the genetic architecture of hybrid phenotypes to better understand the connections, if any, between microevolution within populations and macroevolution in the origin of species. By integrating the two theories, we make additional novel predictions that enrich the opportunities for empirically testing speciation genetic theory or facets of it, such as Haldane's rule. We show that the connection between the two theories is simple and straightforward for autosomal genes but not for sex-linked genes. Differences between the two approaches highlight key conceptual issues concerning the relevance of epistasis to evolution within and among lineages and to differences in the process of speciation in hermaphrodites and in organisms with separate sexes. PMID:15795850

Demuth, Jeffery P; Wade, Michael J

2005-03-17

137

Toward an Integrative Theoretical Framework for Explaining Beliefs about Wife Beating: A Study among Students of Nursing from Turkey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|An integrative theoretical framework was tested as the basis for explaining beliefs about wife beating among Turkish nursing students. Based on a survey design, 406 nursing students (404 females) in all 4 years of undergraduate studies completed a self-administered questionnaire. Questionnaires were distributed and collected from the participants…

Haj-Yahia, Muhammad M.; Uysal, Aynur

2011-01-01

138

A theoretical framework for the episodic-urban air quality management plan ( e-UAQMP)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present research proposes the local urban air quality management plan which combines two different modelling approaches (hybrid model) and possesses an improved predictive ability including the 'probabilistic exceedances over norms' and their 'frequency of occurrences' and so termed, herein, as episodic-urban air quality management plan ( e-UAQMP). The e-UAQMP deals with the consequences of 'extreme' concentrations of pollutant, mainly occurring at urban 'hotspots' e.g. traffic junctions, intersections and signalized roadways and are also influenced by complexities of traffic generated 'wake' effects. The e-UAQMP (based on probabilistic approach), also acts as an efficient preventive measure to predict the 'probability of exceedances' so as to prepare a successful policy responses in relation to the protection of urban environment as well as disseminating information to its sensitive 'receptors'. The e-UAQMP may be tailored to the requirements of the local area for the policy implementation programmes. The importance of such policy-making framework in the context of current air pollution 'episodes' in urban environments is discussed. The hybrid model that is based on both deterministic and stochastic based approaches predicting the 'average' as well as 'extreme' concentration distribution of air pollutants together in form of probability has been used at two air quality control regions (AQCRs) in the Delhi city, India, in formulating and executing the e-UAQMP— first, the income tax office (ITO), one of the busiest signalized traffic intersection and second, the Sirifort, one of the busiest signalized roadways.

Gokhale, Sharad; Khare, Mukesh

139

Understanding Sport Clubs as Sport Policy ImplementersA Theoretical Framework for the Analysis of the Implementation of Central Sport Policy through Local and Voluntary Sport Organizations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article aims at developing a theoretical framework for analysing the implementation of sport policy, as it is conducted by voluntary sport clubs at grassroots level. First, three options are presented and discussed: i) a classical top-down implementation model, ii) the governance theory of policy tools, and iii) the Advocacy Coalition Framework. Second, the theoretical perspectives are discussed, and criticized

Eivind Å. Skille

2008-01-01

140

Organizational culture and organizational effectiveness: a meta-analytic investigation of the competing values framework's theoretical suppositions.  

PubMed

We apply Quinn and Rohrbaugh's (1983) competing values framework (CVF) as an organizing taxonomy to meta-analytically test hypotheses about the relationship between 3 culture types and 3 major indices of organizational effectiveness (employee attitudes, operational performance [i.e., innovation and product and service quality], and financial performance). The paper also tests theoretical suppositions undergirding the CVF by investigating the framework's nomological validity and proposed internal structure (i.e., interrelationships among culture types). Results based on data from 84 empirical studies with 94 independent samples indicate that clan, adhocracy, and market cultures are differentially and positively associated with the effectiveness criteria, though not always as hypothesized. The findings provide mixed support for the CVF's nomological validity and fail to support aspects of the CVF's proposed internal structure. We propose an alternative theoretical approach to the CVF and delineate directions for future research. PMID:21244127

Hartnell, Chad A; Ou, Amy Yi; Kinicki, Angelo

2011-07-01

141

Exploring the theoretical and philosophical frameworks that influence private practitioners' mental health treatment of middle-class African American women  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the theoretical philosophical frameworks, treatment, engagement, and diagnostic approaches of private practice therapists who treat middle-class African-American women. This qualitative study consisted of eight in-depth interviews with private practitioners who were purposefully selected. The interviews took place over the course of three months and were the sole source of data for

Aisha D. Williams

2010-01-01

142

Constructivist Self-Development Theory: A Theoretical Framework for Assessing and Treating Traumatized College Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors present a new conceptual framework for assessing and treating traumatized college students. The framework, constructivist self-development theory (CSDT), blends object relations, self-psychology, and social cognition theories. It is founded upon a constructivist view of trauma in which the individual's unique history shapes his or her experience of traumatic events and defines the adaptation to trauma. Within this theory,

I. Lisa McCann; Laurie Anne Pearlman

1992-01-01

143

A theoretical framework and research agenda for studying team attributions in sport  

Microsoft Academic Search

The attributions made for group outcomes have attracted a great deal of interest in recent years. In this article we bring together much of the current research on attribution theory in sport and outline a new conceptual framework and research agenda for investigating the attributions of team members. The proposed framework draws on multiple conceptual approaches including models of attribution,

Mark S. Allen; Iain Greenlees

2012-01-01

144

Recovering from childhood sexual abuse: a theoretical framework for practice and research.  

PubMed

ACCESSIBLE SUMMARY: Adopting a model of personally meaningful recovery places demands on the therapeutic relationship, on clinical governance and supervision of clinicians. The recovery journey from childhood sexual abuse (CSA) starts at the point of disclosure. Findings support the use of shame-based and compassion-focused interventions with CSA survivors. ABSTRACT: Research on survivors' experiences of recovering from childhood sexual abuse (CSA) has been limited and focused on those with severe mental health difficulties. This study elicited experiences of recovery from CSA in male and female survivors who have/have not utilized mental health services. The tangible end-point was to propose a theoretical model of personally meaningful recovery. This is a qualitative study, which utilized semi-structured individual interviews following the critical incident technique. Transcripts were analysed using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis to identify recurrent themes. A total 22 adult survivors of CSA. Main themes identified were: The Affected Self, Factors Hindering Recovery, Factors Enhancing Recovery, The Hurdles of Recovery and the Recovering Self. The affected self included: lack of boundary awareness and self-blame, over self-reliance, over-vigilance and guilt, shame, aloneness and social stigma. The recovering self was characterized by increasing confidence, assertiveness, ability to self-care and self-acceptance, and by embracing vulnerability. These findings have potentially major implications for clinical practice, service provision, policy development and professional training in this field. The importance of disclosure in the healing process seemed paramount and can have major implications for current service protocols. PMID:23379783

Chouliara, Z; Karatzias, T; Gullone, A

2013-02-01

145

Clothing and Human Behavior from a Social Cognitive Framework Part I: Theoretical Perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper represents Part I of a two-part paper which integrates theory and research in social cognition with research in clothing and human behavior. Part I addresses theoretical perspectives of social cognition including social perception, categorization, attribution theory, and impression formation. Issues from these theoretical perspectives are used to interpret existing clothing and human behavior research and to suggest possible

Sharron J. Lennon; Leslie L. Davis

1989-01-01

146

A Game Theoretic Framework of Distributed Power and Rate Control in IEEE 802.11 WLANs  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a game-theoretic study on the power and rate control problem in IEEE 802.11 WLANs where network participants choose appropriate transmission power and data rate to achieve maximum throughput with minimum energy consumption. In such game-theoretic study, the central issues are the existence, uniqueness of the Nash equilibrium (NE), the convergence to the NE and the system performance at

Lin Chen; Jean Leneutre

2008-01-01

147

Psychological elements explaining the consumer's adoption and use of a website recommendation system: A theoretical framework proposal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to understand, with an emphasis on the psychological perspective of the research problem, the consumer's adoption and use of a certain web site recommendation system as well as the main psychological outcomes involved. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The approach takes the form of theoretical modelling. Findings – A conceptual model is proposed and discussed.

Francisco J. Martínez-López; Inma Rodríguez-Ardura; Juan Carlos Gázquez-Abad; Manuel J. Sánchez-Franco; Claudia C. Cabal

2010-01-01

148

Morphological perceptrons with competitive learning: Lattice-theoretical framework and constructive learning algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

A morphological neural network is generally defined as a type of artificial neural network that performs an elementary operation of mathematical morphology at every node, possibly followed by the application of an activation function. The underlying framework of mathematical morphology can be found in lattice theory.With the advent of granular computing, lattice-based neurocomputing models such as morphological neural networks and

Peter Sussner; Estevão Laureano Esmi

2011-01-01

149

Quota Use under VERs: A theoretical framework and some evidence on MFA quota use  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we propose a framework to study quota use under Voluntary Export Restraints (VERs). Our model unifies three strands of literature in finance and international trade policy research: the equivalence between tariff and quotas\\/VERs, option pricing, and option exercise. We also present evidence on quota utilisation rates for clothing exports under the Multi-Fibre Arrangement (MFA) from the most

Shumei Gao; Jihe Song

2004-01-01

150

From Traditional to Constructivist Epistemologies: A Proposed Theoretical Framework Based on Activity Theory for Learning Communities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article is concerned with how learning communities are transformed as they evolve from traditional learning epistemologies towards constructivist orientations and pedagogies. Adopting activity theory as a framework, the article discusses how transformations take place through a two-way process of appropriation (learning from one another as a…

Hung, David; Tan, Seng-Chee; Koh, Thiam-Seng

2006-01-01

151

WILL MOBILE VIDEO BECOME THE KILLER APPLICATION FOR 3G? - A THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK FOR MEDIA CONVERGENCE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mobile carriers have continually rolled out 3G mobile video applications to increase their revenue and profits. The presumption is that video is superior to the already successful SMS, ringtones, and pictures, and can create greater value to users. However, recent market surveys revealed contradicting results. Motivated by this discrepancy, we propose in this paper a parsimonious framework for user acceptance

Xin Xu; Eric W. K. See-to

2006-01-01

152

Social marketing and social influences: Using social ecology as a theoretical framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social marketing has traditionally been dominated by an individualistic model of design. In this work, the authors apply a social ecology model to the theory and practice of social marketing, demonstrating that a multilevel framework is required to fully expose and account for the complexity of sociocultural and environmental effects. The authors have generated a diagnostic tool for this use.

Katie Collins; Alan Tapp; Ashley Pressley

2010-01-01

153

A Theoretical Framework for Research in Algebra: Modification of Janvier's "Star" Model of Function Understanding.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A pentagonal model, based on the star model of function understanding of C. Janvier (1987), is presented as a framework for the design and interpretation of research in the area of learning the concept of mathematical function. The five vertices of the pentagon correspond to five common representations of mathematical function: (1) graph; (2)…

Bowman, Anita H.

154

Collective action in the commons: A theoretical framework for empirical research  

Microsoft Academic Search

A model of collective action in the commons that is intended to provide a framework for empirical research into the question of when cooperation is likely to be successful is presented. It is based on the presence of costly punishment opportunities, some players who have a taste for punishing those who violate agreements to cooperate (an assumption strongly supported by

Rajiv Sethi; E. Somanathan

2004-01-01

155

Contraceptive behavior among unmarried young women: A theoretical framework for research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adoption of the most effective methods of contraception requires individual decision-making and negotiation with contraceptive providers. In order to take account of both behavioral elements, a two-dimensional framework for understanding contraceptive adoption and continuation by unmarried young is proposed, incorporating a \\

Constance A. Nathanson; Marshall H. Becker

1983-01-01

156

A validation study of the leadership styles of a holistic leadership theoretical framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The overall purpose of the European Union-funded Leadership Improvement for Student Achievement (LISA) project was to explore how leadership styles, as conceptualized in the developed dynamic holistic leadership framework, directly or indirectly affect student achievement at the lower secondary level of education in seven European countries. This paper seeks to address this issue. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – In its methodological

Stefan Brauckmann; Petros Pashiardis

2011-01-01

157

A theoretical framework for antigay aggression: review of established and hypothesized effects within the context of the general aggression model.  

PubMed

Theory and research on antigay aggression has identified different motives that facilitate aggression based on sexual orientation. However, the individual and situational determinants of antigay aggression associated with these motivations have yet to be organized within a single theoretical framework. This limits researchers' ability to organize existing knowledge, link that knowledge with related aggression theory, and guide the application of new findings. To address these limitations, this article argues for the use of an existing conceptual framework to guide thinking and generate new research in this area of study. Contemporary theories of antigay aggression, and empirical support for these theories, are reviewed and interpreted within the unifying framework of the general aggression model [Anderson, C.A. & Bushman, B.J. (2002). Human aggression. Annual Review of Psychology, 53, 27-51.]. It is concluded that this conceptual framework will facilitate investigation of individual and situational risk factors that may contribute to antigay aggression and guide development of individual-level intervention. PMID:18355952

Parrott, Dominic J

2008-02-16

158

The Use of CSCL To Teach Information Systems: A Theoretical Framework.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Proposes computer-supported cooperative learning (CSCL) as an organizational idea that can change the current educational process and connect schooling to the working world. Discusses three case studies from the University of Pretoria in which a CSCL environment was established to support the learning process, and explains the theoretical

de Villiers, Carina; Roode, J. Dewald

1998-01-01

159

Predicting Child Abuse Potential: An Empirical Investigation of Two Theoretical Frameworks  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated two theoretical risk models predicting child maltreatment potential: (a) Belsky's (1993) developmental-ecological model and (b) the cumulative risk model in a sample of 610 caregivers (49% African American, 46% European American; 53% single) with a child between 3 and 6 years old. Results extend the literature by using a widely accepted and valid risk instrument rather than

Angela Moreland Begle; Jean E. Dumas; Rochelle F. Hanson

2010-01-01

160

Game Object Model Version II: A Theoretical Framework for Educational Game Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Complex computer and video games may provide a vehicle, based on appropriate theoretical concepts, to transform the educational landscape. Building on the original game object model (GOM) a new more detailed model is developed to support concepts that educational computer games should: be relevant, explorative, emotive, engaging, and include…

Amory, Alan

2007-01-01

161

Predicting Child Abuse Potential: An Empirical Investigation of Two Theoretical Frameworks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study investigated two theoretical risk models predicting child maltreatment potential: (a) Belsky's (1993) developmental-ecological model and (b) the cumulative risk model in a sample of 610 caregivers (49% African American, 46% European American; 53% single) with a child between 3 and 6 years old. Results extend the literature by using a…

Begle, Angela Moreland; Dumas, Jean E.; Hanson, Rochelle F.

2010-01-01

162

Can Service-Learning Help Students Appreciate an Unpopular Course? A Theoretical Framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

A theoretical model is presented that proposes a mechanism through which service-learning can improve students' attitudes toward a course. The model suggests that service-learning projects have an effect on students' perception of the course material's usefulness, and that higher perceived usefulness, along with higher perceived ease of subject, leads to more favorable attitudes toward the course and stronger intentions for

Nicholas Evangelopoulos; Laura Riolli

163

Analysis of DLL Tracking Performance for GNSS Signals: A Theoretical Framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the development and potential usage of new satellite navigation signal structures, it is imperative that the theoretical performance analysis methods should also be broadened to cover these new signal structures. From the signal's perspective, most of the new signals differ in their modulation scheme, the majority belong to the Binary-Offset-Carrier (BOC) family of modulation. Due to this, the ranging

Nagaraj C Shivaramaiah; Andrew G Dempster

2009-01-01

164

Nigerian Practice in Computer Systems Development: A Multidisciplinary Theoretical Framework, Applied to Health Informatics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study aims at providing a broad theoretical and exploratory basis for studying the day-to-day practice of Nigerian computer systems professionals by analyzing which factors are relevant in such studies. Part I of the thesis records the empirical mate...

M. Korpela

1994-01-01

165

The Fit between Mobile Task and Mobile Work Support: A Theoretical Framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we propose a theoretical model to assess the effectiveness of mobile work support by investigating the fit between mobile task and mobile work support. The mobile task has been investigated along five dimensions: task difficulty, task inter dependency, time-criticality, mobility, and location dependency. The functionality of mobile support technology is categorized along five dimensions: portable processing power,

Yufei Yuan; Wuping Zheng

2006-01-01

166

An Examination of Physical Education Teacher Motivation from a Self-Determination Theoretical Framework  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: The motivation of physical education (PE) teachers has received precious little attention over the years. Self-determination theory (SDT) is a salient theoretical model for understanding motivation, and posits that self-determined motivation (i.e., intrinsic motivation) stems from the perceived fulfillment of three psychological needs:…

Carson, Russell L.; Chase, Melissa A.

2009-01-01

167

Theoretical Perspectives on the Education of Choral Conductors: A Suggested Framework  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper presents theoretical perspectives for choral conducting education. A wide range of related literature on choral practice and education in higher education contexts, as well as training in the workplace is reviewed. Whilst various attributes for effective choral conducting practice have been identified by research studies, there has…

Varvarigou, Maria; Durrant, Colin

2011-01-01

168

Game Object Model Version II: A Theoretical Framework for Educational Game Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Complex computer and video games may provide a vehicle, based on appropriate theoretical concepts, to transform the educational landscape. Building on the original game object model (GOM) a new more detailed model is developed to support concepts that educational computer games should: be relevant, explorative, emotive, engaging, and include…

Amory, Alan

2007-01-01

169

Framework of a decision-theoretic tutoring system for learning of mechanics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Presents the application of decision-theoretic technique to a computer-based tutoring system for elementary mechanics. Uses sound probabilistic reasoning and a student model to identify learners' misconceptions. Focuses on the integration of Bayesian belief networks, item response theory, decision analysis, and database management systems in computer-assisted tutoring. (Contains 23 references.)

Pek, Peng-Kiat; Poh, Kim-Leng

2005-11-17

170

Supportive Non-Parental Adults and Adolescent Psychosocial Functioning: Using Social Support as a Theoretical Framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

Supportive Non-Parental Adults (SNPAs), or non-parental adults who provide social support to youth, are present in the lives\\u000a of many adolescents; yet to date, a guiding framework for organizing the existing literature on the provision of support provided\\u000a by multiple types of SNPAS, such as teachers, natural mentors, and extended family members, as well as to inform future research\\u000a efforts,

Emma M. Sterrett; Deborah J. Jones; Laura G. McKee; Carlye Kincaid

171

Applying an extended theoretical framework for data collection mode to health services research  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Over the last 30 years options for collecting self-reported data in health surveys and questionnaires have increased with technological advances. However, mode of data collection such as face-to-face interview or telephone interview can affect how individuals respond to questionnaires. This paper adapts a framework for understanding mode effects on response quality and applies it to a health research context.

Michael R Robling; David K Ingledew; Giles Greene; Adrian Sayers; Chris Shaw; Lesley Sander; Ian T Russell; John G Williams; Kerenza Hood

2010-01-01

172

Patient safety culture in primary care: developing a theoretical framework for practical use  

PubMed Central

Objective Great importance has been attached to a culture of safe practice in healthcare organisations, but it has proved difficult to engage frontline staff with this complex concept. The present study aimed to develop and test a framework for making the concept of safety culture meaningful and accessible to managers and frontline staff, and facilitating discussion of ways to improve team/organisational safety culture. Setting Eight primary care trusts and a sample of their associated general practices in north west England. Methods In phase 1 a comprehensive review of the literature and a postal survey of experts helped identify the key dimensions of safety culture in primary care. Semistructured interviews with 30 clinicians and managers explored the application of these dimensions to an established theory of organisational maturity. In phase 2 the face validity and utility of the framework was assessed in 33 interviews and 14 focus groups. Results Nine dimensions were identified through which safety culture is expressed in primary care organisations. Organisational descriptions were developed for how these dimensions might be characterised at five levels of organisational maturity. The resulting framework conceptualises patient safety culture as multidimensional and dynamic, and seems to have a high level of face validity and utility within primary care. It aids clinicians' and managers' understanding of the concept of safety culture and promotes discussion within teams about their safety culture maturity. Conclusions The framework moves the agenda on from rhetoric about the importance of safety culture to a way of understanding why and how the shared values of staff working within a healthcare organisation may be operationalised to create a safe environment for patient care.

Kirk, Susan; Parker, Dianne; Claridge, Tanya; Esmail, Aneez; Marshall, Martin

2007-01-01

173

The theoretical underpinnings of customer asset management: A framework and propositions for future research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most research in customer asset management has focused on specific aspects of the value of the customer to the company. The\\u000a purpose of this article is to propose an integrated framework, called CUSAMS (customer asset management of services), that\\u000a enables service organizations (1) to make a comprehensive assessment of the value of their customer assets and (2) to understand\\u000a the

Ruth N. Bolton; Katherine N. Lemon; Peter C. Verhoef

2004-01-01

174

Catchment travel and residence time distributions: a theoretical framework for solute transport modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The probability density functions (pdf's) of travel and residence times are key descriptors of the mechanisms through which catchments retain and release old and event water, transporting solutes to receiving water bodies. In this contribution we derive a general stochastic framework applicable to arbitrary catchment control volumes, where time-variable precipitation, evapotranspiration and discharge are assumed to be the major hydrological drivers for water and solutes. A master equation for the residence time pdf is derived and solved analytically, providing expressions for travel and residence time pdf's as a function of input/output fluxes and of the relevant mixing processes occurring along streamflow production and plant upatke. Our solutions suggest intrinsically time variant travel and residence time pdf's through a direct dependence on the underlying hydrological forcings and soil vegetation dynamics. The proposed framework highlights the dependence of water/solute travel times on eco-hydrological processes (especially transpiration and uptake), and integrates age-dating and tracer hydrology techniques by providing a coherent framework for catchment transport models. An application to the release of pesticides from an agricultural watershead is also discussed.

Botter, G.; Bertuzzo, E.; Rinaldo, A.

2011-12-01

175

Development of two-dimensional wakes within curved channels: Theoretical framework and experimental investigation  

SciTech Connect

The development of a wake flow downstream of a cylindrical rod within a curved channel under zero streamwise pressure gradient is theoretically and experimentally investigated. The measured asymmetric wake quantities such as the mean velocity and turbulent fluctuations in longitudinal and lateral directions as well as the turbulent shear stress are transformed from the probe coordinate system into the curvilinear wake eigen-coordinate system. For the transformed non-dimensionalized velocity defect and the turbulent quantities, affine profiles are observed throughout the flow regime. Based on these observations and using the transformed equations of motion and continuity, a theoretical frame work is established that generally describes the two-dimensional curvilinear wake flow. The theory also describes the straight wake as a special case, for which the curvature radius approaches infinity. The comparison of the theory with the experimental data pertaining to the curvilinear and straight wakes demonstrate the general validity of the theory.

Schobeiri, M.T.; John, J.; Pappu, K. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Turbomachinery Performance Lab.

1996-07-01

176

Game object model version II: a theoretical framework for educational game development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Complex computer and video games may provide a vehicle, based on appropriate theoretical concepts, to transform the educational\\u000a landscape. Building on the original game object model (GOM) a new more detailed model is developed to support concepts that\\u000a educational computer games should: be relevant, explorative, emotive, engaging, and include complex challenges; support authentic\\u000a learning activities that are designed as narrative

Alan Amory

2007-01-01

177

An examination of physical education teacher motivation from a self-determination theoretical framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The motivation of physical education (PE) teachers has received precious little attention over the years. Self-determination theory (SDT) is a salient theoretical model for understanding motivation, and posits that self-determined motivation (i.e., intrinsic motivation) stems from the perceived fulfillment of three psychological needs: autonomy, competence, and relatedness. Scholars of SDT also contend that individual characteristics and contextual features can

Russell L. Carson; Melissa A. Chase

2009-01-01

178

Theory of mind and paranoia in schizophrenia: A game theoretical investigation framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction. Ample evidence already shows that theory of mind (ToM) is impaired in people with schizophrenia. Our aim was to critically review this literature.Method. We completed a selected review of the research literature on ToM in schizophrenia.Results. Gaps in ToM research were identified. A specific relationship between impaired ToM and paranoid delusions, although intuitively reasonable from a theoretical basis, has

Kevin K. S. Chan; Eric Y. H. Chen

2011-01-01

179

Analysis of fixed-rate mortgage with intensity process: A game-theoretic framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on prepayment intensity process, this paper studies the valuation of fixed-rate mortgage contracts and an (game-theoretic) equilibrium model is built. Under the assumption of the rate process of time-homogeneous Markov chain and positive linear refinancing cost, the dynamic programming problem of the mortgagor is simplified to a Markov decision chain with only three discrete state variables which is proved

Qian Yan-xiang

2008-01-01

180

Vulnerability Factors in the Explanation of Workplace Aggression: The Construction of a Theoretical Framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although workplace aggression is a well-known problem, research on workplace aggression merely focuses on perpetrators' typologies, and workplace-related victim research remains under-represented. In this article, we theoretically explore possible associations between victims' coping strategies, type-D personality, negative childhood experiences, attention-deficit\\/hyperactivity disorder, and posttraumatic stress disorder and work-related victimization. Through an intensive literature study and the incorporation of existing theories, under

Fanny Klerx-Van Mierlo; Stefan Bogaerts

2011-01-01

181

Understanding the Theoretical Framework of Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge: A Collaborative Self-Study to Understand Teaching Practice and Aspects of Knowledge  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper describes a self-study research project that focused on our experiences when planning, teaching, and evaluating a course in initial teacher education. The theoretical framework of technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK) was used as a conceptual structure for the self-study. Our understanding of the framework in relation to…

Fransson, Goran; Holmberg, Jorgen

2012-01-01

182

Directorial Control in a Decision-Theoretic Framework for Interactive Narrative  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Computer aided interactive narrative has received increasing attention in recent years. Automated directorial control that manages the development of the story in the face of user interaction is an important aspect of interactive narrative design. Most existing approaches lack an explicit model of the user. This limits the approaches' ability of predicting the user's experience, and hence undermines the effectiveness of the approaches. Thespian is a multi-agent framework for authoring and simulating interactive narratives with explicit models of the user. This work extends Thespian with the ability to provide proactive directorial control using the user model. In this paper, we present the algorithms in detail, followed by examples.

Si, Mei; Marsella, Stacy C.; Pynadath, David V.

183

Cultural adaptation of evidence-based practice utilizing an iterative stakeholder process and theoretical framework: problem solving therapy for Chinese older adults  

PubMed Central

Objectives Main objectives were to familiarize the reader with a theoretical framework for modifying evidence-based interventions for cultural groups, and to provide an example of one method, Formative Method for Adapting Psychotherapies (FMAP), in the adaptation of an evidence-based intervention for a cultural group notorious for refusing mental health treatment. Methods Provider and client stakeholder input combined with an iterative testing process within the FMAP framework was utilized to create the Problem Solving Therapy—Chinese Older Adult (PST-COA) manual for depression. Data from pilot-testing the intervention with a clinically depressed Chinese elderly woman are reported. Results PST-COA is categorized as a ‘culturally-adapted’ treatment, where core mediating mechanisms of PST were preserved, but cultural themes of measurement methodology, stigma, hierarchical provider-client relationship expectations, and acculturation enhanced core components to make PST more understandable and relevant for Chinese elderly. Modifications also encompassed therapeutic framework and peripheral elements affecting engagement and retention. PST-COA applied with a depressed Chinese older adult indicated remission of clinical depression and improvement in mood. Fidelity with and acceptability of the treatment was sufficient as the client completed and reported high satisfaction with PST-COA. Conclusions PST, as a non-emotion-focused, evidence-based intervention, is a good fit for depressed Chinese elderly. Through an iterative stakeholder process of cultural adaptation, several culturally-specific modifications were applied to PST to create the PST-COA manual. PST-COA preserves core therapeutic PST elements but includes cultural adaptations in therapeutic framework and key administration and content areas that ensure greater applicability and effectiveness for the Chinese elderly community.

