Science.gov

Sample records for mainstream tobacco smoke

  1. Sugars as tobacco ingredient: Effects on mainstream smoke composition.

    PubMed

    Talhout, Reinskje; Opperhuizen, Antoon; van Amsterdam, Jan G C

    2006-11-01

    Sugars are natural tobacco components, and are also frequently added to tobacco during the manufacturing process. This review describes the fate of sugars during tobacco smoking, in particular the effect of tobacco sugars on mainstream smoke composition. In natural tobacco, sugars can be present in levels up to 20 wt%. In addition, various sugars are added in tobacco manufacturing in amounts up to 4 wt% per sugar. The added sugars are usually reported to serve as flavour/casing and humectant. However, sugars also promote tobacco smoking, because they generate acids that neutralize the harsh taste and throat impact of tobacco smoke. Moreover, the sweet taste and the agreeable smell of caramelized sugar flavors are appreciated in particular by starting adolescent smokers. Finally, sugars generate acetaldehyde, which has addictive properties and acts synergistically with nicotine in rodents. Apart from these consumption-enhancing pyrolysis products, many toxic (including carcinogenic) smoke compounds are generated from sugars. In particular, sugars increase the level of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acetone, acrolein, and 2-furfural in tobacco smoke. It is concluded that sugars in tobacco significantly contribute to the adverse health effects of tobacco smoking. PMID:16904804

  2. Selenium in mainstream and sidestream smoke of cigarettes containing fly ash-grown tobacco

    SciTech Connect

    Gutenmann, W.H.; Lisk, D.J.; Shane, B.S.; Hoffmann, D.; Adams, J.D.

    1987-01-01

    The quantities of selenium, tar and nicotine present in mainstream (MS) and sidestream (SS) smoke of machine-smoked cigarettes was studied. The cigarettes were prepared from tobacco purposely cultured on fly ash-amended soil so as to increase its selenium concentration. Selenium concentration was found to be the same in the gaseous phase of both MS and SS smoke, but its concentration was significantly higher (p less than 0.05) in the particulate matter of the MS smoke. Tar was higher in MS smoke and nicotine in SS smoke. Factors affecting selenium concentrations in tobacco and its possible environmental significance are discussed.

  3. Selenium in mainstream and sidestream smoke of cigarettes containing fly ash-grown tobacco.

    PubMed

    Gutenmann, W H; Lisk, D J; Shane, B S; Hoffmann, D; Adams, J D

    1987-01-01

    The quantities of selenium, tar and nicotine present in mainstream (MS) and sidestream (SS) smoke of machine-smoked cigarettes was studied. The cigarettes were prepared from tobacco purposely cultured on fly ash-amended soil so as to increase its selenium concentration. Selenium concentration was found to be the same in the gaseous phase of both MS and SS smoke, but its concentration was significantly higher (p less than 0.05) in the particulate matter of the MS smoke. Tar was higher in MS smoke and nicotine in SS smoke. Factors affecting selenium concentrations in tobacco and its possible environmental significance are discussed. PMID:3428180

  4. High Throughput Determination of Mercury in Tobacco and Mainstream Smoke from Little Cigars

    PubMed Central

    Fresquez, Mark R.; Gonzalez-Jimenez, Nathalie; Gray, Naudia; Watson, Clifford H.; Pappas, R. Steven

    2015-01-01

    A method was developed that utilizes a platinum trap for mercury from mainstream tobacco smoke which represents an improvement over traditional approaches that require impingers and long sample preparation procedures. In this approach, the trapped mercury is directly released for analysis by heating the trap in a direct mercury analyzer. The method was applied to the analysis of mercury in the mainstream smoke of little cigars. The mercury levels in little cigar smoke obtained under Health Canada Intense smoking machine conditions ranged from 7.1 × 10−3 mg/m3 to 1.2 × 10−2 mg/m3. These air mercury levels exceed the chronic inhalation Minimal Risk Level corrected for intermittent exposure to metallic mercury (e.g., 1 or 2 hours per day, 5 days per week) determined by the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Multivariate statistical analysis was used to assess associations between mercury levels and little cigar physical design properties. Filter ventilation was identified as the principal physical parameter influencing mercury concentrations in mainstream little cigar smoke generated under ISO machine smoking conditions. With filter ventilation blocked under Health Canada Intense smoking conditions, mercury concentrations in tobacco and puff number (smoke volume) were the primary physical parameters that influenced mainstream smoke mercury concentrations. PMID:26051388

  5. Variation in tobacco and mainstream smoke toxicant yields from selected commercial cigarette products.

    PubMed

    Eldridge, A; Betson, T R; Gama, M Vinicius; McAdam, K

    2015-04-01

    There is a drive toward the mandated lowering and reporting of selected toxicants in tobacco smoke. Several studies have quantified the mainstream cigarette emissions of toxicants, providing benchmark levels. Few, however, have examined how measured toxicant levels within a single product vary over time due to natural variation in the tobacco, manufacturing and measurement. In a single centre analysis, key toxicants were measured in the tobacco blend and smoke of 3R4F reference cigarette and three commercial products, each sampled monthly for 10 months. For most analytes, monthly variation was low (coefficient of variation <15%); but higher (⩾ 20%) for some compounds present at low (ppb) levels. Reporting toxicant emissions as a ratio to nicotine increased the monthly variation of the 9 analytes proposed for mandated lowering, by 1-2 percentage points. Variation in toxicant levels was generally 1.5-1.7-fold higher in commercial cigarettes compared with 3R4F over the 10-month period, but increased up to 3.5-fold for analytes measured at ppb level. The potential error (2CV) associated with single-point-in-time sampling averaged ∼ 20%. Together, these data demonstrate that measurement of emissions from commercial cigarettes is associated with considerable variation for low-level toxicants. This variation would increase if the analyses were conducted in more than one laboratory. PMID:25620723

  6. Molecularly imprinted polymers on a silica surface for the adsorption of tobacco-specific nitrosamines in mainstream cigarette smoke.

    PubMed

    Li, Min-ting; Zhu, Yong-yan; Li, Li; Wang, Wen-na; Yin, Yong-guan; Zhu, Quan-hong

    2015-07-01

    Tobacco-specific nitrosamines are one of the most important groups of carcinogens in tobacco products. Using adsorbents as filter additives is an effective way to reduce tobacco-specific nitrosamines in cigarette smoke. Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) using nicotinamide as template were grafted on the silica gel surface to obtain MIP@SiO2 and employed as filter additives to absorb tobacco-specific nitrosamines in mainstream cigarette smoke. Four milligrams of MIP@SiO2 per cigarette was added to the interface between filter and tobacco rod to prepare a binary filter system. The mainstream smoke was collected on an industry-standard Cambridge filter pad and extracted with ammonium acetate aqueous solution before analysis. Compared to the cigarette smoke of the control group, the levels of tobacco-specific nitrosamines with silica gel and with MIP@SiO2 were both reduced, and the adsorption rates of N-nitrosonornicotine, N-nitrosoanabasine, N-nitrosoanatabine, and 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridine)-1-butanone with silica gel and with MIP@SiO2 were 20.76, 15.32, 18.79, and 18.01%, and 41.33, 34.04, 37.86, and 35.53%, respectively. Furthermore the content of total particle materials in cigarette smoke with silica gel was decreased evidently but showed no observable change with MIP@SiO2 . It indicated MIP@SiO2 could selectively reduce tobacco-specific nitrosamines in the mainstream cigarette smoke with no change to the cigarette flavor. PMID:25914259

  7. GENOTOXICITY OF TOBACCO SMOKE AND TOBACCO SMOKE CONDENSATE: A REVIEW

    EPA Science Inventory

    Genotoxicity of Tobacco Smoke and Tobacco Smoke Condensate: A Review
    Abstract
    This report reviews the literature on the genotoxicity of main-stream tobacco smoke and cigarette smoke condensate (CSC) published since 1985. CSC is genotoxic in nearly all systems in which it h...

  8. DIFFERENTIAL SENSITIVITY OF MALE GERM CELLS TO MAINSTREAM AND SIDESTREAM TOBACCO SMOKE IN THE MOUSE

    SciTech Connect

    Polyzos, Aris; Schmid, Thomas Ernst; Pina-Guzman, Belem; Quintanilla-Vega, Betzabet; Marchetti, Francesco

    2009-03-13

    Cigarette smoking in men has been associated with increased chromosomal abnormalities in sperm and with increased risks for spontaneous abortions, birth defects and neonatal death. Little is known, however, about the reproductive consequences of paternal exposure to second-hand smoke. We used a mouse model to investigate the effects of paternal exposure to sidestream (SS) smoke, the main constituent of second-hand smoke, on the genetic integrity and function of sperm, and to determine whether male germ cells were equally sensitive to mainstream (MS) and SS smoke. A series of sperm DNA quality and reproductive endpoints were investigated after exposing male mice for two weeks to MS or SS smoke. Our results indicated that: (i) only SS smoke significantly affected sperm motility; (ii) only MS smoke induced DNA strand breaks in sperm; (iii) both MS and SS smoke increased sperm chromatin structure abnormalities; and (iv) MS smoke affected both fertilization and the rate of early embryonic development, while SS smoke affected fertilization only. These results show that MS and SS smoke have differential effects on the genetic integrity and function of sperm and provide further evidence that male exposure to second-hand smoke, as well as direct cigarette smoke, may diminish a couple's chance for a successful pregnancy and the birth of a healthy baby.

  9. Analysis of mainstream tobacco smoke particulate phase using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Brokl, Michał; Bishop, Louise; Wright, Christopher G; Liu, Chuan; McAdam, Kevin; Focant, Jean-François

    2013-03-01

    Comprehensive 2D GC coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry was applied for the characterization of the particulate phase of mainstream tobacco smoke particulate. Five 3R4F research cigarettes were smoked on a rotary smoking machine under standardized conditions, total particular matter was collected on Cambridge filter pads and extracted using methanol-based liquid extraction and dynamic headspace (DHS) approaches. Automated peak finding and mass spectral deconvolution combined with scripting and manual revision of library hits were used to evaluate the library search results. The revised peak table contained nearly 1800 individual compounds for the DHS sample and over 900 for the solvent extracted sample. These methods of extraction were shown to be complementary, leading to only 11% of repeated analytes, and their combination gave rise to a list of almost 2500 individual compounds. PMID:23427113

  10. UHPLC separation with MS analysis for eight carbonyl compounds in mainstream tobacco smoke.

    PubMed

    Miller, John H; Gardner, William P; Gonzalez, Ricardo R

    2010-01-01

    A method to quantify eight carbonyl compounds in mainstream cigarette smoke is presented using ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography (UHPLC). The combination of UHPLC and mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS) dramatically reduces analysis times as compared to the current in-house high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-UV method. In addition, improved detector selectivity and peak resolution are observed. Sample analysis times are reduced from 47 min with HPLC-UV to less than 5 min using this improved method. Atmospheric pressure chemical ionization, atmospheric pressure photo ionization, and electrospray ionization are directly compared to evaluate ionization potential and linear response range for the carbonyl 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine derivatives. Smoke extracts from three standard smoking protocols are analyzed by both UHPLC-MS and HPLC-UV for method comparison purposes. PMID:20056029

  11. Toxicogenomic analysis of mainstream tobacco smoke-exposed mice reveals repression of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 gene in heart.

    PubMed

    Halappanavar, Sabina; Stampfli, Martin R; Berndt-Weis, Lynn; Williams, Andrew; Douglas, George R; Yauk, Carole L

    2009-01-01

    Tobacco smoking is associated with cardiovascular pathology. However, the molecular mechanisms of tobacco smoke exposure that lead to initiation or exacerbation of cardiovascular disease are unclear. In this study, the effects of mainstream tobacco smoke (MTS) on global transcription in the heart were investigated. Male C57B1/CBA mice were exposed to MTS from 2 cigarettes daily, 5 days/wk for 6 or 12 wk. Mice were sacrificed immediately, or 6 wk following the last cigarette. High-density DNA microarrays were used to characterize global gene expression changes in whole heart. Fifteen genes were significantly differentially expressed following exposure to MTS. Among these genes, cytochrome P-450 1A1 (Cyp1A1) was upregulated by 12-fold, and Serpine-1 (plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, PAI-1) was downregulated by 1.7-fold. Concomitant increase in Cyp1A1 protein levels and decrease in total and active PAI-1 protein was observed in tissue extracts by Western blot assay and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), respectively. Observed changes were transient and were partially reversed during break periods. Thus, gene expression profiling of heart tissue revealed a novel cardiovascular mechanism operating in response to MTS. Our results suggest a potential role for PAI-1 in MTS-induced cardiovascular pathology. PMID:18925475

  12. Formaldehyde exposures from tobacco smoke: a review.

    PubMed Central

    Godish, T

    1989-01-01

    Reports of formaldehyde levels in mainstream, sidestream, and environmental tobacco smoke from nine studies are reviewed. Considerable disparity exists between formaldehyde production rates determined from mainstream-sidestream studies and those reporting levels in environmental tobacco smoke. Tobacco smoke does not appear to increase vapor-phase formaldehyde levels significantly in indoor environments, but formaldehyde exposure in mainstream smoke may pose a risk of upper respiratory system cancer and increase the risk of cancer in smokers. PMID:2665532

  13. Environmental tobacco smoke

    SciTech Connect

    Guerin, M.R.; Jenkins, R.A.

    1992-12-01

    Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is the material in indoor air which results from tobacco smoking. Early work on the chemistry of ETS and on estimates of the resulting human exposure relied heavily on studies of sidestream smoke, on the characterization of highly contaminated environments, and on the use of contained experimental atmospheres. It had also been common practice to equate ETS with mainstream smoke for purposes of risk assessments. More recent work has identified potentially important differences between the properties of ETS and those of mainstream smoke. Recent work has also included major surveys of commonly encountered smoking and nonsmoking environments for their indoor air concentrations of, particularly, nicotine, carbon monoxide, and/or respirable suspended particulate matter (RSP). Studies have also now been reported which address the general composition of the particulate and vapor phases of ETS and which measure concentrations of trace and miscellaneous constituents of tobacco smoke in indoor air. The data demonstrate that tobacco smoking clearly contributes to indoor air contamination but that the contribution is often less than was previously assumed for the more-commonly encountered environments. The data also identify difficulties in the use of nicotine, carbon monoxide, and RSP as surrogate measures of ETS as a whole. This paper summarizes recent observation concerning the measurement and concentrations of ETS constituents in indoor air.

  14. Environmental tobacco smoke

    SciTech Connect

    Guerin, M.R.; Jenkins, R.A.

    1992-01-01

    Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is the material in indoor air which results from tobacco smoking. Early work on the chemistry of ETS and on estimates of the resulting human exposure relied heavily on studies of sidestream smoke, on the characterization of highly contaminated environments, and on the use of contained experimental atmospheres. It had also been common practice to equate ETS with mainstream smoke for purposes of risk assessments. More recent work has identified potentially important differences between the properties of ETS and those of mainstream smoke. Recent work has also included major surveys of commonly encountered smoking and nonsmoking environments for their indoor air concentrations of, particularly, nicotine, carbon monoxide, and/or respirable suspended particulate matter (RSP). Studies have also now been reported which address the general composition of the particulate and vapor phases of ETS and which measure concentrations of trace and miscellaneous constituents of tobacco smoke in indoor air. The data demonstrate that tobacco smoking clearly contributes to indoor air contamination but that the contribution is often less than was previously assumed for the more-commonly encountered environments. The data also identify difficulties in the use of nicotine, carbon monoxide, and RSP as surrogate measures of ETS as a whole. This paper summarizes recent observation concerning the measurement and concentrations of ETS constituents in indoor air.

  15. Neurobehavioral effects of environmental tobacco smoke

    SciTech Connect

    Benignus, V.A.

    1987-05-01

    In order to try to predict effects of environmental tobacco smoke, neurobehavioral effects of mainstream smoke were reviewed and, in conjunction with what is known about body uptake of components of environmental tobacco smoke, conjectures were made about the probable effect of environmental tobacco smoke. Effects of mainstream smoke differ in smokers and nonsmokers. Mainstream smoke has a beneficial effect on vigilance in habitual smokers. The effect in nonsmokers is less clear and may be disruptive. In both smokers and nonsmokers mainstream smoke produces increased tremor and reduced fine motor skills. The neurobehaviorally active substances in mainstream smoke appear to be nicotine and carbon monoxide. It appears that COHb is the more important consequence of environmental tobacco smoke for neurobehavioral effects, since nicotine levels in nonsmokers only reach a small fraction of those in smokers.

  16. A feasibility study on oxidation state of arsenic in cut tobacco, mainstream cigarette smoke and cigarette ash by X-ray absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, C.; Hu, J.; McAdam, K. G.

    2009-11-01

    This work describes the application of synchrotron-based X-ray Absorption Near-Edge Structure spectroscopy to study the oxidation state of arsenic in cigarette mainstream smoke, cut tobacco and cigarette ash. The level of arsenic in the total particulate matter of the smoke is approximately 1 ppm for the standard research reference cigarette 2R4F and its replacement 3R4F. Smoke particulate samples collected by a conventional glass-fiber membrane (commercially known as Cambridge filter pad) and a jet-impaction method were analyzed and compared. In addition smoke particulate samples were aged either at ambient temperature or at 195 K. X-ray Absorption Near-Edge Structure spectroscopy results revealed that the cut tobacco powder and cigarette ash contained almost exclusively As V. The smoke particulate samples however contained a mixture of As III and As V. The As V in the smoke particulate was reduced to As III upon aging. Stabilizing the smoke particulate matter at 195 K by solid CO 2 slowed down this aging reaction and revealed a higher percentage of As V. This behavior is consistent with the redox properties of the arsenic species and the smoke particulate matrix.

  17. Cadmium concentrations in tobacco and tobacco smoke

    SciTech Connect

    Scherer, G.; Barkemeyer, H.

    1983-02-01

    The amount of cadmium in tobacco depends on the variety and origin of the plant as well as on the analytical method used to determine cadmium. In the literature, cadmium concentrations in tobacco of between 0.5 and 5 ppm are reported. Modern German cigarette tobacco contains about 0.5-1.5 micrograms cadmium/cigarette. Of importance for the smoker is the amount of the metal in the mainstream smoke. The cadmium level in the mainstream smoke of modern cigarettes is reduced by means of filters and other construction features. The average Cd value of German filter cigarettes is less than 0.1 microgram/cigarette in mainstream smoke. An average daily intake of about 1 microgram cadmium by smoking 20 cigarettes can be calculated on the basis of an experimentally proved pulmonary retention rate of 50%. Pulmonary resorption rates relevant to uptake rates of cadmium by smoking are discussed. It can be assumed that cadmium uptake by smoking modern cigarettes has been reduced because of modifications in tobacco processing and cigarette construction in the last few decades.

  18. Determination of rutin in cigarette tobacco, filters, mainstream smoke and burned ash of different branded cigarettes by high performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yinshi; Li, Wei; Wang, Jianhua; Bi, Jianjie; Su, Shudong

    2012-01-01

    Tobacco consists of at least 3,800 chemical constituents. Among them, rutin is an important polyphenolic secondary metabolite in tobacco, which has positive actions such as antiallergic, anti-inflammatory and vasoactive, antitumor, antibacterial, antiviral and anti-protozoal properties. A high performance liquid chromatography method was used to analyze rutin in tobacco and filters, mainstream smoke, and burned ash of ten varieties of cigarettes made in China. The chromatographic analysis was performed on a Hypersil ODS2 column with a gradient elution of acetonitrile and water at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. Detection was carried out at 350 nm using a photodiode array detector. The calibration curves for the determination of analytes showed good linearity over the investigated ranges (R2 > 0.9998). Precision and reproducibility were evaluated by six replicated analyses, and the R.S.D. values were less than 0.59% and 1.53%. The recoveries were between 98.47 and 100.84%. Under the optimized conditions, namely 45 mL/g of solvent to solid ratio, 30 min of extraction time and 200 W of ultrasound power, the concentrations of rutin in tobacco and filter, mainstream smoke, burned ash of different brands cigarettes were 10.20-63.98, 0.10-0.32, 0.06-0.16 and 0 μg/per cigarette, respectively. PMID:22450684

  19. NEUROBEHAVIORAL EFFECTS OF ENVIRONMENTAL TOBACCO SMOKE

    EPA Science Inventory

    In order to try to predict effects of environmental tobacco smoke, neurobehavioral effects of mainstream smoke were reviewed and, in conjunction with what is known about body uptake of components of environmental tobacco smoke, conjectures were made about the probable effect of e...

  20. Simultaneous on-line size and chemical analysis of gas phase and particulate phase of mainstream tobacco smoke

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McAughey, J.; Adam, T.; McGrath, C.; Mocker, C.; Zimmermann, R.

    2009-02-01

    Tobacco smoke is a complex and dynamic physical and chemical matrix in which about 4800 components have been identified. It is known that deposition efficiencies of smoke particles in the lung in the lung (60-80%) are greater than expected for smoke particles of 150-- 250 nm count median diameter (CMD). Various mechanisms have been put forward to explain this enhanced deposition pattern, including coagulation, hygroscopic growth, condensation and evaporation, changes in composition, or changes in inhalation behaviour. This paper represents one of three studies seeking to better quantify smoke chemistry, inhalation behaviour and cumulative particle growth. This information will improve dosimetry estimates in quantitative risk assessment tools as part of a harm reduction process. In this study smoke particle size and chemistry were measured simultaneously in real-time using electrical mobility spectrometry and soft-ionisation, time-of-flight mass spectrometry respectively. Qualitative puff-by-puff resolved yields of three selected compounds (acetaldehyde, phenol, and styrene) are shown and compared with particle number and count median diameter from different smoking intensities and filter ventilation. Yields of chemical analysis, particle diameter and concentration are in good agreement with the intensity of the smoking regime and the dilution of smoke by filter ventilation.

  1. Identifying the tobacco related free radicals by UPCC-QTOF-MS with radical trapping method in mainstream cigarette smoke.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Liu, Misha; Zhu, Yingjing; Cheng, Kuan; Da Wu; Liu, Baizhan; Li, Fengting

    2016-11-01

    Tobacco related free radicals (TFRs) in the cigarette smoke are specific classes of hazardous compounds that merit concern. In this study, we developed a hybrid method to identify TFRs directly based on ultra-performance convergence chromatography with a quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPCC-QTOF MS) combined spin trapping technique. The short-lived TFRs were stabilized successfully in situ through spin trapping procedure and UPCC was applied to facilitate efficient separation of complex derivative products. Coupling of orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA), UPCC-QTOF MS system enabled us to identify specific potential TFRs with exact chemical formula. Moreover, computational stimulations have been carried out to evaluate the optimized stability of TFRs. This work is a successful demonstration for the application of an advanced hyphenated technique for separation of TFRs with short detection time (less than 7min) and high throughput. PMID:27591593

  2. Secondhand Smoke/"Light" Tobacco/ Smokeless Tobacco

    MedlinePlus

    ... turn Javascript on. Feature: Quit Smoking Secondhand Smoke/"Light" Tobacco/ Smokeless Tobacco Past Issues / Winter 2011 Table ... pneumonia Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention "Light" Tobacco = Heavy Health Risks Federal law restricts the ...

  3. Tobacco smoke: unraveling a controversial subject.

    PubMed

    Thielen, Anja; Klus, Hubert; Müller, Lutz

    2008-06-01

    Cigarettes are a modern and industrial form of tobacco use and obviously involve more than just tobacco. A multitude of physical processes and chemical reactions occur inside the burning zone of a cigarette. Cigarette smoke is an aerosol of liquid droplets (the particulate phase) suspended within a mixture of gases and semi-volatile compounds. Two kinds of smoke with different composition and properties are produced during smoking: mainstream smoke inhaled by the smoker and sidestream smoke, which is released into the environment between puffs from the lit end of the cigarette. Several techniques and modifications have altered the design of the cigarette during the last 50 years and changed smoke composition, with the effect of lower tar and nicotine smoke yields. An enormous amount of research has been done since the 1950s on smoke composition. With regard to the numerous toxic or carcinogenic constituents identified in tobacco smoke, there is a strong focus in the industry and with the authorities on the over 40 compounds, called "Hoffmann analytes". The yields of tar and nicotine in mainstream smoke of a cigarette brand as printed on the pack are measured with smoking machines under highly standardized conditions. Yields must comply with regulatory limits set in a number of countries. Smoking by machine is different from the smoking behavior of humans. There is a growing movement to develop more "realistic" methods to estimate smoke yields. But it is unclear whether alternative smoking regimens are more representative of human smoking behavior and provide better predictions of human exposure. Tobacco smoke has strong biological and toxicological effects in vitro and in vivo. There is an obvious need for developing a unified and validated testing approach particularly for the assessment of additives and the evaluation of new potentially reduced exposure products (PREPs). This paper gives a comprehensive overview of cigarette design, the composition and toxicity

  4. Smoked Tobacco Products

    MedlinePlus

    ... cigarettes primarily imported to the United States from India and other Southeast Asian countries. They are tobacco ... in the United States. However, research studies from India show that bidi smoking is associated with cancer ...

  5. Hazardous Compounds in Tobacco Smoke

    PubMed Central

    Talhout, Reinskje; Schulz, Thomas; Florek, Ewa; van Benthem, Jan; Wester, Piet; Opperhuizen, Antoon

    2011-01-01

    Tobacco smoke is a toxic and carcinogenic mixture of more than 5,000 chemicals. The present article provides a list of 98 hazardous smoke components, based on an extensive literature search for known smoke components and their human health inhalation risks. An electronic database of smoke components containing more than 2,200 entries was generated. Emission levels in mainstream smoke have been found for 542 of the components and a human inhalation risk value for 98 components. As components with potential carcinogenic, cardiovascular and respiratory effects have been included, the three major smoke-related causes of death are all covered by the list. Given that the currently used Hoffmann list of hazardous smoke components is based on data from the 1990s and only includes carcinogens, it is recommended that the current list of 98 hazardous components is used for regulatory purposes instead. To enable risk assessment of components not covered by this list, thresholds of toxicological concern (TTC) have been established from the inhalation risk values found: 0.0018 μg day−1 for all risks, and 1.2 μg day−1 for all risks excluding carcinogenicity, the latter being similar to previously reported inhalation TTCs. PMID:21556207

  6. Phenolic Compounds in Particles of Mainstream Waterpipe Smoke

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Waterpipe tobacco smoking has in recent years become a popular international phenomenon, particularly among youth. While it has been shown to deliver significant quantities of several carcinogenic and toxic substances, phenols, an important class of chemical compounds thought to promote DNA mutation and cardiovascular diseases, however, has not been studied. Due to the relatively low temperature characteristic of waterpipe tobacco during smoking (i.e., <450 °C), it was hypothesized that phenolic compounds, which form at approximately 300 °C, will be found in abundance in waterpipe smoke. Methods: In this study, phenolic compounds in the particle phase of waterpipe mainstream smoke were quantified. Waterpipe and cigarette mainstream smoke generated using standard methods were collected on glass fiber pads and analyzed using gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy selected ion current profile chromatogram method for quantification. Results: We found that relative to a single cigarette, a waterpipe delivers at least 3 times greater quantities of the 7 analyzed phenols (phenol, o-cresol, m-cresol, p-cresol, catechol, resorcinol, and hydroquinone). Moreover, phenol derivatives such as methylcatechol, and flavorings such as vanillin, ethyl vanillin, and benzyl alcohol were found in quantities up to 1,000 times greater than the amount measured in the smoke of a single cigarette. Conclusion: The large quantities of phenols and phenol derivatives in waterpipe smoke add to the growing evidence that habitual waterpipe use may increase the risk of cancer and cardiovascular diseases. PMID:23178319

  7. MAINSTREAM AND SIDESTREAM CIGARETTE SMOKE-INDUCED DNA ADDUCTS IN C7B1 AND DNA MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to environmentally tobacco smoke (ETS), which is largely composed of the sidestream cigarette smoke, has been implicated in increased incidence of cancer among nonsmokers. he present study was conducted to compare the potential of mainstream and sidestream cigarette smok...

  8. Philip Morris toxicological experiments with fresh sidestream smoke: more toxic than mainstream smoke

    PubMed Central

    Schick, S; Glantz, S

    2005-01-01

    Background: Exposure to secondhand smoke causes lung cancer; however, there are little data in the open literature on the in vivo toxicology of fresh sidestream cigarette smoke to guide the debate about smoke-free workplaces and public places. Objective: To investigate the unpublished in vivo research on sidestream cigarette smoke done by Philip Morris Tobacco Company during the 1980s at its Institut für Biologische Forschung (INBIFO). Methods: Analysis of internal tobacco industry documents now available at the University of California San Francisco Legacy Tobacco Documents Library and other websites. Results: Inhaled fresh sidestream cigarette smoke is approximately four times more toxic per gram total particulate matter (TPM) than mainstream cigarette smoke. Sidestream condensate is approximately three times more toxic per gram and two to six times more tumourigenic per gram than mainstream condensate by dermal application. The gas/vapour phase of sidestream smoke is responsible for most of the sensory irritation and respiratory tract epithelium damage. Fresh sidestream smoke inhibits normal weight gain in developing animals. In a 21day exposure, fresh sidestream smoke can cause damage to the respiratory epithelium at concentrations of 2 µg/l TPM. Damage to the respiratory epithelium increases with longer exposures. The toxicity of whole sidestream smoke is higher than the sum of the toxicities of its major constituents. Conclusion: Fresh sidestream smoke at concentrations commonly encountered indoors is well above a 2 µg/m3 reference concentration (the level at which acute effects are unlikely to occur), calculated from the results of the INBIFO studies, that defines acute toxicity to humans. Smoke-free public places and workplaces are the only practical way to protect the public health from the toxins in sidestream smoke. PMID:16319363

  9. CHARACTERIZATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL TOBACCO SMOKE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) has been analyzed with respect to several components following smoking of research cigarettes in an experimental chamber. arameters analyzed and their airborne yield per cigarette included: particulate matter (10 mg) and its mutagenic activity in...

  10. A closed-loop control "playback" smoking machine for generating mainstream smoke aerosols.

    PubMed

    Shihadeh, Alan; Azar, Sima

    2006-01-01

    A first generation smoking machine capable of reading and replicating detailed puffing behavior from recorded smoking topography data is presented. Unlike standard smoking machines, which model human puffing behavior as a steady periodic waveform with a fixed puff frequency, volume, and duration, this novel machine generates a mainstream smoke aerosol by automatically "playing-back" puff topography recordings. Because combustion chemistry is highly non-linear, representing real smoking behavior with a smoothed periodic waveform may result in a tobacco smoke aerosol with a significantly different chemical composition and physical properties than that generated by a smoker. The machine presented here utilizes a rapid closed-loop control algorithm coded in Labview to generate smoke aerosols for toxicological assessment and inhalation studies. To illustrate its use, dry particulate matter and carbon monoxide yields generated using the playback and equivalent periodic puffing regimens are compared for a single smoking session by a 26-year-old male narghile water-pipe smoker. It was found that the periodic puffing regimen yielded 20% less carbon monoxide (CO) than the played-back smoking session, indicating that steady periodic smoking regimens, which are widely used in tobacco smoke research, may not produce realistic smoke aerosols. PMID:16796538

  11. Volatile aldehydes in the mainstream smoke of the narghile waterpipe.

    PubMed

    Al Rashidi, M; Shihadeh, A; Saliba, N A

    2008-11-01

    Very little is known about the quality and quantity of toxicants yielded by the narghile, a subject of increasing importance as this method of tobacco smoking has become popular all over the world. This study is concerned with the identification and quantification of volatile aldehydes in the gas and particle phases of mainstream narghile smoke generated using a popular type of flavored ma'ssel tobacco mixture. These compounds were analyzed based on a modified version of the Environmental Protection Agency compendium method TO-11A. Using a standardized smoking machine protocol consisting of 171 puffs, 2.6s puff duration and 17s inter puff interval, the average yields of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein, propionaldehyde and methacrolein were 630, 2520, 892, 403, and 106 microg/smoking session, respectively. The results showed that none of the aldehydes identified in this study are found in the particulate phase of the smoke, except for formaldehyde for which the partitioning coefficient was estimated as Kp = 3.3 x 10(-8) microg/m3. Given previously reported lung absorption fractions of circa 90% for volatile aldehydes, the yields measured in this study are sufficient to induce various diseases depending on the extent of exposure, and on the breathing patterns of the smokers. PMID:18834915

  12. Transcriptome sequencing reveals e-cigarette vapor and mainstream-smoke from tobacco cigarettes activate different gene expression profiles in human bronchial epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Yifei; Wolkowicz, Michael J.; Kotova, Tatyana; Fan, Lonjiang; Timko, Michael P.

    2016-01-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) generate an aerosol vapor (e-vapor) thought to represent a less risky alternative to main stream smoke (MSS) of conventional tobacco cigarettes. RNA-seq analysis was used to examine the transcriptomes of differentiated human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells exposed to air, MSS from 1R5F tobacco reference cigarettes, and e-vapor with and without added nicotine in an in vitro air-liquid interface model for cellular exposure. Our results indicate that while e-vapor does not elicit many of the cell toxicity responses observed in MSS-exposed HBE cells, e-vapor exposure is not benign, but elicits discrete transcriptomic signatures with and without added nicotine. Among the cellular pathways with the most significantly enriched gene expression following e-vapor exposure are the phospholipid and fatty acid triacylglycerol metabolism pathways. Our data suggest that alterations in cellular glycerophopholipid biosynthesis are an important consequences of e-vapor exposure. Moreover, the presence of nicotine in e-vapor elicits a cellular response distinct from e-vapor alone including alterations of cytochrome P450 function, retinoid metabolism, and nicotine catabolism. These studies establish a baseline for future analysis of e-vapor and e-vapor additives that will better inform the FDA and other governmental bodies in discussions of the risks and future regulation of these products. PMID:27041137

  13. Transcriptome sequencing reveals e-cigarette vapor and mainstream-smoke from tobacco cigarettes activate different gene expression profiles in human bronchial epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yifei; Wolkowicz, Michael J; Kotova, Tatyana; Fan, Lonjiang; Timko, Michael P

    2016-01-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) generate an aerosol vapor (e-vapor) thought to represent a less risky alternative to main stream smoke (MSS) of conventional tobacco cigarettes. RNA-seq analysis was used to examine the transcriptomes of differentiated human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells exposed to air, MSS from 1R5F tobacco reference cigarettes, and e-vapor with and without added nicotine in an in vitro air-liquid interface model for cellular exposure. Our results indicate that while e-vapor does not elicit many of the cell toxicity responses observed in MSS-exposed HBE cells, e-vapor exposure is not benign, but elicits discrete transcriptomic signatures with and without added nicotine. Among the cellular pathways with the most significantly enriched gene expression following e-vapor exposure are the phospholipid and fatty acid triacylglycerol metabolism pathways. Our data suggest that alterations in cellular glycerophopholipid biosynthesis are an important consequences of e-vapor exposure. Moreover, the presence of nicotine in e-vapor elicits a cellular response distinct from e-vapor alone including alterations of cytochrome P450 function, retinoid metabolism, and nicotine catabolism. These studies establish a baseline for future analysis of e-vapor and e-vapor additives that will better inform the FDA and other governmental bodies in discussions of the risks and future regulation of these products. PMID:27041137

  14. Tobacco Smoking and Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Furrukh, Muhammad

    2013-01-01

    Tobacco smoking remains the most established cause of lung carcinogenesis and other disease processes. Over the last 50 years, tobacco refinement and the introduction of filters have brought a change in histology, and now adenocarcinoma has become the most prevalent subtype. Over the last decade, smoking also has emerged as a strong prognostic and predictive patient characteristic along with other variables. This article briefly reviews scientific facts about tobacco, and the process and molecular pathways involved in lung carcinogenesis in smokers and never-smokers. The evidence from randomised trials about tobacco smoking’s impact on lung cancer outcomes is also reviewed. PMID:23984018

  15. Measuring environmental emissions from tobacco combustion: sidestream cigarette smoke review

    SciTech Connect

    Guerin, M.R.; Higgins, C.E.; Jenkins, R.A.

