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Sample records for maintain osseous viability

  1. Viability of fungal cultures maintained at -70 degrees C.

    PubMed Central

    Pasarell, L; McGinnis, M R

    1992-01-01

    One thousand four hundred forty-seven clinical and environmental isolates of molds, yeasts, aerobic actinomycetes, and algae belonging to 164 genera (382 taxa) maintained on potato dextrose agar at -70 degrees C for periods ranging from 6 months to 13 years were subcultured and then incubated at 25 degrees C to determine their viabilities. Thirty-three isolates, Alternaria alternata (n = 1), Apophysomyces elegans (n = 1), Bipolaris spicifera (n = 1), Blastomyces dermatitidis (n = 4), Cokeromyces recurvatus (n = 1), Coremiella cubispora (n = 1), Cryptococcus ater (n = 1), Curvularia sp. (n = 1), Exserohilum monoceras (n = 1), Exserohilum pedicillatum (n = 1), Exserohilum rostratum (n = 1), Filobasidium floriforme (n = 1), Madurella mycetomatis (n = 1), Oedocephalum spp. (n = 2), Penicillium marneffei (n = 1), Pseudomicrodochium spp. (n = 4), Saksenaea vasiformis (n = 1), Sporothrix sp. (n = 1), and Mycelia Sterilia (n = 8), did not grow after repeated attempts at subculturing. Neither time in storage nor taxonomic classification was associated with a lack of viability. Storage at low temperature for either short or long periods of time is an excellent method for maintaining most medically important fungi. PMID:1572955

  2. A new bone banking technique to maintain osteoblast viability in frozen human iliac cancellous bone.

    PubMed

    Oh, Jung-Hwan; Zöller, Joachim E; Kübler, Alexander

    2002-06-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a new cryopreservation technique to maintain the osteoblast viability in frozen iliac bone and to prove cell viability using cell culture techniques. Human iliac cancellous bones were frozen with and without 10% Me(2)SO at -80 degrees C. The tubes were kept in a -80 degrees C freezer for at least 2 days. After the storage period, the frozen bone was thawed by placing the tube in a 37 degrees C water bath. A serial enzymatic digestion technique using 0.2% collagenase was employed to isolate osteoblast-like cells from the bone. The cells that were released were inoculated into tissue culture flasks containing DMEM supplemented with 10% FCS. They were incubated at 37 degrees C in a humidified atmosphere of 95% air and 5% CO(2). Cells of the second passage were plated at a density of 5 x 10(3)cells/cm(2) in a 24-well plate and used for characterization. For characterization, WST-1 assay, determination of alkaline phosphatase, Type I collagen assay, osteocalcin assay, and von Kossa staining were used. The assays were performed at 3, 6, 9, and 12 days after plating the cells. Based on the results of this study, we conclude that the osteoblast-like cells in the frozen bone can survive, only when the bone is frozen with cryoprotectants to prevent injury during freezing and thawing. PMID:12237093

  3. Human islet viability and function is maintained during high density shipment in silicone rubber membrane vessels

    PubMed Central

    Kitzmann, Jennifer P; Pepper, Andrew R; Lopez, Boris G; Pawlick, Rena; Kin, Tatsuya; O’Gorman, Doug; Mueller, Kathryn R; Gruessner, Angelika C; Avgoustiniatos, Efstathios S; Karatzas, Theodore; Szot, Greg L; Posselt, Andrew M; Stock, Peter G; Wilson, John R; Shapiro, AM; Papas, Klearchos K

    2014-01-01

    The shipment of human islets from processing centers to distant laboratories is beneficial for both research and clinical applications. The maintenance of islet viability and function in transit is critically important. Gas-permeable silicone rubber membrane (SRM) vessels reduce the risk of hypoxia-induced death or dysfunction during high-density islet culture or shipment. SRM vessels may offer additional advantages: they are cost-effective (fewer flasks, less labor needed), safer (lower contamination risk), and simpler (culture vessel can also be used for shipment). Human islets(IE) were isolated from two manufacturing centers and shipped in 10cm2 surface area SRM vessels in temperature and pressure controlled containers to a distant center following at least two days of culture (n = 6). Three conditions were examined: low density (LD), high density (HD), and a micro centrifuge tube negative control (NC). LD was designed to mimic the standard culture density for human islet preparations (200 IE/cm2), while HD was designed to have a 20-fold higher tissue density, which would enable the culture of an entire human isolation in 1–3 vessels. Upon receipt, islets were assessed for viability, measured by oxygen consumption rate normalized to DNA content (OCR/DNA), and quantity, measured by DNA, and, when possible, potency and function with dynamic glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) measurements and transplants in immunodeficient B6 rag mice. Post-shipment OCR/DNA was not reduced in HD versus LD, and was substantially reduced in the NC condition. HD islets exhibited normal function post-shipment. Based on the data we conclude that entire islet isolations (up to 400,000 IE) may be shipped using a single, larger SRM vessel with no negative effect on viability and ex vivo and in vivo function. PMID:25131090

  4. Sperm Viability Assessment over elapsing time maintained at 2 degrees C of orange mud crab, Scylla olivacea (Herbst, 1796).

    PubMed

    Ikhwanuddin, M; Muhd-Farouk, H; Memon, A J; Wendy, W; Abol-Munafi, A B

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate how long the fresh sperm maintained at 2 degrees C would be utilized for fishery management. The study was conducted every 2 h to assess the sperm viability of orange mud crab Scylla olivacea. Evaluations were conducted as 3 treatments; T1, T2 and T3. In T1, the live specimens were sacrificed; for T2, only spermatophores were extracted and for T3 spermatophore extraction followed by homogenization to create a sperm suspension. All samples were stored with ice in an insulated box was keep fresh longer at 2 degrees C. The time '0' referred the immediate collection of sperm after the specimen was sacrificed. Spermatophore viability was determined using the sperm suspension by eosin-nigrosin staining method. Sperm viability for the fresh sample at time zero was 97.36 ± 0.53%. Viability of the sperm significantly decreased in the 2nd h in all treatments, T1 was 44.66 ± 0.54 to 4.2 ± 0.22% at 16 and 18th h, T2 was 36.56 ± 0.5 to 2.69 ± 0.06% at the 12 and 14th h and T3 was 33.69 ± 1.26 to 6.4 ± 0.29% at 8 and 10th h. In comparison, T1 showed significantly higher than other treatments (p < 0.05). Extremely low viability percentages were recorded in T3. This study also proved that the time elapse had significant impact on the percentage of viable sperm count. PMID:26031028

  5. Genome-wide analysis of longevity in nutrient-deprived Saccharomyces cerevisiae reveals importance of recycling in maintaining cell viability.

    PubMed

    Davey, Hazel M; Cross, Emma J M; Davey, Christopher L; Gkargkas, Konstantinos; Delneri, Daniela; Hoyle, David C; Oliver, Stephen G; Kell, Douglas B; Griffith, Gareth W

    2012-05-01

    Although typically cosseted in the laboratory with constant temperatures and plentiful nutrients, microbes are frequently exposed to much more stressful conditions in their natural environments where survival and competitive fitness depend upon both growth rate when conditions are favourable and on persistence in a viable and recoverable state when they are not. In order to determine the role of genetic heterogeneity in environmental fitness we present a novel approach that combines the power of fluorescence-activated cell sorting with barcode microarray analysis and apply this to determining the importance of every gene in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome in a high-throughput, genome-wide fitness screen. We have grown > 6000 heterozygous mutants together and exposed them to a starvation stress before using fluorescence-activated cell sorting to identify and isolate those individual cells that have not survived the stress applied. Barcode array analysis of the sorted and total populations reveals the importance of cellular recycling mechanisms (autophagy, pexophagy and ribosome breakdown) in maintaining cell viability during starvation and provides compelling evidence for an important role for fatty acid degradation in maintaining viability. In addition, we have developed a semi-batch fermentor system that is a more realistic model of environmental fitness than either batch or chemostat culture. Barcode array analysis revealed that arginine biosynthesis was important for fitness in semi-batch culture and modelling of this regime showed that rapid emergence from lag phase led to greatly increased fitness. One hundred and twenty-five strains with deletions in unclassified proteins were identified as being over-represented in the sorted fraction, while 27 unclassified proteins caused a haploinsufficient phenotype in semi-batch culture. These methods thus provide a screen to identifying other genes and pathways that have a role in maintaining cell viability. PMID

  6. The epididymal sperm viability, motility and DNA integrity in dead mice maintained at 4-6oC

    PubMed Central

    Golshan Iranpour, Farhad; Rezazadeh Valojerdi, Mojtaba

    2013-01-01

    Background: When male animals die, spermatozoa within the body of animal will be degenerated. Because of unique chromatin structure of sperm, maybe this degeneration is different from other cells. However there is not any research which considered directly the integrity of sperm DNA by keeping the cadaver in refrigerator. Objective: The aim of this study was to assess viability, total motility and DNA integrity of sperm cells after death. Materials and Methods:In this experimental study, 24 male Swiss white mice were killed by cervical dislocation and then kept in refrigerator (4-6oC) for up to 12 days. On the 0 (immediately after death as control group), 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 5th, 7th, 10th and the 12th days after death cauda epididymides were removed and squeezed in Ham’s F10 medium. The proportion of viable, motile and double stranded DNA spermatozoa was examined. Viability and DNA integrity of sperm cells were examined consecutively by eosin nigrosin and acridine orange stainings. Results:The data obtained from this study showed that viability and total motility of sperm cells were significantly decreased during 12 days after death (p<0.001). In contrast with viability and motility, DNA integrity was without significant changes (even 12 days after death). Conclusion:This study suggests that integrity of sperm DNA would not change even after 12 days after death if the cadaver kept in refrigerator. PMID:24639746

  7. Osseous Scaphotrapezial Coalition

    PubMed Central

    Weathers, William M.; Spence, Susanna C.; Beckmann, Nicholas M.

    2015-01-01

    Osseous scaphotrapezial coalition is one of the rarest forms of carpal coalition of the hand. Often discovered incidentally, pain and functional limitation have not been reported. Carpal coalitions occurring across the carpal rows are thought to occur as a result of some insult or congenital anomaly. Isolated scaphotrapezial coalition calls into question the traditional thinking that fusion between the proximal and distal carpal rows must be acquired or associated with congenital syndromes. PMID:26783484

  8. Comparative evaluation of four transport media for maintaining cell viability in transportation of an avulsed tooth – An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Bharath, Makonahalli Jaganath; Sahadev, Chickmagravalli Krishnegowda; Ramachandra, Praveen Kumar Makonahalli; Rudranaik, Sandeep; George, Jijo; Thomas, Ashna

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The study was performed to compare and evaluate the efficacy of four experimental storage media (Hank's balanced salt solution, Ringer's lactate solution, tender coconut water, and green tea extract) for maintaining cell viability of human periodontal cells at different time intervals of 15 min 30 min, 60 min, and 90 min. Materials and Methods: Human periodontal cells were cultured and stored in the four media. After 15 min 30 min, 60 min, and 90 min, the different media were examined under optical microscope and viabilities analyzed using an optical calorimeter. Mean and standard deviation were estimated from the results that were statistically analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) to identify the significant groups. Results: The results indicated that there was no difference in cell viability between the four media up to a period of 60 min, whereas green tea extract showed a lower cell viability after 90 min. Conclusion: Within the limitations of the present study, it appears that due to superior osmolality, cost effectiveness, and easier availability, Ringer's lactate, tender coconut water, and green tea extract can be used as alternate storage media for avulsed tooth. PMID:25767771

  9. The Proteasome Inhibitor Bortezomib Maintains Osteocyte Viability in Multiple Myeloma Patients by Reducing Both Apoptosis and Autophagy: A New Function for Proteasome Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Toscani, Denise; Palumbo, Carla; Dalla Palma, Benedetta; Ferretti, Marzia; Bolzoni, Marina; Marchica, Valentina; Sena, Paola; Martella, Eugenia; Mancini, Cristina; Ferri, Valentina; Costa, Federica; Accardi, Fabrizio; Craviotto, Luisa; Aversa, Franco; Giuliani, Nicola

    2016-04-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is characterized by severely imbalanced bone remodeling. In this study, we investigated the potential effect of proteasome inhibitors (PIs), a class of drugs known to stimulate bone formation, on the mechanisms involved in osteocyte death induced by MM cells. First, we performed a histological analysis of osteocyte viability on bone biopsies on a cohort of 37 MM patients with symptomatic disease. A significantly higher number of viable osteocytes was detected in patients treated with a bortezomib (BOR)-based regimen compared with those treated without BOR. Interestingly, both osteocyte autophagy and apoptosis were affected in vivo by BOR treatment. Thereafter, we checked the in vitro effect of BOR to understand the mechanisms whereby BOR maintains osteocyte viability in bone from MM patients. We found that osteocyte and preosteocyte autophagic death was triggered during coculturing with MM cells. Our evaluation was conducted by analyzing either autophagy markers microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 beta (LC3B) and SQSTM1/sequestome 1 (p62) levels, or the cell ultrastructure by transmission electron microscopy. PIs were found to increase the basal levels of LC3 expression in the osteocytes while blunting the myeloma-induced osteocyte death. PIs also reduced the autophagic death of osteocytes induced by high-dose dexamethasone (DEX) and potentiated the anabolic effect of PTH(1-34). Our data identify osteocyte autophagy as a new potential target in MM bone disease and support the use of PIs to maintain osteocyte viability and improve bone integrity in MM patients. PMID:26551485

  10. Evaluation and comparison of efficacy of three different storage media, coconut water, propolis, and oral rehydration solution, in maintaining the viability of periodontal ligament cells

    PubMed Central

    Sanghavi, Tulsi; Shah, Nimisha; Parekh, Vaishali; Singbal, Kiran

    2013-01-01

    Background: Two of the most critical factors affecting the prognosis of an avulsed tooth after replantation are extra oral dry time and the storage medium in which the tooth is placed before treatment is rendered. However, the ability of a storage/transport medium to support cell viability can be more important than the extra oral time to prevent ankylosis and replacement resorption. Aim: Purpose of this study was evaluation and comparison of efficacy of a new storage medium, oral rehydration solution (ORS) with coconut water, and propolis in maintaining the viability of periodontal ligament (PDL) cells by using a collagenase-dispase assay. Materials and Methods: 40 teeth were selected with intact crown which were advised for Orthodontic extraction having healthy PDL. Teeth were then randomly divided into three experimental storage solution groups. Other 10 were divided into positive and negative control groups (5 each). Statistical Analysis and Result: The results were statistically analyzed with analysis of variance and multiple range by using post hoc tests. The results of the prevailing study indicated that coconut water group demonstrated a significantly higher number of viable PDL cells than propolis 50%, and ORS. There was no significant difference between coconut water and propolis 50% groups. PMID:23349581

  11. PDH45 transgenic rice maintain cell viability through lower accumulation of Na(+), ROS and calcium homeostasis in roots under salinity stress.

    PubMed

    Nath, Manoj; Yadav, Sandep; Kumar Sahoo, Ranjan; Passricha, Nishat; Tuteja, Renu; Tuteja, Narendra

    2016-02-01

    Salinity severely affects the growth/productivity of rice, which is utilized as major staple food crop worldwide. PDH45 (pea DNA helicase 45), a member of the DEAD-box helicase family, actively provides salinity stress tolerance, but the mechanism behind this is not well known. Therefore, in order to understand the mechanism of stress tolerance, sodium ion (Na(+)), reactive oxygen species (ROS), cytosolic calcium [Ca(2+)]cyt and cell viability were analyzed in roots of PDH45 transgenic-IR64 rice lines along with wild-type (WT) IR64 rice under salinity stress (100mM and 200 mM NaCl). In addition, the roots of salinity-tolerant (FL478) and susceptible (Pusa-44) rice varieties were also analyzed under salinity stress for comparative analysis. The results reveal that, under salinity stress (100mM and 200 mM NaCl), roots of PDH45 transgenic lines accumulate lower levels of Na(+), ROS and maintain [Ca(2+)]cyt and exhibit higher cell viability as compared with roots of WT (IR64) plants. Similar results were also obtained in the salinity-tolerant FL478 rice. However, the roots of WT and salinity-susceptible Pusa-44 rice accumulated higher levels of Na(+), ROS and [Ca(2+)]cyt imbalance and lower cell viability during salinity stress, which is in contrast to the overexpressing PDH45 transgenic lines and salinity-tolerant FL478 rice. Further, to understand the mechanism of PDH45 at molecular level, comparative expression profiling of 12 cation transporters/genes was also conducted in roots of WT (IR64) and overexpressing PDH45 transgenic lines (L1 and L2) under salt stress (24h of 200 mM NaCl). The expression analysis results show altered and differential gene expression of cation transporters/genes in salt-stressed roots of WT (IR64) and overexpressing transgenic lines (L1 and L2). These observations collectively suggest that, under salinity stress conditions, PDH45 is involved in the regulation of Na(+) level, ROS production, [Ca(2+)]cyt homeostasis, cell viability and

  12. Radioisotope scanning in osseous sarcoidosis

    SciTech Connect

    Rohatgi, P.K.

    1980-01-01

    Technetium-99m (/sup 99m/Tc)-labeled pyrophosphate or diphosphonate compounds and gallium-67 citrate (/sup 67/Ga) are two radionuclide scanning agents that are in widespread use in clinical practice. Technetium-99m pyrophosphate is used extensively for bone scanning to detect metastatic bone disease, benign bone tumors, osteomyelitis, benign hypertrophic osteoarthropathy, and Paget's disease. Only two reports describe abnormal /sup 99m/Tc/ pyrophosphate bone scans in four patients with osseous sarcoidosis. Gallium-67 scans are used primarily to localize neoplastic or inflammatory lesions anywhere in the body. In recent years /sup 67/Ga scans have also been used to detect the presence of both pulmonary and extrapulmonary sarcoidosis, but there are no reports describing abnormal uptake of gallium in patients with osseous sarcoidosis. This report describes experience with radioisotope scanning in two patients with osseous sarcoidosis.

  13. Long term cryopreservation in 5% DMSO maintains unchanged CD34(+) cells viability and allows satisfactory hematological engraftment after peripheral blood stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Abbruzzese, L; Agostini, F; Durante, C; Toffola, R T; Rupolo, M; Rossi, F M; Lleshi, A; Zanolin, S; Michieli, M; Mazzucato, M

    2013-07-01

    Peripheral blood stem cell cryopreservation is associated with cell damage and decreased viability. We evaluated the impact of up to 10 years of cryopreservation (5% DMSO) on viability of CD34(+) cells utilizing graft samples of consecutive patients (2002-2012) with different malignancies who underwent stem cell collection and transplantation. Viability of CD34(+) cells from oncohaematological patients measured after 5 weeks (97·2 ± 0·6%) or after 9-10 years of cryopreservation (95·9 ± 0·5%) was unaffected. Haemoglobin, granulocyte and platelet recovery after transplantation of long-term cryopreserved grafts occurred within 8-13 days. CD34(+) stem cells can be safely stored up to 9-10 years, without affecting cell viability and clinical effectiveness. PMID:23384290

  14. Posterior osseous bridging of C1.

    PubMed

    Simsek, Serkan; Yigitkanli, Kazim; Comert, Ayhan; Acar, Halil I; Seckin, Hakan; Er, Uygur; Belen, Deniz; Tekdemir, Ibrahim; Elhan, Alaittin

    2008-06-01

    The sulcus of the vertebral artery is located behind the lateral mass of the atlas and in some cases is converted into a foramen by anomalous ossification known as the posterior ponticulus (osseous bridge). This study involved anatomical observations of 158 isolated anatomical specimens of dry C1 vertebrae. The incidence and types of posterior osseous bridging were identified for the 158 dry samples of atlas vertebrae. In nine (5.6%) dry C1 vertebrae, partial osseous bridging was detected (bilaterally in eight vertebrae and unilaterally on the left in one). Complete osseous bridging (arcuate foramen) was observed in six (3.8%) dry C1 vertebrae (bilaterally in one vertebra, unilaterally on the left in three, and on the right in two). Awareness of the types of posterior osseous bridging of C1 in craniocervical junction surgery is essential, and may be helpful in surgical interventions in this region. PMID:18378457

  15. Extraribosomal Functions Associated with the C Terminus of the 37/67 kDa Laminin Receptor are Required for Maintaining Cell Viability

    SciTech Connect

    J Scheiman; K Jamieson; J Ziello; J Tseng; D Meruelo

    2011-12-31

    The 37/67 kDa laminin receptor (LAMR) is a multifunctional protein, acting as an extracellular receptor, localizing to the nucleus, and playing roles in rRNA processing and ribosome assembly. LAMR is important for cell viability; however, it is unclear which of its functions are essential. We developed a silent mutant LAMR construct, resistant to siRNA, to rescue the phenotypic effects of knocking down endogenous LAMR, which include inhibition of protein synthesis, cell cycle arrest, and apoptosis. In addition, we generated a C-terminal-truncated silent mutant LAMR construct structurally homologous to the Archaeoglobus fulgidus S2 ribosomal protein and missing the C-terminal 75 residues of LAMR, which displays more sequence divergence. We found that HT1080 cells stably expressing either silent mutant LAMR construct still undergo arrest in the G{sub 1} phase of the cell cycle when treated with siRNA. However, the expression of full-length silent mutant LAMR rescues cell viability, whereas the expression of the C-terminal-truncated LAMR does not. Interestingly, we also found that both silent mutant constructs restore protein translation and localize to the nucleus. Our findings indicate that the ability of LAMR to regulate viability is associated with its C-terminal 75 residues. Furthermore, this function is distinct from its role in cell proliferation, independent of its ribosomal functions, and may be regulated by a nonnuclear localization.

  16. Evaluation of osseous metastasis in bone scintigraphy.

    PubMed

    Davila, Diego; Antoniou, Alexander; Chaudhry, Muhammad A

    2015-01-01

    Bone scintigraphy (BS) is an imaging tool commonly used for screening patients with cancer, especially those with high prevalence of osseous metastases including the breast, prostate, lung, thyroid, and kidney, which account for 80% of osseous metastasis. BS has been shown to be of value in the initial and subsequent treatment strategy of various malignancies. The purpose of this article is to evaluate the technical and imaging aspects of BS and to examine the present research into improved detection of osseous metastasis. PMID:25475375

  17. Optimization of storage condition for maintaining long-term viability of nematophagous fungus Esteya vermicola as biocontrol agent against pinewood nematode.

    PubMed

    Xue, Jian Jie; Hou, Jin Gang; Zhang, Yong An; Wang, Chun Yan; Wang, Zhen; Yu, Jiao Jiao; Wang, Yun Bo; Wang, Yu Zhu; Wang, Qing Hua; Sung, Chang Keun

    2014-11-01

    The fungus, Esteya vermicola has been proposed as biocontrol agent against pine wilting disease caused by Bursaphelenchus xylophilus. In this study, we reported the effects of temperature and different additives on the viability and biocontrol efficacy of E. vermicola formulated by alginate-clay. The viability of the E. vermicola formulation was determined for six consecutive months at temperature ranged from -70 to 25 °C. The fresh conidia without any treatment were used as control. Under the optimal storage conditions with E. vermicola alginate-clay formulation, the results suggested that E. vermicola alginate-clay formulation with a long shelf life could be a non-vacuum-packed formulation that contains 2 % sodium alginate and 5 % clay at 4 °C. Three conidial formulations prepared with additives of 15 % glycerol, 0.5 % yeast extract and 0.5 % herbal extraction, respectively significantly improved the shelf life. In addition, these tested formulations retained the same biocontrol efficacy as the fresh conidial against pinewood nematode. This study provided a tractable and low-cost method to preserve the shelf life of E. vermicola. PMID:25070159

  18. Genetics Home Reference: progressive osseous heteroplasia

    MedlinePlus

    ... and muscle tissue. Bone that forms outside the skeleton is called heterotopic or ectopic bone. In progressive ... preventing bony tissue from being produced outside the skeleton. The GNAS gene mutations that cause progressive osseous ...

  19. Osseous metaplasia of the cervix: A rare transformation

    PubMed Central

    Elkattan, Eman; Abdelbadei, Mona; Abdelmoaty, Hatem; Ali, Eman; Samir, Dalia; Kheidr, Hala

    2015-01-01

    Although numerous cases of endometrial osseous metaplasia appear in the literature, only 6 cases of osseous metaplasia of the cervix have been reported since 1982. A 30 years old nulligravida women was referred to our colposcopy clinic with cervical mass. General, gynecologic and colposcopic assessments were done. The patient had an excision biopsy. Diagnosis of cervical osseous metaplasia was confirmed on histologic examination. The cervical epithelium has the potency to differentiate to multiple types of epithelium including osseous epithelium. PMID:25788852

  20. The Role of Genetic Polymorphisms as Related to One-Carbon Metabolism, Vitamin B6, and Gene–Nutrient Interactions in Maintaining Genomic Stability and Cell Viability in Chinese Breast Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xiayu; Xu, Weijiang; Zhou, Tao; Cao, Neng; Ni, Juan; Zou, Tianning; Liang, Ziqing; Wang, Xu; Fenech, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Folate-mediated one-carbon metabolism (FMOCM) is linked to DNA synthesis, methylation, and cell proliferation. Vitamin B6 (B6) is a cofactor, and genetic polymorphisms of related key enzymes, such as serine hydroxymethyltransferase (SHMT), methionine synthase reductase (MTRR), and methionine synthase (MS), in FMOCM may govern the bioavailability of metabolites and play important roles in the maintenance of genomic stability and cell viability (GSACV). To evaluate the influences of B6, genetic polymorphisms of these enzymes, and gene–nutrient interactions on GSACV, we utilized the cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay (CBMN) and PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) techniques in the lymphocytes from female breast cancer cases and controls. GSACV showed a significantly positive correlation with B6 concentration, and 48 nmol/L of B6 was the most suitable concentration for maintaining GSACV in vitro. The GSACV indexes showed significantly different sensitivity to B6 deficiency between cases and controls; the B6 effect on the GSACV variance contribution of each index was significantly higher than that of genetic polymorphisms and the sample state (tumor state). SHMT C1420T mutations may reduce breast cancer susceptibility, whereas MTRR A66G and MS A2756G mutations may increase breast cancer susceptibility. The role of SHMT, MS, and MTRR genotype polymorphisms in GSACV is reduced compared with that of B6. The results appear to suggest that the long-term lack of B6 under these conditions may increase genetic damage and cell injury and that individuals with various genotypes have different sensitivities to B6 deficiency. FMOCM metabolic enzyme gene polymorphism may be related to breast cancer susceptibility to a certain extent due to the effect of other factors such as stress, hormones, cancer therapies, psychological conditions, and diet. Adequate B6 intake may be good for maintaining genome health and preventing breast cancer. PMID:27347936

  1. The Role of Genetic Polymorphisms as Related to One-Carbon Metabolism, Vitamin B6, and Gene-Nutrient Interactions in Maintaining Genomic Stability and Cell Viability in Chinese Breast Cancer Patients.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiayu; Xu, Weijiang; Zhou, Tao; Cao, Neng; Ni, Juan; Zou, Tianning; Liang, Ziqing; Wang, Xu; Fenech, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Folate-mediated one-carbon metabolism (FMOCM) is linked to DNA synthesis, methylation, and cell proliferation. Vitamin B6 (B6) is a cofactor, and genetic polymorphisms of related key enzymes, such as serine hydroxymethyltransferase (SHMT), methionine synthase reductase (MTRR), and methionine synthase (MS), in FMOCM may govern the bioavailability of metabolites and play important roles in the maintenance of genomic stability and cell viability (GSACV). To evaluate the influences of B6, genetic polymorphisms of these enzymes, and gene-nutrient interactions on GSACV, we utilized the cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay (CBMN) and PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) techniques in the lymphocytes from female breast cancer cases and controls. GSACV showed a significantly positive correlation with B6 concentration, and 48 nmol/L of B6 was the most suitable concentration for maintaining GSACV in vitro. The GSACV indexes showed significantly different sensitivity to B6 deficiency between cases and controls; the B6 effect on the GSACV variance contribution of each index was significantly higher than that of genetic polymorphisms and the sample state (tumor state). SHMT C1420T mutations may reduce breast cancer susceptibility, whereas MTRR A66G and MS A2756G mutations may increase breast cancer susceptibility. The role of SHMT, MS, and MTRR genotype polymorphisms in GSACV is reduced compared with that of B6. The results appear to suggest that the long-term lack of B6 under these conditions may increase genetic damage and cell injury and that individuals with various genotypes have different sensitivities to B6 deficiency. FMOCM metabolic enzyme gene polymorphism may be related to breast cancer susceptibility to a certain extent due to the effect of other factors such as stress, hormones, cancer therapies, psychological conditions, and diet. Adequate B6 intake may be good for maintaining genome health and preventing breast cancer. PMID:27347936

  2. Solitary osseous sarcoidosis: a rare reason for pathologic fracture.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bin; Zhang, Xuan; Zhang, Wen; Wang, Ji-bo; Zhang, Feng-chun

    2012-08-01

    Sarcoidosis with osseous involvement as the initial manifestation is rare. Due to lack of other organ involvements, the diagnosis is somehow difficult to establish. We report a case with osseous sarcoidosis as the initial and major manifestation that developed spontaneous bone fracture. Our case emphasizes the importance of histological evidence and exclusion of other diseases i.e. rheumatoid arthritis, before making the diagnosis of osseous sarcoidosis. PMID:20364256

  3. Lingual Osseous Choristoma Case report and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Benamer, Mohamed H.; Elmangoush, Arej M.

    2007-01-01

    Lingual osseous choristoma is an extremely rare condition, of which only 61 cases have been reported. Monserrat in 1913 was the first to report this bony lesion on the dorsum of the tongue and it was labelled as lingual osteoma, the term that normally describes neoplastic pathology. Krolls et al changed this term later to osseous choristoma, which means normal tissue in an abnormal location. The aetiology and pathogenesis of lingual osseous choristoma remain debatable. We report a case of lingual osseous choristoma and review the literature. PMID:21503232

  4. Osseous Choristoma of the Tongue: A Review of Etiopathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Gorini, Edoardo; Migliorini, Luca

    2014-01-01

    Osseous choristoma is a normal bone tissue in an ectopic position. In the oral region lingual localization occurs more frequently and the mass is generally localized on the dorsum of the tongue. Definitive diagnosis is obtained only after histopathologic examination. The etiology remains already debatable. The treatment of choice is surgical excision. In this paper we present a case of tongue osseous choristoma and a review of the literature. PMID:25580337

  5. Periapical cemento-osseous dysplasia: clinicopathological features.

    PubMed

    Roghi, Marco; Scapparone, Chiara; Crippa, Rolando; Silvestrini-Biavati, Armando; Angiero, Francesca

    2014-05-01

    Periapical cemento-osseous dysplasia (PCOD) is a rare benign lesion, often asymptomatic, in which fibrous tissue replaces the normal bone tissue, with metaplasic bone and neo-formed cement. We present a rare case of mandibular PCOD in a woman of 55 years, who presented with moderate swelling and mobility of teeth 32-33-34. Endoral radiography showed that these teeth had been devitalized; they had deep periodontal pockets and marked radicular radiotransparency; the root apices exhibited mixed radiotransparency and radio-opacity. Clinical and radiographical findings led to a diagnosis of periapical rarefying osteitis, and the three teeth were thus extracted. Due to the persistence of swelling and slight pain post-extraction, a cone-beam computed tomographic scan was taken; this showed a mixed radiotransparent and radio-opaque lesion in the area of the extracted teeth. A bone biopsy of the affected area was taken for histopathological evaluation; a diagnosis of PCOD was rendered. This case demonstrates the importance of a full investigation when a patient presents after tooth extraction with non-healing socket, pain, and swelling. A multidisciplinary approach is required to manage these rare cases. PMID:24778071

  6. Tuned Aperture Computed Tomography to Evaluate Osseous Healing

    PubMed Central

    Nair, M.K.; Seyedain, A.; Agarwall, S.; Webber, R.L.; Nair, U.P.; Piesco, N.P.; Mooney, M.P.; Grondahl, H.-G.