Chu, Joyce P.; Huynh, Loanie; Arean, Patricia

2011-01-01

184

Career stories of women professional accountants : Examining the personal narratives of career using Simone de Beauvoir's feminist existentialist philosophy as a theoretical framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to describe the use of Simone de Beauvoir's feminist existentialist philosophy in an empirical research study concerned with the career choices of women professional accountants. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A theoretical framework, based on de Beauvoir's philosophy, is developed. It is argued that her feminist philosophy provides an appropriate theoretical lens for the study

Peggy Wallace

2009-01-01

185

Effects of firm and IT characteristics on the value of e-commerce initiatives: An inductive theoretical framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

We explore the theoretical foundations on how firm and IT characteristics explain the market value variations in e-commerce\\u000a initiatives by examining the announcements of 946 e-commerce initiatives in the public media. Our approach combines the Event\\u000a study methodology and Decision tree induction to examine the main and interaction effects of IT and firm characteristics on\\u000a Cumulative Abnormal Returns (CAR). In

Francis Kofi Andoh-Baidoo; Kweku-Muata Osei-Bryson; Kwasi Amoako-Gyampah

186

A theoretical framework to study potassium utilization efficiency in response to withdrawal of potassium.  

PubMed

An important objective of plant research is to improve the efficiency in the utilization of major nutrients, particularly nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium. Several definitions of internal nutrient utilization efficiency (NUE) have been proposed, but the theoretical consistence of their use has been poorly explored. Here, a non-mechanistic approach was developed to theoretically examine the dynamics of commonly used NUE indicators following complete potassium deprivation. This approach was used to study the sensitivity of NUE indicators to changes in the actual NUE (NUEa) of K(+) in virtual plants. Three empirically based models that differ in the relationship between NUE and the internal K(+) concentration were examined. Frequently used indicators (potassium use efficiency, utilization efficiency, physiological efficiency, and nutrient productivity) and two additional ones introduced here (accumulated productivity and physiological ratio) differed in their capacity to reflect differences in NUEa. They also exhibited large disparities in their temporal variation and in their responsiveness to the concentration of K(+) before the beginning of the deprivation period. According to this analysis, the simultaneous use of several indicators could help to refine plant breeding for high NUE. The data also suggest that a trade off between plant productivity and the time necessary to reduce the concentration of K(+) by half is inherent to the dynamics of plant systems. Finally, it is proposed that for some plant species selection for high NUEa would not always be in conflict with selection for improved relative plant performance in low K(+) environments. PMID:23963671

Moriconi, Jorge I; Santa-María, Guillermo E

2013-08-20

187

Applying an extended theoretical framework for data collection mode to health services research  

PubMed Central

Background Over the last 30 years options for collecting self-reported data in health surveys and questionnaires have increased with technological advances. However, mode of data collection such as face-to-face interview or telephone interview can affect how individuals respond to questionnaires. This paper adapts a framework for understanding mode effects on response quality and applies it to a health research context. Discussion Data collection modes are distinguished by key features (whether the survey is self- or interviewer-administered, whether or not it is conducted by telephone, whether or not it is computerised, whether it is presented visually or aurally). Psychological appraisal of the survey request will initially entail factors such as the cognitive burden upon the respondent as well as more general considerations about participation. Subsequent psychological response processes will further determine how features of the data collection mode impact upon the quality of response provided. Additional antecedent factors which may further interact with the response generation process are also discussed. These include features of the construct being measured such as sensitivity, and of the respondent themselves (e.g. their socio-demographic characteristics). How features of this framework relate to health research is illustrated by example. Summary Mode features can affect response quality. Much existing evidence has a broad social sciences research base but is of importance to health research. Approaches to managing mode feature effects are discussed. Greater consideration must be given to how features of different data collection approaches affect response from participants in studies. Study reports should better clarify such features rather than rely upon global descriptions of data collection mode.

2010-01-01

188

TOWARDS A BUSINESS MODEL FOR CELLULAR NETWORK AND TELECOMMUNICATION OPERATORS: A THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cellular networks and telecommunications bring major change to the way businesses are conducted. Mobility has become one of the main priorities for users and this has impacted on cellular networks and telecommunication operators (CNTOs). However, entrants into the cellular industry have been confounded primarily by inexistent or weak Business Models (BMs). Designing a BM for a CNTO is complex and

Mutaz M. Al-Debei; Ramzi El-Haddadeh; David Avison

189

Predicting child abuse potential: An empirical investigation of two theoretical frameworks  

PubMed Central

This study investigated two theoretical risk models predicting child maltreatment potential: 1) Belsky’s (1993) developmental-ecological model and 2) the cumulative risk model in a sample of 610 caregivers (49% African American, 46% European American; 53% single) with a child between 3 and 6 years old. Results extend the literature by using a widely accepted and valid risk instrument (i.e., CAPI) rather than occurrence rates (e.g., reports to child protective services, observations). Results indicated Belsky’s (1993) developmental-ecological model, in which risk markers were organized into three separate conceptual domains, provided a poor fit to the data. In contrast, the cumulative risk model, which included the accumulation of risk markers, was significant in predicting child abuse potential.

Begle, Angela Moreland; Dumas, Jean E.; Hanson, Rochelle F.

2010-01-01

190

Responsive feeding is embedded in a theoretical framework of responsive parenting.  

PubMed

Children throughout the world are confronted with growth problems ranging from underweight and stunting to overweight and obesity. The development of healthy eating behaviors depends on both healthy food and responsive parenting behaviors. With origins from anthropology, psychology, and nutrition, responsive parenting reflects reciprocity between child and caregiver, conceptualized as a 4-step mutually responsive process: 1) the caregiver creates a routine, structure, expectations, and emotional context that promote interaction; 2) the child responds and signals to the caregiver; 3) the caregiver responds promptly in a manner that is emotionally supportive, contingent, and developmentally appropriate; and 4) the child experiences predictable responses. This paper examines evidence for the practice and developmental benefits of responsive parenting with a view to providing a theoretical basis for responsive feeding. Recommendations are made that future efforts to promote healthy growth and to prevent underweight and overweight among young children incorporate and evaluate responsive feeding. PMID:21270366

Black, Maureen M; Aboud, Frances E

2011-01-26

191

Predicting child abuse potential: an empirical investigation of two theoretical frameworks.  

PubMed

This study investigated two theoretical risk models predicting child maltreatment potential: (a) Belsky's (1993) developmental-ecological model and (b) the cumulative risk model in a sample of 610 caregivers (49% African American, 46% European American; 53% single) with a child between 3 and 6 years old. Results extend the literature by using a widely accepted and valid risk instrument rather than occurrence rates (e.g., reports to child protective services, observations). Results indicated Belsky's developmental-ecological model, in which risk markers were organized into three separate conceptual domains, provided a poor fit to the data. In contrast, the cumulative risk model, which included the accumulation of risk markers, was significant in predicting child abuse potential. PMID:20390812

Begle, Angela Moreland; Dumas, Jean E; Hanson, Rochelle F

2010-01-01

192

Emotional Intelligence: A Theoretical Framework for Individual Differences in Affective Forecasting  

PubMed Central

Only recently have researchers begun to examine individual differences in affective forecasting. The present investigation was designed to make a theoretical contribution to this emerging literature by examining the role of emotional intelligence in affective forecasting. Emotional intelligence was hypothesized to be associated with affective forecasting accuracy, memory for emotional reactions, and subsequent improvement on an affective forecasting task involving emotionally-evocative pictures. Results from two studies (N = 511) supported our hypotheses. Emotional intelligence was associated with accuracy in predicting, encoding, and consolidating emotional reactions. Furthermore, emotional intelligence was associated with greater improvement on a second affective forecasting task, with the relationship explained by basic memory processes. Implications for future research on basic and applied decision making are discussed.

Hoerger, Michael; Chapman, Benjamin P.; Epstein, Ronald M.; Duberstein, Paul R.

2011-01-01

193

A theoretical framework for the episodic-urban air quality management plan ( e-UAQMP)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present research proposes the local urban air quality management plan which combines two different modelling approaches (hybrid model) and possesses an improved predictive ability including the ‘probabilistic exceedances over norms’ and their ‘frequency of occurrences’ and so termed, herein, as episodic-urban air quality management plan (e-UAQMP). The e-UAQMP deals with the consequences of ‘extreme’ concentrations of pollutant, mainly occurring

Sharad Gokhale; Mukesh Khare

2007-01-01

194

Experimental and theoretical study on hydrogen interaction with unsaturated Metal Organic Frameworks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Infrared absorption spectroscopy (IRAS) is useful to study the interaction of H2 molecules inside various materials, since the frequency of its internal stretch mode depends on the adsorption site. Unsaturated Metal Organic Frameworks (MOFs) are particularly interesting due to their high H2 uptakes with relatively large isosteric heats of adsorption (Qst >8 kJ/mol). Our study focuses on H2 in M2(dhtp), dhtp=2,5-dihydroxyterephthalate (M= Zn, Ni, Co, Mg) and combines temperature-dependent IRAS measurements and vdW-DF calculations. Results show that the H2 stretch frequencies are very sensitive to the chemical environment, with no correlation between binding energies and frequency shifts, as previously observed for saturated MOFs.footnotetext N. Nijem et al. submitted to J.A.C.S 2009 Moreover, the H2 stretch vibration closest to the metal site exhibits a strong shift from -30 cm-1 to -68 cm-1 upon population of neighboring sites (e.g. ``oxygen'' site).

Nijem, Nour; François Veyan, Jean; Zhao, Yonggang; Kong, Lingzhu; Li, Jing; Langreth, David C.; Chabal, Yves J.

2010-03-01

195

Empirical Social-Ecological System Analysis: From Theoretical Framework to Latent Variable Structural Equation Model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The social-ecological system (SES) approach to natural resource management holds enormous promise towards achieving sustainability. Despite this promise, social-ecological interactions are complex and elusive; they require simplification to guide effective application of the SES approach. The complex, adaptive and place-specific nature of human-environment interactions impedes determination of state and trends in SES parameters of interest to managers and policy makers. Based on a rigorously developed systemic theoretical model, this paper integrates field observations, interviews, surveys, and latent variable modeling to illustrate the development of simplified and easily interpretable indicators of the state of, and trends in, relevant SES processes. Social-agricultural interactions in the Logone floodplain, in the Lake Chad basin, served as case study. This approach is found to generate simplified determinants of the state of SESs, easily communicable across the array of stakeholders common in human-environment interactions. The approach proves to be useful for monitoring SESs, guiding interventions, and assessing the effectiveness of interventions. It incorporates real time responses to biophysical change in understanding coarse scale processes within which finer scales are embedded. This paper emphasizes the importance of merging quantitative and qualitative methods for effective monitoring and assessment of SESs.

Asah, Stanley Tanyi

2008-12-01

196

Theoretical framework to analyze searches for hidden light gauge bosons in electron scattering fixed target experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Motivated by anomalies in cosmic ray observations and by attempts to solve questions of the Standard Model of particle physics like the (g-2)? discrepancy, U(1) extensions of the Standard Model have been proposed in recent years. Such U(1) extensions allow for the interaction of dark matter by exchange of a photonlike massive force carrier ?' not included in the Standard Model. In order to search for ?' bosons, various experimental programs have been started. One approach is the dedicated search at fixed-target experiments at modest energies as performed at microtron (MAMI) or at the Jefferson Lab. In these experiments the process e(A,Z)?e(A,Z)l+l- is investigated, and a search for a very narrow resonance in the invariant mass distribution of the l+l- pair is performed. In this work we analyze this process in terms of signal and background in order to describe existing data obtained by the A1 experiment at MAMI with the aim to give accurate predictions for exclusion limits in the ?' parameter space. We present a detailed theoretical analysis of the cross sections entering in the description of such processes.

Beranek, T.; Merkel, H.; Vanderhaeghen, M.

2013-07-01

197

A Theoretical Framework for Understanding Neuromuscular Response to Lower Extremity Joint Injury  

PubMed Central

Background: Neuromuscular alterations are common following lower extremity joint injury and often lead to decreased function and disability. These neuromuscular alterations manifest in inhibition or abnormal facilitation of the uninjured musculature surrounding an injured joint. Unfortunately, these neural alterations are poorly understood, which may affect clinical recognition and treatment of these injuries. Understanding how these neural alterations affect physical function may be important for proper clinical management of lower extremity joint injuries. Methods: Pertinent articles focusing on neuromuscular consequences and treatment of knee and ankle injuries were collected from peer-reviewed sources available on the Web of Science and Medline databases from 1975 through 2010. A theoretical model to illustrate potential relationships between neural alterations and clinical impairments was constructed from the current literature. Results: Lower extremity joint injury affects upstream cortical and spinal reflexive excitability pathways as well as downstream muscle function and overall physical performance. Treatment targeting the central nervous system provides an alternate means of treating joint injury that may be effective for patients with neuromuscular alterations. Conclusions: Disability is common following joint injury. There is mounting evidence that alterations in the central nervous system may relate to clinical changes in biomechanics that may predispose patients to further injury, and novel clinical interventions that target neural alterations may improve therapeutic outcomes.

Pietrosimone, Brian G.; McLeod, Michelle M.; Lepley, Adam S.

2012-01-01

198

A theoretical framework for evaluating analytical digestion methods for poorly soluble particulate beryllium.  

PubMed

Complete digestion of all chemical forms and sizes of particulate analytes in environmental samples is usually necessary to obtain accurate results with atomic spectroscopy. In the current study, we investigate the physicochemical properties of beryllium particles likely to be encountered in samples collected from different occupational environments and present a hypothesis that a dissolution theory can be used as a conceptual framework to guide development of strategies for digestion procedures. For monodisperse single-chemical constituent primary particles, such as those encountered when handling some types of beryllium oxide (BeO) powder, theory predicts that a digestion procedure is sufficient when it completely dissolves all primary particles, independent of cluster size. For polydisperse single-chemical constituent particles, such as those encountered during the handling of some types of beryllium metal powder, theory predicts that a digestion procedure is sufficient only when it completely dissolves the largest particle in the sample. For samples with unknown or multi-chemical constituent particles and with particles having undefined sizes, e.g., fume emissions from a copper-beryllium alloy furnace operation or dust from a beryl ore crushing operation, a surface area-limited and single-constituent-dependent dissolution theory may not predict complete dissolution, thereby requiring non-routine robust treatment procedures with post-digestion filtration, followed by examination of residual particulate material. Additionally, for beryllium, and likely other poorly soluble materials, particulate reference materials of various chemical forms and size distributions are needed to better evaluate and harmonize analytical digestion procedures. Figure Generation of aerosol particles during machining of beryllium oxide. PMID:17124574

Stefaniak, Aleksandr B; Brink, Christopher A; Dickerson, Robert M; Day, Gregory A; Brisson, Michael J; Hoover, Mark D; Scripsick, Ronald C

2006-11-24

199

Functional mapping of quantitative trait loci underlying the character process: a theoretical framework.  

PubMed Central

Unlike a character measured at a finite set of landmark points, function-valued traits are those that change as a function of some independent and continuous variable. These traits, also called infinite-dimensional characters, can be described as the character process and include a number of biologically, economically, or biomedically important features, such as growth trajectories, allometric scalings, and norms of reaction. Here we present a new statistical infrastructure for mapping quantitative trait loci (QTL) underlying the character process. This strategy, termed functional mapping, integrates mathematical relationships of different traits or variables within the genetic mapping framework. Logistic mapping proposed in this article can be viewed as an example of functional mapping. Logistic mapping is based on a universal biological law that for each and every living organism growth over time follows an exponential growth curve (e.g., logistic or S-shaped). A maximum-likelihood approach based on a logistic-mixture model, implemented with the EM algorithm, is developed to provide the estimates of QTL positions, QTL effects, and other model parameters responsible for growth trajectories. Logistic mapping displays a tremendous potential to increase the power of QTL detection, the precision of parameter estimation, and the resolution of QTL localization due to the small number of parameters to be estimated, the pleiotropic effect of a QTL on growth, and/or residual correlations of growth at different ages. More importantly, logistic mapping allows for testing numerous biologically important hypotheses concerning the genetic basis of quantitative variation, thus gaining an insight into the critical role of development in shaping plant and animal evolution and domestication. The power of logistic mapping is demonstrated by an example of a forest tree, in which one QTL affecting stem growth processes is detected on a linkage group using our method, whereas it cannot be detected using current methods. The advantages of functional mapping are also discussed.

Ma, Chang-Xing; Casella, George; Wu, Rongling

2002-01-01

200

Modeling the atmospheric convective boundary layer within a zero-order jump approach: An extended theoretical framework  

SciTech Connect

The paper presents an extended theoretical background for applied modeling of the atmospheric convective boundary layer within the so-called zero-order jump approach, which implies vertical homogeneity of meteorological fields in the bulk of convective boundary layer (CBL) and zero-order discontinuities of variables at the interfaces of the layer. The zero-order jump model equations for the most typical cases of CBL are derived. The models of nonsteady, horizontally homogeneous CBL with and without shear, extensively studied in the past with the aid of zero-order jump models, are shown to be particular cases of the general zero-order jump theoretical framework. The integral budgets of momentum and heat are considered for different types of dry CBL. The profiles of vertical turbulent fluxes are presented and analyzed. The general version of the equation of CBL depth growth rate (entrainment rate equation) is obtained by the integration of the turbulence kinetic energy balance equation, invoking basic assumptions of the zero-order parameterizations of the CBL vertical structure. The problems of parameterizing the turbulence vertical structure and closure of the entrainment rate equation for specific cases of CBL are discussed. A parameterization scheme for the horizontal turbulent exchange in zero-order jump models of CBL is proposed. The developed theory is generalized for the case of CBL over irregular terrain. 28 refs., 2 figs.

Fedorovich, E. [Universitaet Karlsruhe (Germany)

1995-09-01

201

Public Spending Efficiency in the Czech Republic: Fiscal Policy Framework and the Main Spending Areas of Pensions and Healthcare  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Czech fiscal position is generally sound and policy making is prudent. However, the fiscal framework was not strong enough to contain spending in the upturn and it would benefit from independent budget oversight. An anchor for the fiscal policy would be helpful, in the form of an explicit debt target coupled with corresponding spending ceilings and deficit targets. The

Zuzana Smidova

2011-01-01

202

Understanding the Canadian adult CT head rule trial: use of the theoretical domains framework for process evaluation  

PubMed Central

Background The Canadian CT Head Rule was prospectively derived and validated to assist clinicians with diagnostic decision-making regarding the use of computed tomography (CT) in adult patients with minor head injury. A recent intervention trial failed to demonstrate a decrease in the rate of head CTs following implementation of the rule in Canadian emergency departments. Yet, the same intervention, which included a one-hour educational session and reminders at the point of requisition, was successful in reducing cervical spine imaging rates in the same emergency departments. The reason for the varied effect of the intervention across these two behaviours is unclear. There is an increasing appreciation for the use of theory to conduct process evaluations to better understand how strategies are linked with outcomes in implementation trials. The Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF) has been used to explore health professional behaviour and to design behaviour change interventions but, to date, has not been used to guide a theory-based process evaluation. In this proof of concept study, we explored whether the TDF could be used to guide a retrospective process evaluation to better understand emergency physicians’ responses to the interventions employed in the Canadian CT Head Rule trial. Methods A semi-structured interview guide, based on the 12 domains from the TDF, was used to conduct telephone interviews with project leads and physician participants from the intervention sites in the Canadian CT Head Rule trial. Two reviewers independently coded the anonymised interview transcripts using the TDF as a coding framework. Relevant domains were identified by: the presence of conflicting beliefs within a domain; the frequency of beliefs; and the likely strength of the impact of a belief on the behaviour. Results Eight physicians from four of the intervention sites in the Canadian CT Head Rule trial participated in the interviews. Barriers likely to assist with understanding physicians’ responses to the intervention in the trial were identified in six of the theoretical domains: beliefs about consequences; beliefs about capabilities; behavioural regulation; memory, attention and decision processes; environmental context and resources; and social influences. Despite knowledge that the Canadian CT Head Rule was highly sensitive and reliable for identifying clinically important brain injuries and strong beliefs about the benefits for using the rule, a number of barriers were identified that may have prevented physicians from consistently applying the rule. Conclusion This proof of concept study demonstrates the use of the TDF as a guiding framework to design a retrospective theory-based process evaluation. There is a need for further development and testing of methods for using the TDF to guide theory-based process evaluations running alongside behaviour change intervention trials.

2013-01-01

203

'It's a can of worms': understanding primary care practitioners' behaviours in relation to HPV using the theoretical domains framework  

PubMed Central

Background The relationship between infection with high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) and cervical cancer is transforming cervical cancer prevention. HPV tests and vaccinations have recently become available. In Ireland, as elsewhere, primary care practitioners play a key role in prevention. ATHENS (A Trial of HPV Education and Support) aims to develop a theory-based intervention to support primary care practitioners in their HPV-related practice. This study, the first step in the intervention development process, aimed to: identify HPV-related clinical behaviours that the intervention will target; clarify general practitioners’ (GPs’) and practice nurses’ roles and responsibilities; and determine factors that potentially influence clinical behaviour. A secondary objective was to informally assess the utility of the Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF) in understanding clinical behaviours in an area with an evolving evidence-base. Methods In-depth semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted with GPs and practice nurses. The topic guide, which contained open questions and HPV-related clinical scenarios, was developed through literature review and clinical experience. Interview transcripts were content-analysed using the TDF as the coding framework. Results 19 GPs and 14 practice nurses were interviewed. The major HPV-related clinical behaviours were: initiating a discussion about HPV infection with female patients; offering/recommending HPV vaccination to appropriate patients; and answering patients’ questions about HPV testing. While the responsibility for taking smears was considered a female role, both male and female practitioners dealt with HPV-related issues. All 12 theoretical domains arose in relation to HPV infection; the domains judged to be most important were: knowledge, emotion, social influences, beliefs about capabilities and beliefs about consequences. Eleven domains emerged in relation to HPV vaccination, with beliefs about consequences, social influences, knowledge and environmental context and resources judged to be the most important. Nine domains were relevant to HPV testing, with knowledge and beliefs about capabilities judged to be the most important. Conclusions The findings confirm the need for an intervention to support primary care practitioners around HPV and suggest it should target a range of theoretical domains. The TDF proved valuable in analysing qualitative data collected using a topic guide not specifically designed to capture TDF domains and understanding clinical behaviours in an area with an evolving evidence-base.

2012-01-01

204

The Analysis on Influence of Main Factors on Theoretical Value of Energy Saving Rate for Energy Efficiency Labeling of Civil Buildings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For typical residential buildings, no-large-scale and large-scale public buildings, according to China's Technical Guide for the Energy Efficiency Labeling of Civil Buildings, makes up missing data of the calculation benchmark and determines the boundary conditions for calculating the theoretical values of civil building energy efficiency. Based on equivalent full load hours method, develops a modular program and calculates building energy consumption for the demands of dynamic cooling and heating and lighting etc., finds out the corresponding relationship between star level's theoretical value of energy saving rate and specified-term limiting value in the Guide. With orthogonal experimental design and multiple linear regression, establishes the quantitative function of both the theoretical value of energy saving rate and main factors parameters, analyzes the impact of the control parameter on energy saving rate, and reveals the law of theoretical value of energy saving rate variation with the control parameter. For building energy efficiency labeling upgrade, presents technical measure need to be taken and analyses its feasibility. The results from the study can provide theoretical guidance for energy-saving design or retrofitting of civil buildings.

Wang, Zhiwei; Wang, Zhenling; Jiang, Bo; Zhang, Fan; Li, Peng; Cao, Wei

205

THEORETICAL MODELS IN THE HOMELESS POPULATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ever since the early eighties, the study of homeless people has been addressed from many theoretical viewpoints. The purpose of this work is, first, to carry out a review of the main studies that have addressed the phenomenon of homelessness from an explicit theoretical model; and second, to study in depth one of the theoretical frameworks that has received the

Manuel Muñoz; Carmelo Vázquez; Sonia Panadero; Aida de Vicente

206

Theoretical framework of population genetics with somatic mutations taken into account: application to copy number variations in humans.  

PubMed

Traditionally, population genetics focuses on the dynamics of frequencies of alleles acquired by mutations on germ-lines, because only such mutations are heritable. Typical genotyping experiments, however, use DNA from some somatic tissues such as blood, which harbors somatic mutations at the current generation in addition to germ-line mutations accumulated since the most recent common ancestor of the sample. This common practice may sometimes cause erroneous interpretations of polymorphism data, unless we properly understand the role of somatic mutations in population genetics. We here introduce a very basic theoretical framework of population genetics with somatic mutations taken into account. It is easy to imagine that somatic mutations at the current generation simply add individual-specific variations, as errors in mutation detection do. Our theory quantifies this increment under various conditions. We find that the major contribution of somatic mutations plus errors is to very rare variants, particularly to singletons. The relative contribution is markedly large when mutations are deleterious. Because negative selection also increases rare variants, it is important to distinguish the roles of these mutually confounding factors when we interpret the data, even after correcting for demography. We apply this theory to human copy number variations (CNVs), for which the composite effect of somatic mutations and errors may not be negligible. Using genome-wide CNV data, we demonstrate how the joint action of the two factors, selection and somatic mutations plus errors, shapes the observed pattern of polymorphism. PMID:23981956

Ezawa, K; Innan, H

2013-08-28

207

Dietary lipid composition and avian migratory flight performance: Development of a theoretical framework for avian fat storage.  

PubMed

Birds rely substantially on fat to fuel migratory flights. The importance of the composition of those fat stores to flight performance is a field of recent interest. Here I review the evidence that dietary lipid fat composition affects exercise in birds. Seasonal changes in adipose composition and diet choice experiments have yet to provide strong evidence that fatty acid composition can affect flight performance. Direct manipulations of dietary fat, however, have been demonstrated to affect exercise performance in both avian and non-avian species. I also describe the major hypotheses for the mechanisms by which dietary fat affects exercise, focusing on the role of fatty acids as oxidative substrates and as structural components of membranes. Evidence is accumulating that fatty acids that are shorter or have more double bonds increase peak performance due to their higher transport rates en route to oxidation. Endurance and efficiency of flight may or may not be affected in similar ways. Other mechanisms requiring further investigation include membrane composition, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors, and eicosanoid-mediated inflammation. Finally, I develop a theoretical framework for studying the composition of fat stores in migrants, focusing on the tradeoffs between fatty acid transport rates, energy storage, and assimilation during stopover refueling. PMID:20561892

Price, Edwin R

2010-06-08

208

A theoretical framework for the net land-to-atmosphere CO2 flux and its implications in the definition of "emissions from land-use change"  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We develop a theoretical framework and analysis of the net land-to-atmosphere CO2 flux in order to discuss possible definitions of "emissions from land-use change". The terrestrial biosphere is affected by two perturbations: the perturbation of the global Carbon-Climate-Nitrogen system (CCN) with elevated atmospheric CO2, climate change and nitrogen deposition; and the Land-Use Change perturbation (LUC). Here, we progressively establish mathematical definitions of four generic components of the net land-to-atmosphere CO2 flux. The two first components are the fluxes that would be observed if only one perturbation occurred. The two other components are due to the coupling of the CCN and LUC perturbations, which shows the non-linear response of the terrestrial carbon cycle. Thanks to these four components, we introduce three possible definitions of "emissions from land-use change", that are indeed used in the scientific literature, often without clear distinctions, and we draw conclusions as for their absolute and relative behaviors. Thanks to the OSCAR v2 model, we provide quantitative estimates of the differences between the three definitions, and we find that comparing results from studies that do not use the same definition can lead to a bias of up to 20% between estimates of those emissions. After discussion of the limitations of the framework, we conclude on the three major points of this study that should help the community to reconcile modeling and observation of emissions from land-use change. The Appendix mainly provides more detailed mathematical expressions of the four components of the net land-to-atmosphere CO2 flux.

Gasser, T.; Ciais, P.

2013-01-01

209

Biomechanics of the Sensor-Tissue Interface--Effects of Motion, Pressure, and Design on Sensor Performance and the Foreign Body Response--Part I: Theoretical Framework  

PubMed Central

The importance of biomechanics in glucose sensor function has been largely overlooked. This article is the first part of a two-part review in which we look beyond commonly recognized chemical biocompatibility to explore the biomechanics of the sensor–tissue interface as an important aspect of continuous glucose sensor biocompatibility. Part I provides a theoretical framework to describe how biomechanical factors such as motion and pressure (typically micromotion and micropressure) give rise to interfacial stresses, which affect tissue physiology around a sensor and, in turn, impact sensor performance. Three main contributors to sensor motion and pressure are explored: applied forces, sensor design, and subject/patient considerations. We describe how acute forces can temporarily impact sensor signal and how chronic forces can alter the foreign body response and inflammation around an implanted sensor, and thus impact sensor performance. The importance of sensor design (e.g., size, shape, modulus, texture) and specific implant location on the tissue response are also explored. In Part II: Examples and Application (a sister publication), examples from the literature are reviewed, and the application of biomechanical concepts to sensor design are described. We believe that adding biomechanical strategies to the arsenal of material compositions, surface modifications, drug elution, and other chemical strategies will lead to improvements in sensor biocompatibility and performance.