    1985-01-01

    The tobacco-derived environmental emission of most common concern is the smoke issuing from cigarettes between puffs. A review of smoke formation mechanisms, sampling methods, and selected emission factors suggests that sidestream deliveries are actually much less variable than is commonly thought. Examples of devices used to generate and collect sidestream smoke for analysis are described. Emissions computed as is common practice from sidestream/mainstream ratios are compared to those determined directly. 36 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Safety Assessment of Mainstream Smoke of Herbal Cigarette

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seung Min; Lim, Heung Bin

    2015-01-01

    Owing to the increase in price of cigarettes in Korea, herbal cigarettes have received increasing attention as a non-smoking aid; however, its safety has hardly been studied. We analyzed some of the toxic components in the mainstream smoke of herbal cigarettes, performed a mutagenicity test on smoke condensates for safety assessment, and compared the results with the corresponding values of a general cigarette with the same tar content. Herbal cigarette “A” was smoked using automatic smoking machine under ISO conditions in a manner similar to general cigarette “T”. The tar content measured was higher than that inscribed on the outside of a package. The mainstream smoke of herbal cigarette “A” did not contain detectable levels of tobacco-specific nitrosamines and nicotine. Carbon monoxide and benzo(α)pyrene contents in herbal cigarette “A” were higher than those in the general cigarette “T”. The phenolic contents such as hydroquinone, resorcinol, and catechol in herbal cigarette “A” were higher than those in the general cigarette “T”, but cresol contents in herbal cigarette “A” were lower than those in the general cigarette “T”. The content of aromatic amines such as 4-aminobiphenyl in herbal cigarette “A” was higher than that in the general cigarette “T”; however, this difference was not statistically significant. On the other hand, 1-aminonaphthalene, 2-aminonaphthalene, and 3-aminobiphenyl contents in herbal cigarette “A” were lower than those in the general cigarette “T”. The smoke condensates of herbal cigarette “A” exhibited a higher mutagenic potential than the condensates from the general cigarette “T” at the same concentration. We concluded that the mainstream smoke of herbal cigarette contains some toxic components, the smoke condensates of herbal cigarettes are mutagenic similar to general cigarette because of combustion products, and that the evaluation of the chemical and biological safety of

  17. In Situ Derivatization and Quantification of Seven Carbonyls in Cigarette Mainstream Smoke.

    PubMed

    Ding, Yan S; Yan, Xizheng; Wong, Joshua; Chan, Michele; Watson, Clifford H

    2016-01-19

    Carbonyls, especially aldehydes, are a group of harmful volatile organic compounds that are found in tobacco smoke. Seven carbonyls are listed on the FDA's harmful and potential harmful constituents list for tobacco or tobacco smoke. Carbonyls have reactive functional groups and thus are challenging to quantitatively measure in cigarette smoke. The traditional method of measuring carbonyls in smoke involves solvent-filled impinger trapping and derivatization. This procedure is labor-intensive and generates significant volumes of hazardous waste. We have developed a new method to efficiently derivatize and trap carbonyls from mainstream smoke in situ on Cambridge filter pads. The derivatized carbonyls are extracted from the pads and subsequently quantified by ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. The new method has been validated and applied to research and commercial cigarettes. Carbonyl yields from research cigarettes are comparable to those from other published literature data. With a convenient smoke collection apparatus, a 4 min sample analysis time, and a low- or submicrogram detection limit, this new method not only simplifies and speeds the detection of an important class of chemical constituents in mainstream smoke but also reduces reactive losses and provides a more accurate assessment of carbonyl levels in smoke. Excellent accuracy (average 98%) and precision (14% average relative standard deviation in research cigarettes) ensure this new method's sufficient fidelity to characterize conventional combusted tobacco products, with potential application toward new or emerging products. PMID:26700249

  18. Environmental tobacco smoke exposure assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Guerin, M.R.

    1993-06-01

    Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is the material released into the environment as tobacco products are smoked. Cigarettes, pipes, and cigars all produce ETS but the term has become all but synonymous with indoor air contamination by cigarette smoking. This is because cigarettes are by far the most commonly consumed tobacco product and because the principal human exposure occurs indoors. Exposure to ETS is variously termed as passive smoking, involuntary smoking, and as exposure to second-hand smoke. Considerable progress has been made toward a better understanding of ETS exposure. Strengths and limitations of various measures of exposure are better understood and much data has been generated on the quantities of many ETS-constituents in many indoor environments. The properties of ETS, methods for its measurement in indoor air, and many results of field studies have recently been reviewed by the author. The recent EPA report includes a major treatment of exposure estimation including air concentrations, questionnaires, and biomarkers. This paper discusses approaches to exposure assessment and summarizes data on indoor air concentrations of ETS-constituents.

  19. Environmental tobacco smoke exposure assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Guerin, M.R.

    1993-01-01

    Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is the material released into the environment as tobacco products are smoked. Cigarettes, pipes, and cigars all produce ETS but the term has become all but synonymous with indoor air contamination by cigarette smoking. This is because cigarettes are by far the most commonly consumed tobacco product and because the principal human exposure occurs indoors. Exposure to ETS is variously termed as passive smoking, involuntary smoking, and as exposure to second-hand smoke. Considerable progress has been made toward a better understanding of ETS exposure. Strengths and limitations of various measures of exposure are better understood and much data has been generated on the quantities of many ETS-constituents in many indoor environments. The properties of ETS, methods for its measurement in indoor air, and many results of field studies have recently been reviewed by the author. The recent EPA report includes a major treatment of exposure estimation including air concentrations, questionnaires, and biomarkers. This paper discusses approaches to exposure assessment and summarizes data on indoor air concentrations of ETS-constituents.

  20. An Analysis of the Role of Tobacco-Specific Nitrosamines in the Carcinogenicity of Tobacco Smoke

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Buddy G.; Borschke, August J.; Doolittle, David J.

    2003-01-01

    Cigarette smoke is a complex mixture consisting of more than 4500 chemicals, including several tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNA). TSNA typically form in tobacco during the post-harvest period, with some fraction being transferred into mainstream smoke when a cigarette is burned during use. The most studied of the TSNA is 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK). NNK has been shown to be carcinogenic in laboratory animals. Studies examining the carcinogenicity of NNK frequently are conducted by injecting rodents with a single dose of 2.5 to 10 μmol of pure NNK; the amount of NNK contained in all of the mainstream smoke from about 3700 to 14,800 typical U.S. cigarettes. Extrapolated to a 70-kg smoker, the carcinogenic dose of pure NNK administered to rodents would be equivalent to the amount of NNK in all of the mainstream smoke of 22 to 87 million typical U.S. cigarettes. Furthermore, extrapolating results from rodent studies based on a single injection of pure NNK to establish a causative role for NNK in the carcinogenicity of chronic tobacco smoke exposure in humans is not consistent with basic pharmacological and toxicological principles. For example, such an approach fails to consider the effect of other smoke constituents upon the toxicity of NNK. In vitro studies demonstrate that nicotine, cotinine, and aqueous cigarette “tar” extract (ACTE) all inhibit the mutagenic activity of NNK. In vivo studies reveal that the formation of pulmonary DNA adducts in mice injected with NNK is inhibited by the administration of cotinine and mainstream cigarette smoke. Cigarette smoke has been shown to modulate the metabolism of NNK, providing a mechanism for the inhibitory effects of cigarette smoke and cigarette smoke constituents on NNK-induced tumorigenesis. NNK-related pulmonary DNA adducts have not been detected in rodents exposed to cigarette smoke, nor has the toxicity of tobacco smoke or tobacco smoke condensate containing marked reductions in TSNA

  1. The contribution of low tar cigarettes to environmental tobacco smoke

    SciTech Connect

    Chortyk, O.T.; Schlotzhauer, W.S. )

    1989-05-01

    A series of low tar cigarettes (LTC) were smoked and the quantities of condensable mainstream (inhaled) and sidestream (between puffs) smoke compounds were determined and compared to those produced by a high tar, nonfilter cigarette. It was found that the LTC produced large quantities of sidestream smoke condensates, about equal to the high tar cigarette, and contained very high levels of toxic or cocarcinogenic phenols. On an equal weight basis, the LTC emitted more of these hazardous compounds into sidestream and environmental tobacco smoke. Higher smoke yields of a flavor additive and a sugar degradation product indicated addition of such compounds during the manufacture of LTC. It was concluded that, compared to a high tar cigarette, smoking LTC may be better for the smoker, but not for the nearby nonsmoker. Information should be developed to allow smokers to choose LTC that produce lower levels of hazardous compounds in their environmentally emitted sidestream smoke.

  2. Formation and general characteristics of environmental tobacco smoke

    SciTech Connect

    Guerin, M.R.

    1988-01-01

    The primary source of environmental tobacco smoke is the the smoke released directly from the tips of cigarettes between puffs; the sidestream smoke. Sidestream smoke is formed under different conditions than is mainstream smoke. It is enriched in alkaline constituents, contains greater quantities of vapor phase water, exhibits a smaller particle size, and is less affected by smoking conditions and cigarette design. Upon dilution in ambient air, particle size decreases due to evaporation thus redistributing many constituents from the particle phase to the vapor phase. Commonly found concentrations of ETS particulates matter, nicotine, and carbon monoxide in indoor environments are 50-200 ..mu..g/m/sup 3/, 2-20 ..mu..g/m/sup 3/, and 2-6 ppM, respectively. Physical composition and chemical concentration vary both spatially and temporally as determined in large part by smoking severity and degree of ventilation. 22 refs., 4 tabs.

  3. Simultaneous determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and tobacco-specific N-nitrosamines in mainstream cigarette smoke using in-pipette-tip solid-phase extraction and on-line gel permeation chromatography-gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Luo, Yan-Bo; Chen, Xiao-Jing; Zhang, Hong-Fei; Jiang, Xing-Yi; Li, Xue; Li, Xiang-Yu; Zhu, Feng-Peng; Pang, Yong-Qiang; Hou, Hong-Wei

    2016-08-19

    In this study, a silica/primary secondary amine (SiO2/PSA) was used as an in-pipette-tip solid phase extraction (SPE) sorbent for the simultaneous determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and tobacco-specific N-nitrosamines (TSNAs) in mainstream cigarette smoke (MSS). We investigated several parameters including an extraction procedure of total particulate matter, type and amount of sorbent and on-line gel permeation chromatography parameters to obtain optimum conditions for a new strategy to target analytes. Under the optimized conditions, we developed a method for the simultaneous determination of PAHs and TSNAs in MSS by coupling in-pipette-tip SPE procedures to an on-line gel permeation chromatography-gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (on-line GPC-GC-MS(2)). Our method had limits of detection for target analytes ranging from 0.01 to 0.23ng/cig. Good linearities were obtained with coefficients of determination (R(2)) greater than 0.9984 for all target analytes. Good reproducibility was obtained as intra- and inter-day precisions, and the relative standard deviations were less than 11.4 and 13.3%, respectively. The recoveries were in the range of 77.1-108.6% at different concentrations for real samples. Compared to previous standard methods for the determination of PAHs and TSNAs in MSS, our method was highly effective, fast, and had low consumption of organic solvent and a high degree of automation. Finally, our method successfully analyzed PAHs and TSNAs in real samples, and no significant deviations were observed when compared to similar analysis using standard methods. PMID:27435688

  4. Toxic Metal Concentrations in Mainstream Smoke from Cigarettes Available in the USA

    PubMed Central

    Fresquez, Mark R.; Martone, Naudia; Watson, Clifford H.

    2015-01-01

    Public health officials and leaders of 168 nations have signaled their concern regarding the health and economic impacts of smoking by becoming signatory parties to the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC). One of FCTC’s purposes is to help achieve meaningful regulation for tobacco products in order to decrease the exposure to harmful and potentially harmful constituents (HPHCs) delivered to users and those who are exposed to secondhand smoke. Determining baseline delivery ranges for HPHCs in modern commercial tobacco products is crucial information regulators could use to make informed decisions. Establishing mainstream smoke delivery concentration ranges for toxic metals was conducted through analyses of total particulate matter (TPM) collected with smoking machines using standard smoking regimens. We developed a rapid analytical method with microwave digestion of TPM samples obtained with smoking machines using electrostatic precipitation under the ISO and Intense smoking regimens. Digested samples are analyzed for chromium, manganese, cobalt, nickel, arsenic, cadmium, and lead using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. This method provides data obtained using the ISO smoking regimen for comparability with previous studies as well as an Intense smoking regimen that represents deliveries that fall within the range of human exposure levels to toxic metals. PMID:24535337

  5. Assessment of the carcinogenic N-nitrosodiethanolamine in tobacco products and tobacco smoke

    SciTech Connect

    Brunnemann, K.D.; Hoffmann, D.

    1981-01-01

    A simple, reproducible gas chromatography-thermal energy analyzer (g.c.-TEA) method has been developed for the analysis of N-nitrosodiethanolamine (NDELA) in tobacco and tobacco smoke. The extract of tobacco or the trapped particulates of tobacco smoke are chromatographed on silica gel. The NDELA containing fractions are concentrated, silylated and analyzed with a modified g.c.-TEA system. (/sup 14/C)NDELA serves as internal standard for the quantitative analysis. Experimental cigarettes made from tobaccos which were treated with the sucker growth inhibitor maleic hydrazidediethanolamine (MH-DELA) contained 115--420 p.p.b. of NDELA and their smoke contained 20--290 ng/cigarette, whereas hand-suckered tobacco and its smoke were free of NDELA. The tobacco of US smoking products contained 115--420 p.p.b. of NDELA and the mainstream smoke from such products yielded 10--68 ng/cigar or cigarette. NDELA levels in chewing tobacco ranged from 220--280 p.p.b. and in two commercial snuff products were 3,200 and 6,800 p.p.b. Although the five analyzed MH-DELA preparations contained between 0.6--1.9 p.p.m. NDELA it is evident that the major portion of NDELA in tobacco is formed from the DELA residue during the tobacco processing. Based on bioassay data from various laboratories which have shown that NDELA is a relatively strong carcinogen and based on the results of this study the use of MH-DELA for the cultivation of tobacco is questioned.

  6. Sidestream tobacco smoke as the main predictor of exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Lodovici, M; Akpan, V; Evangelisti, C; Dolara, P

    2004-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were measured in mainstream and sidestream tobacco smoke from 14 commercial brands of cigarettes purchased in Italy during 2001-2002. The PAHs detected in smoke and analysed with HPLC and a fluorimetric detector were: fluoranthene, pyrene, benzo[a]anthracene, chrysene, benzo[a]pyrene, benzo[b] fluoranthene, benzo[k] fluoranthene, benzo[g,h,i]perylene and dibenzo[a,h]anthracene. The PAH levels in mainstream smoke from different cigarette brands obtained using an official smoking machine varied by about threefold (from 118 to 374 ng per cigarette for total PAHs and from 23.5 to 100 ng per cigarette for carcinogenic PAHs). Total PAH levels in mainstream smoke were correlated with tar content (r = 0.615, P < 0.05, n = 14). Total PAH content in sidestream smoke, measured by collection of all the smoke produced by a lit cigarette in a glass chamber, was about tenfold higher compared with mainstream smoke. The PAH content in sidestream smoke was relatively uniform (2.3-3.9 and 0.49-1.21 micro g per cigarette for total and carcinogenic PAHs, respectively) and was not correlated with tar content. These results indicate that cigarette manufacturing and filter characteristics influence the PAH composition of mainstream smoke, but have no effect on the PAH content in sidestream smoke, which is the main determinant of smokers' and non-smokers' exposure to PAHs in environmental tobacco smoke. PMID:15300715

  7. Charcoal emissions as a source of CO and carcinogenic PAH in mainstream narghile waterpipe smoke.

    PubMed

    Monzer, Bassel; Sepetdjian, Elizabeth; Saliba, Najat; Shihadeh, Alan

    2008-09-01

    Burning charcoal is normally placed atop the tobacco to smoke the narghile waterpipe. We investigated the importance of charcoal as a toxicant source in the mainstream smoke, with particular attention to two well-known charcoal emissions: carbon monoxide (CO) and polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). CO and PAH yields were compared when a waterpipe was machine smoked using charcoal and using an electrical heating element. The electrical heating element was designed to produce spatial and temporal temperature distributions similar to those measured using charcoal. With a popular type of ma'assel tobacco mixture, and using a smoking regimen consisting of 105 puffs of 530ml volume spaced 17s apart, it was found that approximately 90% of the CO and 75-92% of the 4- and 5-membered ring PAH compounds originated in the charcoal. Greater than 95% of the benzo(a)pyrene in the smoke was attributable to the charcoal. It was also found that the relative proportions of individual PAH species, the "PAH fingerprint", of the mainstream smoke were highly correlated to those extracted from the unburned charcoal (R(2)>0.94). In contrast, there was no correlation between the PAH fingerprint of the electrically heated and charcoal-heated conditions (R(2)<0.02). In addition to inhaling toxicants transferred from the tobacco, such as nicotine, "tar", and nitrosamines, waterpipe smokers thus also inhale large quantities of combustion-generated toxicants. This explains why, despite the generally low temperatures attained in the narghile tobacco, large quantities of CO and PAH have been found in the smoke. PMID:18573302

  8. Toxic and trace elements in tobacco and tobacco smoke.

    PubMed Central

    Chiba, M.; Masironi, R.

    1992-01-01

    While the harmful health effects of carbon monoxide, nicotine, tar, irritants and other noxious gases that are present in tobacco smoke are well known, those due to heavy metals and other toxic mineral elements in tobacco smoke are not sufficiently emphasized. Tobacco smoking influences the concentrations of several elements in some organs. This review summarizes the known effects of some trace elements and other biochemically important elements (Al, As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Mn, Hg, Ni, Po-210, Se, and Zn) which are linked with smoking. Cigarette smoking may be a substantial source of intake of these hazardous elements not only to the smoker but also, through passive smoking, to nonsmokers. The adverse health effects of these toxic elements on the fetus through maternal smoking, and on infants through parental smoking, are of special concern. PMID:1600587

  9. [THE LEVEL OF BENZ(A)PIREN IN TOBACCO SMOKE].

    PubMed

    Zurabashvili, D; Parulava, G; Shanidze, L; Kikalishvili, B; Nikolaishvili, M

    2016-05-01

    The medical problems of the environmental pollution with products of tobacco smoke are relatively known. The question of separate components of tobacco smoke, factors such a puff-volume, rate, distance, frequency, length of butt in the environment air is not well understand and should further be investigated. It is shown the dependence of the process on the following factors: physic-chemical parameters of atmospheric environment, brand of tobacco product, activity of smoking process. We aimed to determine the dependence of benz(a)pirene in the air samples of tobacco smoke in the distance of 2,0; 4,0 and 6,0m. from lighting cigarette after puff-by puff. Cigarettes were machine-smoked and the total particulate matter was collected (1,0m3) in room, having no air filtration and substances were analysed and identified by gashromatography. The condacted quantitative and qualitative analyses show, that distance of exposition from burning cigarette can change the volume of benz(a)pirene. In the result of pyrolitic and photochemical reactions in tobacco smoke at certain air space temperature new structures can be formed with high toxity and cancerogenity. The dominant transformation process is reaction with photochemically-produced radicals, which produced benz(a)piren as a minor product. Additional factors effecting indoor concentrations include location and ventilation condition time. Ultrafine particle and benz(a)piren deposition and smoking behavior were observed. The mainstream smoke was also monitored continuously in real time (3, 5 and 10 minute) on a puff-by-puff. Our data show that smoking pastime can change the structure and volume of component of tobacco smoke. The level of benz(a)piren in air samples was evaluated as the main background index of cigarette smoke toxity in relatively small room, having no air filtration system. This question still needs to be explained. It would be interesting to investigate of tobacco smoke components in lung tissue after the

  10. Protecting Children From Tobacco, Nicotine, and Tobacco Smoke.

    PubMed

    Farber, Harold J; Groner, Judith; Walley, Susan; Nelson, Kevin

    2015-11-01

    This technical report serves to provide the evidence base for the American Academy of Pediatrics' policy statements "Clinical Practice Policy to Protect Children From Tobacco, Nicotine, and Tobacco Smoke" and "Public Policy to Protect Children From Tobacco, Nicotine, and Tobacco Smoke." Tobacco use and involuntary exposure are major preventable causes of morbidity and premature mortality in adults and children. Tobacco dependence almost always starts in childhood or adolescence. Electronic nicotine delivery systems are rapidly gaining popularity among youth, and their significant harms are being documented. In utero tobacco smoke exposure, in addition to increasing the risk of preterm birth, low birth weight, stillbirth, placental abruption, and sudden infant death, has been found to increase the risk of obesity and neurodevelopmental disorders. Actions by pediatricians can help to reduce children's risk of developing tobacco dependence and reduce children's involuntary tobacco smoke exposure. Public policy actions to protect children from tobacco are essential to reduce the toll that the tobacco epidemic takes on our children. PMID:26504135

  11. Smoking Behavior and the Tobacco Crop.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Richard W.; Higgins, C. Wayne

    1984-01-01

    The influence of the physical and economic presence of tobacco crops on smoking behavior and related attitudes of students in tobacco-raising regions was measured by a Tobacco Crop Intensity variable. Implications for government agricultural and educational policy are discussed. (Author/DF)

  12. Predicting regional lung deposition of environmental tobacco smoke particles

    SciTech Connect

    Nazaroff, W.W.; Hung, W.Y.; Sasse, A.G.B.M.; Gadgil, A.J.

    1993-10-01

    Inhalation exposure of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) particles may increase health risks, but only to the extent that the particles deposit in the respiratory tract. We describe a technique to predict regional lung deposition of environmental tobacco smoke particles. Interpretation of particle size distribution measurements after cigarette combustion by a smoking machine in a test room yields an effective emissions profile. An aerosol dynamics model is used to predict indoor particle concentrations resulting from a specified combination of smoking frequency and building factors. By utilizing a lung deposition model, the rate of ETS mass accumulation in human lungs is then determined as a function of particle size and lung airway generation. Considering emissions of sidestream smoke only, residential exposures of nonsmokers to ETS are predicted to cause rates of total respiratory tract particle deposition in the range of 0.4-0.7 {mu}g/day per kg of body weight for light smoking in a well-ventilated residence and 8-13 {mu}g/day per kg for moderately heavy smoking in a poorly ventilated residence. Emissions of sidestream plus mainstream smoke lead to predicted deposition rates about a factor of 4 higher. This technique should be useful for evaluating health risks and control techniques associated with exposure to ETS particles. 36 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. Tobacco Addiction: 'Why Do I Smoke?' Quiz

    MedlinePlus

    MENU Return to Web version Tobacco Addiction | “Why do I smoke?" Quiz Why do I smoke? If you learn the answer to this question, it will be easier to ... m hooked." In addition to having a psychological addiction to smoking, you may also be physically addicted ...

  14. Smoking, Tobacco & Health: A Fact Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Health Promotion and Education (CDC), Rockville, MD. Office on Smoking and Health.

    This document presents an update of a fact book first published by the Public Health Service in 1969. It deals with the medical, social, and economic aspects of cigarette smoking and identifies cigarette smoking as the chief preventable cause of death in the United States. The first section, Smoking, Tobacco & Health, examines trends in cigarette…

  15. Murine lung tumor response after exposure to cigarette mainstream smoke or its particulate and gas/vapor phase fractions.

    PubMed

    Stinn, Walter; Arts, Josje H E; Buettner, Ansgar; Duistermaat, Evert; Janssens, Kris; Kuper, C Frieke; Haussmann, Hans-Juergen

    2010-09-10

    Knowledge on mechanisms of smoking-induced tumorigenesis and on active smoke constituents may improve the development and evaluation of chemopreventive and therapeutic interventions, early diagnostic markers, and new and potentially reduced-risk tobacco products. A suitable laboratory animal disease model of mainstream cigarette smoke inhalation is needed for this purpose. In order to develop such a model, A/J and Swiss SWR/J mouse strains, with a genetic susceptibility to developing lung adenocarcinoma, were whole-body exposed to diluted cigarette mainstream smoke at 0, 120, and 240 mg total particulate matter per m(3) for 6h per day, 5 days per week. Mainstream smoke is the smoke actively inhaled by the smoker. For etiological reasons, parallel exposures to whole smoke fractions (enriched for particulate or gas/vapor phase) were performed at the higher concentration level. After 5 months of smoke inhalation and an additional 4-month post-inhalation period, both mouse strains responded similarly: no increase in lung tumor multiplicity was seen at the end of the inhalation period; however, there was a concentration-dependent tumorigenic response at the end of the post-inhalation period (up to 2-fold beyond control) in mice exposed to the whole smoke or the particulate phase. Tumors were characterized mainly as pulmonary adenomas. At the end of the inhalation period, epithelial hyperplasia, atrophy, and metaplasia were found in the nasal passages and larynx, and cellular and molecular markers of inflammation were found in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. These inflammatory effects were mostly resolved by the end of the post-inhalation period. In summary, these mouse strains responded to mainstream smoke inhalation with enhanced pulmonary adenoma formation. The major tumorigenic potency resided in the particulate phase, which is contrary to the findings published for environmental tobacco smoke surrogate inhalation in these mouse models. PMID:20594951

  16. Regional lung deposition of aged and diluted sidestream tobacco smoke

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmann, W.; Winkler-Heil, R.; McAughey, J.

    2009-02-01

    Since aged and diluted smoke particles are in general smaller and more stable than mainstream tobacco smoke, it should be possible to model their deposition on the basis of their measured particle diameters. However in practice, measured deposition values are consistently greater than those predicted by deposition models. Thus the primary objective of this study was to compare theoretical predictions obtained by the Monte Carlo code IDEAL with two human deposition studies to attempt to reconcile these differences. In the first study, male and female volunteers inhaled aged and diluted sidestream tobacco smoke at two steady-state concentrations under normal tidal breathing conditions. In the second study, male volunteers inhaled aged and diluted sidestream smoke labelled with 212Pb to fixed inhalation patterns. Median particle diameters in the two studies were 125 nm (CMD) and 210 nm (AMD), respectively. Experimental data on total deposition were consistently higher than the corresponding theoretical predictions, exhibiting significant inter-subject variations. However, measured and calculated regional deposition data are quite similar to each other, except for the extra-thoracic region. This discrepancy suggests that either the initial particle diameter decreases upon inspiration and/or additional deposition mechanisms are operating in the case of tobacco smoke particles.

  17. Tobacco smoke. Effects on pulmonary host defense.

    PubMed

    Drath, D B; Karnovsky, M L; Huber, G L

    1979-07-01

    Tobacco smoke affected both the metabolism and function of pulmonary alveolar macrophages (PAM). Phagocytosis of viable Staphylococcus aureus and inert starch particles was minimally but consistently depressed in PAM from rats exposed to tobacco smoke for six months. Oxygen consumption, superoxide and hydrogen peroxide release, and hexose monophosphate shunt activity were elevated in cells from smokers. Oxidation of glucose, labelled in the carbon-six position, remained unchanged. All observed effects of tobacco smoke on oxygen metabolism occurred during phagocytosis and did not affect the basal metabolism of the nonstimulated cell. PMID:225267

  18. Waterpipe (hookah) tobacco smoking among youth.

    PubMed

    Martinasek, Mary P; McDermott, Robert J; Martini, Leila

    2011-02-01

    Waterpipe tobacco smoking is a centuries old practice, influenced by cultural tradition in Eastern Mediterranean countries, the Middle East, and parts of Asia. It historically has been an activity enjoyed primarily by men. In the past 2 decades, however, this method of tobacco smoking has increased in popularity in other parts of the world, including the USA. Growing interest in this form of smoking can be traced, in part, to the advent of a flavored tobacco, called maassel. The combination of flavoring agents and the paraphernalia itself used in the smoking process, along with its mystic appeal, novelty, affordability, and the social atmosphere in which smoking often occurs, has made waterpipe smoking attractive to women as well as men, cigarette smokers and nonsmokers alike, and particular groups, including persons of college age and younger adolescents. Although waterpipe smoking is perceived by its new generation of users to be less addictive and hazardous to health than cigarette smoking, researchers draw diametrically opposed conclusions. Research demonstrates that numerous toxic agents, including carcinogens, heavy metals, other particulate matter, and high levels of nicotine, are efficiently delivered through waterpipes. Moreover, sidestream smoke exposes others in the vicinity of waterpipe smokers to the risk of respiratory diseases and other conditions. In addition, persons sharing waterpipe mouthpieces may share infectious agents as well. Waterpipe tobacco smoking has been declared a public health problem by the World Health Organization and other authorities. Recognition of the deleterious effects of waterpipe smoking has led to initial attempts to expand regulatory control. Because waterpipe tobacco is not directly burned in the smoking process, many existing control measures do not apply. Public health authorities should monitor waterpipe tobacco use carefully. Finally, pediatricians and other healthcare providers should discourage experimentation and

  19. Tobacco Smoke Incursions in Multiunit Housing

    PubMed Central

    Torok, Michelle; McMillen, Robert; Tanski, Susanne; Klein, Jonathan D.; Winickoff, Jonathan P.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We sought to describe the prevalence of secondhand tobacco smoke incursions reported by multiunit housing (MUH) residents, pinpoint factors associated with exposure, and determine whether smoke-free building policy was associated with prevalence of reported tobacco smoke incursions. Methods. Data are from a 2011 nationally representative dual-frame survey (random-digit-dial and Internet panels) of US adults aged 18 years and older. Individuals who lived in MUH and who reported no smoking in their homes for the past 3 months, whether or not they reported being smokers themselves, were included in this study. Incursions were defined as smelling tobacco smoke in their building or unit. Results. Of 562 respondents, 29.5% reported smoke incursions in their buildings. Of these, 16% reported incursions in their own unit, 36.2% of which occurred at least weekly. Government-subsidized housing and partial smoke-free policies were associated with a higher likelihood of reporting smoke incursions. Conclusions. Many residents of multiunit housing are exposed to tobacco smoke in their units and buildings. Partial smoke-free policies do not appear to protect residents and might increase the likelihood of incursions in residents’ individual units. PMID:24922124

  20. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in the Mainstream Smoke of Popular U.S. Cigarettes

    PubMed Central

    Vu, An T.; Taylor, Kenneth M.; Holman, Matthew R.; Ding, Yan S.; Hearn, Bryan; Watson, Clifford H.

    2015-01-01

    The mainstream smoke yields of 14 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined for 50 commercial U.S. cigarettes using a validated GC/MS method with the International Organization of Standardization (ISO) and Canadian Intense (CI) smoking machine regimens. PAH mainstream smoke deliveries vary widely among the commercial cigarettes with the ISO smoking regimen primarily because of differing filter ventilation. The more abundant, lower molecular weight PAHs such as naphthalene, fluorene, and phenanthrene predominantly comprise the total PAH yields. In contrast, delivery yields of high molecular weight PAHs such as benzo[b]fluoranthene, benzo[e]pyrene, benzo[k]fluoranthene, and benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) are much lower. Comparative analysis of PAHs deliveries shows brand specific differences. Correlation analysis shows strong positive associations between BaP and most of the other PAHs as well as total PAHs. The results suggest that BaP may be a representative marker for other PAH constituents in cigarette smoke generated from similarly blended tobacco, particularly those PAHs with similar molecular weights and chemical structures. PMID:26158771

  1. Measuring environmental emissions from tobacco combustion: Sidestream cigarette smoke literature review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerin, M. R.; Higgins, C. E.; Jenkins, R. A.

    The tobacco-derived environmental emission of most common concern is the smoke issuing from cigarettes between puffs. A literature review of smoke formation mechanisms, sampling methods and selected emission factors suggests that sidestream deliveries are actually much less variable than is commonly thought. Examples of devices used to generate and collect sidestream smoke for analysis are described and their advantages and disadvantages discussed. Emissions computed as is common practice from sidestream/mainstream ratios are compared to those determined directly. The ratio method can yield misleading results because of the sensitivity of mainstream deliveries to cigarette and burn characteristics.

  2. Development of a BALB/c 3T3 neutral red uptake cytotoxicity test using a mainstream cigarette smoke exposure system

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Tobacco smoke toxicity has traditionally been assessed using the particulate fraction under submerged culture conditions which omits the vapour phase elements from any subsequent analysis. Therefore, methodologies that assess the full interactions and complexities of tobacco smoke are required. Here we describe the adaption of a modified BALB/c 3T3 neutral red uptake (NRU) cytotoxicity test methodology, which is based on the Interagency Coordinating Committee on the Validation of Alternative Methods (ICCVAM) protocol for in vitro acute toxicity testing. The methodology described takes into account the synergies of both the particulate and vapour phase of tobacco smoke. This is of particular importance as both phases have been independently shown to induce in vitro cellular cytotoxicity. Findings The findings from this study indicate that mainstream tobacco smoke and the gas vapour phase (GVP), generated using the Vitrocell® VC 10 smoke exposure system, have distinct and significantly different toxicity profiles. Within the system tested, mainstream tobacco smoke produced a dilution IC50 (dilution (L/min) at which 50% cytotoxicity is observed) of 6.02 L/min, whereas the GVP produced a dilution IC50 of 3.20 L/min. In addition, we also demonstrated significant dose-for-dose differences between mainstream cigarette smoke and the GVP fraction (P < 0.05). This demonstrates the importance of testing the entire tobacco smoke aerosol and not just the particulate fraction, as has been the historical preference. Conclusions We have adapted the NRU methodology based on the ICCVAM protocol to capture the full interactions and complexities of tobacco smoke. This methodology could also be used to assess the performance of traditional cigarettes, blend and filter technologies, tobacco smoke fractions and individual test aerosols. PMID:24935030

  3. Comparison of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) concentrations generated by an electrically heated cigarette smoking system and a conventional cigarette.

    PubMed

    Tricker, Anthony R; Schorp, Matthias K; Urban, Hans-Jörg; Leyden, Donald; Hagedorn, Heinz-Werner; Engl, Johannes; Urban, Michael; Riedel, Kirsten; Gilch, Gerhard; Janket, Dinamis; Scherer, Gerhard

    2009-01-01

    Smoking conventional lit-end cigarettes results in exposure of nonsmokers to potentially harmful cigarette smoke constituents present in environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) generated by sidestream smoke emissions and exhaled mainstream smoke. ETS constituent concentrations generated by a conventional lit-end cigarette and a newly developed electrically heated cigarette smoking system (EHCSS) that produces only mainstream smoke and no sidestream smoke emissions were investigated in simulated "office" and "hospitality" environments with different levels of baseline indoor air quality. Smoking the EHCSS (International Organisation for Standardization yields: 5 mg tar, 0.3 mg nicotine, and 0.6 mg carbon monoxide) in simulated indoor environments resulted in significant reductions in ETS constituent concentrations compared to when smoking a representative lit-end cigarette (Marlboro: 6 mg tar, 0.5 mg nicotine, and 7 mg carbon monoxide). In direct comparisons, 24 of 29 measured smoke constituents (83%) showed mean reductions of greater than 90%, and 5 smoke constituents (17%) showed mean reductions between 80% and 90%. Gas-vapor phase ETS markers (nicotine and 3-ethenylpyridine) were reduced by an average of 97% (range 94-99%). Total respirable suspended particles, determined by online particle measurements and as gravimetric respirable suspended particles, were reduced by 90% (range 82-100%). The mean and standard deviation of the reduction of all constituents was 94 +/- 4%, indicating that smoking the new EHCSS in simulated "office" and "hospitality" indoor environments resulted in substantial reductions of ETS constituents in indoor air. PMID:18951229

  4. Determination of pyrethroid residues in tobacco and cigarette smoke by capillary gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Cai, Jibao; Liu, Baizhan; Zhu, Xiaolan; Su, Qingde

    2002-07-26

    The extraction of fenpropathrin, cyhalothrin, cypermethrin, fenvalerate and deltamethrin from tobacco (Nicotina tobaccum) and cigarette smoke condensate with acetone, followed by partition of resulting acetone mixture with petroleum ether, was investigated and found suitable for capillary gas chromatography (GC) residue analysis. Florisil column clean-up was found to provide clean-up procedure for tobacco and cigarette smoke condensate permitting analysis to < or = 0.01 microgram.g-1 for most of the pyrethroids by GC with a 63Ni electron capture detector (GC-ECD). Quantitative determination was obtained by the method of external standards. Cigarettes made from flue-cured tobacco spiked with different amounts of pyrethroids were used and the pyrethroid levels in mainstream smoke were determined. For all the pyrethroid residues, 1.51-15.50% were transferred from tobacco into cigarette smoke. PMID:12198849

  5. [Attitudes of teachers to tobacco smoking].

    PubMed

    Ben Abdelaziz, A; Amira, Z; Gaha, K; Thabet, H; Soltane, I; Ghedira, A; Gaha, R

    2007-01-01

    We aimed to evaluate the attitudes of teachers to tobacco smoking in Kalaa Kebira (a semi-urban region in the Tunisian Sahel). Data from 358 of 402 teachers surveyed were obtained using a self-completed questionnaire. The mean age of the teachers was 35.7 (SD 7.9) years. The prevalence of smoking was 29.3% (51.6% of men and 3.6% of women), and 79% of smokers were addicted to nicotine according to the Fagerström test. About 50% of the teachers were badly-informed about the dangers of smoking and 75.2% of smoking teachers did not refrain from smoking in front of their pupils. The lack of knowledge of teachers limits their role as a model and information source in the anti-tobacco struggle. It is essential to draw up an education programme for the teaching staff. PMID:17955774

  6. Effect of tobacco smoking on renal function.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Ross G

    2006-09-01

    Nicotine is one of many substances that may be acquired through active and passive smoking of tobacco. In man, nicotine is commonly consumed via smoking cigarettes, cigars or pipes. The addictive liability and pharmacological effects of smoking are primarily mediated by the major tobacco alkaloid nicotine. High stress jobs favour repeated smoking and further reinforce addictive behaviours. There are elevated serum cadmium and lead levels in smokers resulting in glomerular dysfunction. Nephropathies are accelerated by nicotine with an increased incidence of microalbuminuria progressing to proteinuria, followed by type-1 diabetes mellitus induced renal failure. Cigarette smoke-induced renal damage is due, at least in part, to activation of the sympathetic nervous system resulting in an elevation in blood pressure. Ethanol, nicotine, or concurrent intake significantly increases lipid peroxidation in liver, and decreased superoxide dismutase activity and increased catalase activity in the kidney. This review describes the effects of nicotine, smoking, smoke extracts and other tobacco constituents on renal and cardiovascular functions, and associated effects on the nervous system. Both active and passive smoking is toxic to renal function. PMID:17085829

  7. Chitosan removes toxic heavy metal ions from cigarette mainstream smoke

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Wen; Xu, Ying; Wang, Dongfeng; Zhou, Shilu

    2013-09-01

    This study investigated the removal of heavy metal ions from cigarette mainstream smoke using chitosan. Chitosan of various deacetylation degrees and molecular weights were manually added to cigarette filters in different dosages. The mainstream smoke particulate matter was collected by a Cambridge filter pad, digested by a microwave digestor, and then analyzed for contents of heavy metal ions, including As(III/V), Pb(II), Cd(II), Cr(III/VI) and Ni(II), by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS). The results showed that chitosan had a removal effect on Pb(II), Cd(II), Cr(III/VI) and Ni(II). Of these, the percent removal of Ni(II) was elevated with an increasing dosage of chitosan. Chitosan of a high deace tylation degree exhibited good binding performance toward Cd(II), Cr(III/VI) and Ni(II), though with poor efficiency for Pb(II). Except As(III/V), all the tested metal ions showed similar tendencies in the growing contents with an increasing chitosan molecular weight. Nonetheless, the percent removal of Cr(III/VI) peaked with a chitosan molecular weight of 200 kDa, followed by a dramatic decrease with an increasing chitosan molecular weight. Generally, chitosan had different removal effects on four out of five tested metal ions, and the percent removal of Cd(II), Pb(II), Cr(III/VI) and Ni(II) was approximately 55%, 45%, 50%, and 16%, respectively. In a word, chitosan used in cigarette filter can remove toxic heavy metal ions in the mainstream smoke, improve cigarette safety, and reduce the harm to smokers.