    2016-01-01

    Quantification of osseous healing is a challenging task, requiring expensive advanced imaging modalities. To improve diagnostic osseous imaging, we undertook this prospective study to explore the potential of Tuned Aperture Computed Tomography®. Eighty defects in 20 rabbit mandibles, randomly carrying an osteoblast suspension or a polymer matrix or a combination thereof or no treatment, were imaged at 3, 6, 9, and 12 weeks post-surgery. TACT slices, iteratively restored TACT, and conventional digital radiographs were evaluated. Mean-gray-value distribution within regions of interest was correlated with histomorphometric data. Lesions treated with osteoblast/polymer-matrix delivery systems demonstrated the highest mean gray-value, while the diagnostic efficacy of TACT-IR was significantly better than that of other imaging modalities (p < 0.001). Thus, TACT is an accurate imaging modality for non-destructive quantification of osseous dynamics. PMID:11597021

  7. Subungual fibro-osseous pseudotumour of the toe.

    PubMed

    Meani, Rowena E; Bloom, Richard J; Battye, Shane; Chamberlain, Alex J

    2016-05-01

    Subungual fibro-osseous pseudotumour of the toe is a rare osseous soft tissue tumour of which only six cases have been described in the literature. We present a case in a teenage boy that posed an instructive diagnostic challenge and discuss the distinguishing features of the various differential diagnoses. The subungual location is very rare. For such tumours, radiology is as vital as histopathology in making a diagnosis and excluding neoplasia. Accurate diagnosis requires careful clinico-pathological and radiological correlation. These sorts of lesions may present to the dermatologist, not always the foot surgeon. PMID:25990793

  8. Endometrial Osseous Metaplasia: Case Report with Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Patil, SB; Narchal, S; Paricharak, DG; More, SS

    2013-01-01

    Endometrial osseous metaplasia is a rare pathological condition with mature bone in the endometrium and can be a cause for menorrhagia and infertility as bone in the endometrium acts like intrauterine contraceptive device. We report one such case with brief review of literature in a 28-year-old woman presenting with history of menorrhagia. PMID:24349836

  9. Benign and Malignant Proliferative Fibro-osseous and Osseous Lesions of the Oral Cavity of Dogs.

    PubMed

    Soltero-Rivera, M; Engiles, J B; Reiter, A M; Reetz, J; Lewis, J R; Sánchez, M D

    2015-09-01

    Ossifying fibroma (OF) and fibrous dysplasia (FD) are benign, intraosseous, proliferative fibro-osseous lesions (PFOLs) characterized by replacement of normal bone by a fibrous matrix with various degrees of mineralization and ossification. Osteomas are benign tumors composed of mature, well-differentiated bone. Clinical, imaging, and histologic features of 15 initially diagnosed benign PFOLs and osteomas of the canine oral cavity were evaluated. Final diagnoses after reevaluation were as follows: OF (3 cases), FD (4 cases), low-grade osteosarcoma (LG-OSA) (3 cases), and osteoma (5 cases). Histology alone often did not result in a definitive diagnosis for PFOL. OF appeared as a well-circumscribed, radiopaque mass with some degree of bone lysis on imaging. Most lesions of FD showed soft tissue opacity with bone lysis and ill-defined margins. Low-grade OSA appeared as a lytic lesion with a mixed opacity and ill-defined margins. Osteomas were characterized by a mineralized, expansile, well-circumscribed lesion. Although histologic features of PFOLs were typically bland, the lesions diagnosed as LG-OSA had some features of malignancy (eg, bone invasion or a higher mitotic index). Treatment varied widely. Of the 10 dogs with benign PFOL or osteoma with known outcome (10/12), 9 showed either complete response (6/10) or stable disease (3/10) after treatment. Of the 2 dogs with LG-OSA with known outcome, 1 showed complete response after curative intent surgery, but 1 patient had recurrence after partial maxillectomy. Definitive diagnosis of mandibular/maxillary PFOL is challenging via histopathologic examination alone, and accurate diagnosis is best achieved through assimilation of clinical, imaging, and histopathologic features. PMID:25957357

  10. Osseous haemophilic pseudotumour and concurrent primary hyperparathyroidism: a diagnostic conundrum

    PubMed Central

    Low, Soo Fin; Sridharan, Radhika; Ngiu, Chai Soon; Mohamed Haflah, Nor Hazla

    2014-01-01

    Pseudotumours are rare, occurring in 1–2% of severe haemophiliacs. Osseous locations are far less frequent than soft tissue location. We report a case of a 43-year-old man with haemophilia A, who presented with a gradually enlarging left thigh mass for 8 months. There were no constitutional symptoms. Plain radiograph showed an expansile lytic lesion with ‘soap-bubble’ appearance arising from the left femur diaphysis. On MRI, it appeared as a non-enhancing, multilobulated lesion expanding the medullary and subperiosteal spaces. The mass exhibited concentric ring sign with heterogeneous intermediate signal intensity in the core lesion, reflective of chronic haematoma with blood degradation products of different stages. A diagnosis of haemophilic pseudotumour was made. Hypercalcaemia, however, raised a diagnostic dilemma as bone malignancy needed to be considered. An open excisional biopsy and subsequent amputation confirmed the diagnosis of osseous haemophilic pseudotumour. Nuclear medicine study later revealed a concurrent parathyroid adenoma. PMID:24729114

  11. Central Cemento-Ossifying Fibroma: Primary Odontogenic or Osseous Neoplasm?

    PubMed

    Woo, Sook-Bin

    2015-12-01

    Currently, central cemento-ossifying fibroma is classified by the World Health Organization as a primary bone-forming tumor of the jaws. However, histopathologically, it is often indistinguishable from cemento-osseous dysplasias in that it forms osteoid and cementicles (cementum droplets) in varying proportions. It is believed that pluripotent cells within the periodontal membrane can be stimulated to produce either osteoid or woven bone and cementicles when stimulated. If this is true, cemento-ossifying fibroma would be better classified as a primary odontogenic neoplasm arising from the periodontal ligament. Cemento-ossifying fibromas also do not occur in the long bones. The present report compares several entities that fall within the diagnostic realm of benign fibro-osseous lesions and reviews the evidence for reclassifying central cemento-ossifying fibroma as a primary odontogenic neoplasm. PMID:26608158

  12. H. R. 5593: A Bill to maintain the viability of the domestic oil industry by enhancing capital investment and ensuring future oil and gas exploration, and for other purposes. Introduced in the House of Representatives, One Hundredth First Congress, Second Session, September 12, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    This bill would maintain the viability of the domestic oil industry by enhancing capital investment and ensuring future oil and gas exploration by amending certain sections of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986. The bill describes the following provisions under the title, Percentage depletion and intangible drilling costs: increase in percentage depletion; percentage depletion permitted after transfer of proven property; percentage depletion allowed for stripper well production of integrated producers; net income limitation not to apply to oil or gas wells; and definitions of intangible drilling costs. Under Title II, Domestic energy improvement tax credits, the following tax credits are described: marginal production; exploring for oil or gas; vehicles fueled by clean-burning fuels, property converting vehicles to be so fueled, and facilities for the retail delivery of such fuels; conversion to natural gas equipment; clean fuel alternatives research; and tertiary recovery methods research.

  13. Maintaining viability of white clover under very high pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishihira, N.; Iwasaki, T.; Shinpou, R.; Hara, A.; Ono, F.; Hada, Y.; Mori, Y.; Takarabe, K.; Saigusa, M.; Matsushima, Y.; Saini, N. L.; Yamashita, M.

    2012-06-01

    The high pressure technique developed in physics may give a new possibility if it is applied to a biological study. We have been studying the tolerance of small living samples such as planktons and mosses, and found that all of them were alive after exposed to extremely high hydrostatic pressure of 7.5 GPa. This technique has been extended to a higher plant Trifolium lepens L. (white clover). A few seeds of white clover were exposed to 7.5 GPa for up to 6 days. After the pressure was released, they were seeded on agar, or directly on sowing soil. Seventeen out of the total 22 seeds exposed to the high pressure were found to be alive. Those exposed for up to 1 day and seeded on agar germinated roots. Those exposed for up to 1 h and seeded on soil germinated stems and leaves. The present technique has the possibility of being applied to improve breed of plants and to discover a very strong species that stands against very severe environmental conditions.

  14. Primary intra-osseous myoepithelioma of phalanx mimicking an enchondroma.

    PubMed

    Nambirajan, Aruna; Mridha, Asit Ranjan; Sharma, Mehar Chand; Panda, Ananya; Palaniswamy, Aravindh

    2016-10-01

    Myoepitheliomas (MEs) are uncommon tumours of the soft tissue with an intermediate biological behaviour and uncertain differentiation. Primary intra-osseous MEs are rare and occur predominantly in the axial and proximal appendicular skeleton in middle-aged patients. The morphological variation of the tumour cells and stromal metaplasia may cause considerable diagnostic confusion, especially when it occurs in an unusual location. A wide panel of immunohistochemical markers is required to exclude other histological mimics. A 37-year-old male presented with a recurrent swelling in the right middle finger for 1-month duration. Radiographic images showed an expansile, lytic, intra-osseous lesion with high signal intensity on T2W fat-suppressed MR images in the proximal phalanx of the right middle finger without cortical breach, highly suggestive of an enchondroma. Histopathology revealed a lobulated tumour comprising of polygonal to spindle cells in groups and cords in a chondromyxoid stroma. No cellular atypia was noted. The tumour cells were immunopositive for epithelial membrane antigen (EMA), p63, S100 and smooth muscle actin (SMA), compatible with the diagnosis of an intraosseous ME. The proximal phalanx of the right middle finger was excised, revealing a similar tumour, and the patient has been on regular follow-up for the last 18 months without any recurrence. Primary intra-osseous MEs are extremely rare, and this is the second reported occurrence in small bones. A differential diagnosis of ME should be kept for enchondroma-like lesions of the bone for proper histopathological assessment and accurate diagnosis. Documentation of such cases and follow-up will enhance our understanding of their clinical course and prognosis. PMID:27524490

  15. The effect of osseous ankle configuration on chronic ankle instability

    PubMed Central

    Frigg, Arno; Magerkurth, Olaf; Valderrabano, Victor; Ledermann, Hans‐Peter; Hintermann, Beat

    2007-01-01

    Background Chronic ankle instability (CAI) is a common orthopaedic entity in sport. Although other risk factors have been studied extensively, little is known about how it is influenced by the osseous joint configuration. Aim To study the effect of osseous ankle configuration on CAI. Design Case–control study, level III. Setting Radiological examination with measurement of lateral x rays by an independent radiologist using a digital DICOM/PACS system. Patients A group of 52 patients who had had at least three recurrent sprains was compared with an age‐matched and sex‐matched control group of 52 healthy subjects. Main outcome measures The radius of the talar surface, the tibial coverage of the talus (tibiotalar sector) and the height of the talar body were measured. Results The talar radius was found to be larger in patients with CAI (21.2 (2.4) mm) than in controls (17.7 (1.9) mm; p<0.001, power >95%). The tibiotalar sector, representing the tibial coverage of the talus, was smaller in patients with CAI (80° (5.1°)) than in controls (88.4° (7.2°); p<0.001, power >95%). No significant difference was observed in the height of the talar body between patients with CAI (28.8 (2.6) mm) and controls (27.5 (4.0) mm; p = 0.055). Conclusion CAI is associated with an unstable osseous joint configuration characterised by a larger radius of the talus and a smaller tibiotalar sector. There is evidence that a higher talus might also play some part, particularly in women. PMID:17261556

  16. Florid Cemento-osseous Dysplasia: A Case of Misdiagnosis.

    PubMed

    Delai, Débora; Bernardi, Anarela; Felippe, Gabriela Santos; da Silveira Teixeira, Cleonice; Felippe, Wilson Tadeu; Santos Felippe, Mara Cristina

    2015-11-01

    Florid cemento-osseous dysplasia (FCOD) belongs to the group of fibro-osseous lesions in which normal bone is replaced by fibrous connective tissue and calcified cementum tissue of the avascular type. Among the various types of fibro-osseous lesions, FCOD is one of the most commonly encountered diseases in clinical practice and may involve 3 or 4 of the quadrants. FCOD is located in the periapical regions of teeth, and the lesions are predominantly radiolucent (osteolytic phase), become mixed over time (cementoblast phase), and ultimately become radiopaque (osteogenic phase) with a thin radiolucent peripheral halo. The characteristics of FCOD in the initial stages are similar to those of periapical lesions of inflammatory origin, which may lead to misdiagnosis. A 38-year-old woman sought dental care because of complaints of pain on the right side of her face. A clinical examination revealed no marked alterations; a panoramic radiograph was therefore requested and revealed the presence of radiolucent lesions associated with the periapical regions of some of the lower teeth. Thus, the professional referred the patient for endodontic treatment of the associated teeth with the justification that the lesions were of endodontic origin. However, the endodontist found that the teeth responded positively to a sensitivity test. The initial diagnosis could have resulted in unnecessary root canal treatment, but after careful clinical, radiographic, and tomographic assessments by different professionals, FCOD was diagnosed, conservatively treated, and regularly monitored. It is important that dentists have a basic knowledge of the various injuries that affect the jaw bones to prevent errors in diagnosis and treatment and to promote oral health. PMID:26410152

  17. Case Study: Osseous Pathology with Peripheral Nerve Entrapment and Neuromata.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Stephen L

    2016-04-01

    This case illustrates the complexity and interrelationship of osseous pathology with peripheral nerve entrapment and neuromata. She had an iatrogenic nerve injury of a branch of the medial dorsal cutaneous nerve causing her painful scar. Secondarily, she developed an injury to her common peroneal nerve from the cast immobilization, resulting in palsy/drop foot. The tarsal tunnel entrapment was likely a sequela of the cast immobilization and chronic swelling. Her postoperative chronic pain was compounded by the failure to use grommets with the polymeric silicon (Silastic) implant at the initial surgery, leading to a breakdown of the implant with subsequent detritic synovitis. PMID:27013419

  18. Successful Treatment of Osseous Blastomycosis without Pulmonary or Disseminated Disease and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Day, Shandra R.; Weiss, David B.; Hazen, Kevin C.; Moore, Christopher C.

    2014-01-01

    Blastomycosis commonly occurs following inhalation of Blastomyces dermatitidis conidia causing a pulmonary infection and can disseminate to extrapulmonary sites. Osseous involvement primarily results from hematogenous spread but in rare cases direct inoculation can occur. We describe a case of osseous blastomycosis without pulmonary or disseminated disease successfully treated with posaconazole. PMID:24703876

  19. Osseous Metaplasia in a Free-living Snake (Patagonian Green Racer; Philodryas patagoniensis) in Brazil, 2012.

    PubMed

    Nogueira, Carlos H O; Jerdy, Hassan L; Silveira, Leonardo S

    2016-04-28

    We describe an osseous metaplasia in a wild Patagonian green racer (Philodryas patagoniensis). The 5.5×1.5-cm lesion of irregular contour on the right dorsolateral surface proximal to the snake's cloaca was raised, hard, ulcerated centrally, and radiopaque and interfered with mobility. Microscopy revealed osseous metaplasia on skin and muscle. PMID:26981689

  20. Strontium-89 therapy for the pain of osseous metastases

    SciTech Connect

    Silberstein, E.B.; Williams, C.

    1985-04-01

    A Phase I and II study has been conducted of the safety and efficacy of /sup 89/Sr (injected i.v. as the chloride) to alleviate bone pain due to osseous metastatic disease. Potential attendant hematologic toxicity was also examined. Thirty-eight patients with pain due to osseous metastases requiring regular narcotic more than twice a day, documented by an abnormal bone scan and radiography, received 45 doses of /sup 89/Sr after informed consent. The performance status (Karnofsky scale) ranged from 20-80%. One patient had complete pain relief while 22 other doses yielded at least a 25% reduction in narcotic requirement lasting at least 1 mo and/or 20% improvement in Karnofsky scale rating. Two patients had marked to complete relief in tumor sites which were not fractured, with no change in fracture pain. Twenty-two did not respond. Response was independent of narcotic requirements, tumor type, or Karnofsky status. No hematologic toxicity occurred. Strontium-89 may be useful as adjuvant therapy for diffuse bone pain, but a double-blind study comparing it to other nonnarcotic modalities is required.

  1. Encapsulation method for maintaining biodecontamination activity

    DOEpatents

    Rogers, Robert D.; Hamilton, Melinda A.; Nelson, Lee O.; Benson, Jennifer; Green, Martin J.; Milner, Timothy N.

    2002-01-01

    A method for maintaining the viability and subsequent activity of microorganisms utilized in a variety of environments to promote biodecontamination of surfaces. One application involves the decontamination of concrete surfaces. Encapsulation of microbial influenced degradation (MID) microorganisms has shown that MID activity is effectively maintained under passive conditions, that is, without manual addition of moisture or nutrients, for an extended period of time.

  2. Encapsulation method for maintaining biodecontamination activity

    DOEpatents

    Rogers, Robert D.; Hamilton, Melinda A.; Nelson, Lee O.; Benson, Jennifer; Green, Martin J.; Milner, Timothy N.

    2006-04-11

    A method for maintaining the viability and subsequent activity of microorganisms utilized in a variety of environments to promote biodecontamination of surfaces. One application involves the decontamination of concrete surfaces. Encapsulation of microbial influenced degradation (MID) microorganisms has shown that MID activity is effectively maintained under passive conditions, that is, without manual addition of moisture or nutrients, for an extended period of time.

  3. Radiographic features of osseous metastases of soft-tissue sarcomas

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, W.S.; Kaiser, L.R.; Gold, R.H.; Fon, G.T.

    1982-04-01

    In contrast to most other neoplastic processes of bone, in our study osseous metastases from soft-tissue sarcomas (STS) were more reliably detected by radiography than by scintigraphy. The radiographic manifestations of 65 skeletal metastases in 23 patients with STS were reveiwed. Although most metastases (88%) were osteolytic, eight (12%) lesions were osteoblastic. The destructive patterns were geographic in 29%, moth-eaten in 55%, and permeative in 12% of the lesions. The axial skeleton was most commonly involved. In the long bones the diaphyses were the predominant sites of involvement. The bony cortex was frequently breached, with resultant soft-tissue swelling and pathologic fractures. Noteworthy features included subarticular location, involvement of the sarcoiliac joint, and an expansile appearance.

  4. Guided bone regeneration in the treatment of fenestration osseous defect.

    PubMed

    Mahesh, H V; Ramya, K S

    2013-01-01

    This article presents a case with a fenestration defect which was treated by placing a resorbable barrier alone. In the case presented, the osseous defect was a natural space maker with the wall of the defect providing sufficient support to prevent collapse of the membrane into the space. So the use of membrane alone is the preferred treatment. Resorbable collagen membrane was placed in order to avoid a second surgical procedure to remove the nonresorbable membrane. The membrane was positioned by placing a resorbable sling suture such that it covered the defective site adequately. Postsurgical healing of the defect was evaluated 1 month after the surgery and it was satisfactory. Thus guided bone regeneration of the fenestration defect is a reliable treatment procedure. PMID:23965465

  5. Schimke immune-osseous dysplasia: A case report.

    PubMed

    Bakr, Ashraf; Eid, Riham; Sarhan, Amr; Hammad, Ayman; El-Refaey, Ahmed Mahmoud; El-Mougy, Atef; Zedan, Mohammed Magdy; ElHusseini, Fatma

    2015-09-01

    Schimke immune-osseous dysplasia (SIOD) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by spondylo-epiphyseal dysplasia (SED), progressive renal insufficiency beginning as steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS) and defective cellular immunity. This article reports a case from Egypt with a mild form of SIOD. A 14.5-year-old male patient presented with disproportionate short stature, SRNS (focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis), laboratory evidence of cellular immune deficiency and radiologic characteristics of SED. He died at the age of 16.5 years with bone marrow failure and severe pneumonia. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of SIOD to be reported from Egypt. PMID:26354575

  6. Evolution of the human hip. Part 1: the osseous framework

    PubMed Central

    Hogervorst, Tom; Vereecke, Evie E.

    2014-01-01

    Extensive osseous adaptations of the lumbar spine, pelvis, hip and femur characterize the emergence of the human bipedal gait with its ‘double extension’ of the lumbar spine and hip. To accommodate lumbar lordosis, the pelvis was ‘compacted’, becoming wider and shorter, as compared with the non-human apes. The hip joint acquired a much more extended position, which can be seen in a broader evolutionary context of verticalization of limbs. When loaded in a predominantly vertical position, the femur can be built lighter and longer than when it is loaded more horizontally because bending moments are smaller. Extension of the hip joint together with elongation of the femur increases effective leg length, and hence stride length, which improves energy efficiency. At the hip joint itself, the shift of the hip’s default working range to a more extended position influences concavity at the head–neck junction and femoral neck anteversion. PMID:27011802

  7. Fibro-osseous Lesions of the Jaw: A Report of Two Cases

    PubMed Central

    Yadavalli, Guruprasad

    2011-01-01

    Fibro-osseous lesions of the maxillofacial bones comprise a diverse group of pathologic conditions that include developmental lesions, reactive or dysplastic diseases, and neoplasms. The concept of fibro-osseous lesions has evolved over the last several decades and now includes two major entities: fibrous dysplasia and ossifying fibroma. The less common lesions include florid osseous dysplasia, periapical dysplasia, focal sclerosing osteomyelitis, proliferative periostitis of Garre, and osteitis deformans. We report two cases, the first, a craniofacial polyostotic fibrous dysplasia, and the second, a juvenile ossifying fibroma of maxilla. PMID:21977383

  8. Fibro-osseous Lesions of the Jaw: A Report of Two Cases.

    PubMed

    Yadavalli, Guruprasad

    2011-01-01

    Fibro-osseous lesions of the maxillofacial bones comprise a diverse group of pathologic conditions that include developmental lesions, reactive or dysplastic diseases, and neoplasms. The concept of fibro-osseous lesions has evolved over the last several decades and now includes two major entities: fibrous dysplasia and ossifying fibroma. The less common lesions include florid osseous dysplasia, periapical dysplasia, focal sclerosing osteomyelitis, proliferative periostitis of Garre, and osteitis deformans. We report two cases, the first, a craniofacial polyostotic fibrous dysplasia, and the second, a juvenile ossifying fibroma of maxilla. PMID:21977383

  9. Viability and Resilience of Languages in Competition

    PubMed Central

    Chapel, Laetitia; Castelló, Xavier; Bernard, Claire; Deffuant, Guillaume; Eguíluz, Víctor M.; Martin, Sophie; Miguel, Maxi San

    2010-01-01

    We study the viability and resilience of languages, using a simple dynamical model of two languages in competition. Assuming that public action can modify the prestige of a language in order to avoid language extinction, we analyze two cases: (i) the prestige can only take two values, (ii) it can take any value but its change at each time step is bounded. In both cases, we determine the viability kernel, that is, the set of states for which there exists an action policy maintaining the coexistence of the two languages, and we define such policies. We also study the resilience of the languages and identify configurations from where the system can return to the viability kernel (finite resilience), or where one of the languages is lead to disappear (zero resilience). Within our current framework, the maintenance of a bilingual society is shown to be possible by introducing the prestige of a language as a control variable. PMID:20126655

  10. Extending the viability of sea urchin gametes.

    PubMed

    Spiegler, M A; Oppenheimer, S B

    1995-04-01

    The sea urchin is the material of choice for studying many early developmental events. Methods to extend the viability of sea urchin gametes have not received much attention, but it is well known that the eggs are easily damaged by freezing. This study was designed to extend the viability of Lytechinus pictus eggs and sperm without freezing. Gamete viability measurements were based on relative numbers of fertilized vs unfertilized eggs, percentage fertilization, and on observations of embryonic development. Results indicate that gametes can be stored longer and at lower temperatures than previously described. Sperm were consistently kept viable for at least 12 days with little decrease in viability when stored in glass test tubes or plastic petri dishes and submerged in ice inside a refrigerator at 0 +/- 1 degree C. In one experiment, sperm stored in glass test tubes on ice remained viable up to 20 days after extraction. Eggs were maintained from 1 to 7 days, rather than the 1 day or so previously reported, when stored in glass test tubes submerged in ice in a refrigerator at 0 +/- 1 degree C. Results of egg and sperm experiments varied at different times in the season. Such variations may be caused by seasonal cytoplasmic changes, population differences, or the time mature individuals were maintained unfed in aquaria prior to use. Results from this study should be useful for a variety of research, mariculture, and teaching applications in which sea urchin supplies are limited or when the same gamete population is required for subsequent experiments. PMID:7743818

  11. Validation of X-ray fluorescence spectrometry for determining osseous or dental origin of unknown material.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Angi M; Smith, Michael A; Thomas, Richard M

    2012-01-01

    Forensic anthropological examinations typically involve the analysis of human skeletal remains, but in cases where samples are very small and/or physically compromised, it may first be necessary to determine whether the material is even osseous or dental in origin. X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF) is a technique that reveals the elemental composition of materials and is hypothesized to have utility in such cases. XRF analysis was conducted on a variety of tissues and materials in unaltered and altered (damaged) states. With few exceptions, osseous and dental tissues in unaltered and altered conditions contained characteristic levels of calcium and phosphorus, while other materials did not. Materials could be accurately identified as osseous or dental in origin based on the calcium and phosphorus levels identified by XRF, and we therefore conclude that XRF analysis is a valid and effective means of determining osseous or dental origin of unknown material. PMID:22040159

  12. The bone biopsy chamber: an improved method of collecting osseous tissue.

    PubMed

    Kaigler, D; Lang, B R

    1989-01-01

    The bone biopsy chamber (BBC) has been developed for implantation in bone to permit the serial biopsy of osseous tissues to study osseointegration. This device improves the currently available methodology for studying the implant/osseous interfacial zone by providing a means of collecting osseous samples for microscopic evaluation in the least invasive manner, and without euthanization or en bloc resection. The advantages of the BBC were verified through its implantation in the tibia of five young adult Flemish Giant rabbits and the serial collection of osseous samples. Following the recommended surgical procedures to implant the BBC and obtain osseointegration, osseous samples were collected from the five rabbits at 30-, 60-, and 90-day test periods for histologic evaluations. Bone specimens were embedded in preparation for staining using modified goldner trichrome, toluidine blue, and gallocyanin. Each of the sections demonstrated clear evidence of biocompatibility, the different cellular components and stages of osteogenesis, and that osseous tissue biopsies were possible using this device. PMID:2639118

  13. Tricho-Dento-Osseous Syndrome: Diagnosis and Dental Management

    PubMed Central

    Al-Batayneh, Ola B.

    2012-01-01

    Tricho-dento-osseous (TDO) syndrome is a rare, autosomal dominant disorder principally characterised by curly hair at infancy, severe enamel hypomineralization and hypoplasia and taurodontism of teeth, sclerotic bone, and other defects. Diagnostic criteria are based on the generalized enamel defects, severe taurodontism especially of the mandibular first permanent molars, an autosomal dominant mode of inheritance, and at least one of the other features (i.e., nail defects, bone sclerosis, and curly, kinky or wavy hair present at a young age that may straighten out later). Confusion with amelogenesis imperfecta is common; however, taurodontism is not a constant feature of any of the types of amelogenesis imperfecta. Management of TDO requires a team approach, proper documentation, and a long-term treatment and follow-up plan. The aim of treatment is to prevent problems such as sensitivity, caries, dental abscesses, and loss of occlusal vertical dimension through attrition of hypoplastic tooth structure. Another aim is to restore function of the dentition and enhance the esthetics and self-esteem of the patient. This paper proposes treatment approaches that include preventive, restorative, endodontic, prosthetic, and surgical options to management. In addition, it sheds light on the difficulties faced during dental treatment of such cases. PMID:22969805

  14. Evaluation of metallic osseous implants with nuclear medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Wellman, H.N.; Schauwecker, D.S.; Capello, W.N.

    1988-04-01

    Nuclear medicine has proven to have a valuable role in the evaluation of osseous metallic implants, particularly with joint prostheses, but can assist with evaluation of other appliances as well. The nuclear arthrogram has become an invaluable adjunct to simultaneously performed radiographic contrast arthrography. This application has been best evaluated in what is one of the most common of orthopedic prosthesis problems, namely, loosening of total hip prostheses. Experience indicates that both sensitivity and specificity of loosening of the femoral component can be increased to over 90% through combined use of nuclear with radiographic contrast arthrography. Furthermore the combination of routine skeletal scintimaging with the nuclear arthrogram adds a significant dimension to precise localizing of the nuclear arthrographics agent In-111 chloride. Nuclear medicine also plays an important role in further evaluating the presence of infection associated with metallic implants with In-111 WBC preparations being superior to Ga-67 as the radiopharmaceutical tracer. Infection has been detected with a sensitivity of 73% and a specificity of 93% in our series using combined In-111 WBC and simultaneous skeletal imaging with conventional Tc-99m MDP. Acute infections are more readily identifiable than chronic in association with prostheses. 29 references.

  15. Viability of piping plover Charadrius melodus metapopulations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Plissner, Jonathan H.; Haig, Susan M.

    2000-01-01

    The metapopulation viability analysis package, VORTEX, was used to examine viability and recovery objectives for piping plovers Charadrius melodus, an endangered shorebird that breeds in three distinct regions of North America. Baseline models indicate that while Atlantic Coast populations, under current management practices, are at little risk of near-term extinction, Great Plains and Great Lakes populations require 36% higher mean fecundity for a significant probability of persisting for the next 100 years. Metapopulation structure (i.e. the delineation of populations within the metapopulation) and interpopulation dispersal rates had varying effects on model results; however, spatially-structured metapopulations exhibited lower viability than that reported for single-population models. The models were most sensitive to variation in survivorship; hence, additional mortality data will improve their accuracy. With this information, such models become useful tools in identifying successful management objectives; and sensitivity analyses, even in the absence of some data, may indicate which options are likely to be most effective. Metapopulation viability models are best suited for developing conservation strategies for achieving recovery objectives based on maintaining an externally derived, target population size and structure.

  16. Assessment of myocardial viability.

    PubMed

    Travin, Mark I; Bergmann, Steven R

    2005-01-01

    The prevalence of left ventricular (LV) dysfunction and resultant congestive heart failure is increasing. Patients with this condition are at high risk for cardiac death and usually have significant limitations in their lifestyles. Although there have been advances in medical therapy resulting in improved survival and well being, the best and most definitive therapy, when appropriate, is revascularization. In the setting of coronary artery disease, accounting for approximately two thirds of cases of congestive heart failure, LV dysfunction often is not the result of irreversible scar but rather caused by impairment in function and energy use of still viable-myocytes, with the opportunity for improved function if coronary blood flow is restored. Patients with LV dysfunction who have viable myocardium are the patients at highest risk because of the potential for ischemia but at the same time benefit most from revascularization. It is important to identify viable myocardium in these patients, and radionuclide myocardial scintigraphy is an excellent tool for this. Single-photon emission computed tomography perfusion scintigraphy, whether using thallium-201, Tc-99m sestamibi, or Tc-99m tetrofosmin, in stress and/or rest protocols, has consistently been shown to be an effective modality for identifying myocardial viability and guiding appropriate management. Metabolic imaging with positron emission tomography radiotracers frequently adds additional information and is a powerful tool for predicting which patients will have an improved outcome from revascularization, including some patients referred instead for cardiac transplantation. Other noninvasive modalities, such as stress echocardiography, also facilitate the assessment of myocardial viability, but there are advantages and disadvantages compared with the nuclear techniques. Nuclear imaging appears to require fewer viable cells for detection, resulting in a higher sensitivity but a lower specificity than stress

  17. The Feasibility of Ultrasonography in Defining the Size of Jaw Osseous Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Shahidi, Shoaleh; Shakibafard, Alireza; Zamiri, Barbod; Mokhtare, Mohammad Reza; Houshyar, Maneli; Mahdian, Soroush

    2015-01-01

    Statement of the Problem Jaw bone lesions are common pathologic conditions. The role of ultrasonography in evaluation of the extra-osseous lesions is confirmed, however, this imaging modality is not the diagnostic routine for the intra-osseous jaw lesions. Purpose The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of ultrasonography in diagnosis of intra-osseous jaw lesions concerning their size and content and also to study its correlation with the histopathological findings. Materials and Method For this study, 15 patients with intra-osseous jaw lesions in the maxilla and mandible were selected from those referred to the Department of Oral Surgery. Panoramic imaging, computed tomography (CT) or cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) and ultrasonography (USG) were performed for all the lesions. The size of the lesions was measured by USG and then compared with CT or CBCT. Moreover, the correlation amongst the echographic patterns and histopathologic results was evaluated. Results In 12 cases, size values were in complete agreement with CT or CBCT. The size of 3 lesions could not be measured by the radiologist due to the thickness of buccal cortical plate. Conclusion Findings of this study suggested that USG might be feasible in estimating the size of intra-osseous jaw lesions with little underestimation. This study also confirmed that ultrasound imaging was a very useful imaging technique which could provide significant diagnostic information regarding the content of jaw bone lesions where the buccal bone thickness was thin enough. PMID:26636122

  18. Graphene's Viability for Fusion Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navarro, Marcos; Hall, Karla; Rojas, Richard; Santarius, John; Kulcinski, Gerald

    2015-11-01

    Graphene is a source of interest for multiple applications due to its unusual electronic and physical properties. As a coating material, it has reduced oxidation of the main substrate, though no effort has been reported of testing it under fusion conditions. A number of experimental studies have established that defect-free graphene is an excellent barrier material for gases. We explore its viability to maintain a significant pressure difference under ion irradiation. Deuterium is used as a projectile on graphene coated silicon over a range of 10-50 keV energies and various fluences. The vacancy yield (amount of damage) and natural resonance for graphene are found at around 1350 cm-1 and 1550 cm-1, respectively. Damage of each sample is quantified via Raman spectroscopy (RS) using the ratio of the intensities at these wavenumbers. Graphene is also tested here as a coating for some fusion components. Though tungsten is a very promising divertor and first wall candidate, after intense irradiation, it is prone to developing fuzz or grass structures, leading to a diminished lifetime. Graphene grown on tungsten is tested under reactor conditions with 30 keV He ions at several fluences, and the sputtering of both materials is studied via RS and Scanning Electron Microscopy. This work was supported by the Graduate Engineering Research Scholars and the TEAM-Science program at the University of Wisconsin-Madison.

  19. Antibiotic-releasing Porous Polymethylmethacrylate Constructs for Osseous Space Maintenance and Infection Control

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Meng; Kretlow, James D.; Nguyen, Anson; Young, Simon; Baggett, L. Scott; Wong, Mark E.; Kasper, F. Kurtis; Mikos, Antonios G.