Helton, Kristen L; Ratner, Buddy D; Wisniewski, Natalie A

2011-01-01

210

Towards a Theoretical Framework for the Comparative Understanding of Globalisation, Higher Education, the Labour Market and Inequality  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper is a theoretical examination of three major empirical trends that affect many people: globalisation, increasingly close relations between higher education (HE) and labour markets, and increasing social inequality. Its aim is to identify key theoretical resources and their contribution to the development of a comparative theoretical

Kupfer, Antonia

2011-01-01

211

River Restoration in Spain: Theoretical and Practical Approach in the Context of the European Water Framework Directive  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

River restoration is becoming a priority in many countries because of increasing the awareness of environmental degradation. In Europe, the EU Water Framework Directive (WFD) has significantly reinforced river restoration, encouraging the improvement of ecological status for water bodies. To fulfill the WFD requirements, the Spanish Ministry of the Environment developed in 2006 a National Strategy for River Restoration whose design and implementation are described in this paper. At the same time many restoration projects have been conducted, and sixty of them have been evaluated in terms of stated objectives and pressures and implemented restoration measures. Riparian vegetation enhancement, weir removal and fish passes were the most frequently implemented restoration measures, although the greatest pressures came from hydrologic alteration caused by flow regulation for irrigation purposes. Water deficits in quantity and quality associated with uncontrolled water demands seriously affect Mediterranean rivers and represent the main constraint to achieving good ecological status of Spanish rivers, most of them intensively regulated. Proper environmental allocation of in-stream flows would need deep restrictions in agricultural water use which seem to be of very difficult social acceptance. This situation highlights the need to integrate land-use and rural development policies with water resources and river management, and identifies additional difficulties in achieving the WFD objectives and good ecological status of rivers in Mediterranean countries.

González del Tánago, Marta; García de Jalón, Diego; Román, Mercedes

2012-07-01

212

River restoration in Spain: theoretical and practical approach in the context of the European water framework directive.  

PubMed

River restoration is becoming a priority in many countries because of increasing the awareness of environmental degradation. In Europe, the EU Water Framework Directive (WFD) has significantly reinforced river restoration, encouraging the improvement of ecological status for water bodies. To fulfill the WFD requirements, the Spanish Ministry of the Environment developed in 2006 a National Strategy for River Restoration whose design and implementation are described in this paper. At the same time many restoration projects have been conducted, and sixty of them have been evaluated in terms of stated objectives and pressures and implemented restoration measures. Riparian vegetation enhancement, weir removal and fish passes were the most frequently implemented restoration measures, although the greatest pressures came from hydrologic alteration caused by flow regulation for irrigation purposes. Water deficits in quantity and quality associated with uncontrolled water demands seriously affect Mediterranean rivers and represent the main constraint to achieving good ecological status of Spanish rivers, most of them intensively regulated. Proper environmental allocation of in-stream flows would need deep restrictions in agricultural water use which seem to be of very difficult social acceptance. This situation highlights the need to integrate land-use and rural development policies with water resources and river management, and identifies additional difficulties in achieving the WFD objectives and good ecological status of rivers in Mediterranean countries. PMID:22569704

González Del Tánago, Marta; García de Jalón, Diego; Román, Mercedes

2012-05-09

213

A game-theoretic framework for estimating a health purchaser’s willingness-to-pay for health and for expansion  

Microsoft Academic Search

A health purchaser’s willingness-to-pay (WTP) for health is defined as the amount of money the health purchaser (e.g. a health\\u000a maximizing public agency or a profit maximizing health insurer) is willing to spend for an additional unit of health. In this\\u000a paper, we propose a game-theoretic framework for estimating a health purchaser’s WTP for health in markets where the health

Reza Yaesoubi; Stephen D. Roberts

2010-01-01

214

Depressive symptoms in the Netherlands 1975–1996: a theoretical framework and an empirical analysis of socio-demographic characteristics, gender differences and changes over time  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the longitudinal trend of depressive symptoms in the Netherlands, using large-scale national data recorded over the period 1975-1996. Our analyses showed fluctuations in the overall longitudinal trend. On the basis of a general theoretical framework, we formulated hypotheses concerning which socio-demographic characteristics determine the likelihood of suffering from depressive symptoms and how these associations might have changed

Vivian Vivian Meertens; Peer Scheepers; Bert Tax

2003-01-01

215

Explaining the “University-run enterprises” in China: A theoretical framework for university–industry relationship in developing countries and its application to China  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explains and evaluates the evolution of the UREs (University-run Enterprises) in China by building a new theoretical framework on the university–industry relationship. Unlike the Triple Helix or the New Economics of Science that advocates a certain type (integration or separation) of university–industry relationship, we take a contingent or context-specific perspective on the relationship, having the context of developing

Jong-Hak Eun; Keun Lee; Guisheng Wu

2006-01-01

216

Social Systems Theory as Theoretical Framework for Human Resource Management ? Benediction or Curse? Introduction to the Special Issue  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social systems theory as developed by Niklas Luhmann is an option for the theoretical foundation of Human Resource Management (HRM). After clarifying the advantages of using a grand (social) theory as the basic theoretical perspective, the roots of this social systems theory ? the deterministic view of systems as machines, the open systems approach and non-linear systems theory ? are

Wolfgang Mayrhofer

2004-01-01

217

Can an analysis of the contrast between pre-Galilean and Newtonian theoretical frameworks help students develop a scientific mindset?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This study examines a course in which students use two writing activities and collaborative group activities to examine the conceptual structure of the calculus-based introductory Physics course. Students are presented with two alternative frameworks; pre-Galilean Physics and Newtonian Physics. The idea of the course design is that students would at first view the frameworks almost in a theatrical sense as a view of a drama involving a conflict of actors;Aristotle, Galileo, Newton and others occurring a long time ago. As participants passing through a series of interventions, the students become aware that the frameworks relate concepts from different parts of the course and learn to evaluate the two alternative frameworks. They develop a scientific mindset changing their outlook on the course material from the viewpoint that it consists of a tool kit of assorted practices, classified according to problem type, to the viewpoint that it comprises a connected structure of concepts.

Kalman, Calvin S.; Aulls, Mark W.

2013-05-28

218

Can an Analysis of the Contrast Between pre-Galilean and Newtonian Theoretical Frameworks Help Students Develop a Scientific Mindset  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study examines a course in which students use two writing activities and collaborative group activities to examine the conceptual structure of the calculus-based introductory Physics course. Students are presented with two alternative frameworks; pre-Galilean Physics and Newtonian Physics. The idea of the course design is that students would at first view the frameworks almost in a theatrical sense as a view of a drama involving a conflict of actors;Aristotle, Galileo, Newton and others occurring a long time ago. As participants passing through a series of interventions, the students become aware that the frameworks relate concepts from different parts of the course and learn to evaluate the two alternative frameworks. They develop a scientific mindset changing their outlook on the course material from the viewpoint that it consists of a tool kit of assorted practices, classified according to problem type, to the viewpoint that it comprises a connected structure of concepts.

Kalman, Calvin S.; Aulls, Mark W.

219

A Theoretical and Practical Framework for Service-Learning in Marketing: Kolb’s Experiential Learning Cycle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this article is to provide a framework for the design and implementation of service-learning courses in marketing. First, this article describes an experiential learning framework to be used as a guide for planning, designing, implementing, and evaluating a service-learning course. Second, this article specifies in detail service-learning implementation strategies for particular marketing courses. Third, this article describes

Ed Petkus

2000-01-01

220

Welfare Measures and Mandatory Regulation for Transgenic Food in the European Union: A Theoretical Framework for the Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an analytical framework for studying the impact of mandatory labelling regulation for transgenic food. We compare Genetically Modified (GM) and conventional crop markets and identify gains for food processors prior to mandatory labelling and losses after this measure for the GM market. Nevertheless, food processors could obtain gains for conventional products after market disgregation. Finally, consumers will

Maria Del Carmen Fernandez Diez

2005-01-01

221

The Northern Spiral Troughs of Mars as Cyclic Steps: A Theoretical Framework for Calculating Average Migration and Accumulation Rates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We interpret the spiral troughs of the NLPD to be depositional forms of cyclic steps, features that have been well characterized on Earth. Within this framework we estimate migration rates for the troughs to be tens of millimeters per Mars year.

Smith, I. B.; Holt, J. W.

2012-03-01

222

Organizational Culture and Organizational Effectiveness: A Meta-Analytic Investigation of the Competing Values Framework's Theoretical Suppositions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We apply Quinn and Rohrbaugh's (1983) competing values framework (CVF) as an organizing taxonomy to meta-analytically test hypotheses about the relationship between 3 culture types and 3 major indices of organizational effectiveness (employee attitudes, operational performance [i.e., innovation and product and service quality], and financial…

Hartnell, Chad A.; Ou, Amy Yi; Kinicki, Angelo

2011-01-01

223

An integrated electric power supply chain and fuel market network framework: Theoretical modeling with empirical analysis for New England  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we develop a novel electric power supply chain network model with fuel supply markets that captures both the economic network transactions in energy supply markets and the physical network transmission constraints in the electric power network. The theoretical derivation and analysis are done using the theory of variational inequalities. We then apply the model to a specic

Zugang Liu; Anna Nagurney

2009-01-01

224

Career advising in family medicine: a theoretical framework for structuring the medical student/faculty advisor interview  

PubMed Central

Background There are unique challenges to recruiting students into the specialty of family medicine within academic medical centers. Methods At Virginia Commonwealth University, we developed an advising framework to help students address institutional and personal obstacles to choosing family medicine as a career. Results The role of a faculty advisor is not to direct the student to a career choice but rather to foster a mentor relationship and help the student come to his or her own realizations regarding career choice. The faculty advisor/medical student interview is conceptualized as five discussion topics: self-knowledge, perception, organizational voice, cognitive dissonance, and anticipatory counseling. Conclusion This framework is intended to assist faculty in their efforts to encourage students to consider a career in family medicine.

Bradner, Melissa; Crossman, Steven H.; Vanderbilt, Allison A.; Gary, Judy; Munson, Paul

2013-01-01

225

Theoretical assessment of the elastic constants and hydrogen storage capacity of some metal-organic framework materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are promising materials for applications such as separation, catalysis, and gas storage. A key indicator of their structural stability is the shear modulus. By density functional theory calculations in a 106-atom supercell, under the local density approximation, we find c11=29.2 GPa and c12=13.1 GPa for Zn-based MOF 5. However, we find c44 of MOF-5 to be exceedingly small, only 1.4 GPa at T=0 K. The binding energy Eads of a single hydrogen molecule in MOF-5 is evaluated using the same setup. We find it to be -0.069 to -0.086 eV/H2 near the benzene linker and -0.106 to -0.160 eV/H2 near the Zn4O tetrahedra. Substitutions of chlorine and hydroxyl in the benzene linker have negligible effect on the physisorption energies. Pentacoordinated copper (and aluminum) in a framework structure similar to MOF-2 gives Eads~-0.291 eV/H2 (and -0.230 eV/H2), and substitution of nitrogen in benzene (pyrazine) further enhances Eads near the organic linker to -0.16 eV/H2, according to density functional theory with local density approximation.

Samanta, Amit; Furuta, Terumi; Li, Ju

2006-08-01

226

Theoretical assessment of the elastic constants and hydrogen storage capacity of some metal-organic framework materials.  

PubMed

Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are promising materials for applications such as separation, catalysis, and gas storage. A key indicator of their structural stability is the shear modulus. By density functional theory calculations in a 106-atom supercell, under the local density approximation, we find c(11)=29.2 GPa and c(12)=13.1 GPa for Zn-based MOF 5. However, we find c(44) of MOF-5 to be exceedingly small, only 1.4 GPa at T=0 K. The binding energy E(ads) of a single hydrogen molecule in MOF-5 is evaluated using the same setup. We find it to be -0.069 to -0.086 eVH(2) near the benzene linker and -0.106 to -0.160 eVH(2) near the Zn(4)O tetrahedra. Substitutions of chlorine and hydroxyl in the benzene linker have negligible effect on the physisorption energies. Pentacoordinated copper (and aluminum) in a framework structure similar to MOF-2 gives E(ads) approximately -0.291 eVH(2) (and -0.230 eVH(2)), and substitution of nitrogen in benzene (pyrazine) further enhances E(ads) near the organic linker to -0.16 eVH(2), according to density functional theory with local density approximation. PMID:16965046

Samanta, Amit; Furuta, Terumi; Li, Ju

2006-08-28

227

Assessing Learning in the Outdoors with the Field Trip in Natural Environments (FiNE) Framework  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The development and application of a framework that captures main characteristics of learning in nature--the Field Trip in Natural Environments (FiNE) framework--is the main outcome of this study that followed up 22 daily field trips of 4-6th grade students to nature parks. The theoretical and practical framework, which was developed based on the…

Morag, Orly; Tal, Tali

2012-01-01

228

A theoretical comparison of self-assembling alpha- and beta-peptide nanostructures: toward design of beta-barrel frameworks.  

PubMed

Self-assembling peptide-based nanotubes are among the most investigated bioactive compounds as a result of their numerous potential applications as novel biomaterials. To support rational bottom-up design of such artificial nanosystems, here we investigate structural and energetic properties of various sheet-derived nanotubes. We carried out high level quantum chemical calculations on large models, composed of up to 32 amino acids, and characterized structures from extended beta-sheets to the molecular framework of beta-barrel proteins. Surprisingly, enzyme-resistant nonnatural beta-peptides have an affinity to form nanotubes that is remarkably higher than that of natural alpha-peptides. We analyzed the stability of both systems depending on (i) parallel or antiparallel orientation, (ii) the number of peptide strands, and (iii) the formed hydrogen bond pattern. Applicability is outlined by investigating guest molecules in the tubes. It is hoped that the structural and energetic data presented here will be effectively used in the design of novel peptide nanosystems. PMID:19206581

Beke, Tamás; Czajlik, András; Bálint, Balázs; Perczel, András

2008-03-01

229

Learning curves, taking instructions, and patient safety: using a theoretical domains framework in an interview study to investigate prescribing errors among trainee doctors  

PubMed Central

Background Prescribing errors are a major source of morbidity and mortality and represent a significant patient safety concern. Evidence suggests that trainee doctors are responsible for most prescribing errors. Understanding the factors that influence prescribing behavior may lead to effective interventions to reduce errors. Existing investigations of prescribing errors have been based on Human Error Theory but not on other relevant behavioral theories. The aim of this study was to apply a broad theory-based approach using the Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF) to investigate prescribing in the hospital context among a sample of trainee doctors. Method Semistructured interviews, based on 12 theoretical domains, were conducted with 22 trainee doctors to explore views, opinions, and experiences of prescribing and prescribing errors. Content analysis was conducted, followed by applying relevance criteria and a novel stage of critical appraisal, to identify which theoretical domains could be targeted in interventions to improve prescribing. Results Seven theoretical domains met the criteria of relevance: “social professional role and identity,” “environmental context and resources,” “social influences,” “knowledge,” “skills,” “memory, attention, and decision making,” and “behavioral regulation.” From critical appraisal of the interview data, “beliefs about consequences” and “beliefs about capabilities” were also identified as potentially important domains. Interrelationships between domains were evident. Additionally, the data supported theoretical elaboration of the domain behavioral regulation. Conclusions In this investigation of hospital-based prescribing, participants’ attributions about causes of errors were used to identify domains that could be targeted in interventions to improve prescribing. In a departure from previous TDF practice, critical appraisal was used to identify additional domains that should also be targeted, despite participants’ perceptions that they were not relevant to prescribing errors. These were beliefs about consequences and beliefs about capabilities. Specifically, in the light of the documented high error rate, beliefs that prescribing errors were not likely to have consequences for patients and that trainee doctors are capable of prescribing without error should also be targeted in an intervention. This study is the first to suggest critical appraisal for domain identification and to use interview data to propose theoretical elaborations and interrelationships between domains.

2012-01-01

230

Stochastic fusion of information to characterize DNAPL source zones: conceptual framework and preliminary results from theoretical, computational, and experimental studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dense Nonaqueous Phase Liquids (DNAPLs) are prevalent at a large number of sites throughout the world. The variable release history and geologic heterogeneity make the spatial distribution of DNAPLs in the source zone complex. This causes difficulties in cleanup and can contribute to long-term groundwater contamination for decades to centuries. Therefore, the spatial distribution, mass, and composition of DNAPLs present in the source zone need to be characterized in great detail so that efficient remediation schemes can be designed. Development of a cost-effective technology that provides detailed images of DNAPL distributions in the source zones thus is essential. We present here the conceptual framework and preliminary results of a technology that delineates DNAPL source zones in three-dimensions without extensive invasive sampling. This new technology based on the stochastic fusion of information methodology, assimilates results of hydraulic, conservative, and partitioning tracer tomography surveys to derive the best estimate of the DNAPL residual distribution and its uncertainty. Specifically, it first analyzes the information derived from hydraulic tomography to identify the three-dimensional hydraulic heterogeneity of the aquifer. It then improves the estimate of the heterogeneity by incorporating new information acquired from the conservative tracer tomography. Afterward, the improved estimate of heterogeneity is used to simulate the hydraulic tomography such that more detailed information about the response of the subsurface becomes available. This new information again is fed back to the technique to update the estimate of the heterogeneity. The iterative process continues until the available information and measurements are fully utilized to identify the heterogeneity that controls the spatial distribution of DNAPLs. The newly derived knowledge of heterogeneity is then used to design partitioning tracer tomography tests to accurately depict the spatial distribution of DNAPL residual saturation in the source zone. The proposed techniques are being tested and validated through numerical experiments and two sandboxes.

Illman, W. A.; Yeh, T. J.; Zhu, J.; Craig, A.

2004-12-01

231

A cross-country comparison of intensive care physicians' beliefs about their transfusion behaviour: A qualitative study using the theoretical domains framework  

PubMed Central

Background Evidence of variations in red blood cell transfusion practices have been reported in a wide range of clinical settings. Parallel studies in Canada and the United Kingdom were designed to explore transfusion behaviour in intensive care physicians. The aim of this paper is three-fold: first, to explore beliefs that influence Canadian intensive care physicians’ transfusion behaviour; second, to systematically select relevant theories and models using the Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF) to inform a future predictive study; and third, to compare its results with the UK study. Methods Ten intensive care unit (ICU) physicians throughout Canada were interviewed. Physicians’ responses were coded into theoretical domains, and specific beliefs were generated for each response. Theoretical domains relevant to behaviour change were identified, and specific constructs from the relevant domains were used to select psychological theories. The results from Canada and the United Kingdom were compared. Results Seven theoretical domains populated by 31 specific beliefs were identified as relevant to the target behaviour. The domains Beliefs about capabilities (confident to not transfuse if patients’ clinical condition is stable), Beliefs about consequences (positive beliefs of reducing infection and saving resources and negative beliefs about risking patients’ clinical outcome and potentially more work), Social influences (transfusion decision is influenced by team members and patients’ relatives), and Behavioural regulation (wide range of approaches to encourage restrictive transfusion) that were identified in the UK study were also relevant in the Canadian context. Three additional domains, Knowledge (it requires more evidence to support restrictive transfusion), Social/professional role and identity (conflicting beliefs about not adhering to guidelines, referring to evidence, believing restrictive transfusion as professional standard, and believing that guideline is important for other professionals), and Motivation and goals (opposing beliefs about the importance of restrictive transfusion and compatibility with other goals), were also identified in this study. Similar to the UK study, the Theory of Planned Behaviour, Social Cognitive Theory, Operant Learning Theory, Action Planning, and Knowledge-Attitude-Behaviour model were identified as potentially relevant theories and models for further study. Personal project analysis was added to the Canadian study to explore the Motivation and goals domain in further detail. Conclusions A wide range of beliefs was identified by the Canadian ICU physicians as likely to influence their transfusion behaviour. We were able to demonstrate similar though not identical results in a cross-country comparison. Designing targeted behaviour-change interventions based on unique beliefs identified by physicians from two countries are more likely to encourage restrictive transfusion in ICU physicians in respective countries. This needs to be tested in future prospective clinical trials.

2012-01-01

232

Theoretical framework to estimate spatially averaged rainfalls conditional on river discharges and point rainfall measurements from a single location: an application to Western Greece  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We focus on the special case of catchments covered by a single raingauge, and develop a theoretical framework to obtain estimates of spatial rainfall averages conditional on rainfall measurements from a single location, and the flow conditions at the catchment outlet. In doing so we use: (a) statistical tools to identify and correct inconsistencies between daily rainfall occurrence and amount and the flow conditions at the outlet of the basin, (b) concepts from multifractal theory to relate the fraction of wet intervals in point rainfall measurements and that in spatial rainfall averages, while accounting for the shape and size of the catchment, the size, lifetime and advection velocity of rainfall generating features and the location of the raingauge inside the basin, and (c) semi-theoretical arguments to assure consistency between rainfall and runoff volumes at an inter-annual level, implicitly accounting for spatial heterogeneities of rainfall caused by orographic influences. In an application study, using point rainfall records from Glafkos river basin in Western Greece, we find the suggested approach to demonstrate significant skill in resolving rainfall-runoff incompatibilities at a daily level, while reproducing the statistics of spatial rainfall averages at both monthly and annual time scales, independently of the location of the raingauge and the magnitude of the observed deviations between point rainfall measurements and spatial rainfall averages. The developed scheme should serve as an important tool for the effective calibration of rainfall-runoff models in basins covered by a single raingauge and, also, improve hydrologic impact assessment at a river basin level under changing climatic conditions.

Langousis, A.; Kaleris, V.

2012-11-01

233

Theoretical framework to estimate spatial rainfall averages conditional on river discharges and point rainfall measurements from a single location: an application to western Greece  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We focus on the special case of catchments covered by a single rain gauge and develop a theoretical framework to obtain estimates of spatial rainfall averages conditional on rainfall measurements from a single location, and the flow conditions at the catchment outlet. In doing so we use (a) statistical tools to identify and correct inconsistencies between daily rainfall occurrence and amount and the flow conditions at the outlet of the basin; (b) concepts from multifractal theory to relate the fraction of wet intervals in point rainfall measurements and that in spatial rainfall averages, while accounting for the shape and size of the catchment, the size, lifetime and advection velocity of rainfall-generating features and the location of the rain gauge inside the basin; and (c) semi-theoretical arguments to assure consistency between rainfall and runoff volumes at an inter-annual level, implicitly accounting for spatial heterogeneities of rainfall caused by orographic influences. In an application study, using point rainfall records from the Glafkos river basin in western Greece, we find the suggested approach to demonstrate significant skill in resolving rainfall-runoff incompatibilities at a daily level, while reproducing the statistics of spatial rainfall averages at both monthly and annual time scales, independent of the location of the rain gauge and the magnitude of the observed deviations between point rainfall measurements and spatial rainfall averages. The developed scheme should serve as an important tool for the effective calibration of rainfall-runoff models in basins covered by a single rain gauge and, also, improve hydrologic impact assessment at a river basin level under changing climatic conditions.

Langousis, A.; Kaleris, V.

2013-03-01

234

Theoretical framework for the dual-energy cone-beam CT noise-power spectrum, NEQ, and tasked-based detectability index  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The optimization of dual-energy computed tomography (DE-CT) is challenged by the lack of a theoretical foundation for image quality. This work reports a cascaded systems analysis model that was used to derive signal and noise propagation in DE-CBCT in prevalent Fourier metrics such as the noise-power spectrum (NPS) and noise-equivalent quanta (NEQ). The model was validated in comparison to measurements of the 3D NPS and NEQ in DE-CBCT images acquired using an experimental imaging bench. Task-based detectability index was derived using DE-NPS and NEQ as an objective function in optimizing DE imaging parameters such as the dose allocation factor (DA) and kVp pair. The resulting dose allocation optimization is in agreement with the practice of assigning more dose to the high-energy image (DA < 0.5), and the model provides a quantitative basis for examining the optimal dose allocation as a function of total dose, kVp pair, the presence of electronics noise, and the imaging task. An example optimization is shown for a breast tumor detection task. Using DE decomposition to cancel fibroglandular tissue (rendering a DE-CBCT image of breast tumor against an adipose tissue background) and assuming a total dose of 15mGy, the optimal kVp pair is identified at [45, 105]kVp with DA=0.46. The model is sufficiently general for applications beyond this example, demonstrating utility in the optimization in a broad range of imaging parameters. The model provides a new, valuable framework for understanding the theoretical limits of DE-CBCT imaging performance and maximizing image quality while minimizing radiation dose.

Gang, G. J.; Zbijewski, W.; Stayman, J. W.; Carrino, J. A.; Siewerdsen, J. H.

2012-02-01

235

INTRODUCTION: THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK AND IMPLICATIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

N Asian countries which have the potential for achieving self-sufficiency in staple foods, agricultural development is in a period of transition. Agricultural development in Asia since the 1980s has been characterized by the diversifica- tion of agriculture, and structural adjustment policies have been undertaken in many Asian countries during this period under the guidance of the World Bank (5) and

Hitoshi YONEKURA

1995-01-01

236

A CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK FOR RESEARCH ON LIFETIME VIOLENCE, POSTTRAUMATIC STRESS, AND CHILDBEARING  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this theoretical article is to describe a conceptual framework for research on effects of past and current abuse and posttraumatic stress on childbearing women. The proposed framework builds on an earlier framework proposed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) for research on violence occurring around the time of pregnancy. Two main adaptations are suggested.

Julia S. Seng

2002-01-01

237

Identifying factors likely to influence compliance with diagnostic imaging guideline recommendations for spine disorders among chiropractors in North America: a focus group study using the Theoretical Domains Framework  

PubMed Central

Background The Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF) was developed to investigate determinants of specific clinical behaviors and inform the design of interventions to change professional behavior. This framework was used to explore the beliefs of chiropractors in an American Provider Network and two Canadian provinces about their adherence to evidence-based recommendations for spine radiography for uncomplicated back pain. The primary objective of the study was to identify chiropractors’ beliefs about managing uncomplicated back pain without x-rays and to explore barriers and facilitators to implementing evidence-based recommendations on lumbar spine x-rays. A secondary objective was to compare chiropractors in the United States and Canada on their beliefs regarding the use of spine x-rays. Methods Six focus groups exploring beliefs about managing back pain without x-rays were conducted with a purposive sample. The interview guide was based upon the TDF. Focus groups were digitally recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed by two independent assessors using thematic content analysis based on the TDF. Results Five domains were identified as likely relevant. Key beliefs within these domains included the following: conflicting comments about the potential consequences of not ordering x-rays (risk of missing a pathology, avoiding adverse treatment effects, risks of litigation, determining the treatment plan, and using x-ray-driven techniques contrasted with perceived benefits of minimizing patient radiation exposure and reducing costs; beliefs about consequences); beliefs regarding professional autonomy, professional credibility, lack of standardization, and agreement with guidelines widely varied ( social/professional role & identity); the influence of formal training, colleagues, and patients also appeared to be important factors ( social influences); conflicting comments regarding levels of confidence and comfort in managing patients without x-rays ( belief about capabilities); and guideline awareness and agreements ( knowledge). Conclusions Chiropractors’ use of diagnostic imaging appears to be influenced by a number of factors. Five key domains may be important considering the presence of conflicting beliefs, evidence of strong beliefs likely to impact the behavior of interest, and high frequency of beliefs. The results will inform the development of a theory-based survey to help identify potential targets for behavioral-change strategies.