  8. Detection of reactive oxygen species in mainstream cigarette smoke by a fluorescent probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Li; Xu, Shi-jie; Li, Song-zhan

    2009-07-01

    A mass of reactive oxygen species(ROS) are produced in the process of smoking. Superfluous ROS can induce the oxidative stress in organism, which will cause irreversible damage to cells. Fluorescent probe is taken as a marker of oxidative stress in biology and has been applied to ROS detection in the field of biology and chemistry for high sensitivity, high simplicity of data collection and high resolution. As one type of fluorescent probe, dihydrorhodamine 6G (dR6G) will be oxidized to the fluorescent rhodamine 6G, which could be used to detect ROS in mainstream cigarette smoke. We investigated the action mechanism of ROS on dR6G, built up the standard curve of R6G fluorescence intensity with its content, achieved the variation pattern of R6G fluorescence intensity with ROS content in mainstream cigarette smoke and detected the contents of ROS from the 4 types of cigarettes purchased in market. The result shows that the amount of ROS has close relationship with the types of tobacco and cigarette production technology. Compared with other detecting methods such as electronic spin resonance(ESR), chromatography and mass spectrometry, this detection method by the fluorescent probe has higher efficiency and sensitivity and will have wide applications in the ROS detection field.

  9. Determination of 10 carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in mainstream cigarette smoke.

    PubMed

    Ding, Yan S; Ashley, David L; Watson, Clifford H

    2007-07-25

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are one class of chemical compounds that (1) are present at low to trace levels in unburned cigarette filler, and (2) are predominantly generated during combustion. According to a recent report of the International Agency for Research on Cancer, 10 carcinogenic PAHs together with 53 other known carcinogens are present in cigarette smoke. Accurate quantification of these chemicals helps assess public health risk to both smokers and nonsmokers exposed to second-hand smoke. We have developed and validated a specific and sensitive method for measuring these 10 carcinogenic PAHs in the particulate phase of mainstream tobacco smoke. Cigarette smoke particulate, produced using standard machine smoking protocols, was collected on glass fiber Cambridge filter pads. The particulate matter was solvent extracted, purified by solid-phase extraction, and analyzed by liquid chromatography/atmospheric pressure photoionization tandem mass spectrometry using isotopically labeled analogues as internal standards. Our method's limits of detection ranged from 11 to 166 pg and achieved sufficient reproducibility and accuracy to provide useful information on a range of cigarettes having dramatically different machine-smoked tar and nicotine deliveries. The identity of each PAH analyte was established from chromatographic retention time, analyte-specific fragmentation patterns, and relative peak area ratios of the product/precursor ion pairs. This new method provides higher sensitivity, specificity, and throughput than did earlier methods. We found relatively consistent PAH levels among a selection of domestic full-flavor cigarettes. The PAH levels in smoke from highly ventilated light and ultralight cigarettes were low when smoked using ISO (International Organization for Standardization) conditions. However, if highly ventilated cigarettes were smoked under more intense conditions (e.g., larger or more frequent puffs, vents blocked), their PAH

  10. Transgenerational Exposure to Environmental Tobacco Smoke

    PubMed Central

    Joya, Xavier; Manzano, Cristina; Álvarez, Airam-Tenesor; Mercadal, Maria; Torres, Francesc; Salat-Batlle, Judith; Garcia-Algar, Oscar

    2014-01-01

    Traditionally, nicotine from second hand smoke (SHS), active or passive, has been considered the most prevalent substance of abuse used during pregnancy in industrialized countries. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is associated with a variety of health effects, including lung cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Tobacco is also a major burden to people who do not smoke. As developing individuals, newborns and children are particularly vulnerable to the negative effects of SHS. In particular, prenatal ETS has adverse consequences during the entire childhood causing an increased risk of abortion, low birth weight, prematurity and/or nicotine withdrawal syndrome. Over the last years, a decreasing trend in smoking habits during pregnancy has occurred, along with the implementation of laws requiring smoke free public and working places. The decrease in the incidence of prenatal tobacco exposure has usually been assessed using maternal questionnaires. In order to diminish bias in self-reporting, objective biomarkers have been developed to evaluate this exposure. The measurement of nicotine and its main metabolite, cotinine, in non-conventional matrices such as cord blood, breast milk, hair or meconium can be used as a non-invasive measurement of prenatal SMS in newborns. The aim of this review is to highlight the prevalence of ETS (prenatal and postnatal) using biomarkers in non-conventional matrices before and after the implementation of smoke free policies and health effects related to this exposure during foetal and/or postnatal life. PMID:25032741

  11. Transgenerational exposure to environmental tobacco smoke.

    PubMed

    Joya, Xavier; Manzano, Cristina; Álvarez, Airam-Tenesor; Mercadal, Maria; Torres, Francesc; Salat-Batlle, Judith; Garcia-Algar, Oscar

    2014-07-01

    Traditionally, nicotine from second hand smoke (SHS), active or passive, has been considered the most prevalent substance of abuse used during pregnancy in industrialized countries. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is associated with a variety of health effects, including lung cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Tobacco is also a major burden to people who do not smoke. As developing individuals, newborns and children are particularly vulnerable to the negative effects of SHS. In particular, prenatal ETS has adverse consequences during the entire childhood causing an increased risk of abortion, low birth weight, prematurity and/or nicotine withdrawal syndrome. Over the last years, a decreasing trend in smoking habits during pregnancy has occurred, along with the implementation of laws requiring smoke free public and working places. The decrease in the incidence of prenatal tobacco exposure has usually been assessed using maternal questionnaires. In order to diminish bias in self-reporting, objective biomarkers have been developed to evaluate this exposure. The measurement of nicotine and its main metabolite, cotinine, in non-conventional matrices such as cord blood, breast milk, hair or meconium can be used as a non-invasive measurement of prenatal SMS in newborns. The aim of this review is to highlight the prevalence of ETS (prenatal and postnatal) using biomarkers in non-conventional matrices before and after the implementation of smoke free policies and health effects related to this exposure during foetal and/or postnatal life. PMID:25032741

  12. Tobacco smoking and vertical periodontal bone loss.

    PubMed

    Baljoon, Mostafa

    2005-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is associated with increased prevalence and severity of destructive periodontal disease in terms of periodontal pocketing, periodontal bone loss, and tooth loss. The smoking destructive effect on periodontal bone may be of even "horizontal" and vertical "angular" pattern. The vertical bone loss or the "vertical defect" is a sign of progressive periodontal breakdown that involves the periodontal bone. Water pipe smoking has a sharp rise by the popularity in the recent years by men and women in Middle East countries. The general objective of this thesis was to investigate the relationship between tobacco smoking and vertical periodontal bone loss cross-sectionally and longitudinally. This thesis is based on two study populations, Swedish musicians and a Saudi Arabian population. All participants had a full set of intra-oral radiographs including 16 periapical and 4 bitewing projections that were assessed with regard to presence or absence of vertical defects. In Study I, the number of defects per person increased with age. Vertical defects were more common in the posterior as compared to the anterior region of the dentition and the distribution of defects within the maxilla as well as the mandible typically revealed a right-left hand side symmetry. Cigarette smoking was significantly associated with the prevalence and severity of vertical bone defects (Studies II and III). The relative risk associated with cigarette smoking was 2 to 3-fold increased. The impact of water pipe smoking was of the same magnitude as that of cigarette smoking and the relative risk associated with water pipe smoking was 6-fold increased compared to non-smoking. In addition, the risk of vertical defects increased with increased exposure in cigarette smokers as well as water pipe smokers (Study III). In Study IV, the proportion of vertical defects increased over a 10-year period and the increase over time was significantly associated with smoking. Moreover, the 10-year

  13. Lipidomics of tobacco leaf and cigarette smoke.

    PubMed

    Dunkle, Melissa N; Yoshimura, Yuta; t'Kindt, Ruben; Ortiz, Alexia; Masugi, Eri; Mitsui, Kazuhisa; David, Frank; Sandra, Pat; Sandra, Koen

    2016-03-25

    Detailed lipidomics experiments were performed on the extracts of cured tobacco leaf and of cigarette smoke condensate (CSC) using high-resolution liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-Q-TOF MS). Following automated solid-phase extraction (SPE) fractionation of the lipid extracts, over 350 lipids could be annotated. From a large-scale study on 22 different leaf samples, it was determined that differentiation based on curing type was possible for both the tobacco leaf and the CSC extracts. Lipids responsible for the classification were identified and the findings were correlated to proteomics data acquired from the same tobacco leaf samples. Prediction models were constructed based on the lipid profiles observed in the 22 leaf samples and successfully allowed for curing type classification of new tobacco leaves. A comparison of the leaf and CSC data provided insight into the lipidome changes that occur during the smoking process. It was determined that lipids which survive the smoking process retain the same curing type trends in both the tobacco leaf and CSC data. PMID:26585203

  14. [Tobacco smoking is addictive--do not start smoking].

    PubMed

    Kałucka, Sylwia

    2008-01-01

    Tobacco smoking is addictive- do not start smoking, do not start smoking, each person buying a package of cigarettes can read this inscription. But does he really read it? Every year all over the world one million people try to stop smoking, but only for a few percent this attempt is successful. Giving up the habit of smoking is hard because it leads to biological and psychogenic addiction. The aim of this paper was to check which factors most motivated smokers to stop smoking? 50 active smokers, among them 5 former smokers, who have smoked at least 15 cigarettes a day for 15 years were classified to the preliminary study. Among them there were 23 women, which is 46% of the subjects and 27 men, which is 54% of the subjects. The average number of smoked cigarettes among present smokers was 18.4 pieces, and the former smokers smoked the average of 19 pieces daily. Present smokers smoke 8 years longer, i.e. 26.3 years than former smokers. Inscription placed on cigarette packages concerning the loss of health definitely influence smokers to make another attempt to stop smoking. This important concerns the appearance of lung cancer, the differences were statistically significant between former and present smokers (p < 0.03), women are afraid of lung cancer twice more often than men (p<0.02), also women more often were afraid of cardiovascular system diseases (chi2 = 2.013, p < 0.03) and painful death (chi2 = 7.729, p < 0.006). Over 80% of smokers declared that the raise of the price of cigarette package has a significant influence on further attempt to stop smoking. Among the subjects 20% declared that ad spots on TV positively influence giving up smoking. Other factors such as: chewing gum (only 11.1% willing to try again), tablets (only 8.9%), appearing cough (2.2%), unpleasant tobacco smell (2.2%), the loss of taste (0.0%), the improvement of life comfort (4.4%) at minimum extent motivated smokers to stop smoking. Unsuccessful attempt of giving up smoking should not

  15. To quit or not: Vulnerability of women to smoking tobacco.

    PubMed

    Park, Se-Jung; Yi, Bitna; Lee, Ho-Sun; Oh, Woo-Yeon; Na, Hyun-Kyung; Lee, Minjeong; Yang, Mihi

    2016-01-01

    Tobacco smoking is currently on the rise among women, and can pose a greater health risk. In order to understand the nature of the increase in smoking prevalence among women, we focused on the vulnerability of women to smoking behaviors-smoking cessation or tobacco addiction-and performed a systematic review of the socioeconomic and intrinsic factors as well as tobacco ingredients that affect women's susceptibility to smoking tobacco. We observed that nicotine and other tobacco components including cocoa-relatives, licorice products, and menthol aggravate tobacco addiction in women rather than in men. Various genetic and epigenetic alterations in dopamine pathway and the pharmaco-kinetics and -dynamic factors of nicotine also showed potential evidences for high susceptibility to tobacco addiction in women. Therefore, we suggest systemic approaches to prevent tobacco smoking-related health risks, considering gene-environment-gender interaction. PMID:26669465

  16. Biological responses in rats exposed to mainstream smoke from a heated cigarette compared to a conventional reference cigarette.

    PubMed

    Fujimoto, Hitoshi; Tsuji, Hiroyuki; Okubo, Chigusa; Fukuda, Ichiro; Nishino, Tomoki; Lee, K Monica; Renne, Roger; Yoshimura, Hiroyuki

    2015-03-01

    The heated cigarette (HC) generates mainstream smoke by vaporizing the components of the tobacco rod using a carbon heat source at the cigarette tip. Mainstream smoke of HC contains markedly less chemical constituents compared to combusted cigarettes. Mainstream smoke from HC was generated under Health Canada Intense regimen and its biological effects were compared to those of Reference (3R4F) cigarettes, using nose-only 5-week and 13-week inhalation studies. In the 13-week study, SD rats were necropsied following exposure to mainstream smoke from each cigarette at 200, 600 or 1000 µg wet total particulate matter/L for 1 h/day, 7 days/week or following a 13-week recovery period. Histopathological changes in the respiratory tract were significantly lesser in HC groups; e.g. respiratory epithelial hyperplasia in the nasal cavity and accumulation of pigmented macrophages in alveoli. After a 13-week recovery, the lesions were completely or partially regressed, except for accumulation of pigmented macrophages in alveoli, in both HC and 3R4F groups. In the 5-week study, SD rats were necropsied following exposure to mainstream smoke of either cigarette at 600 or 1000 µg/L for 1 h, two times/day (with 30 min interval), 7 days/week or following a 4-week recovery period. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) analysis of neutrophil percentages and enzyme levels like γ-GT, ALP and LDH indicated that pulmonary inflammation was significantly less in HC groups compared to 3R4F groups. In conclusion, HC demonstrated significantly lower biological effects compared to 3R4F, based on the BALF parameters and histopathology. PMID:25969858

  17. Comparison of True and Smoothed Puff Profile Replication on Smoking Behavior and Mainstream Smoke Emissions

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    To estimate exposures to smokers from cigarettes, smoking topography is typically measured and programmed into a smoking machine to mimic human smoking, and the resulting smoke emissions are tested for relative levels of harmful constituents. However, using only the summary puff data—with a fixed puff frequency, volume, and duration—may underestimate or overestimate actual exposure to smoke toxins. In this laboratory study, we used a topography-driven smoking machine that faithfully reproduces a human smoking session and individual human topography data (n = 24) collected during previous clinical research to investigate if replicating the true puff profile (TP) versus the mathematically derived smoothed puff profile (SM) resulted in differences in particle size distributions and selected toxic/carcinogenic organic compounds from mainstream smoke emissions. Particle size distributions were measured using an electrical low pressure impactor, the masses of the size-fractionated fine and ultrafine particles were determined gravimetrically, and the collected particulate was analyzed for selected particle-bound, semivolatile compounds. Volatile compounds were measured in real time using a proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometer. By and large, TP levels for the fine and ultrafine particulate masses as well as particle-bound organic compounds were slightly lower than the SM concentrations. The volatile compounds, by contrast, showed no clear trend. Differences in emissions due to the use of the TP and SM profiles are generally not large enough to warrant abandoning the procedures used to generate the simpler smoothed profile in favor of the true profile. PMID:25536227

  18. Environmental Tobacco Smoke: Measuring Exposures and Assessing Health Effects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC.

    This book evaluates methodologies in epidemiologic and related studies for obtaining measurements of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). The book is divided into three parts. The first part discusses physicochemical and toxicological studies of environmental tobacco smoke, including physicochemical nature of smoke and in vivo and in…

  19. Waterpipe Tobacco and Cigarette Smoking Among University Students in Jordan

    PubMed Central

    Khabour, Omar F.; Alzoubi, Karem H.; Eissenberg, Thomas; Mehrotra, Purnima; Azab, Mohammed; Carroll, Mary; Afifi, Rema A.; Primack, Brian A.

    2013-01-01

    Setting While waterpipe and cigarette smoking are well studied in Syria and Lebanon, data from Jordan are sparse. Objectives To characterize the relative prevalence of waterpipe tobacco and cigarette smoking among university students in Jordan, and to compare the demographic and environmental factors associated with each form of tobacco use. Design We surveyed 1845 students randomly recruited from four universities in Jordan. We used multivariable logistic regression controlling for clustering of individuals within universities to determine associations between demographic and environmental covariates and waterpipe tobacco and cigarette use. Results Waterpipe tobacco smoking rates were 30% in the past 30 days and 56% ever, and cigarette smoking rates were 29% in the past 30 days and 57% ever. Past 30-day waterpipe tobacco smoking rates were 59% for males and 13% for females. Compared with males, females had substantially lower odds of being current waterpipe (OR=0.12, 95% CI=0.10–0.15) or cigarette (OR=0.08, 95% CI=0.05–0.14) smokers. Compared with waterpipe tobacco smoking, current cigarette smoking was more significantly associated with markers of high socioeconomic status. Conclusion Waterpipe tobacco smoking is as common as cigarette smoking among Jordanian university students. While cigarette smoking is consistently associated with high socioeconomic status, waterpipe tobacco smoking is more evenly distributed across various populations. PMID:22525279

  20. A study on particles and some microbial markers in waterpipe tobacco smoke.

    PubMed

    Markowicz, P; Löndahl, J; Wierzbicka, A; Suleiman, R; Shihadeh, A; Larsson, L

    2014-11-15

    Waterpipe smoking is becoming increasingly popular worldwide. Research has shown that cigarette smoke, in addition to hundreds of carcinogenic and otherwise toxic compounds, may also contain compounds of microbiological origin. In the present study we analyzed waterpipe smoke for some microbial compounds. Both of the two markers studied, viz 3-hydroxy fatty acids of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and ergosterol of fungal biomass, were found in waterpipe tobacco, in amounts similar as previously found in cigarette tobacco, and in smoke. Waterpipe mainstream smoke contained on average 1800 pmol LPS and 84.4 ng ergosterol produced per session. An average concentration of 2.8 pmol/m(3) of LPS was found in second hand smoke during a 1-2-h waterpipe smoking session while ergosterol was not detected; corresponding concentrations from smoking five cigarettes were 22.2 pmol/m(3) of LPS and 87.5 ng/m(3) of ergosterol. This is the first time that waterpipe smoking has been shown to create a bioaerosol. In the present study we also found that waterpipe smoking generated several polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, and high fraction of small (<200 nm) particles that may have adverse effects on human health upon inhalation. PMID:25181042

  1. A study on particles and some microbial markers in waterpipe tobacco smoke

    PubMed Central

    Markowicz, P.; Löndahl, J.; Wierzbicka, A.; Salman, R.; Shihadeh, A.; Larsson, L.

    2014-01-01

    Waterpipe smoking is becoming increasingly popular worldwide. Research has shown that cigarette smoke, in addition to hundreds of carcinogenic and otherwise toxic compounds, may also contain compounds of microbiological origin. In the present study we analyzed waterpipe smoke for some microbial compounds. Both of the two markers studied, viz 3-hydroxy fatty acids of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and ergosterol of fungal biomass, were found in waterpipe tobacco, in amounts similar as previously found in cigarette tobacco, and in smoke. Waterpipe mainstream smoke contained on average 1800 pmol LPS and 84.4 ng ergosterol produced per session. An average concentration of 2.8 pmol/m3 of LPS was found in second hand smoke during a 1-2-h waterpipe smoking session while ergosterol was not detected; corresponding concentrations from smoking five cigarettes were 22.2 pmol/m3 of LPS and 87.5 ng/m3 of ergosterol. This is the first time that waterpipe smoking has been shown to create a bioaerosol. In the present study we also found that waterpipe smoking generated several polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, and high fraction of small (<200 nm) particles that may have adverse effects on human health upon inhalation. PMID:25181042

  2. Mitigating residential exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klepeis, Neil E.; Nazaroff, William W.

    In a companion paper, we used a simulation model to explore secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS) exposures for typical conditions in residences. In the current paper, we extend this analysis to evaluate the effectiveness of physical mitigation approaches in reducing nonsmokers' exposure to airborne SHS particulate matter in a hypothetical 6-zone house. Measures investigated included closing doors or opening windows in response to smoking activity, modifying location patterns to segregate the nonsmoker and the active smoker, and operating particle filtration devices. We first performed 24 scripted simulation trials using hypothetical patterns of occupant location. We then performed cohort simulation trials across 25 mitigation scenarios using over 1000 pairs of nonsmoker and smoker time-location patterns that were selected from a survey of human activity patterns in US homes. We limited cohort pairs to cases where more than 10 cigarettes were smoked indoors at home each day and the nonsmoker was at home for more than two thirds of the day. We evaluated the effectiveness of each mitigation approach by examining its impact on the simulated frequency distribution of residential SHS particle exposure. The two most effective strategies were the isolation of the smoker in a closed room with an open window, and a ban on smoking whenever the nonsmoker was at home. The use of open windows to supply local or cross ventilation, or the operation of portable filtration devices in smoking rooms, provided moderate exposure reductions. Closed doors, by themselves, were not effective.

  3. Tobacco smoking and chronic destructive periodontal disease.

    PubMed

    Bergström, Jan

    2004-09-01

    Tobacco smoking is the main risk factor associated with chronic destructive periodontal disease. No other known factor can match the strength of smoking in causing harm to the periodontium. The harmful effects manifest themselves by interfering with vascular and immunologic reactions, as well as by undermining the supportive functions of the periodontal tissues. The typical characteristic of smoking-associated periodontal disease is the destruction of the supporting tissues of the teeth, with the ensuing clinical symptoms of bone loss, attachment loss, pocket formation, and eventually tooth loss. A review of the international literature that has accumulated over the past 20 years offers convincing evidence that smokers exhibit greater bone loss and attachment loss, as well as more pronounced frequencies of periodontal pockets, than non-smokers do. In addition, tooth loss is more extensive in smokers. Smoking, thus, considerably increases the risk for destructive periodontal disease. Depending on the definition of disease and the exposure to smoking, the risk is 5- to 20-fold elevated for a smoker compared to a never-smoker. For a smoker exposed to heavy long-life smoking, the risk of attracting destructive periodontal disease is equivalent to that of attracting lung cancer. The outcome of periodontal treatment is less favorable or even unfavorable in smokers. Although long-term studies are rare, available studies unanimously agree that treatment failures and relapse of disease are predominantly seen in smokers. This contention is valid irrespective of treatment modality, suggesting that smoking will interfere with an expected normal outcome following commonplace periodontal therapies. The majority of available studies agree that the subgingival microflora of smokers and non-smokers are no different given other conditions. As a consequence, the elevated morbidity in smokers does not depend on particular microflora. The mechanisms behind the destructive effects of

  4. Tobacco smoke and the pulmonary alveolar macrophage.

    PubMed

    Drath, D B; Davies, P; Karnovsky, M L; Huber, G L

    1979-01-01

    Our results indicate that tobacco smoke exposure to varying duration causes morphological, biochemical and functional alterations in pulmonary alveolar macrophages. The results of these changes is a population of alveolar macrophages made up of larger cells, with a reduced nucleus-cytoplasmic ratio, which are heavily loaded with heterolysosomes containing lipid. Though their fractional complement of mitochondria remains the same, an increase in the inner mitochondrial membrane surface area may be related to an enhanced oxidative metabolism. The cell is biochemically activated particularly following chronic exposure and is functionally impaired with respect to phagocytosis. PMID:232822

  5. Minerals, Tobacco and Smoking-Related Disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephens, W. E.

    2003-12-01

    As much as 8% (by dry weight) of commercial tobacco is mineral, and the view that minerals are inert, playing no more than a passive role in smoking-related disease, is challenged. An inventory of minerals in tobacco is presented and an interpretation of their sources given. Using elemental abundances the relative contributions of natural and anthropogenic sources to the commercial product is quantitatively modelled relative to average crustal abundances. A framework is presented for investigating the potential ways in which minerals with, or acquire, toxic properties behave in the smoking environment. In order to represent a potential hazard any mineral (or mineral reaction product) with suspected toxic properties must partition into smoke and be respirable. For inhalation a significant proportion of the particles must be smaller than 10 microns. Three categories of potential hazard are recognised: 1. Minerals with intrinsic toxic properties. Quartz can amount to 1% or more in some cigarettes and is defined as a human carcinogen by the IARC. It is not likely to represent a hazard as its grain size is probably too coarse to be respirable. However talc, also a Type 1 carcinogen when it is contaminated with asbestos, is a common constituent of cigarette paper and may be of respirable size. Some other minerals also fall into this category. 2. Minerals that generate toxic products on combustion. Examples are the biominerals calcium oxalate monohydrate (whewellite) and dihydrate (weddellite), which amount to about 5 wt% of popular UK brands. These minerals decompose at tobacco combustion temperatures yielding large quantities of carbon monoxide. A substantial fraction of the CO budget of UK cigarettes may derive from this source. 3. Minerals that acquire toxic properties on combustion. Little is known about free radical generation on mineral surfaces during tobacco combustion, but the devolatilisation of calcic phases (carbonates and oxalates) creates oxide particles

  6. Modeling residential exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klepeis, Neil E.; Nazaroff, William W.

    We apply a simulation model to explore the effect of a house's multicompartment character on a nonsmoker's inhalation exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS). The model tracks the minute-by-minute movement of people and pollutants among multiple zones of a residence and generates SHS pollutant profiles for each room in response to room-specific smoking patterns. In applying the model, we consider SHS emissions of airborne particles, nicotine, and carbon monoxide in two hypothetical houses, one with a typical four-room layout and one dominated by a single large space. We use scripted patterns of room-to-room occupant movement and a cohort of 5000 activity patterns sampled from a US nationwide survey. The results for scripted and cohort simulation trials indicate that the multicompartment nature of homes, manifested as inter-room differences in pollutant levels and the movement of people among zones, can cause substantial variation in nonsmoker SHS exposure.

  7. Smoking and Tobacco Use: How to Quit

    MedlinePlus

    ... Tobacco-Related Disparities African Americans and Tobacco Use American Indians/Alaska Natives and Tobacco Use Asian Americans, Pacific ... YTS) Alaska Native Adult Tobacco Survey Guidance Manual American Indian Adult Tobacco Survey Implementation Manual Hispanic/Latino ATS ...

  8. Determination of tobacco smoking influence on volatile organic compounds constituent by indoor tobacco smoking simulation experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Juexin; Wang, Xingming; Sheng, Guoying; Bi, Xinhui; Fu, Jiamo

    Tobacco smoking simulation experiment was conducted in a test room under different conditions such as cigarette brands, smoking number, and post-smoke decay in forced ventilation or in closed indoor environments. Thirty-seven chemical species were targeted and monitored, including volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) markers. The results indicate that benzene, d-limonene, styrene, m-ethyltoluene and 1,2,4/1,3,5-trimethylbenzene are correlated well with ETS markers, but toluene, xylene, and ethylbenzene are not evidently correlated with ETS markers because there are some potential indoor sources of these compounds. 2,5-dimethylfuran is considered to be a better ETS marker due to the relative stability in different cigarette brands and a good relationship with other ETS markers. The VOCs concentrations emitted by tobacco smoking were linearly associated with the number of cigarettes consumed, and different behaviors were observed in closed indoor environment, of which ETS markers, d-limonene, styrene, trimethylbenzene, etc. decayed fast, whereas benzene, toluene, xylene, ethylbenzene, etc. decayed slowly and even increased in primary periods of the decay; hence ETS exposure in closed environments is believed to be more dangerous. VOCs concentrations and the relative percentage constituent of ETS markers of different brand cigarettes emissions vary largely, but the relative percentage constituent of ETS markers for the same brand cigarette emissions is similar.

  9. Method for the Determination of Ammonia in Mainstream Cigarette Smoke Using Ion Chromatography.

    PubMed

    Watson, Christina Vaughan; Feng, June; Valentin-Blasini, Liza; Stanelle, Rayman; Watson, Clifford H

    2016-01-01

    Ammonia in mainstream smoke is present in both the particulate and vapor phases. The presence of ammonia in the cigarette filler material and smoke is of significance because of the potential role ammonia could have in raising the "smoke pH." An increased smoke pH could shift a fraction of total nicotine to free-base nicotine, which is reportedly more rapidly absorbed by the smoker. Methods measuring ammonia in smoke typically employ acid filled impingers to trap the smoke. We developed a fast, reliable method to measure ammonia in mainstream smoke without the use of costly and time consuming impingers to examine differences in ammonia delivery. The method uses both a Cambridge filter pad and a Tedlar bag to capture particulate and vapor phases of the smoke. We quantified ammonia levels in the mainstream smoke of 50 cigarette brands from 5 manufacturers. Ammonia levels ranged from approximately 1μg to 23μg per cigarette for ISO smoking conditions and 38μg to 67μg per cigarette for Canadian intense smoking conditions and statistically significance differences were observed between brands and manufacturers. Our findings suggest that ammonia levels vary by brand and are higher under Canadian intense smoking conditions. PMID:27415766

  10. Method for the Determination of Ammonia in Mainstream Cigarette Smoke Using Ion Chromatography

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Christina Vaughan; Feng, June; Valentin-Blasini, Liza; Stanelle, Rayman; Watson, Clifford H.

    2016-01-01

    Ammonia in mainstream smoke is present in both the particulate and vapor phases. The presence of ammonia in the cigarette filler material and smoke is of significance because of the potential role ammonia could have in raising the “smoke pH.” An increased smoke pH could shift a fraction of total nicotine to free-base nicotine, which is reportedly more rapidly absorbed by the smoker. Methods measuring ammonia in smoke typically employ acid filled impingers to trap the smoke. We developed a fast, reliable method to measure ammonia in mainstream smoke without the use of costly and time consuming impingers to examine differences in ammonia delivery. The method uses both a Cambridge filter pad and a Tedlar bag to capture particulate and vapor phases of the smoke. We quantified ammonia levels in the mainstream smoke of 50 cigarette brands from 5 manufacturers. Ammonia levels ranged from approximately 1μg to 23μg per cigarette for ISO smoking conditions and 38μg to 67μg per cigarette for Canadian intense smoking conditions and statistically significance differences were observed between brands and manufacturers. Our findings suggest that ammonia levels vary by brand and are higher under Canadian intense smoking conditions. PMID:27415766

  11. Tobacco Industry Youth Smoking Prevention Programs: Protecting the Industry and Hurting Tobacco Control

    PubMed Central

    Landman, Anne; Ling, Pamela M.; Glantz, Stanton A.

    2002-01-01

    Objectives. This report describes the history, true goals, and effects of tobacco industry–sponsored youth smoking prevention programs. Methods. We analyzed previously-secret tobacco industry documents. Results. The industry started these programs in the 1980s to forestall legislation that would restrict industry activities. Industry programs portray smoking as an adult choice and fail to discuss how tobacco advertising promotes smoking or the health dangers of smoking. The industry has used these programs to fight taxes, clean-indoor-air laws, and marketing restrictions worldwide. There is no evidence that these programs decrease smoking among youths. Conclusions. Tobacco industry youth programs do more harm than good for tobacco control. The tobacco industry should not be allowed to run or directly fund youth smoking prevention programs. PMID:12036777

  12. "Imagine All that Smoke in Their Lungs": Parents' Perceptions of Young Children's Tolerance of Tobacco Smoke

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Jude; Kirkcaldy, Andrew J.

    2009-01-01

    Despite knowing the risks to their children's health, parents continue to expose their children to tobacco smoke prior to and after their birth. This study explores the factors influencing parent's behaviour in preventing the exposure of their (unborn) children to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and any changes to their smoking behaviour in the…

  13. Genotoxic assessment of environmental tobacco smoke using bacterial bioassays

    SciTech Connect

    Claxton, L.D.; Morin, R.S.; Hughes, T.J.; Lewtas, J.

    1989-01-01

    The paper demonstrates that integrated chemical and bacterial mutagenicity information can be used to identify environmental tobacco smoke genotoxicants, monitor human exposure, and make comparative assessments. Approximately one-third of the environmental tobacco-smoke constituents for which there is quantitative analytical-chemistry information also have associated genotoxicity information. For example, 11 of the quantitated compounds are animal carcinogens. Work presented in this paper demonstrates that both the nonparticle-bound semi-volatile and the particulate-bound organic material contain bacterial mutagens. These environmental tobacco-smoke organics give an equivalent of about 86,000 revertants per cigarette. In addition, this article summarizes efforts to estimate environmental tobacco smoke bacterial mutagenicity, to use bacterial tests for the monitoring of environmental tobacco smoke-impacted indoor environments, and to use bacterial assays for the direct monitoring of human exposure.

  14. Association of Campus Tobacco Policies With Secondhand Smoke Exposure, Intention to Smoke on Campus, and Attitudes About Outdoor Smoking Restrictions

    PubMed Central

    Fallin, Amanda; Roditis, Maria

    2015-01-01

    College campus tobacco-free policies are an emerging trend. Between September 2013 and May 2014, we surveyed 1309 college students at 8 public 4-year institutions across California with a range of policies (smoke-free indoors only, designated outdoor smoking areas, smoke-free, and tobacco-free). Stronger policies were associated with fewer students reporting exposure to secondhand smoke or seeing someone smoke on campus. On tobacco-free college campuses, fewer students smoked and reported intention to smoke on campus. Strong majorities of students supported outdoor smoking restrictions across all policy types. Comprehensive tobacco-free policies are effective in reducing exposure to smoking and intention to smoke on campus. PMID:25521901

  15. Benzene, benzo(a)pyrene, and lead in smoke from tobacco products other than cigarettes.

    PubMed Central

    Appel, B R; Guirguis, G; Kim, I S; Garbin, O; Fracchia, M; Flessel, C P; Kizer, K W; Book, S A; Warriner, T E

    1990-01-01

    Benzene, benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), and lead in mainstream smoke from cigars, roll-your-own (RYO) cigarette and pipe tobaccos were sampled to evaluate their potential health significance. Results with reference cigarettes were consistent with published values, providing support for the methodology employed. The emissions of benzene and BaP, expressed as mass emitted per gram of tobacco consumed, were similar for all products evaluated; for benzene, the mean values for cigars, RYO cigarette and pipe tobaccos were 156 +/- 52, 68 +/- 11, and 242 +/- 126 micrograms/g, respectively. Mean values for BaP were 42 +/- 7 and 48 +/- 4 ng/g for cigars and RYO cigarette tobacco, respectively. Lead values were below the limit of reliable quantitation in all cases. The mean benzene concentrations in a puff ranged from 1 to 2 x 10(5) micrograms/m3 for cigars, RYO cigarette and pipe tobaccos. For BaP, the puff concentration averaged about 60 micrograms/m3 for cigars and RYO cigarette tobacco. The results suggest that smoking cigars, pipes or RYO cigarettes leads to potential exposures which exceed the No Significant Risk levels of benzene and BaP set pursuant to California's Proposition 65. These tobacco products are now required to bear a health hazard warning when sold in California. We recommend that this be adopted as national policy. PMID:2327532

  16. Environmental tobacco smoke: Sensory reactions of occupants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cain, William S.; Tosun, Tarik; See, Lai-Chu; Leaderer, Brian

    Occupants sat in a thermally-neutral environmental chamber for 2 h at a time and rated the following sensory attributes: magnitude of eye irritation and its acceptability, throat irritation and its acceptability, nose irritation and its acceptability, odor and its acceptability, and overall acceptability. Without the knowledge of the judges, cigarette smoking began at one or another time during occupancy. Smoking rate was tailored to achieve environmentally realistic levels of carbon monoxide, 2 ppm or 5 ppm above ambient background. Although the 2-ppm condition caused significant irritation above baseline, dissatisfaction among the occupants averaged only about 10%. The 5-ppm condition caused steadily increasing irritation and dissatisfaction in excess of 20% over time. Electrostatic precipitation of the paniculate matter diminished the magnitude of irritation and odor consistently, though not dramatically. It had a less consistent effect on dissatisfaction. Blockage of the nose via a noseclip in order to eliminate odor cues had no effect on eye irritation and implied that previous assessments of eye irritation in the presence of the possible biasing cue of odor can be trusted. The degree of dissatisfaction aroused from environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) correlates very strongly with perceived intensity of irritation or odor, with overall dissatisfaction deriving almost exclusively from whichever channel (eyes, throat, etc.) is most severely affected.