    2010-01-01

    The use of a strategy involving space maintenance as the initial step of a two-stage regenerative medicine approach toward reconstructing significant bony or composite tissue defects in the craniofacial area, preserves the void volume of bony defects and could promote soft tissue healing prior to the subsequent definitive repair. One of the complications with a biomaterial-based space maintenance approach is local infection, which requires early, effective eradication, ideally through local antibiotic delivery. The purpose of this study is to develop a dual function implant material for maintaining osseous space and releasing an antibiotic to eliminate local infection in bony defects. Colistin, a polymyxin antibiotic, was chosen specifically to address infections with Acinetobacter species, the most common pathogen associated with combat-related traumatic craniofacial injuries. Porous polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) constructs incorporating poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microspheres were fabricated by mixing a clinically used bone cement formulation of PMMA powder and methylmethacrylate liquid with a carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) hydrogel (40 or 50 wt%) to impart porosity and PLGA microspheres (10 or 15 wt%) loaded with colistin to control drug release. The PMMA/CMC/PLGA construct featured mild setting temperature, controllable surface/bulk porosity by incorporation of the CMC hydrogel, reasonably strong compressive properties, and continuous drug release over a period of 5 weeks with total drug release of 68.1-88.3%, depending on the weight percentage of CMC and PLGA incorporation. The concentration of released colistin was well above its reported minimum inhibitory concentration against susceptible species for 5 weeks. This study provides information on the composition parameters that enable viable porosity characteristics/drug release kinetics of the PMMA/CMC/PLGA construct for the initial space maintenance as part of a two-stage regenerative medicine

  20. The cybernetics of viability: an overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nechansky, Helmut

    2011-10-01

    A three-level approach to viability is developed, considering (1) living systems, (2) a niche, understood as the area within the reach of their actions, and (3) an environment. A systematic analysis of the interrelations between these levels shows that living systems emerge with matter/energy processing systems. These can add controller structures when producing excess energy. A three-sensor controller structure enables a living system to deal with unfavourable and scarce environments. Further evolution of these controller structures offers improved ways to act on niches. Maintaining niches in scarce environments can require technology or economy. So social systems emerge, which are understood as aggregates of living systems. Basic patterns of interactions within social systems are analysed. So the introduction of the notion of the niche into the discussion of viability allows us to explain phenomena ranging from properties of single living systems to societal organization.

  1. Importance of neurologic and cutaneous signs in the diagnosis of Schimke immuno-osseous dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Polat, Ayşe İpek; Yiş, Uluç; Ayanoğlu, Müge; Hız, Ayşe Semra; Güleryüz, Handan; Öztürk Atasoy, Tülay; Boerkoel, Cornelius F

    2015-01-01

    Schimke immuno-osseous dysplasia is an autosomal recessive multisystem disorder caused by defects in SWI/SNF-related, matrix-associated, actin-dependent regulator of chromatin, subfamily a-like 1 gene (SMARCAL1). SMARCAL1 product is a helicase that has role in selective cellular proliferation. The disorder is characterized by spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia with short stature, nephropathy, T cell deficiency, neurologic and cutaneous signs. Patients may have hyperpigmented skin lesions similar to café au lait spots. Symptoms and disease severity in Schimke immuno-osseous dysplasia varies from patient to patient. Genetic, epigenetic and environmental factors play role on the severity of the disease. Here we report on a patient with short stature, steroid resistant nephrotic syndrome and recurrent infections. Cutaneous findings and developmental delay helped us to reach the diagnosis of Schimke immuno-osseous dysplasia. A homozygous missense mutation in SMARCAL1 gene confirmed the clinical diagnosis. PMID:27411420

  2. Chemical Differentiation of Osseous, Dental, and Non-skeletal Materials in Forensic Anthropology using Elemental Analysis.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, Heather A; Meizel-Lambert, Cayli J; Schultz, John J; Sigman, Michael E

    2015-03-01

    Forensic anthropologists are generally able to identify skeletal materials (bone and tooth) using gross anatomical features; however, highly fragmented or taphonomically altered materials may be problematic to identify. Several chemical analysis techniques have been shown to be reliable laboratory methods that can be used to determine if questionable fragments are osseous, dental, or non-skeletal in nature. The purpose of this review is to provide a detailed background of chemical analysis techniques focusing on elemental compositions that have been assessed for use in differentiating osseous, dental, and non-skeletal materials. More recently, chemical analysis studies have also focused on using the elemental composition of osseous/dental materials to evaluate species and provide individual discrimination, but have generally been successful only in small, closed groups, limiting their use forensically. Despite significant advances incorporating a variety of instruments, including handheld devices, further research is necessary to address issues in standardization, error rates, and sample size/diversity. PMID:25753999

  3. Single-tooth dento-osseous osteotomy with a computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing surgical guide

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    This clinical note introduces a method to assist surgeons in performing single-tooth dento-osseous osteotomy. For use in this method, a surgical guide was manufactured using computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing technology and was based on preoperative surgical simulation data. This method was highly conducive to successful single-tooth dento-osseous segmental osteotomy. PMID:27162756

  4. Osseous metastases from renal cell carcinoma: embolization and surgery for restoration of function. Work in progress

    SciTech Connect

    Rowe, D.M.; Becker, G.J.; Rabe, F.E.; Holden, R.W.; Richmond, B.D.; Wass, J.L.; Sequeira, F.W.

    1984-03-01

    Five patients underwent preoperative embolization of osseous metastases from renal cell carcinoma. The group consisted of four men and one woman who ranged in age from 46 to 79 years. The lesions were located in the pubic ramus and acetabulum, proximal femur, femoral midshaft, proximal humerus, and proximal tibia. All embolizations were performed within 24 hours of surgery. The internal fixation and tumor curettage was accomplished with estimated perioperative blood loss ranging from 10 ml to 1,250 ml. All patients had significant restoration of function following surgery. The authors suggest that preoperative embolization is an important and efficacious adjunct in the management of hypervascular renal cell osseous metastases.

  5. Osseous metaplasia with mature bone formation of the thyroid gland: Three case reports

    PubMed Central

    CHUN, JI-SUN; HONG, RAN; KIM, JUNG-A

    2013-01-01

    Nodular hyperplasia (nodular or multinodular goiter) is the most common form of thyroid disease. These nodules may undergo secondary changes in the form of hemorrhages, calcification and cystic degeneration. However, osseous metaplasia with mature bone formation rarely occurs. The present study reports the cases of three female patients with thyroid nodules diagnosed as nodular hyperplasia with osseous metaplasia and mature bone formation. The patients underwent right lobectomy, near total thyroidectomy and total thyroidectomy, respectively. The clinical course of the patients following resection were unremarkable. PMID:24137448

  6. Viability of Baylisascaris procyonis Eggs.

    PubMed

    Shafir, Shira C; Sorvillo, Frank J; Sorvillo, Teresa; Eberhard, Mark L

    2011-07-01

    Infection with Baylisascaris procyonis roundworms is rare but often fatal and typically affects children. We attempted to determine parameters of viability and methods of inactivating the eggs of these roundworms. Loss of viability resulted when eggs were heated to 62°C or desiccated for 7 months but not when frozen at -15°C for 6 months. PMID:21762591

  7. Viability of Baylisascaris procyonis Eggs

    PubMed Central

    Sorvillo, Frank J.; Sorvillo, Teresa; Eberhard, Mark L.

    2011-01-01

    Infection with Baylisascaris procyonis roundworms is rare but often fatal and typically affects children. We attempted to determine parameters of viability and methods of inactivating the eggs of these roundworms. Loss of viability resulted when eggs were heated to 62°C or desiccated for 7 months but not when frozen at –15°C for 6 months. PMID:21762591

  8. Evaluation of Osseous Integration of PVD-Silver-Coated Hip Prostheses in a Canine Model

    PubMed Central

    Hauschild, Gregor; Hardes, Jendrik; Gosheger, Georg; Blaske, Franziska; Wehe, Christoph; Karst, Uwe; Höll, Steffen

    2015-01-01

    Infection associated with biomaterials used for orthopedic prostheses remains a serious complication in orthopedics, especially tumor surgery. Silver-coating of orthopedic (mega)prostheses proved its efficiency in reducing infections but has been limited to surface areas exposed to soft tissues due to concerns of silver inhibiting osseous integration of cementless stems. To close this gap in the bactericidal capacity of silver-coated orthopedic prostheses extension of the silver-coating on surface areas intended for osseous integration seems to be inevitable. Our study reports about a PVD- (physical-vapor-deposition-) silver-coated cementless stem in a canine model for the first time and showed osseous integration of a silver-coated titanium surface in vivo. Radiological, histological, and biomechanical analysis revealed a stable osseous integration of four of nine stems implanted. Silver trace elemental concentrations in serum did not exceed 1.82 parts per billion (ppb) and can be considered as nontoxic. Changes in liver and kidney functions associated with the silver-coating could be excluded by blood chemistry analysis. This was in accordance with very limited metal displacement from coated surfaces observed by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) 12 months after implantation. In conclusion our results represent a step towards complete bactericidal silver-coating of orthopedic prostheses. PMID:25695057

  9. Osseous genioplasty in conjunction with bimaxillary orthognathic surgery: a review of 262 consecutive cases.

    PubMed

    Posnick, J C; Choi, E; Chang, R P

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the results of osseous genioplasty with bimaxillary orthognathic surgery. A retrospective consecutive case series of patients treated by a single surgeon between 2004 and 2013 was studied. All underwent Le Fort I, sagittal ramus osteotomies, septoplasty, inferior turbinate reduction, and osseous genioplasty. The outcome variables included the presenting chin dysmorphology, complications, and assessment of morphologic change. A Steiner analysis was completed for each subject's interval cephalogram. Two hundred sixty-two subjects met the inclusion criteria. Their mean age at operation was 25 (range 13-63) years. Chin osteotomy complications included one wound infection (0.4%), and two of the 1572 mandibular anterior teeth at risk sustained a pulpal injury. None of the subjects required revision. For subjects undergoing chin advancement, the mean change was +3.5 (range +3 to +6) mm. A majority also underwent counterclockwise rotation of the mandible (62%). For those undergoing chin lengthening, the mean change was +5 (range +3 to +12mm) mm, and for those undergoing vertical shortening, the mean change was -3.5 (range -3 to -7) mm. Osseous genioplasty is confirmed to be a safe method to reshape the chin. When osseous genioplasty is performed in conjunction with bimaxillary orthognathic surgery, only a modest horizontal change is required to achieve the preferred pogonion projection. PMID:26972157

  10. Primary osseous tumors of the pediatric spinal column: review of pathology and surgical decision making.

    PubMed

    Ravindra, Vijay M; Eli, Ilyas M; Schmidt, Meic H; Brockmeyer, Douglas L

    2016-08-01

    Spinal column tumors are rare in children and young adults, accounting for only 1% of all spine and spinal cord tumors combined. They often present diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. In this article, the authors review the current management of primary osseous tumors of the pediatric spinal column and highlight diagnosis, management, and surgical decision making. PMID:27476845

  11. Bilateral laryngeal paralysis in a dog secondary to laryngeal osseous metaplasia

    PubMed Central

    Skelding, Alicia Marie; Kisiel, Agatha; Essman, Stephanie; Rutland, Bronwyn E.

    2016-01-01

    A 7-year-old spayed female Lurcher was evaluated for a chronic history of increased upper respiratory noise. Advanced imaging including digital radiography and pre- and post-contrast computed tomography (CT) scan confirmed the presence of an ill-defined soft tissue mineralized mass of the ventral larynx. Histopathology demonstrated pleocellular myositis and fasciitis with osseous metaplasia. PMID:26834266

  12. Evaluation of osseous integration of PVD-silver-coated hip prostheses in a canine model.

    PubMed

    Hauschild, Gregor; Hardes, Jendrik; Gosheger, Georg; Stoeppeler, Sandra; Ahrens, Helmut; Blaske, Franziska; Wehe, Christoph; Karst, Uwe; Höll, Steffen

    2015-01-01

    Infection associated with biomaterials used for orthopedic prostheses remains a serious complication in orthopedics, especially tumor surgery. Silver-coating of orthopedic (mega)prostheses proved its efficiency in reducing infections but has been limited to surface areas exposed to soft tissues due to concerns of silver inhibiting osseous integration of cementless stems. To close this gap in the bactericidal capacity of silver-coated orthopedic prostheses extension of the silver-coating on surface areas intended for osseous integration seems to be inevitable. Our study reports about a PVD- (physical-vapor-deposition-) silver-coated cementless stem in a canine model for the first time and showed osseous integration of a silver-coated titanium surface in vivo. Radiological, histological, and biomechanical analysis revealed a stable osseous integration of four of nine stems implanted. Silver trace elemental concentrations in serum did not exceed 1.82 parts per billion (ppb) and can be considered as nontoxic. Changes in liver and kidney functions associated with the silver-coating could be excluded by blood chemistry analysis. This was in accordance with very limited metal displacement from coated surfaces observed by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) 12 months after implantation. In conclusion our results represent a step towards complete bactericidal silver-coating of orthopedic prostheses. PMID:25695057

  13. Development of a viability standard curve for microencapsulated probiotic bacteria using confocal microscopy and image analysis software.

    PubMed

    Moore, Sarah; Kailasapathy, Kasipathy; Phillips, Michael; Jones, Mark R

    2015-07-01

    Microencapsulation is proposed to protect probiotic strains from food processing procedures and to maintain probiotic viability. Little research has described the in situ viability of microencapsulated probiotics. This study successfully developed a real-time viability standard curve for microencapsulated bacteria using confocal microscopy, fluorescent dyes and image analysis software. PMID:25887694

  14. Total Ankylosis of the Upper Left Limb: A Case of Progressive Osseous Heteroplasia

    PubMed Central

    Birjandinejad, Ali; Taraz-Jamshidi, Mohammad-Hossein; Hosseinian, Sayyed Hadi Sayyed

    2016-01-01

    Progressive osseous heteroplasia is a rare inherited disease that begins with skin ossification and proceeds into the deeper connective tissues. The disease should be distinguished from other genetic disorders of heterotopic ossification including fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP) and Albright hereditary osteodystrophy (AHO). We report a case of progressive osseous heteroplasia in a twenty four years old male with a complaint of ankylosis of the entire upper left limb and digital cutaneous lesions and sparing of the other limbs and the axial skeleton. Absence of great toe malformation, presence of cutaneous ossification, dermal bone spicules extruding in fingers, and involvement of just left upper limb were unique findings in contrast with FOP diagnosis in this case. There is no effective treatment or prevention for POH. Awareness of diagnostic features is necessary in early diagnosis of POH. PMID:27517079

  15. Nasal Cavity Masses Resembling Chondro-osseous Respiratory Epithelial Adenomatoid Hamartomas in 3 Dogs.

    PubMed

    LaDouceur, E E B; Michel, A O; Lindl Bylicki, B J; Cifuentes, F F; Affolter, V K; Murphy, B G

    2016-05-01

    Chondro-osseous respiratory epithelial adenomatoid hamartomas (COREAHs) are rare tumors in the nasal cavity of people, which have not been described in other species. COREAHs in people are minimally invasive and rarely recur following excision. Histologically, these tumors are composed of disorganized, mature, nasal turbinate tissue that is organized into polypoid growths. These growths are lined by respiratory epithelium, contain glandular elements, and are organized around central cores of chondro-osseous matrix. This report describes 3 cases of dogs with nasal tumors that have histomorphology similar to that of COREAH in people. The tumors were all identified within the nasal cavity and were associated with regional bony lysis of the turbinates and surrounding skull bones, a feature that has not been reported in COREAH in people. There was no evidence of metastasis or extension beyond the nasal cavity in any of the 3 cases. PMID:26253881

  16. Impact-driven, pulmonary emboli of osseous fat in exercise-induced bronchospasm.

    PubMed

    Simkin, Peter A; Snitily, Brian K

    2015-11-01

    Exercise induced bronchospasm (EIB) affects approximately 10% of normal individuals with higher prevalence rates among children, obese adults, and competitive athletes. Although hyperpnea with dry air is the best known cause, the problem is multifactorial with atopy, asthma and chlorine all playing established roles. To date, no clear mechanism has connected musculoskeletal loading with the ensuing pulmonary compromise. This paper reviews evidence that impact-driven pulses in subchondral bone pressure may push osseous fat cells into the local venous sinusoids. The resultant showers of microemboli must then travel to the lung where lysis of membrane phospholipids leads to leukotriene formation with resultant inflammation and bronchial hypersensitivity. Concurrently, the same emboli deliver triglyceride fuels for further physical activity. Thus, pulmonary microemboli derived from osseous fat may resolve the seeming paradox of athletic excellence in persons afflicted with exercise-induced bronchospasm. PMID:26328480

  17. Total Ankylosis of the Upper Left Limb: A Case of Progressive Osseous Heteroplasia.

    PubMed

    Birjandinejad, Ali; Taraz-Jamshidi, Mohammad-Hossein; Hosseinian, Sayyed Hadi Sayyed

    2016-06-01

    Progressive osseous heteroplasia is a rare inherited disease that begins with skin ossification and proceeds into the deeper connective tissues. The disease should be distinguished from other genetic disorders of heterotopic ossification including fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP) and Albright hereditary osteodystrophy (AHO). We report a case of progressive osseous heteroplasia in a twenty four years old male with a complaint of ankylosis of the entire upper left limb and digital cutaneous lesions and sparing of the other limbs and the axial skeleton. Absence of great toe malformation, presence of cutaneous ossification, dermal bone spicules extruding in fingers, and involvement of just left upper limb were unique findings in contrast with FOP diagnosis in this case. There is no effective treatment or prevention for POH. Awareness of diagnostic features is necessary in early diagnosis of POH. PMID:27517079

  18. Florid cemento-osseous dysplasia mimicking apical periodontitis: A case report.

    PubMed

    Rekabi, Ali Reza; Ashouri, Rezvan; Torabi, Molok; Parirokh, Masoud; Abbott, Paul V

    2013-12-01

    Cemento-osseous dysplasia may present as a focal, periapical or florid lesion in the mandible or maxilla. The lesion may sometimes appear similar to peri-radicular lesions on a periapical radiograph. This report presents a case with irreversible pulpitis and root resorption as well as a mixed radiolucent/radiopaque lesion around a mandibular molar tooth root. Root canal treatment was performed and because of the radiographic signs of root resorption and the patient's fear of having a malignant disease, periapical surgery was also performed. The histopathology report confirmed the presence of florid cement-osseous dysplasia which was mimicking apical periodontitis. Follow-up radiography 12 months after the surgery illustrated complete healing of the radiolucent area. PMID:24279668

  19. Genetic determinants of fibro-osseous lesions in aged inbred mice.

    PubMed

    Berndt, Annerose; Ackert-Bicknell, Cheryl; Silva, Kathleen A; Kennedy, Victoria E; Sundberg, Beth A; Cates, Justin M; Schofield, Paul N; Sundberg, John P

    2016-02-01

    Fibro-osseous lesions in mice are progressive aging changes in which the bone marrow is replaced to various degrees by fibrovascular stroma and bony trabeculae in a wide variety of bones. The frequency and severity varied greatly among 28 different inbred mouse stains, predominantly affecting females, ranging from 0% for 10 strains to 100% for KK/HlJ and NZW/LacJ female mice. Few lesions were observed in male mice and for 23 of the strains, no lesions were observed in males for any of the cohorts. There were no significant correlations between strain-specific severities of fibro-osseous lesions and ovarian (r=0.11; P=0.57) or endometrial (r=0.03; P=0.89) cyst formation frequency or abnormalities in parathyroid glands. Frequency of fibro-osseous lesions was most strongly associated (P<10(-6)) with genome variations on chromosome (Chr) 8 at 90.6 and 90.8Mb (rs33108071, rs33500669; P=5.0·10(-10), 1.3·10(-6)), Chr 15 at 23.6 and 23.8Mb (rs32087871, rs45770368; P=7.3·10(-7), 2.7·10(-6)), and Chr 19 at 33.2, 33.4, and 33.6Mb (rs311004232, rs30524929, rs30448815; P=2.8·10(-6), 2.8·10(-6), 2.8·10(-6)) in genome-wide association studies (GWAS). The relatively large number of candidate genes identified in the GWAS analyses suggests that this may be an extremely complex polygenic disease. These results indicate that fibro-osseous lesions are surprisingly common in many inbred strains of laboratory mice as they age. While this presents little problem in most studies that utilize young animals, it may complicate aging studies, particularly those focused on bone. PMID:26589134

  20. [Osseous manifestations of treponematoses : six cases in immigrated black African (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Piéron, R; Mémin, Y; Mafart, Y; Lesobre, B

    The authors report the cases of six immigrated Black Africans with clinical and radiological (4 cases with condensing osteitis ; 2 cases with condensing forms and multiple lacunae) bone manifestations ; these manifestations, the serological tests and the osseous biopsy (three cases out of four) are consistent with the diagnosis of bone syphilis. These facts are discussed and ascribed to tertiary syphilis rather than to congenital or secondary syphilis, to yaws or endemic syphilis. PMID:6258233

  1. Fibroma with osseous metaplasia of external auditory canal in a dog.

    PubMed

    Park, Jin-Kyu; Lee, Seung-Keun; Park, Sang-Joon; Hong, Il-Hwa; Jeong, Kyu-Shik

    2010-07-01

    The present report describes a case of fibroma with osseous metaplasia of the external auditory canal in a 7-year-old male Pomeranian dog. Upon otoscopic examination, the right external auditory canal was almost completely obstructed by a well-circumscribed mass adjacent to the eardrum. The mass was surgically excised. Grossly, it was well demarcated, firm when cut, pink, and measured 0.3 cm x 0.2 cm x 0.7 cm. The cut surface of the mass exhibited a central portion of homogeneously white osseous components surrounded by brown to pink soft tissue. Microscopically, the resected external auditory canal mass mainly consisted of fibroblastic spindle cells showing differentiation to metaplastic osteoblast-like cells. Metaplastic osteoblasts and osteoclasts lining the osteoid bony trabeculae were also observed. Bony trabeculae and spicules were separated by abundant collagen and neoplastic fibroblastic cells. Fibromatous components, irregular formation of woven bone spicules, and the presence of osteoblasts lining bony trabeculae led to a diagnosis of fibroma with osseous metaplasia. PMID:20622240

  2. Cell viability in a wet silica gel.

    PubMed

    Nieto, Alejandra; Areva, Sami; Wilson, Timothy; Viitala, Reeta; Vallet-Regi, Maria

    2009-11-01

    A modified two-step sol-gel route using silicon ethoxide (TEOS) has been used to synthesize amorphous sol-gel-derived silica, which has been successfully used as a cell encapsulation matrix for 3T3 mouse fibroblasts and CRL-2595 epithelial cells due to its non-toxicity. The sol-gel procedure comprised a first, low pH hydrolysis step, followed by a neutral condensation-gelation step. A high water-to-TEOS ratio and the addition of d-glucose as a porogen and source of nutrients were chosen to minimize silica dissolution and improve the biocompatibility of the process. Indeed, the cell integrity in the encapsulation process was preserved by alcohol removal from the starting solution. Cells were then added in a buffered medium, causing rapid gelation and entrapment of the cells within a randomly structured siloxane matrix in the shape of a monolith, which was maintained in the wet state. MTT and alamarBlue assays were used to check the cytotoxicity of the silica gels and the viability of entrapped cells at initial times in contact with silica. To improve cell attachment, cell clumping experiments - where groups of cells were formed - were designed, rendering improved viability. The obtained materials are therefore excellent candidates for designing tissue-culture scaffolds and implantable bioreactors for biomedical applications. PMID:19481618

  3. Extending the viability of acute brain slices.

    PubMed

    Buskila, Yossi; Breen, Paul P; Tapson, Jonathan; van Schaik, André; Barton, Matthew; Morley, John W

    2014-01-01

    The lifespan of an acute brain slice is approximately 6-12 hours, limiting potential experimentation time. We have designed a new recovery incubation system capable of extending their lifespan to more than 36 hours. This system controls the temperature of the incubated artificial cerebral spinal fluid (aCSF) while continuously passing the fluid through a UVC filtration system and simultaneously monitoring temperature and pH. The combination of controlled temperature and UVC filtering maintains bacteria levels in the lag phase and leads to the dramatic extension of the brain slice lifespan. Brain slice viability was validated through electrophysiological recordings as well as live/dead cell assays. This system benefits researchers by monitoring incubation conditions and standardizing this artificial environment. It further provides viable tissue for two experimental days, reducing the time spent preparing brain slices and the number of animals required for research. PMID:24930889

  4. Soft tissue hemangioma with osseous extension: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Daoud, Alexander; Olivieri, Brandon; Feinberg, Daniel; Betancourt, Michel; Bockelman, Brian

    2015-04-01

    Soft tissue hemangiomas are commonly encountered lesions, accounting for 7-10 % of all benign soft tissue masses (Mitsionis et al. J Foot Ankle Surg 16(2):27-9, 2010). While the literature describes the great majority of hemangiomas as asymptomatic and discovered only as incidental findings, they do have the potential to induce reactive changes in neighboring structures (Pastushyn et al. Surg Neurol 50(6):535-47, 1998). When these variants occur in close proximity to bone, they may elicit a number of well-documented reactive changes in osseous tissue (Mitsionis et al. J Foot Ankle Surg 16(2):27-9, 2010; DeFilippo et al. Skelet Radiol 25(2):174-7, 1996; Ly et al. AJR Am J Roentgenol 180(6):1695-700, 2003; Sung et al. Skelet Radiol 27(4):205-10, 1998). However, instances of direct extension into bone by soft tissue hemangiomas--that is, infiltration of the mass's vascular components into nearby osseous tissue--are currently undocumented in the literature. In these cases, imaging plays an important role in differentiating hemangiomas from malignant lesions (Mitsionis et al. J Foot Ankle Surg 16(2):27-9, 2010; Sung et al. Skelet Radiol 27(4):205-10, 1998; Pourbagher, Br J Radiol 84(1008):1100-8, 2011). In this article, we present such a case that involved the sacral spine. Imaging revealed a soft tissue mass with direct extension of vascular components into osseous tissue of the adjacent sacral vertebrae. Biopsy and subsequent histopathologic examination led to definitive diagnosis of soft tissue hemangioma. While MRI is widely regarded as the gold standard imaging modality for evaluating hemangiomas, in this report we describe how CT can aid in narrowing the differential diagnosis when one encounters a vascular lesion with adjacent osseous changes. Furthermore, we review the literature as it pertains to the imaging of soft tissue hemangiomas that occur in proximity to osseous tissue, as well as correlate this case to current theories on the pathogenesis of hemangiomas

  5. Osseous coagulum collected in bone traps: potential for bacterial contamination and methods for decontamination.

    PubMed

    Etcheson, Aaron W; Miley, D Douglas; Gillespie, M Jane

    2007-01-01

    Because of its excellent osteogenic potential, autogenous bone is the preferred grafting material for dental procedures; however, bone collected in osseous coagulum traps is subject to contamination by oral bacteria. This study assessed bacterial contamination of osseous coagulum and tested treatments for reducing contamination. Fifty bone samples from patients undergoing implant osteotomy procedures were collected in osseous coagulum traps, divided into groups of 10, and rinsed with normal saline, 0.12% chlorhexidine, or 50 mg/mL tetracycline. Twenty control samples received no treatment. The bone samples were plated in triplicate on selective and differential media to assay aerobic and anaerobic bacteria and potential bacterial pathogens, including staphylococci, streptococci, enterics, and black-pigmented bacteria (BPB). Inoculations were performed with an Autoplate 4000, and plates were incubated at 37 degrees C either aerobically or in a Coy anaerobic chamber. Bacteria were isolated from all samples. In control samples, the mean colony-forming units (cfu) per milliliter of suspended osseous coagulum was 6.5 x 10(4) +/- 9.6 x 10(4) in aerobic cultures and 4.8 x 10(4) +/- 6.9 x 10(4) in anaerobic cultures. Viridans streptococci were isolated from 46 samples, with a mean of 2.9 x 10(4) +/- 4.1 x 10(4) cfu/mL. Enterics were in 16 samples with cfu ranging from 200 cfu/mL to 3.4 x 10(4) cfu/mL. Mannitol nonfermenting staphylococci were found in one sample at 106 cfu/mL. BPB were not isolated. A Mann-Whitney U test with significance set at P = .05 determined that the only statistically significant reductions in bacterial numbers occurred in tetracycline-treated samples of anaerobic bacteria (5-fold decrease, P = .02) and aerobic bacteria (6-fold decrease, P = .01). Tetracycline treatments effected a 7-fold decrease in streptococci, but the difference was not significant (P = .07). These data indicate significant bacterial contamination of bone collected in osseous

  6. Birth, meaningful viability and abortion.

    PubMed

    Jensen, David

    2015-06-01

    What role does birth play in the debate about elective abortion? Does the wrongness of infanticide imply the wrongness of late-term abortion? In this paper, I argue that the same or similar factors that make birth morally significant with regard to abortion make meaningful viability morally significant due to the relatively arbitrary time of birth. I do this by considering the positions of Mary Anne Warren and José Luis Bermúdez who argue that birth is significant enough that the wrongness of infanticide does not imply the wrongness of late-term abortion. On the basis of the relatively arbitrary timing of birth, I argue that meaningful viability is the point at which elective abortion is prima facie morally wrong. PMID:25012846

  7. Management of fibro-osseous lesions of the craniofacial area. Presentation of 19 cases and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Baquero-Ruiz de la Hermosa, Mari C.; Minguez-Martínez, Ignacio; Floría-García, Luis M.; Barea-Gámiz, Jose; Delhom-Valero, Jose; Risueño-Mata, Presentation

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Fibro-osseous lesions constitute a rare benign type of pathology with a non-odontogenic lineage that affect the craniofacial area. According to Waldrom’s classification, these lesions are divided into: fibrous dysplasia (FD), cemento-ossifying fibroma (COF) and desmoplastic fibroma (DF). Material and Methods: A retrospective study was performed on patients diagnosed with fibro-osseous lesions of the craniofacial area at the Hospital Universitario La Fe, Valencia, during 1987-2009. A total of 19 cases were collected: 15 cases compatible with an FD diagnosis, 3 cases with a COF diagnosis and 1 case with a DF diagnosis. Results: In the differential diagnosis, entities having similar clinical manifestations in the maxillofacial area with possible involvement of teeth or manifestations present as an asymptomatic radiolucent image should be ruled out. We hereby present the management and development of patients treated in our hospital for fibro-osseous lesions. Conclusions: Fibro-osseous lesions share many clinical and radiological characteristics in common, with histological features confirming the nature of the lesion. Management of patients should be individualized and case-specific, assessing the clinical evolution of each case and taking into account the benign nature and growth behavior of this type of tumors. Key words:Fibro-osseous, fibrous dysplasia, cemento-ossifying fibroma, desmoplastic fibroma. PMID:23524411

  8. Magnetic Resonance Imaging-Guided Osseous Biopsy in Children With Chronic Recurrent Multifocal Osteomyelitis

    SciTech Connect

    Fritz, Jan; Tzaribachev, Nikolay; Thomas, Christoph; Wehrmann, Manfred; Horger, Marius S.; Carrino, John A.; Koenig, Claudius W.; Pereira, Philippe L.

    2012-02-15

    Purpose: To report the safety and diagnostic performance of magnetic resonance (MRI)-guided core biopsy of osseous lesions in children with chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis (CRMO) that were visible on MRI but were occult on radiography and computed tomography (CT). Materials and Methods: A retrospective analysis of MRI-guided osseous biopsy performed in seven children (four girls and three boys; mean age 13 years (range 11 to 14) with CRMO was performed. Indication for using MRI guidance was visibility of lesions by MRI only. MRI-guided procedures were performed with 0.2-Tesla (Magnetom Concerto; Siemens, Erlangen, Germany; n = 5) or 1.5-T (Magnetom Espree; Siemens; n = 2) open MRI systems. Core needle biopsy was obtained using an MRI-compatible 4-mm drill system. Conscious sedation or general anesthesia was used. Parameters evaluated were lesion visibility, technical success, procedure time, complications and microbiology, cytology, and histopathology findings. Results: Seven of seven (100%) targeted lesions were successfully visualized and sampled. All obtained specimens were sufficient for histopathological analysis. Length of time of the procedures was 77 min (range 64 to 107). No complications occurred. Histopathology showed no evidence of malignancy, which was confirmed at mean follow-up of 50 months (range 28 to 78). Chronic nonspecific inflammation characteristic for CRMO was present in four of seven (58%) patients, and edema with no inflammatory cells was found in three of seven (42%) patients. There was no evidence of infection in any patient. Conclusion: MRI-guided osseous biopsy is a safe and accurate technique for the diagnosis of pediatric CRMO lesions that are visible on MRI only.