2012-01-01

238

A quantitative synthesis of the medicinal ethnobotany of the Malink? of Mali and the Ash?ninka of Peru, with a new theoretical framework  

PubMed Central

Background Although ethnomedically and taxonomically guided searches for new medicinal plants can improve the percentage of plants found containing active compounds when compared to random sampling, ethnobotany has fulfilled little of its promise in the last few decades to deliver a bounty of new, laboratory-proven medicinal plants and compounds. It is quite difficult to test, isolate, and elucidate the structure and mechanism of compounds from the plethora of new medicinal plant uses described each year with limited laboratory time and resources and the high cost of clinical trials of new drug candidates. Methods A new quantitative theoretical framework of mathematical formulas called "relational efficacy" is proposed that should narrow down this search for new plant-derived medicines based on the hypothesis that closely related plants used to treat closely related diseases in distantly related cultures have a higher probability of being effective because they are more likely to be independent discoveries of similar plant compounds and disease mechanisms. A prerequisite to this hypothesis, the idea that empirical testing in traditional medicine will lead to choosing similar medicinal plants and therefore the medicinal flora of two distant cultures will prove to be more similar than their general flora, is tested using resampling statistics on cross-cultural field data of the plants used by the Malinké of Mali and the Asháninka of Peru to treat the diseases malaria, African sleeping sickness, Chagas' disease, leishmaniasis, diabetes, eczema, asthma, and uterine fibroids. Results In this case, the similarity of the medicinal floras is found to be significantly greater than the similarity of the general floras, but only when the diseases in question are grouped into the categories of parasitic and autoimmune diseases. Conclusion If the central theoretical framework of this hypothesis is shown to be true, it will allow the synthesis of medicinal plant information from around the world to pinpoint the species with the highest potential efficacy to take into the laboratory and analyze further, ultimately saving much field and laboratory time and resources. Spanish abstract Las búsquedas que utilizan la etnomedicina y la taxonomía para descubrir nuevas plantas medicinales, pueden aumentar la probabilidad de éxito de encontrar compuestos químicos activos en plantas, en comparación con las búsquedas aleatorias. A pesar de lo anterior, en las últimas décadas, la etnobotánica no ha cumplido con las expectativas de proveer numerosas plantas medicinales y químicos nuevos una vez examinados en el laboratorio. Cada año se describen una plétora de plantas medicinales y sus usos, sin embargo las limitaciones de tiempo y recursos en los laboratorios, unidos al alto coste de los ensayos clínicos de las drogas potenciales, hacen muy difícil probar, aislar, y elucidar la estructura y el mecanismo de los compuestos de estas plantas. Se propone un nuevo marco teórico cuantitativo cuyo fin es focalizar la búsqueda de nueva plantas medicinales. Este marco teórico está basado en la hipótesis que las plantas cercanamente relacionadas, usadas para tratar enfermedades cercanamente relacionadas en culturas distantemente relacionadas, tienen una eficacia potencial más alta, debido a que es más probable que estos hallazgos sean descubrimientos independientes de compuestos químicos similares. Parte de esta hipótesis, que las escogencias racionales se hacen para elegir plantas medicinales similares y que la flora medicinal de dos culturas distantes es más similar que su flora general, se probó usando métodos estadísticos de remuestreo con datos de campo de la comunidad Malinké de Malí y de la Asháninka de Perú, y las enfermedades de paludismo, enfermedad africana del sueño, enfermedad de Chagas, leishmania, diabetes, eczema, asma, y fibromas uterinos. Se encontró, en este caso, que

Bletter, Nathaniel

2007-01-01

239

A cross-age study of students' conceptual understanding of interdependency in seed dispersal, pollination, and food chains using a constructivist theoretical framework  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this research was to investigate students' understanding of interdependency across grade levels. Interdependency concepts selected for this study included food chains, pollination, and seed dispersal. Children's everyday concepts and scientific concepts across grade levels represented the focus of conceptual understanding. The researcher interviewed a total of 24 students across grade levels, six students each from grades 3, 7, and 10, and 6 college students. Data were collected by means of interviews and card sorts. A constructivist theoretical framework formed the groundwork for presenting the focus of this study and for interpreting the results of the interview data. Results were analyzed on the basis of identifying student responses to interview questions as either everyday concepts or as scientific concepts, along with transition through the zone of proximal development (ZPD) by mediation, as developed by Vygotsky. Results revealed that children across grade levels vary in their everyday and scientific understanding of the three interdependency concepts. Results for seed dispersal showed little evidence of understanding for grade 3, that is, seed dispersal was not within the zone of proximal development (ZPD) for grade 3 students. Students in grades 7 and 10 showed a developing transition within the zone of proximal development from everyday to scientific understanding, and college students demonstrated scientific understanding of seed dispersal. For pollination and food chains, results showed that grades 3, 7, and 10 were in transition from everyday to scientific understanding, and all college students demonstrated scientific understanding. The seed dispersal concept proved more complex than pollination and food chains. The findings of this study have implications for classroom teachers. By understanding the dynamic nature of the ZPD continuum for students, teachers can plan instruction to meet the needs of each student.

Smith, Shirley Mccraw

2003-06-01

240

A multilevel multilayer framework for manufacturing control  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a contribution to the debate on CAPM reference models derived from control theory concepts, we formulate the basic computer-aided production management problem from a control theoretic point of view and examine the main difficulties in using this crude framework as a basis for decision-making. Next, different hierarchical approaches are shown to be potentially of value in overcoming the two

Madan G. Singh; Khalil Hindi

1991-01-01

241

FRAMEWORKS FOR ETHICS IN PUBLIC HEALTH  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper constructs a conceptual framework for the normative study of public health. It argues that to develop discussions of ethics in public health without paying attention to the broader theoretical and ideological context of public health controversies and social conflicts will be of limited value. In defining that context, the author distinguishes three main types of ethical theory-utilitarianism, contractarianism,

Bruce Jennings

2003-01-01

242

Lady Justice and the Corporate Visor: An Application of Routine Activity Theory as a Synthesized Theoretical Framework for Explaining Corporate Crime.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The routine activity theory approach to the etiology of 'street crimes' has received considerable empirical support as a viable, synthesized explanatory framework for understanding the universal social problems of violent and property crimes. However, the...

J. G. Anderson

2000-01-01

243

MAINE POPULATION  

EPA Science Inventory

MEPOP250 depicts Maine's 1950-1990 population data by town or Census in unorganized territories. Populations were compiled from US Census Bureau data where available or from Maine Municipal Information (mainly for older records). Unorganized towns with very low or zero pop...

244

Comprehensive Framework Study. California Region. Main Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study report, prepared by state and federal agencies under the guidance of the United States Water Resources Council, outlines alternative uses of water and related land resources in the California Region between 1965 and 2020. The Region includes al...

1972-01-01

245

Comprensive Framework Study. California Region. Main Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study report, prepared by state and federal agencies under the guidance of the United States Water Resources Council, outlines alternative uses of water and related land resources in the California Region between 1965 and 2020. The Region includes al...

1971-01-01

246

Institute for Theoretical Physics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

String theory is the only serious candidate for a unified description of all known fundamental particles and interactions, including gravity, in a single theoretical framework. Over the past two years, activity in this subject has grown rapidly, thanks to...

S. B. Giddings H. Ooguri A. W. Peet J. H. Schwarz

1998-01-01

247

HOW DOES INTRODUCTION OF STRATEGIC JOB IN FOUR AND FIVE STAR HOTELS AFFECT ORGANIZATIONAL COMMITMENT AND ORGANIZATIONAL CITIZENSHIP BEHAVIOUR: A THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the study is to discuss HR practices system variation within the hotel industry related to the identification of strategic jobs, and how this influences employees' work attitudes. The context for this research is four and five star hotels in Malaysia. This paper provides an integrated framework and five research issues relating the concepts of the HR practices

Rozila Ahmad; Scholar David Solnet; Noel Scott

248

Defining the Nature and Impact of Goals in Children and Adolescents with a Chronic Health Condition: A Review of Research and a Theoretical Framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a review of research related to goals in youth with a chronic health condition (CHC) and a related framework to inform theory and research. Performed literature review using PsychINFO and Medline with a combination of many key words related to health, goals, and youth. Sixteen studies related to goals in youth with a CHC were identified. An

Lisa Schwartz; Dennis Drotar

2006-01-01

249

Towards a Theoretical Framework of Determinants for the Adoption and Diffusion of Buyer Authenticated Credit Card Payment Programs: The Online Merchant's Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study employs Rogers' framework of perceived innovation attributes augmented by environmental influences and marketing initiatives and a new factor developed for this study, namely, risk mitigation measures, to examine the case of merchant adoption of buyer authenticated credit card payment programs (BACCPPs). Recently introduced by the major credit card associations as replacements for the decommissioned SET and 3DSET protocols,

Mustafa A. Ally; Mark Toleman

2004-01-01

250

MAINE AQUIFERS  

EPA Science Inventory

AQFRS24 contains polygons of significant aquifers in Maine (glacial deposits that are a significant ground water resource) mapped at a scale 1:24,000. This statewide coverage was derived from aquifer boundaries delineated and digitized by the Maine Geological Survey from data com...

251

Comment on "A theoretical framework for quantitatively characterizing sound field diffusion based on scattering coefficient and absorption coefficient of walls" [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 128, 1140-1148 (2010)] (L).  

PubMed

The relationship between the acoustic scattering characteristics of materials and the degree of diffusion in enclosed acoustic spaces has recently attracted considerable research attention. Hanyu [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 128(3), 1140-1148 (2010)] introduced a theoretical framework, in which the diffusion time in an enclosure is expressed as a function of a material's average scattering coefficient. In this letter, a modification of this theory is proposed. The decay process of the sound energy through scattering is divided into discrete sub-processes, specifically, a purely scattering process, and alternating scattering and specular reflections. The behavior of each process is examined for different scattering coefficients. PMID:23297877

Omoto, Akira

2013-01-01

252

Competence-Based Knowledge Space Theory as a Framework for Intelligent Metacognitive Scaffolding  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a To help learners in acquiring metacognitive skills that are necessary for successfully planning, monitoring, and regulating\\u000a their learning, metacognitive support and scaffolding mechanisms are needed. Competence-based Knowledge Space Theory constitutes\\u000a a theoretical framework mainly used for personalising learning to individual learners’ domain-specific competence. The paper\\u000a outlines how this theoretical framework can be utilized for adaptive metacognitive scaffolding tailored to individual

Christina M. Steiner; Dietrich Albert

253

MAINE WOODLOTS  

EPA Science Inventory

MEOWN250 describes industrial, non-industrial, and public woodlot ownership in Maine at 1:250,000 scale. Industrial owners are those having at least one primary wood processing facility. Non-industrial owners are those with no primary wood processing facility. Public ownership...

254

MAINE HYDROGRAPHY  

EPA Science Inventory

Hydronet_me24 and Hydropoly_me24 depict Maine's hydrography data, based on 8-digit hydrological unit codes (HUC's) at the 1:24,000 scale. Some New Hampshire and New Brunswick hydrography data are also included. The NHD hydrography data was compiled from previous ArcIn...

255

Theoretical Foundations of Associations Rules  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we describe a formal framework for the problem of mining association rules. The theoretical foundation is based on the field of formal concept analysis. A concept is composed of closed subsets of attributes (itemsets) and objects (transactions). We show that all frequent itemsets are uniquely determined by the frequent concepts. We further show how this lattice-theoretic framework

Mohammed J. Zaki; Mitsunori Ogihara

1998-01-01

256

Details for Manuscript Number SSM-D-07-01631R1 "HIV-Related Stigma: Adapting a Theoretical Framework for Use in India"  

PubMed Central

Stigma complicates the treatment of HIV worldwide. We examined whether a multi-component framework, initially consisting of enacted, felt normative, and internalized forms of individual stigma experiences, could be used to understand HIV-related stigma in Southern India. In Study 1, qualitative interviews with a convenience sample of 16 people living with HIV revealed instances of all three types of stigma. Experiences of discrimination (enacted stigma) were reported relatively infrequently. Rather, perceptions of high levels of stigma (felt normative stigma) motivated people to avoid disclosing their HIV status. These perceptions often were shaped by stories of discrimination against others HIV-infected individuals, which we adapted as an additional component of our framework (vicarious stigma). Participants also varied in their acceptance of HIV stigma as legitimate (internalized stigma). In Study 2, newly-developed measures of the stigma components were administered in a survey to 229 people living with HIV. Findings suggested that enacted and vicarious stigma influenced felt normative stigma; that enacted, felt normative, and internalized stigma were associated with higher levels of depression; and that the associations of depression with felt normative and internalized forms of stigma were mediated by the use of coping strategies designed to avoid disclosure of one's HIV serostatus.

Herek, Gregory M; Ramakrishna, Jayashree; Bharat, Shalini; Chandy, Sara; Wrubel, Judith; Ekstrand, Maria L

2008-01-01

257

e-Search: A Conceptual Framework of Online Consumer Behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

The continued success of online shopping will be determined by the degree to which consumers utilize the Internet during their decision making process, mainly the acquisition of product information. This chapter addresses consumers' goal-directed information search in the online marketplace. To understand consumer search behavior in this unique environment, relevant theoretical perspectives are drawn to provide a conceptual framework that

Kuan-Pin Chiang; Stu Westin

258

Main sequence: An index for detecting mental workload variation in complex tasks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary aim of this study was to validate the saccadic main sequence, in particular the peak velocity [PV], as an alternative psychophysiological measure of Mental Workload [MW]. Taking the Wickens’ multiple resource model as the theoretical framework of reference, an experiment was conducted using the Firechief® microworld. MW was manipulated by changing the task complexity (between groups) and the

Leandro Luigi Di Stasi; Adoración Antolí; José Juan Cañas

2011-01-01

259

Social influences on the motivation to quit smoking: Main and moderating effects of social norms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study extends the previous research on the social influences on quitting by investigating inconsistencies between different types of social norms and their main and moderating effects on quitting intentions. The theory of planned behaviour (TPB) served as the theoretical framework. Social influences were operationalised by subjective quitting norm (significant others' expectations that one should quit), descriptive quitting norm

Birte Dohnke; Edith Weiss-Gerlach; Claudia D. Spies

2011-01-01

260

Population growth and agriculture in poor countries: A review of theoretical issues and empirical evidence  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper contributes a critical survey of the very extensive literature dealing with various aspects of the economic and institutional responses of agriculture to population growth in poor countries, encompassing a discussion of the main underlying theoretical issues. Such responses are evaluated in the framework of the general population-development debate.The main conclusion is that, although population growth induces adjustments in

Nadia Cuffaro

1997-01-01

261

THE LEGAL INDEBTEDNESS CAPACITY OF ROMANIAN LOCAL GOVERNMENTS - THEORETICAL AND EMPIRICAL EVIDENCES  

Microsoft Academic Search

The factual, not only formal capacity of local governments to appeal to borrowed resources is, considering the current conditions, a prerequisite for ensuring economic and social development of local communities. In this paper we intend to position the main theoretical and empirical evidences on local governments' indebtedness capacity, mainly focusing on its sizing according to Romanian regulatory framework. With respect

Bilan Irina; Oprea Florin

2011-01-01

262

A theoretical study of the hydrogen-storage potential of (H2)4CH4 in metal organic framework materials and carbon nanotubes.  

PubMed

The hydrogen-methane compound (H(2))(4)CH(4)-or for short H4M-is one of the most promising hydrogen-storage materials. This van der Waals compound is extremely rich in molecular hydrogen: 33.3 mass%, not including the hydrogen bound in CH(4); including it, we reach even 50.2 mass%. Unfortunately, H4M is not stable under ambient pressure and temperature, requiring either low temperature or high pressure. In this paper, we investigate the properties and structure of the molecular and crystalline forms of H4M, using ab initio methods based on van der Waals DFT (vdW-DF). We further investigate the possibility of creating the pressures required to stabilize H4M through external agents such as metal organic framework (MOF) materials and carbon nanotubes, with very encouraging results. In particular, we find that certain MOFs can create considerable pressure for H4M in their cavities, but not enough to stabilize it at room temperature, and moderate cooling is still necessary. On the other hand, we find that all the investigated carbon nanotubes can create the high pressures required for H4M to be stable at room temperature, with direct implications for new and exciting hydrogen-storage applications. PMID:23032298

Li, Q; Thonhauser, T

2012-10-03

263

Main Report  

PubMed Central

Background: States vary widely in their use of newborn screening tests, with some mandating screening for as few as three conditions and others mandating as many as 43 conditions, including varying numbers of the 40+ conditions that can be detected by tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). There has been no national guidance on the best candidate conditions for newborn screening since the National Academy of Sciences report of 19751 and the United States Congress Office of Technology Assessment report of 1988,2 despite rapid developments since then in genetics, in screening technologies, and in some treatments. Objectives: In 2002, the Maternal and Child Health Bureau (MCHB) of the Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) of the United States Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) commissioned the American College of Medical Genetics (ACMG) to: Conduct an analysis of the scientific literature on the effectiveness of newborn screening.Gather expert opinion to delineate the best evidence for screening for specified conditions and develop recommendations focused on newborn screening, including but not limited to the development of a uniform condition panel.Consider other components of the newborn screening system that are critical to achieving the expected outcomes in those screened. Methods: A group of experts in various areas of subspecialty medicine and primary care, health policy, law, public health, and consumers worked with a steering committee and several expert work groups, using a two-tiered approach to assess and rank conditions. A first step was developing a set of principles to guide the analysis. This was followed by developing criteria by which conditions could be evaluated, and then identifying the conditions to be evaluated. A large and broadly representative group of experts was asked to provide their opinions on the extent to which particular conditions met the selected criteria, relying on supporting evidence and references from the scientific literature. The criteria were distributed among three main categories for each condition: The availability and characteristics of the screening test;The availability and complexity of diagnostic services; andThe availability and efficacy of treatments related to the conditions. A survey process utilizing a data collection instrument was used to gather expert opinion on the conditions in the first tier of the assessment. The data collection format and survey provided the opportunity to quantify expert opinion and to obtain the views of a diverse set of interest groups (necessary due to the subjective nature of some of the criteria). Statistical analysis of data produced a score for each condition, which determined its ranking and initial placement in one of three categories (high scoring, moderately scoring, or low scoring/absence of a newborn screening test). In the second tier of these analyses, the evidence base related to each condition was assessed in depth (e.g., via systematic reviews of reference lists including MedLine, PubMed and others; books; Internet searches; professional guidelines; clinical evidence; and cost/economic evidence and modeling). The fact sheets reflecting these analyses were evaluated by at least two acknowledged experts for each condition. These experts assessed the data and the associated references related to each criterion and provided corrections where appropriate, assigned a value to the level of evidence and the quality of the studies that established the evidence base, and determined whether there were significant variances from the survey data. Survey results were subsequently realigned with the evidence obtained from the scientific literature during the second-tier analysis for all objective criteria, based on input from at least three acknowledged experts in each condition. The information from these two tiers of assessment was then considered with regard to the overriding principles and other technology or condition-specific recommendations. On the basis of this information, conditions were assigned to one of thr

2006-01-01

264

Framework for Supporting Web-Based Collaborative Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The article proposes an intelligent framework for supporting Web-based applications. The framework focuses on innovative use of existing resources and technologies in the form of services and takes the leverage of theoretical foundation of services science and the research from services computing. The main focus of the framework is to deliver benefits to users with various roles such as service requesters, service providers, and business owners to maximize their productivity when engaging with each other via the Web. The article opens up with research motivations and questions, analyses the existing state of research in the field, and describes the approach in implementing the proposed framework. Finally, an e-health application is discussed to evaluate the effectiveness of the framework where participants such as general practitioners (GPs), patients, and health-care workers collaborate via the Web.

Dai, Wei

265

The Co-Emergence of Machine Techniques, Paper-and-Pencil Techniques, and Theoretical Reflection: A Study of CAS Use in Secondary School Algebra  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper addresses the dialectical relation between theoretical thinking and technique, as they co-emerge in a combined computer algebra (CAS) and paper-and-pencil environment. The theoretical framework in this ongoing study consists of the instrumental approach to tool use and an adaptation of Chevallard's anthropological theory. The main aim…

Kieran, Carolyn; Drijvers, Paul

2006-01-01

266

A New Quantum Theoretical Framework for Parapsychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

An account is given of a recent proposal to complete modern quan- tum theory by adding a characterisation of consciousness. The re- sulting theory is applied to give mechanisms for typical parapsycho- logical phenomena, and ways of testing it are discussed.

Chris Clarke

2008-01-01

267

Intelligent Flow Control Under Game Theoretic Framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this chapter, we organize our work in two parts. The first part deals with the connection admission control (CAC) problem in ATM networks. By taking dynamic CAC from a different point of view, we propose a cooperative game model that considers certain combination of user preferences to optimize the call block probability while maintaining certain negotiated QoS. After deriving

Huimin Chen; Yanda Li

268

Kinetic Chain Rehabilitation: A Theoretical Framework  

PubMed Central

Sequenced physiologic muscle activations in the upper and lower extremity result in an integrated biomechanical task. This sequencing is known as the kinetic chain, and, in upper extremity dominant tasks, the energy development and output follows a proximal to distal sequencing. Impairment of one or more kinetic chain links can create dysfunctional biomechanical output leading to pain and/or injury. When deficits exist in the preceding links, they can negatively affect the shoulder. Rehabilitation of shoulder injuries should involve evaluation for and restoration of all kinetic chain deficits that may hinder kinetic chain function. Rehabilitation programs focused on eliminating kinetic chain deficits, and soreness should follow a proximal to distal rationale where lower extremity impairments are addressed in addition to the upper extremity impairments. A logical progression focusing on flexibility, strength, proprioception, and endurance with kinetic chain influence is recommended.

Sciascia, Aaron; Cromwell, Robin

2012-01-01

269

New Theoretical Frameworks for Machine Learning.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This thesis has two primary thrusts. The first is developing new models and algorithms for important modern and classic learning problems. The second is establishing new connections between Machine Learning and Algorithmic Game Theory. The formulation of ...

M. Balcan

2008-01-01

270

[Marketing in veterinary practice; a theoretical framework].  

PubMed

An increase in the number of veterinarians, while at the same time the number of animals has remained constant, has resulted in growing competition. By extending the range of products and by enlarging the veterinarians' scope of activities this competition can be decreased. A marketing-orientation will be helpful in this respect. This article indicates in which way marketing concepts can be used in a veterinary practice. The services of the veterinarian will be looked at by means of the Abell approach. This focuses on the functions performed by the services and examines, per function performed, for whom this might be interesting and which alternatives there might be. Next the concept of market segmentation is filled in for a veterinary practice by means of a hypothetical example. The marketing mix (product, place, price, promotion and personnel) is given considerable attention. The last element of marketing in a veterinary practice that is discussed here is the marketing information system. In a next article the question will be answered how marketing-directed the Dutch veterinarian works nowadays. To find this out research has been done; 166 vets were interviewed by telephone for approximately 40 minutes each. PMID:2321238

Schuurmans, A J; Smidts, A

1990-03-15

271

Interpersonal Relations: A Choice-Theoretic Framework.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The microeconomic theory relating to utility and cost is applied to the "risk," and the possible "payoff" relative to relationships with others. A good measure of utility is the need or want-satisfying power of an alternative. For the analysis of interpersonal relationships, the needs delineated by Maslow (i.e. food, shelter, belongingness, love,…

Couvillion, L. Michael; Eckstein, Daniel G.

272

Theoretical Frameworks for Studying Female Marriage Migrants  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Transnational marriages account for a significant proportion of family-based immigration to North America. An increasing number of immigrant men are choosing to marry women from their countries of origin, and an increasing number of nonimmigrant men are choosing to marry women from other countries. Existing studies on the experiences of foreign…

Merali, Noorfarah

2008-01-01

273

Polarization of the Microwave Background: theoretical framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a brief review of the polarization properties of the cosmic\\u000amicrowave background in dark matter models for structure formation. Quite\\u000aindependently of the model parameters, the polarization level is expected to be\\u000a$\\\\sim 10%$ of the anisotropy signal at angular scales $\\\\le 1^o$. Detections\\u000aof polarization at larger angular scales would provide a strong evidence in\\u000afavour of

Alessandro Melchiorri; Nicola Vittorio

1996-01-01

274

Framework for the Future  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The main goal of the Inquiry into the Future for Lifelong Learning is to provide a "strategic framework" for the future. In this article, the author considers the key components that will make up the framework. These are: (1) a statement of vision and values; (2) a stock-take of the current position; (3) an "investment rationale"; (4) some…

Schuller, Tom

2008-01-01

275

Theoretical Explanation for Success of Deep-Level-Learning Study Tours  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Study tours can help internationalize curricula and prepare students for global workplaces. We examine benefits of tours providing deep-level learning experiences rather than industrial tourism using five main theoretical frameworks to highlight the diverse learning benefits associated with intensive study tours in particular. Relevant…

Bergsteiner, Harald; Avery, Gayle C.

2008-01-01

276

Anesthesiologists' and surgeons' perceptions about routine pre-operative testing in low-risk patients: application of the Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF) to identify factors that influence physicians' decisions to order pre-operative tests  

PubMed Central

Background Routine pre-operative tests for anesthesia management are often ordered by both anesthesiologists and surgeons for healthy patients undergoing low-risk surgery. The Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF) was developed to investigate determinants of behaviour and identify potential behaviour change interventions. In this study, the TDF is used to explore anaesthesiologists’ and surgeons’ perceptions of ordering routine tests for healthy patients undergoing low-risk surgery. Methods Sixteen clinicians (eleven anesthesiologists and five surgeons) throughout Ontario were recruited. An interview guide based on the TDF was developed to identify beliefs about pre-operative testing practices. Content analysis of physicians’ statements into the relevant theoretical domains was performed. Specific beliefs were identified by grouping similar utterances of the interview participants. Relevant domains were identified by noting the frequencies of the beliefs reported, presence of conflicting beliefs, and perceived influence on the performance of the behaviour under investigation. Results Seven of the twelve domains were identified as likely relevant to changing clinicians’ behaviour about pre-operative test ordering for anesthesia management. Key beliefs were identified within these domains including: conflicting comments about who was responsible for the test-ordering (Social/professional role and identity); inability to cancel tests ordered by fellow physicians (Beliefs about capabilities and social influences); and the problem with tests being completed before the anesthesiologists see the patient (Beliefs about capabilities and Environmental context and resources). Often, tests were ordered by an anesthesiologist based on who may be the attending anesthesiologist on the day of surgery while surgeons ordered tests they thought anesthesiologists may need (Social influences). There were also conflicting comments about the potential consequences associated with reducing testing, from negative (delay or cancel patients’ surgeries), to indifference (little or no change in patient outcomes), to positive (save money, avoid unnecessary investigations) (Beliefs about consequences). Further, while most agreed that they are motivated to reduce ordering unnecessary tests (Motivation and goals), there was still a report of a gap between their motivation and practice (Behavioural regulation). Conclusion We identified key factors that anesthesiologists and surgeons believe influence whether they order pre-operative tests routinely for anesthesia management for a healthy adults undergoing low-risk surgery. These beliefs identify potential individual, team, and organisation targets for behaviour change interventions to reduce unnecessary routine test ordering.

2012-01-01

277

A Framework for Designing Deadlock-Free Wormhole Routing Algorithms  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a framework to design fully-adaptive, deadlock-free wormhole algorithms for a variety of network topologies. The main theoretical contributions are (a) design of new wormhole algorithms using store-and-forward algorithms, (b) a sufficient condition for deadlock free routing by the wormhole algorithms so designed, and (c) a sufficient condition for deadlock free routing by these wormhole algorithms with centralized

Rajendra V. Boppana; Suresh Chalasani

1996-01-01

278

Experimental analysis of chaotic neural network models for combinatorial optimization under a unifying framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this paper is to study both the theoretical and experimental properties of chaotic neural network (CNN) models for solving combinatorial optimization problems. Previously we have proposed a unifying framework which encompasses the three main model types, namely, Chen and Aihara's chaotic simulated annealing (CSA) with decaying self-coupling, Wang and Smith's CSA with decaying timestep, and the Hopfield

Terence Kwok; Kate A. Smith

2000-01-01

279

The health literacy skills framework.  