  17. Effects of tobacco smoking on HIV-infected individuals.

    PubMed

    Calvo, Marta; Laguno, Montserrat; Martínez, María; Martínez, Esteban

    2015-01-01

    A longer life expectancy and a high prevalence of tobacco smoking among HIV patients have led to an increasing cumulative exposure to tobacco in this community. Clinical recommendations for smoking cessation in HIV patients are mainly based on the body of evidence from the general population plus few available data from HIV cohort studies. The assumption that the pathophysiology of tobacco-related diseases in HIV-infected patients is similar to that in the general population may be questionable. This article reviews the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying health problems attributable to tobacco in HIV patients, and how these mechanisms may interact with those of HIV infection. Tobacco smoking exerts a greater health impact on HIV-infected patients than on uninfected smokers. Components of tobacco smoke and HIV infection induce complex interrelated pathophysiological changes through different pathways, affecting various organ systems with a cumulative or synergistic effect. This review supports the contention that HIV infection may confer an increased susceptibility to the harmful effects of smoking. Tobacco-related harm in the setting of HIV infection is still underestimated. A better understanding of the pathophysiological interaction between tobacco smoking and HIV will help to promote smoking cessation in this specific population. PMID:25427101

  18. Longitudinal effects of pro-tobacco and anti-tobacco messages on adolescent smoking susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Jie Wu; Cen, Steven; Schuster, Darleen V; Unger, Jennifer B; Johnson, C Anderson; Mouttapa, Michele; Schreiner, William S; Cruz, Tess Boley

    2006-06-01

    We examined the longitudinal impact of self-reported exposure to pro- and anti-tobacco media on adolescents' susceptibility to smoking, using in-school surveys from a culturally diverse sample. Ethnicity and acculturation also were examined as potential moderators. Middle-school students (N = 2,292) completed self-report questionnaires during the 6th, 7th, and 8th grades. Chi-square analyses were conducted to determine whether reported exposure to pro- and anti-tobacco media varied according to ethnicity, acculturation, and immigration status. Logistic regression models were used to examine whether pro- and anti-tobacco media exposure in 6th grade was associated with susceptibility to smoking by later grades. Recall of people smoking in television programs and pro-tobacco advertisements in stores was associated with adolescent smoking susceptibility. Exposure to anti-tobacco advertisements on television protected against susceptibility. No significant interaction effects between pro- and anti-tobacco media exposure on smoking susceptibility were found. Ethnicity and acculturation did not moderate these associations. Our longitudinal study provides evidence that pro-tobacco media and advertising increases susceptibility to smoking over time. More important, anti-tobacco advertisements are not sufficient to reduce the harmful effects of adolescent exposure to pro-tobacco media. Policy-level interventions such as restrictions in tobacco advertising may be necessary to prevent adolescent smoking. PMID:16801303

  19. Mainstream and sidestream cigarette smoke condensates suppress macrophage responsiveness to interferon gamma.

    PubMed

    Edwards, K; Braun, K M; Evans, G; Sureka, A O; Fan, S

    1999-04-01

    Sidestream smoke evolves from the smoldering end of a cigarette while the smoker is not puffing, and contributes substantially to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). In contrast, main stream smoke emerges from the butt end of the cigarette and is mainly inhaled by the smoker. This study was performed to compare the effects of short-term exposure to cigarette smoke condensates prepared from sidestream (CSC-SS) and mainstream cigarette smoke (CSC-MS) on macrophage basal metabolism and responsiveness to two different stimuli, bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and interferon gamma (IFNgamma). Despite their generation at different temperatures and their different chemical composition, CSC - SS and CSC - MS had similar effects on macrophages. Both enhanced macrophage basal metabolism and responsiveness to LPS. Macrophage responsiveness to IFNgamma, assessed by their expression of four functional capacities, was suppressed by both CSC-SS and CSC-MS. The four assessed IFNgamma-inducible functional capacities were: enhanced phagocytosis of immuoglobulin-opsonized sheep red blood cells, TPA-induced peroxide production, class II major histocompatibility complex expression, and nitric oxide synthesis with LPS co-stimulation. The effects of CSC - SS and CSC - MS were similar qualitatively; they differ quantitatively in some cases, with CSC-MS generally effective at lower concentrations (expressed as cigarette-equivalents) than CSC-SS. Considering dilution of sidestream smoke in room air and loss during passage through the respiratory system, we expect to deliver the maximal dose to lung macrophages in situ only in rooms dense with smokers. However, only a fraction of the maximal dose can partially suppress induction of some functions, such as nitric oxide production and MHC expression. Macrophages play critical roles in tissue modeling during development. Of particular concern are neonates, whose organs are still undergoing growth and development, and are therefore susceptible

  20. Are Tobacco Control Policies Effective in Reducing Young Adult Smoking?

    PubMed Central

    Farrelly, Matthew C.; Loomis, Brett R.; Kuiper, Nicole; Han, Beth; Gfroerer, Joseph; Caraballo, Ralph S.; Pechacek, Terry F.; Couzens, G. Lance

    2015-01-01

    Purpose We examined the influence of tobacco control program funding, smoke-free air laws, and cigarette prices on young adult smoking outcomes. Methods We use a natural experimental design approach that uses the variation in tobacco control policies across states and over time to understand their influence on tobacco outcomes. We combine individual outcome data with annual state-level policy data to conduct multivariable logistic regression models, controlling for an extensive set of sociodemographic factors. The participants are 18- to 25-year-olds from the 2002–2009 National Surveys on Drug Use and Health. The three main outcomes are past-year smoking initiation, and current and established smoking. A current smoker was one who had smoked on at least 1 day in the past 30 days. An established smoker was one who had smoked 1 or more cigarettes in the past 30 days and smoked at least 100 cigarettes in his or her lifetime. Results Higher levels of tobacco control program funding and greater smoke-free-air law coverage were both associated with declines in current and established smoking (p < .01). Greater coverage of smoke-free air laws was associated with lower past year initiation with marginal significance (p = .058). Higher cigarette prices were not associated with smoking outcomes. Had smoke-free-air law coverage and cumulative tobacco control funding remained at 2002 levels, current and established smoking would have been 5%–7% higher in 2009. Conclusions Smoke-free air laws and state tobacco control programs are effective strategies for curbing young adult smoking. PMID:24268360

  1. Guidelines for Controlling Environmental Tobacco Smoke in Schools. Technical Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Ronald W.; And Others

    Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is one of the most widespread and harmful indoor pollutants. This document offers guidelines for controlling ETS in schools. The harmful effects of passive smoke and the Maryland policy regarding smoking in public places are first described. Strategies to control exposure to ETS are outlined, with consideration of…

  2. [Tobacco smoking prevalence among students from Euro region Eastern Carpathians].

    PubMed

    Zadarko, Emilian; Penar-Zadarko, Beata; Barabasz, Zbigniew

    2010-01-01

    Publisher in February 2008 WHO M-POWER report indicates that every year on the world tobacco epidemics kills 5.4 million of people and the analysis of tobacco smoking prevalence change shows great differences between European countries. It is estimated that in Poland 29% of adult people smokes, and 24% in Slovakia. However tobacco smoking among academic youth is still a big problem. The aim of the study was an attempt to estimate tobacco smoking prevalence among students from Poland and Slovakia. The study was conducted with the framework of science project: "Physical activity for the whole life". The aim of the project are multidirectional activities addressed to Polish-Slovakian students to create a system of taking care about health based on health education among students, selected modifying cardiovascular risk factors monitoring, as well as creating Internet portal to serve those goals. Project was co-fund by European Union from European Regional Development Fund - ERDF, as well as from the government budget by Euro Region Carpathians with the framework of Cross-border Co-operation Programme Republic of Poland - Slovakia Republic 2007-2013. Analysis considered 4584 group of students from University of Rzeszow and University of Presov, Technical University in Rzeszow and State Higher Vocational School in Krosno. The study was conducted from November 2009 to June 2010. The participation in the study was voluntary. The study was conducted using a diagnostics survey method with questionnaire. Chi-square test was used for statistical analysis. Based on results it was claimed that the majority of the studied group of students have never smoked and do not smoke cigarettes. Place of residence was a factor influencing the fact of tobacco smoking. Slovakian students were characterized by more frequent tobacco smoking. Far more often smoke man, both in Polish and Slovakian group. Among Polish students there was a relation between subjective health state assessment and

  3. Tobacco Industry Strategies to Minimize or Mask Cigarette Smoke: Opportunities for Tobacco Product Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Rees, Vaughan W.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The tobacco industry has developed technologies to reduce the aversive qualities of cigarette smoke, including secondhand smoke (SHS). While these product design changes may lessen concerns about SHS, they may not reduce health risks associated with SHS exposure. Tobacco industry patents were reviewed to understand recent industry strategies to mask or minimize cigarette smoke from traditional cigarettes. Methods: Patent records published between 1997 and 2008 that related to cigarette smoke were conducted using key word searches. The U.S. Patent and Trademark Office web site was used to obtain patent awards, and the World Intellectual Property Organization’s Patentscope and Free Patents Online web sites were used to search international patents. Results: The search identified 106 relevant patents published by Japan Tobacco Incorporated, British America Tobacco, Philip Morris International, and other tobacco manufacturers or suppliers. The patents were classified by their intended purpose, including reduced smoke constituents or quantity of smoke emitted by cigarettes (58%, n = 62), improved smoke odor (25%, n = 26), and reduced visibility of smoke (16%, n = 18). Innovations used a variety of strategies including trapping or filtering smoke constituents, chemically converting gases, adding perfumes, or altering paper to improve combustion. Conclusions: The tobacco industry continues to research and develop strategies to reduce perceptions of cigarette smoke, including the use of additives to improve smoke odor. Surveillance and regulatory response to industry strategies to reduce perceptions of SHS should be implemented to ensure that the public health is adequately protected. PMID:22949571

  4. Assessment of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke.

    PubMed

    Jaakkola, M S; Jaakkola, J J

    1997-10-01

    We present a theoretical framework for assessment of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), and review current methods in order to provide guidelines for different types of studies. Exposure assessment should include both a quantitative dimension and consideration of time-specificity of exposure. The ultimate aim is to measure the concentrations of ETS encountered by an individual for different time periods in various microenvironments. The first step is to identify an indicator of ETS. Personal monitoring of air nicotine and respirable suspended particulates (RSPs) are the most direct assessment methods. Indirect assessment methods include stationary measurements of tobacco smoke constituents in different microenvironments and/or questionnaire-derived information, modelled with time-activity information. Biomarkers, such as nicotine and/or cotinine in body fluids or hair, can be used as surrogate measures of dose, although they are usually affected by individual processes in the body after exposure. The best approach to assess ETS exposure will depend on the aim of the study, the health outcome, and the resources. Personal monitoring of nicotine or RSPs is the best method in studies of short-term health effects with small study samples. Stationary measurements of indoor air nicotine or RSPs are suitable for overall monitoring of ETS in different microenvironments over time. Questionnaires and interviews are suitable when studying health outcomes with a long latency period and rare diseases requiring large study populations. Cotinine in body fluids and nicotine concentration in hair can be used to assess cumulative exposure over days or months, respectively. A combination of different methods is often the best approach. PMID:9387970

  5. Tobacco smoking and surgical healing of oral tissues: a review.

    PubMed

    Balaji, S M

    2008-01-01

    It is believed that the crew of Columbus had introduced tobacco from the 'American India' to the rest of the world, and tobacco was attributed as a medicinal plant. It was often used to avert hunger during long hours of work. But in reality, tobacco causes various ill effects including pre-malignant lesions and cancers. This article aims at reviewing the literature pertaining to the effect of tobacco smoking upon the outcome of various surgical procedures performed in the oral cavity. Tobacco affects postoperative wound healing following surgical and nonsurgical tooth extractions, routine maxillofacial surgeries, implants, and periodontal therapies. In an experimental study, bone regeneration after distraction osteogenesis was found to be negatively affected by smoking. Thus, tobacco, a peripheral vasoconstrictor, along with its products like nicotine increases platelet adhesiveness, raises the risk of microvascular occlusion, and causes tissue ischemia. Smoking tobacco is also associated with catecholamines release resulting in vasoconstriction and decreased tissue perfusion. Smoking is believed to suppress the innate and host immune responses, affecting the function of neutrophils--the prime line of defense against infection. Thus, the association between smoking and delayed healing of oral tissues following surgeries is evident. Dental surgeons should stress on the ill effects of tobacco upon the routine postoperative healing to smoker patients and should aid them to become tobacco-free. PMID:19075440

  6. The effect of tobacco ingredients on smoke chemistry. Part I: Flavourings and additives.

    PubMed

    Baker, Richard R; Pereira da Silva, José R; Smith, Graham

    2004-01-01

    The effects of 450 tobacco ingredients added to tobacco on the forty-four "Hoffmann analytes" in mainstream cigarette smoke have been determined. These analytes are believed by regulatory authorities in the USA and Canada to be relevant to smoking-related diseases. They are based on lists published by D. Hoffmann and co-workers of the American Health Foundation in New York. The ingredients comprised 431 flavours, 1 flavour/solvent, 1 solvent, 7 preservatives, 5 binders, 2 humectants, 2 process aids and 1 filler. The cigarettes containing mixtures of the ingredients were smoked using the standard ISO smoking machine conditions. The levels of the "Hoffmann analytes" in the smoke from the test cigarettes containing the ingredient mixture were compared to those from control cigarettes without the ingredients. In practice, flavouring ingredients are typically added to tobacco that also contains casing ingredients and reconstituted tobacco materials. In order to keep the tobacco mixtures as authentic as possible, three comparisons have been made in this study. These are: (a) control cigarette containing a typical US blended, cased tobacco incorporating reconstituted tobacco versus test cigarettes that had flavouring ingredients added to this tobacco; (b) control cigarette containing tobacco only versus test cigarettes with the tobacco cased and incorporating flavourings; (c) control cigarette containing tobacco only versus test cigarette incorporating additives made in an experimental sheet material. The significances of differences between the test and control cigarettes were determined using both the variability of the data on the specific occasion of the measurement, and also taking into account the long-term variability of the analytical measurements over the one-year period in which analyses were determined in the present study. This long-term variability was determined by measuring the levels of the 44 "Hoffmann analytes" in a reference cigarette on many occasions

  7. Are genetic variants for tobacco smoking associated with cannabis involvement?

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Arpana; Lynskey, Michael T.; Kapoor, Manav; Bucholz, Kathleen K.; Edenberg, Howard J.; Schuckit, Marc; Brooks, Andrew; Hesselbrock, Victor; Kramer, John; Saccone, Nancy; Tischfield, Jay; Bierut, Laura J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Cannabis users are highly likely to also be tobacco cigarette smokers and a proportion of this comorbidity is attributable to shared genetic influences. Three large meta-analyses of genomewide association studies (GWAS) of tobacco smoking have identified multiple genomewide significant (p<5 × 10−8) single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). We examine whether these SNPs are associated with tobacco smoking and with cannabis involvement in an independent sample. Method Eleven SNPs associated with cigarettes per day (CPD), ever versus never smoking and current smoking/smoking cessation at p < 5 ×10−8 were selected from three published meta-analyses. Association analyses were conducted with similar tobacco smoking measures in 2,716 European-American subjects from the Study of Addictions Genes and Environment (SAGE) and with lifetime and current cannabis use and DSM-IV cannabis abuse/dependence. Results Cannabis use and tobacco smoking correlated at 0.54. Rs16969968 in CHRNA5 (and its proxy, rs1051730 in CHRNA3) and rs1451240, a proxy for rs13280604 in CHRNB3, were associated with CPD after Bonferroni correction (p<.006). rs1451240 was also associated with DSM-IV cannabis abuse/dependence. Rs6265 in BDNF was associated with smoking initiation, as in the original meta-analysis and also with lifetime cannabis use. Associations with cannabis involvement were no longer significant upon adjustment for the tobacco smoking measures. Conclusions The modest associations between cannabis involvement and SNPs for tobacco smoking were not independent of the comorbidity between tobacco and cannabis involvement. Larger samples of individuals might be required to articulate the specific genetic architecture of cannabis involvement. PMID:25770649

  8. New insights into the formation of volatile compounds in mainstream cigarette smoke

    PubMed Central

    Feng, S.; van Heemst, J.; McAdam, K. G.

    2010-01-01

    A sampling system has been set up to monitor a group of volatile smoke analytes (nitric oxide, acetaldehyde, acetone, benzene, toluene, 1,3 butadiene, isoprene and carbon dioxide) from mainstream cigarette smoke on a puff-resolved basis. The system was able to record gas evolution profiles during puffing and interpuff periods without interruption (e.g. taking clearing puffs). Gas phase smoke analytes were sampled as close to the mouth end of the cigarette filter as possible in order to minimise any dead volume effect. The results revealed that, for some volatile species, a significant fraction (e.g. up to 30% for benzene) in the cigarette mainstream smoke had been generated during the preceding smoulder period. These species were trapped or absorbed within the cigarette rod and then subsequently eluted during the puff. The identification of the two sources of the mainstream smoke, a smouldering source and a puffing source, has not been reported before. The observation contributes to the fundamental knowledge of the cigarette smoke formation and may have implications on wider smoke chemistry and associated effects. Figure A cross-sectional schematic of a burning cigarette, illustrating the main chemical and physical processes involved in the smoke formation PMID:20101495

  9. Prevalence of tobacco smoking among school teachers in Botswana

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Tobacco is a leading cause of death worldwide, and nearly 80% of all smokers live in low to middle income countries. Previous research has suggested that smoking rates vary by occupation, with relatively low rates commonly seen among educators. Despite this fact, little is known about the smoking habits of teachers in Botswana. The objective of this study, therefore, was to investigate prevalence and correlates of tobacco use among school teachers in Botswana. Results The prevalence of smoking among school teachers in Botswana was found to be relatively low. Of the 1732 participants in the study, only 3.2% reported being current smokers, 5.3% were ex-smokers and 91.5% had never smoked. Smoking was more common among male teachers when compared to females, being 10.8% and 0.4%, respectively. Factors such as school level, marital status and body mass index were found to be positively associated with tobacco smoking, whereas age, length of employment and weekly working hours were not. Conclusion This study suggests that Botswana school teachers have a low prevalence of tobacco smoking. While this result may be attributed to tobacco control measures that have been put in place, there is still need to put in place systems to monitor compliance and programs to help those who want to quit smoking. Such protocols would represent a major step forward in further reducing the prevalence of smoking in the education profession. PMID:24283758

  10. High-dose but not low-dose mainstream cigarette smoke suppresses allergic airway inflammation by inhibiting T cell function

    PubMed Central

    Thatcher, Thomas H.; Benson, Randi P.; Phipps, Richard P.; Sime, Patricia J.

    2008-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have identified childhood exposure to environmental tobacco smoke as a significant risk factor for the onset and exacerbation of asthma, but studies of smoking in adults are less conclusive, and mainstream cigarette smoke (MCS) has been reported to both enhance and attenuate allergic airway inflammation in animal models. We sensitized mice to ovalbumin (OVA) and exposed them to MCS in a well-characterized exposure system. Exposure to MCS (600 mg/m3 total suspended particulates, TSP) for 1 h/day suppresses the allergic airway response, with reductions in eosinophilia, tissue inflammation, goblet cell metaplasia, IL-4 and IL-5 in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid, and OVA-specific antibodies. Suppression is associated with a loss of antigen-specific proliferation and cytokine production by T cells. However, exposure to a lower dose of MCS (77 mg/m3 TSP) had no effect on the number of BAL eosinophils or OVA-specific antibodies. This is the first report to demonstrate, using identical smoking methodologies, that MCS inhibits immune responses in a dose-dependent manner and may explain the observation that, although smoking provokes a systemic inflammatory response, it also inhibits T cell-mediated responses involved in a number of diseases. PMID:18567739

  11. Associations between Hookah Tobacco Smoking Knowledge and Hookah Smoking Behavior among US College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nuzzo, Erin; Shensa, Ariel; Kim, Kevin H.; Fine, Michael J.; Barnett, Tracey E.; Cook, Robert; Primack, Brian A.

    2013-01-01

    Hookah tobacco smoking is increasing among US college students, including those who would not otherwise use tobacco. Part of hookah's appeal is attributed to the perception that hookah is less harmful than cigarettes. The aims of this study were to assess knowledge of harmful exposures associated with hookah smoking relative to cigarette smoking…

  12. Italy SimSmoke: the effect of tobacco control policies on smoking prevalence and smoking attributable deaths in Italy

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background While Italy has implemented some tobacco control policies over the last few decades, which resulted in a decreased smoking prevalence, there is still considerable scope to strengthen tobacco control policies consistent with the World Health Organization (WHO) policy guidelines. The present study aims to evaluate the effect of past and project the effect of future tobacco control policies on smoking prevalence and associated premature mortality in Italy. Methods To assess, individually and in combination, the effect of seven types of policies, we used the SimSmoke simulation model of tobacco control policy. The model uses population, smoking rates and tobacco control policy data for Italy. Results Significant reductions of smoking prevalence and premature mortality can be achieved through tobacco price increases, high intensity media campaigns, comprehensive cessation treatment program, strong health warnings, stricter smoke-free air regulations and advertising bans, and youth access laws. With a comprehensive approach, the smoking prevalence can be decreased by as much as 12% soon after the policies are in place, increasing to a 30% reduction in the next twenty years and a 34% reduction by 30 years in 2040. Without effective tobacco control policies, a total of almost 300 thousand lives will be prematurely lost due to smoking by the year 2040. Conclusion Besides presenting the benefits of a comprehensive tobacco control strategy, the model helps identify information gaps in surveillance and evaluation schemes that will promote the effectiveness of future tobacco control policy in Italy. PMID:22931428

  13. Local Tobacco Policy and Tobacco Outlet Density: Associations With Youth Smoking

    PubMed Central

    Grube, Joel W.; Friend, Karen B.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose This study investigates the associations between tobacco outlet density, local tobacco policy, and youth smoking. A primary focus is on whether local tobacco policy moderates the relation between outlet density and youth smoking. Methods 1,491 youth (51.9% male, M age = 14.7 years, SD =1.05) in 50 midsized California cities were surveyed through a computer-assisted telephone interview. Measures of local clean air policy and youth access policy were created based on a review of tobacco policies in these cities. Outlet density was calculated as the number of retail tobacco outlets per 10,000 persons and city characteristics were obtained from 2000 U.S. Census data. Results Using multilevel regression analyses controlling for city characteristics, tobacco outlet density was positively associated with youth smoking. No significant main effects were found for the two tobacco policy types on any of the smoking outcomes after controlling for interactions and covariates. However, statistically significant interactions were found between local clean air policy and tobacco outlet density for ever smoked and past-12-month cigarette smoking. Comparisons of simple slopes indicated that the positive associations between tobacco outlet density and youth smoking behaviors were stronger at the lowest level of local clean air policy compared to the moderate and high levels. Conclusions Our results suggest that outlet density is related to youth smoking. In addition, local clean air policy may act as a moderator of relationship between outlet density and youth smoking, such that density is less important at moderate and high levels of this tobacco policy. PMID:22626479

  14. The hazardous effects of tobacco smoking on male fertility

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Jing-Bo; Wang, Zhao-Xia; Qiao, Zhong-Dong

    2015-01-01

    The substantial harmful effects of tobacco smoking on fertility and reproduction have become apparent but are not generally appreciated. Tobacco smoke contains more than 4000 kinds of constituents, including nicotine, tar, carbonic monoxide, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and heavy metals. Because of the complexity of tobacco smoke components, the toxicological mechanism is notably complicated. Most studies have reported reduced semen quality, reproductive hormone system dysfunction and impaired spermatogenesis, sperm maturation, and spermatozoa function in smokers compared with nonsmokers. Underlying these effects, elevated oxidative stress, DNA damage, and cell apoptosis may play important roles collaboratively in the overall effect of tobacco smoking on male fertility. In this review, we strive to focus on both the phenotype of and the molecular mechanism underlying these harmful effects, although current studies regarding the mechanism remain insufficient. PMID:25851659

  15. MODELING ENVIRONMENTAL TOBACCO SMOKE IN THE HOME USING TRANSFER FUNCTIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper presents the theoretical and practical development of a multi-compartment indoor air quality model designed for predicting pollutant concentrations from environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) in the home. he model is developed using transfer functions for each compartment, ...

  16. The hazardous effects of tobacco smoking on male fertility.

    PubMed

    Dai, Jing-Bo; Wang, Zhao-Xia; Qiao, Zhong-Dong

    2015-01-01

    The substantial harmful effects of tobacco smoking on fertility and reproduction have become apparent but are not generally appreciated. Tobacco smoke contains more than 4000 kinds of constituents, including nicotine, tar, carbonic monoxide, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and heavy metals. Because of the complexity of tobacco smoke components, the toxicological mechanism is notably complicated. Most studies have reported reduced semen quality, reproductive hormone system dysfunction and impaired spermatogenesis, sperm maturation, and spermatozoa function in smokers compared with nonsmokers. Underlying these effects, elevated oxidative stress, DNA damage, and cell apoptosis may play important roles collaboratively in the overall effect of tobacco smoking on male fertility. In this review, we strive to focus on both the phenotype of and the molecular mechanism underlying these harmful effects, although current studies regarding the mechanism remain insufficient. PMID:25851659

  17. Mind your "smoking manners": the tobacco industry tactics to normalize smoking in Japan.

    PubMed

    Kashiwabara, Mina; Armada, Francisco

    2013-01-01

    The tobacco industry has adapted its promotional strategies as tobacco-control measures have increased. This paper describes the tobacco industry's strategies on smoking manners and illustrates how these interfere with tobacco-control policy in Japan where tobacco control remains weak. Information on the tobacco industry's promotional strategies in Japan was collected through direct observation, a review of tobacco industry documents and a literature review. The limitation of the study would be a lack of industry documents from Japan as we relied on a database of a U.S. institution to collect internal documents from the tobacco industry. Japan Tobacco began using the manners strategies in the early 1960s. Collaborating with wide range of actors -including local governments and companies- the tobacco industry has promoted smoking manners to wider audiences through its advertising and corporate social responsibility activities. The tobacco industry in Japan has taken advantage of the cultural value placed on manners in Japan to increase the social acceptability of smoking, eventually aiming to diminish public support for smoke-free policies that threatens the industry's business. A stronger enforcement of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control is critical to counteracting such strategies. PMID:24598274

  18. The effects of tobacco smoke and nicotine on cognition and the brain.

    PubMed

    Swan, Gary E; Lessov-Schlaggar, Christina N

    2007-09-01

    Tobacco smoke consists of thousands of compounds including nicotine. Many constituents have known toxicity to the brain, cardiovascular, and pulmonary systems. Nicotine, on the other hand, by virtue of its short-term actions on the cholinergic system, has positive effects on certain cognitive domains including working memory and executive function and may be, under certain conditions, neuroprotective. In this paper, we review recent literature, laboratory and epidemiologic, that describes the components of mainstream and sidestream tobacco smoke, including heavy metals and their toxicity, the effect of medicinal nicotine on the brain, and studies of the relationship between smoking and (1) preclinical brain changes including silent brain infarcts; white matter hyperintensities, and atrophy; (2) single measures of cognition; (3) cognitive decline over repeated measures; and (4) dementia. In most studies, exposure to smoke is associated with increased risk for negative preclinical and cognitive outcomes in younger people as well as in older adults. Potential mechanisms for smoke's harmful effects include oxidative stress, inflammation, and atherosclerotic processes. Recent evidence implicates medicinal nicotine as potentially harmful to both neurodevelopment in children and to catalyzing processes underlying neuropathology in Alzheimer's Disease. The reviewed evidence suggests caution with the use of medicinal nicotine in pregnant mothers and older adults at risk for certain neurological disease. Directions for future research in this area include the assessment of comorbidities (alcohol consumption, depression) that could confound the association between smoking and neurocognitive outcomes, the use of more specific measures of smoking behavior and cognition, the use of biomarkers to index exposure to smoke, and the assessment of cognition-related genotypes to better understand the role of interactions between smoking/nicotine and variation in genotype in determining

  19. [Smoking at workplace - Legislation and health aspect of exposure to second-hand tobacco smoke].

    PubMed

    Lipińska-Ojrzanowska, Agnieszka; Polańska, Kinga; Wiszniewska, Marta; Kleniewska, Aneta; Dörre-Kolasa, Dominika; Walusiak-Skorupa, Jolanta

    2015-01-01

    Tobacco smoke contains thousands of xenobiotics harmful to human health. Their irritant, toxic and carcinogenic potential has been well documented. Passive smoking or exposure to second-hand smoke (SHS) in public places, including workplace, poses major medical problems. Owing to this fact there is a strong need to raise workers' awareness of smoking-related hazards through educational programs and to develop and implement legislation aimed at eliminating SHS exposure. This paper presents a review of reports on passive exposure to tobacco smoke and its impact on human health and also a review of binding legal regulations regarding smoking at workplace in Poland. It has been proved that exposure to tobacco smoke during pregnancy may lead to, e.g., preterm delivery and low birth weight, sudden infant death syndrome, lung function impairment, asthma and acute respiratory illnesses in the future. Exposure to tobacco smoke, only in the adult age, is also considered as an independent risk factor of cardiovascular diseases, acute and chronic respiratory diseases and cancer. Raising public awareness of tobacco smoke harmfulness should be a top priority in the field of workers' health prevention. Occupational medicine physicians have regular contacts with occupationally active people who smoke. Thus, occupational health services have a unique opportunity to increase employees and employers' awareness of adverse health effects of smoking and their prevention. PMID:26674169

  20. Tobacco Use by Male Prisoners Under an Indoor Smoking Ban

    PubMed Central

    Ferketich, Amy K.; Murray, David M.; Bellair, Paul E.; Wewers, Mary Ellen

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Most correctional facilities have implemented tobacco restrictions in an effort to reduce costs and improve prisoner health, but little has been done to evaluate the impact of these policy changes. Patterns of tobacco use among prisoners were explored to determine the impact of incarceration in a facility with an indoor smoking ban on tobacco use behaviors. Methods: Recently incarcerated male inmates (n = 200) were surveyed about their tobacco use prior to and during incarceration. Results: Tobacco use was prevalent prior to arrest (77.5%) and increased during incarceration (81.0%). Though the number of cigarette smokers increased during imprisonment, per-capita cigarette consumption declined by 7.1 cigarettes/day (p < .001). Despite widespread tobacco use, most participants recognized that smoking is a cause of lung cancer (96.0%) and heart disease (75.4%) and that it can be addicting (97.5%). Most tobacco users (70.0%) reported a desire to quit, with 63.0% saying they intended to try quitting in the next year. Conclusions: Indoor smoking bans do not promote cessation in prisons but may reduce the amount of tobacco consumed. Though smoking is commonplace in prisons, most prisoners recognize the risks involved and wish to quit. This creates an ideal setting for intervention. Evidence-based cessation assistance should be made freely available to all incarcerated smokers. PMID:21447838

  1. [Determination of carbon-centred radicals in mainstream cigarette smoke using spin-labelled fluorophore].

    PubMed

    Bian, Zhaoyang; Tang, Gangling; Yang, Fei; Pang, Yongqiang; Zhang, Hongfei; Hu, Qingyuan

    2012-06-01

    A method of the determination of the carbon-centred radicals in mainstream cigarette smoke using a spin-labelled fluorophore, 4-((9-acridinecarbonyl) amino)-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidin-1-oxyl (TEMPO-9-AC), as a fluorescent probe is presented. After being producted by smoking in International Organization for Standardization (ISO) mode, the carbon-centred radicals in mainstream cigarette smoke were trapped by TEMPO-9-AC, a carbon-centred radical probe with a low fluorescence intensity. Then the latter was transformed to a stable diamagnetic o-alkoxyamine, a high-fluorescence compound. Finally, high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) was used to demonstrate the structures of the carbon-centred radicals, and high performance liquid chromatography with a fluorescence detector (HPLC-FLD) was used to determine the concentration of the carbon-centred radicals. The results showed that the 10 carbon-centred radicals were detected in the mainstream cigarette smoke, and the total carbon-centred radicals concentrations for 1R5F, 3R4F, CM6, and two Virginia type cigarettes, were 52.5 nmol/cig, 214.6 nmol/cig, 424.1 nmol/cig, 68.6 nmol/cig, and 334.2 nmol/cig, respectively; and there was positive relation between the concentrations of the total amount of carbon-centred radicals and the tar amounts in the mainstream cigarette smoke. The detection limit was 0.318 nmol/cig, and the relative standard deviations (RSDs) ranged from 3.5% to 9.7%. This method is suitable for the determination of the carbon-centred radicals in the mainstream cigarette smoke. PMID:23016293

  2. [Tobacco smoking and principles of the who framework convention on tobacco control: a review].

    PubMed

    Melkadze, N

    2013-02-01

    The aim of a review is to examine the current state of the relevant publications on tobacco smoking, the Guidelines on Protection from Exposure to Tobacco Smoke, and WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC), which commits countries to protect the public's health by adopting various measures to reduce demand for tobacco. Georgia ratified the treaty in February 2006. In Georgia the implementation of the WHO FCTC is regulated by the "Law on Tobacco Control" (Law). It went into effect in September 2003. Changes and additions to the Law were approved by the Parliament in December 2008 (N 941 - rs) and in December 2010 (№4059-rs). According to Article 10 of the Law, smoking is prohibited at the educational and childcare institutions, medical and pharmaceutical facilities, at the entire area of petrol, gas and gas-distribution stations, in public transport, indoor areas of work and mass gathering... In spite of the legislation rights of non-smokers are very poorly preserved. With this in mind, the Welfare Foundation, the FCTC and the Tobacco Control Alliance, organized a public discussion on enforcing smoke-free laws in Georgia, in December 2012 at Tbilisi Marriott Courtyard Hotel. In order to make public libraries, educational, cultural institutions «de jure» and «de facto» free from tobacco smoke, the campaign against tobacco, which aims to strengthen implementation of the Tobacco Control Law and Regulation should be held in public libraries - not in the hotels. It is necessary to hang a poster - «Environment free from Smoke» at the entrance to buildings where smoking is prohibited throughout. In Rules and regulations for the use of the library there must be a note: smoking is prohibited in the library. We hope that Georgia in the nearest future will be in the list of countries with smoke-free public and work places. PMID:23482366

  3. Measurement of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in narghile waterpipe tobacco smoke.

    PubMed

    Sepetdjian, Elizabeth; Shihadeh, Alan; Saliba, Najat A

    2008-05-01

    An analytical method for the determination of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the mainstream of narghile smoke is presented. The smoke was generated using a digital waterpipe smoking machine connected to the mouthpiece of a narghile that was loaded with 10 g of a popular flavored tobacco and kept alight with quick-light charcoal briquettes that are commonly used for this purpose. A standard smoking regimen consisting of 171 puffs of 530 ml volume and 2.6s duration spaced 17s apart was used, and the smoke condensates were collected on glass fiber filters. PAHs were extracted with toluene assisted by sonication. For purification, the extract was passed through a silica cartridge and eluted with hexane. The eluent was preconcentrated, reconstituted in acetonitrile, and analyzed using a GC-MS-SICP method. The method showed good selectivity, repeatability, accuracy and sensitivity. The limit of detection ranged from 15 to 96 ng for benzo[a]pyrene and indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene, respectively. It was found that a single narghile smoking session delivers approximately 50 times the quantities of carcinogenic 4- and 5-membered ring PAHs as a single 1R4F cigarette smoked using the FTC protocol. The pattern of PAH concentrations suggested that formation pathways differ from those of the cigarette, possibly reflecting the differing combustion conditions of the two smoking devices. PMID:18308445

  4. Considerations for comparative tobacco product assessments based on smoke constituent yields.

    PubMed

    Belushkin, M; Jaccard, G; Kondylis, A

    2015-10-01

    Cigarette smoke is a complex mixture of more than 8000 smoke constituents. The quantification of selected mainstream smoke constituent yields is one of the methods to evaluating and comparing the performance of different products. Numerous regulatory and scientific advisory bodies have used cigarette smoke constituent yield data for reporting and product comparison purposes. For more than a decade limitations of the indiscriminate application of traditional statistical methods such as the t-test for differences in comparative smoke constituent yield assessments lacking a specific study design, have been highlighted. In the present study, the variability of smoke constituent yields is demonstrated with data obtained under the ISO smoking regime for the Kentucky reference cigarette 3R4F and one commercial brand, analyzed on several occasions between 2007 and 2014. Specifically it is shown that statistically significant differences in the yields of selected smoke constituents do not readily translate to differences between products, and that tolerances need to be defined. To this end, two approaches have been proposed in the literature--minimal detectable differences, and the statistical equivalence. It is illustrated how both approaches provide more meaningful comparison outcomes than the statistical t-test for differences. The present study provides considerations relevant for comparative tobacco product assessments both in the scientific and regulatory contexts. PMID:26140819

  5. Water pipe tobacco smoking among university students in Jordan

    PubMed Central

    Azab, Mohammed; Khabour, Omar F.; Alkaraki, Almuthanna K.; Eissenberg, Thomas; Alzoubi, Karem H.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Although water pipe tobacco smoking is common in Lebanon and Syria, prevalence in neighboring Jordan is uncertain. The purposes of this study were (a) to assess the prevalence of water pipe tobacco smoking among university students in Jordan and (b) to determine associations between sociodemographic variables and water pipe tobacco smoking in this population. Methods: A trained interviewer administered a questionnaire among randomly selected students at four prominent universities in Jordan. The questionnaire assessed sociodemographic data, personal history of water pipe tobacco use, and attitudes regarding water pipe tobacco smoking. We used logistic regression to determine independent associations between sociodemographic and attitudinal factors and each of two dependent variables: ever use of water pipe and use at least monthly. Results: Of the 548 participants, 51.8% were male and mean age was 21.7 years. More than half (61.1%) had ever smoked tobacco from a water pipe, and use at least monthly was reported by 42.7%. Multivariable analyses controlling for all relevant factors demonstrated significant associations between ever use and only two sociodemographic factors: (a) gender (for women compared with men, odds ratio [OR] = 0.11, 95% CI = 0.07–0.17) and (b) income (for those earning 500–999 Jordanian dinar (JD) monthly vs. <250 JD monthly, OR = 2.37, 95% CI = 1.31–4.31). There were also significant associations between perception of harm and addictiveness and each outcome. Discussion: Water pipe tobacco smoking is highly prevalent in Jordan. Although use is associated with male gender and upper middle income levels, use is widespread across other sociodemographic variables. Continued surveillance and educational interventions emphasizing the harm and addictiveness of water pipe tobacco smoking may be valuable in Jordan. PMID:20418383

  6. Smoking in Ghana: a review of tobacco industry activity

    PubMed Central

    Owusu-Dabo, E; Lewis, S; McNeill, A; Anderson, S; Gilmore, A; Britton, J

    2009-01-01

    Background: African countries are a major potential market for the tobacco industry, and the smoking epidemic is at various stages of evolution across the continent. Ghana is an African country with a low prevalence of smoking despite an active tobacco industry presence for over 50 years. This study explores potential reasons for this apparent lack of industry success. Objective: To explore the history of tobacco industry activity in Ghana and to identify potential reasons for the current low prevalence of smoking. Methods: A search was made of tobacco industry archives and other local sources to obtain data relevant to marketing and consumption of tobacco in Ghana. Findings: British American Tobacco, and latterly the International Tobacco Company and its successor the Meridian Tobacco Company, have been manufacturing cigarettes in Ghana since 1954. After an initial sales boom in the two decades after independence in 1957, the sustained further increases in consumption typical of the tobacco epidemic in most countries did not occur. Possible key reasons include the taking of tobacco companies into state ownership and a lack of foreign exchange to fund tobacco leaf importation in the 1970s, both of which may have inhibited growth at a key stage of development, and the introduction of an advertising ban in 1982. BAT ceased manufacturing cigarettes in Ghana in 2006. Conclusion: The tobacco industry has been active in Ghana for over 50 years but with variable success. The combination of an early advertising ban and periods of unfavourable economic conditions, which may have restricted industry growth, are likely to have contributed to the sustained low levels of tobacco consumption in Ghana to date. PMID:19359263

  7. The Role of Home Smoking Bans in Limiting Exposure to Secondhand Tobacco Smoke in Hungary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulik, Edit; Maroti-Nagy, A.; Nagymajtenyi, L.; Rogers, T.; Easterling, D.