  9. Reassessing the Aurignacian of Slovenia: techno-economic behaviour and direct dating of osseous projectile points.

    PubMed

    Moreau, Luc; Odar, Boštjan; Higham, Tom; Horvat, Aleksander; Pirkmajer, Darja; Turk, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The Palaeolithic of southern Central Europe has a long history of archaeological research. Particularly, the presence of numerous osseous projectile points in many early Upper Palaeolithic (EUP) assemblages in this region has attracted the attention of the international research community. However, the scarcity of properly identified and well-dated Aurignacian contexts represents an obstacle for investigation of the nature and timing of the Middle to Upper Palaeolithic transition. In this context, the question of whether Neandertals made Aurignacian osseous projectile points, either on their own or as a consequence of cultural interaction with anatomically modern humans (AMH), still remains an open issue. Here we reassess the EUP record of Slovenia by evaluating the Aurignacian character of the assemblages from Potočka zijalka, Mokriška jama and Divje babe I in the light of their suggested roots in the local Mousterian. We provide a comprehensive description of the lithic industry from Potočka zijalka, which represents one of the rare EUP assemblages of southern Central Europe with a representative number of lithic artefacts to be analysed from the perspective of lithic technology and raw material economy. Our re-analysis of the Slovenian assemblages is backed by a series of 11 new ultrafiltered collagen 14C dates obtained directly on associated osseous projectile points from the studied assemblages. The Aurignacian of Potočka zijalka underlines the remarkable consistency of the Early Aurignacian with low typo-technological variability across Europe, resulting from a marked dependence on transported toolkits and raw material conservation. The new radiocarbon determinations for the Aurignacian of Slovenia appear to post-date the 34-32 ka BP (thousands of years before present) threshold for the last Neandertals in the region. Although not falsified, the hypothesis of Aurignacian bone tools in southern Central Europe as a product of late Neandertals is not

  10. Terminal osseous dysplasia with pigmentary defects (TODPD) due to a recurrent filamin A (FLNA) mutation

    PubMed Central

    Brunetti-Pierri, Nicola; Torrado, Maria; Fernandez, Maria del Carmen; Tello, Ana Maria; Arberas, Claudia L; Cardinale, Antonella; Piccolo, Pasquale; Bacino, Carlos A

    2014-01-01

    Terminal osseous dysplasia with pigmentary defects (TODPD) is an X-linked dominant syndrome with distal limb anomalies, pigmentary skin defects, digital fibromas, and generalized bone involvement due to a recurrent mutation in the filamin A (FLNA) gene. We here report the mutation c.5217G>A in FLNA in three families with TODPD and we found possible germline and somatic mosaicism in two out of the three families. The occurrence of somatic and germline mosaicism for TODPD indicates that caution should be taken in counseling recurrence risks for these conditions upon presentation of an isolated case. PMID:25614868

  11. Terminal osseous dysplasia with pigmentary defects (TODPD) due to a recurrent filamin A (FLNA) mutation.

    PubMed

    Brunetti-Pierri, Nicola; Torrado, Maria; Fernandez, Maria Del Carmen; Tello, Ana Maria; Arberas, Claudia L; Cardinale, Antonella; Piccolo, Pasquale; Bacino, Carlos A

    2014-11-01

    Terminal osseous dysplasia with pigmentary defects (TODPD) is an X-linked dominant syndrome with distal limb anomalies, pigmentary skin defects, digital fibromas, and generalized bone involvement due to a recurrent mutation in the filamin A (FLNA) gene. We here report the mutation c.5217G>A in FLNA in three families with TODPD and we found possible germline and somatic mosaicism in two out of the three families. The occurrence of somatic and germline mosaicism for TODPD indicates that caution should be taken in counseling recurrence risks for these conditions upon presentation of an isolated case. PMID:25614868

  12. Benign osseous and articular abnormalities of the pelvis: a review of CT imaging findings.

    PubMed

    Belfi, Lily M; Bartolotta, Roger J; Loftus, Michael L; Wladyka, Christopher; Hentel, Keith D

    2015-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) has become the standard of care for evaluation and follow-up for a wide range of abdominal and pelvic pathology. Many incidental osseous and articular abnormalities of the pelvis are detected on these studies, most of which have a benign etiology. However, most of these studies are interpreted by nonmusculoskeletal radiologists, who may not be familiar with the CT appearances of these benign musculoskeletal abnormalities. Uncertainty often leads to mischaracterization or unnecessary follow-up, resulting in increased health care costs and patient anxiety. This article reviews the CT appearance of the benign musculoskeletal entities that occur in pelvis. PMID:25433854

  13. Arthroscopic Trans-osseous Suture of Peripheral Triangular Fibrocartilage Complex Tear.

    PubMed

    Jegal, Midum; Heo, Kang; Kim, Jong Pil

    2016-10-01

    The importance of foveal repair of the triangular fibrocartilage complex (TFCC) on stability of the distal radioulnar joint (DRUJ) has been emphasized with increasing knowledge of the anatomy and biomechanics of the TFCC and DRUJ. Although both open and arthroscopic techniques have been described for improving DRUJ stability, there has been a marked evolution of arthroscopic TFCC repair technique with successful clinical outcome. Recently, an arthroscopic trans-osseous technique has been described to repair foveal tears of the TFCC. The advantage of the technique is that it allows for anatomical repair of both the superficial and deep layers. This article describes the details of this novel technique. PMID:27595945

  14. Florid cemento-osseous dysplasia: A rare case report evaluated with cone-beam computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Yildirim, Eren; Bağlar, Serdar; Ciftci, Mehmet Ertugrul; Ozcan, Erdal

    2016-01-01

    A 29-year-old systemically healthy female patient presented to our department. Cone-beam computed tomographic images showed multiple well-defined sclerotic masses with radiolucent border in both right and left molar regions of the mandible. These sclerotic masses were surrounded by a thin radiolucent border. We diagnosed the present pathology as florid cemento-osseous dysplasia and decided to follow the patient without taking biopsy. For the patient, who did not have any clinical complaints, radiographic followupis recommended twice a year. The responsibility of the dentist is to ensure the follow-up of the diagnosed patients and take necessary measures for preventing the infections. PMID:27601835

  15. Florid cemento-osseous dysplasia: A rare case report evaluated with cone-beam computed tomography

    PubMed Central

    Yildirim, Eren; Bağlar, Serdar; Ciftci, Mehmet Ertugrul; Ozcan, Erdal

    2016-01-01

    A 29-year-old systemically healthy female patient presented to our department. Cone-beam computed tomographic images showed multiple well-defined sclerotic masses with radiolucent border in both right and left molar regions of the mandible. These sclerotic masses were surrounded by a thin radiolucent border. We diagnosed the present pathology as florid cemento-osseous dysplasia and decided to follow the patient without taking biopsy. For the patient, who did not have any clinical complaints, radiographic followupis recommended twice a year. The responsibility of the dentist is to ensure the follow-up of the diagnosed patients and take necessary measures for preventing the infections. PMID:27601835

  16. Multi Vesicular Osseous Hydatid Disease of the Mandible- A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Shahoon, H; Esmaeili, M; Mobedi, I; Nematollahi, M

    2010-01-01

    Hydatid disease is a common and major public health issue caused by parasite Echinococcus granulosus. The highest prevalence of the parasite can be found in different parts of world like Africa, Australia, and South America. This infection can occurs in almost any part of the body. Here we present clinical, radiological, histological features and treatment of a multi vesicular osseous hydatid disease of the mandible in an Afghan 5 year old boy with a firm swelling in the right side of mandible. PMID:22347236

  17. Osseous metaplasia and mature bone formation with extramedullary hematopoiesis in follicular adenoma of thyroid gland.

    PubMed

    Harsh, Mohan; Dimri, Parul; Nagarkar, Nitin M

    2009-01-01

    Follicular adenomas of the thyroid may be subjected to degenerative changes like hemorrhagic and cystic changes, fibrosis, and calcification. Mature bone formation is a rare phenomenon, but extramedullary hematopoiesis (EMH) has also been rarely reported in thyroid gland. The combination of mature bone formation and EMH is rarer and has been reported, in a single case report, in a multinodular goitre. We describe a case of follicular adenoma with histologically proven osseous metaplasia and mature bone formation with EMH in a middle- aged woman, which, to our knowledge, is the first case in English language literature. PMID:19679966

  18. Association of migraine-like headaches with Schimke immuno-osseous dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Kilic, Sara Sebnem; Donmez, Osman; Sloan, Emily A; Elizondo, Leah I; Huang, Cheng; André, Jean-Luc; Bogdanovic, Radovan; Cockfield, Sandra; Cordeiro, Isabel; Deschenes, Georges; Fründ, Stefan; Kaitila, Ilkka; Lama, Giuliana; Lamfers, Petra; Lücke, Thomas; Milford, David V; Najera, Lydia; Rodrigo, Francisco; Saraiva, Jorge M; Schmidt, Beate; Smith, Graham C; Stajic, Nastasa; Stein, Anja; Taha, Doris; Wand, Dorothea; Armstrong, Dawna; Boerkoel, Cornelius F

    2005-06-01

    Schimke immuno-osseous dysplasia (SIOD) is characterized by spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia, nephropathy, and T-cell deficiency. SIOD is caused by mutations in the putative chromatin remodeling protein SMARCAL1. We report an 8-year-old boy with SIOD and recurrent, severe, refractory migraine-like headaches. Through a retrospective questionnaire-based study, we found that refractory and severely disabling migraine-like headaches occur in nearly half of SIOD patients. We have also found that the vasodilator minoxidil provided symptomatic relief for one patient. We hypothesize that these headaches may arise from an intrinsic vascular, neuroimmune, or neurovascular defect resulting from loss of SMARCAL1 function. PMID:15884045

  19. Artificial evolution by viability rather than competition.

    PubMed

    Maesani, Andrea; Fernando, Pradeep Ruben; Floreano, Dario

    2014-01-01

    Evolutionary algorithms are widespread heuristic methods inspired by natural evolution to solve difficult problems for which analytical approaches are not suitable. In many domains experimenters are not only interested in discovering optimal solutions, but also in finding the largest number of different solutions satisfying minimal requirements. However, the formulation of an effective performance measure describing these requirements, also known as fitness function, represents a major challenge. The difficulty of combining and weighting multiple problem objectives and constraints of possibly varying nature and scale into a single fitness function often leads to unsatisfactory solutions. Furthermore, selective reproduction of the fittest solutions, which is inspired by competition-based selection in nature, leads to loss of diversity within the evolving population and premature convergence of the algorithm, hindering the discovery of many different solutions. Here we present an alternative abstraction of artificial evolution, which does not require the formulation of a composite fitness function. Inspired from viability theory in dynamical systems, natural evolution and ethology, the proposed method puts emphasis on the elimination of individuals that do not meet a set of changing criteria, which are defined on the problem objectives and constraints. Experimental results show that the proposed method maintains higher diversity in the evolving population and generates more unique solutions when compared to classical competition-based evolutionary algorithms. Our findings suggest that incorporating viability principles into evolutionary algorithms can significantly improve the applicability and effectiveness of evolutionary methods to numerous complex problems of science and engineering, ranging from protein structure prediction to aircraft wing design. PMID:24489790

  20. High-resolution CT analysis of facial struts in trauma: 1. Osseous and soft-tissue complications

    SciTech Connect

    Gentry, L.R.; Manor, W.F.; Turski, P.A.; Strother, C.M.

    1983-03-01

    In six cadavers, high-resolution thin-section computed tomography (CT) was used to evaluate the sequelae of experimentally produced facial trauma. As confirmed by pluridirectional tomography, CT was an effective imaging method for the detection and classification of facial fractures. The ability of CT to simultaneously depict both osseous and soft-tissue structures expands the role that diagnostic radiology can play in the evaluation of the traumatized face. A method of evaluation is presented in which the face is geometrically conceptualized as a series of triplanar (horizontal, sagittal, and coronal) osseous struts. Sequential, systematic assessment of each strut for fracture and its adjacent soft tissue for injury can facilitate evaluation of the traumatized face. Using this approach the osseous and soft-tissue complications arising from experimentally produced trauma are reviewed and illustrated with CT.

  1. Economic viability of biogas technology

    SciTech Connect

    Agrawal, S.C.; Agrawal, S.; Khare, O.P.

    1983-12-01

    Biogas has emerged as a suitable technology for providing alternative and additional sources of energy, especially for rural areas of developing countries. Although the experience gained in China and India established its technological success, social scientists are still involved in the controversial issue of its economic viability. The available literature presents very contradictory situations, ranging between the two extreme poles of high economic viability and nonviability. Such contradictory conclusions are derived since economic benefits from the technology are influenced by a number of factors. A review of the literature reveals that various factors are either not considered, or that the economics have been worked out assuming a very ideal situation, while biogas plants are operating under very different conditions. Using the coal replacement method even as coal is seldom used by villages is only a single example of this approach. In most of the developing countries, rural populations depend mainly on non-commercial fuels like firewood, dungcakes, agricultural wastes and leaves for cooking and heating purposes. Under the present technological limitations, biogas can most commonly be used for cooking and lighting. For testing the economic viability of biogas systems, a number of authors have considered the benefits in terms of savings in traditional fuels. But considering the actual thermal efficiency of different non-commercial fuel items, as well as biogas, it has still be be decided at what point of the market prices of fuel items that the biogas system becomes economically viable and remains viable. The present paper thus reviews different approaches adopted and suggested for working out the economics or the cost-benefit ratio of the biogas technology at the first stage, and then spells out the factors influencing the economic benefits of the technology under various situations, with the help of empirical

  2. Maintaining Medicinal Plant Germplasm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    For all plant genetic resources collections, including medicinal plant germplasm, maintaining the genetic integrity of material held ex situ is of major importance. This holds true for all intended end uses of the material whether it is as a source for crop improvement, medical research, as voucher...

  3. Maintaining Your Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... center but can also be done in nursing facilities, hospitals, or at home. Book a PFF Ambassador for your event. Call 844.TalkPFF > Life with PF About PF Treatment Options Clinical Trials Maintaining Your Health Find Medical Care Support Groups PFF ...

  4. Nonprocessed adipose tissue graft in the treatment of peri-implant osseous defects in the rabbit's tibiae: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Zanicotti, Diogo Godoy; Matsubara, Fernanda Brugin; Zielak, João César; Giovanini, Allan Fernando; Urban, Cícero de Andrade; Deliberador, Tatiana Miranda

    2014-02-01

    We hypothesized that a new technique using nonprocessed adipose tissue could regenerate bone around dental implants. Eighteen rabbits received 1 implant per tibia surrounded by a surgically created osseous defect. The defects were assigned for treatment into 3 groups: C, AT, and AB. The percentages of bone-to-implant contact were 17.64% ± 16.22% (AB), 3.54% ± 7.08% (AT), and 12.71% ± 10.11% (C) (ρ = 0.25). The use of adipose tissue around surgically created peri-implant osseous defects interferes with bone formation. PMID:22103760

  5. Biodegradable mesoporous calcium-magnesium silicate-polybutylene succinate scaffolds for osseous tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xinxin; Zhang, Chi; Xu, Wei; Zhong, Biao; Lin, Feng; Zhang, Jian; Wang, Quanxiang; Ji, Jiajin; Wei, Jie; Zhang, Yang

    2015-01-01

    The structural features of bone engineering scaffolds are expected to exhibit osteoinductive behavior and promote cell adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation. In the present study, we employed synthesized ordered mesoporous calcium-magnesium silicate (om-CMS) and polybutylene succinate (PBSu) to develop a novel scaffold with potential applications in osseous tissue engineering. The characteristics, in vitro bioactivity of om-CMS/PBSu scaffold, as well as the cellular responses of MC3T3-E1 cells to the composite were investigated. Our results showed that the om-CMS/PBSu scaffold possesses a large surface area and highly ordered channel pores, resulting in improved degradation and biocompatibility compared to the PBSu scaffold. Moreover, the om-CMS/PBSu scaffold exhibited significantly higher bioactivity and induced apatite formation on its surface after immersion in the simulated body fluid. In addition, the om-CMS/PBSu scaffold provided a high surface area for cell attachment and released Ca, Mg, and Si ions to stimulate osteoblast proliferation. The unique surface characteristics and higher biological efficacy of the om-CMS/PBSu scaffold suggest that it has great potential for being developed into a system that can be employed in osseous tissue engineering. PMID:26604746

  6. Autologous cranial particulate bone grafting reduces the frequency of osseous defects after cranial expansion.

    PubMed

    Gao, Lin Lin; Rogers, Gary F; Clune, James E; Proctor, Mark R; Meara, John G; Mulliken, John B; Greene, Arin K

    2010-03-01

    Primary autologous particulate bone grafting has been demonstrated to heal osseous defects after fronto-orbital advancement. We sought to determine if this technique was equally effective for larger defects resulting from major cranial expansion procedures. We studied children who underwent cranial expansion (other than fronto-orbital advancement) between 1989 and 2008. Defects either were left to heal spontaneously (group 1) or had autologous cranial particulate bone graft placed over dura at the time of cranial expansion (group 2). Particulate bone graft was harvested from the endocortical or ectocortical surface using a hand-driven brace and bit. Outcome variables were ossification and need for revision cranioplasty. The study included 53 children. Mean (SD) age at procedure was 12.2 (8.1) months (range, 1.0-36.0 months) for group 1 (n = 15) and 20.2 (15.1) months (range, 3.3-78.6 months) for group 2 (n = 38) (P = 0.06). There were palpable bony defects in 33.0% (n = 5) of group 1 patients versus 7.9% (n = 3) of group 2 patients (P = 0.03). Corrective cranioplasty was needed in 26.7% of group 1 patients and only 5.3% of those in group 2 (P = 0.04). Primary cranial particulate bone grafting significantly reduced the frequency of osseous defects and secondary cranioplasty following cranial remodeling. PMID:20186093

  7. Biodegradable mesoporous calcium–magnesium silicate-polybutylene succinate scaffolds for osseous tissue engineering

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xinxin; Zhang, Chi; Xu, Wei; Zhong, Biao; Lin, Feng; Zhang, Jian; Wang, Quanxiang; Ji, Jiajin; Wei, Jie; Zhang, Yang

    2015-01-01

    The structural features of bone engineering scaffolds are expected to exhibit osteoinductive behavior and promote cell adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation. In the present study, we employed synthesized ordered mesoporous calcium–magnesium silicate (om-CMS) and polybutylene succinate (PBSu) to develop a novel scaffold with potential applications in osseous tissue engineering. The characteristics, in vitro bioactivity of om-CMS/PBSu scaffold, as well as the cellular responses of MC3T3-E1 cells to the composite were investigated. Our results showed that the om-CMS/PBSu scaffold possesses a large surface area and highly ordered channel pores, resulting in improved degradation and biocompatibility compared to the PBSu scaffold. Moreover, the om-CMS/PBSu scaffold exhibited significantly higher bioactivity and induced apatite formation on its surface after immersion in the simulated body fluid. In addition, the om-CMS/PBSu scaffold provided a high surface area for cell attachment and released Ca, Mg, and Si ions to stimulate osteoblast proliferation. The unique surface characteristics and higher biological efficacy of the om-CMS/PBSu scaffold suggest that it has great potential for being developed into a system that can be employed in osseous tissue engineering. PMID:26604746

  8. [Demonstration of the calcified osseous component in decalcified bone marrow biopsies. Study of hematological cases].

    PubMed

    Vigliani, R

    2000-08-01

    In order to investigate the possibility of the evidentiation of the mineralized component of decalcified bone a series of Jamshidi-type consecutive bone marrow biopsies for various hematological disorders were pre-stained with von Kossa modified procedure for calcium. Methodologically the controls showed reliable silver staining as far as localization (osteo-medullary interface and mineralization front) and preservation (after decalcification) were concerned. The results were: 1) a good morphology of bone marrow tissue also concerning immunohistochemical stainings; 2) a better overview of the osseous components and related artifacts as induced by biopsy, processing and sampling; 3) precise identification of the osteoid seams and remarkably of the relative angle of sectioning for an appropriate measurement; 4) better evidentiation of the remodelling osteoblastic-osteoclastic units; 5) visualization of the osteocytic lacunae and canaliculi and the mineralized matrix to some extent depending on their effective permeability. Summarizing the osteologic features were: normality or minimal abnormality of difficult interpretation; classical osteometabolic alterations; lesions specifically due to hematological disorders; various combination of these findings. Theoretical and practical aspects are discussed. In conclusion this methodological variant in comparison with the usual paraffin procedure clearly gives more information concerning osteometabolic evaluation in routine hematological biopsies; offers a vicarious or complementary approach to osteometabolic diseases; represents a conceptual stimulus to interpret diagnostically and prognostically the osseous pathology as determined by routinely encountered hematological disorders. PMID:11029887

  9. Measurements of deformations in osseous structures and implants by digital speckle interferometry (DSPI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvador, Rosario; González-Peña, Rolando; Cibrián, Rosa; Buendía, Mateo; Mínguez, Fe; Laguía, Manuel; Molina, Teresa; Marti, Luis; Esteve, José; Caballero, José; Micó, Vicente; Sanjuan, Elena

    2006-09-01

    Knowledge of how osseous structures and implants behave under deforming stress is an interesting point when evaluating the response of an implanted prosthesis. The failure of an implant is not always due to the great stress a structure may be subjected to at a particular moment, but rather to the effects of deterioration associated with lesser stress but which is continuously applied. Therefore it is helpful to know how bones and implants respond to this lesser stress. Digital speckle interferometry (DSPI) is suitable for this type of determination, as it is a highly sensitive, non-invasive optical technique. In this study we present the results we obtained when determining the elasticity of a sample of a macerated human radius, a titanium implant and a titanium screw used to treat the fractures of this bone. The correlation ratios we obtained in determining Young's modulus were in the order of r=0.994. Models were made of these structures using the finite elements method (FEM) with the aid of the ANSYS 10.0 program, applying Young's modulus values determined by DSPI. With a view to monitoring the accuracy of the FEM models of the bone and the implant elements we designed a flexion experiment to obtain the DSPI values in and out of plane. The high degree of concordance between the results of both methods makes it possible to continue studying osseous samples with a fixed implant, and also other implants made of different alloys.

  10. The osseous and dental changes of patients with chronic renal failure by CBCT

    PubMed Central

    Dağistan, S; Keleş, M

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the osseous changes of the jaws of patients with chronic renal failure (CRF) by CBCT. Methods: On CBCT scans obtained from 15 patients with CRF and 15 control patients (7 males and 8 females), the mean was calculated for the antegonial index (AI), mental index (MI), panoramic mandibular index (PMI) and mandibular cortical index (MCI). The MI, AI and PMI, pulp chamber size, number of teeth with pulp calcification and lamina dura loss were compared using the paired t-test, and the MCI values were analysed using the χ2 test. Results: There were no statistically significant differences in the PMI, MI and AI values in patients with CRF and the control group. With regard to MCI, the cortical margins of the mandible were more porous in patients with CRF than in the control group, and also soft-tissue calcifications, lamina dura loss and radiolucent defects were more common in patients with CRF. There were no statistically significant differences in pulp chamber size and pulp calcifications between patients with CRF and the control group. Conclusions: Radiographic changes in the jawbones of patients with CRF may be commonly seen. CBCT is a valuable diagnostic tool for the evaluation of osseous findings, pulp chamber, soft-tissue calcifications and MCIs and allows indices measurement in three dimensions without any superposition. PMID:25629722

  11. Nuclear power plant maintainability.

    PubMed

    Seminara, J L; Parsons, S O

    1982-09-01

    In the mid-1970s a general awareness of human factors engineering deficiencies associated with power plant control rooms took shape and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) awarded the Lockheed Corporation a contract to review the human factors aspects of five representative operational control rooms and their associated simulators. This investigation revealed a host of major and minor deficiencies that assumed unforeseen dimensions in the post- Three Mile Island accident period. In the course of examining operational problems (Seminara et al, 1976) and subsequently the methods for overcoming such problems (Seminara et al, 1979, 1980) indications surfaced that power plants were far from ideal in meeting the needs of maintenance personnel. Accordingly, EPRI sponsored an investigation of the human factors aspects of power plant maintainability (Seminara, 1981). This paper provides an overview of the maintainability problems and issues encountered in the course of reviewing five nuclear power plants. PMID:15676441

  12. Obtaining and maintaining funding

    SciTech Connect

    Beverly Hartline

    1996-04-01

    Obtaining and maintaining funding is important for individuals, groups, institutions, and fields. This challenge is easier during times of abundant and growing resources than it is now, when funding is tight and shrinking. Thus, to obtain and maintain funding will require: maintaining healthy funding levels for all of science; maintaining healthy funding levels for the field(s) you work in; and competing successfully for the available funds. Everyone should pay attention to the overall prospects for science funding and dedicate some effort to working with others to grow the constituency for science. Public support is likely an important prerequisite for keeping future science budgets high. In this context, researchers should share with society at large the benefits of their research, so that taxpayers can see and appreciate some return from the federal investment in science. Assuming this effort is successful, and there continue to be government and private organizations with substantial resources to invest in research, what can the individual investigator do to improve her chances? She can be clear about her goal(s) and carefully plan her effort to make maximum progress for minimum resources, especially early in her career while she is establishing a solid professional reputation. Specific useful strategies include: brainstorm funding options and select the most promising one(s); be persistent but flexible, responsive to new information and changing circumstances; provide value and assistance to prospective funding sources both before and after receiving funding; know the funding agents and what their goals are, they are the customers; promise a lot and always deliver more; build partnerships and collaboration to leverage interest and resources; and develop capabilities and ideas with a promising, irresistible future. There is no guarantee of success. For the best chances, consistently contribute positively and productively in all your efforts, and continue to

  13. Maintaining radiation protection records

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-11-30

    This Report is part of a series prepared under the auspices of Scientific Committee 46 on Operational Radiation Safety. It provides guidance on maintaining radiation protection records. Record keeping is an essential element of every radiation protection program. This Report describes the elements that should enter into the design of a program for the maintenance of operational radiation safety records. The problems of the length of time for retention of records for operational, regulatory, epidemiologic and legal uses are discussed in detail.

  14. Viability of telework at PROCEMPA.

    PubMed

    Fetzner, Maria Amelia de Mesquita

    2003-02-01

    At the end of the 20th century, telework appears as one of the modalities of flexible work, which is related to new organizational structures as well as to increasing use of technology. It revolutionizes the traditional ways of performing work. Its implementation creates a number of questions to be answered by the organizations and the individuals involved. This article presents a case study on the viability of implementing telework at Procempa (The Data Processing Company of the City of Porto Alegre). The case study analyzes the technical, organizational, psychological, legal, and labor union dimensions. As a result of this study, we can identify the organization's stage of readiness for telework, the conditions under which it would be implemented, and the specific issues of an implementation. PMID:12650560

  15. Juxta-articular bone cysts (intra-osseous ganglia): a clinicopathological study of eighty-eight cases.

    PubMed

    Schajowicz, F; Clavel Sainz, M; Slullitel, J A

    1979-02-01

    The clinical, radiographic and pathological features of eighty-eight cases of histologically verified intra-osseous ganglia in eighty-three patients are described. All were located in the subchondral bone adjacent to a joint and most frequently involved the hip, the ankle (medial malleolus), the knee and the carpal bones. Forty-seven of the eighty-three patients were male and all the patients were between fourteen and seventy-three years of age, with an average age of forty-one years. There are two fundamental types of intra-osseous ganglia, one apparently arising by penetration of juxta-osseous ganglion into the underlying bone, a mechanism proved in fourteen of our eighty-eight cases (16 per cent); in the remaining seventy-four cases, the ganglion cyst was primarily intra-osseous ("idiopathic"). The initial cause of the intramedullary mucoid degeneration is discussed. We believe that mechanical stress and repeated minor trauma near the surface of the bone may lead to intramedullary vascular disturbance with consequent foci of aseptic bone necrosis. The revitalisation of these areas causes fibroblastic proliferation, followed by mucoid degeneration of the connective tissue, possibly due to some unknown local factor. Curettage or excision is usually effective, and recurrence (only four cases) is exceptional. PMID:422629

  16. Extra-osseous Ewing's sarcoma of sciatic nerve masquerading as an infected hemangioma: A rare case report

    PubMed Central

    Dhua, Anjan K; Bharathi, Ravindhra; Kiran, Chokka Mahesh; Lingam, Pappu Paramartha; Joshi, Manoj

    2014-01-01

    Extra-osseous Ewing's Sarcoma (EES) arising from the peripheral nerve is rarely reported in children. Here, we report an instance of EES arising from the left sciatic nerve mimicking an infected hemangioma. This case highlights the need for a high index of suspicion and early histological diagnosis to avoid diagnostic delay. PMID:25336807

  17. Sustained Akt Activity Is Required to Maintain Cell Viability in Seborrheic Keratosis, a Benign Epithelial Tumor.

    PubMed

    Neel, Victor A; Todorova, Kristina; Wang, Jun; Kwon, Eunjeong; Kang, Minjeong; Liu, Qingsong; Gray, Nathanael; Lee, Sam W; Mandinova, Anna

    2016-03-01

    Seborrheic keratoses (SKs) are common benign skin tumors that share many morphological features with their malignant counterpart, squamous cell carcinoma. SKs frequently have acquired oncogenic mutations in the receptor tyrosine kinase/phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt signaling cascade. We developed a reliable culture system to study SKs in vitro and screened these cells using a library of selective kinase inhibitors to evaluate effects on cell survival. These benign tumors are sensitive to inhibition by ATP-competitive Akt inhibitors, including A-443654 and GSK690693. RNA interference-mediated Akt suppression mimicked the effects of enzyme inhibition in cultured cells. Akt inhibition suppressed phosphorylation of downstream targets of Akt kinase that are critical for cell survival, including MDM2 and FOXO3a, and induced apoptosis. Cell death was also dependent on p53, mutations in which, although common in cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma, have not been identified in SKs. Intact explants of SKs were also sensitive to Akt inhibition. In addition to the obvious therapeutic implications of these findings, identifying the signaling characteristics that differentiate benign and malignant tumors may inform our understanding of the malignant state. PMID:26739095

  18. A simple and effective method to encapsulate tobacco mesophyll protoplasts to maintain cell viability.

    PubMed

    Lei, Rong; Qiao, Wenjie; Hu, Fan; Jiang, Hongshan; Zhu, Shuifang

    2015-01-01

    Protoplasts have been widely used for genetic transformation, cell fusion, and somatic mutation due to the absence of a cell wall. However, without the protection of a cell wall, protoplasts are easy to rupture and aggregate during washing, collecting, and gene transfection. In this work, we propose a simple and effective silica/alginate two-step method to immobilize protoplasts with advantages in experimental manipulation and microscopic imaging, as well as in potentially studying cell biological processes such as secretion and metabolism. The proposed two-step immobilization method adopts Transwell with clear tissue culture-treated membrane to support protoplasts in the form of uniform thin layer, which has three unique properties. •The tissue culture-treated membrane has a good affinity for the plant cell; thus, protoplasts can spread evenly and form a very thin layer.•There are more choices for membrane pore size, depending on the application.•It is very convenient to change or collect the solution without mechanically disturbing the protoplasts. This simple and effective silica sol-gel/alginate two-step immobilization of protoplasts in Transwell has great potential for applications in genetic transformation, metabolite production, and migration assays. PMID:26150968

  19. Osseous and Nonosseous Bone Scan Findings in Liver Transplant Candidates with end-stage Chronic Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Erhamamcı, Seval; Aktaş, Ayşe; Bahçeci, Tatiana; Kavak, Kevser

    2013-01-01

    Objective: End-stage chronic liver disease (CLD) adversely affects the function of multiple organ systems including the skeletal system. The aim of this study was to assess osseous and nonosseous bone scintigraphy (BS) findings in liver transplant (LT) candidates with end-stage CLD. Methods: We retrospectively evaluated BS findings in 50 consecutive patients with end-stage CLD who were undergoing preoperative assessment for LT from January 2006 to December 2011. All the patients were analyzed with respect to clinical and laboratory parameters, and BS findings. Scintigrams were visually assessed for the presence of osseous and nonosseous abnormalities. Osseous abnormalities were classified as those indicating bone metabolism changes or metastatic bone disease. Typical scintigraphic findings denoting to changes in bone metabolism were the presence of decreased osseous uptake, increased periarticular uptake, asymmetrical or unusual uptake patterns. Nonosseous findings were classified according to the degree of soft-tissue uptake as mild and severe. Results: The group consisted of 46 adult and 4 adolescent patients. All adolescent patients had normal skeletal accumulation with growth plate uptake and one had mildly increased renal cortical activity. A total of 46 adult patients had one or more of the following osseous findings: generalized decrease in osseous uptake (n=4, 8.7%); bilateral decrease in lower extremity uptake (n=26, 56.5%); symmetrically increased periarticular uptake (n=26, 56.5%); bilateral cortical/periosteal increased uptake in the lower extremity indicating hepatic hypertrophic osteoarthropathy (HOA) (n=8, 17.4%); bilateral increased sacroiliac activity (n=16, 34.8%); sacral activity (n=10, 21.7%), coccygeal activity (n=2, 4.3%), focally increased uptake suggestive of metastases (n=5, 10.9%). Three rib metastases appeared to be linear. Nonosseous findings observed in adult patients were mild diffuse liver uptake (n=4, 8.7%) and bilateral diffuse mild

  20. Maintaining gas cooling equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Rector, J.D.

    1997-05-01

    An often overlooked key to satisfactory operation and longevity of any mechanical device is proper operation and maintenance in accordance with the manufacturer`s written instructions. Absorption chillers, although they use a different technology than the more familiar vapor compression cycle to produce chilled water, operate successfully in a variety of applications if operated and maintained properly. Maintenance procedures may be more frequent than those required for vapor compression chillers, but they are also typically less complex. The goal of this article is to describe the basic operation of an absorption chiller to provide an understanding of the relatively simple tasks required to keep the machine operating at maximum efficiency for its design life and beyond. A good starting point is definitions. Gas cooling equipment is generally defined as alternative energy, non-electric cooling products. This includes absorption chillers, engine-drive chillers and packaged desiccant units, among others. Natural gas combustion drives the equipment.

  1. Reagan: Maintain Antarctic program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    President Ronald Reagan has decided that the United States should maintain an ‘active and influential presence’ in Antarctica to support the nation's interests. Following a review of a study by the Antarctica Policy Group, Reagan issued a memorandum, dated February 5, to the heads of 14 government agencies, including the National Science Foundation (NSF), the Office of Science and Technology Policy, and the Office of Management and Budget.The U.S. presence in Antarctica ‘shall include the conduct of scientific activities in major disciplines; year-round occupation of the South Pole and two coastal stations; and availability of related necessary logistics support,’ wrote the President. In addition, NSF should continue to budget for the entire U.S. program in Antarctica. Short-term programs by other agencies require the recommendation of the Antarctica Policy Group and should be coordinated within the framework of NSF logistics support.