PubMed

Although there are a variety of models and frameworks that describe factors that are associated with health literacy skills, few illustrate the full pathway from development and moderators of health literacy skills, their application, and the outcomes that result all in one framework or model. This article introduces the Health Literacy Skills conceptual framework that does encompass this full continuum. To develop the framework, the authors reviewed and built upon existing health literacy frameworks. The Health Literacy Skills framework hypothesizes the relations between health literacy and health-related outcomes and depicts how health literacy functions at the level of the individual. The framework also reflects how factors external to the individual (e.g., family, setting, community, culture, and media) influence the constructs and relations represented in the framework. The framework is organized into 4 primary components: (a) factors that influence the development and use of health literacy skills; (b) health-related stimuli; (c) health literacy skills needed to comprehend the stimulus and perform the task; and (d) mediators between health literacy and health outcomes. Previous theoretical frameworks lend support to the proposed causal pathways it illustrates. The authors hope this conceptual framework can serve as a springboard for further discussion and advancement in operationalizing this complex construct. The Health Literacy Skills framework could also be used to guide the development of interventions to improve health literacy. Future research should be conducted to fully test the relations in the framework. PMID:23030560

Squiers, Linda; Peinado, Susana; Berkman, Nancy; Boudewyns, Vanessa; McCormack, Lauren

2012-01-01

280

Theoretical Physics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report contains the papers delivered at the 14th annual seminar on theoretical physics held at Golden Gate. The following topics were discussed: natural quark field confinement; boson expansions; model calculations for three particles outside a close...

1979-01-01

281

Theoretical Possibilities  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Theoretical chemists focus their attention on problems that defy solution. This special section highlights some areas where theorists feel that progress can be made in the near future on problems that will benefit their experimental colleagues in chemistry and other disciplines.

Julia Fahrenkamp-Uppenbrink (AAAS;); Phil Szuromi (AAAS;); Jake Yeston (AAAS;); Robert Coontz (AAAS;)

2008-08-08

282

Theoretical Model Development in Elder Mistreatment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Elder mistreatment inquiry is a relative newcomer to the family violence arena and its empirically-based knowledge lacks a theoretical framework within which to understand its multiple manifestations. Effective intervention and prevention strategies depen...

K. Burnight L. Mosqueda

2011-01-01

283

Experimental and theoretical analyses of PrAl2 and NdAl2 composite for use as an active magnetic regenerator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the theoretical and experimental investigations on the magnetocaloric effect in the PrAl2 and NdAl2 compounds and a composite of these compounds for use as an active magnetic regenerator. The theoretical calculations were performed considering the crystalline electrical field anisotropy and the magnetocaloric potentials were calculated in the three main crystallographic directions. The experimental data, obtained for the polycrystalline samples, are in good agreement with the theoretical results. Also, an optimum molar fraction of the PrAl2 and NdAl2 composite was determined theoretically and experimentally and discussed in the framework of the optimum regeneration Ericsson cycle.

Carvalho, A. Magnus G.; Campoy, J. C. P.; Coelho, A. A.; Plaza, E. J. R.; Gama, S.; von Ranke, P. J.

2005-04-01

284

Macroalgae Industry in Maine.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Physical description and climate of the Maine coast; Seaweed biology; Some uses of macroalgae; Determination of candidates for aquaculture; Economically important macroalgae in Maine--Porphyra; Chondrus crispus; Mastocarpus stellata; Palmaria pa...

S. Crawford

1991-01-01

285

ICT Framework  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page, from the Mid-Pacific Information and Communications Technology Center, provides a basic background of Information and Communications Technology (ICT). The page outlines the basic framework for understanding and learning about the technology. Information on related industries, levels of ICT expertise and information about non-ICT industries is all included in the document.

2011-08-01

286

The Fabled Maine Winter  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

No study of Maine weather would be complete without analysis of the year of 1816 - the year with no summer in an area from western Pennsylvania and New York, up through Quebec and across to Maine and the Canadian maritimes. In this five-unit lesson, students will investigate the causes and effects of the Fabled Maine Winter by exploring a variety of data sources. They will locate, graph, and analyze meteorological and climatological data for Portland, Maine, for more recent years to try to find one that most closely resembles the fabled Maine winter of 1816.

287

Theoretical calculation of proton mobility for collective surface proton transport.  

PubMed

We present a theoretical study of surface proton mobility at a minimally hydrated array of protogenic surface groups. At dense packing, the array assembles into a 2D bicomponent lattice that is formed by sulfonate anions, which are only allowed to fluctuate about fixed equilibrium positions, and mobile hydronium ions. Proton transport on the lattice proceeds by collective translocations of hydronium ions. This type of motion is described within the framework of soliton theory. Our main objective in this article is to establish the relation between microscopic surface structure and effective proton mobility. To this end, we present an approach to calculate microscopic interaction parameters that determine hydronium ion motion. The developed formalism enables us to theoretically derive an expression for soliton mobility at a given surface structure and compare it with experimentally measured mobilities. PMID:23848749

Golovnev, Anatoly; Eikerling, Michael

2013-06-14

288

Theoretical calculation of proton mobility for collective surface proton transport  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a theoretical study of surface proton mobility at a minimally hydrated array of protogenic surface groups. At dense packing, the array assembles into a 2D bicomponent lattice that is formed by sulfonate anions, which are only allowed to fluctuate about fixed equilibrium positions, and mobile hydronium ions. Proton transport on the lattice proceeds by collective translocations of hydronium ions. This type of motion is described within the framework of soliton theory. Our main objective in this article is to establish the relation between microscopic surface structure and effective proton mobility. To this end, we present an approach to calculate microscopic interaction parameters that determine hydronium ion motion. The developed formalism enables us to theoretically derive an expression for soliton mobility at a given surface structure and compare it with experimentally measured mobilities.

Golovnev, Anatoly; Eikerling, Michael

2013-06-01

289

Semantic Resource Framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The Semantic Resource Framework (SRF) is a multi-level description of the data sources for search computing applications.\\u000a It responds to the need of having a structured representation of search services, amenable to service exploration, selection,\\u000a and invocation. The SRF aims at extending the Service Mart model used so far in search computing to overcome some of its limitations.\\u000a The main

Marco Brambilla; Alessandro Campi; Stefano Ceri; Silvia Quarteroni

2010-01-01

290

Motivational Control Theory: An Integrative Framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

Motivational control theory is a meta-theoretic framework that differs from conventional theories of motivation by being at a more fundamental level of description. Motivational control theory is described and then used as a framework to compare Atkinson's theory, goal-setting theory, Weiner's attributional theory, and Deci and Ryan's theory of intrinsic motivation. The analysis shows that these different theories focus on

Michael E. Hyland

1988-01-01

291

Holistic performance management: an integrated framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The work presented aimed at developing an integrated framework for holistic performance management. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The research was carried out using an action research approach. A case study was used as the basis for developing a pilot framework for performance management, involving both employees in the case organization and researchers. The research is based on theoretical contributions within

Bjørn Andersen; Bjørnar Henriksen; Wenche Aarseth

2006-01-01

292

An Evaluation Use Framework and Empirical Assessment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Background: Research on evaluation use focuses on putting evaluation recommendations into practice. Prior theoretical research proposes varied frameworks for understanding the use (or lack) of program evaluation results. Purpose: Our purpose is to create and test a single, integrated framework for understanding evaluation use. This article relies…

Peck, Laura R.; Gorzalski, Lindsey M.

2009-01-01

293

Sulawesi: A Wearable Application Integration Framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes Sulawesi, a framework for developing applications for wearable computing that are capable of multi-modal interaction with the user. The design principles of the framework are described along with its main features, and some example applications that exploit the capabilities of the framework are outlined

Neill J. Newman; Adrian F. Clark

1999-01-01

294

Exploring Main Belt Asteroids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Terrestrial planet formation in the main asteroid belt was interrupted when growing protoplanets became sufficiently massive to gravitationally perturb the local population, causing bodies to collide with increased energy, thus ending accretion and commencing fragmentation and disruption. Few of these protoplanets are thought to have survived unshattered (e.g., Ceres, Vesta, Pallas), leaving a main belt population dominated by fragments of

M. V. Sykes; S. M. Larson; R. Whiteley; U. Fink; R. Jedicke; J. Emery; R. Fevig; M. Kelley; A. W. Harris; S. Ostro; K. Reed; R. P. Binzel; A. Rivkin; C. Magri; W. Bottke; D. Durda; R. Walker; D. Davis; W. K. Hartmann; D. Sears; H. Yano; J. Granahan; A. Storrs; S. J. Bus; J. F. Bell; D. Tholen; A. Cellino

2001-01-01

295

MAINE MARINE WORM HABITAT  

EPA Science Inventory

WORM provides a generalized representation at 1:24,000 scale of commercially harvested marine worm habitat in Maine, based on Maine Department of Marine Resources data from 1970's. Original maps were created by MDMR and published by USF&WS as part of the ""&quo...

296

Gulf of Maine: Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Lessons and activities from the Gulf of Maine Research Institute (formerly Gulf of Maine Aquarium), focused on hurricanes, El Nino, fog, and volcanic eruptions. Emphasis on important hurricanes of the past. Resources include lessons, guides for simple experiments, and a student weather network. Downloadable materials and additional webpages also provided.

297

Main Belt Comets  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have identified objects which are physically comets but which occupy orbits within the main belt of asteroids No dynamical routes from the Kuiper belt or Oort Cloud cometary reservoirs have been identified Therefore we conclude that these are true comets formed in-place and constituting a new type of comet from a previously unobserved reservoir The main belt comets MBCs

D. Jewitt; H. Hsieh

2006-01-01

298

Cybernetic Components: A Theoretical Basis for Component Software Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

We take the position that Cybernetics offers a theoretical basis for the development of components, component frameworks, and component framework frameworks. Although not recognized as such, Cybernetic principles are currently used in successful software. A goal in proposing Cybernetics for component design is to permit the development of organic software systems to meet increasingly complex application requirements.

Charles Herring; Simon Kaplan

1998-01-01

299

MAINE WEIRS 1990  

EPA Science Inventory

WEIR90 shows point locations of herring weirs in Maine based on 1990 overflight by MDMR Marine Patrol, mapped at an approximate scale of 1:100,000. Data were screen digitized from paper maps used during the overflight....

300

Disseminating research findings: what should researchers do? A systematic scoping review of conceptual frameworks  

PubMed Central

Background Addressing deficiencies in the dissemination and transfer of research-based knowledge into routine clinical practice is high on the policy agenda both in the UK and internationally. However, there is lack of clarity between funding agencies as to what represents dissemination. Moreover, the expectations and guidance provided to researchers vary from one agency to another. Against this background, we performed a systematic scoping to identify and describe any conceptual/organising frameworks that could be used by researchers to guide their dissemination activity. Methods We searched twelve electronic databases (including MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and PsycINFO), the reference lists of included studies and of individual funding agency websites to identify potential studies for inclusion. To be included, papers had to present an explicit framework or plan either designed for use by researchers or that could be used to guide dissemination activity. Papers which mentioned dissemination (but did not provide any detail) in the context of a wider knowledge translation framework, were excluded. References were screened independently by at least two reviewers; disagreements were resolved by discussion. For each included paper, the source, the date of publication, a description of the main elements of the framework, and whether there was any implicit/explicit reference to theory were extracted. A narrative synthesis was undertaken. Results Thirty-three frameworks met our inclusion criteria, 20 of which were designed to be used by researchers to guide their dissemination activities. Twenty-eight included frameworks were underpinned at least in part by one or more of three different theoretical approaches, namely persuasive communication, diffusion of innovations theory, and social marketing. Conclusions There are currently a number of theoretically-informed frameworks available to researchers that can be used to help guide their dissemination planning and activity. Given the current emphasis on enhancing the uptake of knowledge about the effects of interventions into routine practice, funders could consider encouraging researchers to adopt a theoretically-informed approach to their research dissemination.

2010-01-01

301

Nucleus as an Open System: New Effects and Theoretical Challenges  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As nuclear science moves in the direction of nuclei far from stability, the studies of nuclear structure and nuclear reactions become more and more interrelated. The main theoretical challenge is to find a consistent description of the nucleus as an open mesoscopic system coupled with continuum through real decay channels and through virtual excitations. The method using the effective non-Hermitian Hamiltonian [see review article: N. Auerbach and V. Zelevinsky, Rep. Prog. Phys. 74, 106301 (2011)] is one of the most promising theoretical approaches; it can be strictly derived from quantum many-body theory, it allows for calculating bound states, resonances and reaction cross sections in the unified framework, and it is quite flexible in practical applications. After explaining the main features of this theory, I will show the method at work (continuum shell model with predictions recently confirmed by the experiments with exotic oxygen isotopes, phenomenon of super-radiance, relation to the idea of doorway states, quantum signal transmission through mesoscopic systems) and discuss new theoretical challenges.

Zelevinsky, Vladimir

2012-10-01

302

The Maine Memory Network  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Once you have visited Maine, it is most certainly not a place that you will soon forget. This website is designed to make sure longtime residents and visitors alike will not forget this tranquil state, as it brings together a very wide range of historical documents and memories from around the state. The site itself was created by the Maine Historical Society, and is supported by monies from the Institute of Museum and Library Services and several other partners. Within the site, visitors can search for historical items and documents, view thematic online exhibits, and learn about how the site may be used effectively in classroom settings. One particularly fine exhibit is the one that offers some visual documentation of rural Aroostook County around the year 1900. In this exhibit, visitors can experience the dense forests and rugged terrain that dominate the landscape of this part of Maine.

303

Main sequence mass loss  

SciTech Connect

It has been hypothesized that variable stars may experience mass loss, driven, at least in part, by oscillations. The class of stars we are discussing here are the delta Scuti variables. These are variable stars with masses between about 1.2 and 2.25 M/sub theta/, lying on or very near the main sequence. According to this theory, high rotation rates enhance the rate of mass loss, so main sequence stars born in this mass range would have a range of mass loss rates, depending on their initial rotation velocity and the amplitude of the oscillations. The stars would evolve rapidly down the main sequence until (at about 1.25 M/sub theta/) a surface convection zone began to form. The presence of this convective region would slow the rotation, perhaps allowing magnetic braking to occur, and thus sharply reduce the mass loss rate. 7 refs.

Brunish, W.M.; Guzik, J.A.; Willson, L.A.; Bowen, G.

1987-01-01

304

A general theory of image segmentation: level set segmentation in the fuzzy connectedness framework  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the current vast image segmentation literature, there is a serious lack of methods that would allow theoretical comparison of the algorithms introduced by using different mathematical methodologies. The main goal of this article is to introduce a general theoretical framework for image segmentation that would allow such comparison. The framework is based on the formal definitions designed to answer the following fundamental questions: What is the relation between an idealized image and its digital representation? What properties a segmentation algorithm must satisfy to be acknowledged as acceptable? What does it mean that a digital image segmentation algorithm truly approximates an idealized segmentation model? We use the formulated framework to analyze the front propagation (FP) level set algorithm of Malladi, Sethian, and Vemuri and compare it with the fuzzy connectedness family of algorithms. In particular, we prove that the FP algorithm is weakly model-equivalent with the absolute fuzzy connectedness algorithm of Udupa and Samarasekera used with gradient based afinity. Experimental evidence of this equivalence is also provided. The presented theoretical framework can be used to analyze any arbitrary segmentation algorithm. This line of investigation is a subject of our forthcoming work.

Ciesielski, Krzysztof Chris; Udupa, Jayaram K.

2007-03-01

305

MAINE SCHOOLS AND LIBRARIES  

EPA Science Inventory

SCHLIB shows point locations of libraries and educational institutions in Maine at 1:24,000 scale. Colleges, universities, technical colleges, high schools, middle schools, elementary schools, kindergarten/sub-primary and other special schools are included. The data was developed...

306

Newbury Neck Quadrangle, Maine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Ellsworth Schist has been deformed at least three times, steeply inclined faults approximately parallel to the length of Patten Bay producing a highly contorted rock structure. In the main stage of (Photo 9). The orientation of these minor faults suggests that an old fault deformation, wet sediments together with the interlayered volcanic trace may lie beneath Patten Bay. Another

Douglas N. Reusch; John P. Hogan; Robert G. Marvinney; Susan S. Tolman; Robert D. Tucker; Henry N. Berry

2002-01-01

307

The correlates of infant and childhood mortality: A theoretical overview and new evidence from the analysis of longitudinal data of the Bejsce (Poland) parish register reconstitution study of the 18th-20th centuries  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper has two main goals. The first is to review the context for studying infant mortality, which includes a review of the theoretical framework, the covariates used to examine mortality over the first 60 months of life, and the major findings of empirical studies. Second, the paper adds some new empirical evidence that comes from the longitudinal reconstitution of

Krzysztof Tymicki

2009-01-01

308

Windows on Maine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created with funds provided by the Institute of Museum and Library Services (IMLS), Windows on Maine contains interesting and informative programs and video clips from Maine Public Broadcasting and other partners. On their homepage, visitors can use their interactive map and timeline to locate video clips of interest, and they can also search the entire collection for specific items. Visitors can also use the subject category menu to look over 25 different headings, including "earth sciences", "land disputes", and "Penobscot tribe". The map feature is a real pip, and visitors can customize their search by location and date, and it's a great way to learn about different regions, including Aroostook County (also known as "the County") and Downeast. Also, many of the videos also have additional resources attached to them, such as railroad timetables, historic photographs, and so on.

309

Main roads to melanoma  

PubMed Central

The characterization of the molecular mechanisms involved in development and progression of melanoma could be helpful to identify the molecular profiles underlying aggressiveness, clinical behavior, and response to therapy as well as to better classify the subsets of melanoma patients with different prognosis and/or clinical outcome. Actually, some aspects regarding the main molecular changes responsible for the onset as well as the progression of melanoma toward a more aggressive phenotype have been described. Genes and molecules which control either cell proliferation, apoptosis, or cell senescence have been implicated. Here we provided an overview of the main molecular changes underlying the pathogenesis of melanoma. All evidence clearly indicates the existence of a complex molecular machinery that provides checks and balances in normal melanocytes. Progression from normal melanocytes to malignant metastatic cells in melanoma patients is the result of a combination of down- or up-regulation of various effectors acting on different molecular pathways.

Palmieri, Giuseppe; Capone, Mariaelena; Ascierto, Maria Libera; Gentilcore, Giusy; Stroncek, David F; Casula, Milena; Sini, Maria Cristina; Palla, Marco; Mozzillo, Nicola; Ascierto, Paolo A

2009-01-01

310

Stars main sequence  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What happens during most of a star's life? This activity page, part of an interactive laboratory series for grades 8-12, introduces students to the main sequence phase of a star's existence. This phase is where a star lives out the majority of its life. In an interactive lab activity, students predict the length of the main sequence for four different stars. The predictions can be printed for later evaluation. Students view diagrams that compare the size and color of stars to human lives, and equilibrium within a star is stressed. Finally, students choose between two hypotheses about the length of life of a star. Students write a one- to three-sentence explanation for their hypotheses. The correct answer is provided. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

University of Utah. Astrophysics Science Project Integrating Research and Education (ASPIRE)

2003-01-01

311

Maine coast winds  

SciTech Connect

The Maine Coast Winds Project was proposed for four possible turbine locations. Significant progress has been made at the prime location, with a lease-power purchase contract for ten years for the installation of turbine equipment having been obtained. Most of the site planning and permitting have been completed. It is expect that the turbine will be installed in early May. The other three locations are less suitable for the project, and new locations are being considered.

Avery, Richard

2000-01-28

312

Theoretical approach to regional environmental conflicts  

SciTech Connect

A regional analysis framework was developed to address regional environmental problems. This interdisciplinary framework is based on the utilization of four principal variables: environmental pattern, assets, and human culture as influenced by the externalities. The framework was applied to three heuristic examples: urban energy supplies in the north-eastern United States; resource extraction in the Rocky Mountain region of the US; and cattle herding in East Africa. The illustrated analyses and their results verify the broad utility of the theory underlying this framework. Although more in-depth analyses would be required to solve the real-world problems, our preliminary analyses indicate that the theoretical framework presented here can indeed be useful in approaching the regional environmental problem, analyzing the significant interactions in the system, and describing the regional dynamics among these variables and components. 34 references, 6 figures, 3 tables

Klopatek, J.M.; Krummel, J.R.; Mankin, J.B.; O'Neill, R.V.

1983-01-01

313

Unified Framework for Logic Diagnosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a unified diagnosis method targeting most of the fault models used in practice today. This framework is intended to be used to diagnose faulty behaviors in nanometric circuits for which the classical stuck-at fault model is far to cover all realistic failures. The method is based on an Effect-Cause approach which relies on the two following main

A. Rousset; P. Girard; S. Pravossoudovitch; C. Landrault; A. Virazel

2006-01-01

314

Sleep debt: Theoretical and empirical issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

The term 'sleep debt' is widely used to describe the effects of sleep loss. The construct of sleep debt, however, is poorly defined in the scientific literature. Cumulative build-up of sleep pressure appears to be a key feature of sleep debt. The concepts of 'core sleep' and 'basal sleep need' have been proposed to provide a theoretical framework, albeit without

Hans PA VAN DONGEN; Naomi L ROGERS; David F DINGES

2003-01-01

315

Anthropology rediscovers sexuality: A theoretical comment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite its reputation for openness to research on sexuality, anthropology as a discipline has only reluctantly supported such work. Anthropological research and theory developed slowly, sharing a stable theoretical paradigm (the cultural influence model) from the 1920s to the 1990s. Moving beyond determinist and essentialist frameworks still common in biomedicine, anthropological work nevertheless viewed important aspects of sexuality as universal

Carole S. Vance

1991-01-01

316

Diffusion at the magnetopause: A theoretical perspective.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper discusses theoretical aspects of cross-field wave-particle transport at the magnetopause. The basic framework for calculating the transport based on second order-theory is reviewed. Instabilities that give rise to the waves which then lead to p...

D. Winske V. A. Thomas N. Omidi

1994-01-01

317

Designing Optimal Sales Contests: A Theoretical Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sales contests are commonly used by firms as a short-term motivational device to increase salespeople's efforts. Conceptually, sales contests and piece-rate schemes, such as salary, commission, or quotas, differ in that in sales contests payment to salespeople is based on relative rather than absolute sales levels. Using the agency theoretic framework where the firm is risk neutral and the salespeople

Ajay Kalra; Mengze Shi

2001-01-01

318

United States Immigration Policy: Three Theoretical Approaches  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contrary to globalization theorists, the state is not becoming obsolete in an interdependent world, but redefining its role. The substantive influence of the state in the creation of immigration policy bears out the heightened role of the state. In fact, changes in United States immigration policy can only be explained using different theoretical frameworks. The liberal, realist, and Marxist paradigms

Andrea Silva

319

Visual selective attention: A theoretical analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present paper outlines a framework which allows a consistent interpretation of data regarding visual selection in visual search tasks. It organizes and reviews visual search tasks in which the target is defined by primitive features, by conjunctions of features and when the target is categorically different from non-targets. The special role of spatial attention is reviewed and different theoretical

Jan Theeuwes

1993-01-01

320

Conceptual Framework for Animal Assisted Therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Animal-assisted Therapy (A-AT) is becoming a popular therapeutic treatment for both children and adults. The author has used\\u000a A-AT in a school setting with students with emotional disturbances. A review of the literature regarding A-AT reveals a lack\\u000a of a unified theoretical framework. This paper proposes a conceptual framework that incorporates a physiological, psychological,\\u000a and cognitive model to depict the

Tracy S. Geist

2011-01-01

321

Decades of Theoretical Work on Protonated Hydrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Theoretical studies on protonated hydrates (PH) are illustrative of the progress realized in theoretical chemistry over several decades. The evolution of such studies is presented. The main methods used (quantum chemistry, Monte Carlo or Molecular Dynamics calculations…) and the problems encountered are briefly recalled. Some of the results obtained are commented.

E. Kochanski; R. Kelterbaum; S. Klein; M. M. Rohmer; A. Rahmouni

1997-01-01

322

Emerging theoretical basis for monitoring the changing states (health) of large marine ecosystems. Technical memo  

SciTech Connect

;Contents: Workshop Objective; Overview and Background; North Sea Ecosystem Case Study; Great Lakes Basin Ecosystem Case Study; Theoretical Framework; Plankton Recorder Technology; Data Analyses; Summary.

Sherman, K.

1993-09-01

323

Measurement of Workforce Readiness: Review of Theoretical Frameworks.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two prototypes to categories of necessary workforce skills in five studies are related: (1) "What Work Requires of Schools" by the Secretary's Commission of Achieving Necessary Skills (SCANS); (2) "Workplace Basics: The Essential Skills Employers Want" by the American Society of Training and Development (ASTD); (3) "Michigan Employability Skills…

O'Neil, Harold F., Jr.; And Others

324

Consciousness and the varieties of emotion experience: A theoretical framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data reviewed suggest that previous theories of emotion experience are too narrow in scope and that lack of consensus is due to the fact that emotion experience takes various forms and is heterogenous. The authors treat separately the content of emotion experience, the underlying nonconscious correspondences, and processes producing emotion experience. They classify the nature and content of emotion experience

John A. Lambie; Anthony J. Marcel

2002-01-01

325

Geographically Distributed Enterprise Architecting: Towards a Theoretical Framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

Enterprise architecting is becoming critical for most modern organizations whose competitive strategies are tightly linked to the underlying information technology (IT) infrastructure. The reason for this is that an enterprise architecture takes a holistic view of the business processes and functions and the information technologies supporting them, rather than the more detailed perspectives provided with application-by-application views. Our understanding of

J. Alberto Espinosa; Frank Armour

2008-01-01

326

Dice: a game theoretic framework for wireless multipath network coding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Network coding has emerged as a promising approach that enables reliable and efficient end-to-end transmissions in lossy wireless mesh networks. Existing protocols have demon- strated its resilience to packet losses, as well as the ability to integrate naturally with multipath opportunistic routing. However, these heuristics do not take into account the inher- ent resource competition in wireless networks, thereby com-

Xinyu Zhang; Baochun Li

2008-01-01

327

The emigrant entrepreneur: a theoretical framework and empirical approximation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present paper examines the concept of emigrant entrepreneur in relation to level of training and language skills. The\\u000a study focuses on the relationship of both variables with business activity, motivation and the process followed by entrepreneur.\\u000a The results show a trend in the relationship between the variable language skills and the type of activity developed. The\\u000a variable “level of

Carlos Rueda-Armengot; Marta Peris-Ortiz

328

Media Competence In Search of a Theoretical Framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

Media competence for long time has been understood as the recipients' ability and capacity of a critical awareness of media. The idea was that people, who understand how media are produced, how media influence and what media do to recipients or what consumers do with media, would then be independent from the media or immune against their influence. That concept

Thomas A. Bauer

329

Assessment of Student Outcomes Using a Theoretical Framework.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the scientific concept of evaporation. Attempts to show how students develop their understanding through the levels of the Structure of the Observed Learning Outcome (SOLO) taxonomy. Shows how designing learning experiences to suit the learners' developmental stages in understanding a concept is paramount to the overall growth of the…

Levins, Lesley

1997-01-01

330

Adolescents and abortion. A theoretical framework for decision making.  

PubMed

A knowledge of the factors influencing adolescent decision making, combined with decision-counseling techniques, will allow the nurse to improve the quality of a young woman's decision process and to reduce adverse reactions afterwards. Indeed, the young woman may take from the experience a more positive appraisal of herself as a decision maker, and perhaps begin to know mature compassion for herself and others. PMID:6555394

Brown, M A

331

PHALANX: A Graph-Theoretic Framework for Test Case Prioritization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Test case prioritization for regression testing can be per- formed using dieren t metrics (e.g., statement coverage, path coverage) depending on the application context. Em- ploying dieren t metrics requires dieren t prioritization schemes (e.g., maximum coverage, dissimilar paths covered). This results in signican t algorithmic and implementation complexity in the testing process associated with various metrics and prioritization schemes.