    2013-01-01

    Our objective was to assess how exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke occurs in Hungarian homes, particularly among non-smokers, and to examine the effectiveness of home smoking bans in eliminating exposure to secondhand smoke at home. In 2009, 2286 non-smokers and smokers aged 16-70 years, who were selected randomly from a nationally…

  8. Tobacco smoke induced COPD/emphysema in the animal model—are we all on the same page?

    PubMed Central

    Leberl, Maike; Kratzer, Adelheid; Taraseviciene-Stewart, Laimute

    2013-01-01

    Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is one of the foremost causes of death worldwide. It is primarily caused by tobacco smoke, making it an easily preventable disease, but facilitated by genetic α-1 antitrypsin deficiency. In addition to active smokers, health problems also occur in people involuntarily exposed to second hand smoke (SHS). Currently, the relationship between SHS and COPD is not well established. Knowledge of pathogenic mechanisms is limited, thereby halting the advancement of new treatments for this socially and economically detrimental disease. Here, we attempt to summarize tobacco smoke studies undertaken in animal models, applying both mainstream (direct, nose only) and side stream (indirect, whole body) smoke exposures. This overview of 155 studies compares cellular and molecular mechanisms as well as proteolytic, inflammatory, and vasoreactive responses underlying COPD development. This is a difficult task, as listing of exposure parameters is limited for most experiments. We show that both mainstream and SHS studies largely present similar inflammatory cell populations dominated by macrophages as well as elevated chemokine/cytokine levels, such as TNF-α. Additionally, SHS, like mainstream smoke, has been shown to cause vascular remodeling and neutrophil elastase-mediated proteolytic matrix breakdown with failure to repair. Disease mechanisms and therapeutic interventions appear to coincide in both exposure scenarios. One of the more widely applied interventions, the anti-oxidant therapy, is successful for both mainstream and SHS. The comparison of direct with indirect smoke exposure studies in this review emphasizes that, even though there are many overlapping pathways, it is not conclusive that SHS is using exactly the same mechanisms as direct smoke in COPD pathogenesis, but should be considered a preventable health risk. Some characteristics and therapeutic alternatives uniquely exist in SHS-related COPD. PMID:23720629

  9. Young Adolescents, Tobacco Advertising, and Smoking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santana, Yolanda; Gonzalez, Beatriz; Pinilla, Jaime; Calvo, Jose Ramon; Barber, Patricia

    2003-01-01

    Background: In adolescents aged 12-14, we measured attitudes to tobacco advertising. Our purpose is to understand the relation of these attitudes to tobacco use and identify the groups most influenced by the advertising. Methods: Survey of adolescents on Gran Canaria Island, Spain, about aspects of family, school, peers, tobacco consumption, and…

  10. Marijuana Use and Tobacco Smoking Cessation Among Heavy Alcohol Drinkers

    PubMed Central

    Metrik, Jane; Spillane, Nichea S.; Leventhal, Adam M.; Kahler, Christopher W.

    2011-01-01

    Background Whereas problem drinking impedes smoking cessation, less is known whether marijuana use affects smoking cessation outcomes and whether smoking cessation treatment leads to changes in marijuana smoking. Methods In a randomized clinical trial that recruited 236 heavy drinkers seeking smoking cessation treatment, we examined whether current marijuana smokers (n = 57) differed from the rest of the sample in tobacco smoking and alcohol use outcomes and whether the patterns of marijuana use changed during treatment. Results Half of the marijuana users reported smoking marijuana at least weekly (an average of 42% of possible smoking days), the other half used infrequently, an average of 5% of possible days. There were no significant differences between the marijuana use groups and non-users on smoking outcomes and marijuana use did not predict smoking lapses. All participants made large reductions in weekly alcohol consumption during the trial, with weekly marijuana users reducing their drinking by 47% and at a faster rate than non-marijuana users after the 8-week follow-up. Weekly marijuana smokers also steadily decreased their marijuana use over the course of the study (at 8-, 16-, and 26-week follow-ups) by more than 24%. Conclusions These data suggest that frequent marijuana smokers may benefit from smoking cessation interventions, even when marijuana use is not explicitly discussed. These individuals do not show any more difficulty than other cigarette smokers in making efforts to reduce tobacco smoking and in fact, make meaningful changes in marijuana use and heavy drinking. Future clinical trials should examine whether smoking cessation treatment that addresses both marijuana and tobacco smoking leads to substantial reductions in marijuana use. PMID:21724341

  11. Tobacco smoking: From 'glamour' to 'stigma'. A comprehensive review.

    PubMed

    Castaldelli-Maia, João Mauricio; Ventriglio, Antonio; Bhugra, Dinesh

    2016-01-01

    In this narrative review, we explore the history of tobacco smoking, its associations and portrayal of its use with luxury and glamour in the past, and intriguingly, its subsequent transformation into a mass consumption industrialized product encouraged by advertising and film. Then, we describe the next phase where tobacco in parts of the world has become an unwanted product. However, the number of smokers is still increasing, especially in new markets, and increasingly younger individuals are being attracted to it, despite the well-known health consequences of tobacco use. We also explore current smoking behaviors, looking at trends in the prevalence of consumption throughout the world, discrimination against smokers, light and/or intermittent smokers, and the electronic cigarette (e-cigarette). We place these changes in the context of neuroscience, which may help explain why the cognitive effects of smoking can be important reinforcers for its consumption despite strong anti-smoking pressure in Western countries. PMID:26449875

  12. Attempts to undermine tobacco control: tobacco industry "youth smoking prevention" programs to undermine meaningful tobacco control in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Sebrié, Ernesto M; Glantz, Stanton A

    2007-08-01

    We sought to understand how the tobacco industry uses "youth smoking prevention" programs in Latin America. We analyzed tobacco industry documents, so-called "social reports," media reports, and material provided by Latin American public health advocates. Since the early 1990s, multinational tobacco companies have promoted "youth smoking prevention" programs as part of their "Corporate Social Responsibility" campaigns. The companies also partnered with third-party allies in Latin America, most notably nonprofit educational organizations and education and health ministries. Even though there is no evidence that these programs reduce smoking among youths, they have met the industry's goal of portraying the companies as concerned corporate citizens and undermining effective tobacco control interventions that are required by the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. PMID:17600260

  13. How Menthol Alters Tobacco-Smoking Behavior: A Biological Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Wickham, R.J.

    2015-01-01

    Mentholated cigarettes gained popularity in the 1950s and were often marketed as “healthy” cigarettes, attributable to their pleasurable mint flavor and cooling sensation in the mouth, lungs, and throat. While it is clear that nicotine is the primary psychoactive component in tobacco cigarettes, recent work has suggested that menthol may also play a role in exacerbating smoking behavior, despite original health claims. Recent evidence highlights four distinct biological mechanisms that can alter smoking behavior: 1) menthol acts to reduce the initially aversive experiences associated with tobacco smoking; 2) menthol can serve as a highly reinforcing sensory cue when associated with nicotine and promote smoking behavior; 3) menthol's actions on nicotinic acetylcholine receptors may change the reinforcing value of nicotine; and 4) menthol can alter nicotine metabolism, thus increasing nicotine bioavailability. The purpose of this review is to highlight and evaluate potential biological mechanisms by which menthol can alter smoking behavior. PMID:26339211

  14. Impact of Tobacco Smoke and Nicotine Exposure on Lung Development.

    PubMed

    Gibbs, Kevin; Collaco, Joseph M; McGrath-Morrow, Sharon A

    2016-02-01

    Tobacco smoke and nicotine exposure during prenatal and postnatal life can impair lung development, alter the immune response to viral infections, and increase the prevalence of wheezing during childhood. The following review examines recent discoveries in the fields of lung development and tobacco and nicotine exposure, emphasizing studies published within the last 5 years. In utero tobacco and nicotine exposure remains common, occurring in approximately 10% of pregnancies within the United States. Exposed neonates are at increased risk for diminished lung function, altered central and peripheral respiratory chemoreception, and increased asthma symptoms throughout childhood. Recently, genomic and epigenetic risk factors, such as alterations in DNA methylation, have been identified that may influence the risk for long-term disease. This review examines the impact of prenatal tobacco and nicotine exposure on lung development with a particular focus on nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. In addition, this review examines the role of prenatal and postnatal tobacco smoke and nicotine exposure and its association with augmenting infection risk, skewing the immune response toward a T-helper type 2 bias and increasing risk for developing an allergic phenotype and asthmalike symptoms during childhood. Finally, this review outlines the respiratory morbidities associated with childhood secondhand smoke and nicotine exposure and examines genetic and epigenetic modifiers that may influence respiratory health in infants and children exposed to in utero or postnatal tobacco smoke. PMID:26502117

  15. Mainstream smoke chemistry analysis of samples from the 2009 US cigarette market.

    PubMed

    Bodnar, J A; Morgan, W T; Murphy, P A; Ogden, M W

    2012-10-01

    A survey of selected mainstream smoke constituents from commercially marketed US cigarettes was conducted in 2009. The US cigarette market was segmented into thirteen (13) strata based on Cambridge Filter Method (CFM) "tar" category and cigarette design parameters. Menthol and non-menthol cigarettes were included. Sixty-one (61) cigarette brand styles were chosen to represent the market. Another thirty-four (34) brand styles of interest were included in the survey along with a Kentucky 3R4F reference cigarette. Twenty mainstream smoke constituents were evaluated using the Health Canada smoking regimen. By weighting the results of the 61 brand styles using the number of brand styles represented by each stratum, the mainstream smoke constituent means and medians of the US cigarette market were estimated. For nicotine, catechol, hydroquinone, benzo(a)pyrene and formaldehyde the mean yields increased with increasing "tar" yields. Constituent yields for the ultra-low "tar" and low "tar" cigarettes were not significantly different for most other analytes as ventilation blocking defeated any filter air dilution design features. In contrast, normalization per mg nicotine provided an inverse ranking of cigarette yields per CFM "tar" categories. Menthol cigarette mean constituent yields were observed to be within the range of the non-menthol cigarettes of similar "tar" categories. PMID:22683394

  16. [Determination of major carbonyls in mainstream smoke by rapid column high performance liquid chromatography].

    PubMed

    Huang, Yun; Wang, Yigeng; Miao, Mingming; Zhao, Qihua; Yang, Guangyu

    2007-03-01

    Abstract: The determination of major carbonyl compounds in mainstream cigarette smoke by rapid column high performance liquid chromatography was investigated. The cigarette smoke was collected using a Cambridge filter treated with acidic solution of 2, 4-dinitrophenyl-hydrazine. Formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acetone, acrolein, propionaldehyde, crotonaldehyde, 2-butanone and butyraldehyde were extracted from the Cambridge filter with 50 mL of 2% pyridine acetonitrile solution. The carbonyl compounds in samples were separated on a ZORBAX Stable Bound rapid column (50 mm x 4. 6 mm, 1. 8 microm) in approximately seven minutes and then determined by high performance liquid chromatography with a diode array detector. The average recoveries were in the range of 89. 1% to 99. 2% and the relative standard deviations (RSDs) were generally below 6. 0%. The eight carbonyl compounds in the mainstream smoke of five brands of cigarettes were determined using this method. This method is faster, simpler and consumes less solvent. It is suitable for rapid analysis of carbonyl compounds in mainstream cigarette smoke. PMID:17580693

  17. Waterpipe tobacco smoking impact on public health: implications for policy

    PubMed Central

    Martinasek, Mary P; Gibson-Young, Linda M; Davis, Janiece N; McDermott, Robert J

    2015-01-01

    Background Given the increasing evidence of its negative health effects, including contributions to both infectious and chronic diseases, waterpipe tobacco smoking raises public health concerns beyond even those presented by traditional smoking. Methods Identification of Clean Indoor Air Acts (CIAAs) from each of the 50 United States and District of Columbia were retrieved and examined for inclusion of regulatory measures where waterpipe tobacco smoking is concerned. Several instances of exemption to current CIAAs policies were identified. The cumulative policy lens is presented in this study. Results States vary in their inclusion of explicit wording regarding CIAAs to the point where waterpipe tobacco smoking, unlike traditional smoking products, is excluded from some legislation, thereby limiting authorities’ ability to carry out enforcement. Conclusion Consistent, comprehensive, and unambiguous legislative language is necessary to prevent establishments where waterpipe tobacco smoking occurs from skirting legislation and other forms of regulatory control. Stricter laws are needed due to the increasing negative health impact on both the smoker and the bystander. Actions at both the federal and state levels may be needed to control health risks, particularly among youth and young adult populations. PMID:26346473

  18. Modeling the Underlying Predicting Factors of Tobacco Smoking among Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Jafarabadi, M Asghari; Allahverdipour, H; Bashirian, S; Jannati, A

    2012-01-01

    Background: With regard to the willing and starting tobacco smoking among young people in Iran. The aim of the study was to model the underlying factors in predicting the behavior of tobacco smoking among employed youth and students in Iran. Methods: In this analytical cross-sectional study, based on a random cluster sampling were recruited 850 high school students, employed and unemployed youth age ranged between 14 and 19 yr from Iran. The data of demographic and tobacco smoking related variables were acquired via a self-administered questionnaire. A series of univariate and multivariate logistic regressions were performed respectively for computing un-adjusted and adjusted Odds Ratios utilizing SPSS 17 software. Results: A number of 189 persons (25.6%) were smoker in the study and the mean smoking initiation age was 13.93 (SD= 2.21). In addition, smoker friend, peer persistence, leaving home, and smoking in one and six month ago were obtained as independent predictors of tobacco smoking. Conclusions: The education programs on resistance skills against the persistence of the peers, improvement in health programs by governmental interference and policy should be implemented. PMID:23113177

  19. A high-performance liquid chromatographic determination of major phenolic compounds in tobacco smoke

    SciTech Connect

    Risner, C.H.; Cash, S.L. )

    1990-05-01

    A high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method is developed that simultaneously quantifies the dihydroxy compounds hydroquinone, resorcinol, and catechol and the monohydroxy compounds phenol, m + p-cresol and o-cresol in cigarette smoke. Particulate matter samples collected on Cambridge pads and in impingers by conventional trapping techniques are simply (no derivatization required) subjected to reversed-phase gradient liquid chromatography. Samples of both mainstream and sidestream smoke can be analyzed. Selective fluorescence detection is used to monitor the mobile phase effluent, by which these phenolic compounds are detected in the nanogram range. The detector response is linear, overall precision is good, and recoveries are greater than 95 percent. The total run time, excluding extraction, is one hour. The procedure has been applied to tobacco products whose smoke contains varying amounts of these phenols. Kentucky Reference Cigarette 1R4F was found to contain substantially more of these compounds than a new cigarette that heats but does not burn tobacco (New Cigarette). The method is compared with other procedures used to determine phenolics in cigarette smoke.

  20. Waterpipe Tobacco Smoking in Turkey: Policy Implications and Trends from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS)

    PubMed Central

    Erdöl, Cevdet; Ergüder, Toker; Morton, Jeremy; Palipudi, Krishna; Gupta, Prakash; Asma, Samira

    2015-01-01

    Waterpipe tobacco smoking (WTS) is an emerging tobacco product globally, especially among adolescents and young adults who may perceive WTS as a safe alternative to smoking cigarettes. Monitoring the use of WTS in Turkey in relation to the tobacco control policy context is important to ensure that WTS does not become a major public health issue in Turkey. The Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) was conducted in Turkey in 2008 and was repeated in 2012. GATS provided prevalence estimates on current WTS and change over time. Other indicators of WTS were also obtained, such as age of initiation and location of use. Among persons aged 15 and older in Turkey, the current prevalence of WTS decreased from 2.3% in 2008 to 0.8% in 2012, representing a 65% relative decline. Among males, WTS decreased from 4.0% to 1.1% (72% relative decline). While the overall smoking prevalence decreased among females, there was no change in the rate of WTS (0.7% in 2008 vs. 0.5% in 2012), though the WTS prevalence rate was already low in 2008. Comprehensive tobacco control efforts have been successful in reducing the overall smoking prevalence in Turkey, which includes the reduction of cigarette smoking and WTS. However, it is important to continue monitoring the use of waterpipes in Turkey and targeting tobacco control efforts to certain groups that may be vulnerable to future WTS marketing (e.g., youth, women). PMID:26670238

  1. Waterpipe Tobacco Smoking in Turkey: Policy Implications and Trends from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS).

    PubMed

    Erdöl, Cevdet; Ergüder, Toker; Morton, Jeremy; Palipudi, Krishna; Gupta, Prakash; Asma, Samira

    2015-12-01

    Waterpipe tobacco smoking (WTS) is an emerging tobacco product globally, especially among adolescents and young adults who may perceive WTS as a safe alternative to smoking cigarettes. Monitoring the use of WTS in Turkey in relation to the tobacco control policy context is important to ensure that WTS does not become a major public health issue in Turkey. The Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) was conducted in Turkey in 2008 and was repeated in 2012. GATS provided prevalence estimates on current WTS and change over time. Other indicators of WTS were also obtained, such as age of initiation and location of use. Among persons aged 15 and older in Turkey, the current prevalence of WTS decreased from 2.3% in 2008 to 0.8% in 2012, representing a 65% relative decline. Among males, WTS decreased from 4.0% to 1.1% (72% relative decline). While the overall smoking prevalence decreased among females, there was no change in the rate of WTS (0.7% in 2008 vs. 0.5% in 2012), though the WTS prevalence rate was already low in 2008. Comprehensive tobacco control efforts have been successful in reducing the overall smoking prevalence in Turkey, which includes the reduction of cigarette smoking and WTS. However, it is important to continue monitoring the use of waterpipes in Turkey and targeting tobacco control efforts to certain groups that may be vulnerable to future WTS marketing (e.g., youth, women). PMID:26670238

  2. Waterpipe tobacco smoking legislation and policy enactment: a global analysis

    PubMed Central

    Jawad, Mohammed; El Kadi, Lama; Mugharbil, Sanaa; Nakkash, Rima

    2015-01-01

    Objective (1) To review how current global tobacco control policies address regulation of waterpipe tobacco smoking (WTS). (2) To identify features associated with enactment and enforcement of WTS legislation. Data Sources (1) Legislations compiled by Tobacco Control Laws (www.tobaccocontrollaws.org). (2) Weekly news articles by ‘Google Alerts’ (www.google.com/alerts) from July 2013 to August 2014. Study Selection (1) Countries containing legislative reviews, written by legal experts, were included. Countries prohibiting tobacco sales were excluded. (2) News articles discussing aspects of the WHO FCTC were included. News articles related to electronic-waterpipe, crime, smuggling, opinion pieces or brief mentions of WTS were excluded. Data Abstraction (1) Two reviewers independently abstracted the definition of “tobacco product” and/or “smoking”. Four tobacco control domains (smokefree law, misleading descriptors, health warning labels and advertising/promotion/sponsorship) were assigned one of four categories based on the degree to which WTS had specific legislation. (2) Two investigators independently assigned at least one theme and associated subtheme to each news article. Data Synthesis (1) Reviewed legislations of 62 countries showed that most do not address WTS regulation but instead rely on generic tobacco/smoking definitions to cover all tobacco products. Where WTS was specifically addressed, no additional legislative guidance accounted for the unique way it is smoked, except for in one country specifying health warnings on waterpipe apparatuses (2) News articles mainly reported on noncompliance with public smoking bans, especially in India, Pakistan and the UK. Conclusions A regulatory framework evaluated for effectiveness and tailored for the specificities of WTS needs to be developed. PMID:25550418

  3. Tobacco industry sociological programs to influence public beliefs about smoking.

    PubMed

    Landman, Anne; Cortese, Daniel K; Glantz, Stanton

    2008-02-01

    The multinational tobacco companies responded to arguments about the social costs of smoking and hazards of secondhand smoke by quietly implementing the Social Costs/Social Values project (1979-1989), which relied upon the knowledge and authoritative power of social scientists to construct an alternate cultural repertoire of smoking. Social scientists created and disseminated non-health based, pro-tobacco arguments without fully acknowledging their relationship with the industry. After the US Surgeon General concluded that nicotine was addictive in 1988, the industry responded by forming "Associates for Research in the Science of Enjoyment" (c.1988-1999), whose members toured the world promoting the health benefits of the use of legal substances, including tobacco, for stress relief and relaxation, without acknowledging the industry's role. In this paper we draw on previously secret tobacco industry documents, now available on the Internet to show how both of these programs utilized academic sociologists, political scientists, anthropologists, psychologists, philosophers and economists, and allowed the industry to develop and widely disseminate friendly research through credible channels. Strategies included creating favorable surveys and opinions, infusing them into the lay press and media through press releases, articles and conferences, publishing, promoting and disseminating books, commissioning and placing favorable book reviews, providing media training for book authors and organizing media tours. These programs allowed the tobacco industry to affect public and academic discourse on the social acceptability of smoking. PMID:18164524

  4. Tobacco industry sociological programs to influence public beliefs about smoking

    PubMed Central

    Glantz, Stanton; Landman, Anne; Cortese, Daniel K

    2008-01-01

    The multinational tobacco companies responded to arguments about the social costs of smoking and hazards of secondhand smoke by quietly implementing the Social Costs/Social Values project (1979–1989), which relied upon the knowledge and authoritative power of social scientists to construct an alternate cultural repertoire of smoking. Social scientists created and disseminated non-health based, pro-tobacco arguments without fully acknowledging their relationship with the industry. After the U.S. Surgeon General concluded that nicotine was addictive in 1988, the industry responded by forming “Associates for Research in the Science of Enjoyment” (c.1988–1999), whose members toured the world promoting the health benefits of the use of legal substances, including tobacco, for stress relief and relaxation, without acknowledging the industry’s role. In this paper we draw on previously secret tobacco industry documents, now available on the internet to show how both of these programs utilized academic sociologists, political scientists, anthropologists, psychologists, philosophers and economists, and allowed the industry to develop and widely disseminate friendly research through credible channels. Strategies included creating favorable surveys and opinions, infusing them into the lay press and media through press releases, articles and conferences, publishing, promoting and disseminating books, commissioning and placing favorable book reviews, providing media training for book authors and organizing media tours. These programs allowed the tobacco industry to affect public and academic discourse on the social acceptability of smoking. PMID:18164524

  5. [Compliance with the tobacco smoke free ambience legislation in Mexico].

    PubMed

    Barrientos-Gutiérrez, Tonatiuh; Reynales-Shigematsu, Luz Myriam; Gimeno, David; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo

    2008-01-01

    This essay tries o develop classification criteria to identify smoke-free spaces using environmental monitoring, direct inspection and worker reports, comparing their agreement and deriving a proposal useful for the epidemiological surveillance of environmental tobacco smoke. Environmental nicotine monitoring, direct inspections and workers surveys regarding tobacco smoke presence were conducted in ten institutions. For each method, criteria were defined to classify institutions as smoke-free spaces. Results were compared to evaluate between-methods agreement. Good agreement between environmental monitoring and direct inspections were observed, although they disagreed in 20% of the cases. Worker reports were too frequent to discriminate. Combining environmental monitoring and inspection would provide the most sensitive classification. Cost-effectiveness studies are required to identify the best strategy. PMID:18604352

  6. Tobacco smoking and oral clefts: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Little, Julian; Cardy, Amanda; Munger, Ronald G.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between maternal smoking and non-syndromic orofacial clefts in infants. METHODS: A meta-analysis of the association between maternal smoking during pregnancy was carried out using data from 24 case-control and cohort studies. FINDINGS: Consistent, moderate and statistically significant associations were found between maternal smoking and cleft lip, with or without cleft palate (relative risk 1.34, 95% confidence interval 1.25-1.44) and between maternal smoking and cleft palate (relative risk 1.22, 95% confidence interval 1.10-1.35). There was evidence of a modest dose-response effect for cleft lip with or without cleft palate. CONCLUSION: The evidence of an association between maternal tobacco smoking and orofacial clefts is strong enough to justify its use in anti-smoking campaigns. PMID:15112010

  7. Tobacco smoking among government employees in six cities in China

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Neil; Zhang, Chen; Hua, Xinwei; Redmon, Pamela; Eriksen, Michael; Koplan, Jeffrey; Ali, Mohammed

    2014-01-01

    Objective Employer-based tobacco control interventions have been highly successful in developed countries, and, recently, Chinese officials announced a focus on quitting among government employees. However, there are few data offering estimates of smoking prevalence among government workers from developing nations. In this study, we investigate smoking behaviours among government workers in six Chinese cities stratified by educational attainment and occupational grade. Design Individual-level study of Chinese government employees. Data sources Tobacco-Free Cities Initiative of China Tobacco Control Partnership. Analysis Employed adults aged 18–61 at government worksites in six cities were included (N=6176). Prevalence of current and former smoking across educational (postgraduate, graduate, high school, secondary school or less) and occupational (senior executives, mid-level managers, workers) groups were compared. Results Overall prevalence of male current smoking was 40.7% (95% CI 39.1% to 42.4%). Age-adjusted smoking prevalence was lowest among those with a postgraduate degree (26.2% (95% CI 21.0% to 31.4%)) compared with those with lower levels of education (college (39.8%; 37.7% to 41.8%); high school (51.0%; 95% CI 45.0% to 57.0%); secondary or less (45.1%; 95% CI 40.3% to 49.8%)). There was no evidence of an association between current smoking and occupational grade. Prevalence of smoking was low in women (1.5%). Conclusions Smoking prevalence among male government employees at all levels of education was high and patterned by educational attainment. Government initiatives to address tobacco control among employees should consider targeted interventions for different educational levels.

  8. [Influence of tobacco smoking on the risk of developing asthma].

    PubMed

    Underner, M; Perriot, J; Peiffer, G; Meurice, J-C

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this general review is to investigate the influence of active and passive smoking on the development of asthma in children and adults. Passive smoking during and after pregnancy facilitates the onset of childhood asthma and wheezing. In particular, smoking during pregnancy is associated with the occurrence of wheezing prior to the age of 4 years. In contrast, the results of studies on the relationship between parental smoking in the post-natal period and the onset of asthma or wheezing are discordant. Exposure to passive smoking during childhood facilitates the occurrence of asthma in adulthood. In adults and adolescents, active smoking appears to be a factor favoring the development of asthma. On the other hand, non-smoking adult subjects without history of asthma exposed to passive smoking have a risk of asthma. The pathophysiological mechanisms by which tobacco smoke is the cause of asthma are still poorly known. Smoking cessation is an essential component in the management of asthmatic subjects who smoke, facilitating the control of the disease. PMID:25765119

  9. Tobacco Smoking in Adolescent Psychiatric Outpatients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ditchburn, K. Marie; Sellman, J. Douglas

    2013-01-01

    Three main aims of this study were to ascertain the prevalence rate of smoking among adolescent psychiatric outpatients; estimate smokers' degree of nicotine dependence; and investigate the relationship between smoking and common mental health disorders. Face-to-face interviews were conducted on 93 patients ages 13-18 presenting to an adolescent…

  10. Waterpipe Tobacco Smoking and Cigarette Smoking: A Direct Comparison of Toxicant Exposure and Subjective Effects

    PubMed Central

    Cobb, Caroline O.; Shihadeh, Alan; Weaver, Michael F.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Waterpipe tobacco smoking is increasing worldwide and is believed by many users to be less harmful and addictive than cigarette smoking. In fact, waterpipe tobacco and cigarette smoke contain many of the same chemicals, and users are exposed to the dependence-producing drug nicotine as well as other smoke toxicants. The subjective effect profile of these 2 tobacco use methods has not been compared directly, though this information is relevant to understanding the risk of dependence development. Methods: Fifty-four participants who reported waterpipe and cigarette smoking completed 2, 45-min, counter-balanced sessions in which they completed a waterpipe use episode (mean smoking time = 43.3 min) or a cigarette (mean = 6.1 min). Outcome measures included plasma nicotine, carboxyhemoglobin (COHb), and subjective effects, including those relevant to predicting dependence potential. Results: Mean (±SEM) peak plasma nicotine concentration did not differ by session (waterpipe = 9.8 ± 1.0 ng/ml; cigarette = 9.4 ± 1.0 ng/ml). Mean peak COHb concentration differed significantly (waterpipe = 4.5% ± 0.3%; cigarette = 1.2% ± 0.1%). Subjective effect changes for waterpipe and cigarette were comparable in magnitude but often longer lived for waterpipe. Conclusions: Relative to a cigarette, waterpipe tobacco smoking was associated with similar peak nicotine exposure, 3.75-fold greater COHb, and 56-fold greater inhaled smoke volume. Waterpipe and cigarette influenced many of the same subjective effect measures. These findings are consistent with the conclusion that waterpipe tobacco smoking presents substantial risk of dependence, disease, and death, and they can be incorporated into prevention interventions that might help deter more adolescents and young adults from experimenting with an almost certainly lethal method of tobacco use. PMID:21127030

  11. Fighting Tobacco Smoking - a Difficult but Not Impossible Battle

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Christopher Man-Kit; Leung, Alexander K. C.; Hon, Kam-Lun Ellis; Kong, Albert Yim-Fai

    2009-01-01

    According to the World Health Organization (WHO), tobacco-related disease is the single largest preventable cause of death in the world today, killing around 5.4 million people a year – an average of one person every six seconds. The total number of death caused by tobacco consumption is higher than that of tuberculosis, HIV/AIDS and malaria combined. Unlike other communicable diseases, however, tobacco-related disease has a man-made consensus vector – the tobacco companies that play an active role to promote tobacco consumption, which directly heightens the disease morbidity. Any public health policy designed to curb smoking behavior has to prepare for opposite lobbying actions from tobacco companies that undermine the effects of the health measures. Another unique nature of the tobacco epidemic is that it can be cured, not by medicines or vaccines, but on the concerted actions of government and civil society. Many countries with a history of tobacco control measures indeed experienced a reduction of tobacco consumption. As most of these governments launched a range of measures simultaneously, it is hard to quantify the relative merits of different control strategies that contributed to the drop in the number of smokers. These packages of strategies can come in different forms but with some common features. Political actions with government support, funding, and protection are crucial. Without these, antismoking efforts in any part of the world are unlikely to be successful. PMID:19440270

  12. Hookah (Shisha, Narghile) Smoking and Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS). A critical review of the relevant literature and the public health consequences.

    PubMed

    Chaouachi, Kamal

    2009-02-01

    Hookah (narghile, shisha, "water-pipe") smoking is now seen by public health officials as a global tobacco epidemic. Cigarette Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS) is classically understood as a combination of Side-Stream Smoke (SSS) and Exhaled Main-Stream Smoke (EMSS), both diluted and aged. Some of the corresponding cigarette studies have served as the scientific basis for stringent legislation on indoor smoking across the world. Interestingly, one of the distinctive traits of the hookah device is that it generates almost no SSS. Indeed, its ETS is made up almost exclusively by the smoke exhaled by the smoker (EMSS), i.e. which has been filtered by the hookah at the level of the bowl, inside the water, along the hose and then by the smoker's respiratory tract itself. The present paper reviews the sparse and scattered scientific evidence available about hookah EMSS and the corresponding inferences that can be drawn from the composition of cigarette EMSS. The reviewed literature shows that most of hookah ETS is made up of EMSS and that the latter qualitatively differs from MSS. Keeping in mind that the first victim of passive smoking is the active smoker her/himself, the toxicity of hookah ETS for non-smokers should not be overestimated and hyped in an unscientific way. PMID:19440416

  13. Hookah (Shisha, Narghile) Smoking and Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS). A Critical Review of the Relevant Literature and the Public Health Consequences

    PubMed Central

    Chaouachi, Kamal

    2009-01-01

    Hookah (narghile, shisha, “water-pipe”) smoking is now seen by public health officials as a global tobacco epidemic. Cigarette Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS) is classically understood as a combination of Side-Stream Smoke (SSS) and Exhaled Main-Stream Smoke (EMSS), both diluted and aged. Some of the corresponding cigarette studies have served as the scientific basis for stringent legislation on indoor smoking across the world. Interestingly, one of the distinctive traits of the hookah device is that it generates almost no SSS. Indeed, its ETS is made up almost exclusively by the smoke exhaled by the smoker (EMSS), i.e. which has been filtered by the hookah at the level of the bowl, inside the water, along the hose and then by the smoker’s respiratory tract itself. The present paper reviews the sparse and scattered scientific evidence available about hookah EMSS and the corresponding inferences that can be drawn from the composition of cigarette EMSS. The reviewed literature shows that most of hookah ETS is made up of EMSS and that the latter qualitatively differs from MSS. Keeping in mind that the first victim of passive smoking is the active smoker her/himself, the toxicity of hookah ETS for non-smokers should not be overestimated and hyped in an unscientific way. PMID:19440416

  14. Gender, smoking and tobacco reduction and cessation: a scoping review.

    PubMed

    Bottorff, Joan L; Haines-Saah, Rebecca; Kelly, Mary T; Oliffe, John L; Torchalla, Iris; Poole, Nancy; Greaves, Lorraine; Robinson, Carole A; Ensom, Mary H H; Okoli, Chizimuzo T C; Phillips, J Craig

    2014-01-01

    Considerations of how gender-related factors influence smoking first appeared over 20 years ago in the work of critical and feminist scholars. This scholarship highlighted the need to consider the social and cultural context of women's tobacco use and the relationships between smoking and gender inequity. Parallel research on men's smoking and masculinities has only recently emerged with some attention being given to gender influences on men's tobacco use. Since that time, a multidisciplinary literature addressing women and men's tobacco use has spanned the social, psychological and medical sciences. To incorporate these gender-related factors into tobacco reduction and cessation interventions, our research team identified the need to clarify the current theoretical and methodological interpretations of gender within the context of tobacco research. To address this need a scoping review of the published literature was conducted focussing on tobacco reduction and cessation from the perspective of three aspects of gender: gender roles, gender identities, and gender relations. Findings of the review indicate that there is a need for greater clarity on how researchers define and conceptualize gender and its significance for tobacco control. Patterns and anomalies in the literature are described to guide the future development of interventions that are gender-sensitive and gender-specific. Three principles for including gender-related factors in tobacco reduction and cessation interventions were identified: a) the need to build upon solid conceptualizations of gender, b) the importance of including components that comprehensively address gender-related influences, and c) the importance of promoting gender equity and healthy gender norms, roles and relations. PMID:25495141

  15. Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) evaluation of a third-generation electrically heated cigarette smoking system (EHCSS).

    PubMed

    Frost-Pineda, Kimberly; Zedler, Barbara K; Liang, Qiwei; Roethig, Hans J

    2008-11-01

    This sub-study of a randomized, controlled, forced-switching, open-label, parallel-group, clinical study compared environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) produced when 60 male and female adult smokers switched to a third-generation electrically heated cigarette smoking system (EHCSS), continued to smoke a conventional cigarette (CC), or stopped smoking (No-smoking). Concentrations of air constituents including respirable suspended particulate (RSP), carbon monoxide (CO), ammonia and total volatile organic compounds (TVOCs) and ETS markers including solanesol-related particulate matter (Sol-PM), ultraviolet absorbing particulate matter (UVPM), fluorescent particulate matter (FPM), nicotine and 3-ethenyl pyridine (3-EP) were measured in a ventilated, furnished conference room over a 2-h period on separate occasions for each smoking condition. When the EHCSS was used, concentrations of CO and most ETS markers were in the same range as during no-smoking. Concentrations of ammonia were reduced by 41% and concentrations of other selected constituents of ETS were reduced by 87-99% in the air of a room in which EHCSS cigarettes were smoked as compared to concentrations in the same room when conventional cigarettes were smoked. Switching from conventional cigarette smoking to the EHCSS resulted in substantial reductions in concentrations of several markers of environmental tobacco smoke. PMID:18639603

  16. ENVIRONMENTAL TOBACCO SMOKE (ETS) FOLLOW-UP ACTIVITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    NCEA is often called upon to share its expertise on Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS). In 1992, EPA/NCEA completed its risk assessment on the respiratory health effects of ETS exposure, which concluded that ETS causes lung cancer in nonsmokers and has serious respiratory effects...

  17. Adolescent Exposure to and Perceptions of Environmental Tobacco Smoke

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Timothy R.; Price, James H.; Dake, Joseph A.; Shah, Sapna

    2005-01-01

    Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) poses an underappreciated risk to adolescent health. This study examined perceptions of adolescents (n = 574) regarding ETS. About one half (54%) were exposed to ETS the previous week, and one third (30%) were exposed to 3 or more hours of ETS the past week. Concurrently, 29% believed that breathing someone else's…

  18. Tobacco Smoke in the Home and Child Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Dale L.; And Others

    A study was undertaken to determine the effects of tobacco smoke in the home on children's cognitive development. The study focused on 280 children, representing equal numbers of boys and girls and of Whites, Blacks, and Hispanics. When the participating children were 2 years old, their mothers were surveyed, interviewed, and tested to gather…

  19. Determination of pyrolysis products of smoked methamphetamine mixed with tobacco by tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Lee, M R; Jeng, J; Hsiang, W S; Hwang, B H

    1999-01-01

    This study examines the pyrolysis products of smoked methamphetamine mixed with tobacco that was trapped with a C8 adsorbent cartridge and then detected by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. According to the results, the mainstream smoke contains 2-methylpropyl-benzene, 2-chloropropyl-benzene, 2,3-dihydro-3,5-dihydroxy-6-methyl-4H-pyran-4-one, 3-ethyl-phenol, methamphetamine, dimethylamphetamine, hydroquinone, 3-methyl-5-(1-methylethyl)-methylcarbamate phenol, N-methyl-N-(2-phenylethyl)-acetamide, 4-(3-hydroxy-1-butenyl)-3,5,5-trimethyl-2-cyclohexene-1-one, propanoic acid, N-acetylmethamphetamine, phenyl ester, and furfurylmethylamphetamine. In addition, the compounds in sidestream smoke are 2-propenyl benzene, phenylacetone, methamphetamine, dimethylamphetamine, benzyl methyl ketoxime, 3,4-dihydro-2-naphthalenone, N-folmyamphetamine, N-acetylamphetamine, bibenzyl, N-folmylmethamphetamine, N-acetylmethamphetamine, N-propionymethamphetamine, and furfurylmethylamphetamine. Moreover, the presence of methamphetamine promotes the oxidation of the tobacco components. PMID:10022208

  20. Effectiveness of cigarette filter tips for reducing cadmium in relation to other mainstream smoke constituents

    SciTech Connect

    Bache, C.A.; Lisk, D.J.; Shane, B.S.; Hoffmann, D.; Adams, J.D.