  2. Computer-assisted design and computer-assisted modeling technique optimization and advantages over traditional methods of osseous flap reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Matros, Evan; Albornoz, Claudia R; Rensberger, Michael; Weimer, Katherine; Garfein, Evan S

    2014-06-01

    There is increased clinical use of computer-assisted design (CAD) and computer-assisted modeling (CAM) for osseous flap reconstruction, particularly in the head and neck region. Limited information exists about methods to optimize the application of this new technology and for cases in which it may be advantageous over existing methods of osseous flap shaping. A consecutive series of osseous reconstructions planned with CAD/CAM over the past 5 years was analyzed. Conceptual considerations and refinements in the CAD/CAM process were evaluated. A total of 48 reconstructions were performed using CAD/CAM. The majority of cases were performed for head and neck tumor reconstruction or related complications whereas the remainder (4%) were performed for penetrating trauma. Defect location was the mandible (85%), maxilla (12.5%), and pelvis (2%). Reconstruction was performed immediately in 73% of the cases and delayed in 27% of the cases. The mean number of osseous flap bone segments used in reconstruction was 2.41. Areas of optimization include the following: mandible cutting guide placement, osteotomy creation, alternative planning, and saw blade optimization. Identified benefits of CAD/CAM over current techniques include the following: delayed timing, anterior mandible defects, specimen distortion, osteotomy creation in three dimensions, osteotomy junction overlap, plate adaptation, and maxillary reconstruction. Experience with CAD/CAM for osseous reconstruction has identified tools for technique optimization and cases where this technology may prove beneficial over existing methods. Knowledge of these facts may contribute to improved use and main-stream adoption of CAD/CAM virtual surgical planning by reconstructive surgeons. PMID:24323480

  3. Case presentation and images of a lingual osseous choristoma in a pediatric patient.

    PubMed

    Stanford, James K; Spencer, James C; Reed, J Mark

    2015-01-01

    Since its original description in 1913, fewer than 100 lingual osseous choristomas have been reported in the literature; thus, prevalence is unknown. We describe a case of an 11 year old male who was seen in consultation after an incidental left posterior tongue mass was discovered on exam. The patient's presentation of an asymptomatic, hard, pedunculate posterior tongue lesion is typical; however, if one is to believe the proposed congenital remnant theory in regards to the etiology of this benign tumor, it is curious that no mention was made of a lesion of the tongue on prior evaluations by his pediatrician or on the otolaryngologic examinations performed 3 and 6 years prior to the most recent presentation. Included with the case description are interesting radiographs, intra-operative photos, gross specimen photo and microscopic images. PMID:26545466

  4. A rare case of extra nodal Rosai-Dorfman disease with isolated multifocal osseous manifestation

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Maharshi H; Jambhekar, Kedar R; Pandey, Tarun; Ram, Roopa

    2015-01-01

    Sinus histiocytosis with massive lymphadenopathy (SHML) or Rosai–Dorfman disease is a non-neoplastic condition which typically presents as massive, bilateral cervical lymphadenopathy and can involve multiple extranodal organ systems such as skin, eyes, and upper respiratory tract in about 28% cases. Bone lesions in association with nodal disease are seen in less than 10% cases. Isolated bone involvement as the only manifestation of SHML is extremely rare, with less than 50 cases reported in the literature. We report a very uncommon case of Rosai–Dorfman disease with isolated multifocal osseous involvement as the only presenting feature, involving about 10 different sites with no lymphadenopathy or other organ system involvement. PMID:26288524

  5. Endometrial Osseous Metaplasia—A Rare Presentation of Polymenorrhagia: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Yogesh Kumar; Hakim, Seema

    2015-01-01

    Endometrial ossification is a rare entity in which bones are found in the uterus. Exact aetiopathogenesis is not known but the most accepted theory is metaplasia of stromal cells into osteoblast cells result in the formation of bones. The possibility of malignant mixed mullerian tumour should be in the mind of clinician and pathologist while making diagnosis. We hereby report an extremely rare case, which is among very few reported cases in the world, in which endometrial ossification presented in a perimenopausal female with polymenorrhagia. A 41-year-old multiparous patient presented with irregular bleeding per vaginum for the past two years. She was found to be a case of endometrial calcification with osseous metaplasia with presence of bones varying from 7mm – 1.5 cms size in the uterine cavity. She was successfully managed by total abdominal hysterectomy. PMID:26023606

  6. Follicular thyroid carcinoma characterized by abundant stromal components with chondroid and osseous metaplasia in a dog.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Ryosuke; Yamada, Naoaki; Kitamori, Takashi; Kitamori, Fumiyo; Sato, Kazunari; Doi, Takuya; Wako, Yumi; Sato, Junko; Tsuchitani, Minoru

    2014-08-01

    A dog developed a cervical mass, and computed tomography verified a mass surrounding the trachea with some pulmonary masses. Histopathologically, the cervical mass was composed of malignant neoplastic cells showing follicular appearance which reacted positive for thyroglobulin on immunohistochemistry. A characteristic feature of the tumor was abundant and metaplastic stromal components. Anastomosed collagenous tissues connecting to capsule of the tumor were abundant in the stroma. In parts of the collagenous tissues, mature cartilages and bones were continuously formed. There was no cellular atypia or invasion in the components. We diagnosed this case as follicular thyroid carcinoma with metaplastic stroma. This is the first case report that characterizes stromal components with chondroid and osseous metaplasia in a canine thyroid carcinoma. PMID:24805905

  7. Fractal analyses of osseous healing using Tuned Aperture Computed Tomography images

    PubMed Central

    Seyedain, Ali; Webber, Richard L.; Nair, Umadevi P.; Piesco, Nicholas P.; Agarwal, Sudha; Mooney, Mark P.; Gröndahl, Hans-Göran

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate osseous healing in mandibular defects using fractal analyses on conventional radiographs and tuned aperture computed tomography (TACT; OrthoTACT, Instrumentarium Imaging, Helsinki, Finland) images. Eighty test sites on the inferior margins of rabbit mandibles were subject to lesion induction and treated with one of the following: no treatment (controls); osteoblasts only; polymer matrix only; or osteoblast-polymer matrix (OPM) combination. Images were acquired using conventional radiography and TACT, including unprocessed TACT (TACT-U) and iteratively restored TACT (TACT-IR). Healing was followed up over time and images acquired at 3, 6, 9, and 12 weeks post-surgery. Fractal dimension (FD) was computed within regions of interest in the defects using the TACT workbench. Results were analyzed for effects produced by imaging modality, treatment modality, time after surgery and lesion location. Histomorphometric data were available to assess ground truth. Significant differences (p < 0.0001) were noted based on imaging modality with TACT-IR recording the highest mean fractal dimension (MFD), followed by TACT-U and conventional images, in that order. Sites treated with OPM recorded the highest MFDs among all treatment modalities (p < 0.0001). The highest MFD based on time was recorded at 3 weeks and differed significantly with 12 weeks (p < 0.035). Correlation of FD with results of histomorphometric data was high (r = 0.79; p < 0.001). The FD computed on TACT-IR showed the highest correlation with histomorphometric data, thus establishing the fact TACT is a more efficient and accurate imaging modality for quantification of osseous changes within healing bony defects. PMID:11519567

  8. Osseous healing with a composite of allograft and demineralized bone matrix: adverse effects of smoking.

    PubMed

    Ziran, Bruce H; Hendi, Pooneh; Smith, Wade R; Westerheide, Kenneth; Agudelo, Juan F

    2007-04-01

    We report on our use of a composite graft of lyophilized cancellous allogenic chips and demineralized bone matrix (DBM; Grafton; Osteotech, Eatontown, NJ) to manage traumatic osseous defects and nonunions. Data were prospectively collected from all patients who received this composite bone graft between 1996 and 2000. Only acute fractures with bone loss resulting in a uncontained defect and atrophic non-unions were included in the present study. Demographic data and complications related to composite use, tobacco use, and other comorbidities that could affect healing were evaluated. One hundred seven patients (112 bone graft sites) were followed up for a mean of 32 months (range, 12-60 months). Graft sites included the forearm, femur and tibia. Of the 112 patients, there were 56 smokers (25 non-unions and 31 fractures) and 56 non-smokers (28 fractures and 28 non-unions). Healing occured in 38/56 smokers compared with 49/56 non-smokers. In failed cases, smoking was characteristic in 7/9 non-unions and 11/16 fractures. There were 26 acute uncontained injuries, 29 acute contained defects, and 67 nonunions. Grafting sites were radius/ulna (13 cases), humerus (17), femur (31), and tibia/fibula (51). Significant comorbidities were diabetes mellitus (4 cases), fungal osteomyelitis (1), and pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (1). Eight (73%) of the 11 patients with graft failure had a significant smoking history. This composite graft is an option for managing osseous defects and nonunions traditionally treated with autologous bone grafting but should be used with caution when treating patients who are smokers. PMID:17515188

  9. Economic viability of anaerobic digestion

    SciTech Connect

    Wellinger, A.

    1996-01-01

    The industrial application of anaerobic digestion is a relatively new, yet proven waste treatment technology. Anaerobic digestion reduces and upgrades organic waste, and is a good way to control air pollution as it reduces methane and nitrous gas emissions. For environmental and energy considerations, anaerobic digestion is a nearly perfect waste treatment process. However, its economic viability is still in question. A number of parameters - type of waste (solid or liquid), digester system, facility size, product quality and end use, environmental requirements, cost of alternative treatments (including labor), and interest rates - define the investment and operating costs of an anaerobic digestion facility. Therefore, identical facilities that treat the same amount and type of waste may, depending on location, legislation, and end product characteristics, reveal radically different costs. A good approach for evaluating the economics of anaerobic digestion is to compare it to treatment techniques such as aeration or conventional sewage treatment (for industrial wastewater), or composting and incineration (for solid organic waste). For example, the cost (per ton of waste) of in-vessel composting with biofilters is somewhat higher than that of anaerobic digestion, but the investment costs 1 1/2 to 2 times more than either composting or anaerobic digestion. Two distinct advantages of anaerobic digestion are: (1) it requires less land than either composting or incinerating, which translates into lower costs and milder environmental and community impacts (especially in densely populated areas); and (2) it produces net energy, which can be used to operate the facility or sold to nearby industries.

  10. Metabolomic assessment of embryo viability.

    PubMed

    Uyar, Asli; Seli, Emre

    2014-03-01

    Preimplantation embryo metabolism demonstrates distinctive characteristics associated with the developmental potential of embryos. On this basis, metabolite content of culture media was hypothesized to reflect the implantation potential of individual embryos. This hypothesis was tested in consecutive studies reporting a significant association between culture media metabolites and embryo development or clinical pregnancy. The need for a noninvasive, reliable, and rapid embryo assessment strategy promoted metabolomics studies in vitro fertilization (IVF) in an effort to increase success rates of single embryo transfers. With the advance of analytical techniques and bioinformatics, commercial instruments were developed to predict embryo viability using spectroscopic analysis of surplus culture media. However, despite the initial promising results from proof-of-principal studies, recent randomized controlled trials using commercial instruments failed to show a consistent benefit in improving pregnancy rates when metabolomics is used as an adjunct to morphology. At present, the application of metabolomics technology in clinical IVF laboratory requires the elimination of factors underlying inconsistent findings, when possible, and development of reliable predictive models accounting for all possible sources of bias throughout the embryo selection process. PMID:24515909

  11. Maintaining proper dental records.

    PubMed

    Leeuw, Wilhemina

    2014-01-01

    Referred to as Standard of Care, the legal duty of a dentist requires exercising the degree of skill and care that would be exhibited by other prudent dentists faced with the same patient-care situation. Primarily, the goal of keeping good dental records is to maintain continuity of care. Diligent and complete documentation and charting procedures are essential to fulfilling the Standard of Care. Secondly, because dental records are considered legal documents they help protect the interest of the dentist and/or the patient by establishing the details of the services rendered. Patients today are better educated and more assertive than ever before and dentists must be equipped to protect themselves against malpractice claims. Every record component must be handled as if it could be summoned to a court room and scrutinized by an attorney, judge or jury. Complete, accurate, objective and honest entries in a patient record are the only way to defend against any clinical and/or legal problems that might arise. Most medical and dental malpractice claims arise from an unfavorable interaction with the dentist and not from a poor treatment outcome. By implementing the suggestions mentioned in this course, dental health care professionals can minimize the legal risks associated with the delivery of dental care to promote greater understanding for patients of their rights and privileges to their complete record. PMID:24834675

  12. Experiments with the Viability of Chicken Eggs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garigliano, Leonard J.

    1975-01-01

    Presents the results of an experiment designed to test two hypotheses: (1) a delay of two weeks at room temperature will have no effect on the viability of fertile chicken eggs and (2) refrigeration will have no effect on the viability of fertile chicken eggs. Experimenters were the author and two ninth-grade students. (PEB)

  13. Assessing the Financial Viability of Academic Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swift, Lynette

    2012-01-01

    This paper reviews and examines approaches to determining the financial viability of academic programmes as a critical component of assessing a programme's overall sustainability. Key to assessing the financial viability of a programme is understanding the teaching activities required to deliver the programme and the cost of those activities. A…

  14. ADAS Update and Maintainability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Leela R.

    2010-01-01

    Since 2000, both the National Weather Service Melbourne (NWS MLB) and the Spaceflight Meteorology Group (SMG) have used a local data integration system (LOIS) as part of their forecast and warning operations. The original LOIS was developed by the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) in 1998 (Manobianco and Case 1998) and has undergone subsequent improvements. Each has benefited from three-dimensional (3-D) analyses that are delivered to forecasters every 15 minutes across the peninsula of Florida. The intent is to generate products that enhance short-range weather forecasts issued in support of NWS MLB and SMG operational requirements within East Central Florida. The current LDIS uses the Advanced Regional Prediction System (ARPS) Data Analysis System (AD AS) package as its core, which integrates a wide variety of national, regional, and local observational data sets. It assimilates all available real-time data within its domain and is run at a finer spatial and temporal resolution than current national or regional-scale analysis packages. As such, it provides local forecasters with a more comprehensive understanding of evolving fine-scale weather features. Over the years, the LDIS has become problematic to maintain since it depends on AMU-developed shell scripts that were written for an earlier version of the ADAS software. The goals of this task were to update the NWS MLB/SMG LDIS with the latest version of ADAS, incorporate new sources of observational data, and upgrade and modify the AMU-developed shell scripts written to govern the system. In addition, the previously developed ADAS graphical user interface (GUI) was updated. Operationally, these upgrades will result in more accurate depictions of the current local environment to help with short-range weather forecasting applications, while also offering an improved initialization for local versions of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model used by both groups.

  15. Maintaining the unmethylated state

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background A remarkable correspondence exists between the cytogenetic locations of the known fragile sites and frequently reported sites of hypermethylation. The best-known features of fragile sites are sequence motifs that are prone to the spontaneous formation of a non-B DNA structure. These facts, coupled with the known enzymological specificities of DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1), the ATP-dependent and actin-dependent helicases, and the ten-eleven translocation (TET) dioxygenases, suggest that these enzymes are involved in an epigenetic cycle that maintains the unmethylated state at these sites by resolving non-B structure, preventing both the sequestration of DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) and hypermethylation in normal cells. Presentation of the hypothesis The innate tendency of DNA sequences present at fragile sites to form non-B DNA structures results in de novo methylation of DNA at these sites that is held in check in normal cells by the action of ATP-dependent and actin-dependent helicases coupled with the action of TET dioxygenases. This constitutes a previously unrecognized epigenetic repair cycle in which spontaneously forming non-B DNA structures formed at fragile sites are methylated by DNMTs as they are removed by the action of ATP-dependent and actin-dependent helicases, with the resulting nascent methylation rendered non-transmissible by TET dioxygenases. Testing the hypothesis A strong prediction of the hypothesis is that knockdown of ATP-dependent and actin-dependent helicases will result in enhanced bisulfite sensitivity and hypermethylation at non-B structures in multiple fragile sites coupled with global hypomethylation. Implications of the hypothesis A key implication of the hypothesis is that helicases, like the lymphoid-specific helicase and alpha thalassemia/mental retardation syndrome X-linked helicase, passively promote accurate maintenance of DNA methylation by preventing the sequestration of DNMTs at sites of unrepaired non-B DNA

  16. Microencapsulation in Alginate and Chitosan Microgels to Enhance Viability of Bifidobacterium longum for Oral Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Yeung, Timothy W.; Üçok, Elif F.; Tiani, Kendra A.; McClements, David J.; Sela, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Probiotic microorganisms are incorporated into a wide variety of foods, supplements, and pharmaceuticals to promote human health and wellness. However, maintaining bacterial cell viability during storage and gastrointestinal transit remains a challenge. Encapsulation of bifidobacteria within food-grade hydrogel particles potentially mitigates their sensitivity to environmental stresses. In this study, Bifidobacterium longum subspecies and strains were encapsulated in core-shell microgels consisting of an alginate core and a microgel shell. Encapsulated obligate anaerobes Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis and Bifidobacterium longum subsp. longum exhibited differences in viability in a strain-dependent manner, without a discernable relationship to subspecies lineage. This includes viability under aerobic storage conditions and modeled gastrointestinal tract conditions. Coating alginate microgels with chitosan did not improve viability compared to cells encapsulated in alginate microgels alone, suggesting that modifying the surface charge alone does not enhance delivery. Thus hydrogel beads have great potential for improving the stability and efficacy of bifidobacterial probiotics in various nutritional interventions. PMID:27148184

  17. The effect of ultrasound-related stimuli on cell viability in microfluidic channels

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In ultrasonic micro-devices, contrast agent micro-bubbles are known to initiate cavitation and streaming local to cells, potentially compromising cell viability. Here we investigate the effects of US alone by omitting contrast agent and monitoring cell viability under moderate-to-extreme ultrasound-related stimuli. Results Suspended H9c2 cardiac myoblasts were exposed to ultrasonic fields within a glass micro-capillary and their viability monitored under different US-related stimuli. An optimal injection flow rate of 2.6 mL/h was identified in which, high viability was maintained (~95%) and no mechanical stress towards cells was evident. This flow rate also allowed sufficient exposure of cells to US in order to induce bioeffects (~5 sec), whilst providing economical sample collection and processing times. Although the transducer temperature increased from ambient 23°C to 54°C at the maximum experimental voltage (29 Vpp), computational fluid dynamic simulations and controls (absence of US) revealed that the cell medium temperature did not exceed 34°C in the pressure nodal plane. Cells exposed to US amplitudes ranging from 0–29 Vpp, at a fixed frequency sweep period (tsw = 0.05 sec), revealed that viability was minimally affected up to ~15 Vpp. There was a ~17% reduction in viability at 21 Vpp, corresponding to the onset of Rayleigh-like streaming and a ~60% reduction at 29 Vpp, corresponding to increased streaming velocity or the potential onset of cavitation. At a fixed amplitude (29 Vpp) but with varying frequency sweep period (tsw = 0.02-0.50 sec), cell viability remained relatively constant at tsw ≥ 0.08 sec, whilst viability reduced at tsw < 0.08 sec and minimum viability recorded at tsw = 0.05 sec. Conclusion The absence of CA has enabled us to investigate the effect of US alone on cell viability. Moderate-to-extreme US-related stimuli of cells have allowed us to discriminate between stimuli that maintain high viability and stimuli that

  18. Distribution of fat, non-osseous lean and bone mineral mass in international Rugby Union and Rugby Sevens players.

    PubMed

    Higham, D G; Pyne, D B; Anson, J M; Dziedzic, C E; Slater, G J

    2014-06-01

    Differences in the body composition of international Rugby Union and Rugby Sevens players, and between players of different positions are poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to examine differences in the quantity and regional distribution of fat, non-osseous lean and bone mineral mass between playing units in Rugby Union and Rugby Sevens. Male Rugby Union (n=21 forwards, 17 backs) and Rugby Sevens (n=11 forwards, 16 backs) players from the Australian national squads were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The digital image of each player was partitioned into anatomical regions including the arms, legs, trunk, and android and gynoid regions. Compared with backs, forwards in each squad were heavier and exhibited higher absolute regional fat (Union 43-67%; ±~17%, range of % differences; ±~95% confidence limits (CL); Sevens 20-26%; ±~29%), non-osseous lean (Union 14-22%; ±~5.8%; Sevens 6.9-8.4%; ±~6.6%) and bone mineral (Union 12-26%; ±~7.2%; Sevens 5.0-11%; ±~7.2%) mass. When tissue mass was expressed relative to regional mass, differences between Rugby Sevens forwards and backs were mostly unclear. Rugby Union forwards had higher relative fat mass (1.7-4.7%; ±~1.9%, range of differences; ±~95% CL) and lower relative non-osseous lean mass (-4.2 to -1.8%; ±~1.8%) than backs in all body regions. Competing in Rugby Union or Rugby Sevens characterized the distribution of fat and non-osseous lean mass to a greater extent than a player's positional group, whereas the distribution of bone mineral mass was associated more with a player's position. Differences in the quantity and distribution of tissues appear to be related to positional roles and specific demands of competition in Rugby Union and Rugby Sevens. PMID:24408768

  19. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of xylazine administered by the intravenous or intra-osseous route in adult horses.

    PubMed

    Santonastaso, A; Hardy, J; Cohen, N; Fajt, V

    2014-12-01

    In certain situations, an alternate route for parenteral drug administration in horses may be useful. The intra-osseous (IO) route may provide a safe alternative to the intravenous (i.v.) route for administration of sedatives to horses when the i.v. route is inaccessible or undesirable. Six adult horses were administered xylazine i.v. or IO in a block-randomized crossover design. For the i.v. trial, both jugular veins were catheterized, and one was used for xylazine administration, while the other was used for blood collection. For the IO trial, one jugular vein was catheterized for blood collection and an intra-osseous device was placed in the tuber coxae using a powered driver for xylazine administration. Heart rate, respiratory rate, and head position were measured, and concentration of sedation was assessed at various times up to 90 min. Xylazine concentrations were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography and noncompartmental analysis was performed. General linear mixed modeling and Wilcoxon signed-rank tests were used for statistical analysis, with P ≤ 0.05. There were no significant differences in heart rate, respiratory rate, head position, concentration of sedation, Cmax , Tmax , half-life, or AUC between the i.v. and the IO routes of drug administration. No complications were observed following placement of the intra-osseous device. Intra-osseous xylazine administration provides a useful option in emergent and other settings in which i.v. access is difficult or contraindicated. PMID:25066385

  20. Viability of fibroblasts in a novel probiotic storage media.

    PubMed

    Caglar, E; Sandalli, N; Kuscu, O O; Durhan, M A; Pisiriciler, R; Caliskan, E Ak; Kargul, B

    2010-10-01

    A number of storage media have been investigated as to their ability to maintain the viability of the periodontal ligament (PDL) cells and thus to permit longer extra-alveolar periods prior to replantation of avulsed teeth. The aim of the present in vitro study was to evaluate the number of viable PDL cells of avulsed teeth treated by Hank's Balanced Salt Solutions (HBSS), saline, a novel probiotic solution and milk. Thirty-six freshly extracted single-rooted human teeth with closed apices were divided into one of the four experimental groups and two control groups (N = 6 each). The positive and negative controls corresponded to 0 min and an 8-h dry time respectively. Following extraction, the coronal 3 mm of PDL tissue was scraped with a #15 scalpel to remove cells that might have been damaged. The experimental teeth were dried for 30 min followed by a 45 min immersion in one of the four experimental media. Each experimental tooth, after drying and soaking, was incubated for 30 min with a 2.5 ml solution of 0.2 mg ml(-1) of collagenase CLS II and a 2.4 mg ml(-1) solution of dispase grade II in phosphate buffer saline (PBS). The cells were then labelled with 0.4% Trypan blue for determination of viability. The teeth stored in positive control demonstrated the highest number of viable PDL cells followed in rank order by HBSS, saline, Lactobacillus reuteri solution and milk. There was no significant difference in the number of viable PDL cells between HBSS, milk, L. reuteri solution and saline. Within the parameters of this study, it appears that probiotic may be able to maintain PDL cell viability as HBSS, milk, or saline. PMID:20738362

  1. Effect of various commercial buffers on sperm viability and capacitation.

    PubMed

    Andrisani, Alessandra; Donà, Gabriella; Ambrosini, Guido; Bonanni, Guglielmo; Bragadin, Marcantonio; Cosmi, Erich; Clari, Giulio; Armanini, Decio; Bordin, Luciana

    2014-08-01

    A wide variety of sperm preparation protocols are currently available for assisted conception. They include density gradient separation and washing methods. Both aim at isolating and capacitating as much motile sperm as possible for subsequent oocyte fertilization. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of four commercial sperm washing buffers on sperm viability and capacitation. Semen samples from 48 healthy donors (normal values of sperm count, motility, morphology, and volume) were analyzed. After separation (density gradient 40/80%), sperm were incubated in various buffers then analysed for reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, viability, tyrosine phosphorylation (Tyr-P), cholera toxin B subunit (CTB) labeling, and the acrosome reaction (AR). The buffers affected ROS generation in various ways resulting either in rapid cell degeneration (when the amount of ROS was too high for cell survival) or the inability of the cells to maintain correct functioning (when ROS were too few). Only when the correct ROS generation curve was maintained, suitable membrane reorganization, evidenced by CTB labeling was achieved, leading to the highest percentages of both Tyr-P- and acrosome-reacted-cells. Distinguishing each particular pathological state of the sperm sample would be helpful to select the preferred buffer treatment since both ROS production and membrane reorganization can be significantly altered by commercial buffers. PMID:24673547

  2. Avoiding osseous grafting in the atrophic posterior mandible for implant-supported fixed partial dentures: a report of 2 cases.

    PubMed

    Flanagan, Dennis

    2011-12-01

    Bone atrophy occurs after tooth extraction in the posterior mandible, placing the mandibular canal and its neural, arterial, and venous contents closer to the osseous facial aspect and the coronal crest. This proximity places the structure in danger of damage when dental implants are surgically placed to support fixed or removable prostheses. Several options are available to treat these areas for implant-supported fixed and removable complete or partial dentures. Osseous grafting and ridge expansion are surgical options that enable acceptance of standard sized dental implants but have serious morbidities. Additionally, vertical osseous augmentation is not predictable at this time. Narrow diameter dental implants can be placed to avoid the mandibular canal, but some bone volume situations preclude this. Very wide and very short (6.5 × 5 mm) dental implants may be placed at an angle in atrophic sites to successfully support fixed partial dentures. An anterior guidance occlusal scheme may be used in maxillary dentate patients or group function in maxillary complete denture patients. A 100 micron occlusal relief in fixed partial dentures in dentate patients may be required to account for natural tooth intrusion and to prevent occlusal overload of the implant-supported partial denture. PMID:20925498

  3. Osseous Consolidation of an Aseptic Delayed Union of a Lower Leg Fracture after Parathyroid Hormone Therapy – A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Radmer, Sebastian; Andresen, Reimer; Schober, Hans-Christof

    2016-01-01

    The absence of osseous consolidation of a fracture within the normal time period is defined as delayed union or non-union. Both for the patient and from a socio-economic point of view, impaired fracture healing represents a major problem. Risk factors for a delayed fracture healing are insufficient immobilisation, poor adaptation of the fracture surfaces, interposition of soft tissue in the fracture gap, as well as circulation disturbances, metabolic disease, smoking and infections. In animal studies, a positive effect of parathyroid hormone (PTH) on fracture healing has been shown. PTH has a direct stimulatory effect on osteoblasts and osteoclasts. In addition, it appears to influence the effect of osseous growth factors. Few cases with the empiric off-label use of PTH that showed a tendency to support delayed or non-union fractures have been published. We report about a patient with a fracture of the lower leg and no osseous consolidation after 7 months. Four Months after therapy with 20 μg teriparatide per day for 8 weeks the fracture was consolidated and the patient had regained full and pain free weight bearing capacity of the leg with no reported side effects.

  4. Correlation of tuned aperture computed tomography with conventional computed tomography for evaluation of osseous healing in calvarial defects

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Madhu K.; Nair, Umadevi P.; Seyedain, Ali; Gassner, Robert; Piesco, Nicholas; Mooney, Mark; Ganta, Sudhakar; Agarwal, Sudha

    2016-01-01

    Objective To compare the diagnostic efficacy of iteratively restored tuned aperture computed tomography (TACT) with conventional computed tomography (CT) for evaluation of osseous healing in induced calvarial defects. Study design Fifty-six calvarial defects in 14 rabbits received 1 of 4 possible treatments: copolymer membranes with and without bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs), BMSCs alone, or no treatment (control). Healing was measured after 2, 4, and 8 wks as remaining defect areas measured on TACT and CT images. Histomorphometric analyses were done on the specimens. Results Bone formation was minimal to none in control defects and those treated with BMSCs or polymer matrices alone. Healthy bone formation was noted in defects treated with polymers impregnated with BMSCs. Unresolved defect area measurements using TACT and CT of osseous healing showed a high positive correlation. Conclusions Potential for TACT to accurately detect osseous healing in surgical defects was demonstrated. High resolution of TACT combined with generation of information in 3D yields comparable performance to CT. PMID:17234546

  5. Idiosyncratic Presentation of Cemento-Osseous Dysplasia – An in Depth Analysis Using Cone Beam Computed Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Pachigolla, Ramaswamy; Govada, Vanya Mahitha; Alapati, Satish; Balla, Smitha

    2016-01-01

    Bone dysplasias comprise of a condition where the normal bone is replaced with fibrous tissue. Periapical Cemento-Osseous Dysplasia (PCOD) is a benign fibro-osseous condition where bone tissue is supplanted with fibrous tissue and cementum-like material. This condition affects mostly mandibular anterior region and rarely occurs in the maxilla. PCOD is seen above 30 years of age and has slight female predilection. Generally the teeth related to such lesions appear to be vital and are usually asymptomatic. These lesions are mostly seen during routine radiographic examination whose presentation may vary from complete radiolucency to dense radiopacity. The advent of Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) has brought a massive change in the field of dentistry which has become an important tool for diagnosis. Hence we hereby present an unusual case of cemento-osseous dysplasia in an unfamiliar location with an atypical presentation. The shape of the pathology was completely idiosyncratic and different from an orthodox lesion of COD, as the lesion was observed to grow out of the palatal surface with a prominent palatal expansion. This case highlights the importance of CBCT in radiographic diagnosis and in evaluating the characteristics of such lesion, which present with high diagnostic dilemma. PMID:27437374

  6. LIMITATIONS OF THE FLUORESCENT PROBE VIABILITY ASSAY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cell viability commonly is determined flow cytometrically by the carboxyfluorescein diacetate (CFDA)/propidium iodide (PI) assay. FDA is taken up by the viable cell and converted via cytoplasmic esterase-catalyzed hydrolysis to carboxyfluorescein (CF). F fluorescence intensity is...

  7. Economic viability of access broadband multiservice networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castelli, Francesco; Dammicco, Giacinto; Mocci, Ugo

    1995-02-01

    In this paper the economic viability of alternative architectures for optical access networks providing broad band services to different subscriber classes in a metropolitan environment, is investigated by a specific tool, NEVE (Network Economic Viability Evaluator), developed for broad band multiservice network planning, service evolutionary scenarios assessment, evaluation of tariff strategies and other actions taken at stimulating the demand growth. As the viability target can be achieved in different ways, different studies can be carried out by NEVE. In the paper some of them are discussed, particularly the ones addressed: to evaluate the impact on viability of alternative service scenarios; to determine the critical mass of broad band subscribers and the critical joint service adoption cost; to evaluate cross subsidiary policies among different subscriber classes and services; to perform sensitivity analysis with respect to variations of demand parameters and tariffs.

  8. Enamel structure and composition in the tricho-dento-osseous syndrome.

    PubMed

    Spangler, G S; Hall, K I; Kula, K; Hart, T C; Wright, J T

    1998-01-01

    Tricho-dento-osseous syndrome (TDO) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by curly hair, hypoplastic enamel, taurodontism, and dense bone. The purpose of this investigation was to characterize the enamel defects in a TDO population in North Carolina. Twelve TDO teeth and 12 normal teeth were examined. The enamel thickness was decreased in all TDO teeth ranging from having no enamel to about 60% the thickness of normal teeth. Half of the TDO teeth had primarily prismless enamel while the remainder had at least occasional areas of prismatic enamel. TDO enamel crystallites appeared similar to normal crystallites with TEM. The mineral per volume of TDO enamel (n = 9) (68.5%) was significantly less, on average, compared with normal enamel (n = 8) (84.5). The genetic mutation responsible for the TDO phenotype results in alteration of a developmental pathway(s) common to hair, teeth and bone. This further illustrates that these embryologically diverse tissues share common developmental controls at the molecular level. PMID:11062998

  9. A Resorbable Calcium-Deficient Hydroxyapatite Hydrogel Composite for Osseous Regeneration

    SciTech Connect

    Hutchens, Stacy A; O'Neill, Hugh Michael; Benson, Roberto S.; Evans, Barbara R; Rawn, Claudia J

    2009-01-01

    It was previously discovered that the unique structure and chemistry of bacterial cellulose (BC) permits the formation of calcium-deficient hydroxyapatite (CdHAP) nanocrystallites under aqueous conditions at ambient pH and temperature. In this study, BC was chemically modified via a limited periodate oxidation reaction to render the composite degradable and thus more suitable for bone regeneration. While native BC does not degrade in mammalian systems, periodate oxidation yields dialdehyde cellulose which breaks down at physiological pH. The composite was characterized by tensile testing, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. X-ray diffraction showed that oxidized BC retains its structure and could biomimetically form CdHAP. Degradation behavior was analyzed by incubating the samples in simulated physiological fluid (pH 7.4) at 37 C under static and dynamic conditions. The oxidized BC and oxidized BC-CdHAP composites both lost significant mass after exposure to the simulated physiological environment. Examination of the incubation solutions by UV-Vis spectrophotometric analysis demonstrated that, while native BC released only small amounts of soluble cellulose fragments, oxidized cellulose releases carbonyl containing degradation products as well as soluble cellulose fragments. By entrapping CdHAP in a degradable hydrogel carrier, this composite should elicit bone regeneration then resorb over time to be replaced by new osseous tissue.