Murali Krishna; Mehmet Koyuturk; Ananth Grama; Suresh Jagannathan

332

Consciousness and the Varieties of Emotion Experience: A Theoretical Framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data reviewed suggest that previous theories of emotion experience are too narrow in scope and that lack of consensus is due to the fact that emotion experience takes various forms and is heterogenous. The authors treat separately the content of emotion experience, the underlying nonconscious correspondences, and processes producing emotion experience. They classify the nature and content of emotion experience

John A. Lambie; Anthony J. Marcel

2002-01-01

333

Situated Learning as a Theoretical Framework for Sport Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article seeks to establish the usefulness of situated learning theory as a means of thinking differently about the alleged abstraction of school learning in a range of subjects including physical education, and the issue of transfer of learning. Following a discussion of Lave and Wenger’s notion of situated learning as legitimate peripheral participation in communities of practice, the article

David Kirk; Gary Kinchin

2003-01-01

334

Group-theoretical framework for potential symmetries of evolution equations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We develop algebraic approach to the problem of classification of potential symmetries of nonlinear evolution equations. It is essentially based on the recently discovered fact [R. Zhdanov, J. Math. Phys. 50, 053522 (2009)], that any such symmetry is mapped into a contact symmetry. The approach enables using the classical results on classification of contact symmetries of nonlinear evolution equations by Sokolov and Magadeev to classify evolution equations admitting potential symmetries. We construct several examples of new nonlinear fourth-order evolution equations admitting potential symmetries. Since the symmetries obtained depend on nonlocal variables, they cannot be derived by the infinitesimal Lie approach.

Huang, Qing; Qu, Changzheng; Zhdanov, Renat

2011-02-01

335

A theoretical framework for knowledge transfer in process redesign  

Microsoft Academic Search

Business process redesign has become commonplace in today's organizations. A frequently overlooked consequence of process redesign is the learning barriers it creates for individuals who have to change the way they perform their work tasks. One way to overcome these barriers is through a process of knowledge transfer, wherein individuals apply their knowledge of existing work tasks to learn new

Kelly J. Fadel; Susan A. Brown; Mohan Tanniru

2008-01-01

336

Attitude toward advertising through sport: A theoretical framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

An important goal of advertising is designing effective campaigns that foster favorable attitudes toward a product. Attitude toward a product is influenced by one's attitude toward an advertisement. Previous research examining attitude toward advertising in general and in specific mediums (e.g., TV and online) has found that consumers’ attitudes toward advertising have become increasingly negative. The researchers propose that sport

Do Young Pyun; Jeffrey D. James

2011-01-01

337

Binary collision rates of relativistic thermal plasmas. I. Theoretical framework  

SciTech Connect

Binary collision rates for arbitrary scattering cross sections are derived in the case of a beam of particles interacting with a Maxwell-Boltzmann (MB) plasma, or in the case of two MB plasmas interacting at generally different temperatures. The expressions are valid for all beam energies and plasma temperatures, from the nonrelativistic to the extreme relativistic limits. The calculated quantities include the reaction rate, the energy exchange rate, and the average rate of change of the squared transverse momentum component of a monoenergetic particle beam as a result of scatterings with particles of a MB plasma. Results are specialized to elastic scattering processes, two-temperature reaction rates, or the cold plasma limit, reproducing previous work.

Dermer, C.D.

1985-08-01

338

Student Assessment in Arts Education: Towards a Theoretical Framework.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Student assessment is dependent on the educational views of the teacher. Arts pedagogy in comprehensive schools has several approaches, orientations, and even genres, each in turn having hidden practices of student evaluation. These stem on the one hand from the pedagogical tradition of the field (music, visual arts, drama, craft) and on the…

Puurula, Arja; Karppinen, Seija

339

Primary Teachers' Attitudes toward Science: A New Theoretical Framework  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Attention to the attitudes of preservice and inservice primary teachers toward science is of fundamental importance to research on primary science education. However, progress in this field of research has been slow due to the poor definition and conceptualization of the construct of primary teachers' attitude toward science. This poor…

van Aalderen-Smeets, Sandra I.; Walma van der Molen, Juliette H.; Asma, Lieke J. F.

2012-01-01

340

A Theoretical Framework for Operational Risk Management and Opportunity Realisation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advanced probability models are used to evaluate risks and to justify decisions where reliable data is available, e.g. reinsurance, money markets and nuclear energy. Operational risk management – the trade-offs made to run an efficient and effective organisation – has much less, and lower quality, data. In the first part of the paper, observations are made about the factors shaping

Adrian Sparrow

2000-01-01

341

VIRTUAL MANIPULATIVES IN MATHEMATICS EDUCATION: A THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: Meaningful,educational,activities and cognitive tools might improve,students’ active involvements,in the teaching-learning process and encourage,their reflections on the concepts and relations to be investigated. It isclaimed,that usage ,of manipulatives, not ,only increase ,students’ conceptual ,understanding ,and ,problem solving skills but also promotes ,their positive attitudes towards ,mathematics ,since they supposedly ,provide “concrete experiences” ,that focus attention and ,increase motivation. A concrete

Soner DURMU?; Erol KARAKIRIK

342

Intercultural Perspectives on Mathematics Learning--Developing a Theoretical Framework  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper explores Alan Bishop's assumption that all formal mathematics education produces cultural conflicts between the children's everyday culture and the culture of mathematics. Existing empirical studies support the assumption that mathematics learning indeed has some intercultural aspects which can be differentiated in language factors,…

Prediger, Suzanne

2004-01-01

343

Pharmacology education: a theoretical framework of applied pharmacology and therapeutics  

Microsoft Academic Search

United Kingdom Government initiatives such as The NHS Plan (DoH 2000) identified the need for nurses to undertake multi-skilled professional roles. In the United Kingdom, the transition to a larger graduate nurse workforce continues, as Universities offer nurse pre-registration courses at diploma and degree levels. Concomitant with the change in educational standard is the need to teach student nurses the

Maggi Banning

2003-01-01

344

Changing Mental Models of the IT Professions: A Theoretical Framework  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|It is widely recognized that the current and projected shortage of adequately-educated IT professionals could be greatly reduced if more female and minority students would major in IT disciplines, yet the dramatic under-representation of these populations appears to be worsening. This under-representation is reflected in Drexel University's…

Agosto, Denise E.; Gasson, Susan; Atwood, Michael

2008-01-01

345

Theoretical framework for spectrum analysis in ultrasonic tissue characterization.  

PubMed

An analytic model is described for application in ultrasonic tissue characterization. The model is applicable to clinical broadband pulse echo systems. It treats spectra derived from received echo signals and relates them to physical tissue properties. The model can be applied to deterministic tissue structures (e.g., retinal detachments, larger blood vessels, and surface layers of the kidney) and to stochastic tissue structures (e.g., various tumors). The beam patterns included in the model are those generated by focused transducers typically used in high-resolution clinical ultrasound. Appropriate calibration procedures are also treated; these are needed for interpretation of absolute spectral parameters. The results obtained with the analytic model have been used to design a digital processing system and the associated techniques which are now being applied during examinations of the eye and abdominal organs. The results have proven useful in interpreting data from various types of tissues. To illustrate the application of these results, representative clinical data, obtained from the digital system, are presented for two types of tissue architectures. The first case is a detached retina representing a deterministic structure characterized by well-defined thickness and reflection coefficients. The second case is asteroid hyalosis and represents a stochastic entity in which the positions of small scattering particles are best described in statistical terms, and characterization is accompanied by means of normalized power spectra. PMID:6853848

Lizzi, F L; Greenebaum, M; Feleppa, E J; Elbaum, M; Coleman, D J

1983-04-01

346

Understanding supply chain management: critical research and a theoretical framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasing global cooperation, vertical disintegration and a focus on core activities have led to the notion that firms are links in a networked supply chain. This strategic viewpoint has created the challenge of coordinating effectively the entire supply chain, from upstream to downstream activities. While supply chains have existed ever since businesses have been organized to bring products and services

I. J. Chen; A. Paulraj

2004-01-01

347

Using a Cognitive Theoretical Framework to Support Accident Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current cognitive user models enable us to describe, analyze, and predict aspects of user cognition. However, none of the major cognitive models such as ICS, MHP, or CCT tackle the human error aspect of cognition explicitly. Operator performance is constrained to be error-free, expert performance. This paper argues that the analysis of human error in accidents will greatly benefit from

Daniela K. Busse; Chris W. Johnson

348

Changing Mental Models of the IT Professions: A Theoretical Framework  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is widely recognized that the current and projected shortage of adequately-educated IT professionals could be greatly reduced if more female and minority students would major in IT disciplines, yet the dramatic under-representation of these populations appears to be worsening. This under-representation is reflected in Drexel University's…

Agosto, Denise E.; Gasson, Susan; Atwood, Michael

2008-01-01

349

A theoretical framework for understanding recovered memory experiences.  

PubMed

If recovered memory experiences appear counter-intuitive, this is in part due to misconceptions about trauma and memory, and to a failure to adopt a comprehensive model of memory that distinguishes personal semantic memory, autobiographical event memory, and memory appraisal. Memory performance is generally superior when events, including traumas, are central to identity. Prolonged trauma in childhood, however, can produce severe identity disturbances that may interfere with the encoding and later retrieval of personal semantic and autobiographical event information. High levels of emotion either at encoding or recall can also interfere with the creation of coherent narrative memories. For example, high levels of shock and fear when memories are recovered unexpectedly may lead to the experience of vivid flashbacks. Memory appraisals may also influence the sense that an event has been forgotten for a long time. Recovered memories, although unusual, do not contradict what we know about how memory works. PMID:22303766

Brewin, Chris R

2012-01-01

350

Design theoretic analysis of three system modeling frameworks.  

SciTech Connect

This paper analyzes three simulation architectures from the context of modeling scalability to address System of System (SoS) and Complex System problems. The paper first provides an overview of the SoS problem domain and reviews past work in analyzing model and general system complexity issues. It then identifies and explores the issues of vertical and horizontal integration as well as coupling and hierarchical decomposition as the system characteristics and metrics against which the tools are evaluated. In addition, it applies Nam Suh's Axiomatic Design theory as a construct for understanding coupling and its relationship to system feasibility. Next it describes the application of MATLAB, Swarm, and Umbra (three modeling and simulation approaches) to modeling swarms of Unmanned Flying Vehicle (UAV) agents in relation to the chosen characteristics and metrics. Finally, it draws general conclusions for analyzing model architectures that go beyond those analyzed. In particular, it identifies decomposition along phenomena of interaction and modular system composition as enabling features for modeling large heterogeneous complex systems.

McDonald, Michael James

2007-05-01

351

Understanding Online Knowledge Sharing: An Exploratory Theoretical Framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Online learning has been getting popular in higher education. Key functionalities of online learning environment include the\\u000a access to a wider perspective of learning resources and the provision of social interactions between instructor-learners and\\u000a among learners-learners. Recent empirical findings in online learning have acknowledged the importance of online knowledge\\u000a sharing as an integral part of online learning, through the various

Will Wai-Kit Ma; Allan Hoi Kau Yuen

2010-01-01

352

A Decision-Theoretic Framework for Opportunistic Spectrum Access  

Microsoft Academic Search

Built on a hierarchical access structure with primary and secondary users, opportunistic spectrum access improves spectrum efficiency while maintaining compatibility with legacy wireless systems. The basic idea is to allow secondary users to exploit instantaneous spectrum availability while limiting the interference to primary users. In this article, we identify basic components, fundamental trade-offs, and practical constraints in opportunistic spectrum access.

Qing Zhao; Ananthram Swami

2007-01-01

353

Conceptualizing Interpersonal Interruption Management: A Theoretical Framework and Research Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous research exploring interpersonal-technology- mediated interruptions has focused on understanding how the knowledge of an individual?s local context can be utilized to reduce unwanted intrusions by employing sensor and agent technology to detect and manage their interruptions. However, this approach has produced limited benefit for users because it fails to take into account who the interruption is from or what

Sukeshini A. Grandhi; Quentin Jones

2009-01-01

354

A game theoretical framework on intrusion detection in heterogeneous networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to the dynamic, distributed, and heterogeneous nature of today's networks, intrusion detection systems (IDSs) have become a necessary addition to the security infrastructure and are widely deployed as a complementary line of defense to classical security approaches. In this paper, we address the intrusion detection problem in heterogeneous networks consisting of nodes with different noncorrelated security assets. In our

Lin Chen; Jean Leneutre

2009-01-01

355

Theoretical frameworks for knowledge sharing in a community of practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study is to develop an understanding of the factors influencing participants' knowledge-sharing in communities of practice. As the need to create and manage knowledge becomes increasingly more important to organizations, understanding the factors of knowledge sharing behaviors is paramount to success. Prior studies indicate that knowledge sharing takes place at the organizational and the individual level

Emrah Orhun; James Hopple

2008-01-01

356

A THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK FOR ECONOMIC SUSTAINABILITY OF MANUFACTURING  

Microsoft Academic Search

The future of manufacturing in the UK and other similar advanced economies is more at risk today than at any time since the industrial revolution. In order to counter the current threats, many organisations have applied Lean Thinking either internally and\\/or in their wider supply chains. Their hope is that by doing this they will improve their productivity and competitive

Pauline Found; Jo Beale; Peter Hines; Mo Naim; Nick Rich; Roberto Sarmiento; Andrew Thomas

357

Moving targets: A theoretical framework on standards change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contrary to the inherent stability expected from te chnical standards, standards change. They do so for different reasons. These cha nges are often received with mixed feelings. Sometimes their benefit is unquestionable . However, standards' change can also pose severe problems. For example, it may indu ce heavy switching costs and strongly reduce market transparency. This paper focuses on the

Tineke M. Egyedi

2008-01-01

358

An Information Theoretic Framework for Exploratory Multivariate Market Segmentation Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

State-of-the-art market segmentation often involves simultaneous consideration of multiple and overlapping variables. These variables are studied to assess their relationships, select a subset of variables which best represent the subgroups (segments) within a market, and determine the likelihood of membership of a given individual in a particular segment. Such information, obtained in the exploratory phase of a multivariate market segmentation

Jamshid C. Hosseini; Robert R. Harmon; Martin Zwick

1991-01-01

359

Connecting Online Behavior to Adolescent Development: A Theoretical Framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Adolescence is a period of tremendous change and many view it as a period of “storm and stress.” Although we now know that\\u000a adolescence is not always a turbulent period, the storm and stress view, has come to frame questions about the role of interactive\\u000a technologies in adolescent development, the focus of this book. In this chapter, we present the

Kaveri Subrahmanyam; David Šmahel

360

Teaching University Discourse: A Theoretical Framework and a Curriculum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An examination of the written products and writing situations of a university reveals that virtually all of these writing tasks call for exposition, which further breaks down into the five components of seriation, classification, synthesis, compare/contrast, and analysis. These five components of expositional discourse form a set of…

Rose, Mike

361

A framework for insurance regulation of China  

Microsoft Academic Search

On the base of comparative analysis for a main part of current western insurance regulation theories, a framework of our national insurance regulation theories is provided. The framework encompasses the public interest theory of regulation at the prior place, supplemented with the capture theory of regulation and the economic theory of regulation.

Shi Lei; Huang Yanmin; Zhang Yangui

2010-01-01

362

Civil Justice Reform: A Mechanism Design Framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main goal of the court system is to differentiate between those who obeyed the law and those who did not. We describe a mechanism design framework that facilitates the characterization of a set of procedural mechanisms that would minimize the resources used to achieve this goal. This framework can also help to formulate and evaluate procedural rules, and to

Alon Klement; Zvika Neeman

2008-01-01

363

Rethinking Theoretical Approaches to Stigma  

PubMed Central

A resurgence of research and policy efforts on stigma both facilitates and forces a reconsideration of the levels and types of factors that shape reactions to persons with conditions that engender prejudice and discrimination. Focusing on the case of mental illness but drawing from theories and studies of stigma across the social sciences, we propose a framework that brings together theoretical insights from micro, meso and macro level research: Framework Integrating Normative Influences on Stigma (FINIS) starts with Goffman’s notion that understanding stigma requires a language of social relationships, but acknowledges that individuals do not come to social interaction devoid of affect and motivation. Further, all social interactions take place in a context in which organizations, media and larger cultures structure normative expectations which create the possibility of marking “difference”. Labelling theory, social network theory, the limited capacity model of media influence, the social psychology of prejudice and discrimination, and theories of the welfare state all contribute to an understanding of the complex web of expectations shaping stigma. FINIS offers the potential to build a broad-based scientific foundation based on understanding the effects of stigma on the lives of persons with mental illness, the resources devoted to the organizations and families who care for them, and policies and programs designed to combat stigma. We end by discussing the clear implications this framework holds for stigma reduction, even in the face of conflicting results.

Martin, Jack K; Lang, Annie; Olafsdottir, Sigrun

2008-01-01

364

Revenge after trauma: Theoretical outline  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Tis chapter focuses on revenge, a somewhat neglected psychological phenomenon ofen occurring in the context of embitterment\\u000a that has been observed to be associated with traumatization and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). Recent theoretical approaches\\u000a to and research findings on revenge and its specific relationship to embitterment phenomena are summarized, and therapeutic\\u000a implications are discussed. The main objective of the chapter

Ira Gäbler; Andreas Maercker

365

A system simulation framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

A generic framework is described that supports the design and simulation of complex systems. The simulation framework incorporates a CAD Framework that has been extended with high-level services for visualizing and exploring system performance. The simulation framework is used in a number of industrial environments for the development and optimization of VLSI designs, electro-optical systems, Cathode Ray Tubes, and a

Peter van den Hamer; W. P. M. van der Linden; Peter Bingley; N. W. Schellingerhout

2000-01-01

366

Calibrating and measuring theoretical integration in drug treatment programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

A major criticism of correctional programs is that they lack a clear theoretical foundation for the services delivered; yet, there had been little empirical exploration of this issue. Using a survey of 149 staff working in correctional programs that employed a cognitive behavioral approach, it was examined (1) whether theoretical frameworks informed staff beliefs about the causes of drug use

Faye S. Taxman; Sally S. Simpson; Nicole Leeper Piquero

2002-01-01

367

A theoretical characterization of nonlinear distortion effects in OFDM systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a theoretical characterization of nonlinear distortion effects in orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) transmission systems. In the theoretical framework developed, it is shown that the effects on the decision variables of the in-band distortion introduced by a bandpass memoryless nonlinearity can be described by means of a complex gain and an additive Gaussian term with zero mean

Davide Dardari; Velio Tralli; Alessandro Vaccari

2000-01-01

368

Main Propulsion Test Article (MPTA).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Scope: The Main Propulsion Test Article integrated the main propulsion subsystem with the clustered Space Shuttle Main Engines, the External Tank and associated GSE. The test program consisted of cryogenic tanking tests and short- and long duration static...

C. Snoddy

2010-01-01

369

Toward a Conceptual Framework for Leadership Inquiry.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Critical examination of academic work in leadership field. Argues that the lack of conceptual clarity in field hinders practitioners' efforts to discriminate among competing theoretical perspectives. Discusses several notable reviews and compendia of leadership literature. Concludes with brief description of an original conceptual framework for…

Richmon, Malcolm J.; Allison, Derek J.

2003-01-01

370

Toward a Conceptual Framework for Leadership Inquiry.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Critical examination of academic work in leadership field. Argues that the lack of conceptual clarity in field hinders practitioners' efforts to discriminate among competing theoretical perspectives. Discusses several notable reviews and compendia of leadership literature. Concludes with brief description of an original conceptual framework for…

Richmon, Malcolm J.; Allison, Derek J.

2003-01-01

371

A framework for analysing supply chain improvement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Presents a classification scheme which allows the interpretation of supply chain improvement initiatives. While there is an abundance of anecdotal evidence, there is little systematic theoretical development in the field. This is partly because of the many different ways in which co-operation between trading partners may be developed. The suggested framework is useful in that it highlights some important yet

Stephen J. New

1996-01-01

372

Activity Theory: A framework for qualitative analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper aims to provide readers with a useful introduction to Activity Theory, regardless of their field of study. Examples are given which include areas of research such as: information systems development, information systems in organizations, health care, and education. Activity Theory is a theoretical framework for the analysis and understanding of human interaction through their use of tools and

N. H. Hashim; M. L. Jones

2007-01-01

373

Terminal and Main Station Functions  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are three types of main stations associated with the L5 system. Power feed main stations provide the dc power required by the line repeaters. Switching power feed main stations add the automatic line protection switching equipment for the L5 system. Terminal main stations provide the equipment for multiplex and related functions. This equipment includes the jumbogroup multiplex (JMX), which

R. Maurer

1974-01-01

374

State of Maine's Environment 2010  

Microsoft Academic Search

The State of Maine's Environment is a regular series of reports written by senior environmental policy majors at Colby College in Waterville, Maine. The State of Maine's Environment 2010 is the sixth State of Maine's Environment report created by students enrolled in ES 493: Environmental Policy Practicum taught by Philip J. Nyhus, Environmental Studies Program. Topics in this report include

Philip J. Nyhus

2010-01-01

375

Capabilities for managing service innovation: towards a conceptual framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to identify and reflect on a set of dynamic capabilities for managing service innovation and applies a dynamic capabilities view (DCV) of firms for managing service innovation. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – This theoretical paper offers a conceptual framework for managing service innovation by proposing six dynamic service innovation capabilities. This framework builds on and

Pim den Hertog; Wietze van der Aa; Mark W. de Jong

2010-01-01

376

REDEFINING LIFE CYCLE FOR A BUILDING SUSTAINABILITY ASSESSMENT FRAMEWORK  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding the differences between the temporal and physical aspects of the building life cycle is an essential ingredient in the development of Building Environmental Assessment (BEA) tools. This paper illustrates a theoretical Building Sustainability Assessment (BSA) framework for aligning Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of material and energy flows with temporal decision-making over building development phases. This framework was derived during

Phillipa Watson; Delwyn Jones; Penelope Mitchell

377

Love on the internet: a framework for understanding Eros online  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to develop a conceptual framework to aid in understanding and evaluating love online. The framework maps the territory of online love by identifying important issues and providing a mechanism for combining relevant theoretical perspectives. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Interdisciplinary literature is reviewed and related through normative and descriptive conceptual analysis. Findings – A diverse

Adam Briggle

2008-01-01

378

A learning-based framework for manufacturing system design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Existing literature suggest that learning occur at three levels: individual, team and organizational. Although there have been theoretical models at all three levels, the research efforts to integrate them are limited. This paper proposes a learning-based framework that integrates previous learning theories at different levels. The framework was then used to explain how to overcome learning barriers in various aspects

Xiao-mei Qi; Qiang Tu

2011-01-01

379

A Framework for Theory and Research on Adult Education Participation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proposed is a comprehensive, multivariate, multi-realm theoretical framework with which to integrate and advance the theory and research on adult education participation (AEP). The elements of the ISSTAL model, as elaborated by D. H. Smith, are identified, defined, and exemplified in terms of the current literature on AEP. This article describes elements of the framework which have already been investigated

Peter S. Cookson

1986-01-01

380

Explaining acculturation in a communication framework: An empirical test  

Microsoft Academic Search

A much speculated about, but not fully validated, role of communication in acculturation was tested in this study. The relationships between three sociological variables—occupational status, ethnic network, and family—and acculturation level are explained in a communication framework. The validity of the theoretical framework was tested in the form of a path model. The results generally indicated that significant portions of

Jin K. Kim

1980-01-01

381

6. MAIN AND SOUTH BAYS. DETAIL OF TOP OF MAIN ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. MAIN AND SOUTH BAYS. DETAIL OF TOP OF MAIN BAY COLUMN, GIRDER FOR ELECTRIC OVERHEAD TRAVEL CRANE, AND ROOF GIRDERS - Oldman Boiler Works, Fabricating Shop, 32 Illinois Street, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

382

37. Fore and main masts, and main boom lying in ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

37. Fore and main masts, and main boom lying in storage yard. Stern of Museum Ship Wavetreet to left in photograph. - Schooner "Lettie G. Howard", South Street Seaport Museum, New York, New York County, NY

383

22. View showing main anchor arm, as viewed from main ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

22. View showing main anchor arm, as viewed from main cantilever arm looking south. Note upper chord eyebar arrangement. - Williamstown-Marietta Bridge, Spanning Ohio River between Williamstown & Marietta, Williamstown, Wood County, WV

384

Theoretical perspective: resilience in medically fragile adolescents.  

PubMed

Medically fragile adolescents require medical technology and skilled care from parents and nurses in daily life. These adolescents may be ventilator dependent, require intravenous nutrition or medications, depend on nutritional or respiratory support, and depend on nursing care or other medical devices for daily living. Much of the extant research on medically fragile children and adolescents has lacked an overarching theoretical perspective. Findings suggest that peer relationships, family support, technology dependence, school attendance, and self-esteem are concepts of relevance for these adolescents. Thus, a theoretical framework derived from the risk and resilience literature was developed to identify the nature of their interrelationships using theory derivation techniques. The resilience in medically fragile adolescents framework was derived using concepts described by these adolescents. Further study is needed to test this model in medically fragile adolescents with hopes to foster positive outcomes for these adolescents. PMID:22866564

Spratling, Regena; Weaver, Scott R

2012-01-01

385

Formal Methods Framework.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This contract final technical report documents the Formal Methods Framework (FMF) project results. This project consider the impact of formal methods on industries such as high assurance and telecommunications software and proposes a framework within whic...

2002-01-01

386

Making sense of common sense: A framework for tracking hegemony  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aided by the concepts of such scholars as Gramsci and Althusser, Stuart Hall has constructed a rather hybrid form of Marxist theory concerning ideology and hegemony, a middle ground of sorts between structuralism and culturalism. Hall's intriguingly sophisticated and complex ideas concerning hegemony provide a useful theoretical beginning—a critical framework— that could be empowered by a theoretical fleshing out based

Charles Lewis

1992-01-01

387

PET Image Reconstruction Using Information Theoretic Anatomical Priors  

PubMed Central

We describe a nonparametric framework for incorporating information from co-registered anatomical images into positron emission tomographic (PET) image reconstruction through priors based on information theoretic similarity measures. We compare and evaluate the use of mutual information (MI) and joint entropy (JE) between feature vectors extracted from the anatomical and PET images as priors in PET reconstruction. Scale-space theory provides a framework for the analysis of images at different levels of detail, and we use this approach to define feature vectors that emphasize prominent boundaries in the anatomical and functional images, and attach less importance to detail and noise that is less likely to be correlated in the two images. Through simulations that model the best case scenario of perfect agreement between the anatomical and functional images, and a more realistic situation with a real magnetic resonance image and a PET phantom that has partial volumes and a smooth variation of intensities, we evaluate the performance of MI and JE based priors in comparison to a Gaussian quadratic prior, which does not use any anatomical information. We also apply this method to clinical brain scan data using F18 Fallypride, a tracer that binds to dopamine receptors and therefore localizes mainly in the striatum. We present an efficient method of computing these priors and their derivatives based on fast Fourier transforms that reduce the complexity of their convolution-like expressions. Our results indicate that while sensitive to initialization and choice of hyperparameters, information theoretic priors can reconstruct images with higher contrast and superior quantitation than quadratic priors.

Somayajula, Sangeetha; Panagiotou, Christos; Rangarajan, Anand; Li, Quanzheng; Arridge, Simon R.

2011-01-01

388

Data Warehouse Evolution Framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper a data warehouse framework that supports data warehouse evolution is presented. The framework is able to handle not only changes in data sources, but also direct changes in a data warehouse schema. In the framework the data warehouse versions are supported in the development environment as well as in reports in the user environment.

Darja Solodovnikova

2007-01-01

389

MAINE MUSSEL SEED CONSERVATION AREAS  

EPA Science Inventory

SEED shows point locations of Maine mussel seed conservation areas at 1:24,000 scale. Data for this coverage were screen digitized on a 1:24000 scale base using descriptions contained in Maine Department of Marine Resources (MDMR) rules. Coastal arcs from Maine Office of GIS 1:24...

390

Theoretical Unification in Justice and Beyond  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of scientific work is to understand more and more by less and less. In this effort, theoretical unification plays\\u000a a large part. There are two main types of theoretical unification—unification of different theories of the same field of phenomena\\u000a and unification of theories of different fields of phenomena. Both types are usually a surprise; even when vigorously pursued,

Guillermina Jasso

2007-01-01

391

Information Theoretic Quantification of Diagnostic Uncertainty  

PubMed Central

Diagnostic test interpretation remains a challenge in clinical practice. Most physicians receive training in the use of Bayes’ rule, which specifies how the sensitivity and specificity of a test for a given disease combine with the pre-test probability to quantify the change in disease probability incurred by a new test result. However, multiple studies demonstrate physicians’ deficiencies in probabilistic reasoning, especially with unexpected test results. Information theory, a branch of probability theory dealing explicitly with the quantification of uncertainty, has been proposed as an alternative framework for diagnostic test interpretation, but is even less familiar to physicians. We have previously addressed one key challenge in the practical application of Bayes theorem: the handling of uncertainty in the critical first step of estimating the pre-test probability of disease. This essay aims to present the essential concepts of information theory to physicians in an accessible manner, and to extend previous work regarding uncertainty in pre-test probability estimation by placing this type of uncertainty within a principled information theoretic framework. We address several obstacles hindering physicians’ application of information theoretic concepts to diagnostic test interpretation. These include issues of terminology (mathematical meanings of certain information theoretic terms differ from clinical or common parlance) as well as the underlying mathematical assumptions. Finally, we illustrate how, in information theoretic terms, one can understand the effect on diagnostic uncertainty of considering ranges instead of simple point estimates of pre-test probability.