    1987-01-01

    The effectiveness of filter tips for reducing cadmium, tar, nicotine, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide in cigarettes was studied. The cigarettes were made from tobacco grown on municipal sewage sludge-amended soil and were therefore high in cadmium. When machine-smoked, filter tips did not result in a significant reduction of cadmium deposited on Cambridge filters. This may indicate that a considerable fraction of cadmium is present in the vapor phase of the smoke and therefore not reduced to the same extent as the tar by certain filters. Nicotine and carbon monoxide were reduced to a lesser extent than tar. This indicates that the filter tip has influenced the combustion of the tobacco column during smoking.

  1. The Control of Environmental Tobacco Smoke: A Policy Review

    PubMed Central

    McNabola, Aonghus; Gill, Laurence William

    2009-01-01

    According to World Health Organisation figures, 30% of all cancer deaths, 20% of all coronary heart diseases and strokes and 80% of all chronic obstructive pulmonary disease are caused by cigarette smoking. Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS) exposure has also been shown to be associated with disease and premature death in non-smokers. In response to this environmental health issue, several countries have brought about a smoking ban policy in public places and in the workplace. Countries such as the U.S., France, Italy, Ireland, Malta, the Netherlands, Sweden, Scotland, Spain, and England have all introduced policies aimed at reducing the population exposure to ETS. Several investigations have monitored the effectiveness of these smoking ban policies in terms of ETS concentrations, human health and smoking prevalence, while others have also investigated a number of alternatives to smoking ban policy measures. This paper reviews the state of the art in research, carried out in the field of ETS, smoking bans and Tobacco Control to date and highlights the need for future research in the area. PMID:19440413

  2. Waterpipe tobacco smoking and its human health impacts.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ki-Hyun; Kabir, Ehsanul; Jahan, Shamin Ara

    2016-11-01

    Waterpipe tobacco smoking (WTS, also known as hookah, shisha, narghile, and many other names) involves passing tobacco smoke through water prior to inhalation by the consumer. As the number of waterpipe smokers is rising rapidly, there is growing concern over the use of WTS, particularly as there has been a widely held misconception that WTS is free from health hazards. In reality, it is associated with a variety of adverse health outcomes on both a short- and long-term basis. Hence, it is desirable to develop advanced techniques for surveillance, intervention, and regulatory/policy frameworks specific to the production and use of waterpipe tobacco. This review is written to survey the types and extent of pollutants released from its use and their potential health risks. A review of the present regulation guidelines is also included. PMID:27285594

  3. Tobacco-Specific Nitrosamine Exposures in Smokers and Nonsmokers Exposed to Cigarette or Waterpipe Tobacco Smoke

    PubMed Central

    Hecht, Stephen S.; Carmella, Steven G.; Loffredo, Christopher A.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The causal relationship between tobacco smoking and a variety of cancers is attributable to the carcinogens that smokers inhale, including tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs). We aimed to assess the exposure to TSNAs in waterpipe smokers (WPS), cigarette smokers (CS), and nonsmoking females exposed to tobacco smoke. Methods: We measured 2 metabolites, 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL) and its glucuronides (NNAl-Gluc) in the urine of males who were either current CS or WPS, and their wives exposed to either cigarette or waterpipe smoke in a sample of 46 subjects from rural Egypt. Results: Of the 24 current male smokers, 54.2% were exclusive CS and 45.8% were exclusive WPS. Among wives, 59.1% reported exposure to cigarette smoke and 40.9% to waterpipe smoke. The geometric mean of urinary NNAL was 0.19 ± 0.60 pmol/ml urine (range 0.005–2.58) in the total sample. Significantly higher levels of NNAL were observed among male smokers of either cigarettes or waterpipe (0.89 ± 0.53 pmol/ml, range 0.78–2.58 in CS and 0.21–1.71 in WPS) compared with nonsmoking wives (0.04 ± 0.18 pmol/ml, range 0.01–0.60 in CS wives, 0.05–0.23 in WPS wives, p = .000). Among males, CS had significantly higher levels of NNAL compared with WPS (1.22 vs. 0.62; p = .007). However, no significant difference was detected in NNAL levels between wives exposed to cigarette smoke or waterpipe smoke. Conclusions: Cigarette smokers levels of NNAL were higher than WPS levels in males. Exposure to tobacco smoke was evident in wives of both CS and WPS. Among WPS, NNAL tended to increase with increasing numbers of hagars smoked/day. PMID:22573723

  4. Cadmium in tobacco and its fate during smoking

    SciTech Connect

    Petering, H.G.; Menden, E.E.; Michael, L.W.

    1988-01-01

    Using a smoking machine, reference cigarettes, a commercial brand of nonfilter 85-millimeter cigarettes, a medium-priced cigar, and a popular brand of pipe tobacco, both wet-ashing and dry-ashing procedures were carried out to determine the cadmium content to which smokers were being exposed. Cigarettes varied from 1.31 to 1.28 micrograms (microg) of cadmium per cigarette, which corresponded to 1.17 to 1.62 microg per gram (g) of cigarette. For cigar tobacco a total of 1.86 microg/g was found and in pipe tobacco the content was 0.93 microg/g. Only 6 to 7% of the cadmium in the smoked portion of the cigarette appeared in the tar, while the unsmoked butts were enriched with 10 to 27% of the cadmium of the smoked portions. The authors suggest that the remaining cadmium, 50 to 55%, is lost in the sidestream during smoking and between puffs. This indicated that not only is the one smoking at risk from cadmium exposure, but so are the others present in the vicinity.

  5. Tobacco withdrawal symptoms mediate motivation to reinstate smoking during abstinence.

    PubMed

    Aguirre, Claudia G; Madrid, Jillian; Leventhal, Adam M

    2015-08-01

    Withdrawal-based theories of addiction hypothesize that motivation to reinstate drug use following acute abstinence is mediated by withdrawal symptoms. Experimental tests of this hypothesis in the tobacco literature are scant and may be subject to methodological limitations. This study utilized a robust within-subject laboratory experimental design to investigate the extent to which composite tobacco withdrawal symptomatology level and 3 unique withdrawal components (i.e., low positive affect, negative affect, and urge to smoke) mediated the effect of smoking abstinence on motivation to reinstate smoking. Smokers (≥10 cigarettes per day; N = 286) attended 2 counterbalanced sessions at which abstinence duration was differentially manipulated (1 hr vs. 17 hr). At both sessions, participants reported current withdrawal symptoms and subsequently completed a task in which they were monetarily rewarded proportional to the length of time they delayed initiating smoking, with shorter latency reflecting stronger motivation to reinstate smoking. Abstinence reduced latency to smoking initiation and positive affect and increased composite withdrawal symptom level, urge, and negative affect. Abstinence-induced reductions in latency to initiating smoking were mediated by each withdrawal component, with stronger effects operating through urge. Combined analyses suggested that urge, negative affect, and low positive affect operate through empirically unique mediational pathways. Secondary analyses suggested similar effects on smoking quantity, few differences among specific urge and affect subtypes, and that dependence amplifies some abstinence effects. This study provides the first experimental evidence that within-person variation in abstinence impacts motivation to reinstate drug use through withdrawal. Urge, negative affect, and low positive affect may reflect unique withdrawal-mediated mechanisms underlying tobacco addiction. PMID:25961814

  6. Attitudes towards smoking restrictions and tobacco advertisement bans in Georgia

    PubMed Central

    Bakhturidze, George D; Mittelmark, Maurice B; Aarø, Leif E; Peikrishvili, Nana T

    2013-01-01

    Objectives This study aims to provide data on a public level of support for restricting smoking in public places and banning tobacco advertisements. Design A nationally representative multistage sampling design, with sampling strata defined by region (sampling quotas proportional to size) and substrata defined by urban/rural and mountainous/lowland settlement, within which census enumeration districts were randomly sampled, within which households were randomly sampled, within which a randomly selected respondent was interviewed. Setting The country of Georgia, population 4.7 million, located in the Caucasus region of Eurasia. Participants One household member aged between 13 and 70 was selected as interviewee. In households with more than one age-eligible person, selection was carried out at random. Of 1588 persons selected, 14 refused to participate and interviews were conducted with 915 women and 659 men. Outcome measures Respondents were interviewed about their level of agreement with eight possible smoking restrictions/bans, used to calculate a single dichotomous (agree/do not agree) opinion indicator. The level of agreement with restrictions was analysed in bivariate and multivariate analyses by age, gender, education, income and tobacco use status. Results Overall, 84.9% of respondents indicated support for smoking restrictions and tobacco advertisement bans. In all demographic segments, including tobacco users, the majority of respondents indicated agreement with restrictions, ranging from a low of 51% in the 13–25 age group to a high of 98% in the 56–70 age group. Logistic regression with all demographic variables entered showed that agreement with restrictions was higher with age, and was significantly higher among never smokers as compared to daily smokers. Conclusions Georgian public opinion is normatively supportive of more stringent tobacco-control measures in the form of smoking restrictions and tobacco advertisement bans. PMID:24282242

  7. Metabolites of tobacco smoking and colorectal cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Cross, Amanda J; Boca, Simina; Freedman, Neal D; Caporaso, Neil E; Huang, Wen-Yi; Sinha, Rashmi; Sampson, Joshua N; Moore, Steven C

    2014-07-01

    Colorectal cancer is not strictly considered a tobacco-related malignancy, but modest associations have emerged from large meta-analyses. Most studies, however, use self-reported data, which are subject to misclassification. Biomarkers of tobacco exposure may reduce misclassification and provide insight into metabolic variability that potentially influences carcinogenesis. Our aim was to identify metabolites that represent smoking habits and individual variation in tobacco metabolism, and investigate their association with colorectal cancer. In a nested case-control study of 255 colorectal cancers and 254 matched controls identified in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian cancer screening trial, baseline serum was used to identify metabolites by ultra-high-performance liquid-phase chromatography and mass spectrometry, as well as gas chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated by logistic regression. Self-reported current smoking was associated with serum cotinine, O-cresol sulfate and hydroxycotinine. Self-reported current smoking of any tobacco (OR = 1.90, 95% CI: 1.02-3.54) and current cigarette smoking (OR = 1.51, 95% CI: 0.75-3.04) were associated with elevated colorectal cancer risks, although the latter was not statistically significant. Individuals with detectable levels of hydroxycotinine had an increased colorectal cancer risk compared with those with undetectable levels (OR = 2.68, 95% CI: 1.33-5.40). Although those with detectable levels of cotinine had a suggestive elevated risk of this malignancy (OR = 1.81, 95% CI: 0.98-3.33), those with detectable levels of O-cresol sulfate did not (OR = 1.16, 95% CI: 0.57-2.37). Biomarkers capturing smoking behavior and metabolic variation exhibit stronger associations with colorectal cancer than self-report, providing additional evidence for a role for tobacco in this malignancy. PMID:24648381

  8. Intrauterine Tobacco Smoke Exposure and Congenital Heart Defects.

    PubMed

    Forest, Sharron; Priest, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    Tobacco use and second-hand smoke exposure during pregnancy are linked to a host of deleterious effects on the pregnancy, fetus, and infant. Health outcomes improve when women quit smoking at any time during the pregnancy. However, the developing heart is vulnerable to noxious stimuli in the early weeks of fetal development, a time when many women are not aware of being pregnant. Congenital heart defects are the most common birth defects. Research shows an association between maternal tobacco exposure, both active and passive, and congenital heart defects. This article presents recent evidence supporting the association between intrauterine cigarette smoke exposure in the periconceptional period and congenital heart defects and discusses clinical implications for practice for perinatal and neonatal nurses. PMID:26813392

  9. Associations between hookah tobacco smoking knowledge and hookah smoking behavior among US college students

    PubMed Central

    Nuzzo, Erin; Shensa, Ariel; Kim, Kevin H.; Fine, Michael J.; Barnett, Tracey E.; Cook, Robert; Primack, Brian A.

    2013-01-01

    Hookah tobacco smoking is increasing among US college students, including those who would not otherwise use tobacco. Part of hookah’s appeal is attributed to the perception that hookah is less harmful than cigarettes. The aims of this study were to assess knowledge of harmful exposures associated with hookah smoking relative to cigarette smoking and to determine associations between this knowledge and hookah smoking outcomes. Students (N = 852) at the University of Florida were randomly sampled via e-mail to obtain information on demographics, hookah smoking behavior and knowledge of five exposures (e.g. tar and nicotine). Multivariable logistic regression models assessed independent associations between knowledge and hookah smoking outcomes. Of the five factual knowledge items asked, 475 (55.8%) of the respondents answered none correctly. In multivariable models, correct responses to any knowledge items were not associated with lower odds of hookah smoking or susceptibility to hookah smoking in the future. Although college students are largely unaware of the toxicant exposures associated with hookah smoking, there is little association between knowledge and hookah smoking behavior. PMID:22987864

  10. Methods for Quantification of Exposure to Cigarette Smoking and Environmental Tobacco Smoke: Focus on Developmental Toxicology

    PubMed Central

    Florescu, Ana; Ferrence, Roberta; Einarson, Tom; Selby, Peter; Soldin, Offie; Koren, Gideon

    2013-01-01

    Active and passive smoking have been associated with an array of adverse effects on health. The development of valid and accurate scales of measurement for exposures associated with health risks constitutes an active area of research. Tobacco smoke exposure still lacks an ideal method of measurement. A valid estimation of the risks associated with tobacco exposure depends on accurate measurement. However, some groups of people are more reluctant than others to disclose their smoking status and exposure to tobacco. This is particularly true for pregnant women and parents of young children, whose smoking is often regarded as socially unacceptable. For others, recall of tobacco exposure may also prove difficult. Because relying on self-report and the various biases it introduces may lead to inaccurate measures of nicotine exposure, more objective solutions have been suggested. Biomarkers constitute the most commonly used objective method of ascertaining nicotine exposure. Of those available, cotinine has gained supremacy as the biomarker of choice. Traditionally, cotinine has been measured in blood, saliva, and urine. Cotinine collection and analysis from these sources has posed some difficulties, which have motivated the search for a more consistent and reliable source of this biomarker. Hair analysis is a novel, noninvasive technique used to detect the presence of drugs and metabolites in the hair shaft. Because cotinine accumulates in hair during hair growth, it is a unique measure of long-term, cumulative exposure to tobacco smoke. Although hair analysis of cotinine holds great promise, a detailed evaluation of its potential as a biomarker of nicotine exposure, is needed. No studies have been published that address this issue. Because the levels of cotinine in the body are dependent on nicotine metabolism, which in turn is affected by factors such as age and pregnancy, the characterization of hair cotinine should be population specific. This review aims at

  11. Waterpipe Tobacco and Cigarette Smoking Direct Comparison of Toxicant Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Eissenberg, Thomas; Shihadeh, Alan

    2009-01-01

    Background Waterpipe (hookah, shisha) tobacco smoking has spread worldwide. Many waterpipe smokers believe that, relative to cigarettes, waterpipes are associated with lower smoke toxicant levels and fewer health risks. For physicians to address these beliefs credibly, waterpipe and cigarette must be compared directly. Purpose The purpose of this study is to provide the first controlled, direct laboratory comparison of the toxicant exposure associated with waterpipe tobacco and cigarette smoking Methods Participants (N=31; mean=21.4 years, SD=2.3) reporting monthly waterpipe use (mean 5.2 uses/month, SD=4.0) and weekly cigarette smoking (mean= 9.9 cigarettes/day, SD=6.4) completed a crossover study in which they each smoked a waterpipe for a maximum of 45 minutes or a single cigarette. Outcomes included expired air carbon monoxide (CO) 5 minutes after session’s end, and blood carboxyhemoglobin (COHb), plasma nicotine, heart rate, and puff topography. Data were collected in 2008–2009 and analyzed in 2009. Results CO increased, on average, by 23.9 ppm for waterpipe (SD=19.8) and 2.7 ppm for cigarette (SD=1.8) while peak waterpipe COHb levels (mean=3.9%, SD=2.5) were three times those observed for the cigarette (mean=1.3%, SD=0.5; Ps<0.001). Peak nicotine levels did not differ (mean ng/ml waterpipe=10.2, SD=7.0; cigarette=10.6, SD=7.7). Significant heart rate increases relative to pre-smoking were observed 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, and 35 minutes during the cigarette session and at every 5-minute interval during the waterpipe session (Ps<0.001). Mean total puff volume was 48.6 liters for waterpipe as compared to 1.0 liters for cigarette (P<0.001). Conclusions Relative to a cigarette, waterpipe use is associated with greater CO, similar nicotine, and dramatically more smoke exposure. Physicians should consider advising their patients that waterpipe tobacco smoking exposes them to some of the same toxicants as cigarette smoking and therefore the two tobacco smoking methods

  12. Tobacco smoking in Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Brott, K

    1981-12-01

    The consumption of cigarettes in Papua New Guinea appears to have increased tenfold over the past twenty years, largely as a result of massive advertising campaigns. It is recommended that legislation be introduced to enforce restrictions on the levels of tar and nicotine in cigarettes sold here, and to make it compulsory to print health warnings on cigarette packets. It is also recommended that the advertising of tobacco products be restricted or banned. PMID:6951348

  13. 'A real man smells of tobacco smoke'--Chinese youth's interpretation of smoking imagery in film.

    PubMed

    Davey, Gareth; Zhao, Xiang

    2012-05-01

    Previous studies have associated youth's exposure to filmic images of smoking with real-life smoking acquisition; initial research in low- and middle-income countries confirms this relationship. The present study in Yunnan, southwest China sought answers to the following questions: How do young people in China make sense of smoking imagery they have seen in film? How are these perceptions shaped by the cultural and social context of images? How do these understandings relate to real-life tobacco use? A study with focus groups and grounded theory was conducted in 2010 and 2011 (Sept-Jan) with middle-school students ages 12 and 13 (n=68, focus groups=12, schools=6). Films and media literacy were important means through which knowledge about smoking was constructed and communicated. Film representations of smoking concurred with Chinese social behaviour (Confucian social networks, face-making, and the notion of society as a harmonious social unit), and were interpreted as congruent with real-life smoking. This pattern, in turn, was intertwined with perceived gender identities of smokers, gender-specific social behaviour, and willingness of girls to explore issues of gender equity. These findings lend new insights into interaction between smoking imagery in film and Chinese youth's smoking beliefs. Tobacco control programs in China should consider young people's interpretations of smoking and the ways they are nested in cultural and social milieu. PMID:22445156

  14. Attitudes of patients and staff towards tobacco smoking in hospital.

    PubMed

    Zołnierczuk-Kieliszek, Dorota; Wachowska-Gil, Karolina

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to establish the frequency and intensity of smoking by the patients and hospital staff and to define the attitudes of the polled persons towards smoking tobacco on the premises of the hospital and their opinions about the limitations in force. The examination in the form of a distributed questionnaire, comprised 101 patients and 127 staff members of Henryk Klimontowicz Specialist Hospital in Gorlice (province of Małopolska /Little Poland/). Both mobile and bed-ridden patients participated in the study. The personnel was represented by physicians, nurses, ward attendants, psychologists, secretaries, Medical University students doing their apprenticeships on the premises of the hospital, employees of technical and administrative departments. The study was carried out by means of a diagnostic sounding with the use of a distributed questionnaire technique in the period from September 2002 to July 2003. The questionnaire contained 38 questions, including closed, open, half-open and multiple-choice questions. In our poll we used the Fagerstrom test, which determined the type of addiction to smoking tobacco (physical or psychological), and which was completed by tobacco-smokers. The statistical analysis was carried out by means of the Chi2 test for independence, assuming the significance level of 0.05. The obtained results were analyzed according to the sex of the polled persons and their functions in the premises of the hospital (patient, staff member). The results of the obtained analysis show that 13.9% of the polled patients of the Specialist Hospital in Gorlice smoked cigarettes every day. The percentage of everyday smokers among the staff of this hospital was significantly higher and equalled 18.1%. Half of the polled persons were exposed to passive smoking on the premises of the hospital, the staff more than the patients. The patients supported the restrictions concerning smoking on the premises of the hospital to a greater extent than

  15. In vitro Cytotoxicity and Mutagenicity of Mainstream Waterpipe smoke and its Functional Consequences on Alveolar Type II Derived Cells

    PubMed Central

    Rammah, Mayyasa; Dandachi, Farah; Salman, Rola; Shihadeh, Alan; El-Sabban, Marwan

    2012-01-01

    Introduction While waterpipe tobacco smoking has become a global phenomenon, its potential health consequences are poorly understood. In this manuscript, we report the in-vitro mutagenicity of waterpipe smoke condensate (WSC), the alteration in cellular parameters of lung alveolar cells in response to WSC exposure and discuss the implication of cellular responses in the pathophysiology of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Methods The mainstream WSC was generated using a standard laboratory machine protocol. We assessed its mutagenicity using Ames test. In addition, we studied the effect of WSC on the proliferation and cell cycle of alveolar type II cells and vascular endothelial cells. We also assessed the effect of WSC on the expression of genes involved in cell cycle arrest and inflammation. Results Within the range of tested doses, WSC did not elicit sufficient response to be considered mutagenic in any of the strains tested (TA98, TA100, TA102, and TA97a) but were found to be toxic for strains TA97a and TA102 at the highest tested doses. However, WSC induced cell cycle arrest and cellular senescence mediated by the p53-p21 pathway. Also our study indicated that WSC induced an increase in the transcriptional expression of matrix metalloproteinases, MMP-2 and MMP-9 and an immune response regulator, Toll Like Receptor-4. Conclusion The data reported here represent the first in vitro demonstration of the effect of waterpipe smoke on cellular parameters providing evidence of the potential involvement of WPS in the pathogenesis of COPD through impairing cellular growth and inducing inflammation. PMID:22516759

  16. Tobacco smoke-induced lung fibrosis and emphysema.

    PubMed

    Morse, Danielle; Rosas, Ivan O

    2014-01-01

    Despite public health campaigns discouraging smoking, 1,000 American children every day become smokers, ensuring that tobacco-related health complications will be with us for decades to come. Smoking is the greatest risk factor for both chronic obstructive lung disease and interstitial lung disease. The facts that not every smoker develops chronic lung disease and that lung pathology differs markedly among smokers indicate that individual susceptibility must be a central determinant of lung injury responses to cigarette smoke. Comparative examination of pathogenic mechanisms of smoke-induced lung disease can shed light on the homeostatic pathways critical to maintaining lung health. In this review, we explore common and divergent biological forces tilting the lung homeostatic balance away from health and toward emphysema or pulmonary fibrosis. We emphasize recent insights that highlight the greatest contrasts or similarities in the pathogenesis of these two chronic lung disease phenotypes. PMID:24274738

  17. Tracheal Morphologic and Protein Alterations FollowingShort-Term Cigarette Mainstream Smoke Exposure to Rats.

    PubMed

    Carter, Charleata A; Misra, Manoj; Maronpot, Robert R

    2012-09-01

    A short-term 5-day nose-only cigarette smoke exposure study was conducted in Fisher 344 rats to identify smoke-induced tracheal protein changes. Groups of 10 male and female 5 week old rats were assigned to 1 of 4 exposure groups. Animals received filtered air, or 75, 200 or 400 mg total particulate matter (TPM)/m(3) of diluted 3R4F Kentucky reference cigarette mainstream smoke. Exposures were conducted for 3 hrs/day, for 5 consecutive days. Tracheas from half the rats were processed for pathology, and tracheas from the other half of the rats frozen immediately for proteomics. We hypothesized that smoke will activate tracheal inflammatory, apoptotic, proliferative, and stress-induced pathways. Mucosal epithelial toxicity from the inhaled material was evidenced by cilia shortening and loss of tracheal mucosal epithelium in smoke-exposed animals. Mucosal thinning occurred in all smoke-exposed groups with hyperplastic reparative responses in the 200 and 400 mg TPM/m(3) groups. Tracheal lysates from control vs. treated animals were screened for 800 proteins using antibody-based microarray technology and subsequently the most changed proteins evaluated by Western blot. Tracheal proteins expressed at high levels that were markedly increased or decreased by smoke exposure depended on dose and gender and included caspase 5, ERK 1/2 and p38. Signaling pathways common between the morphologic and protein changes were stress, apoptosis, cell cycle control, cell proliferation and survival. Changes in identified proteins affected by smoke exposure were associated with tracheal mucosal pathology, may induce functional tracheal changes, and could serve as early indicators of tracheal damage and associated disease. PMID:22988338

  18. Thirdhand Tobacco Smoke: A Tobacco-Specific Lung Carcinogen on Surfaces in Smokers’ Homes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Thirdhand tobacco smoke consists of substances remaining on the surfaces or in the dust of areas where people have smoked. While previous studies have demonstrated the presence of nicotine and various other constituents of tobacco smoke on surfaces in smokers’ homes, none has investigated the presence of tobacco-specific carcinogens. Methods: We used liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry to analyze surface dust samples from both the homes of smokers and nonsmokers for the powerful tobacco-specific lung carcinogen 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK). Results: We positively identified NNK on surfaces in 33 of 37 smokers’ homes (700±788 pg/100cm2 [range, not detected–3,500 pg/100cm2]), but only in 3 of 19 nonsmokers’ homes (235±176 pg/100cm2 in the homes where NNK was detected [range, not detected–435 pg/100cm2]). The differences in occurrence and levels of NNK in the homes of smokers and nonsmokers were significant (p < .0001). Conclusions: The powerful tobacco-specific lung carcinogen NNK is present on surfaces in most homes occupied by smokers. Potential renters or buyers of apartments or homes should be notified if previous residents were smokers in order to avoid unnecessary exposure of their families to a potent lung carcinogen. PMID:23892827

  19. Adsorption of nicotine and tar from the mainstream smoke of cigarettes by oxidized carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhigang; Zhang, Lisha; Tang, Yiwen; Jia, Zhijie

    2006-02-01

    The adsorption of nicotine and tar from the mainstream smoke (MS) by the filter tips filled respectively with oxidized carbon nanotubes (O-CNTs), activated carbon and zeolite (NaY) has been investigated. O-CNTs show exceptional removal efficiency and their adsorption mechanism is investigated. Capillary condensation of some ingredients from MS in the inner hole of O-CNTs is observed and may be the primary reason for their superior removal efficiency. The effect of O-CNTs mass on the removal efficiencies is also studied and the results show that about 20-30 mg O-CNTs per cigarette can effectively remove most of nicotine and tar.

  20. Reigniting Tobacco Ritual: Waterpipe Tobacco Smoking Establishment Culture in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Carroll, Mary V.; Chang, Judy; Sidani, Jaime E.; Barnett, Tracey E.; Soule, Eric; Balbach, Edith

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Waterpipe tobacco smoking (WTS) is an increasingly prevalent form of tobacco use in the United States. Its appeal may stem from its social, ritualistic, and aesthetic nature. Our aim in this study was to understand WTS as a social ritual with the goal of informing prevention efforts. Methods: We conducted a covert observational study consisting of 38 observation sessions in 11 WTS establishments in 3 U.S. cities. Data collection was based on an established conceptual framework describing ritualistic elements of tobacco use. Iterative codebook development and qualitative thematic synthesis were used to analyze data. Results: Atmospheres ranged from quiet coffee shop to boisterous bar party environments. While some children and older adults were present, the majority of clientele were young adults. Men and women were evenly represented. However, there were 19 occurrences of a male smoking by himself, but no women smoked alone. The vast majority (94%) of the clientele were actively smoking waterpipes. All 83 observed groups manifested at least 1 of the ritual elements of our conceptual framework, while 41 of the 83 observed groups (49%) demonstrated all 4 ritual elements. Conclusions: Despite its heterogeneity, WTS is often characterized by 1 or more established elements of a tobacco-related social ritual. It may be valuable for clinical and public health interventions to acknowledge and address the ritualistic elements and social function of WTS. PMID:24972889

  1. Mainstream smoke of the waterpipe: does this environmental matrix reveal as significant source of toxic compounds?

    PubMed

    Schubert, Jens; Hahn, Jürgen; Dettbarn, Gerhard; Seidel, Albrecht; Luch, Andreas; Schulz, Thomas G

    2011-09-10

    In recent years the number of waterpipe smokers has increased substantially worldwide. Here we report on the concentrations of tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in waterpipe smoke and the analysis of selected biomarkers indicative for the body burden in waterpipe users. We further identify high amounts of unburned humectants (glycerol and propylene glycol) in the waterpipe smoke as main part of the so-called "tar" fraction. These results give cause for serious concern. For standardization we applied a machine smoking protocol. Smoke was collected on glass fiber filters and analyzed for nicotine, water, humectants, TSNAs, and PAHs. In addition, we determined carbon monoxide and found high amounts in the smoke being causative for high levels of carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) in the blood of smokers. In comparison to the reference cigarette 3R4F, the nicotine contents were 10-times higher, but TSNA levels were found lower in waterpipe smoke. This finding explained the low levels of 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol detected in the urine of waterpipe smokers. Finally, the levels of benzo[a]pyrene were three times higher in waterpipe smoke compared to the reference cigarette. Altogether, the data presented in this study point to the health hazards associated with the consumption of waterpipes. PMID:21712083

  2. Regional Brain [11C]carfentanil Binding Following Tobacco Smoking

    PubMed Central

    Domino, Edward F; Hirasawa-Fujita, Mika; Ni, Lisong; Guthrie, Sally K; Zubieta, Jon Kar

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine if overnight tobacco abstinent carriers of the AG or GG (*G) vs. the AA variant of the human mu opioid receptor (OPRM1) A118G polymorphism (rs1799971) differ in [11C]carfentanil binding after tobacco smoking. Methods Twenty healthy American male smokers who abstained from tobacco overnight were genotyped and completed positron emission tomography (PET) scans with the mu opioid receptor agonist, [11C]carfentanil. They smoked deniconized (denic) and average nicotine (avnic) cigarettes during the PET scans. Results Smoking avnic cigarette decreased the binding potential (BPND) of [11C]carfentanil in the right medial prefrontal cortex (mPfc; 6,56,18), left anterior medial prefrontal cortex (amPfc; −2,46,44), right ventral striatum (vStr; 16, 3, −10), left insula (Ins; −42,10, −12), right hippocampus (Hippo; 18, −6, −14) and left cerebellum (Cbl; −10, −88, −34), and increased the BPND in left amygdala (Amy; −20,0, −22), left putamen (Put; −22, 10, −6) and left nucleus accumbens (NAcc; −10,12, −8). In the AA allele carriers, avnic cigarette smoking significantly changed the BPND compared to after denic smoking in most brain areas listed above. However in the *G carriers the significant BPND changes were confirmed in only amPfc and vStr. Free mu opioid receptor availability was significantly less in the *G than the AA carriers in the Amy and NAcc. Conclusion The present study demonstrates BPND changes induced by avnic smoking in OPRM1 *G carriers were blunted compared to the AA carriers. Also *G smokers had less free mu opioid receptor availability in Amy and NAcc. PMID:25598501

  3. Environmental tobacco smoke exposure and asthma in adults.

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, S T; Utell, M J; Samet, J M

    1999-01-01

    Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) contaminates indoor air in homes and workplaces. Although the adverse effects of active cigarette smoking on the respiratory tract have been extensively characterized, the effects of ETS exposure on adult asthma have not yet been investigated extensively and the available data are limited. This article examines the evidence for ETS exposure as a cause of asthma and asthma exacerbation in adults, and for ETS exposure in the workplace specifically as contributing to these health effects. It addresses methodological barriers that limit the available data and evaluates the adequacy of the data for risk assessment. PMID:10592149

  4. Waterpipe tobacco smoking: what is the evidence that it supports nicotine/tobacco dependence?

    PubMed Central

    Aboaziza, Eiman; Eissenberg, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Objective Waterpipe tobacco smoking (WTS) involves passing tobacco smoke through water prior to inhalation, and has spread worldwide. This spread becomes a public health concern if it is associated with tobacco-caused disease and if WTS supports tobacco/nicotine dependence. A growing literature demonstrates that WTS is associated with disability, disease and death. This narrative review examines if WTS supports nicotine/tobacco dependence, and is intended to help guide tobacco control efforts worldwide. Data sources PUBMED search using: ((“waterpipe” or “narghile” or “arghile” or “shisha” or “goza” or “narkeela” or “hookah” or “hubble bubble”)) AND (“dependence” or “addiction”). Study selection Excluded were articles not in English, without original data, and that were not topic-related. Thirty-two articles were included with others identified by inspecting reference lists and other sources. Data synthesis WTS and the delivery of the dependence-producing drug nicotine were examined, and then the extent to which the articles addressed WTS-induced nicotine/dependence explicitly, as well as implicitly with reference to criteria for dependence outlined by the WHO. Conclusions WTS supports nicotine/tobacco dependence because it is associated with nicotine delivery, and because some smokers experience withdrawal when they abstain from waterpipe, alter their behaviour in order to access a waterpipe and have difficulty quitting, even when motivated to do so. There is a strong need to support research investigating measurement of WTS-induced tobacco dependence, to inform the public of the risks of WTS, which include dependence, disability, disease and death, and to include WTS in the same public health policies that address tobacco cigarettes. PMID:25492935

  5. Determination of benzo[a]pyrene in cigarette mainstream smoke by using mid-infrared spectroscopy associated with a novel chemometric algorithm.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Zou, Hong-Yan; Shi, Pei; Yang, Qin; Tang, Li-Juan; Jiang, Jian-Hui; Wu, Hai-Long; Yu, Ru-Qin

    2016-01-01

    Determination of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) in cigarette smoke can be very important for the tobacco quality control and the assessment of its harm to human health. In this study, mid-infrared spectroscopy (MIR) coupled to chemometric algorithm (DPSO-WPT-PLS), which was based on the wavelet packet transform (WPT), discrete particle swarm optimization algorithm (DPSO) and partial least squares regression (PLS), was used to quantify harmful ingredient benzo[a]pyrene in the cigarette mainstream smoke with promising result. Furthermore, the proposed method provided better performance compared to several other chemometric models, i.e., PLS, radial basis function-based PLS (RBF-PLS), PLS with stepwise regression variable selection (Stepwise-PLS) as well as WPT-PLS with informative wavelet coefficients selected by correlation coefficient test (rtest-WPT-PLS). It can be expected that the proposed strategy could become a new effective, rapid quantitative analysis technique in analyzing the harmful ingredient BaP in cigarette mainstream smoke. PMID:26703252

  6. Associations between tobacco control policy awareness, social acceptability of smoking and smoking cessation. Findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Europe Surveys

    PubMed Central

    Rennen, Els; Nagelhout, Gera E.; van den Putte, Bas; Janssen, Eva; Mons, Ute; Guignard, Romain; Beck, François; de Vries, Hein; Thrasher, James F.; Willemsen, Marc C.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined whether awareness of tobacco control policies was associated with social unacceptability of smoking and whether social unacceptability had an effect on smoking cessation in three European countries. Representative samples (n = 3865) of adult smokers in France, the Netherlands and Germany were used from two survey waves of the longitudinal International Tobacco Control Europe Surveys. Associations were examined of aspects of social unacceptability of smoking (i.e. feeling uncomfortable, important people disapproval and societal disapproval) with tobacco policy awareness (i.e. awareness of warning labels, anti-tobacco information and smoking restrictions at work) and smoking cessation. Only the positive association of awareness of anti-tobacco information with feeling uncomfortable about smoking was significant in each of the three countries. Important people disapproval predicted whether smokers attempted to quit, although this did not reach significance in the French and German samples in multivariate analyses. Our findings suggest that anti-tobacco information campaigns about the dangers of second-hand smoke in France and about smoking cessation in the Netherlands and Germany might have reduced the social acceptability of smoking in these countries. However, campaigns that influence the perceived disapproval of smoking by important people may be needed to ultimately increase attempts to quit smoking. PMID:23861478

  7. Suspended particulate matter in dwellings - the impact of tobacco smoking

    SciTech Connect

    Revsbech, P.; Korsgaard, J.; Lundqvist, G.R.

    1987-01-01

    The indoor concentration of suspended particulate matter (SPM) was measured in 44 retrofitted and tight dwellings, which had electric cooking and were central heated and where the basic ventilation rate in median amounted 0.23 air changes per hour as measured with a tracer dilution method. The indoor concentration of SPM was in medium 230 ..mu..g/m/sup 3/ with a strong correlation to the tobacco consumption (r/sub s/ = 0.716), but with no correlation to the frequency of airing or the basic ventilation rate. Tobacco smoking seems to be the main indoor source of SPM in contemporary dwellings. The importance of these findings is underlined by epidemiologic studies on passive smoking and health. Air quality standards for the ambient air are based on certain risk groups such as infants, children, persons with chronic obstructive lung disorders, and indoor air standards should be based on the same concepts of health protection.

  8. The Influence of Tobacco Marketing on Adolescent Smoking Intentions via Normative Beliefs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Abraham; Moodie, Crawford

    2009-01-01

    Using cross-sectional data from three waves of the Youth Tobacco Policy Study, which examines the impact of the UK's Tobacco Advertising and Promotion Act (TAPA) on adolescent smoking behaviour, we examined normative pathways between tobacco marketing awareness and smoking intentions. The sample comprised 1121 adolescents in Wave 2 (pre-ban), 1123…

  9. [Chromatography analysis of tobacco smoke condensate in biology tissue].

    PubMed

    Zurabashvili, D Z; Chanturia, I R; Kapanadze, L R

    2010-01-01

    Specialized analytical instrumentation for detailed analysis of nicotine, benz(alpha)pyrene, pyridine and benzene in tooth enamel and pulp of inveterate tobacco smokers is created. A Waters PPY-24 liquid chromatograph is equipped with Model M660 solvent programmer and a Model U6K sample injector is used. A Model 440 dual-wavelength detector is used to obtain absorbance ratios on dual-pen recorder. Our data show that concentration of tobacco smoke components in tooth cavity of inveterate tobacco smokers is different. The chisel tooth pulp contained considerably more nicotine and pyridine as compared with molars. The level of benzene does not change analyzed structures. The assumption of linearity between calculation of predicted retention times and concentration has been shown to be valid up to about 8,0% for all studied compounds. PMID:20157203

  10. Menthol cigarettes and smoking initiation: a tobacco industry perspective

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To determine what the tobacco industry knew about menthol cigarettes and the initiation of smoking. Methods Based on Food and Drug Administration staff-supplied research questions we used a snowball sampling strategy to search the Legacy Tobacco Documents Library (http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu) between February and April 2010. Of the approximately 11 million documents available in the LTDL, the iterative searches returned tens of thousands of results. Researchers reviewed 2634 documents and 128 were deemed relevant to one or more of the research questions. Results The documents show that menthol is added to cigarettes in part because it is known to be an attractive feature to inexperienced smokers who perceive menthol cigarettes as less harsh and easier to smoke and because of their availability from friends and family. Second, the tobacco industry found that some youths smoke menthols because they perceive them to be less harmful than non-menthol cigarettes. A key product design issue concerns whether to increase brand menthol levels to appeal to the taste preferences of long-term menthol smokers or keep menthol levels lower to appeal to inexperienced smokers. Marketing studies showed that the companies carefully researched the menthol segment of the market in order to recruit younger smokers to their brands. The industry tracked menthol cigarette usage by age, gender and race to inform product development and marketing decisions. Conclusions Menthol is a prominent design feature used by cigarette manufacturers to attract and retain new, younger smokers. PMID:21504927

  11. [Chronic toxicity of tobacco smoke on the visual system].