  10. Strontium-89 therapy for the treatment of huge osseous metastases in prostate carcinoma: A case report

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, WENJIE; ZHAO, WEIWEI; JIA, ZHIYUN; DENG, HOUFU

    2013-01-01

    Prostate cancer is a growing public health problem. The palliation of pain in patients with painful bone metastases is of primary importance in the clinical management of advanced cancer. Internal therapy with radionuclides, which concentrate at sites of increased bone turnover, is used to control pain and improve quality of life as an alternative to conventional therapies. In the present study, we report the case of a 52-year-old male who had been diagnosed with prostate cancer. The patient presented with severe pain in multiple areas, but particularly in the right hip. A whole-body bone scan revealed that the right hip, ilium and ischium were covered with huge metastatic lesions. Treatment with radionuclide strontium-89 chloride (89Sr) resulted in a partial response which was confirmed by the successful relief of pain and other imaging modalities. No significant change in the leukocyte or thrombocyte levels was observed. The results of the present study indicate that systemic radionuclide therapy using 89Sr is an effective, well-tolerated and safe palliative treatment in patients with huge osseous metastases in prostate carcinoma. PMID:23404044

  11. A toenail flap based on the fibro-osseous hiatus branch for fingernail reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Ki, Sae H; Hwang, Kun; Kim, Dong H; Hwang, Sejin; Han, Seung H

    2011-07-01

    This study included two parts: 1) cadaver dissection to elucidate the perfusion of toenail flaps by the fibro-osseous hiatus branch (FHB), and 2) clinical application of the toenail flap for reconstruction of a fingernail defect. Four second toes of two fresh Korean cadavers were dissected. The plantar digital artery (PDA) and terminal segment branch (TSB) were ligated, and red latex was injected distally into the ligated PDA. Perfusion of the dye into the toenail bed through the FHB was observed. From Oct 2004 to Sep 2009, eight toenail flaps based on the FHB pedicle with or without the distal phalanx and pulp were applied to seven patients for finger nail reconstruction. The toenail flap was marked at 5 mm distal to the nail fold and 5 mm lateral to the paronychium. The toenail complex based on the FHB was elevated and transferred to the finger. The nail and matrix were elevated with or without including the distal phalanx. The results of perfusion study showed that one side of the unilateral FHB was identified and traced proximal to the PDA, which was ligated. The distal toenail bed was perfused by the dye through the FHB. In clinical application, all the toenail flaps flourished and survived. We suggest that the toenail flap based on the FHB may be useful for fingernail reconstruction with minimal donor morbidity. PMID:21630332

  12. Reduced elastogenesis: a clue to the arteriosclerosis and emphysematous changes in Schimke immuno-osseous dysplasia?

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Arteriosclerosis and emphysema develop in individuals with Schimke immuno-osseous dysplasia (SIOD), a multisystem disorder caused by biallelic mutations in SMARCAL1 (SWI/SNF-related, matrix-associated, actin-dependent regulator of chromatin, subfamily a-like 1). However, the mechanism by which the vascular and pulmonary disease arises in SIOD remains unknown. Methods We reviewed the records of 65 patients with SMARCAL1 mutations. Molecular and immunohistochemical analyses were conducted on autopsy tissue from 4 SIOD patients. Results Thirty-two of 63 patients had signs of arteriosclerosis and 3 of 51 had signs of emphysema. The arteriosclerosis was characterized by intimal and medial hyperplasia, smooth muscle cell hyperplasia and fragmented and disorganized elastin fibers, and the pulmonary disease was characterized by panlobular enlargement of air spaces. Consistent with a cell autonomous disorder, SMARCAL1 was expressed in arterial and lung tissue, and both the aorta and lung of SIOD patients had reduced expression of elastin and alterations in the expression of regulators of elastin gene expression. Conclusions This first comprehensive study of the vascular and pulmonary complications of SIOD shows that these commonly cause morbidity and mortality and might arise from impaired elastogenesis. Additionally, the effect of SMARCAL1 deficiency on elastin expression provides a model for understanding other features of SIOD. PMID:22998683

  13. Anetoderma in a patient with terminal osseous dysplasia with pigmentary defects.

    PubMed

    Connor, Cody J; Shchelochkov, Oleg A; Ciliberto, Heather

    2015-10-01

    Terminal osseous dysplasia with pigmentary defects (TODPD) is a rare, X-linked syndrome classically characterized by distal limb anomalies, pigmented skin defects of the face, and recurrent digital fibromas. X-inactivation plays a major role in determining the range of phenotypic expression. Thus, patients can demonstrate a wide spectrum of disease severity, making accurate diagnosis more challenging. Recent studies have identified a FLNA c.5217G>A mutation as the cause of TODPD, allowing for diagnostic genetic testing. We present a case of molecularly confirmed TODPD in a girl with the 47,XXX chromosomal complement and deformities of the hands and feet, craniofacial abnormalities, and discolored, linear facial lesions. Skin biopsy of the patient's facial lesion revealed absent papillary dermal elastic fibers, consistent with anetoderma, which contrasts with the dermal hypoplasia described in the only other such facial biopsy reported in the literature. The finding of absent elastic fibers in the skin lesions suggests that mutated filamin A, in part, exerts its effects through dysregulated elastin biology, which may explain the nature of many connective tissue pleotropic effects in FLNA-related disorders. PMID:26059211

  14. Can we improve radiological analysis of osseous lesions in chronic anterior shoulder instability?

    PubMed

    Charousset, C; Beauthier, V; Bellaïche, L; Guillin, R; Brassart, N; Thomazeau, H

    2010-12-01

    Osseous lesions of the glenoid cavity and humeral head are predictive of recurrence after Bankart arthroscopic procedures. The objective of this study was to analyze, for each glenoid and humeral defect plain x-ray criteria of the Instability Severity Index Score (ISIS), two aspects: inter- and intraobserver reliability of their qualitative and quantitative assessment and correlations between positive criteria and their quantitative measurement. Thirty-one medical files were retained for evaluation of the glenoid and 26 for humeral notch assessment. The yes or no response for the ISIS criterion was completed by its quantitative measurement using the Griffiths and Sugaya CT methods for the glenoid and the P/R index calculation on plain x-rays with internal rotation for the Hill-Sachs lesion. Three observers provided two consecutive readings for each criterion. The analysis of the glenoid radiological criterion of the ISIS seems sufficiently reproducible for daily practice. When the evaluation is positive, bone loss is greater than 15%, without a maximum value established. In this study, the analysis of the ISIS humeral notch criterion was not reproducible. It can be improved using the P/R index and should be completed by CT imaging. PMID:21035420

  15. Bone properties surrounding hydroxyapatite-coated custom osseous integrated dental implants.

    PubMed

    Baker, M I; Eberhardt, A W; Martin, D M; McGwin, G; Lemons, J E

    2010-10-01

    Calcium phosphate (hydroxyapatite or HA) coatings have been applied to Custom Osseous Integrated Implants (COIIs) to improve the quality of the bone-implant integration, yet little is known concerning the biomechanical properties of bone surrounding the HA-coated implants in humans over the long term. The purpose of this study was to characterize the mechanical and histomorphometric properties of the bone along the implant interface. Specimens were prepared from three similar mandibular implants that were functional in three female patients for about 11 years. Histomorphometric analyses showed bone-implant contact averaging 75% for all specimens. Area coverage of residual HA-coating ranged from 52 to 70%. When compared with previous studies, these results show a relatively high percentage of residual HA after a decade in vivo. Nanoindentation showed similar average values of hardness and modulus (p = 0.53 and p = 0.56, respectively) comparing bone adjacent to residual HA-coating and regions where the coating was absent. The elastic modulus was significantly lower for bone near the bone-implant interface (<200 μm) as compared with bone distant (>1000 μm) from the interface (p = 0.05), thereby reflecting different properties of the bone near these interfaces. Backscattered electron imaging showed darker gray levels which indicated decreased mineral content in bone adjacent to the implant, consistent with the nanoindentation results. PMID:20725958

  16. Comparison of renal and osseous binding of parathyroid hormone and hormonal fragments

    SciTech Connect

    Demay, M.; Mitchell, J.; Goltzman, D.

    1985-11-01

    The authors compared receptor binding and adenylate cyclase stimulation of intact bovine parathyroid hormone (bPTH)-(1-84) and the synthetic amino-terminal fragments, bPTH-(1-34) and rat PTH (rPTH)-(1-34). In both canine renal membranes and cloned rat osteosarcoma cells the amino-terminal fragments bound to a single order of sites; the affinity of rPTH-(1-34) exceeded that of bPTH-(1-34), correlating with its higher potency in stimulating adenylate cyclase. In studies with oxidized bPTH-(1--84), the middle and carboxyl regions of intact PTH were found to bind to both tissues but with higher affinity to osteosarcoma cells than to renal membranes. Our results demonstrate that rPTH-(1--34) is the most favorable probe of amino-terminal PTH binding and the most potent of the PTH peptides in stimulating renal and osseous adenylate cyclase. The results also show that midregion and carboxyl determinants within intact PTH contribute to hormone binding, which does not correlate with adenylate cyclase activation and appears more significant for skeletal than for renal binding.

  17. Anomalous composition of musculature of the first dorsal fibro-osseous compartment of the wrist.

    PubMed

    Dhuria, Ruchi; Mehta, Vandana; Suri, Rajesh Kumar; Rath, Gayatri

    2012-06-01

    The anomalous orientation of musculature of the first dorsal fibro-osseous compartment of the wrist is clinically relevant to De Quervian's stenosing tenosynovitis and reconstructive surgeries. Split insertion of the abductor pollicis longus (APL) is commonly found in chimpanzees, gorillas and gibbons. A comparable identical pattern of anomalous slips in humans is of anthropological and phylogenetic importance and could be a result of atavism. This case report describes an unusual fused muscle belly of the APL and extensor pollicis brevis (EPB), which split into three slips--medial, intermediate and lateral. Further, the medial slip was seen to divide into two tendons, inserting on the base of the first metacarpal along with the intermediate slip. The lateral slip divided into three tendons, inserting into the base of the proximal phalanx, base of the first metacarpal and abductor pollicis brevis muscle. The fusion and unusual insertion pattern of the APL and EPB merits documentation for reconstructive procedures such as tendon transfer and interposition arthroplasty. PMID:22711053

  18. Pulmonary adenocarcinoma with osseous metastasis and secondary paresis in a blue and gold macaw (Ara ararauna).

    PubMed

    Fredholm, Daniel V; Carpenter, James W; Schumacher, Loni L; Shumacher, Loni L; Moon, Rachel S

    2012-12-01

    A 16-yr-old female blue and gold macaw (Ara ararauna) was presented with an acute history of lethargy, inappetance, ataxia, and paralysis. The bird had rapidly progressed from a normal state to complete inability to perch or ambulate within a 48-hr period. Neurologic examination revealed bilateral hind limb paresis with upper motor neuron signs present in both legs and the vent. Radiographs identified multiple nodular soft-tissue opacities within the cranial coelomic cavity and a single nodule superimposed with the thoracic spine. The bird was euthanized and submitted for necropsy, which revealed a primary pulmonary adenocarcinoma with multiple sites of osseous metastasis, including the vertebrae, and subsequent spinal cord compression. This is the first report of pulmonary adenocarcinoma in this species, although reports of similar tumors in other psittacines have been published. This report, along with others previously published, suggests that vertebral metastasis of primary pulmonary tumors may be more common in psittacine species than previously recognized and, as such, should be considered as a differential diagnosis in psittacine birds exhibiting signs of neurologic dysfunction attributed to a spinal cord lesion. PMID:23272361

  19. Transclavicular Osseous Sutures for the Treatment of Displaced Distal Clavicular Fractures in Children.

    PubMed

    Schilcher, Jörg; Scheer, Johan; Adolfsson, Lars

    2016-05-01

    We describe a novel surgical technique for the treatment of displaced distal clavicular fractures in children. These fractures are rare, and recommendations on treatment vary. Conservative treatment might lead to persistent deformity and limitations of function. Previous reports of surgical treatment involve fracture fixation with K-wires. This requires a routine sequential reoperation to remove the implant and has been associated with serious complications in some patients. The surgical technique described here is based on osseous sutures through the clavicular shaft and coracoclavicular ligaments and is found successful for the treatment of distal clavicular fractures in children and may also be feasible for true acromioclavicular dislocations. The main principle of the technique is a fixation of the displaced clavicle through transclavicular drill holes, against the intact inferior periosteal sleeve at the insertion of the coracoclavicular ligaments. No temporary K-wire fixation is needed. To date, we have treated 7 patients with this technique. All fractures healed uneventfully with an excellent functional result and without skeletal deformity. PMID:27101169

  20. An evaluation of tricalcium phosphate implants in human periodontal osseous defects of two patients.

    PubMed

    Baldock, W T; Hutchens, L H; McFall, W T; Simpson, D M

    1985-01-01

    This study evaluated the use of tricalcium phosphate (TCP) ceramic implant material in periodontal osseous defects. Thirteen defects in two patients were treated with mucoperiosteal flaps and placement of TCP. The defects were evaluated clinically and radiographically utilizing standardized probe placement and radiographic technique. Clinically, there was a mean probing pocket reduction of 4.5 mm as a result of a mean gain of clinical probing attachment level of 2.0 mm and a mean gingival recession of 2.5 mm. Radiographically, there was a mean "fill" of 1.8 mm. Six teeth were removed by block biopsy for histologic analysis, three at 3 months, one at 6 months and two a 9 months. The TCP particles were well tolerated and encapsulated by fibrous connective tissue, but the particles did not stimulate new bone growth. The junctional epithelium ended 1.62 mm coronal to the apical extent of a reference notch placed at the base of the defect. Although new cementum was observed, there was limited evidence of new attachment. PMID:3856005

  1. Delayed osseous metastasis from low-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma: Uncommon occurrence deserving recognition.

    PubMed

    Chow, Louis Tsun Cheung

    2015-10-01

    Despite excellent prognosis, low-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma (ESS) is notorious for late recurrence even in stage I disease. Bone metastases are distinctly rare and only six cases have so far been reported. Two patients presented with back pain due to spinal metastatic low-grade ESS after 15 and 9 years free of disease after resection of the stage 1 primary uterine tumor. Plain radiograph showed an ivory first lumbar vertebra in the first patient and an osteolytic lesion involving the second thoracic vertebra in the second. In both cases, magnetic resonance imaging showed vertebral tumor with intra-spinal extension and spinal cord compression; biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of metastatic low-grade ESS. The first patient received palliative radiotherapy and chemotherapy while the second underwent surgical decompression followed by adjuvant radiotherapy and chemotherapy. The neurologic symptoms in both patients returned 12 months afterwards and progressed relentlessly despite adjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy. The first patient developed multiple bone and lung metastasis, culminating in death 44 months after recurrence. While surviving at 24 months from recurrent disease, the second became paraplegic with double incontinence and was wheelchair bound. Delayed osseous metastatic low-grade ESS, although uncommon, deserves recognition given the predilection for spine as the site of involvement. In such a location, where complete surgical removal is notoriously difficult, if not impossible, the prognosis of spinal metastatic low-grade ESS appears grave with considerable morbidity and mortality. PMID:26171849

  2. Impacts of early viability selection on management of inbreeding and genetic diversity in conservation.

    PubMed

    Grueber, Catherine E; Hogg, Carolyn J; Ivy, Jamie A; Belov, Katherine

    2015-04-01

    Maintaining genetic diversity is a crucial goal of intensive management of threatened species, particularly for those populations that act as sources for translocation or re-introduction programmes. Most captive genetic management is based on pedigrees and a neutral theory of inheritance, an assumption that may be violated by selective forces operating in captivity. Here, we explore the conservation consequences of early viability selection: differential offspring survival that occurs prior to management or research observations, such as embryo deaths in utero. If early viability selection produces genotypic deviations from Mendelian predictions, it may undermine management strategies intended to minimize inbreeding and maintain genetic diversity. We use empirical examples to demonstrate that straightforward approaches, such as comparing litter sizes of inbred vs. noninbred breeding pairs, can be used to test whether early viability selection likely impacts estimates of inbreeding depression. We also show that comparing multilocus genotype data to pedigree predictions can reveal whether early viability selection drives systematic biases in genetic diversity, patterns that would not be detected using pedigree-based statistics alone. More sophisticated analysis combining genomewide molecular data with pedigree information will enable conservation scientists to test whether early viability selection drives deviations from neutrality across wide stretches of the genome, revealing whether this form of selection biases the pedigree-based statistics and inference upon which intensive management is based. PMID:25735639

  3. Mps1 kinase regulates tumor cell viability via its novel role in mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Zhang, X; Ling, Y; Guo, Y; Bai, Y; Shi, X; Gong, F; Tan, P; Zhang, Y; Wei, C; He, X; Ramirez, A; Liu, X; Cao, C; Zhong, H; Xu, Q; Ma, R Z

    2016-01-01

    Targeting mitotic kinase monopolar spindle 1 (Mps1) for tumor therapy has been investigated for many years. Although it was suggested that Mps1 regulates cell viability through its role in spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC), the underlying mechanism remains less defined. In an endeavor to reveal the role of high levels of mitotic kinase Mps1 in the development of colon cancer, we unexpectedly found the amount of Mps1 required for cell survival far exceeds that of maintaining SAC in aneuploid cell lines. This suggests that other functions of Mps1 besides SAC are also employed to maintain cell viability. Mps1 regulates cell viability independent of its role in cytokinesis as the genetic depletion of Mps1 spanning from metaphase to cytokinesis affects neither cytokinesis nor cell viability. Furthermore, we developed a single-cycle inhibition strategy that allows disruption of Mps1 function only in mitosis. Using this strategy, we found the functions of Mps1 in mitosis are vital for cell viability as short-term treatment of mitotic colon cancer cell lines with Mps1 inhibitors is sufficient to cause cell death. Interestingly, Mps1 inhibitors synergize with microtubule depolymerizing drug in promoting polyploidization but not in tumor cell growth inhibition. Finally, we found that Mps1 can be recruited to mitochondria by binding to voltage-dependent anion channel 1 (VDAC1) via its C-terminal fragment. This interaction is essential for cell viability as Mps1 mutant defective for interaction fails to main cell viability, causing the release of cytochrome c. Meanwhile, deprivation of VDAC1 can make tumor cells refractory to loss of Mps1-induced cell death. Collectively, we conclude that inhibition of the novel mitochondrial function Mps1 is sufficient to kill tumor cells. PMID:27383047

  4. Mps1 kinase regulates tumor cell viability via its novel role in mitochondria

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, X; Ling, Y; Guo, Y; Bai, Y; Shi, X; Gong, F; Tan, P; Zhang, Y; Wei, C; He, X; Ramirez, A; Liu, X; Cao, C; Zhong, H; Xu, Q; Ma, R Z

    2016-01-01

    Targeting mitotic kinase monopolar spindle 1 (Mps1) for tumor therapy has been investigated for many years. Although it was suggested that Mps1 regulates cell viability through its role in spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC), the underlying mechanism remains less defined. In an endeavor to reveal the role of high levels of mitotic kinase Mps1 in the development of colon cancer, we unexpectedly found the amount of Mps1 required for cell survival far exceeds that of maintaining SAC in aneuploid cell lines. This suggests that other functions of Mps1 besides SAC are also employed to maintain cell viability. Mps1 regulates cell viability independent of its role in cytokinesis as the genetic depletion of Mps1 spanning from metaphase to cytokinesis affects neither cytokinesis nor cell viability. Furthermore, we developed a single-cycle inhibition strategy that allows disruption of Mps1 function only in mitosis. Using this strategy, we found the functions of Mps1 in mitosis are vital for cell viability as short-term treatment of mitotic colon cancer cell lines with Mps1 inhibitors is sufficient to cause cell death. Interestingly, Mps1 inhibitors synergize with microtubule depolymerizing drug in promoting polyploidization but not in tumor cell growth inhibition. Finally, we found that Mps1 can be recruited to mitochondria by binding to voltage-dependent anion channel 1 (VDAC1) via its C-terminal fragment. This interaction is essential for cell viability as Mps1 mutant defective for interaction fails to main cell viability, causing the release of cytochrome c. Meanwhile, deprivation of VDAC1 can make tumor cells refractory to loss of Mps1-induced cell death. Collectively, we conclude that inhibition of the novel mitochondrial function Mps1 is sufficient to kill tumor cells. PMID:27383047

  5. Viability of commercial wine yeasts during freezer storage in glycerol-based media.

    PubMed

    Sidari, R; Caridi, A

    2009-01-01

    Glycerol-based medium (BM) with and without the addition of 1 g/L ascorbic acid (Asc) and/or 100 mg/L (+/-)-catechin (Cat) was tested for the storage of three commercial wine yeasts at -20 degrees C. The medium supplemented with Asc was also used to store 706 strains to verify the maintenance of the liquid state. A decline in survival throughout the storage period was observed. The media containing Asc maintained viability better than the other three. The BM caused a loss of viability of 7 orders for one strain and of 6 orders for the other two. All three strains exhibited a loss of viability of 4 orders when stored in BM+Asc. Two strains decreased viability by 5 orders while one strain by 4 orders, when stored in BM+Cat. Two strains decreased viability by 6 orders while one strain by 5 orders, when stored in BM+Asc+Cat. Regarding the physical state of the medium tested on 706 yeast strains, three cases were observed: completely liquid (56.5 %), liquid with only the upper part frozen (40.4 %) without involving the yeast biomass settled at the bottom, and completely frozen (3.12 %). It is practicable to prepare a BM that remains liquid at -20 degrees C enhancing yeast viability when Asc is added as cryoprotectant. PMID:19649740

  6. Critical reappraisal of primary osseous composite sarcoma (malignant mesenchymoma) - analysis of four cases and literature review.

    PubMed

    Chow, Louis T C

    2016-06-01

    In accordance with recent terminology, it is proposed that malignant mesenchymoma should be renamed 'composite sarcoma' and defined as 'a sarcoma composed of two or more cellular types each of which is sufficiently differentiated to permit clear recognition of its histogenetic type microscopically, immunohistochemically or ultrastructurally; excluding fibrosarcomatous and high-grade pleomorphic undifferentiated sarcomatous component, dedifferentiated sarcoma and the combination of osteosarcoma and chondrosarcoma which is regarded as a single histogenetic type'. Four cases of primary osseous composite sarcoma (POCS) were identified among 928 primary bone sarcomas. Their age ranged from 10 to 87 years, peak incidence in the second decade with equal sex distribution. Most presented with pain, commonest in the knee, affecting the metaphysis, appearing radiologically as expansile infiltrative osteolytic lesions with cortical erosion, periosteal reaction, variable extent of osteoblastic areas and soft tissue extension. All contained variable amounts of conventional high-grade osteosarcoma with or without chondrosarcoma component; the other constituents were liposarcoma, rhabdomyosarcoma and leiomyosarcoma. In all cases, Ki67 proliferative index was over 35%, there was no CDK4 and MDM2 amplification. The absence of low-grade component supported the de novo origin of POCS rather than derivation from divergent dedifferentiation. The two older patients with hitherto undescribed osteoleiomyosarcoma died 2 and 10 months after operation, whereas the two younger with osteorhabdomyosarcoma and osteoliposarcoma enjoyed disease-free survival at 16 and 6 years after chemotherapy despite the latter showing lung metastasis at presentation. Identification of the different lines of differentiation together with their approximate amounts and histological grades is therefore mandatory for POCS as multi-agent chemotherapy catered for each sarcoma component might offer hope for long

  7. Passive Entrapment of Tumor Cells Determines Metastatic Dissemination to Spinal Bone and Other Osseous Tissues.

    PubMed

    Broggini, Thomas; Piffko, Andras; Hoffmann, Christian J; Harms, Christoph; Vajkoczy, Peter; Czabanka, Marcus

    2016-01-01

    During the metastatic process tumor cells circulate in the blood stream and are carried to various organs. In order to spread to different organs tumor cell-endothelial cell interactions are crucial for extravasation mechanisms. It remains unclear if tumor cell dissemination to the spinal bone occurs by passive entrapment of circulating tumor cells or by active cellular mechanisms mediated by cell surface molecules or secreted factors. We investigated the seeding of three different tumor cell lines (melanoma, lung and prostate carcinoma) to the microvasculature of different organs. Their dissemination was compared to biologically passive microbeads. The spine and other organs were resected three hours after intraarterial injection of tumor cells or microbeads. Ex vivo homogenization and fluorescence analysis allowed quantification of tumor cells or microbeads in different organs. Interestingly, tumor cell distribution to the spinal bone was comparable to dissemination of microbeads independent of the tumor cell type (melanoma: 5.646% ± 7.614%, lung: 6.007% ± 1.785%, prostate: 3.469% ± 0.602%, 7 μm beads: 9.884% ± 7.379%, 16 μm beads: 7.23% ± 1.488%). Tumor cell seeding differed significantly between tumor cells and microbeads in all soft tissue organs. Moreover, there were significant differences between the different tumor cell lines in their dissemination behaviour to soft tissue organs only. These findings demonstrate that metastatic dissemination of tumor cells to spinal bone and other osseous organs is mediated by passive entrapment of tumor cells similar to passive plugging of microvasculature observed after intraarterial microbeads injection. PMID:27603673

  8. Functionalization of scaffolds with chimeric anti-BMP-2 monoclonal antibodies for osseous regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Ansari, Sahar; Moshaverinia, Alireza; Pi, Sung Hee; Han, Alexander; Abdelhamid, Alaa I.; Zadeh, Homayoun H.

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated the ability of murine anti-BMP-2 monoclonal antibodies (mAb) immobilized on an absorbable collagen sponge (ACS) to mediate de novo bone formation, a process termed antibody mediated osseous regeneration (AMOR). The objectives of this study were to assess the efficacy of a newly generated chimeric anti-BMP-2 mAb in mediating AMOR, as well as to evaluate the suitability of different biomaterials as scaffolds to participate in AMOR. Chimeric anti-BMP-2 mAb was immobilized on 4 biomaterials, namely, titanium microbeads (Ti), alginate hydrogel, macroporous biphasic calcium phosphate (MBCP) and ACS, followed by surgical implantation into rat critical-size calvarial defects. Animals were sacrificed after 8 weeks and the degree of bone fill was assessed using micro-CT and histomorphometry. Results demonstrated local persistence of chimeric anti-BMP-2 mAb up to 8 weeks, as well as significant de novo bone regeneration in sites implanted with chimeric anti-BMP-2 antibody immobilized on each of the 4 scaffolds. Ti and MBCP showed the highest volume of bone regeneration, presumably due to their resistance to compression. Alginate and ACS also mediated de novo bone formation, though significant volumetric shrinkage was noted. In vitro assays demonstrated cross-reactivity of chimeric anti-BMP-2 mAb with BMP-4 and BMP-7. Immune complex of anti-BMP-2 mAb with BMP-2 induced osteogenic differentiation of C2C12 cells in vitro, involving expression of RUNX2 and phosphorylation of Smad1. The present data demonstrated the ability of chimeric anti- BMP-2 mAb to functionalize different biomaterial with varying characteristics to mediate osteogenesis. PMID:24055525

  9. The incidence and significance of fluid-fluid levels on computed tomography of osseous lesions.

    PubMed

    Davies, A M; Cassar-Pullicino, V N; Grimer, R J

    1992-03-01

    The demonstration of a fluid-fluid level (FFL) within an osseous lesion on computed tomography (CT) has been reported as suggestive of an aneurysmal bone cyst (ABC) although FFLS have also been rarely found in association with other lesions. This study was conducted to determine the frequency of FFLS on CT in a group of ABCs and a series of patients presenting to a major tertiary referral centre for the treatment of bone tumours. An FFL was present on CT in 21 (84%) of the 25 ABCs and in 17 was multiple. FFLs are typical of the mid ("blow-out") or late phase of development of an ABC and not the incipient ("permeative") stage or where the internal architecture of the tumour has been disrupted by biopsy or previous surgery. In a 3-year period, 16 ABCs were found in 491 bone lesions referred to a bone tumour treatment centre. CT of the ABCs revealed FFLs in 14 (87.5%) cases. Within the same period, 728 CTs of these and other bone lesions were performed and FFLs were identified in two further cases: a massive telangiectatic osteosarcoma and a conventional osteosarcoma following chemotherapy. The diagnostic significance of an FFL on CT for ABC is: sensitivity = 87.5%, specificity = 99.7%, positive predictive value = 87.5%, negative predictive value = 99.7%, accuracy = 99.4%. An FFL within a bone lesion on CT remains strongly suggestive of an ABC although the radiologist should be wary of a rare telangiectatic osteosarcoma. PMID:1547444

  10. Assessing Patient-Reported Outcomes Following Orthognathic Surgery and Osseous Genioplasty.

    PubMed

    Schwitzer, Jonathan A; Albino, Frank P; Mathis, Ryan K; Scott, Amie M; Gamble, Laurie; Baker, Stephen B

    2015-11-01

    Primary outcomes for orthognathic surgery and genioplasty patients include satisfaction with appearance, improved motor function, and enhanced quality of life. The goal of this study was to assess outcomes among patients undergoing these procedures, and to highlight the potential use of FACE-Q instrument for use in patients with dentofacial deformities. A total of 56 patients presenting for orthognathic surgery and/or osseous genioplasty completed the FACE-Q during preoperative and/or at postoperative visits. FACE-Q scores increased following surgery in satisfaction with facial appearance overall (+24.5, P < 0.01), satisfaction with lower face and jawline (+40.7, P < 0.01), and in all satisfaction with chin items (profile, prominence, shape, and overall). Patients also demonstrated increased social confidence (+8.9, P = 0.29). There was no improvement in psychologic well-being (-0.8, P = 0.92). All 3 surgical groups of patients experienced gains in satisfaction with appearance following surgery. Patients who underwent orthognathic surgery either alone or in combination with genioplasty demonstrated statistically significant improvements in satisfaction with facial appearance overall (P < 0.01 for both groups), whereas patients who underwent genioplasty alone did not (P = 0.13). In addition, patients who underwent orthognathic surgery combined with genioplasty demonstrated greater improvement in satisfaction with chin than patients who underwent genioplasty alone. In conclusion, patients who underwent orthognathic surgery and/or genioplasty demonstrated improvement in appearance and social confidence. The use of this model supports the successful outcomes possible for patients undergoing these procedures. PMID:26501967

  11. Doxycycline-tricalcium phosphate composite graft facilitates osseous healing in advanced periodontal furcation defects.

    PubMed

    Pepelassi, E M; Bissada, N F; Greenwell, H; Farah, C F

    1991-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of a tricalcium phosphate, plaster of paris, and doxycycline composite graft to surgical debridement alone in the treatment of Class II and Class III furcation defects. Fifteen patients with adult periodontitis and at least two mandibular molars with Class II or III furcation defects were selected. A total of 40 sites were treated: 26 were Class II defects and 14 were Class III. Following initial therapy one site was randomly selected to receive the composite graft while the remaining site served as the surgically debrided control. Osseous healing was evaluated by direct measurements from an acrylic stent at the time of graft surgery and at the 6-month reentry. Following surgery each patient was placed on doxycycline 100mg/day for 10 days. The absence of clinical inflammation and infection during the healing process provided additional substantiation of the biocompatibility of the grafting materials. Results after 6 months indicated that sites treated with the composite graft had improved defect fill, defect resolution, probing depths, and clinical attachment levels when compared to the surgically debrided controls. Defect fill was 3.7 times greater in grafted sites and these sites were 4.0 times more likely to have 50% or greater defect fill. The effect of grafting was more pronounced in Class III defects where horizontal defect fill and gain of clinical attachment was achieved only in grafted sites. The plaster of paris functioned well as a binder, preventing particle scatter and facilitating graft retention. Additionally the plaster served as a vehicle to carry and retain the doxycycline at the treated site. These short-term results point to the potential of a composite graft containing tricalcium phosphate, plaster of paris, and doxycycline in promoting healing of furcation lesions. PMID:2027058

  12. Molecular consequences of a frameshifted DLX3 mutant leading to Tricho-Dento-Osseous syndrome.

    PubMed

    Duverger, Olivier; Lee, Delia; Hassan, Mohammad Q; Chen, Susie X; Jaisser, Frederic; Lian, Jane B; Morasso, Maria I

    2008-07-18

    The homeodomain protein Distal-less-3 (Dlx3) plays a crucial role during embryonic development. This transcription factor is known to be essential for placental formation and to be involved in skin and skeletal organogenesis. In humans, a frameshift mutation in the coding sequence of the DLX3 gene results in an ectodermal dysplasia called Tricho-Dento-Osseous syndrome (TDO). The main features of this autosomal dominant disorder are defects in hair, teeth, and bone. To investigate the functional alterations caused by the mutated DLX3(TDO) isoform ex vivo, we used tetracycline-inducible osteoblastic and keratinocyte cell lines and calvarial derived osteoblasts in which the expression of DLX3(WT) and/or DLX3(TDO) could be regulated and monitored. Immunocytochemical analysis revealed that both DLX3(WT) and DLX3(TDO) recombinant proteins are targeted to the nucleus. However, as demonstrated by electrophoresis mobility shift assay, DLX3(TDO) is not able to bind to the canonical Dlx3 binding site. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the frameshifted C-terminal domain in DLX3(TDO) is accountable for the loss of DNA binding activity because the C-terminal domain in DLX3(WT) is not required for DNA binding activity. Although DLX3(TDO) alone cannot bind to a Dlx3 responsive element, when DLX3(WT) and DLX3(TDO) are co-expressed they form a complex that can bind DNA. Concomitant with the inability to bind DNA, DLX3(TDO) has a defective transcriptional activity. Moreover, the transcriptional activity of DLX3(WT) is significantly reduced in the presence of the mutated isoform, indicating that DLX3(TDO) has a dominant negative effect on DLX3(WT) transcriptional activity. PMID:18492670

  13. Poxvirus Viability and Signatures in Historical Relics

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yu; Wilkins, Kimberly; Karem, Kevin L.; Davidson, Whitni B.; Paddock, Christopher D.; Reynolds, Mary G.; Damon, Inger K.