Westover, M Brandon; Eiseman, Nathaniel A; Cash, Sydney S; Bianchi, Matt T

2012-01-01

392

Informal HIV caregiving in a vulnerable population: toward a network resource framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the impoverished and often stigmatized communities most affected by HIV\\/AIDS, needs for informal caregiving present tremendous demands on already limited resources. Traditional theoretical frameworks emphasize care needs as driving informal caregiving. The proposed theoretical framework emphasizes microsocial processes that may affect informal caregiving among economically disadvantaged populations. The study examined: (1) network structural factors (homophily) that may affect availability

Amy R. Knowlton

2003-01-01

393

A New Conceptual Framework to Evaluate Consumer Adoption of Mobile Services: The Case of Mobile TV  

Microsoft Academic Search

Academic research into the adoption of Mobile TV services is still in its infancy. The literature suggests that there is no comprehensive theoretical framework for understanding the adoption of Mobile TV services, from an individual consumer's point of view. The purpose of this paper is to justify and propose a new theoretical framework as a foundation for better understanding and

Monica Borges; Paulo Rita; Margherita Pagani

2011-01-01

394

View of the main interior space facing east. The main ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View of the main interior space facing east. The main entry is on the left hand side at the rear. The exit to the deck is to the right. - San Luis Yacht Club, Avila Pier, South of Front Street, Avila Beach, San Luis Obispo County, CA

395

Theoretical Perspectives on the Internationalization of Firms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this article is to build a coherent framework of the four main theories relating to the internationalization of firms, in order to facilitate better business teaching and research. Yet, theories of the internationalization of firms are broad and rest on different underlying assumptions. With the purpose of clarifying the potential…

Rask, Morten; Strandskov, Jesper; Hakonsson, Dorthe Dojbak

2008-01-01

396

MAINE ATLANTIC SALMON HABITAT - GENERAL  

EPA Science Inventory

ASDENN00 describes, at 1:24,000 scale, important Atlantic salmon habitat of the Dennys River in Maine. The coverage was developed from field surveys conducted on the Dennys River in Maine by staff of the Atlantic Salmon Authority and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. This survey wa...

397

Main Injector power distribution system  

SciTech Connect

The paper describes a new power distribution system for Fermilab's Main Injector. The system provides 13.8 kV power to Main Injector accelerator (accelerator and conventional loads) and is capable of providing power to the rest of the laboratory (backfeed system). Design criteria, and features including simulation results are given.

Cezary Jach and Daniel Wolff

2002-06-03

398

Maine Agricultural Foods. Project SEED.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper describes an activity-based program that teaches students in grades 4-12 about the importance of Maine agriculture in their lives. Specifically, the goal is to increase student awareness of how the foods they eat are planted, harvested, and processed. The emphasis is on crops grown in Maine such as potatoes, broccoli, peas,…

Beaulieu, Peter; Ossenfort, Pat

399

UCLA Parallel PIC Framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

The UCLA Parallel PIC Framework (UPIC) has been developed to provide trusted components for the rapid construction of new, parallel Particle-in-Cell (PIC) codes. The Framework uses object-based ideas in Fortran95, and is designed to provide support for various kinds of PIC codes on various kinds of hardware. The focus is on student programmers. The Framework supports multiple numerical methods, different

Viktor K. Decyk; Charles D. Norton

2004-01-01

400

A Systems Framework for Evaluating Nursing Care Quality in Nursing Homes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Given the ongoing concerns about the quality of care in nursing homes, a theoretical framework to guide a systems approach to quality is important. Existing frameworks either do not model causality, or do so in a linear fashion in which the actual linkages between components of quality may not be well specified. Through a review of frameworks for nursing home

Lynn Unruh; Thomas T. H. Wan

2004-01-01

401

Conceptualizing Environmental Refugees in Education: A Transformative Language-Learning Framework  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Environmental refugees are increasing worldwide. Consequently, a theoretical framework is necessary for conceptualizing them in education. This article breaks new ground by providing such a framework in education, in general, and bilingual-bicultural education, in particular. The framework is grounded in O'Sullivan's (1999, 2002) transformative…

Goulah, Jason

2010-01-01

402

Conceptualizing Environmental Refugees in Education: A Transformative Language-Learning Framework  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Environmental refugees are increasing worldwide. Consequently, a theoretical framework is necessary for conceptualizing them in education. This article breaks new ground by providing such a framework in education, in general, and bilingual-bicultural education, in particular. The framework is grounded in O'Sullivan's (1999, 2002) transformative…

Goulah, Jason

2010-01-01

403

Developing a conceptual framework for assessing competitiveness of India's agrifood chain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to present a conceptual framework and set of propositions to analyze competitiveness of India's agrifood chain. Nine components constitute the framework. These are identified on the basis of theoretical studies and expert consultations. Each component leads to at least one proposition. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The framework is dependent on two major streams of

Silpa Sagheer; S. S. Yadav; S. G. Deshmukh

2009-01-01

404

Move & Improve: A Worksite Wellness Program in Maine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background We describe the evaluation process and outcomes of Move & Improve, a worksite wellness program in Maine. The evaluation process was based on the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Framework for Program Evaluation in Public Health and community-based partic- ipatory research principles. Innovative approaches are required to address burgeoning chronic disease trends and risk factors. Worksites are an

Michele Polacsek; Liam M. O'Brien; Wendie Lagasse; Nicole Hammar

405

Distributed visualization framework architecture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An architecture for distributed and collaborative visualization is presented. The design goals of the system are to create a lightweight, easy to use and extensible framework for reasearch in scientific visualization. The system provides both single user and collaborative distributed environment. System architecture employs a client-server model. Visualization projects can be synchronously accessed and modified from different client machines. We present a set of visualization use cases that illustrate the flexibility of our system. The framework provides a rich set of reusable components for creating new applications. These components make heavy use of leading design patterns. All components are based on the functionality of a small set of interfaces. This allows new components to be integrated seamlessly with little to no effort. All user input and higher-level control functionality interface with proxy objects supporting a concrete implementation of these interfaces. These light-weight objects can be easily streamed across the web and even integrated with smart clients running on a user's cell phone. The back-end is supported by concrete implementations wherever needed (for instance for rendering). A middle-tier manages any communication and synchronization with the proxy objects. In addition to the data components, we have developed several first-class GUI components for visualization. These include a layer compositor editor, a programmable shader editor, a material editor and various drawable editors. These GUI components interact strictly with the interfaces. Access to the various entities in the system is provided by an AssetManager. The asset manager keeps track of all of the registered proxies and responds to queries on the overall system. This allows all user components to be populated automatically. Hence if a new component is added that supports the IMaterial interface, any instances of this can be used in the various GUI components that work with this interface. One of the main features is an interactive shader designer. This allows rapid prototyping of new visualization renderings that are shader-based and greatly accelerates the development and debug cycle.

Mishchenko, Oleg; Raman, Sundaresan; Crawfis, Roger

2010-01-01

406

Structural principles of semiconducting Group 14 clathrate frameworks.  

PubMed

We have performed a comprehensive theoretical investigation of the structural principles of semiconducting clathrate frameworks composed of the Group 14 elements carbon, silicon, germanium, and tin. We have investigated the basic clathrate frameworks, together with their polytypes, intergrowth clathrate frameworks, and extended frameworks based on larger icosahedral building blocks. Quantum chemical calculations with the PBE0 hybrid density functional method provided a clear overview of the structural trends and electronic properties among the various clathrate frameworks. In agreement with previous experimental and theoretical studies, the clathrate II framework proved to be the energetically most favorable, but novel hexagonal polytypes of clathrate II also proved to be energetically very favorable. In the case of silicon, several of the studied clathrate frameworks possess direct and wide band gaps. The band structure diagrams and simulated powder X-ray patterns of the studied frameworks are provided and systematic preliminary evaluation of guest-occupied frameworks is conducted to shed light on the characteristics of novel, experimentally feasible clathrate compositions. PMID:21188961

Karttunen, Antti J; Fässler, Thomas F; Linnolahti, Mikko; Pakkanen, Tapani A

2010-12-28

407

Anomalous Transport:. A Mathematical Framework  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We develop a mathematical framework allowing to study anomalous transport in homogeneous solids. The main tools characterizing the anomalous transport properties are spectral and diffusion exponents associated to the covariant Hamiltonians describing these media. The diffusion exponents characterize the spectral measures entering in Kubo's formula for the conductivity and hence lead to anomalies in Drude's formula. We give several formulas allowing to calculate these exponents and treat, as an example, Wegner's n-orbital model as well as the Anderson model in coherent potential approximation.

Schulz-Baldes, H.; Bellissard, J.

408

Geology of Gulf of Maine.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The extensively folded, faulted, and regionally metamorphosed rocks contained within the Avalon platform, Appalachian geosyncline, and Meguma geosyncline are the foundation for the Gulf of Maine. Within the Avalon platform, which makes up most of the Gulf...

R. D. Ballard E. Uchupi

1974-01-01

409

Bucks Harbor Study, Machiasport, Maine.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Buck Harbor study has investigated the history and existing conditions at Bucks Harbor, located at Machiasport, Maine. The study has addressed and evaluated several options for the future development of Bucks Harbor. One of the key factors recognized ...

1986-01-01

410

A Literary Map of Maine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Sure, you might know that Longfellow was a member of the literati who called Maine home, but did you know that Robert McCloskey was one as well? In case you might have forgotten, McCloskey was the author and illustrator of those children's classics "Make Way for Ducklings" and "Blueberries for Sal". It's easy to learn about dozens of Maine authors via this delightful website created as part of a partnership between the Maine Sunday Telegram and a number of library and humanities groups in Maine. Currently, the map features over 50 sites, and visitors can browse around at their leisure to learn about authors like Longfellow, Stephen King, and Richard Russo. Clicking on each site will pull up a brief excerpt of each author's work, along with a brief bio.

411

History of Maine Fisheries Database  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A number of institutions have begun to expand their digital collections in order to include lesser-known subjects, and the University of Maine's Raymond H. Fogler Library continues to expand their online offerings with this intriguing collection. Drawing on the holdings of institutions like the Machias Historical Society, the Maine Maritime Museum, and the Maine State Archives, their digital collections team has created this History of Maine Fisheries database. There aren't any subject headings or sample searches on the site, but it is still quite easy to use. Visitors can use the keyword search to locate materials of interest, and they can also set date parameters to look for materials from a given time period. To get started, visitors might try typing in words like "lobster", "fleet", and "Bangor".

412

Humboldt River main stem, Nevada  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This data set contains the main stem of the Humboldt River as defined by Humboldt Project personnel of the U.S. Geological Survey Nevada District, 2001. The data set was digitized on screen using digital orthophoto quadrangles from 1994.

Warmath, Eric; Medina, Rose L.

2001-01-01

413

Photometry: Main Mission and Tycho.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The photometric reductions and calibrations of the Hipparcos satellite, for both the main mission and the star mapper data, are described. The principles of the Hipparcos and Tycho photometric systems are presented along with their relation to those in gr...

F. Mignard M. Froeschle J. L. Falin G. K. Andreasen E. Hog

1989-01-01

414

Cooperation between unrelated individuals – a game theoretic approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Cooperation between unrelated individuals has attracted a lot of research interest because the acts of mutual helping have\\u000a to be reconciled with evolutionary theory and its focus on individual benefits. Various theoretical frameworks exist, and\\u000a this chapter will focus specifically on the game theoretic approach. Game theory captures key ecological and life history\\u000a features like longevity, mutual dependency or mobility

Redouan Bshary

415

Double beta decay: A theoretical overview  

SciTech Connect

This paper reviews the theoretical possibility of double beta decay. The titles of the main sections of this paper are: Nuclear physics setting; Particle physics requirements; Kinematical features of the decay modes; Nuclear matrix elements; the Shell model and two-neutrino decay; Quasi-particle random phase approximation; and Future considerations. 18 refs., 7 tabs. (LSP)

Rosen, S.P.

1988-01-01

416

Rotor noise prediction technology: Theoretical approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Helicopter rotors which are the most complicated noise generators among rotating blade machinery are discussed. The main or the tail rotor can be the dominant source of noise depending on the range of frequencies and the observer position. Significant advances in noise prediction were made. Acoustic analysis is the most successful and general theoretical method to treat the acoustics of

F. Farassat

1982-01-01

417

Theoretical Methods for the Representation of Solvent  

Microsoft Academic Search

A review of the theoretical approaches for the representation of the solvent effect on molecular structure and reactivity is presented. The main characteristics of the different methods available for the description of solvation phenomena are outlined. The advantages and shortcomings of the computational approaches are discussed. Comparison of the different methodologies might help a non-expert user select the most suitable

Modesto Orozco; Cristobal Alhambra; Xavier Barril; José M. López; María A. Busquets; Francisco J. Luque

1996-01-01

418

P21 Framework Definitions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|To help practitioners integrate skills into the teaching of core academic subjects, the Partnership for 21st Century Skills has developed a unified, collective vision for learning known as the Framework for 21st Century Learning. This Framework describes the skills, knowledge and expertise students must master to succeed in work and life; it is a…

Partnership for 21st Century Skills, 2009

2009-01-01

419

Vibration stability of main circulation pipelines in nuclear power plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The importance of investigating the dynamic properties of main circulation pipelines (MCP) is determined by the high requirements set forth for their reliability. Equations describing small pipeline oscillations are derived using familiar principles of mechanics. The effectiveness of the use of the described complex theoretical-experimental approach is illustrated by computational data and experiemnts with pipelines of six-and four-loop main circulation

K. V. Frolov; S. M. Kaplunov; N. A. Makhutov; V. F. Ovchinnikov; V. A. Petushkov; L. V. Smirnov

1986-01-01

420

Economic Science and Econophysics: Main Topics of Dialogue  

Microsoft Academic Search

Application of methods, borrowed from physics, for economic research has not come to discovering scaling laws in economy and financial markets. The absence of such laws is conditioned by the specific character of energetic and information processes in economic system. The peculiarities of energetic and information ¬interconnections should be the main topic of dialogue between economic science and theoretical physics.

V. BURLACHKOV

2007-01-01

421

High frequency variations of the main magnetic field: convergence of observations and theory (Petrus Peregrinus Medal Lecture)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding the main magnetic field variations has been hindered by the discrepancy between the periods (from months to years) of the simplest linear wave phenomena and the relatively long time intervals (10 to 100 years) over which magnetic field changes can be confidently monitored. A theoretical description of short-period waves within the Earth's fluid core is at hand. Quasi-geostrophic inertial waves (akin to Rossby waves in the atmosphere) are slightly modified in the presence of magnetic fields and torsional oscillations consist of differential motion between coaxial rigid cylindrical annuli. Torsional oscillations are sensitive to the whole magnetic field that they shear in the course of their propagation. From their modelling, we have thus gained an estimate for the magnetic field strength in the core interior. There is now ongoing work to extend the theoretical framework to longer times. Furthermore, data collected from the Swarm constellation of three satellites to be launched this year by ESA will permit to better separate the internal and external magnetic signals. We may thus dream to detect quasi-geostrophic inertial waves. As the spectral ranges of theoretical models and observations begin to overlap, we can now go beyond the understanding of the magnetic field variations as the juxtaposition of partial models, arranged as a set of nested Matryoshka dolls. This talk will give illustrations for this statement, among which the question of induction in the lower mantle.

Jault, Dominique

2013-04-01

422

Theoretical aspects of cephalosporin isomerism  

SciTech Connect

The {triangle}{sup 3} double bond of cephalosporins isomerizes to the {triangle}{sup 2} position, resulting in biological inactivation of these antibiotics. This phenomenon occurs slowly in the case of cephalosporanic acids, but is rapid when the 4-carboxylate moiety is esterified or otherwise derivatized, leading to an equilibrium between the {triangle}{sup 2} and {triangle}{sup 3} forms. A theoretical study of this isomerization is described in the framework of two semiempirical all-valence electron molecular orbital (MO) approximations, namely MNDO and AMI. Specifically, the methyl ester and free carboxylate derivatives of both the {triangle}{sup 3} and {triangle}{sup 2} isomers of 7-phenylacetamidocephalosporin were studied. The results obtained indicated that the {triangle}{sup 3} derivatives were thermodynamically more stable than were the {triangle}{sup 2} isomers both in the case of the free acids and methyl esters. These data are consistent with experimental findings and suggest that the more rapid isomerization demonstrated in the case of the esters is due primarily to kinetic rather than to thermodynamic factors. Examination of the calculated molecular structures lend support to various theories that correlate the inactivity of the {triangle}{sup 2} isomers with spatial considerations and the degree of {beta}-lactam amide resonance.

Pop, E.; Brewster, M.E.; Bodor, N. (Pharmatec, Inc., Alachua, FL (USA) Univ. of Florida, Gainesville (USA)); Kaminski, J.J. (Schering-Plough Corp., Bloomfield, NJ (USA))

1989-01-01

423

Relationships among Theoretical Traditions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Notes alternative visions of the relationship between developmental psychology and three theoretical approaches described by Teo. Highlights four such visions: positivism or exclusivism, which rejects alternate viewpoints; inclusivism, which assimilates elements of alternate viewpoints; detachment or relativism, which sees different viewpoints as…

Meacham, Jack

1997-01-01

424

A conceptual framework for marine agronomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Between the late 1960s and the early 1980s, several generations of phycologists in Hawaii and the Philippines, associated with M. S. Doty, contributed to developing a new approach, and to advance concepts in marine agronomy. This study reviews the approach and the main concepts contributed. Integrating these contributions with others, a basic conceptual framework for marine agronomy is presented.

B. Santelices

1999-01-01

425

DISINFECTION OF NEW WATER MAINS  

EPA Science Inventory

The 'AWWA Standard for Disinfecting Water Mains' (AWWA C601-68) has fallen into disuse by a number of water utilities because of repeated bacteriological failures following initial disinfection with the recommended high-dose chlorination. Other methods of disinfection, including ...

426

Gulf of Maine Research Institute  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Teaching about aquatic environments, serving as neutral conveners, and facilitating marine research is the mission of the Gulf of Maine Research Institute. Features hundreds of web pages with information and classroom activities covering: oceans, human impact, weather, satellite imagery, remote sensing, Antarctica, global climate change, lobsters, turtles, marine, freshwater issues and more. The project of building the new aquarium at Portland is specially considered.

427

Architectural Portfolio 2001: Main Winners.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents descriptions and photographs of the following two American School and University Architectural Portfolio main winners for 2001: Chesterton, Indiana's Chesterton High School and Lied Library at the University of Nevada, Las Vegas. Included are each project's vital statistics, the architectural firm involved, and a list of designers.(GR)

American School & University, 2001

2001-01-01

428

The EMMA Main Ring Lattice.  

SciTech Connect

I give a brief introduction to the purpose and goals of the EMMA experiment and describe how they will impact the design of the main EMMA ring. I then describe the mathematical model that is used to describe the EMMA lattice. Finally, I show how the different lattice configurations were obtained and list their parameters.

Berg,J.S.

2008-02-21

429

Maine's Occupational Needs to 1975.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A survey of Maine industries provides information on occupational growth so that educators, guidance counselors, and directors of educational and training institutions can make assessments of future manpower needs. Projections are made for all segments of the economy which are covered by the Federal Insurance Contributions Act, or about 75…

Clark, David H.

430

MAINE CONTOUR LINES 60 FEET  

EPA Science Inventory

MECON60 contains contours at 60 foot intervals for the entire state of Maine as generated from USGS 1:250,000 scale digital elevation models using ARC/INFO software. Arcs are coded by elevation. Due to the nature of the source data, the positional accuracy of these contour line...

431

MAINE CONTOUR LINES 500 FEET  

EPA Science Inventory

MECON500 contains 500 foot contour intervals for Maine, generated from USGS 1:250,000 DEMs. Arcs are coded by elevation. Due to the nature of the source data, the positional accuracy of these contour lines varies from good to poor. Use of these data at scales of greater then 1:2...

432

Water Quality Loads: An Uncertainty Framework  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A theoretical framework is developed to describe the mechanistic, probabilistic, and stochastic structure of observations of streamflow (Q), concentration (C), and constituent loads (L). The framework assumes that both concentrations and streamflows follow a Markov process, with their interaction described by a bivariate lognormal model. The complete statistical behavior of C, Q, and L is described and expressions are derived for the mean and variance of annual loads as a function of the statistical properties of instantaneous or daily loads. The underlying framework assumptions are shown to provide a first-order approximation to the observed statistical properties of C, Q, and L at four watersheds in the Great Lakes region and enable reasonably accurate estimates of the mean and coefficient of variation of the monthly loads to be made. This generalized statistical framework provides a basis for evaluating the contribution of hydrograph characteristics to uncertainty in load estimates at a given site. Thus, the application of this framework may become a useful diagnostic tool in the design and implementation of water-quality sampling for load estimation.

Rudolph, B.; Vogel, R. M.; Hooper, R. P.

2001-12-01

433

A theoretical study of fluorides scintillating crystals: Methodology and application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Theoretical computation and simulation study has been performed on important scintillating fluorides crystal BaF2 and PbF2. The structural, electronic, transport and defects properties are investigated under different methodology schemes. The thesis provide accurate and detailed understandings of fundamental electronic structures of them in different phases for the very first time. A new expanded module for which provide the CRYSTAL program package with full capability in ECP (effective pseudo-potential) method calculation is developed and successfully applied into the this study. We present the results of an all-electron first principles study on BaF 2 in its stable (cubic) and high-pressure phases. A LCAO (linear combination of atomic orbitals) approach in the framework of DFT is employed for total energy calculations in cubic, orthorhombic and hexagonal phases of BaF 2. A fitting of the energy surface to the equation of state yields the lattice constant and the bulk modulus of these phases at zero pressure which are in good agreement with the corresponding experimental values. Analysis of band structure determines the high-pressure phases to be direct-gap materials and no metallization of BaF2 is predicted to occur for pressures up to 50 GPa. Furthermore, several peaks observed in the spectroscopic experiments have been identified with interband transitions in the cubic BaF2. We also performed the small-core ECP first principles calculation on Pb2 in its cubic, orthorhombic and hexagonal phases. For cubic phase, the accurate theoretical band data now are available with the structural properties were very well generated. It is predicted with direct band gap at X. The band structures of orthorhombic and hexagonal phases are first time calculated. We predict the orthorhombic and hexagonal phase PbF2 has indirect band gap. These results may help to clarify some doubts and controversies in the experiments and promote the application studies. At last, a discussion on the results from this study is held. Special attention is paid to the methodology level questions on theoretical computations and simulations. The main limitations of methods used in this work are summarized and analyzed with future method developments and application studies suggested. The thesis finally concludes with some fundamental perspectives in theoretical computation and simulation work. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

Jiang, Huitian

434

STELLA Standards Framework.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents a provisional framework for the STELLA (Standards for Teachers of English Language and Literacy in Australia), which identifies broad dimensions of teaching together with groupings of related attributes derived from teachers' narratives. (RS)|

English in Australia, 2001

2001-01-01

435

Framework for Password Selection.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A major problem in computer security is intrusion into systems due to compromised authentication procedures. This paper focuses on the most commonly used authentication procedure--use of passwords. We have developed a framework for a methodology to estima...

A. M. De Alvare' E. E. Schultz

1988-01-01

436

Common MANET Framework.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This effort researched, developed and demonstrated a Common Mobile Ad-hoc Networking (MANET) framework (CMF) to provide a uniform abstraction for wireless discovery, communication, and routing of network traffic over heterogeneous transmission technologie...

G. Frazier

2008-01-01

437

Building the Framework  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Content-Understanding-Environment (C-U-E) framework incorporates key findings from research and is easy to use and remember. Further, current professional development for science teachers usually focuses on only one aspect of teaching and learning, wh

Tweed, Anne

2009-11-01

438

[A proposal to combine Roy's conceptual framework with crisis theory].  

PubMed

It is reported the crisis theory framework's and is proposed its linkage with the Callista Roy conceptual Model. The aim is to provide the nurse with an instrumental and theoretical framework of the knowledge of the person in crisis intervention. In this proposition is still suggested, a guide to nursing care. It is derived of both theories and exemplified by the author trough practice application. PMID:2089515

Luis, M V

1990-04-01

439

FRAMEWORKS FOR CONCEPTUALISING TERRORISM  

Microsoft Academic Search

Terrorism has been situated—and thereby implicitly also defined—in various contexts such as crime, politics, war, propaganda and religion. Depending on which framework one chooses, certain aspects of terrorism get exposed while others are placed ‘outside the picture’ if only one framework is utilised. In this article five conceptual lenses are utilised: 1. terrorism as\\/and crime; 2. terrorism as\\/and politics; 3.

P. Schmid Alex

2004-01-01

440

The Theoretical Foundation for Intercultural Business Communication: A Conceptual Model.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Develops a theoretical framework for intercultural business communication which sets it apart from intercultural communication and international business. Presents a model that discusses the intercultural, business, and communication strategies that are part of intercultural business communication. Examines how past articles in the field fit into…

Varner, Iris I.

2000-01-01

441

String Theoretic Toy Models of the Big Bang  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, examples of toy cosmologies have been found that are exact solutions of String Theory. These solutions have the feature that the theoretical framework permits reliable calculation arbitrarily close to the big bang singularity. Thus one can understand both the big bang, and late time physics. I will describe these toy cosmologies, and how they fit into String Theory's chains

Jeremy Michelson

2006-01-01

442

Theoretical premises for the conception of enterprise competitiveness  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this contribution is to present a brief summary of basic theoretical premises for the conception of the enterprise competitiveness and its marketing environment analysis. So the attention is given to the defi nition of competitiveness, Porter`s conception of competitive ability and competitive strategy and also to his comparison with present-day approaches. Within the framework of the marketing

Veronika Zemanová

2005-01-01

443

Mindful Emotion Regulation: A Theoretical and Empirical Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the present theoretical and empirical literature review is to evaluate the efficacy of mindfulness as an emotion regulation strategy. The adaptive significance of human emotion is first presented within an evolutionary framework. Neural correlates of emotion from recent fMRI and PET findings and their structural implications are then briefly reviewed to provide a common conceptual foundation. Next,

Lauren Wiswall

2011-01-01

444

Cigarette Advertising and Regulation: A Game Theoretical Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes the regulatory problems in controlling cigarette advertising and marketing activities and develops a framework employing a game-theoretic approach to create a public policy solution. The model assumes that cigarette advertising has differential effects—primary demand stimulation (of the overall market for cigarettes) and selective demand stimulation (for individual cigarette brands). We first propose a tax on total market

Steven W. Kopp; Lawrence W. Martin; Daniel L. Wardlow

1992-01-01

445

Bibliographic Instruction and Mass Media News Literacy: A Theoretical Background.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents a theoretical framework for understanding mass media news influence; explores the concepts of agenda setting, priming, framing, asymmetrical selection, binary oppositionalism, and institutional hegemony in a survey of literature in journalism and communications; and outlines a teaching strategy that highlights one news event and compares…

Dilevko, Juris

1998-01-01

446

Theoretical and methodological difficulties in Bandura's self-efficacy theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Perceived self-efficacy was introduced by Bandura (1977) as “an integrative theoretical framework to explain and predict psychological changes achieved by different modes of treatment” (p. 191). Subsequent empirical studies appear to support the contention that self-efficacy ratings on specific behavioral tasks are accurate predictors of subsequent behavioral performance on those tasks. In this paper we examine the conceptual basis of

C. Eastman; J. S. Marzillier

1984-01-01

447

A framework for comparing different image segmentation methods and its use in studying equivalences between level set and fuzzy connectedness frameworks.  