    PubMed

    Oku, H; Fukushima, K; Sako, H; Namba, T; Wakakura, M

    1989-05-01

    The chronic toxicity of tobacco smoke on the rats visual system was studied. Six male Wistar rats had been subjected to five hour's daily passive smoking of 15 cigarettes for 52 weeks, in an attempt to produce tobacco amblyopia. Elongation of the peak latency time of N1 and P1 waves in the visual evoked potential (VEP) was recognized. Histopathologically, some degree of glial proliferation and pyknosis was observed in the optic nerves of all treated rats, and massive disappearance of nerve fibers was seen in one severely affected case. Electron microscopic examination proved that unmyelinated nerve fibers increased in number and the myelin sheath was thinner than that of the untreated control rats, while axons were relatively well preserved. The distribution in the magnitude of the axon diameter histogram was shifted towards a smaller diameter than that of the control rats. Electroretinography (ERG) did not show any significant changes of the latency and the amplitude of both a- and b- waves, and no histopathological changes were seen in the sensory retina. Neither functional nor histological changes were seen in the sciatic nerves. These results indicated that the optic nerve is thought to be more vulnerable to tobacco smoke than the peripheral nerves and we consider that a primary change of the nerve is demyelination at the retrobulbar portion of the optic nerve. PMID:2801365

  12. Environmental tobacco smoke and periodontal disease in the United States.

    PubMed Central

    Arbes, S J; Agústsdóttir, H; Slade, G D

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Cigarette smoking is a leading risk factor for periodontal disease. This cross-sectional study investigated the relation between environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and periodontal disease in the United States. METHODS: Data were obtained from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1988-1994). The outcome was periodontal disease, defined as 1 or more periodontal sites with attachment loss of 3 mm or greater and a pocket depth of 4 mm or greater at the same site. Exposure to ETS at home and work was self-reported. The study analyzed 6611 persons 18 years and older who had never smoked cigarettes or used other forms of tobacco. RESULTS: Exposure to ETS at home only, work only, and both was reported by 18.0%, 10.7%, and 3.8% of the study population, respectively. The adjusted odds of having periodontal disease were 1.6 (95% confidence interval = 1.1, 2.2) times greater for persons exposed to ETS than for persons not exposed. CONCLUSIONS: Among persons in the United States who had never used tobacco, those exposed to ETS were more likely to have periodontal disease than were those not exposed to ETS. PMID:11211634

  13. ESTIMATING THE DIRECT MEDICAL COSTS OF THE EFFECTS OF ENVIRONMENTAL TOBACCO SMOKE ON CHILDREN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The study of the health effects of active tobacco smoking has a well developed history. Yet, the effects of passive smoking (or exposure to environmental tobacco smoke) have been systematically studied only relatively recently. Therefore, ancillary studies that build from the hea...

  14. Carbonyl Compounds in the Gas Phase of Cigarette Mainstream Smoke and Their Pharmacological Properties.

    PubMed

    Horinouchi, Takahiro; Higashi, Tsunehito; Mazaki, Yuichi; Miwa, Soichi

    2016-01-01

    Cigarette mainstream smoke is composed of gas and tar phases and contains >4000 chemical constituents, including nicotine and tar. The substances in the gas phase but not in the tar phase can pass through the airway epithelial barrier, enter the systemic circulation via the pulmonary circulation, and increase systemic oxidative damage, leading to the development of cigarette smoking-related diseases such as atherosclerosis. Recently, we identified some stable carbonyl compounds, including acrolein (ACR) and methyl vinyl ketone (MVK), as major cytotoxic factors in nicotine- and tar-free cigarette smoke extract (CSE) of the gas phase. CSE, ACR, and MVK induce protein kinase C (PKC)-dependent activation of reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase (NOX) and subsequent generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) via NOX, causing plasma membrane damage and cell apoptosis. CSE, ACR, and MVK also trigger carbonylation of PKC, which is an irreversible oxidative modification. Cell damage and PKC carbonylation in response to treatment with CSE, ACR, or MVK are abolished by thiol-containing antioxidants such as N-acetyl-L-cysteine and reduced glutathione. Thus pharmacological modulation of PKC and NOX activities and the trapping of ROS are potential strategies for the prevention of diseases related to cigarette smoking. PMID:27251492

  15. Toxicity of marijuana and tobacco smoking in the beagle.

    PubMed

    Huy, N D; Belleau, R; Roy, P E

    1975-07-01

    Four cigarettes of marijuana or tobacco in the form of smoke inhaled into the trachea were administered to dogs daily over a period of nine months. Marijuana caused a slowing of body weight gain. Food consumption increased at first and was accompanied by diarrhea; then it decreased. This suggests a malabsorption of food or a more fundamental metabolic disturbance. The tobacco smoking group consumed much less food without showing any significant change in body weight gain in 3 and 6 months, but it did in 9 months only. In marijuana smoking dog, blood pressure remained unchanged. The resting heart rate was increased (by 32% at 3, 30% at 6, and 15% at 9 months). Alpha1-globulin, eosinophils and lymphocyte count were significantly decreased. A decrease in serum triglycerides was noted. In addition, a behavioral study permitted us to note a general perturbation in the behaviour of the marijuana smoking dogs. The dogs showed impairment of learning, probably due to these behavioral perturbations. PMID:1165134

  16. The mutagenic assessment of mainstream cigarette smoke using the Ames assay: a multi-strain approach.

    PubMed

    Thorne, David; Kilford, Joanne; Hollings, Michael; Dalrymple, Annette; Ballantyne, Mark; Meredith, Clive; Dillon, Deborah

    2015-04-01

    Salmonella typhimurium strains TA1535, TA1537, TA97, TA102 and TA104 were assessed for their suitability and use in conjunction with a Vitrocell(®) VC 10 Smoking Robot and 3R4F reference mainstream cigarette smoke. Little information exists on TA97, TA104, TA1535, TA1537 and TA102 using an aerosol 35mm spread-plate format. In this study, TA1535 and TA1537 were considered sub-optimal for use with a scaled-down format, due to low spontaneous revertant numbers (0-5 revertants/plate). In the context of a regulatory environment, TA97 is deemed an acceptable alternative for TA1537 and was therefore selected for whole smoke exposure in this study. However, there is no acceptable alternative for TA1535, therefore this strain was included for whole smoke exposure. TA1535, TA97, TA102 and TA104 were assessed for mutagenic responses following exposure to cigarette smoke at varying concentrations (using diluting airflow rates of 1.0, 4.0, 8.0 and 12.0L/min), and exposure times of 24 and 64min. A positive mutagenic response to cigarette smoke was observed in strain TA104 at both the 24 and 64min time points, in the presence of S-9, at the highest smoke concentration tested (1.0L/min diluting airflow). The three remaining strains were found to be unresponsive to cigarette smoke at all concentrations tested, in the presence and absence of metabolic activation. Cigarette smoke particulate deposition was quantified in situ of exposure using quartz crystal microbalance technology, enabling data to be presented against an associated gravimetric mass (μg/cm(2)). Finally, data obtained in this study were combined with previously published Ames data for TA98, TA100, YG1024, YG1042 and Escherichia coli (WP2 uvrA pKM101), generated using the same 35mm methodology. The combined data-set was used to propose an aerosol testing strategy, based on strain compatibility with the whole smoke aerosol, whilst maintaining the essence of the regulatory guidelines for the standard Ames assay. PMID

  17. Environmental tobacco smoke and canine urinary cotinine level

    SciTech Connect

    Bertone-Johnson, Elizabeth R. Procter-Gray, Elizabeth; Gollenberg, Audra L.; Ryan, Michele B.; Barber, Lisa G.

    2008-03-15

    Epidemiologic studies of companion animals such as dogs have been established as models for the relationship between exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and cancer risk in humans. While results from these studies are provocative, pet owner report of a dog's ETS exposure has not yet been validated. We have evaluated the relationship between dog owner's report of household smoking by questionnaire and dog's urinary cotinine level. Between January and October 2005, dog owners presenting their pet for non-emergency veterinary care at the Foster Hospital for Small Animals at Cummings School of Veterinary Medicine, Tufts University, were asked to complete a 10-page questionnaire measuring exposure to household ETS in the previous 24 h and other factors. A free-catch urine sample was also collected from dogs. Urinary cotinine level was assayed for 63 dogs, including 30 whose owners reported household smoking and 33 unexposed dogs matched on age and month of enrollment. Urinary cotinine level was significantly higher in dogs exposed to household smoking in the 24 h before urine collection compared to unexposed dogs (14.6 ng/ml vs. 7.4 ng/ml; P=0.02). After adjustment for other factors, cotinine level increased linearly with number of cigarettes smoked by all household members (P=0.004). Other canine characteristics including age, body composition and nose length were also associated with cotinine level. Findings from our study suggest that household smoking levels as assessed by questionnaire are significantly associated with canine cotinine levels.

  18. A Systematic Review on the Impact of Point-of-Sale Tobacco Promotion on Smoking

    PubMed Central

    McGee, Rob; Marsh, Louise; Hoek, Janet

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The tobacco retail environment is a crucial marketing medium for the industry. A 2009 review found evidence of a positive association between exposure to point-of-sale (POS) tobacco promotion and increased smoking and smoking susceptibility, though limitations in the evidence base were identified. Aim and Methods: We reviewed and critically appraised recent evidence documenting the influence of POS tobacco promotion, and POS tobacco display bans, on smoking-related behavior and cognitions. We reviewed original quantitative and qualitative research that examined the relationship between POS tobacco promotion and smoking prevalence, individual-level smoking and quitting and tobacco purchasing behavior, smoking susceptibility, and smoking-related cognitions. Results: Twenty peer-reviewed studies (18 quantitative and 2 qualitative) met the inclusion criteria; each study reported findings consistent with a positive association between exposure to POS tobacco promotion and smoking or smoking susceptibility. Several studies met key criteria for causality: 4 indicated a dose–response association, 2 prospective studies were identified, and evidence from intervention studies supported the reversibility of the association. Findings were consistent across different study designs, settings, and measures. Conclusions: The existing evidence supports a positive association between exposure to POS tobacco promotion and smoking. This review provides evidence to support the continuation of POS tobacco display bans in those jurisdictions where such legislation has been introduced and strengthens the evidence encouraging similar policies in jurisdictions without a POS display ban. PMID:25173775

  19. Expression of a constitutively active nitrate reductase variant in tobacco reduces tobacco-specific nitrosamine accumulation in cured leaves and cigarette smoke.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jianli; Zhang, Leichen; Lewis, Ramsey S; Bovet, Lucien; Goepfert, Simon; Jack, Anne M; Crutchfield, James D; Ji, Huihua; Dewey, Ralph E

    2016-07-01

    Burley tobaccos (Nicotiana tabacum) display a nitrogen-use-deficiency phenotype that is associated with the accumulation of high levels of nitrate within the leaf, a trait correlated with production of a class of compounds referred to as tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs). Two TSNA species, 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) and N-nitrosonornicotine (NNN), have been shown to be strong carcinogens in numerous animal studies. We investigated the potential of molecular genetic strategies to lower nitrate levels in burley tobaccos by overexpressing genes encoding key enzymes of the nitrogen-assimilation pathway. Of the various constructs tested, only the expression of a constitutively active nitrate reductase (NR) dramatically decreased free nitrate levels in the leaves. Field-grown tobacco plants expressing this NR variant exhibited greatly reduced levels of TSNAs in both cured leaves and mainstream smoke of cigarettes made from these materials. Decreasing leaf nitrate levels via expression of a constitutively active NR enzyme represents an exceptionally promising means for reducing the production of NNN and NNK, two of the most well-documented animal carcinogens found in tobacco products. PMID:26800860

  20. Tobacco smoke exposure and impact of smoking legislation on rural and non-rural hospitality venues in North Dakota.

    PubMed

    Buettner-Schmidt, Kelly; Lobo, Marie L; Travers, Mark J; Boursaw, Blake

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this cross-sectional study in a stratified random sample of 135 bars and restaurants in North Dakota was to describe factors that influenced tobacco smoke pollution levels in the venues; to compare the quantity of tobacco smoke pollution by rurality and by presence of local ordinances; and to assess compliance with state and local laws. In data collection in 2012, we measured the indoor air quality indicator of particulate matter (2.5 microns aerodynamic diameter or smaller), calculated average smoking density and occupant density, and determined compliance with state and local smoking ordinances using observational methods. As rurality increased, tobacco smoke pollution in bars increased. A significant association was found between stringency of local laws and level of tobacco smoke pollution, but the strength of the association varied by venue type. Compliance was significantly lower in venues in communities without local ordinances. Controlling for venue type, 69.2% of smoke-free policy's impact on tobacco smoke pollution levels was mediated by observed smoking. This study advances scientific knowledge on the factors influencing tobacco smoke pollution and informs public health advocates and decision makers on policy needs, especially in rural areas. PMID:25962373

  1. Effects of environmental tobacco smoke on nasal responses to live attenuated influenza virus

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: Published and preliminary data in our laboratory suggest that airborne pollutants including tobacco smoke increase susceptibility of respiratory epithelium to infection with influenza A. However, no studies have specifically looked at the interaction between tobacco s...

  2. Monitoring the tobacco use epidemic II. The Agent: Current and Emerging Tobacco Products

    PubMed Central

    Stellman, Steven D.; Djordjevic, Mirjana V.

    2009-01-01

    Objective This Agent paper summarizes the findings and recommendations of the Agent (product) Working Group of the November, 2002, National Tobacco Monitoring, Research and Evaluation Workshop. Methods The Agent Working Group evaluated the need to develop new surveillance systems for quantifying ingredients and emissions of tobacco and tobacco smoke and to improve methods to assess uptake and metabolism of these constituents taking into account variability in human smoking behavior. Results The toxic properties of numerous tobacco and tobacco smoke constituents are well known, yet systematic monitoring of tobacco products has historically been limited to tar, nicotine, and CO in mainstream cigarette smoke using a machine-smoking protocol that does not reflect human smoking behavior. Toxicity of smokeless tobacco products has not been regularly monitored. Tobacco products are constantly changing and untested products are introduced into the marketplace with great frequency, including potential reduced-exposure products (PREPs). The public health impact of new or modified tobacco products is unknown. Conclusions Systematic surveillance is recommended for mainstream smoke constituents such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNA), total and free-base nicotine, volatile organic compounds, aromatic amines, and metals; and design attributes including tobacco blend, additives, and filter ventilation. Research on smoking topography is recommended to help define machine-smoking protocols for monitoring emissions reflective of human smoking behavior. Recommendations are made for marketplace product sampling and for population monitoring of smoking topography, emissions of toxic constituents, biomarkers of exposure and, eventually, risk of tobacco-related diseases. PMID:18848577

  3. The impact of tobacco prices on smoking onset in Vietnam: duration analyses of retrospective data.

    PubMed

    Guindon, G Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    The benefits of preventing smoking onset are well known, and even just delaying smoking onset conveys benefits. Tobacco control policies are of critical importance to low-income countries with high smoking rates such as Vietnam where smoking prevalence is greater than 55 % in young men between the ages of 25 and 45. Using a survey of teens and young adults, I conducted duration analyses to explore the impact of tobacco price on smoking onset. The results suggest that tobacco prices in Vietnam have a statistically significant and fairly substantial effect on the onset of smoking. Increases in average tobacco prices, measured by an index of tobacco prices and by the prices of two popular brands, are found to delay smoking onset. Of particular interest is the finding that Vietnamese youth are more sensitive to changes in prices of a popular international brand that has had favourable tax treatment since the late 1990s. PMID:23471691

  4. Waterpipe Tobacco Smoking in the United States: Findings from the National Adult Tobacco Survey

    PubMed Central

    Salloum, Ramzi G.; Thrasher, James F.; Kates, Frederick R.; Maziak, Wasim

    2014-01-01

    Objective To report prevalence and correlates of waterpipe tobacco smoking (WTS) use among U.S. adults. Methods Data were from the 2009–2010 National Adult Tobacco Survey, a nationally representative sample of U.S. adults. Estimates of WTS ever and current use were reported overall, and by sex, age, race/ethnicity, educational attainment, annual household income, sexual orientation, and cigarette smoking status. State-level prevalence rates of WTS ever were reported using choropleth thematic maps for the overall population and by sex. Results The national prevalence of WTS ever was 9.8% and 1.5% for current use. WTS ever was more prevalent among those who are male (13.4%), 18–24 years old (28.4%) compared to older adults, non-Hispanic White (9.8%) compared to non-Hispanic Black, with some college education (12.4%) compared to no high school diploma, and reporting sexual minority status (21.1%) compared to heterosexuals. States with highest prevalence included DC(17.3%), NV(15.8%), and CA(15.5%). Conclusion WTS is now common among young adults in the US and high in regions where cigarette smoking prevalence is lowest and smoke-free policies have a longer history. To reduce its use, WTS should be included in smoke-free regulations and state and federal regulators should consider policy development in other areas, including taxes, labeling, and distribution. PMID:25535678

  5. Environmental tobacco smoke aerosol in non-smoking households of patients with chronic respiratory diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chalbot, Marie-Cecile; Vei, Ino-Christina; Lianou, Maria; Kotronarou, Anastasia; Karakatsani, Anna; Katsouyanni, Klea; Hoek, Gerard; Kavouras, Ilias G.

    2012-12-01

    Fine particulate matter samples were collected in an urban ambient fixed site and, outside and inside residencies in Athens greater area, Greece. n-Alkanes, iso/anteiso-alkanes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were identified by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. The values of concentration diagnostic ratios indicated a mixture of vehicular emissions, fuel evaporation, oil residues and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) in outdoor and indoor samples. Particulate iso/anteiso-alkanes, specific tracers of ETS, were detected in both non-smoking and smoking households. The indoor-to-outdoor ratios of particulate iso/anteiso-alkanes and unresolved complex mixture (a tracer of outdoor air pollution) in non-smoking households were comparable to the measured air exchange rate. This suggested that penetration of outdoor air was solely responsible for the detection of tobacco smoke particulate tracers in indoor non-smoking environments. Overall, residential outdoor concentrations accounted for a large fraction (from 25 up to 79%) of indoor aliphatic and polyaromatic hydrocarbons. Open windows/doors and the operation of an air condition unit yielded also in higher indoor concentrations than those measured outdoors.

  6. Smoking Behaviors and Attitudes During Adolescence Prospectively Predict Support for Tobacco Control Policies in Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Chassin, Laurie; Presson, Clark C.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Several cross-sectional studies have examined factors associated with support for tobacco control policies. The current study utilized a longitudinal design to test smoking status and attitude toward smoking measured in adolescence as prospective predictors of support for tobacco control policies measured in adulthood. Methods: Participants (N = 4,834) were from a longitudinal study of a Midwestern community-based sample. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses tested adolescent smoking status and attitude toward smoking as prospective predictors (after controlling for sociodemographic factors, adult smoking status, and adult attitude toward smoking) of support for regulation of smoking in public places, discussion of the dangers of smoking in public schools, prohibiting smoking in bars, eliminating smoking on television and in movies, prohibiting smoking in restaurants, and increasing taxes on cigarettes. Results: Participants who smoked during adolescence demonstrated more support for discussion of the dangers of smoking in public schools and less support for increasing taxes on cigarettes but only among those who smoked as adults. Those with more positive attitudes toward smoking during adolescence demonstrated less support as adults for prohibiting smoking in bars and eliminating smoking on television and in movies. Moreover, a significant interaction indicated that those with more positive attitudes toward smoking as adolescents demonstrated less support as adults for prohibiting smoking in restaurants, but only if they became parents as adults. Conclusions: This study’s findings suggest that interventions designed to deter adolescent smoking may have future benefits in increasing support for tobacco control policies. PMID:22193576

  7. Inhibition of tobacco smoke-induced lung inflammation by a catalytic antioxidant.

    PubMed

    Smith, Kevin R; Uyeminami, Dale L; Kodavanti, Urmila P; Crapo, James D; Chang, Ling-Ying; Pinkerton, Kent E

    2002-10-15

    Cigarette smokers experience airway inflammation and epithelial damage, the mechanisms of which are unknown. One potential cause may be free radicals either in tobacco smoke or produced during persistent inflammation. Inflammation may also be a driving force to cause airway epithelium to undergo changes leading to squamous cell metaplasia. To test whether tobacco smoke-induced inflammation could be reduced by a catalytic antioxidant, manganese(III)meso-tetrakis(N,N'-diethyl-1,3-imidazolium-2-yl) porphyrin (AEOL 10150) was given by intratracheal instillation to rats exposed to filtered air or tobacco smoke. Exposure to tobacco smoke for 2 d or 8 weeks (6 h/d, 3 d/week) significantly increased the number of cells recovered by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). AEOL 10150 significantly decreased BAL cell number in tobacco smoke-treated rats. Significant reductions in neutrophils were noted at 2 d and macrophages at 8 weeks. Lymphocytes were significantly reduced by AEOL 10150 at both time points. Squamous cell metaplasia following 8 weeks of tobacco smoke exposure was 12% of the total airway epithelial area in animals exposed to tobacco smoke without AEOL 10150, compared with 2% in animals exposed to tobacco smoke, but treated with AEOL 10150 (p <.05). We conclude that a synthetic catalytic antioxidant decreased the adverse effects of exposure to tobacco smoke. PMID:12374622

  8. Smoking behaviours and attitudes toward tobacco control among assistant environmental health officer trainees.

    PubMed

    Tee, G H; Gurpreet, K; Hairi, N N; Zarihah, Z; Fadzilah, K

    2013-12-01

    Assistant environmental health officers (AEHO) are health care providers (HCPs) who act as enforcers, educators and trusted role models for the public. This is the first study to explore smoking behaviour and attitudes toward tobacco control among future HCPs. Almost 30% of AEHO trainees did not know the role of AEHOs in counselling smokers to stop smoking, but 91% agreed they should not smoke before advising others not to do so. The majority agreed that tobacco control regulations may be used as a means of reducing the prevalence of smoking. Future AEHOs had positive attitudes toward tobacco regulations but lacked understanding of their responsibility in tobacco control measures. PMID:24200284

  9. The influence of tobacco smoking on adhesion molecule profiles

    PubMed Central

    Scott, DA; Palmer, RM

    2003-01-01

    Sequential interactions between several adhesion molecules and their ligands regulate lymphocyte circulation and leukocyte recruitment to inflammatory foci. Adhesion molecules are, therefore, central and critical components of the immune and inflammatory system. We review the evidence that tobacco smoking dysregulates specific components of the adhesion cascade, which may be a common factor in several smoking-induced diseases. Smoking causes inappropriate leukocyte activation, leukocyte-endothelial adhesion, and neutrophil entrapment in the microvasculature, which may help initiate local tissue destruction. Appropriate inflammatory reactions may thus be compromised. In addition to smoke-induced alterations to membrane bound endothelial and leukocyte adhesion molecule expression, which may help explain the above phenomena, smoking has a profound influence on circulating adhesion molecule profiles, most notably sICAM-1 and specific sCD44 variants. Elevated concentrations of soluble adhesion molecules may simply reflect ongoing inflammatory processes. However, increasing evidence suggests that specific soluble adhesion molecules are immunomodulatory, and that alterations to soluble adhesion molecule profiles may represent a significant risk factor for several diverse diseases. This evidence is discussed herein.

  10. The influence of tobacco smoking on adhesion molecule profiles

    PubMed Central

    Scott, DA; Palmer, RM

    2003-01-01

    Sequential interactions between several adhesion molecules and their ligands regulate lymphocyte circulation and leukocyte recruitment to inflammatory foci. Adhesion molecules are, therefore, central and critical components of the immune and inflammatory system. We review the evidence that tobacco smoking dysregulates specific components of the adhesion cascade, which may be a common factor in several smoking-induced diseases. Smoking causes inappropriate leukocyte activation, leukocyte-endothelial adhesion, and neutrophil entrapment in the microvasculature, which may help initiate local tissue destruction. Appropriate inflammatory reactions may thus be compromised. In addition to smoke-induced alterations to membrane bound endothelial and leukocyte adhesion molecule expression, which may help explain the above phenomena, smoking has a profound influence on circulating adhesion molecule profiles, most notably sICAM-1 and specific sCD44 variants. Elevated concentrations of soluble adhesion molecules may simply reflect ongoing inflammatory processes. However, increasing evidence suggests that specific soluble adhesion molecules are immunomodulatory, and that alterations to soluble adhesion molecule profiles may represent a significant risk factor for several diverse diseases. This evidence is discussed herein. PMID:19570245

  11. Thirdhand tobacco smoke: procedures to evaluate cytotoxicity in cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Figueiró, Luciana Rizzieri; Dantas, Denise Conceição Mesquita; Linden, Rafael; Ziulkoski, Ana Luiza

    2016-06-01

    The risks associated to tobacco smoking are not ceased with smoke extinction. Many toxic compounds remain in the environment after the cigarette is extinguished and accumulated in the air or on surfaces. However, little is known about the risks of this exposure. The aim of this study was to evaluate procedures to collect thirdhand smoke (THS) and prepare the samples to perform three in vitro toxicity tests. Cellulose papers and cotton wipes were used to impregnate with nicotine solution and smoke cigarette in a chamber or in smoker's home. Samples were immersed in methanol or Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM) to expose Hep-2 cells. MTT, neutral red uptake (NRU) and trypan blue assays were performed. The concentration of nicotine in DMEM extract of THS in paper and cotton was similar to those in methanol extract (p > 0.05). Alterations in the mitochondrial and lysosomal functions were found in both paper and cotton samples; however, the cytotoxic effect was not always observed. There was a decrease of 21-31% in MTT assay and 38-56% in NRU assay (p < 0.003). There was a dose-response relationship between the amount of cigarettes and lysosomal viability; the correlation was higher for cotton samples (r = -0.843, p < 0.001). As a dose-response relationship was found only in NRU assay, this test may be a more suitable choice rather than the MTT assay. Paper and wipe sampling can be reliable markers of tobacco smoke contamination. Moreover, these materials, if properly prepared, can be used as substrate providers to perform cellular assays. PMID:27268319

  12. Nicotelline: a proposed biomarker and environmental tracer for particulate matter derived from tobacco smoke.

    PubMed

    Jacob, Peyton; Goniewicz, Maciej L; Havel, Christopher M; Schick, Suzaynn F; Benowitz, Neal L

    2013-11-18

    Particulate matter (PM) derived from tobacco smoke contains numerous toxic substances. Since the PM and gas phase of tobacco smoke may distribute differently in the environment and substances in them may have different human bioavailability, multiple tracers and biomarkers for tobacco smoke constituents are desirable. Nicotelline is a relatively nonvolatile alkaloid present in tobacco smoke, and therefore, it has the potential to be a suitable tracer and biomarker for tobacco smoke-derived PM. We describe experiments demonstrating that nicotelline is present almost entirely in the PM, in both freshly generated cigarette smoke and aged cigarette smoke. An excellent correlation between the mass of nicotelline and the mass of the PM in aged cigarette smoke was found. We also describe experiments suggesting that the main source of nicotelline in tobacco smoke is dehydrogenation of another little-studied tobacco alkaloid, anatalline, during the burning process. We show that nicotelline metabolites can be measured in the urine of smokers and that nicotelline can be measured in house dust from homes of smokers and nonsmokers. We conclude that nicotelline should be useful as a tracer and biomarker for PM derived from tobacco smoke. PMID:24125094

  13. Nicotelline: A Proposed Biomarker and Environmental Tracer for Particulate Matter Derived from Tobacco Smoke

    PubMed Central

    Jacob, Peyton; Goniewicz, Maciej L.; Havel, Christopher; Schick, Suzaynn F.; Benowitz, Neal L.

    2013-01-01

    Particulate matter (PM) derived from tobacco smoke contains numerous toxic substances. Since the PM and gas phase of tobacco smoke may distribute differently in the environment, and substances in them may have different human bioavailability, multiple tracers and biomarkers for tobacco smoke constituents are desirable. Nicotelline is a relatively non-volatile alkaloid present in tobacco smoke, and therefore it has the potential to be a suitable tracer and biomarker for tobacco smoke-derived PM. We describe experiments demonstrating that nicotelline is present almost entirely in the PM, in both freshly generated cigarette smoke and aged cigarette smoke. An excellent correlation between the mass of nicotelline and the mass of the PM in aged cigarette smoke was found. We also describe experiments suggesting that the main source of nicotelline in tobacco smoke is dehydrogenation of another little-studied tobacco alkaloid, anatalline, during the burning process. We show that nicotelline metabolites can be measured in urine of smokers, and that nicotelline can be measured in house dust from homes of smokers and non-smokers. We conclude that nicotelline should be useful as a tracer and biomarker for PM derived from tobacco smoke. PMID:24125094

  14. Pentoxifylline Attenuates Cardiac Remodeling Induced by Tobacco Smoke Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Minicucci, Marcos; Oliveira, Fernando; Santos, Priscila; Polegato, Bertha; Roscani, Meliza; Fernandes, Ana Angelica; Lustosa, Beatriz; Paiva, Sergio; Zornoff, Leonardo; Azevedo, Paula

    2016-01-01

    Background Tobacco smoke exposure is an important risk factor for cardiac remodeling. Under this condition, inflammation, oxidative stress, energy metabolism abnormalities, apoptosis, and hypertrophy are present. Pentoxifylline has anti‑inflammatory, anti-apoptotic, anti-thrombotic and anti-proliferative properties. Objective The present study tested the hypothesis that pentoxifylline would attenuate cardiac remodeling induced by smoking. Methods Wistar rats were distributed in four groups: Control (C), Pentoxifylline (PX), Tobacco Smoke (TS), and PX-TS. After two months, echocardiography, invasive blood pressure measurement, biochemical, and histological studies were performed. The groups were compared by two-way ANOVA with a significance level of 5%. Results TS increased left atrium diameter and area, which was attenuated by PX. In the isolated heart study, TS lowered the positive derivate (+dp/dt), and this was attenuated by PX. The antioxidants enzyme superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase were decreased in the TS group; PX recovered these activities. TS increased lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and decreased 3-hydroxyacyl Coenzyme A dehydrogenases (OH-DHA) and citrate synthase (CS). PX attenuated LDH, 3-OH-DHA and CS alterations in TS-PX group. TS increased IL-10, ICAM-1, and caspase-3. PX did not influence these variables. Conclusion TS induced cardiac remodeling, associated with increased inflammation, oxidative stress, apoptosis, and changed energy metabolism. PX attenuated cardiac remodeling by reducing oxidative stress and improving cardiac bioenergetics, but did not act upon cardiac cytokines and apoptosis. PMID:27096523

  15. South African tobacco smoking cessation clinical practice guideline.

    PubMed

    van Zyl-Smit, Richard N; Allwood, Brian; Stickells, David; Symons, Gregory; Abdool-Gaffar, Sabs; Murphy, Kathy; Lalloo, Umesh; Vanker, Aneesa; Dheda, Keertan; Richards, Guy

    2013-11-01

    Tobacco smoking (i.e. cigarettes, rolled tobacco, pipes, etc.) is associated with significant health risks, reduced life expectancy and negative personal and societal economic impact. Smokers have an increased risk of cancer (i.e. lung, throat, bladder), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), tuberculosis and cardiovascular disease (i.e. stroke, heart attack). Smoking affects unborn babies, children and others exposed to second hand smoke. Stopping or 'quitting' is not easy. Nicotine is highly addictive and smoking is frequently associated with social activities (e.g. drinking, eating) or psychological factors (e.g. work pressure, concerns about body weight, anxiety or depressed mood). The benefits of quitting, however, are almost immediate, with a rapid lowering of blood pressure and heart rate, improved taste and smell, and a longer-term reduction in risk of cancer, heart attack and COPD. Successful quitting requires attention to both the factors surrounding why an individual smokes (e.g. stress, depression, habit, etc.) and the symptoms associated with nicotine withdrawal. Many smokers are not ready or willing to quit and require frequent motivational input outlining the benefits that would accrue. In addition to an evaluation of nicotine dependence, co-existent medical or psychiatric conditions and barriers to quitting should be identified. A tailored approach encompassing psychological and social support, in addition to appropriate medication to reduce nicotine withdrawal, is likely to provide the best chance of success. Relapse is not uncommon and reasons for failure should be addressed in a positive manner and further attempts initiated when the individual is ready.Key steps in smoking cessation include: (i) identifying all smokers, alerting them to the harms of smoking and benefits of quitting; (ii) assessing readiness to initiate an attempt to quit; (iii) assessing the physical and psychological dependence to nicotine and smoking; (iv) determining

  16. Waterpipe Tobacco Smoking and Susceptibility to Cigarette Smoking Among Young Adults in the United States, 2012–2013

    PubMed Central

    Haider, M. Rifat; Barnett, Tracey E.; Guo, Yi; Getz, Kayla R.; Thrasher, James F.; Maziak, Wasim

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Waterpipe tobacco smoking, also known as hookah and shisha, has surged in popularity among young people in the United States. Waterpipe is also increasingly becoming the first tobacco product that young people try. Given the limited access to and limited portability of waterpipes, waterpipe smokers who become more nicotine dependent over time may be more likely to turn to cigarettes. This study examined the relationship between waterpipe tobacco smoking and susceptibility to cigarette smoking among young adults in the United States. Methods Using data from the 2012–2013 National Adult Tobacco Survey, a nationally representative sample of US adults, we reported rates of current waterpipe smoking and susceptibility to cigarette smoking by demographic characteristics and by use of other tobacco products among survey participants aged 18 to 24 years. Multivariable logistic regression was used to examine the relationship between current waterpipe smoking and susceptibility to cigarette smoking, defined as the lack of a firm intention not to smoke soon or within the next year. Results Of 2,528 young adults who had never established cigarette smoking, 15.7% (n = 398) reported being waterpipe smokers (every day or some days [n = 97; 3.8%] or rarely [n = 301; 11.9%]); 44.2% (176/398) of waterpipe smokers reported being susceptible to cigarette smoking. Those who smoked waterpipe rarely were 2.3 times as susceptible to cigarette smoking as those who were not current waterpipe smokers (OR = 2.3; 95% CI, 1.6–3.4). Conclusion Current waterpipe smoking is associated with susceptibility to cigarette smoking among young adults in the United States. Longitudinal studies are needed to demonstrate causality between waterpipe smoking and initiation of cigarette smoking. PMID:26890407

  17. Brain Reactivity to Smoking Cues Prior to Smoking Cessation Predicts Ability to Maintain Tobacco Abstinence

    PubMed Central

    Janes, Amy C.; Pizzagalli, Diego A.; Richardt, Sarah; Frederick, Blaise deB.; Chuzi, Sarah; Pachas, Gladys; Culhane, Melissa A.; Holmes, Avram J.; Fava, Maurizio; Evins, A. Eden; Kaufman, Marc J.

    2010-01-01

    Background Developing means to identify smokers at high risk for relapse could advance relapse prevention therapy. We hypothesized that functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) reactivity to smoking-related cues, measured prior to a quit attempt, could identify smokers with heightened relapse vulnerability. Methods Twenty-one nicotine-dependent women underwent fMRI prior to quitting smoking, during which smoking-related and neutral images were shown. These smokers also were tested for possible attentional biases to smoking-related words using a computerized emotional Stroop (ES) task previously found to predict relapse. Smokers then made a quit attempt and were grouped based on outcomes (abstinence versus slip: smoking 1 cigarette after attaining abstinence). Pre-quit fMRI and ES measurements in these groups were compared. Results Slip subjects had heightened fMRI reactivity to smoking-related images in brain regions implicated in emotion, interoceptive awareness, and motor planning and execution. Smoking cue-induced insula and dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) reactivity correlated with an attentional bias to smoking-related words. A discriminant analysis of ES and fMRI data predicted outcomes with 79% accuracy. Additionally, smokers who slipped had decreased fMRI functional connectivity between an insula-containing network and brain regions involved in cognitive control, including the dACC and dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex, possibly reflecting reduced top-down control of smoking-related cue-induced emotions. Conclusions These findings suggest that the insula and dACC are important substrates of smoking relapse vulnerability. The data also suggest that relapse-vulnerable smokers can be identified prior to quit attempts, which could enable personalized treatment, improve tobacco-dependence treatment outcomes, and reduce smoking-related morbidity and mortality. PMID:20172508

  18. Tobacco-specific N-nitrosamines and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in cigarettes smoked by the participants of the Shanghai Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Yershova, Katrina; Yuan, Jian-Min; Wang, Renwei; Valentin, Liza; Watson, Clifford; Gao, Yu-Tang; Hecht, Stephen S; Stepanov, Irina

    2016-09-15

    Our recent studies on tobacco smoke carcinogen and toxicant biomarkers and cancer risk among male smokers in the Shanghai Cohort Study showed that exposure to tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNA) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) is prospectively associated with the risk of cancer. These findings support the hypothesis that the smokers' cancer risk is a function of the dose of select tobacco carcinogens and highlight the importance of understanding the factors that affect the intake of these carcinogens by smokers. Given that tobacco constituent exposures are driven, at least in part, by the levels of these constituents in cigarette smoke, we measured mainstream smoke TSNA and PAH levels in 43 Chinese cigarette brands that participants of the Shanghai Cohort Study reported to smoke. In all brands analyzed here, mainstream smoke levels of NNN and NNK, the two carcinogenic TSNA, were generally relatively low, averaging (±SD) 16.8(±25.1) and 14.2(±9.5) ng/cigarette, respectively. The levels of PAH were comparable to those found in U.S. cigarettes, averaging 15(±9) ng/cigarette for benzo[a]pyrene, 119(±66) ng/cigarette for phenanthrene and 37(±19) ng/cigarette for pyrene. Our findings indicate that the generally low levels of NNN and NNK are most likely responsible for the relatively low levels of the corresponding biomarkers in the urine of the Shanghai Cohort Study participants as compared to those found in the U.S. smokers, supporting the role of the levels of these constituents in cigarette smoke in smokers' exposures. Our findings also suggest that, in addition to smoking, other sources contribute to Chinese smokers' exposure to PAH. PMID:27163125

  19. Nicotine and tobacco

    MedlinePlus

    Withdrawal from nicotine; Smoking - nicotine addiction and withdrawal; Smokeless tobacco - nicotine addiction; Cigar smoking; Pipe smoking; Smokeless snuff; Tobacco use; Chewing tobacco; Nicotine addiction and tobacco

  20. The effect of long term storage on tobacco smoke particulate matter in in vitro genotoxicity and cytotoxicity assays.