    2014-01-01

    Although it has been >30 years since the eradication of smallpox, the unearthing of well-preserved tissue material in which the virus may reside has called into question the viability of variola virus decades or centuries after its original occurrence. Experimental data to address the long-term stability and viability of the virus are limited. There are several instances of well-preserved corpses and tissues that have been examined for poxvirus viability and viral DNA. These historical specimens cause concern for potential exposures, and each situation should be approached cautiously and independently with the available information. Nevertheless, these specimens provide information on the history of a major disease and vaccination against it. PMID:24447382

  14. Non-disruptive measurement system of cell viability in bioreactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudek, F.; Nelsen, B. L.; Baselt, T.; Berger, T.; Wiele, M.; Prade, I.; Hartmann, P.

    2016-04-01

    Nutrient and oxygen transport, as well as the removal of metabolic waste are essential processes to support and maintain viable tissue. Current bioreactor technology used to grow tissue cultures in vitro has a fundamental limit to the thickness of tissues. Based on the low diffusion limit of oxygen a maximum tissue thickness of 200 μm is possible. The efficiency of those systems is currently under investigation. During the cultivation process of the artificial tissue in bioreactors, which lasts 28 days or longer, there are no possibilities to investigate the viability of cells. This work is designed to determine the influence of a non-disruptive cell viability measuring system on cellular activity. The measuring system uses a natural cellular marker produced during normal metabolic activity. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) is a coenzyme naturally consumed and produced during cellular metabolic processes and has thoroughly been studied to determine the metabolic state of a cell. Measuring the fluorescence of NADH within the cell represents a non-disruptive marker for cell viability. Since the measurement process is optical in nature, NADH fluorescence also provides a pathway for sampling at different measurement depths within a given tissue sample. The measurement system we are using utilizes a special UV light source, to excite the NADH fluorescence state. However, the high energy potentially alters or harms the cells. To investigate the influence of the excitation signal, the cells were irradiated with a laser operating at a wavelength of 355 nm and examined for cytotoxic effects. The aim of this study was to develop a non-cytotoxic system that is applicable for large-scale operations during drug-tissue interaction testing.

  15. Genetic and Epigenetic Mechanisms That Maintain Hematopoietic Stem Cell Function

    PubMed Central

    Kosan, Christian; Godmann, Maren

    2016-01-01

    All hematopoiesis cells develop from multipotent progenitor cells. Hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) have the ability to develop into all blood lineages but also maintain their stemness. Different molecular mechanisms have been identified that are crucial for regulating quiescence and self-renewal to maintain the stem cell pool and for inducing proliferation and lineage differentiation. The stem cell niche provides the microenvironment to keep HSC in a quiescent state. Furthermore, several transcription factors and epigenetic modifiers are involved in this process. These create modifications that regulate the cell fate in a more or less reversible and dynamic way and contribute to HSC homeostasis. In addition, HSC respond in a unique way to DNA damage. These mechanisms also contribute to the regulation of HSC function and are essential to ensure viability after DNA damage. How HSC maintain their quiescent stage during the entire life is still matter of ongoing research. Here we will focus on the molecular mechanisms that regulate HSC function. PMID:26798358

  16. Comparison of the Copan eSwab System with an Agar Swab Transport System for Maintenance of Fastidious Anaerobic Bacterium Viability.

    PubMed

    Tyrrell, Kerin L; Citron, Diane M; Leoncio, Eliza S; Goldstein, Ellie J C

    2016-05-01

    We compared the eSwab system to a swab with an anaerobic transport semisolid agar system for their capacities to maintain the viability of 20 species of fastidious anaerobes inoculated on the bench and held at ambient or refrigerator temperature for 24 or 48 h. On average, both systems maintained similar viabilities among analogous groups of organisms at both temperatures, although there were quantitative differences among some species. PMID:26888906

  17. Comparison of the Copan eSwab System with an Agar Swab Transport System for Maintenance of Fastidious Anaerobic Bacterium Viability

    PubMed Central

    Citron, Diane M.; Leoncio, Eliza S.; Goldstein, Ellie J. C.

    2016-01-01

    We compared the eSwab system to a swab with an anaerobic transport semisolid agar system for their capacities to maintain the viability of 20 species of fastidious anaerobes inoculated on the bench and held at ambient or refrigerator temperature for 24 or 48 h. On average, both systems maintained similar viabilities among analogous groups of organisms at both temperatures, although there were quantitative differences among some species. PMID:26888906

  18. Application of laser therapy in the surgical treatment of periodontal osseous defects with the Bio-Oss Spongiosa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uzunov, Tzonko T.; Uzunov, T.; Grozdanova, R.

    2004-06-01

    We have made an investigation on three-wall and four-wall osseous defects on which a surgical treatment was conducted with application of Bio-Oss ( Geistlich ) and laser therapy. After conducting of clinical oral hygiene to the patients and curettage with flap, a Bio-Oss Spongiosa of Geistlich is applied. We have conducted the laser therapy pre- and postoperative scanning with power density of 100 mW/cm2 on scheme. The patients were traced out within 1 year. The obtained results showed that the application of laser therapy gives anaesthetic, anti-inflammatory and regeneration stimulating effect.

  19. Adenosine-5'-phosphosulfate kinase is essential for Arabidopsis viability.

    PubMed

    Mugford, Sarah G; Matthewman, Colette A; Hill, Lionel; Kopriva, Stanislav

    2010-01-01

    In Arabidopsis thaliana, adenosine-5'-phosphosulfate kinase (APK) provides activated sulfate for sulfation of secondary metabolites, including the glucosinolates. We have successfully isolated three of the four possible triple homozygous mutant combinations of this family. The APK1 isoform alone was sufficient to maintain WT levels of growth and development. Analysis of apk1 apk2 apk3 and apk1 apk3 apk4 mutants suggests that APK3 and APK4 are functionally redundant, despite being located in cytosol and plastids, respectively. We were, however, unable to isolate apk1 apk3 apk4 mutants, most probably because the apk1 apk3 apk4 triple mutant combination is pollen lethal. Therefore, we conclude that APS kinase is essential for plant reproduction and viability. PMID:19903478

  20. Viability of the Matter Bounce Scenario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Haro, Jaume; Amorós, Jaume

    2015-04-01

    It is shown that teleparallel F(T) theories of gravity combined with Loop Quantum Cosmology support a Matter Bounce Scenario which is an alternative to the inflation scenario in the Big Bang paradigm. It is checked that these bouncing models provide theoretical data that fits well with the current observational data, allowing the viability of the Matter Bounce Scenario.

  1. Viability of nonminimally coupled f (R) gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertolami, Orfeu; Páramos, Jorge

    2016-03-01

    In this work we explore the viability of nonminimally coupled matter-curvature gravity theories, namely the conditions required for the absence of tachyon instabilities and ghost degrees of freedom. We contrast our finds with recent claims of a pathological behaviour of this class of models, which resorted to, in our view, an incorrect analogy with k-essence.

  2. EFFECT OF HALOGENS ON 'GIARDIA' CYST VIABILITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this research was to determine the effect of chlorine and other disinfecting agents on Giardia lamblia cyst viability. The agents studied included free residual chlorine and six different methods recommended for emergency disinfection of small quantities of water...

  3. Observability in strategic models of viability selection.

    PubMed

    Gámez, M; Carreño, R; Kósa, A; Varga, Z

    2003-10-01

    Strategic models of frequency-dependent viability selection, in terms of mathematical systems theory, are considered as a dynamic observation system. Using a general sufficient condition for observability of nonlinear systems with invariant manifold, it is studied whether, observing certain phenotypic characteristics of the population, the development of its genetic state can be recovered, at least near equilibrium. PMID:14563566

  4. Viability of mesenchymal stem cells during electrospinning

    PubMed Central

    Zanatta, G.; Steffens, D.; Braghirolli, D.I.; Fernandes, R.A.; Netto, C.A.; Pranke, P.

    2011-01-01

    Tissue engineering is a technique by which a live tissue can be re-constructed and one of its main goals is to associate cells with biomaterials. Electrospinning is a technique that facilitates the production of nanofibers and is commonly used to develop fibrous scaffolds to be used in tissue engineering. In the present study, a different approach for cell incorporation into fibrous scaffolds was tested. Mesenchymal stem cells were extracted from the wall of the umbilical cord and mononuclear cells from umbilical cord blood. Cells were re-suspended in a 10% polyvinyl alcohol solution and subjected to electrospinning for 30 min under a voltage of 21 kV. Cell viability was assessed before and after the procedure by exclusion of dead cells using trypan blue staining. Fiber diameter was observed by scanning electron microscopy and the presence of cells within the scaffolds was analyzed by confocal laser scanning microscopy. After electrospinning, the viability of mesenchymal stem cells was reduced from 88 to 19.6% and the viability of mononuclear cells from 99 to 8.38%. The loss of viability was possibly due to the high viscosity of the polymer solution, which reduced the access to nutrients associated with electric and mechanical stress during electrospinning. These results suggest that the incorporation of cells during fiber formation by electrospinning is a viable process that needs more investigation in order to find ways to protect cells from damage. PMID:22183245

  5. Simple Fixed Functional Space Maintainer

    PubMed Central

    Sarawgi, Aditi; Marwah, Nikhil; Gumber, Parvind; Dutta, Samir

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT% Premature loss of a primary tooth is one of the most common etiology for malocclusion. Space maintainers are employed to prevent this complication. In anterior region, esthetics is an important concern along with function and space management. Fiber-reinforced composite (FRC) retained space maintainer solves all these purposes ef ficiently and ef fectively. In addition, the technique is simple and the appliance is very comfortable inside the oral cavity. Here is a case of premature loss of anterior primary tooth which was replaced by FRC retained esthetic functional space maintainer. The appliance was found to be functioning satisfactorily inside the oral cavity till the last visit (1 Year). How to cite this article: Goenka P, Sarawgi A, Marwah N, Gumber P, Dutta S. Simple Fixed Functional Space Maintainer. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2014;7(3):225-228. PMID:25709309

  6. Native Chondrocyte Viability during Cartilage Lesion Progression

    PubMed Central

    Ganguly, Kumkum; McRury, Ian D.; Goodwin, Peter M.; Morgan, Roy E.; Augé, Wayne K.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Early surgical intervention for articular cartilage disease is desirable before full-thickness lesions develop. As early intervention treatments are designed, native chondrocyte viability at the treatment site before intervention becomes an important parameter to consider. The purpose of this study is to evaluate native chondrocyte viability in a series of specimens demonstrating the progression of articular cartilage lesions to determine if the chondrocyte viability profile changes during the evolution of articular cartilage disease to the level of surface fibrillation. Design: Osteochondral specimens demonstrating various degrees of articular cartilage damage were obtained from patients undergoing knee total joint replacement. Three groups were created within a patient harvest based on visual and tactile cues commonly encountered during surgical intervention: group 1, visually and tactilely intact surfaces; group 2, visually intact, tactilely soft surfaces; and group 3, surface fibrillation. Confocal laser microscopy was performed following live/dead cell viability staining. Results: Groups 1 to 3 demonstrated viable chondrocytes in all specimens, even within the fibrillated portions of articular cartilage, with little to no evidence of dead chondrocytes. Chondrocyte viability profile in articular cartilage does not appear to change as disease lesion progresses from normal to surface fibrillation. Conclusions: Fibrillated partial-thickness articular cartilage lesions are a good therapeutic target for early intervention. These lesions retain a high profile of viable chondrocytes and are readily diagnosed by visual and tactile cues during surgery. Early intervention should be based on matrix failure rather than on more aggressive procedures that further corrupt the matrix and contribute to chondrocyte necrosis of contiguous untargeted cartilage. PMID:26069561

  7. Carpal boss in chronic wrist pain and its association with partial osseous coalition and osteoarthritis - A case report with focus on MRI findings

    PubMed Central

    Poh, Feng

    2015-01-01

    The carpal boss is a bony prominence at the dorsal aspect of the 2nd and/or 3rd carpometacarpal joint, which has been linked to various etiologies, including trauma, os styloideum, osteophyte formation, and partial osseous coalition. It may result in symptoms through secondary degeneration, ganglion formation, bursitis, or extensor tendon abnormalities by altered biomechanics of wrist motion. We present a case of symptomatic carpal boss with the finding of a partial osseous coalition at the 2nd carpometacarpal (metacarpal–trapezoid) joint and highlight the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of carpal boss impingement and secondary osteoarthritis. To the best of our knowledge, there is no report in the literature describing the imaging findings of partial osseous coalition and degenerative osteoarthritis in relation to carpal boss. PMID:26288522

  8. Comparison of CE-FDG-PET/CT with CE-FDG-PET/MR in the evaluation of osseous metastases in breast cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Catalano, O A; Nicolai, E; Rosen, B R; Luongo, A; Catalano, M; Iannace, C; Guimaraes, A; Vangel, M G; Mahmood, U; Soricelli, A; Salvatore, M

    2015-01-01

    Background: Despite improvements in treatments, metastatic breast cancer remains difficult to cure. Bones constitute the most common site of first-time recurrence, occurring in 40–75% of cases. Therefore, evaluation for possible osseous metastases is crucial. Technetium 99 (99Tc) bone scintigraphy and fluorodexossyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)-computed tomography (PET-CT) are the most commonly used techniques to assess osseous metastasis. PET magnetic resonance (PET-MR) imaging is an innovative technique still under investigation. We compared the capability of PET-MR to that of same-day PET-CT to assess osseous metastases in patients with breast cancer. Methods: One hundred and nine patients with breast cancer, who underwent same-day contrast enhanced (CE)-PET-CT and CE-PET-MR, were evaluated. CE-PET-CT and CE-PET-MR studies were interpreted by consensus by a radiologist and a nuclear medicine physician. Correlations with prior imaging and follow-up studies were used as the reference standard. Binomial confidence intervals and a χ2 test were used for categorical data, and paired t-test was used for the SUVmax data; a non-informative prior Bayesian approach was used to estimate and compare the specificities. Results: Osseous metastases affected 25 out 109 patients. Metastases were demonstrated by CE-PET-CT in 22 out of 25 patients (88%±7%), and by CE-PET-MR in 25 out of 25 patients (100%). CE-PET-CT revealed 90 osseous metastases and CE-PET-MR revealed 141 osseous metastases (P<0.001). The estimated sensitivity of CE-PET-CT and CE-PET-MR were 0.8519 and 0.9630, respectively. The estimated specificity for CE-FDG-PET-MR was 0.9884. The specificity of CE-PET-CT cannot be determined from patient-level data, because CE-PET-CT yielded a false-positive lesion in a patient who also had other, true metastases. Conclusions: CE-PET-MR detected a higher number of osseous metastases than did same-day CE-PET-CT, and was positive for 12% of the patients

  9. Torus mandibularis bone chips combined with platelet rich plasma gel for treatment of intrabony osseous defects: clinical and radiographic evaluation.

    PubMed

    Hassan, K S; Alagl, A S; Abdel-Hady, A

    2012-12-01

    The use of platelet rich plasma (PRP) gel in combination with torus mandibularis offers a potentially useful treatment for periodontal osseous defects. Whether this combination enhances the outcome of periodontal regenerative therapy is not known. This study compared the effectiveness of torus mandibularis bone chips alone and when combined with autogenous PRP gel in treating periodontal osseous defects. 24 sites from 12 patients were selected using a split mouth design and determined by a double-blind, randomized, controlled clinical trial. Both sites received a full-thickness mucoperiosteal flap; one intrabony defect was filled with torus mandibularis bone chips alone and the other with torus mandibularis bone chips mixed with PRP gel. There was a 57% gain in the clinical attachment level and 60% reduction in the probing depth for torus mandibularis alone compared to 72% and 68% for sites treated with torus mandibularis and PRP gel (p ≤ 0.01). There was a statistically significant difference in the bone dentistry and the marginal bone loss at sites with PRP gel compared to those without gel (p ≤ 0.01). The use of mandibular tori as autogenous bone graft combined with PRP gel showed a significant improvement in the clinical outcome of periodontal therapy than mandibular tori alone. PMID:22483445

  10. Cytomorphology of Recurrent Osseous Extracranial Meningioma of Right Pubic Ramus:: Report of a Case and Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Bokhari, Aqiba; Hibshoosh, Hanina; Tiscornia-Wasserman, Patricia G

    2016-07-01

    Meningiomas are well-recognized neoplasms of the central nervous system. Primary extracranial meningiomas (ECMs) are extremely rare and arise in various anatomic sites. We present a 56-year-old female with 13-year history of primary grade I meningothelial meningioma of right pubic symphysis, orthotopic heart transplant, and right total hip arthroplasty, who presented with progressive right hip pain for 3 weeks. Primary intracranial, intraspinal and other tumors were excluded. Imaging revealed a destructive lytic lesion at right superior and inferior pubic rami and body, associated with extensive bone destruction and soft tissue mass. Touch imprint (TI) cytology of computed tomography (CT)-guided core biopsy from the right pubic ramus (PRA) lesion showed a spindle cell neoplasm, with classical syncytial, lobular, and whorling cellular arrangement, composed of spindle, oval or round nuclei with occasional pseudoinclusions, consistent with known history of osseous meningioma. Tumor was further characterized by histopathology as grade 1 meningioma with meningothelial features. To our knowledge, primary osseous ECM arising specifically at the PRA has not been reported previously. ECM at this site may pose a diagnostic challenge for cytologists as its features may resemble other more commonly observed lesions. Accurate diagnosis requires awareness of occurrence of ECM at PRA and recognition of its characteristic cytomorphology. TI cytological features of our case are presented and previously described cytology of ECMs and diagnostic pitfalls are reviewed. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2016;44:618-622. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27079302

  11. Maintaining qualification for 340B.

    PubMed

    Gricius, Robert F; Wong, Douglas

    2016-03-01

    After initial acceptance in the 340B Drug Pricing Program, hospitals and health systems should monitor and take steps to maintain their disproportionate share hospital status to continue to qualify for participation. Proactively managing the Supplemental Security Income (SSI) Ratio will ensure the organization avoids an unexpected decline in the Medicare portion of its 340B patient base. Even with the surge resulting from Medicaid expansion, tracking patient eligibility for Medicare/ SSI to ensure all patients who qualify are appropriately enrolled in the program is an important step in maintaining 340B program eligibility. PMID:27183761

  12. Skin graft storage and keratinocyte viability.

    PubMed

    Fahmy, F S; Navsaria, H A; Frame, J D; Jones, C R; Leigh, I M

    1993-06-01

    The viability of human split skin grafts stored in four solutions has been assessed by monitoring the percentage of viable keratinocytes in the stored grafts. Skin grafts stored in RM+ (Ready Mix) tissue culture medium remained more viable than those stored in Hartmann's, Marshall's or saline solutions. By day 10 (postoperative), the percentage of viable keratinocytes of those grafts stored in RM+ was around 85%, compared to a value of around 10% for the other media. By day 30, RM+ achieved a value of around 60% keratinocyte viability compared to a value approaching 1% in the other storage media under investigation. RM+ provides mitogens, nutrients, growth factors and physiological pH, all of which are important factors for successful skin graft storage. PMID:8330085

  13. Strategies for Maintaining Community Integration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gruber, Fred

    1986-01-01

    This article outlines strategies of maintaining integration emphasizing: (1) housing offices and counseling; (2) community action to alter real estate policies; (3) school action including public relations and human relations thinking; (4) community organization of commercial and religious institutions; (5) financial incentives for pro-integrative…

  14. Maintaining Sustainability for Green Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Mike

    2011-01-01

    The promise of sustainably designed school facilities is that they will operate more efficiently and last longer than buildings constructed in more traditional ways. But that promise comes with a big if. The payoff is delivered only if the facility managers operate and maintain the buildings in ways that adhere to sustainable strategies called for…

  15. Activation of salt-inducible kinase 2 promotes the viability of peritoneal mesothelial cells exposed to stress of peritoneal dialysis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, H-H; Lin, C-Y; Su, S-H; Chuang, C-T; Chang, Y-L; Lee, T-Y; Lee, S-C; Chang, C-J

    2016-01-01

    Maintaining mesothelial cell viability is critical to long-term successful peritoneal dialysis (PD) treatment. To clarify the viability mechanism of peritoneal mesothelial cells under PD solutions exposure, we examined the mechanisms of cellular response to this stress conditions. Here we report that the proteasome activity is inhibited when treated with PD solutions. Proteasome inhibition-mediated activation of salt-inducible kinase 2 (SIK2), an endoplasmic reticulum-resident protein, is important for mesothelial cell viability. SIK2 is mobilized to promote autophagy and protect the cells from apoptosis under PD solution or MG132 treatment. Immunofluorescence staining showed that SIK2 is colocalized with LC3B in the autophagosomes of mesothelial cells treated with PD solution or derived from patients undergoing PD treatment. SIK2 activation is likely via a two-step mechanism, upstream kinases relieving the autoinhibitory conformation of SIK2 molecule followed by autophosphorylation of Thr175 and activation of kinase activity. These results suggest that activation of SIK2 is required for the cell viability when proteasome activity is inhibited by PD solutions. Maintaining or boosting the activity of SIK2 may promote peritoneal mesothelial cell viability and evolve as a potential therapeutic target for maintaining or restoring peritoneal membrane integrity in PD therapy. PMID:27441650

  16. Stallion Sperm Viability, as Measured by the Nucleocounter SP-100, Is Affected by Extender and Enhanced by Single Layer Centrifugation

    PubMed Central

    Morrell, J. M.; Johannisson, A.; Juntilla, L.; Rytty, K.; Bäckgren, L.; Dalin, A.-M.; Rodriguez-Martinez, H.

    2010-01-01

    On-stud assessment of stallion sperm quality can be problematic. A new instrument, the Nucleocounter SP-100, was validated for measuring stallion sperm concentration and viability. It was subsequently used to evaluate sperm viability in Kenney's extender and INRA96. There was a strong correlation between sperm concentrations measured by the Nucleocounter SP-100 and by the Bürker counting chamber (r = 0.84; P < .001). Similarly, there was a good correlation between sperm viability results from the Nucleocounter SP-100 and flow cytometric results (r = 0.73; P < .001). Sperm viability at 24 hours was significantly better for samples extended in INRA96 than in Kenney's extender (P < .001). Furthermore, sperm kinematics were better for stored samples in INRA96 than in Kenney's extender. Single Layer Centrifugation selected spermatozoa that maintained their viability better during storage for 24 hours than the uncentrifuged samples. In conclusion, the type of semen extender used and Single Layer Centrifugation were found to influence both the kinematics and viability of stallion spermatozoa. The Nucelocounter-SP100 was considered to be a useful instrument for rapidly measuring stallion sperm concentration and viability. PMID:20445788

  17. Use of flow cytometry to assess chondrocyte viability after laser reshaping of cartilage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasouli, Alexandre; Kim, Charlton C.; Basu, Reshmi; Wong, Brian J.

    2000-05-01

    Lasers have been shown to cause permanent shape change in cartilage via photothermally induced mechanical stress relaxation. While the biophysical properties of cartilage during laser irradiation have been studied, tissue viability following laser irradiation has not been fully characterized. In this study, cell viability staining and flow cytometry were used to determine chondrocyte viability following photothermal stress relaxation. Porcine septal cartilage slabs (10 X 25 X 1.5 mm) were irradiated with light from a Nd:YAG laser ((lambda) equals 1.32 micrometer, 25 W/cm2) while surface temperature, stress relaxation, and diffuse reflectance were recorded. Each slab received one, two, or three laser exposures (respective exposure times of 6.7, 7.2, 10 s), determined from measurements of diffuse reflectance, which correlate with mechanical stress relaxation. Irradiated samples were then divided into two groups analyzed immediately and at five days following laser exposure (the latter group was maintained in culture). Chondrocytes were isolated following serial enzymatic digestion with hyaluronidase, protease, and collagenase II for a total of 17 hours. Chondrocytes were then stained using SYTOR/DEAD RedTM (Molecular Probes; Eugene, OR) wherein live cells stained green (530 nm) and dead cells stained red (630 nm) when excited at 488 nm. A flow cytometer (FACScan, Becton Dickinson, Franklin Lakes, NJ) was then used to detect differential cell fluorescence; size; granularity; and the number of live cells, dead cells, and post irradiation debris in each treatment population. Nearly 60% of chondrocytes from reshaped cartilage samples isolated shortly after irradiation, were viable as determined using flow cytometry while non- irradiated controls were 100 percent viable. Specimens irradiated two or three times with the laser demonstrated increasing amounts of cellular debris along with a reduction in chondrocyte viability: 31 percent following two laser exposures, and 16

  18. Efficient Intracellular Delivery of Molecules with High Cell Viability Using Nanosecond-Pulsed Laser-Activated Carbon Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Conventional physical and chemical methods that efficiently deliver molecules into cells are often associated with low cell viability. In this study, we evaluated the cellular effects of carbon nanoparticles believed to emit photoacoustic waves due to nanosecond-pulse laser activation to test the hypothesis that this method could achieve efficient intracellular delivery while maintaining high cell viability. Suspensions of DU145 human prostate carcinoma cells, carbon black (CB) nanoparticles, and calcein were exposed to 5–9 ns long laser pulses of near-infrared (1064 nm wavelength) light and then analyzed by flow cytometry for intracellular uptake of calcein and cell viability by propidium iodide staining. We found that intracellular uptake increased and in some cases saturated at high levels with only small losses in cell viability as a result of increasing laser fluence, laser exposure time, and as a unifying parameter, the total laser energy. Changing interpulse spacing between 0.1 and 10 s intervals showed no significant change in bioeffects, suggesting that the effects of each pulse were independent when spaced by at least 0.1 s intervals. Pretreatment of CB nanoparticles to intense laser exposure followed by mixing with cells also had no significant effect on uptake or viability. Similar uptake and viability were seen when CB nanoparticles were substituted with India ink, when DU145 cells were substituted with H9c2 rat cardiomyoblast cells, and when calcein was substituted with FITC-dextran. The best laser exposure conditions tested led to 88% of cells with intracellular uptake and close to 100% viability, indicating that nanosecond-pulse laser-activated carbon nanoparticles can achieve efficient intracellular delivery while maintaining high cell viability. PMID:24547946

  19. Disturbance maintains alternative biome states.

    PubMed

    Dantas, Vinícius de L; Hirota, Marina; Oliveira, Rafael S; Pausas, Juli G

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the mechanisms controlling the distribution of biomes remains a challenge. Although tropical biome distribution has traditionally been explained by climate and soil, contrasting vegetation types often occur as mosaics with sharp boundaries under very similar environmental conditions. While evidence suggests that these biomes are alternative states, empirical broad-scale support to this hypothesis is still lacking. Using community-level field data and a novel resource-niche overlap approach, we show that, for a wide range of environmental conditions, fire feedbacks maintain savannas and forests as alternative biome states in both the Neotropics and the Afrotropics. In addition, wooded grasslands and savannas occurred as alternative grassy states in the Afrotropics, depending on the relative importance of fire and herbivory feedbacks. These results are consistent with landscape scale evidence and suggest that disturbance is a general factor driving and maintaining alternative biome states and vegetation mosaics in the tropics. PMID:26493189

  20. NMG documentation, part 3: maintainer`s guide

    SciTech Connect

    Fritsch, F.N.; Dickinson, R.P. Jr.

    1996-07-01

    This is the third of a three-part report documenting NMG, the Numerical Mathematics Guide. Part I is aimed at the user of the systenL It contains an introduction, with an out- line of the complete report, and Chapter 1, User`s Point of View. Part II is aimed at the programmer and contains Chapter 2, How It Works. Part III is aimed at the maintainer of NMG and contains Chapter 3, Maintenance, and Chapter 4, Validation. Because its contents are so specialized, Part III will receive only limited distribution. Note that each chapter has its own page numbering and table of contents.

  1. Echinococcus metacestode: in search of viability markers

    PubMed Central

    Gottstein, Bruno; Wang, Junhua; Blagosklonov, Oleg; Grenouillet, Frédéric; Millon, Laurence; Vuitton, Dominique A.; Müller, Norbert

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have demonstrated that most humans infected with Echinococcus spp. exhibit resistance to disease. When infection leads to disease, the parasite is partially controlled by host immunity: in case of immunocompetence, the normal alveolar echinococcosis (AE) or cystic echinococcosis (CE) situation, the metacestode grows slowly, and first clinical signs appear years after infection; in case of impaired immunity (AIDS; other immunodeficiencies), uncontrolled proliferation of the metacestode leads to rapidly progressing disease. Assessing Echinococcus multilocularis viability in vivo following therapeutic interventions in AE patients may be of tremendous benefit when compared with the invasive procedures used to perform biopsies. Current options are F18-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET), which visualizes periparasitic inflammation due to the metabolic activity of the metacestode, and measurement of antibodies against recEm18, a viability-associated protein, that rapidly regresses upon metacestode inactivation. For Echinococcus granulosus, similar prognosis-associated follow-up parameters are still lacking but a few candidates may be listed. Other possible markers include functional and diffusion-weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), and measurement of products from the parasite (circulating antigens or DNA), and from the host (inflammation markers, cytokines, or chemokines). Even though some of them have been promising in pilot studies, none has been properly validated in an appropriate number of patients until now to be recommended for further use in clinical settings. There is therefore still a need to develop reliable tools for improved viability assessment to provide the sufficient information needed to reliably withdraw anti-parasite benzimidazole chemotherapy, and a basis for the development of new alternative therapeutic tools. PMID:25429386

  2. Rapid onsite assessment of spore viability.

    SciTech Connect

    Branda, Steven; Lane, Todd W.; VanderNoot, Victoria A.; Gaucher, Sara P.; Jokerst, Amanda S.

    2005-12-01

    This one year LDRD addresses problems of threat assessment and restoration of facilities following a bioterror incident like the incident that closed down mail facilities in late 2001. Facilities that are contaminated with pathogenic spores such as B. anthracis spores must be shut down while they are treated with a sporicidal agent and the effectiveness of the treatment is ascertained. This process involves measuring the viability of spore test strips, laid out in a grid throughout the facility; the CDC accepted methodologies require transporting the samples to a laboratory and carrying out a 48 hr outgrowth experiment. We proposed developing a technique that will ultimately lead to a fieldable microfluidic device that can rapidly assess (ideally less than 30 min) spore viability and effectiveness of sporicidal treatment, returning facilities to use in hours not days. The proposed method will determine viability of spores by detecting early protein synthesis after chemical germination. During this year, we established the feasibility of this approach and gathered preliminary results that should fuel a future more comprehensive effort. Such a proposal is currently under review with the NIH. Proteomic signatures of Bacillus spores and vegetative cells were assessed by both slab gel electrophoresis as well as microchip based gel electrophoresis employing sensitive laser-induced fluorescence detection. The conditions for germination using a number of chemical germinants were evaluated and optimized and the time course of protein synthesis was ascertained. Microseparations were carried out using both viable spores and spores inactivated by two different methods. A select number of the early synthesis proteins were digested into peptides for analysis by mass spectrometry.

  3. [Nicotinamide influence on pancreatic cells viability].

    PubMed

    Kuchmerovs'ka, T M; Donchenko, H V; Tykhonenko, T M; Huzyk, M M; Stavniĭchuk, R V; Ianits'ka, L V; Stepanenko, S P; Klymenko, A P

    2012-01-01

    The study was undertaken to investigate the modulating effect of nicotinamide (NAm) in different concentrations and under different glucose concentrations on the viability and oxidative stress induced by streptozotocin (STZ, 5 mmol/l) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, 100 micromol/l) on isolated rat pancreatic cells of the Langerhans islets in vitro. Cell viability did not depend on the concentration of glucose in the range of 5-20 mmol/l, and in subsequent studies we used glucose in concentration of 10 mmol/l to protect cells against its hypo- and hyperglycemic action. Cytoprotective effect of NAm in concentrations from 5 to 20 mmol/l on cells survival was the same. It was found that the destructive action of STZ and H2O2 during 24 hours on isolated cells of the pancreas resulted in the significant cell death. It was revealed that NAm in concentration of 5 mmol/l not only had cytoprotective effects against STZ and H2O2 but also partially reduced the level of oxidative stress in the investigated cells induced by these compounds. High concentration of NAm, 35 mmol/l, causes cytotoxic effect on the viability of pancreatic islet cells and increase of oxidative stress induced by STZ and H2O2. Most likely these effects could be associated with direct modulatory action of NAm on important effector mechanisms involved in cell death, including PARP-dependent processes, or/and indirectly, through metabolic and antioxidant effects of the compound. PMID:22642125

  4. Clinical and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in 26 dogs with canine osseous-associated cervical spondylomyelopathy

    PubMed Central

    Murthy, Vishal D.; Gaitero, Luis; Monteith, Gabrielle

    2014-01-01

    The potential link between degenerative changes seen on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in osseous-associated cervical spondylomyelopathy (OA-CSM) and clinical signs has not been explored. Our goal was to retrospectively evaluate MRI findings, while investigating potential correlations between these changes, signalment, and clinical signs. Twenty-six dogs diagnosed with OA-CSM were included in the study. Clinical signs were converted into a Modified Frankel Score (MFS) and MRI findings were assessed and graded. Giant breeds had multiple compressed sites and presented at a younger age than large breeds, suggesting a different underlying pathophysiology. Spinal cord compression, most commonly bilateral, was present in 36.8% of intervertebral spaces. Synovial fluid loss and articular process sclerosis were the most common degenerative changes. Most dogs showed identical MFS scores, and no significant correlations were found between MFS and MRI changes. More detailed functional scales should be used to investigate this in the future. PMID:24489397

  5. Clinical and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in 26 dogs with canine osseous-associated cervical spondylomyelopathy.