PubMed

In the current vast image segmentation literature, there seems to be considerable redundancy among algorithms, while there is a serious lack of methods that would allow their theoretical comparison to establish their similarity, equivalence, or distinctness. In this paper, we make an attempt to fill this gap. To accomplish this goal, we argue that: (1) every digital segmentation algorithm [Formula: see text] should have a well defined continuous counterpart [Formula: see text], referred to as its model, which constitutes an asymptotic of [Formula: see text] when image resolution goes to infinity; (2) the equality of two such models [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] establishes a theoretical (asymptotic) equivalence of their digital counterparts [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text]. Such a comparison is of full theoretical value only when, for each involved algorithm [Formula: see text], its model [Formula: see text] is proved to be an asymptotic of [Formula: see text]. So far, such proofs do not appear anywhere in the literature, even in the case of algorithms introduced as digitizations of continuous models, like level set segmentation algorithms.The main goal of this article is to explore a line of investigation for formally pairing the digital segmentation algorithms with their asymptotic models, justifying such relations with mathematical proofs, and using the results to compare the segmentation algorithms in this general theoretical framework. As a first step towards this general goal, we prove here that the gradient based thresholding model [Formula: see text] is the asymptotic for the fuzzy connectedness Udupa and Samarasekera segmentation algorithm used with gradient based affinity [Formula: see text]. We also argue that, in a sense, [Formula: see text] is the asymptotic for the original front propagation level set algorithm of Malladi, Sethian, and Vemuri, thus establishing a theoretical equivalence between these two specific algorithms. Experimental evidence of this last equivalence is also provided. PMID:21442014

Ciesielski, Krzysztof Chris; Udupa, Jayaram K

2011-06-01

448

A framework for comparing different image segmentation methods and its use in studying equivalences between level set and fuzzy connectedness frameworks  

PubMed Central

In the current vast image segmentation literature, there seems to be considerable redundancy among algorithms, while there is a serious lack of methods that would allow their theoretical comparison to establish their similarity, equivalence, or distinctness. In this paper, we make an attempt to fill this gap. To accomplish this goal, we argue that: (1) every digital segmentation algorithm A should have a well defined continuous counterpart MA, referred to as its model, which constitutes an asymptotic of A when image resolution goes to infinity; (2) the equality of two such models MA and MA? establishes a theoretical (asymptotic) equivalence of their digital counterparts A and A?. Such a comparison is of full theoretical value only when, for each involved algorithm A, its model MA is proved to be an asymptotic of A. So far, such proofs do not appear anywhere in the literature, even in the case of algorithms introduced as digitizations of continuous models, like level set segmentation algorithms. The main goal of this article is to explore a line of investigation for formally pairing the digital segmentation algorithms with their asymptotic models, justifying such relations with mathematical proofs, and using the results to compare the segmentation algorithms in this general theoretical framework. As a first step towards this general goal, we prove here that the gradient based thresholding model M? is the asymptotic for the fuzzy connectedness Udupa and Samarasekera segmentation algorithm used with gradient based affinity A?. We also argue that, in a sense, M? is the asymptotic for the original front propagation level set algorithm of Malladi, Sethian, and Vemuri, thus establishing a theoretical equivalence between these two specific algorithms. Experimental evidence of this last equivalence is also provided.

Ciesielski, Krzysztof Chris; Udupa, Jayaram K.

2011-01-01

449

Carbon Fibre Reinforced Plastic Sandwich Beam Construction in the Main Wing Structure of a Man Powered Aircraft.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this entirely theoretical report, a framework similar to the wing box of the man powered aircraft Puffin 2 is analyzed for the in-flight loading imposed upon it. Design curves for the framework members, with carbon fiber reinforced plastic and honeycom...

H. R. Al-agha D. C. Velupillai

1976-01-01

450

Surficial Geologic Map of Maine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity students become familiar with the nature and use of the Surficial Geologic Map of Maine and gain practice in using maps other than topographic maps. They will discover that surficial geology deals primarily with the geologically youthful, unconsolidated sedimentary materials that exist at, or close to the surface of a specific area and are important because the surface deposits filter and control the access of water to the water table. Students also learn that the study of surficial geology is important for siting of waste disposal facilities and for resources such as sand, gravel, and clay. Although this activity was written for a map of Maine, it will work in any state where surficial geological maps are available.

451

Theoretical Model Testing -- Patients', Nurses' and Physicians' Perceptions of Quality Nursing Care.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In order to determine what constitutes quality nursing care, a research project was designed and carried out using quantitative methods. The theoretical framework was derived from previous research on conflict from role strain. It was assumed that patient...

A. S. Hinshaw D. L. Oakes

1977-01-01

452

Decision-Theoretic Troubleshooting  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a decision-theoretic methodology for case-based reasoning in diagnosis and troubleshooting applications. The system utilizes a special-structure Bayesian network to represent diagnostic cases, with nodes representing issues, causes, and symptoms. Dirichlet distributions are assessed at knowledge acquisition time to indicate the strength of relationships between variables. During a diagnosis session, a relevant subnetwork is extracted from a Bayesian-network database

John S. Breese; David Heckerman

1999-01-01

453

Argumentation in Science Education: A Model-based Framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of this article is threefold: First, the theoretical background for a model-based framework of argumentation to describe\\u000a and evaluate argumentative processes in science education is presented. Based on the general model-based perspective in cognitive\\u000a science and the philosophy of science, it is proposed to understand arguments as reasons for the appropriateness of a theoretical\\u000a model which explains a

Florian Böttcher; Anke Meisert

2011-01-01

454

A Framework for Integrating Artificial Intelligence and Simulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Both Simulation and Artificial Intelligence try to model reality for problem solving and decision making. In this paper, we propose a framework for integrating the two areas by uncovering fundamental similarities between them and opportunities for combining them which can be mutually useful. The framework also shows the potential gains for Simulation by applying Artificial Intelligence concepts (mainly expert systems)

Georgios I. Doukidis; Marios C. Angelides

1994-01-01

455

A Novel Framework for Guaranteed Serivice Provisioning in Optical Network  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a novel framework for the provisioning of guaranteed services in slot-based optical networks. We use the time-domain wavelength interleaved network (TWIN) architecture for the proof of concept. In this paper, we propose a framework comprising a control plane and a data plane. While the main functions of the control plane include admission control and capacity allocation to

Chee Kheong Siew; Daojun Xue; Yang Qin; Jens Schmitt

2006-01-01

456

Lung Morphometry with Hyperpolarized 129Xe: Theoretical Background  

PubMed Central

The 3He lung morphometry technique, based on MRI measurements of hyperpolarized 3He gas diffusion in lung airspaces, provides unique information on the lung microstructure at the alveolar level. In vivo 3D tomographic images of standard morphological parameters (airspace chord length, lung parenchyma surface-to-volume ratio, number of alveoli per unit volume) can be generated from a rather short (several seconds) MRI scan. The technique is based on a theory of gas diffusion in lung acinar airways and experimental measurements of diffusion attenuated MRI signal. The present work aims at developing the theoretical background of a similar technique based on hyperpolarized 129Xe gas. As the diffusion coefficient and gyromagnetic ratio of 129Xe gas are substantially different from those of 3He gas, the specific details of the theory and experimental measurements with 129Xe should be amended. We establish phenomenological relationships between acinar airway geometrical parameters and the diffusion attenuated MR signal for human and small animal lungs, both normal lungs and lungs with mild emphysema. Optimal diffusion times are shown to be about 5 ms for human and 1.3 ms for small animals. The expected uncertainties in measuring main morphometrical parameters of the lungs are estimated in the framework of Bayesian probability theory.

Sukstanskii, A.L.; Yablonskiy, D.A.

2011-01-01

457

Corporate entrepreneurship and human resource management: theoretical background and a case study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This article aims to review varying concepts of entrepreneurship and different contributions to human resource practices, establishing a theoretical framework that allows for the analysis of the firm Montalt-Valencia (Spain), a Ford-Spain car dealer, and leader in its sector. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper, according to the literature, establishes a theoretical framework on entrepreneurship and human resource management through

Sang M. Lee; Marta Peris-Ortiz; Rafael Fernández-Guerrero

2011-01-01

458

Space Shuttle Main Engine. Overview  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An overview of the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) is presented. The Space Shuttle propulsion system consists of two large solid booster motors, three SSME's, two orbital maneuvering system engines, and 44 reaction control system thrusters. The three SSME's burn liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen from the external tank and are sequentially started at launch. Engine thrust is throttleable. The major components and some of their key features and operational parameters are outlined. The life and reliability being achieved by the SSME are presented.

Jackson, Eugene D.

459

Cognitive processes as integrative component for developing expert decision-making systems: a workflow centered framework.  

PubMed

The development of expert decision-making systems, which improve task performance and reduce errors within an intra-operative clinical workspace, is critically dependent on two main aspects: (a) Analyzing the clinical requirements and cognitive processes within the workflow and (b) providing an optimal context for accurate situation awareness through effective intra-operative information visualization. This paper presents a workflow centered framework and its theoretical underpinnings to design expert decision-making systems. The framework integrates knowledge of the clinical workflow based on the requirements within the clinical workspace. Furthermore, it builds upon and integrates the theory of situation awareness into system design to improve decision-making. As an application example, this framework has been used to design an intra-operative visualization system (IVS), which provides image guidance to the clinicians to perform minimally invasive procedure. An evaluative study, comparing the traditional ultrasound guided procedure with the new developed IVS, has been conducted with expert intervention radiologists and medical students. The results reveal significant evidence for improved decision-making when using the IVS. Therefore, it can be stated that this study demonstrates the benefits of integrating knowledge of cognitive processes into system development to support clinical decision-making and hence improvement of task performance and prevention of errors. PMID:19607934

Jalote-Parmar, Ashis; Badke-Schaub, Petra; Ali, Wajid; Samset, Eigil

2009-07-14

460

Analogies in Theoretical Physics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Analogies have had and continue to have an important role in the development of theoretical physics. They may start from similarities of physical concepts followed by similarities in the mathematical formalization or it may be a purely mathematical aspect to suggest the development of analogous physical concepts. More often a subtle nonobvious interplay between these levels is involved. In this paper I will discuss two cases sufficiently intricate to illustrate some ways of how analogies work. The first topic is the introduction of spontaneous symmetry breaking in particle physics. The second one is the use of the renormalization group in the theory of critical phenomena and its statistical interpretation.

Jona-Lasinio, G.

461

A general framework and review of scatter correction methods in cone beam CT. Part 2: Scatter estimation approaches  

SciTech Connect

The main components of scatter correction procedures are scatter estimation and a scatter compensation algorithm. This paper completes a previous paper where a general framework for scatter compensation was presented under the prerequisite that a scatter estimation method is already available. In the current paper, the authors give a systematic review of the variety of scatter estimation approaches. Scatter estimation methods are based on measurements, mathematical-physical models, or combinations of both. For completeness they present an overview of measurement-based methods, but the main topic is the theoretically more demanding models, as analytical, Monte-Carlo, and hybrid models. Further classifications are 3D image-based and 2D projection-based approaches. The authors present a system-theoretic framework, which allows to proceed top-down from a general 3D formulation, by successive approximations, to efficient 2D approaches. A widely useful method is the beam-scatter-kernel superposition approach. Together with the review of standard methods, the authors discuss their limitations and how to take into account the issues of object dependency, spatial variance, deformation of scatter kernels, external and internal absorbers. Open questions for further investigations are indicated. Finally, the authors refer on some special issues and applications, such as bow-tie filter, offset detector, truncated data, and dual-source CT.

Ruehrnschopf and, Ernst-Peter; Klingenbeck, Klaus [Siemens AG, Healthcare Sector, Imaging and Therapy Division, D 91301 Forchheim (Germany)

2011-09-15

462

A general framework and review of scatter correction methods in cone beam CT. Part 2: scatter estimation approaches.  

PubMed

The main components of scatter correction procedures are scatter estimation and a scatter compensation algorithm. This paper completes a previous paper where a general framework for scatter compensation was presented under the prerequisite that a scatter estimation method is already available. In the current paper, the authors give a systematic review of the variety of scatter estimation approaches. Scatter estimation methods are based on measurements, mathematical-physical models, or combinations of both. For completeness they present an overview of measurement-based methods, but the main topic is the theoretically more demanding models, as analytical, Monte-Carlo, and hybrid models. Further classifications are 3D image-based and 2D projection-based approaches. The authors present a system-theoretic framework, which allows to proceed top-down from a general 3D formulation, by successive approximations, to efficient 2D approaches. A widely useful method is the beam-scatter-kernel superposition approach. Together with the review of standard methods, the authors discuss their limitations and how to take into account the issues of object dependency, spatial variance, deformation of scatter kernels, external and internal absorbers. Open questions for further investigations are indicated. Finally, the authors refer on some special issues and applications, such as bow-tie filter, offset detector, truncated data, and dual-source CT. PMID:21978063

Ruhrnschopf And, Ernst-Peter; Klingenbeck, Klaus

2011-09-01

463

Theoretical studies and data analysis of wave propagation in random media  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this work is to develop a general theoretical framework for calculating fluctuations of signals on waves propagated through random media (WPRM) and to apply this framework to sound through the ocean; light through the atmosphere; radio waves through the ionosphere, solar wind, or interstellar plasma; and any other similar case of waves propagating through continuous media. Comparison

S. M. Flatte

1985-01-01

464

Integration of knowledge management process into digital library system : A theoretical perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to develop a theoretical framework of an integrated digital library (DL) system based on knowledge management (KM) process. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The study is based on viewpoints, review of existing concepts and frameworks of DL and KM, and the result of an interview of nine DL practitioners world-wide. The respondents are purposively selected

Hideaki Kanai; Katsuhiro Umemoto

2009-01-01

465

Bedrock Geologic Map of Maine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity students study a map of bedrock geology which describes the types of rocks that exist in a given area. It shows these rock units as well as their known and inferred contacts. Consideration is also given to folding, faulting, unconformities, and similar rock relationships. These features are often included in bedrock geology maps. Students study the legend and scale and become aware of the other information that is included on the map such as the stratigraphic column, list of formations, and inset map of metamorphic grade. Students then locate their city or town and draw a 40-mile diameter circle around it and identify all the symbols inside the circle and the age of the various rocks. Student question sheets are available at this site. Although this activity was written for a map of Maine, it will work in any state where geological maps are available.

466

Theoretical analysis of ARC constriction  

SciTech Connect

The physics of the thermionic converter is governed by strong electrode-plasma interactions (emissions surface scattering, charge exchange) and weak interactions (diffusion, radiation) at the maximum interelectrode plasma radius. The physical processes are thus mostly convective in thin sheaths in front of the electrodes and mostly diffusive and radiative in the plasma bulk. The physical boundaries are open boundaries to particle transfer (electrons emitted or absorbed by the electrodes, all particles diffusing through some maximum plasma radius) and to convective, conductive and radiative heat transfer. In a first approximation the thermionic converter may be described by a one-dimensional classical transport theory. The two-dimensional effects may be significant as a result of the sheath sensitivity to radial plasma variations and of the strong sheath-plasma coupling. The current-voltage characteristic of the converter is thus the result of an integrated current density over the collector area for which the boundary conditions at each r determine the regime (ignited/unignited) of the local current density. A current redistribution strongly weighted at small radii (arc constriction) limits the converter performance and opens questions on constriction reduction possibilities. The questions addressed are the followng: (1) what are the main contributors to the loss of current at high voltage in the thermionic converter; and (2) is arc constriction observable theoretically and what are the conditions of its occurrence. The resulting theoretical problem is formulated and results are given. The converter electrical current is estimated directly from the electron and ion particle fluxes based on the spatial distribution of the electron/ion density n, temperatures T/sub e/, T/sub i/, electrical voltage V and on the knowledge of the transport coefficients. (WHK)

Stoenescu, M.L.; Brooks, A.W.; Smith, T.M.

1980-12-01

467

Dark matter: Theoretical perspectives  

SciTech Connect

I both review and make the case for the current theoretical prejudice: a flat Universe whose dominant constituent is nonbaryonic dark matter, emphasizing that this is still a prejudice and not yet fact. The theoretical motivation for nonbaryonic dark matter is discussed in the context of current elementary-particle theory, stressing that: (1) there are no dark matter candidates within the standard model of particle physics; (2) there are several compelling candidates within attractive extensions of the standard model of particle physics; and (3) the motivation for these compelling candidates comes first and foremost from particle physics. The dark-matter problem is now a pressing issue in both cosmology and particle physics, and the detection of particle dark matter would provide evidence for new physics.'' The compelling candidates are: a very light axion ( 10[sup [minus]6] eV--10[sup [minus]4] eV); a light neutrino (20 eV--90 eV); and a heavy neutralino (10 GeV--2 TeV). The production of these particles in the early Universe and the prospects for their detection are also discussed. I briefly mention more exotic possibilities for the dark matter, including a nonzero cosmological constant, superheavy magnetic monopoles, and decaying neutrinos.

Turner, M.S. (Chicago Univ., IL (United States). Enrico Fermi Inst. Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (United States))

1993-01-01

468

Dark matter: Theoretical perspectives  

SciTech Connect

I both review and make the case for the current theoretical prejudice: a flat Universe whose dominant constituent is nonbaryonic dark matter, emphasizing that this is still a prejudice and not yet fact. The theoretical motivation for nonbaryonic dark matter is discussed in the context of current elementary-particle theory, stressing that: (1) there are no dark matter candidates within the standard model of particle physics; (2) there are several compelling candidates within attractive extensions of the standard model of particle physics; and (3) the motivation for these compelling candidates comes first and foremost from particle physics. The dark-matter problem is now a pressing issue in both cosmology and particle physics, and the detection of particle dark matter would provide evidence for ``new physics.`` The compelling candidates are: a very light axion ( 10{sup {minus}6} eV--10{sup {minus}4} eV); a light neutrino (20 eV--90 eV); and a heavy neutralino (10 GeV--2 TeV). The production of these particles in the early Universe and the prospects for their detection are also discussed. I briefly mention more exotic possibilities for the dark matter, including a nonzero cosmological constant, superheavy magnetic monopoles, and decaying neutrinos.

Turner, M.S. [Chicago Univ., IL (United States). Enrico Fermi Inst.]|[Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (United States)

1993-01-01

469

Anion separation with metal-organic frameworks  

SciTech Connect

The application of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) to anion separations with a special emphasis on anion selectivity is reviewed. The coordination frameworks are classified on the basis of the main interactions to the included anion, from weak and non-specific van der Waals forces to more specific interactions such as coordination to Lewis acid metal centers or hydrogen bonding. The importance of anion solvation phenomena to the observed anion selectivities is highlighted, and strategies for reversing the Hofmeister bias that favors large, less hydrophilic anions, and for obtaining peak selectivities based on shape recognition are delineated. Functionalization of the anion-binding sites in MOFs with strong and directional hydrogen-bonding groups that are complementary to the included anion, combined with organizational rigidity of the coordination framework, appears to be the most promising approach for achieving non-Hofmeister selectivity.

Custelcean, Radu [ORNL; Moyer, Bruce A [ORNL

2007-01-01

470

Unified Framework for Approximation in Inverse Problems for Distributed Parameter Systems,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The authors present a theoretical framework that can be used to treat approximation techniques for very general classes of parameter estimation problems involving distributed systems that are either first or second order in time. Using the approach develo...

H. T. Banks K. Ito

1987-01-01

471

Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Complicated Grief: Theoretical Underpinnings and Case Descriptions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cognitive-behavioral theorizing is increasingly embraced as a framework for the generation of ideas about theoretical underpinnings of complicated grief (CG) and treatments for this disorder. Theoretical knowledge about the role of unhelpful cognitions and behaviors in CG has grown with the impetus of this approach. Much is still unclear about how to translate this knowledge into treatment interventions. The present

Paul A. Boelen

2006-01-01

472

"The Integrity and Obstinacy of Intellectual Creations": Jurgen Habermas and Librarianship's Theoretical Literature  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Librarianship and library and information science (LIS) have long struggled with an ongoing lack of a theoretical and epistemological basis. There have been renewed efforts to explore various theoretical and philosophical positions and their meaning for librarianship and LIS research. This article explores the framework that Jurgen Habermas offers…

Buschman, John

2006-01-01

473

Framework for Test Selection.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A framework for test selection is proposed that works from the principle that in the practice test, suites are composed by selecting test cases on the basis of external knowledge, such as experience and heuristics, that cannot be reflected in the formal s...

E. Brinksma J. Tretmans L. Verhaard

1991-01-01

474

Cognitive Frameworks for "g".  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|General intelligence ("g") is one of the most important, and least understood, phenomena in psychometric psychology. Yet "g" is an issue that is largely ignored in cognitive studies of aptitude. In the current paper, an attempt is made to bridge the gap between psychometric data and cognitive theory, using two major performance frameworks

Larson, Gerald E.; Alderton, David L.

475

Illustrative Scientific Visualization Framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current scientific visualization techniques create complex images that may be difficult to interpret and do not have the expressiveness of illustrations. Incorporating traditional scientific illustration techniques into a visualization system enables artists and non-artists to harnesses the power of traditional illustration techniques when visually representing scientific data. In this paper we present an illustrative scientific visualization framework incorpo- rating general

Mario Costa Sousa; Amy Ashurst Gooch; Bruce Gooch

2005-01-01

476

A Volunteer Training Framework  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Volunteering SA (VSA) has responded to the need to revise and expand the training offered to volunteers. It has developed a volunteer training framework to provide structure and guidance for the sector in making policy and financial decisions about directions and type of training that volunteers require and desire, where the training can lead and…

Deslandes, Moira; Rogers, Louise

2008-01-01

477

Developing a Conceptual Framework.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|As a screening tool for curriculum priorities, a pattern of curriculum design and redevelopment for the associate degree technical nursing program was explored. Curriculum developers examined three components: student, setting, and subject. The evolved conceptual framework, based on Orem's self-care theory, of a continuum of nursing assistance is…

Fenner, Kathleen

1979-01-01

478

Exploring the Science Framework  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The National Research Council's recent publication "A Framework for K-12 Science Education: Practices, Crosscutting Concepts, and Core Ideas" (NRC 2011), which is the foundation for the Next Generation Science Standards now being developed, places unprecedented focus on the practices involved in doing scientific and engineering work. In an effort…

Bell, Philip; Bricker, Leah; Tzou, Carrie; Lee, Tiffany; Van Horne, Katie

2012-01-01

479

A framework of organisational innovation and outcomes in SMEs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine innovation in small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), and develop a comprehensive theoretical framework of how innovation occurs, the end result, and impact on business financial performance, focusing on three types of innovations. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The study uses a grounded methodology. Interviews with entrepreneurs from across industries inform the development of

Sylvie Laforet

2011-01-01

480

Marrying strands of ecological modernisation: A proposed framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

To advance understanding of Ecological Modernisation (EM), we need to delineate the concept more precisely and to develop a more encompassing framework. Many definitions advanced by EM theorists are broad and vague, and so limit the analytical usefulness of the concept. Moreover, EM thinking has produced a range of, often competing, theoretical perspectives emphasising different aspects of EM. The authors

Bruno Milanez; Ton Bührs

2007-01-01

481

Globalization and Higher Education Organizational Change: A Framework for Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this article is to outline a theoretical framework to address Higher Education organizational change in a globalized and globalizing age. The paper will start with a brief description of trends characterizing the global landscape and their relationships with Higher Education policies and institutions. Although these trends are well…

Vaira, Massimiliano

2004-01-01

482

Research Automated Negotiation Framework for Business Intelligence Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper analyzes the current situation of business environment and business intelligence systems framework at first, and studies the theoretics and methods about the business intelligence system. Analyzes the necessity of an automated negotiation method in the manufacturing resource management system (MRMS) based on the manufacture requirement and latency manufacturing resource state, order enterprise can find forwardly or passively some

Zhang Hai; He Biao

2009-01-01

483

TQM and innovation: a literature review and research framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the relationship between the implementation of Total Quality Management (TQM) and innovation performance. The discussion arises primarily based on the considerable controversy concerning this relationship that appears in the literature. As of interest to resolve this controversy, a research framework is developed preceded by a theoretical discussion of the multidimensionality of TQM when applied in different organizational

Daniel I Prajogo; Amrik S Sohal

2001-01-01

484

A holistic model of corporate governance: a new research framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to propose a new model of corporate governance that is holistic – incorporating internal and macro perspectives across legal, regulatory, sociological, ethical, human resource management, behavioural and corporate strategic frameworks. Researchers have signalled the need for “new theoretical perspectives and new models of governance” due to a dearth of research that is

Suzanne Young; Vijaya Thyil

2008-01-01

485

A Framework for Tiered Service in MPLS Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many network operators offer some type of tiered service, in which users may select only from a small set of service levels (tiers). Such a service has the potential to simplify a wide range of core network functions, allowing the providers to scale their operations efficiently. In this work, we provide a theoretical framework for reasoning about and tackling algorithmically

George N. Rouskas; Nikhil Baradwaj

2007-01-01

486

Construct Definition Using Cognitively Based Evidence: A Framework for Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this article, we highlight the need for a precisely defined construct in score-based validation and discuss the contribution of cognitive theories to accurately and comprehensively defining the construct. We propose a framework for integrating cognitively based theoretical and empirical evidence to specify and evaluate the construct. We apply…

Ketterlin-Geller, Leanne R.; Yovanoff, Paul; Jung, EunJu; Liu, Kimy; Geller, Josh

2013-01-01

487

A framework for the unification of the behavioral sciences  

Microsoft Academic Search

The various behavioral disciplines model human behavior in distinct and incompatible ways. Yet, recent theoretical and empirical developments have created the conditions for rendering coherent the areas of overlap of the various behavioral disciplines, as outlined in this paper. The analytical tools deployed in this task incorporate core principles from several behavioral disciplines. The proposed framework recognizes evolutionary theory, covering

Herbert Gintis

2007-01-01

488

FRAMEWORK MODEL FOR INTELLIGENT ROBOT AS KNOWLEDGE BASED SYSTEM  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a philosophical view for d esigning and Implementation of an Intelligent Robot as knowledge based system. The philosophy based on the theoretical aspects of the relationships between cognitive science and computation theories together with the view of functional model of human system as knowledge based system. The framework model consists of ten modules; these modules are complimentary

Hussein H. Owaied

489

Board Governance of Independent Schools: A Framework for Investigation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This paper develops a theoretical framework to guide future inquiry into board governance of independent schools. Design/methodology/approach: The authors' approach is to integrate literatures related to corporate and educational boards, motivation, leadership and group processes that are appropriate for conceptualizing independent school…

McCormick, John; Barnett, Kerry; Alavi, Seyyed Babak; Newcombe, Geoffrey

2006-01-01

490

A Spectral Regularization Framework for MultiTask Structure Learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Learning the common structure shared by a set of supervised tasks is an important practical and theoretical problem. Knowledge of this structure may lead to bet- ter generalization performance on the tasks and may also facilitate learning new tasks. We propose a framework for solving this problem, which is based on reg- ularization with spectral functions of matrices. This class

Andreas Argyriou; Charles A. Micchelli; Massimiliano Pontil; Yiming Ying

2007-01-01

491

Board Governance of Independent Schools: A Framework for Investigation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Purpose: This paper develops a theoretical framework to guide future inquiry into board governance of independent schools. Design/methodology/approach: The authors' approach is to integrate literatures related to corporate and educational boards, motivation, leadership and group processes that are appropriate for conceptualizing independent…

McCormick, John; Barnett, Kerry; Alavi, Seyyed Babak; Newcombe, Geoffrey

2006-01-01

492

A Unified Framework for Monetary Theory and Policy Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Search-theoretic models of monetary exchange are based on explicit descriptions of the frictions that make money essential. However, tractable versions of these models typically make strong assumptions that render them ill suited for monetary policy analysis. We propose a new framework, based on explicit micro foundations, within which macro…

Lagos, Ricardo; Wright, Randall

2005-01-01

493

Reflection Amplifiers in Online Courses: A Classification Framework  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper provides a theoretical framework for "reflection amplifiers" that are used in online courses. Such reflection amplifiers are intervention techniques that aim at provoking reflective practices in learning, in order to enhance the quality and effectiveness of learning and promote meta-cognition. A literature survey identified a sample of…