    PubMed

    Crooks, I; Dillon, D M; Scott, J K; Ballantyne, M; Meredith, C

    2013-03-01

    Particulate matter (PM) collected from mainstream tobacco smoke is a test article commonly used for in vitro genotoxicity and cytotoxicity testing of combustible tobacco products. However, little published data exists concerning the stability of PM. We completed a 2 year study to quantify the effect of PM storage at -80 °C, on the genotoxicity and cytotoxicity of PM generated from 3R4F and M4A reference cigarettes. The Ames test, Micronucleus assay (MNvit), Mouse Lymphoma assay (MLA) and the Neutral Red Uptake assay (NRU) were used. The majority of M4A and 3R4F PMs were genotoxic and cytotoxic at the timepoints tested. Some minor but statistically significant differences were observed for stored versus freshly prepared PM, but the magnitude of changes were within the variability observed for repeat testing. PMID:23220485

  1. Air pollution, environmental tobacco smoke, radon, and lung cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, W.A.

    1988-11-01

    The health of populations in industrialized societies has been affected for many years by ambient air pollutants presenting a threat of chronic bronchitis and lung cancer. In the 1980s indoor pollutants received much needed investigation to assess their hazards to health. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke and radon is now the subject of much research and concern. This review attempts to put some perspective on lung cancer that is attributable to lifetime exposure to airborne pollutants. The view is expressed that air pollution control authorities have played and are playing a major role in health improvement.

  2. Discriminability of nicotine in tobacco smoke: implications for titration.

    PubMed

    Rose, J E

    1984-01-01

    Cigarette smokers were presented with puffs from either high (2.5 mg), medium (1.5 mg) or low (.5 mg) nicotine cigarettes in order to determine their ability to discriminate nicotine delivery in tobacco smoke. Puffs were presented in random order during each of two conditions and tar content was controlled by using research cigarettes and a smoke mixing device that varied only nicotine. The first condition allowed olfactory stimuli to be used in discrimination, while the second condition blocked olfaction by occluding subjects' nostrils. In both conditions, subjects discriminated between the nicotine content of different puffs, with higher nicotine puffs rated as significantly stronger (by roughly 50%). Subjective desirability ratings did not vary with nicotine delivery. The implications of the magnitude of change in subjects' ratings for theories of nicotine titration are discussed. PMID:6741679

  3. System level approaches for mainstreaming tobacco control into existing health programs in India: Perspectives from the field

    PubMed Central

    Panda, Rajmohan; Srivastava, Swati; Persai, Divya; Mendenhall, Emily; Arora, Monika; Mathur, Manu Raj

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: India is the second largest consumer of tobacco in the world, and varieties of both smoked and smokeless tobacco products are widely available. The national program for tobacco control is run like a vertical stand-alone program. There is a lack of understanding of existing opportunities and barriers within the health programs that influence the integration of tobacco control messages into them. The present formative research identifies such opportunities and barriers. Methods: We conducted a multi-step, mixed methodological study of primary care personnel and policy-makers in two Indian states of Andhra Pradesh and Gujarat. The primary purpose of our study was to investigate health worker and policy-maker perceptions on the integration of tobacco control intervention. We systematically collected data in three steps: In Step I, we conducted in-depth interviews (IDIs) and focus group discussions with primary care health personnel, Step II consists of a quantitative survey among health care providers (n = 1457) to test knowledge, attitudes and practices in tobacco control and Step III we conducted 75 IDIs with program heads and policy-makers to evaluate the relative congruence of their views on integration of the tobacco control program. Results: Majority of the health care providers recognized tobacco use as a major health problem. There was a general consensus for the need of training for effective dissemination of information from health care providers to patients. Almost 92% of the respondents opined that integration of tobacco control with other health programs will be highly effective to downscale the tobacco epidemic. Conclusions: Our findings suggest the need for integration of tobacco control program into existing health programs. Integration of tobacco control strategies into the health care system within primary and secondary care will be more effective and counseling for tobacco cessation should be available for population at large. PMID

  4. A new assessment method of outdoor tobacco smoke (OTS) exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Hyeri; Lee, Kiyoung

    2014-04-01

    Outdoor tobacco smoke (OTS) is concerned due to potential health effects. An assessment method of OTS exposure is needed to determine effects of OTS and validate outdoor smoking policies. The objective of this study was to develop a new method to assess OTS exposure. This study was conducted at 100 bus stops including 50 centerline bus stops and 50 roadside bus stops in Seoul, Korea. Using real-time aerosol monitor, PM2.5 was measured for 30 min at each bus stop in two seasons. ‘Peak analysis' method was developed to assess short term PM2.5 exposure by OTS. The 30-min average PM2.5 exposure at each bus stop was associated with season and bus stop location but not smoking activity. The PM2.5 peak occurrence rate by the peak analysis method was significantly associated with season, bus stop location, observed smoking occurrence, and the number of buses servicing a route. The PM2.5 peak concentration was significantly associated with season, smoking occurrence, and the number of buses servicing a route. When a smoker was standing still at the bus stop, magnitude of peak concentrations were significantly higher than when the smoker walking-through the bus stop. People were exposed to high short-term PM2.5 peak levels at bus stops, and the magnitude of peak concentrations were highest when a smoker was located close to the monitor. The magnitude of peak concentration was a good indicator helped distinguish nearby OTS exposure. Further research using ‘peak analysis' is needed to measure smoking-related exposure to PM2.5 in other outdoor locations.

  5. Exposure of U.S. workers to environmental tobacco smoke.

    PubMed Central

    Hammond, S K

    1999-01-01

    The concentrations of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) to which workers are exposed have been measured, using nicotine or other tracers, in diverse workplaces. Policies restricting workplace smoking to a few designated areas have been shown to reduce concentrations of ETS, although the effectiveness of such policies varies among work sites. Policies that ban smoking in the workplace are the most effective and generally lower all nicotine concentrations to less than 1 microg/m3; by contrast, mean concentrations measured in workplaces that allow smoking generally range from 2 to 6 microg/m3 in offices, from 3 to 8 microg/m3 in restaurants, and from 1 to 6 microg/m3 in the workplaces of blue-collar workers. Mean nicotine concentrations from 1 to 3 microg/m3 have been measured in the homes of smokers. Furthermore, workplace concentrations are highly variable, and some concentrations are more than 10 times higher than the average home levels, which have been established to cause lung cancer, heart disease, and other adverse health effects. For the approximately 30% of workers exposed to ETS in the workplace but not in the home, workplace exposure is the principal source of ETS. Among those with home exposures, exposures at work may exceed those resulting from home. We conclude that a significant number of U.S. workers are exposed to hazardous levels of ETS. Images Figure 2 Figure 4 PMID:10350518

  6. Risks of tobacco

    MedlinePlus

    Secondhand smoke - risks; Cigarette smoking - risks; Smoking and smokeless tobacco - risks ... tobacco that are known to cause cancer. HEALTH RISKS OF SMOKING OR USING SMOKELESS TOBACCO Knowing the ...

  7. Prevalence and Correlates of Waterpipe Tobacco Smoking by College Students in North Carolina

    PubMed Central

    Sutfin, Erin L.; McCoy, Thomas P.; Reboussin, Beth A.; Wagoner, Kimberly G.; Spangler, John; Wolfson, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Background Known most commonly in the U.S. as “hookah,” waterpipe tobacco smoking appears to be growing among college students. Despite beliefs that waterpipe use is safer than cigarette smoking, research to date (albeit limited) has found health risks of waterpipe smoking are similar to those associated with cigarette smoking, including lung cancer, respiratory illness, and periodontal disease. The goals of this study were to estimate the prevalence of use among a large, multi-institution sample of college students and identify correlates of waterpipe use, including other health-risk behaviors (i.e., cigarette smoking, alcohol, marijuana, and other illicit drug use) and availability of commercial waterpipe tobacco smoking venues. Methods A cross-sectional sample of 3,770 college students from eight universities in North Carolina completed a web-based survey in fall 2008. Results Forty percent of the sample reported ever having smoked tobacco from a waterpipe, and 17% reported current (past 30-day) waterpipe tobacco smoking. Correlates associated with current waterpipe use included demographic factors (male gender, freshman class); other health-risk behaviors (daily and nondaily cigarette smoking, alcohol use, marijuana use, other illicit drug use); perceiving waterpipe tobacco smoking as less harmful than regular cigarettes; and having a commercial waterpipe venue near campus. Conclusions The results highlight the popularity of waterpipe tobacco smoking among college students and underscore the need for more research to assess the public health implications of this growing trend. PMID:21353750

  8. Biological activity of tobacco smoke and tobacco smoke-related chemicals.

    PubMed Central

    Kouri, R E; Rude, T H; Curren, R D; Brandt, K R; Sosnowski, R G; Schechtman, L M; Benedict, W F; Henry, C J

    1979-01-01

    Exposure to whole cigarette smoke from reference cigarettes results in the prompt (peak activity is 6 hrs), but fairly weak (similar to 2 fold), induction of murine pulmonary microsomal monooxygenase activity. This activity can be detected by using as substrates either benzo(a)pyrene or ethoxyresorufin, and can be inhibited by treatment with cycloheximide or actinomycin D. Unlike the induction of pulmonary monooxygenases following intratracheal administration of 3-methylcholanthrene, these cigarette smoke-induced increases were not unequivocally linked to the Ah locus. Whole smoke condensate and fractions derived from these condensates can; a) induce pulmonary monooxygenase activity, b) inhibit benzo(a)pyrene metabolism in vitro, c) be metabolized to forms mutagenic to Salmonella typhimurium tester strains TA153, or TA98, d) transform C3H 10T1/2 cells in vitro, and e) enhance the carcinogenicity of benzo(a)pyrene in murine pulmonary tissue. A potentially important observation is that whereas hepatic tissue is capable of activating whole cigarette smoke condensate to mutagenic forms in vitro, murine pulmonary tissue does not seem capable of such activation. Although these pulmonary-derived tissue homogenates have significant AHH activity and can metabolize Aflatoxin B1, 2-aminofluorene and 7, 8-dihydro-7,8-dihydroxybenzo(a)pyrene to mutagenic forms, these homogenates fail to activate both cigarette smoke condensate and the pro-mutagen, 6-aminochrysene. These results are discussed with reference to the concept that whole cigarette smoke may be both a potential "initiator" and "promotor" of lung cancer in mice, and that this latter property may be the most important in determining cancer risk. PMID:510243

  9. Exploration of the Link between Tobacco Retailers in School Neighborhoods and Student Smoking

    PubMed Central

    Jason, Leonard A.; Pokorny, Steven; Hunt, Yvonne

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND School smoking bans give officials the authority to provide a smoke-free environment, but enacting policies within the school walls is just one step in comprehensive tobacco prevention among students. It is necessary to investigate factors beyond the school campus and into the neighborhoods that surround schools. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between the density of tobacco retailers and the illegal tobacco sales rate within school neighborhoods and smoking behaviors among students. METHODS This study utilized secondary data from the baseline of the Youth Tobacco Access Project. Data were collected from 10,662 students attending 21 middle schools and 19 high schools, in addition to 512 tobacco retailers, all within 24 towns in Illinois during 2002. A random-effects regression analysis was performed to assess the relationship between the density of tobacco retailers and illegal tobacco sales rates on current smoking and lifetime smoking prevalence. RESULTS Schools had a range of between zero and 9 tobacco retailers within their neighborhood with a mean of 2.76 retailers (SD= 2.45). The illegal sales rate varied from zero to 100%, with a mean of thirteen percent. The density of tobacco retailers was significantly related to the prevalence of ever smoking among students (b= 0.09, t(29) = 2.03, p = .051, OR = 1.10), but not to current smoking (p >.05); the illegal tobacco sales rate was not related to current smoking or lifetime smoking prevalence (p >.05). CONCLUSION Results indicate that tobacco retailer density may impact smoking experimentation/initiation PMID:23331271

  10. Analysis of mainstream and sidestream cigarette smoke particulate matter by laser desorption mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Schramm, Sébastien; Carré, Vincent; Scheffler, Jean-Luc; Aubriet, Frédéric

    2011-01-01

    Laser desorption ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (LDI-FTICRMS) was used to investigate particulate matter (PM) associated with mainstream (MSS) and sidestream cigarette smokes (SSS). The high mass resolution and the high mass measurement accuracy allowed a molecular formula for each detected signal in the 150-500 m/z range to be assigned. The high number of peaks observed in mass spectra required additional data processing to extract information. In this context, Kendrick maps and Van Krevelen diagrams were drawn. These postacquisition treatments were used to more easily compare different cigarette smokes: (i) MSS from different cigarettes and (ii) MSS and SSS from the same cigarette. In both ion detection modes, most of the detected species were found to be attributed to C(6-31)H(2-35)N(0-7)O(0-9) compounds. The compounds observed in the study of SSS appeared to be more unsaturated and less oxygenated than those observed when MSS of the same cigarette was investigated. PMID:21126024

  11. DO CHILDREN BENEFIT FROM INCREASING CIGARETTE TAXES? ACCOUNTING FOR THE ENDOGENEITY OF LUNG HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL TOBACCO SMOKE EXPOSURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    My research investigates the relationship between environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure and lung function in children. I use detailed individual health data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Survey (NHANES III) to measure the effect of environmental tobacco smoke ...

  12. Awareness of tobacco advertising, perceived harms of smoking, and beliefs about tobacco control among a sample of Shanghainese in China.

    PubMed

    Zheng, PinPin; Qian, Haihong; Wang, Fan; Sun, Shaojing; Nehl, Eric J; Wong, Frank Y

    2013-10-01

    This study aims to examine beliefs among residents of Shanghai, China concerning tobacco advertising and control policies concurrent with new restrictions on tobacco use and advertising in the city. A total of 518 residents of Shanghai completed a telephone interview survey. We found that 51% of participants had seen or heard of the Zhonghua cigarette brand's 'Love China' tobacco ad campaign in the past 2 years, 59% believed that the campaign would influence people to buy this specific cigarette brand as a gift, and 30% believed that it would encourage smoking. More than 75% of respondents would support legislation banning tobacco advertising in all public places, and 88% would support legislation prohibiting smoking in all public places. Multivariate analyses indicated that those who were female, more than 50 years, have accepted college and above education, and perceived greater benefits to smoking cessation were more likely to support banning tobacco advertising and prohibiting smoking in public places. Non-smokers were more likely to support prohibiting smoking in public places. The findings suggest that although tobacco advertising is widely prevalent in Shanghai, it is disliked by the public. Respondents showed high levels of support for tobacco control policies. PMID:23912156

  13. Research Opportunities Related to Establishing Standards for Tobacco Products Under the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: This paper was written in response to a request from the U.S. National Cancer Institute. The goal is to discuss some research directions related to establishing tobacco product standards under the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act, which empowers the U.S. Food and Drug Administration to regulate tobacco products. Potential research related to tobacco product ingredients, nicotine, and harmful or potentially harmful constituents of tobacco products is discussed. Discussion: Ingredients, which are additives, require less attention than nicotine and harmful or potentially harmful constituents. With respect to nicotine, the threshold level in tobacco products below which dependent users will be able to freely stop using the product if they choose to do so is a very important question. Harmful and potentially harmful constituents include various toxicants and carcinogens. An updated list of 72 carcinogens in cigarette smoke is presented. A crucial question is the appropriate levels of toxicants and carcinogens in tobacco products. The use of carcinogen and toxicant biomarkers to determine these levels is discussed. Conclusions: The need to establish regulatory standards for added ingredients, nicotine, and other tobacco and tobacco smoke constituents leads to many interesting and potentially highly significant research questions, which urgently need to be addressed. PMID:21324834

  14. Environmental tobacco smoke particles in multizone indoor environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, S. L.; Nazaroff, W. W.

    Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is a major source of human exposure to airborne particles. To better understand the factors that affect exposure, and to investigate the potential effectiveness of technical control measures, a series of experiments was conducted in a two-room test facility. Particle concentrations, size distributions, and airflow rates were measured during and after combustion of a cigarette. Experiments were varied to obtain information about the effects on exposure of smoker segregation, ventilation modification, and air filtration. The experimental data were used to test the performance of an analytical model of the two-zone environment and a numerical multizone aerosol dynamics model. A respiratory tract particle deposition model was also applied to the results to estimate the mass of ETS particles that would be deposited in the lungs of a nonsmoker exposed in either the smoking or nonsmoking room. Comparisons between the experimental data and model predictions showed good agreement. For time-averaged particle mass concentration, the average bias between model and experiments was less than 10%. The average absolute error was typically 35%, probably because of variability in particle emission rates from cigarettes. For the conditions tested, the use of a portable air filtration unit yielded 65-90% reductions in predicted lung deposition relative to the baseline scenario. The use of exhaust ventilation in the smoking room reduced predicted lung deposition in the nonsmoking room by more than 80%, as did segregating the smoker from nonsmokers with a closed door.

  15. Sociodemographic Factors Associated with Tobacco Smoking among Intermediate and Secondary School Students in Jazan Region of Saudi Arabia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaffar, Abdelrahim Mutwakel; Alsanosy, Rashad Mohammed; Mahfouz, Mohamed Salih

    2013-01-01

    Background: The objectives of this study were to (i) determine the prevalence of and characteristics associated with tobacco smoking; (ii) identify the factors associated with tobacco smoking; and (iii) evaluate the association between tobacco smoking and khat chewing among intermediate and secondary school students in Jazan Region, Saudi Arabia.…

  16. Prevalence and determinants of adolescent tobacco smoking in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Rudatsikira, Emmanuel; Abdo, Abdurahman; Muula, Adamson S

    2007-01-01

    Background Tobacco smoking is a growing public health problem in the developing world. There is paucity of data on smoking and predictors of smoking among school-going adolescents in most of sub-Saharan Africa. Hence, the aim of this study is to estimate the prevalence of smoking and its associations among school-going adolescents in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Methods Data from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) 2003 were used to determine smoking prevalence, determinants, attitudes to, and exposure to tobacco advertisements among adolescents. Results Of the 1868 respondents, 4.5% males and 1% females reported being current smokers (p < 0.01). Having smoking friends was strongly associated with smoking after controlling for age, gender, parental smoking status, and perception of risks of smoking (OR = 33; 95% CI [11.6, 95.6]). Male gender and having one or both smoking parents were associated with smoking. Perception that smoking is harmful was negatively associated with being a smoker (odds ratio 0.3; 95% confidence interval, 0.2–0.5) Conclusion Prevalence of smoking among adolescents in Ethiopia is lower than in many other African countries. There is however need to strengthen anti-tobacco messages especially among adolescents. PMID:17651482

  17. Nicotine quantity and packaging disclosure in smoked and smokeless tobacco products in India

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Priyamvada; Murthy, Pratima; Shivhare, Parul

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: A variety of smoked and smokeless tobacco products with varying nicotine content are accessible in India. Nicotine quantity in tobacco products has direct bearing on tobacco dependence. Our objective was to estimate nicotine content in various types of smoked and smokeless products. Disclosure for essential health warning was also checked. Materials and Methods: Liquid-liquid extraction was used for nicotine extraction and high-performance thin layer chromatography technique was applied for quantification of nicotine in seventy-one smoked and smokeless tobacco products. Results: Significant variation in nicotine content was observed across products. In smoked tobacco, nicotine content varied from 1.01 to 13.0 mg/rod, while in smokeless tobacco products it ranged from 0.8 mg/g to 50.0 mg/g. Moisture content varied from 9% to 21%. Conclusion: This work lists a range of smoked and smokeless tobacco products available in this region. We report a wide variability in nicotine quantity across smoked and smokeless tobacco products. Such variation in nicotine content may have important implications for tobacco cessation interventions and policies PMID:26288479

  18. A Comprehensive Examination of the Influence of State Tobacco Control Programs and Policies on Youth Smoking

    PubMed Central

    Loomis, Brett R.; Han, Beth; Gfroerer, Joe; Kuiper, Nicole; Couzens, G. Lance; Dube, Shanta; Caraballo, Ralph S.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the influence of tobacco control policies (tobacco control program expenditures, smoke-free air laws, youth access law compliance, and cigarette prices) on youth smoking outcomes (smoking susceptibility, past-year initiation, current smoking, and established smoking). Methods. We combined data from the 2002 to 2008 National Surveys on Drug Use and Health with state and municipality population data from the US Census Bureau to assess the associations between state tobacco control policy variables and youth smoking outcomes, focusing on youths aged 12 to 17 years. We also examined the influence of policy variables on youth access when these variables were held at 2002 levels. Results. Per capita funding for state tobacco control programs was negatively associated with all 4 smoking outcomes. Smoke-free air laws were negatively associated with all outcomes except past-year initiation, and cigarette prices were associated only with current smoking. We found no association between these outcomes and retailer compliance with youth access laws. Conclusions. Smoke-free air laws and state tobacco control programs are effective strategies for curbing youth smoking. PMID:23327252

  19. The role of tobacco outlet density in a smoking cessation intervention for urban youth.

    PubMed

    Mennis, Jeremy; Mason, Michael; Way, Thomas; Zaharakis, Nikola

    2016-03-01

    This study investigates the role of tobacco outlet density in a randomized controlled trial of a text messaging-based smoking cessation intervention conducted among a sample of 187 primarily African American youth in a midsize U.S. city. A moderated mediation model was used to test whether the indirect effect of residential tobacco outlet density on future smoking was mediated by the intention to smoke, and whether this indirect effect differed between adolescents who received the intervention and those who did not. Results indicated that tobacco outlet density is associated with intention to smoke, which predicts future smoking, and that the indirect effect of tobacco outlet density on future smoking is moderated by the intervention. Tobacco outlet density and the intervention can be viewed as competing forces on future smoking behavior, where higher tobacco outlet density acts to mitigate the sensitivity of an adolescent to the intervention's intended effect. Smoking cessation interventions applied to youth should consider tobacco outlet density as a contextual condition that can influence treatment outcomes. PMID:26798960

  20. The tobacco industry and secondhand smoke: lessons from Central and South America.

    PubMed

    Barnoya, Joaquin; Glantz, Stanton A

    2003-01-01

    For more than 20 years the tobacco industry has considered secondhand smoke to be a threat to its viability. In this article, we describe why secondhand smoke is important to tobacco control and how the tobacco industry's "Latin Project" sought to prevent the creation of smoke-free workplaces and public places in Central and South America. Eliminating secondhand smoke exposure not only reduces the risk of cardiovascular and other diseases, but also creates an environment that substantially reduces smoking and cigarette consumption among smokers. The "Latin Project" was initiated in 1991 by Philip Morris and British American Tobacco and managed by the law firm Covington & Burling. The project assembled a network of well-placed physicians and scientists to divert the attention away from secondhand smoke toward other indoor air pollutants. As proven in Central and South America, the tobacco industry has manipulated the secondhand smoke issue in order to avoid the development of smoke-free environments. Sub-Saharan Africa, facing an epidemiologic transition similar to the one experienced by Central and South America, should be aware of tobacco industry tactics. Further delay in implementing smoke-free environments will only increase the burden of cardiovascular disease in both areas of the world. PMID:13677420

  1. The role of tobacco control policies in reducing smoking and deaths caused by smoking in an Eastern European nation: results from the Albania SimSmoke simulation model.

    PubMed

    Levy, David T; Ross, Hana; Zaloshnja, Eduard; Shuperka, Roland; Rusta, Meriglena

    2008-12-01

    The Albania SimSmoke simulation model is used to examine the effects of tobacco control policies. The model is used to consider the projected trends in smoking prevalence and associated smoking-attributable deaths in the absence of new policies, and then to examine the effect of new policies that are consistent with the Framework Convention for Tobacco Control (FCTC) on these outcomes. The model shows that significant inroads to reducing smoking prevalence and premature mortality can be achieved through tax increases. Acomprehensive strategy to further reduce smoking rates should include a media campaign complete with programs to publicize and enforce clean air laws, a comprehensive cessation treatment program, strong health warnings, advertising bans, and youth access laws. Besides presenting the benefits of a comprehensive tobacco control strategy, the model helps to identify important information needed for both modeling and policymaking. The effectiveness of future tobacco control policy will require proper surveillance and evaluation schemes for Albania. PMID:19256288

  2. Identification of nuclear phosphoproteins as novel tobacco markers in mouse lung tissue following short-term exposure to tobacco smoke

    PubMed Central

    Niimori-Kita, Kanako; Ogino, Kiyoshi; Mikami, Sayaka; Kudoh, Shinji; Koizumi, Daikai; Kudoh, Noritaka; Nakamura, Fumiko; Misumi, Masahiro; Shimomura, Tadasuke; Hasegawa, Koki; Usui, Fumihiko; Nagahara, Noriyuki; Ito, Takaaki

    2014-01-01

    Smoking is a risk factor for lung diseases, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and lung cancer. However, the molecular mechanisms mediating the progression of these diseases remain unclear. Therefore, we sought to identify signaling pathways activated by tobacco-smoke exposure, by analyzing nuclear phosphoprotein expression using phosphoproteomic analysis of lung tissue from mice exposed to tobacco smoke. Sixteen mice were exposed to tobacco smoke for 1 or 7 days, and the expression of phosphorylated peptides was analyzed by mass spectrometry. A total of 253 phosphoproteins were identified, including FACT complex subunit SPT16 in the 1-day exposure group, keratin type 1 cytoskeletal 18 (K18), and adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein, in the 7-day exposure group, and peroxiredoxin-1 (OSF3) and spectrin β chain brain 1 (SPTBN1), in both groups. Semi-quantitative analysis of the identified phosphoproteins revealed that 33 proteins were significantly differentially expressed between the control and exposed groups. The identified phosphoproteins were classified according to their biological functions. We found that the identified proteins were related to inflammation, regeneration, repair, proliferation, differentiation, morphogenesis, and response to stress and nicotine. In conclusion, we identified proteins, including OSF3 and SPTBN1, as candidate tobacco smoke-exposure markers; our results provide insights into the mechanisms of tobacco smoke-induced diseases. PMID:25349779

  3. Tobacco Smoke Exposure in Non-smoking Hospitality Workers Before and After a State Smoking Ban

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Joni A.; Schillo, Barbara A.; Moilanen, Molly M.; Lindgren, Bruce R.; Murphy, Sharon; Carmella, Steven; Hecht, Stephen S.; Hatsukami, Dorothy K.

    2010-01-01

    Secondhand smoke exposure is estimated to account for 3000 cancer deaths per year. While several countries and states in the U.S. have passed comprehensive smoke-free laws to protect all employees, a significant number of workers are still not protected. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of passing a comprehensive smoking ban that included bars and restaurants on biomarkers of nicotine and carcinogen exposure. The urines of non-smoking employees (N=24) of bars and restaurants that allowed smoking prior to the smoke-free law were analyzed before and after the law was passed in Minnesota. The results showed significant reductions in both total cotinine and 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL) (free plus glucuronidated) after the ban was instituted. These results provide further support for the importance of protecting employees working in all venues. PMID:20354127

  4. [Effect of tobacco smoke on permeability of capillary of pregnant and non-pregnant rats].

    PubMed

    Florek, Tewa; Ignatowicz, Ewa; Piekoszewski, Wojciech; Wachowiak, Anna; Wrzosek, Jagna

    2006-01-01

    From among 4200 chemical compounds contained in the tobacco smoke, nicotine and carbon monoxide are responsible for changes in the heart-vessel system to the greatest extent. Additionally, other toxic compounds, including the carcinogenic ones, have a significant impact on the biological activity in the tissues of blood vessels. A particularly complex picture of the detrimental impact of the tobacco smoke is presented in case of pregnant women, fetuses and newborns. The aim of the research was to assess the impact of tobacco smoke on the permeability of capillaries in different tissues of rats (lungs, brain, liver, kidneys) and testing of the potentially protective impact of rutine (3-rutinozide of quercetin). The research on the permeability of capillaries has been carried out applying Evans blue. The animals were divided into 8 research groups: pregnant animals--"control", "rutine", "tobacco smoke", "rutine+tobacco smoke", and non-pregnant animals--"control", "rutine", "tobacco smoke", "rutine+tobacco smoke". In the first stage of research (pregnant, non-pregnant-- groups: "rutine" and "rutine+tobacco smoke"), the water rutine solution in a dose of 40 mg/kg of body weight was administered. The non-pregnant and pregnant animals from groups "tobacco smoke" and "rutine+tobacco smoke" were exposed to tobacco smoke via inhalation (1500 mg CO/m3 of air) for 21 days. All the animals were injected with the water Evans blue solution in a dose of 30 mg/kg of body weight. After 30 minutes, the animals were killed by cutting the abdominal aorta, and lungs, brain, liver and kidneys were taken for further testing. The cotinine in the urine was determined by the HPLC method, using norephedrine as the internal standard, after the preceding extraction by means of the liquid-liquid technique. The concentration of cotinine in case of non-pregnant and pregnant females was respectively 11.8 +/- 1.9 pg/ml of urine and 12.0 +/- 2.5 microg/ml of urine. In case of the rats, which

  5. Hookah Smoking and Harm Perception among Asthmatic Adolescents: Findings from the Florida Youth Tobacco Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinasek, Mary P.; Gibson-Young, Linda; Forrest, Jamie

    2014-01-01

    Background: Hookah tobacco smoking has increased in prevalence among Florida adolescents and is often viewed as a safer alternative to cigarette smoking by young adults. Asthmatic adolescents are at increased risk of the negative health effects of hookah smoking. The purpose of this study is to examine if hookah use and harm perception vary by…

  6. Quad quantum cascade laser spectrometer with dual gas cells for the simultaneous analysis of mainstream and sidestream cigarette smoke.

    PubMed

    Baren, Randall E; Parrish, Milton E; Shafer, Kenneth H; Harward, Charles N; Shi, Quan; Nelson, David D; McManus, J Barry; Zahniser, Mark S

    2004-12-01

    A compact, fast response, infrared spectrometer using four pulsed quantum cascade (QC) lasers has been applied to the analysis of gases in mainstream (MS) and sidestream (SS) cigarette smoke. QC lasers have many advantages over the traditional lead-salt tunable diode lasers, including near room temperature operation with thermoelectric cooling and single mode operation with improved long-term stability. The new instrument uses two 36 m, 0.3 l multiple pass absorption gas cells to obtain a time response of 0.1s for the MS smoke system and 0.4s for the SS smoke system. The concentrations of ammonia, ethylene, nitric oxide, and carbon dioxide for three different reference cigarettes were measured simultaneously in MS and SS smoke. A data rate of 20Hz provides sufficient resolution to determine the concentration profiles during each 2s puff in the MS smoke. Concentration profiles before, during and after the puffs also have been observed for these smoke constituents in SS smoke. Also, simultaneous measurements of CO(2) from a non-dispersive infrared (NDIR) analyzer are obtained for both MS and SS smoke. In addition, during this work, nitrous oxide was detected in both the MS and SS smoke for all reference cigarettes studied. PMID:15561630

  7. Quad quantum cascade laser spectrometer with dual gas cells for the simultaneous analysis of mainstream and sidestream cigarette smoke

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baren, Randall E.; Parrish, Milton E.; Shafer, Kenneth H.; Harward, Charles N.; Shi, Quan; Nelson, David D.; McManus, J. Barry; Zahniser, Mark S.

    2004-12-01

    A compact, fast response, infrared spectrometer using four pulsed quantum cascade (QC) lasers has been applied to the analysis of gases in mainstream (MS) and sidestream (SS) cigarette smoke. QC lasers have many advantages over the traditional lead-salt tunable diode lasers, including near room temperature operation with thermoelectric cooling and single mode operation with improved long-term stability. The new instrument uses two 36 m, 0.3 l multiple pass absorption gas cells to obtain a time response of 0.1 s for the MS smoke system and 0.4 s for the SS smoke system. The concentrations of ammonia, ethylene, nitric oxide, and carbon dioxide for three different reference cigarettes were measured simultaneously in MS and SS smoke. A data rate of 20 Hz provides sufficient resolution to determine the concentration profiles during each 2 s puff in the MS smoke. Concentration profiles before, during and after the puffs also have been observed for these smoke constituents in SS smoke. Also, simultaneous measurements of CO 2 from a non-dispersive infrared (NDIR) analyzer are obtained for both MS and SS smoke. In addition, during this work, nitrous oxide was detected in both the MS and SS smoke for all reference cigarettes studied.

  8. Environmental tobacco smoke and lung cancer: a reappraisal.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, R

    1996-06-01

    It is biologically plausible that environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) has a contributory role in the induction of lung cancer in nonsmoking individuals. However, recent findings have strengthened previous assumptions that a major part of the observed increase in lung cancer risk reported from epidemiological studies on ETS-exposed nonsmokers can be related to misclassification of smoking status and inappropriate selection of controls as well as to certain confounding factors related to life-style, and possibly also to hereditary disposition. Dose-response extrapolation-supported by a more solid database for active smokers-reflects a possible increase in lung cancer that appears to be more than one order of magnitude lower than indicated by the epidemiological studies that have been used to support regulatory action in the United States. The epidemiological studies on ETS conducted so far lack the required sensitivity to confirm increases in risk of such low magnitudes. Self-reported information on exposure to tobacco smoke has been found to be unreliable, and data from interviews with proxy respondents even more so. In addition, determination of cotinine to establish smoking status is inadequate for use in this context, i.e., to assure that misclassification in the range 5-10% does not occur; due to genetically based differences in the rate of nicotine metabolism, some active smokers will not be detected. Further, due the short half-life of cotinine in the organism, a self-reported nonsmoker may, in principle, have been a lifelong heavy smoker until just before the sampling takes place. For some of the major studies, preferential inclusion of disease-prone individuals of very low socioeconomic status among cases seems to have been present to a varying extent. Due to inclusion of this group, life-style and hereditary disposition may result in a disproportionally large impact on the recorded overall lung cancer rate. Further, a possible major confounder causing

  9. Contribution of tobacco smoke to environmental benzene exposure in Germany

    SciTech Connect

    Scherer, G.; Ruppert, T.; Daube, H.

    1995-12-31

    The concentrations of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) constituents including benzene were measured in the living rooms of 10 nonsmoking households and 20 households with at least one smoker situated in the city and suburbs of Munich. In the city, the median benzene levels during the evening, when all household members were at home, were 8.1 and 10.4 {mu}g/m{sup 3} in nonsmoking and smoking homes, respectively. The corresponding levels of 3.5 and 4.6 {mu}g/m{sup 3} were considerably lower in the suburbs. Median time-integrated 1-week benzene concentrations in the city were 10.6 {mu}g/m{sup 3} in nonsmoking homes and 13.1 {mu}g/m{sup 3} in smoking homes. In the suburbs, the corresponding values were 3.2 and 5.6 {mu}g/m{sup 3}. No difference was found between smoking and nonsmoking households located either in the city or in the suburbs. There was no statistically significant difference between benzene exposure of non-smokers in smoking and nonsmoking homes. Nonsmokers living in nonsmoking households in the city had significantly higher exposure to benzene compared to their counterparts living in the suburban. Nonsmokers from all households with smokers were significantly more exposed to benzene than nonsmokers living in the nonsmoking households (personal samplers: 13.2 vs. 7.0 {mu}g/m{sup 3}, p < 0.05; benzene in exhalate: 2.6 vs. 1.8 {mu}g/m{sup 3}, p < 0.01; trans-muconic acid excretion in urine: 73 vs. 62 {mu}g/g creatinine), but the contribution of ETS to the total benzene exposure was relatively low compared to that from other sources. Analysis of variance showed that at most 15% of the benzene exposure of nonsmokers living in smoking homes was attributable to ETS. For nonsmokers living in nonsmoking households benzene exposure from ETS was insignificant.

  10. Tobacco Smoking: Patterns, Health Consequences for Adults, and the Long-term Health of the Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Maritz, Gert S.; Mutemwa, Muyunda

    2012-01-01

    Tobacco use started several centuries ago and increased markedly after the invention of the cigarette making machine. Once people start smoking they find it difficult to quit the habit. This is due to the addictive effect of nicotine in tobacco smoke. Various epidemiologic and laboratory studies clearly showed that smoking is associated with various diseases such as heart diseases, asthma and emphysema and the associated increase in morbidity and mortality of smokers. Several studies implicate nicotine as the causative factor in tobacco smoke. Apart from nicotine, various carcinogens also occur in tobacco smoke resulting in an increase in the incidence of cancer in smokers. While the smoking habit is decreasing in developed countries, tobacco use increases in the developing countries. Smoking prevalence is also highest in poor communities and amongst those with low education levels. It is important to note that, although ther is a decline in the number of smokers in the developed countries, there is a three to four decades lag between the peak in smoking prevalence and the subsequent peak in smoking related mortality. It has been shown that maternal smoking induces respiratory diseases in the offspring. There is also evidence that parental smoking may program the offspring to develop certain diseases later in life. Various studies showed that maternal nicotine exposure during pregnancy and lactation via tobacco smoke of nicotine replacement therapy (NRT), program the offspring to develop compromised lung structure later in life with the consequent compromised lung function. This implies that NRT is not an option to assist pregnant or lactating smokers to quit the habit. Even paternal smoking may have an adverse effect on the health of the offspring since it has been shown that 2nd and 3rd hand smoking have adverse health consequences for those exposed to it. PMID:22980343