    PubMed

    Murthy, Vishal D; Gaitero, Luis; Monteith, Gabrielle

    2014-02-01

    The potential link between degenerative changes seen on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in osseous-associated cervical spondylomyelopathy (OA-CSM) and clinical signs has not been explored. Our goal was to retrospectively evaluate MRI findings, while investigating potential correlations between these changes, signalment, and clinical signs. Twenty-six dogs diagnosed with OA-CSM were included in the study. Clinical signs were converted into a Modified Frankel Score (MFS) and MRI findings were assessed and graded. Giant breeds had multiple compressed sites and presented at a younger age than large breeds, suggesting a different underlying pathophysiology. Spinal cord compression, most commonly bilateral, was present in 36.8% of intervertebral spaces. Synovial fluid loss and articular process sclerosis were the most common degenerative changes. Most dogs showed identical MFS scores, and no significant correlations were found between MFS and MRI changes. More detailed functional scales should be used to investigate this in the future. PMID:24489397

  6. A TRANSPORT SYSTEM FOR THE MAINTENANCE OF VIABILITY OF ACINETOBACTER CALCOACETICUS, STREPTOCOCCUS INIAE, AND S. AGALACTIAE OVER VARYING TIME PERIODS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We evaluated the utility of Bacti-Swab NPG Modified Stuart's medium (Remel)in maintaining viable Gram negative (Acinetobacter calcoaceticus) and Gram positive bacteria (Streptococcus iniae and S. agalactiae) for up to 10 days. In the first experiment, qualitative assessment of the viability of S. i...

  7. Quintessence reconstructed: New constraints and tracker viability

    SciTech Connect

    Sahlen, Martin; Liddle, Andrew R.; Parkinson, David

    2007-01-15

    We update and extend our previous work reconstructing the potential of a quintessence field from current observational data. We extend the cosmological data set to include new supernova data, plus information from the cosmic microwave background and from baryon acoustic oscillations. We extend the modeling by considering Pade approximant expansions as well as Taylor series, and by using observations to assess the viability of the tracker hypothesis. We find that parameter constraints have improved by a factor of 2, with a strengthening of the preference of the cosmological constant over evolving quintessence models. Present data show some signs, though inconclusive, of favoring tracker models over nontracker models under our assumptions.

  8. The homing of bone marrow MSCs to non-osseous sites for ectopic bone formation induced by osteoinductive calcium phosphate

    PubMed Central

    Song, Guodong; Habibovic, Pamela; Bao, Chongyun; Hu, Jing; van Blitterswijk, Clemens A.; Yuan, Huipin; Chen, Wenchuan; Xu, Hockin H.K.

    2013-01-01

    Osteoinductive biomaterials are promising for bone repair. There is no direct proof that bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) home to non-osseous sites and participate in ectopic bone formation induced by osteoinductive bioceramics. The objective of this study was to use a sex-mismatched beagle dog model to investigate BMSC homing via blood circulation to participate in ectopic bone formation via osteoinductive biomaterial. BMSCs of male dogs were injected into female femoral marrow cavity. The survival and stable chimerism of donor BMSCs in recipients were confirmed with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) granules were implanted in dorsal muscles of female dogs. Y chromosomes were detected in samples harvested from female dogs which had received male BMSCs. At 4 weeks, cells with Y-chromosomes were distributed in the new bone matrix throughout the BCP granule implant. At 6 weeks, cells with Y chromosomes were present in newly mineralized woven bone. TRAP positive osteoclast-like cells were observed in 4-week implants, and the number of such cells decreased from 4 to 6 weeks. These results show that osteoprogenitors were recruited from bone marrow and homed to ectopic site to serve as a cell source for calcium phosphate-induced bone formation. In conclusion, BMSCs were demonstrated to migrate from bone marrow through blood circulation to non-osseous bioceramic implant site to contribute to ectopic bone formation in a canine model. BCP induced new bone in muscles without growth factor delivery, showing excellent osteoinductivity that could be useful for bone tissue engineering. PMID:23298780

  9. Cervical Vertebral Trabecular Bone Mineral Density in Great Danes With and Without Osseous-Associated Cervical Spondylomyelopathy

    PubMed Central

    Armstrong, J.; da Costa, R.C.; Martin-Vaquero, P.

    2015-01-01

    Background Great Danes (GDs) with osseous-associated cervical spondylomyelopathy (CSM) have osteoarthritis (OA) of the cervical vertebrae. OA is often associated with increases in bone mineral density (BMD) in people and dogs. Hypothesis/Objectives To compare the trabecular BMD of the cervical vertebrae between clinically normal (control) GDs and GDs with osseous-associated CSM by using computed tomography (CT). We hypothesized that the vertebral trabecular BMD of CSM-affected GDs would be higher than that of control GDs. Animals Client-owned GDs: 12 controls, 10 CSM affected. Methods Prospective study. CT of the cervical vertebral column was obtained alongside a calibration phantom. By placing a circular region of interest at the articular process joints, vertebral body, pedicles, and within each rod of the calibration phantom, trabecular BMD was measured in Hounsfield units, which were converted to diphosphate equivalent densities. Trabecular BMD measurements were compared between CSM-affected and control dogs, and between males and females within the control group. Results Differences between CSM-affected and control dogs were not significant for the articular processes (mean = −39; P = .37; 95% CI: −102 to 24), vertebral bodies (mean = −62; P = .08; 95% CI: −129 to 6), or pedicles (mean = −36; P = .51; 95% CI: −105 to 33). Differences between female and male were not significant. Conclusions and Clinical Importance This study revealed no difference in BMD between control and CSM-affected GDs. Based on our findings no association was detected between cervical OA and BMD in GDs with CSM. PMID:25312453

  10. Non-osseous incidental findings in low-dose whole-body CT in patients with multiple myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Bach, A G; Tcherkes, A; Schramm, D

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to identify the frequency and grading of non-osseous incidental findings (NOIF) in non-contrast whole-body low-dose CT (LDCT) in patients with multiple myeloma. Methods: In the time period from 2010 to 2013, 93 patients with multiple myeloma were staged by non-contrast whole-body LDCT at our radiological department. LDCT images were analysed retrospectively for NOIF, which also included unsuspected extramedullary manifestation of multiple myeloma. All NOIF were classified as major or clinically significant, moderate or possibly clinically significant and minor or not clinically significant. Medical records were analysed regarding further investigation and follow-up of the identified NOIF. Results: In the 93 patients, 295 NOIF were identified (on average, 3.2 NOIF per patient). Most of the NOIF (52.4%) were not clinically significant, 25.8% of the NOIF were possibly clinically significant and 21.8% of the NOIF were clinically significant. Clinically significant NOIF were investigated further by CT after intravenous administration of contrast medium and/or by ultrasound or MRI. In 34 of these cases, extramedullary relapse of myeloma, occult carcinoma or infectious/septic incidental findings were diagnosed (11.5% of all NOIF). In the remaining 10.3% of the NOIF classified as clinically significant, various benign lesions were diagnosed. Conclusion: LDCT detected various non-osseous lesions in patients with multiple myeloma. 36.6% of the patients had clinically significant NOIF. Therefore, LDCT examinations in patients with multiple myeloma should be evaluated carefully for the presence of NOIF. Advances in knowledge: LDCT identified several NOIF. A total of 36.6% of patients with multiple myeloma had clinically significant NOIF. Radiologists should analyse LDCT examinations in patients with multiple myeloma not only for bone lesions, but also for lesions in other organs. PMID:25004949

  11. Resurfacing of the humeral head: An analysis of the bone stock and osseous integration under the implant.

    PubMed

    Schmidutz, Florian; Sprecher, Christoph M; Milz, Stefan; Gohlke, Frank; Hertel, Ralph; Braunstein, Volker

    2015-09-01

    Cementless-surface-replacement-arthroplasty (CSRA) of the shoulder aims for functional joint restoration with minimal bone loss. Good clinical results have been reported, but due to the radiopaque metal shell no data is available on the structure, osseous integration, and bone stock under the implant. 14 hemi-CSRAs (4 manufacturers) with two geometries (crown [n = 7]/ stem [n = 7] fixation) were retrieved from patients undergoing revision due to glenoidal erosion. Histological sections cutting through the implant centre and bone were analysed. Quantitative histomorphometry evaluated the bone-implant-contact and compared the bone-area to native humeral retrievals (n = 7). The bone-implant-interface was further assessed by scanning-electron-microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive-x-ray (EDX). Qualitative histology revealed a reduced and inhomogeneous bone stock. Obvious signs of stress shielding were observed with bone predominantly visible at the stem and implant rim. Quantitative histomorphometry confirmed the significantly reduced bone-area (9.2 ± 3.9% [crown 9.9 ± 4.3%, stem 8.6 ± 3.6%]) compared to native humeri (21.2 ± 9.1%; p < 0.05). Bone-implant-contact was 20.5 ± 5.8% (crown 21.8 ± 6.2%, stem 19.2 ± 5.6%) which was confirmed by SEM and EDX. Altogether, CRSA shows satisfactory bone ingrowth at the interface suggesting sufficient primary stability to allow osseous integration. However, clear signs of stress shielding with an inhomogeneous and reduced bone stock were observed. The impact on the long-term-results is unclear requiring further investigation. PMID:25808101

  12. Telomerase Enzyme Inhibition (TEI) and Cytolytic Therapy in the Management of Androgen Independent Osseous Metastatic Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yingming; Malaeb, Bahaa S.; Li, Zhong-ze; Thompson, Melissa G.; Chen, Zhi; Corey, David R.; Hsieh, Jer-Tsong; Shay, Jerry W.; Koeneman, Kenneth S.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Recurrent prostate cancer can be osseous, androgen independent and lethal. The purpose is to discern the efficacy of synthetic small molecule telomerase enzyme inhibitors (TEI) alone or in combination with other cytotoxic therapies in controlling metastatic osseous prostate cancer. METHODS C4-2B was pre-treated with a match or mismatch TEI for 6 weeks and then inoculated into nude mice subcutaneously or intraosseously. In a separate experiment, untreated C4-2B was injected into femur of nude mice. The mice were divided into seven systemic “combination” treatment groups of control, Ad-BSP-E1a virus, docetaxel, mismatch and match TEI. Serum PSA was followed longitudinally. Histology analyses and histomorphometry were performed. Repeated measure analysis was applied for statistical analysis and Bonferroni method was used in multiple comparisons. RESULTS In the pre-treated study, the PSA of match treated cells in subcutaneous or intraosseous model was significantly lower than mismatch TEI or PBS treated group (P <0.05). Histology revealed increased fibrosis, apoptosis and decreased PSA staining in the match TEI treated subcutaneous xenografts. In the combination treatment study, the PSA was significantly lower in single/double treatment and triple treatment than control (P <0.05). Histology revealed that triple therapy mice had normal femur architecture. Histomorphometrics revealed that the area of femur tumor and woven bone was significantly positively correlated (P =0.007). CONCLUSIONS Multiple lines of data point toward the efficacy of systemically administered telomerase inhibitors. Combining cytotoxic regimens with telomerase inhibitors could be beneficial in controlling prostate cancer. Clinical trials are warranted to explore the efficacy of TEI in prostate cancer. PMID:20043297

  13. Comparative effects of autologous and homologous seminal plasma on the viability of largely extended boar spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Caballero, I; Vazquez, J M; Centurión, F; Rodríguez-Martinez, H; Parrilla, I; Roca, J; Cuello, C; Martinez, E A

    2004-10-01

    Sperm handling, associated to artificial reproduction technologies (ART) such as in vitro fertilization (IVF) or the use of flow cytometry for cell analysis or sorting imposes volumetric extension of the sperm suspension and decreases sperm viability, presumably because of the removal of seminal plasma (SP) components. This study evaluated whether a 10% v/v of autologous SP (retrieved from the same donor boar) or homologous SP (e.g. from any of the four fertile boars included, other than the one providing the spermatozoa) would differently affect the viability of boar spermatozoa subjected to large extension in a simple saline medium [phosphate-buffered saline and 0.1% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), PBSm] to a concentration of 0.3 x 10(6) spermatozoa/ml and incubated for 2 h at 30 degrees C. Sperm viability was monitored as membrane integrity [using the fluorophore carboxyfluorescein diacetate (C-FDA) and propidium iodide (PI)], mitochondrial function (using the fluorophore R-123) and motility characteristics [using Computer Assisted Sperm Analysis (CASA)]. Substraction of the SP and extension followed by incubation in PBSm significantly (p < 0.05) decreased sperm viability, which could be restored by addition of autologous SP. Furthermore, exposure of the extended spermatozoa to homologous SP (from any other individual boar) significantly (p < 0.05) varied with the source of the sire; some boars exerting beneficial effects (even surpassing the effects of the autologous SP; p < 0.05) while at least one boar negatively (p < 0.05) influencing the viability of the incubated spermatozoa. It is concluded that SP should be present when incubating highly extended spermatozoa. As a result of the obvious differences among boars, it would be advantageous to examine the ability of SP to maintain sperm viability prior to the use of SP pools during sperm handling in vitro. PMID:15367272

  14. Assessment of cryopreserved donor skin viability: the experience of the regional tissue bank of Siena.

    PubMed

    Pianigiani, E; Tognetti, L; Ierardi, F; Mariotti, G; Rubegni, P; Cevenini, G; Perotti, R; Fimiani, M

    2016-06-01

    Skin allografts from cadaver donors are an important resource for treating extensive burns, slow-healing wounds and chronic ulcers. A high level of cell viability of cryopreserved allografts is often required, especially in burn surgery, in Italy. Thus, we aimed to determine which conditions enable procurement of highly viable skin in our Regional Skin Bank of Siena. For this purpose, we assessed cell viability of cryopreserved skin allografts procured between 2011 and 2013 from 127 consecutive skin donors, before and after freezing (at day 15, 180, and 365). For each skin donor, we collected data concerning clinical history (age, sex, smoking, phototype, dyslipidemia, diabetes, cause of death), donation process (multi-tissue or multi-organ) and timing of skin procurement (assessment of intervals such as death-harvesting, harvesting-banking, death-banking). All these variables were analysed in the whole case study (127 donors) and in different groups (e.g. multi-organ donors, non refrigerated multi-tissue donors, refrigerated multi-tissue donors) for correlations with cell viability. Our results indicated that cryopreserved skin allografts with higher cell viability were obtained from female, non smoker, heartbeating donors died of cerebral haemorrhage, and were harvested within 2 h of aortic clamping and banked within 12 h of harvesting (13-14 h from clamping). Age, cause of death and dyslipidaemia or diabetes did not appear to influence cell viability. To maintain acceptable cell viability, our skin bank needs to reduce the time interval between harvesting and banking, especially for refrigerated donors. PMID:26939692

  15. Staradmin -- Starlink User Database Maintainer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fish, Adrian

    The subject of this SSN is a utility called STARADMIN. This utility allows the system administrator to build and maintain a Starlink User Database (UDB). The principal source of information for each user is a text file, named after their username. The content of each file is a list consisting of one keyword followed by the relevant user data per line. These user database files reside in a single directory. The STARADMIN program is used to manipulate these user data files and automatically generate user summary lists.

  16. Limit of viability: The Swiss experience.

    PubMed

    Berger, T M; Roth-Kleiner, M

    2016-09-01

    Progress made in the field of perinatology over the past four decades has led to unprecedented low mortality rates for extremely low birth weight infants. However, because rates of important short-term complications and neurodevelopmental impairment among survivors have remained high, the best approach to borderline viable infants continues to be debated. Not surprisingly, guidelines from various national medical societies for the care of infants born at the limit of viability vary considerably. In 2002, the first Swiss recommendations for the care of borderline viable infants were published. They had been developed by a multidisciplinary team of experts from the fields of obstetrics, pediatrics, and neonatology. Despite the availability of national guidelines, center-to-center outcome variability has since persisted, suggesting that care for the most immature infants is not only evidence-based and guideline-driven but also strongly influenced by local neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) culture. In 2011, revised national recommendations for perinatal care at the limit of viability between 22 and 26 completed weeks of gestation were published. It remains to be seen whether this has led to more uniform outcomes across the Swiss centers in the years that followed. PMID:27476994

  17. Population Viability Analysis of Riverine Fishes

    SciTech Connect

    Bates, P.; Chandler, J.; Jager, H.I.; Lepla, K.; Van Winkle, W.

    1999-04-12

    Many utilities face conflkts between two goals: cost-efficient hydropower generation and protecting riverine fishes. Research to develop ecological simulation tools that can evaluate alternative mitigation strategies in terms of their benefits to fish populations is vital to informed decision-making. In this paper, we describe our approach to population viability analysis of riverine fishes in general and Snake River white sturgeon in particular. We are finding that the individual-based modeling approach used in previous in-stream flow applications is well suited to addressing questions about the viability of species of concern for several reasons. Chief among these are: (1) the abiIity to represent the effects of individual variation in life history characteristics on predicted population viabili~, (2) the flexibili~ needed to quanti~ the ecological benefits of alternative flow management options by representing spatial and temporal variation in flow and temperaturty and (3) the flexibility needed to quantifi the ecological benefits of non-flow related manipulations (i.e., passage, screening and hatchery supplementation).

  18. [Assembly of free osseous fragments in the treatment of injuries of the external orbital area].

    PubMed

    Anous, M M

    1992-08-01

    The good long term results obtained following the remodeling of the frontal bandeau in craniosynostosis have demonstrated the viability of large bony segments following total periosteal stripping. In this present study, this concept has been applied in the management of acute midfacial fractures and their sequelae. To try to answer the fundamental questions of how wide of an exposure is needed for the treatment of these fractures, how denuded can bone segments be and expect to survive, and above all, how frequently is primary bone grafting needed, the author resorts to the complete detachment and removal of the fractured segments and their reassembly on a side table. This, theoretically, accomplishes the following: the best exposure of fragments, the best anatomical reduction, an accurate assessment of segmental loss and the need for immediate bone grafting, a normal topographical reconstruction. Bone scans have indicated long term perfusion in every case in which they were obtained. Except in cases of post traumatic deformity correction, bone grafts were not needed. The free segment reassembly fractured facial bones is but one additional technique gained from craniofacial surgery. Much, however, remains to be learned about large free segment revascularization and healing. PMID:1306972

  19. Maintaining consistency in distributed systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birman, Kenneth P.

    1991-01-01

    In systems designed as assemblies of independently developed components, concurrent access to data or data structures normally arises within individual programs, and is controlled using mutual exclusion constructs, such as semaphores and monitors. Where data is persistent and/or sets of operation are related to one another, transactions or linearizability may be more appropriate. Systems that incorporate cooperative styles of distributed execution often replicate or distribute data within groups of components. In these cases, group oriented consistency properties must be maintained, and tools based on the virtual synchrony execution model greatly simplify the task confronting an application developer. All three styles of distributed computing are likely to be seen in future systems - often, within the same application. This leads us to propose an integrated approach that permits applications that use virtual synchrony with concurrent objects that respect a linearizability constraint, and vice versa. Transactional subsystems are treated as a special case of linearizability.

  20. COOPERATION MAINTAINED BY FITNESS ADJUSTMENT

    PubMed Central

    TAYLOR, CHRISTINE; CHEN, JANET; IWASA, YOH

    2008-01-01

    Questions Whether or not cooperation can be enhanced if players with a performance higher than the mean are forced to pay an additional cost in each generation? Mathematical Methods Analysis of replicator dynamics with mutation. The ESS distribution of cooperation level is obtained. Key Assumptions Players engage in cooperative dilemma game, and at the end of each generation, those with higher performance than the mean are forced to pay additional cost. Conclusions Without mutation, the entire population eventually conforms to a single cooperation level determined by the initial composition of the population. With mutation, there is an equilibrium distribution of cooperation level, which has a peak at an intermediate level of cooperation. Whether it is institutionalized such as tax or just a social custom, fitness adjustment based ultimately on people’s emtion of “envy” is able to maintain cooperation. PMID:19079742

  1. Installing and maintaining gear pumps

    SciTech Connect

    Whitmire, K.

    1996-03-01

    While not as common as centrifugal pumps in the CPI, gear pumps play important roles in handling many of today`s more difficult-to-pump fluids. Because they operate at lower speeds -- generally, 900 rpm or less -- their seals and bearings tend to last longer than those of centrifugal models. In addition, unlike centrifugal pumps, gear pumps` flows are independent of their systems` pressure curves, and they can handle a wider range of viscosities. Although high-flow, low-head applications remain the domain of centrifugal pumps, the use of gear pumps is increasing in the chemical process industries (CPI). While some application boundaries between gears and centrifugals are blurring, there are some crucial differences between the way the two are operated and maintained -- for example, where pressure relief is concerned. This article provides a general summary of gear pump characteristics and applications, highlighting critical aspects of installation, operation and maintenance.

  2. When to maintain centrifugal pumps

    SciTech Connect

    Karassik, I.J.

    1993-04-01

    Centrifugal pumps comprise critical maintenance equipment. The rationale of when to maintain them relates to a spreading tendency to contain costs in the face of tight money. Plant managers are thus entitled to a thorough analysis of whether reduced expenditures truly lower costs or actually hinder maintenance and increase costs. Absence of such an analysis hides the fact that proper and timely maintenance has a double effect: it not only reduces power consumption but also extends equipment life, and thus reduces the frequency of labor and material expenditures for scheduled or crisis maintenance. Centrifugal pump maintenance can demonstrate well the validity of this observation. The paper discusses: restoring internal clearances; real cost of renewing clearances; and monitoring clearances and pump performance.

  3. Incorporating evolutionary processes into population viability models.

    PubMed

    Pierson, Jennifer C; Beissinger, Steven R; Bragg, Jason G; Coates, David J; Oostermeijer, J Gerard B; Sunnucks, Paul; Schumaker, Nathan H; Trotter, Meredith V; Young, Andrew G

    2015-06-01

    We examined how ecological and evolutionary (eco-evo) processes in population dynamics could be better integrated into population viability analysis (PVA). Complementary advances in computation and population genomics can be combined into an eco-evo PVA to offer powerful new approaches to understand the influence of evolutionary processes on population persistence. We developed the mechanistic basis of an eco-evo PVA using individual-based models with individual-level genotype tracking and dynamic genotype-phenotype mapping to model emergent population-level effects, such as local adaptation and genetic rescue. We then outline how genomics can allow or improve parameter estimation for PVA models by providing genotypic information at large numbers of loci for neutral and functional genome regions. As climate change and other threatening processes increase in rate and scale, eco-evo PVAs will become essential research tools to evaluate the effects of adaptive potential, evolutionary rescue, and locally adapted traits on persistence. PMID:25494697

  4. Integrating watershed– and farm–scale models to target critical source areas while maintaining farm economic viability

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nonpoint source pollution from agriculture and the impacts of mitigating best management practices are commonly evaluated based on hydrologic boundaries using watershed models. However, management practice effectiveness is impacted by which of the feasible practices are actually selected, implemente...

  5. Menaquinone Synthesis is Critical for Maintaining Mycobacterial Viability During Exponential Growth and Recovery from Non-Replicating Persistence

    PubMed Central

    Dhiman, Rakesh K.; Mahapatra, Sebabrata; Slayden, Richard A.; Boyne, Melissa E.; Lenaerts, Anne; Hinshaw, Jerald C.; Angala, Shiva K.; Chatterjee, Delphi; Biswas, Kallolmay; Narayanasamy, Prabagaran; Kurosu, Michio; Crick, Dean C.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Understanding the basis of bacterial persistence in latent infections is critical for eradication of tuberculosis. Analysis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis mRNA expression in an in vitro model of non-replicating persistence indicated that the bacilli require electron transport chain components and ATP synthesis for survival. Additionally, low μM concentrations of aminoalkoxydiphenylmethane derivatives inhibited both the aerobic growth and survival of non-replicating, persistent M. tuberculosis. Metabolic labeling studies and quantitation of cellular menaquinone levels suggested that menaquinone synthesis, and consequently electron transport, is the target of the aminoalkoxydiphenylmethane derivatives. This hypothesis is strongly supported by the observations that treatment with these compounds inhibits oxygen consumption and that supplementation of growth medium with exogenous menaquinone rescued both growth and oxygen consumption of treated bacilli. In vitro assays indicate that the aminoalkoxydiphenylmethane derivatives specifically inhibit MenA, an enzyme involved in the synthesis of menaquinone. Thus, the results provide insight into the physiology of mycobacterial persistence and a basis for the development of novel drugs that enhance eradication of persistent bacilli and latent tuberculosis. PMID:19220750

  6. Integrating watershed- and farm-scale modeling framework for targeting critical source areas while maintaining farm economic viability

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Quantitative risk assessments of pollution and data related to the effectiveness of mitigating best management practices (BMPs) are important aspects of nonpoint source (NPS) pollution control efforts, particularly those driven by specific water quality objectives and by measurable improvement goals...

  7. MODELING OF CEREAL RUST EPIDEMICS IN RUSSIA: DISPERSION OF SPORE CLOUDS, EXTRACTION OF SPORES FROM ATMOSPHERE, MAINTAINING VIABILITY TRANSFERRED

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Meteorological classification of air masse movements, microscale (0-10 km), mesoscale (10-100 km), and macroscale (over 100 km) was used to study dispersion of rust spore clouds. More than 300 atmosphere probes were made at the different distance from infected fields using planes equipped with impac...

  8. Mitochondrial viability in mouse and human postmortem brain

    PubMed Central

    Barksdale, Keri A.; Perez-Costas, Emma; Gandy, Johanna C.; Melendez-Ferro, Miguel; Roberts, Rosalinda C.; Bijur, Gautam N.

    2010-01-01

    Neuronal function in the brain requires energy in the form of ATP, and mitochondria are canonically associated with ATP production in neurons. The electrochemical gradient, which underlies the mitochondrial transmembrane potential (ΔΨmem), is harnessed for ATP generation. Here we show that ΔΨmem and ATP-production can be engaged in mitochondria isolated from human brains up to 8.5 h postmortem. Also, a time course of postmortem intervals from 0 to 24 h using mitochondria isolated from mouse cortex reveals that ΔΨmem in mitochondria can be reconstituted beyond 10 h postmortem. It was found that complex I of the mitochondrial electron transport chain was affected adversely with increasing postmortem intervals. Mitochondria isolated from postmortem mouse brains maintain the ability to produce ATP, but rates of production decreased with longer postmortem intervals. Furthermore, we show that postmortem brain mitochondria retain their ΔΨmem and ATP-production capacities following cryopreservation. Our finding that ΔΨmem and ATP-generating capacity can be reinitiated in brain mitochondria hours after death indicates that human postmortem brains can be an abundant source of viable mitochondria to study metabolic processes in health and disease. It is also possible to archive these mitochondria for future studies.—Barksdale, K. A., Perez-Costas, E., Gandy, J. C., Melendez-Ferro, M., Roberts, R. C., Bijur, G. N. Mitochondrial viability in mouse and human postmortem brain. PMID:20466876

  9. Positron Emission Tomography for the Assessment of Myocardial Viability

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Executive Summary Objective The objective was to update the 2001 systematic review conducted by the Institute For Clinical Evaluative Sciences (ICES) on the use of positron emission tomography (PET) in assessing myocardial viability. The update consisted of a review and analysis of the research evidence published since the 2001 ICES review to determine the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of PET in detecting left ventricular (LV) viability and predicting patient outcomes after revascularization in comparison with other noninvasive techniques. Background Left Ventricular Viability Heart failure is a complex syndrome that impairs the contractile ability of the heart to maintain adequate blood circulation, resulting in poor functional capacity and increased risk of morbidity and mortality. It is the leading cause of hospitalization in elderly Canadians. In more than two-thirds of cases, heart failure is secondary to coronary heart disease. It has been shown that dysfunctional myocardium resulting from coronary heart disease (CAD) may recover contractile function (i.e. considered viable). Dysfunctional but viable myocardium may have been stunned by a brief episode of ischemia, followed by restoration of perfusion, and may regain function spontaneously. It is believed that repetitive stunning results in hibernating myocardium that will only regain contractile function upon revascularization. For people with CAD and severe LV dysfunction (left ventricular ejection fraction [LVEF] <35%) refractory to medical therapy, coronary artery bypass and heart transplantation are the only treatment options. The opportunity for a heart transplant is limited by scarcityof donor hearts. Coronary artery bypass in these patients is associated with high perioperative complications; however, there is evidence that revascularization in the presence of dysfunctional but viable myocardium is associated with survival benefits and lower rates of cardiac events. The assessment of left

  10. Relating Toxicity to Transfection: Using Sphingosine To Maintain Prolonged Expression in Vitro

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Cationic reagents are commonly used to facilitate DNA delivery, and transfection experiments are typically initiated in cell culture where the optimal charge ratio is determined. While transfection rates are often enhanced at higher +/– charge ratios, the cellular toxicity associated with the greater amounts of cationic components at elevated charge ratios is often not considered. In addition, the prolonged effects of cationic lipid uptake on cell viability are not evident in a typical 24–48 h transfection experiment. In this study, we compare the transfection efficiency of cationic lipoplexes to effects on viability of cultured cells in both the short and long term (7 days). Our results indicate that, while minimal toxicity is evident 24 h after exposure to DOTAP-based lipoplexes, cell viability continues to decline and ultimately compromises reporter gene expression at longer times. Substitution of a naturally occurring cationic amphiphile, sphingosine, for DOTAP greatly reduces toxicity and allows high expression to be maintained over prolonged periods. PMID:25418523

  11. Remotely maintained waste transfer pump

    SciTech Connect

    Eargle, J.C.

    1990-12-31

    Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) operates the Savannah River Site (SRS) for the Department of Energy (DOE). Waste from the processing of irradiated material is stored in large shielded tanks. Treated liquid wastes are to be transferred from these tanks to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) for incorporation in glass suitable for storage in a federal repository. Characteristics of the wastes range from water-like liquid to highly viscous wastes containing suspended solids. Pumping head requirements for various conditions ranged from 10 meters (35 feet) to 168 meters (550 feet). A specially designed, cantilever type, remotely operated and maintained pump was designed and built to transfer the wastes. To demonstrate the design, a prototype pump was built and testing thoroughly with simulated waste. Severe vibration problems were overcome by proper drive shaft selection and careful control of the space between the pump shaft and fixed running clearances (sometimes called seals). Eleven pumps are now installed and six pumps have been successfully run in water service.

  12. Remotely maintained waste transfer pump

    SciTech Connect

    Eargle, J.C.

    1990-01-01

    Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) operates the Savannah River Site (SRS) for the Department of Energy (DOE). Waste from the processing of irradiated material is stored in large shielded tanks. Treated liquid wastes are to be transferred from these tanks to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) for incorporation in glass suitable for storage in a federal repository. Characteristics of the wastes range from water-like liquid to highly viscous wastes containing suspended solids. Pumping head requirements for various conditions ranged from 10 meters (35 feet) to 168 meters (550 feet). A specially designed, cantilever type, remotely operated and maintained pump was designed and built to transfer the wastes. To demonstrate the design, a prototype pump was built and testing thoroughly with simulated waste. Severe vibration problems were overcome by proper drive shaft selection and careful control of the space between the pump shaft and fixed running clearances (sometimes called seals). Eleven pumps are now installed and six pumps have been successfully run in water service.

  13. Hydroelectric redevelopment maintains heritage values

    SciTech Connect

    Bulkovshteyn, L.; Chidiac, M.; Hall, W.

    1995-12-31

    The Seymour GS is an 80 year old generating station on the historic Trent-Severn Waterway in Ontario, Canada. The rehabilitation at Seymour was approved by Provincial and Federal authorities on condition that the original appearance of the building be maintained. The capacity of the Generating Station (GS) is being uprated from 3.15 MW to 5.7 MW, by replacing five vertical double runner Francis units with five horizontal Kaplan turbines. The replacement of vertical Francis units with horizontal Kaplan units, necessitated an extensive and innovative demolition approach for the substructure modification. The new turbines required a powerhouse base slab 3.5 m below the grade of the original slab. This required removal of the existing slabs and foundation rock along with most of the interior powerhouse walls. The type of modification and demolition were carefully chosen to accommodate a very tight schedule dictated by the requirement of the Federal Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO), where in-water work is restricted to certain months of the year.

  14. 10 CFR 26.71 - Maintaining authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maintaining authorization. 26.71 Section 26.71 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Granting and Maintaining Authorization § 26.71 Maintaining authorization. (a) Individuals may maintain authorization under the following conditions: (1)...

  15. 10 CFR 26.71 - Maintaining authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Maintaining authorization. 26.71 Section 26.71 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Granting and Maintaining Authorization § 26.71 Maintaining authorization. (a) Individuals may maintain authorization under the following conditions: (1)...

  16. 10 CFR 26.71 - Maintaining authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Maintaining authorization. 26.71 Section 26.71 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Granting and Maintaining Authorization § 26.71 Maintaining authorization. (a) Individuals may maintain authorization under the following conditions: (1)...

  17. 10 CFR 26.71 - Maintaining authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Maintaining authorization. 26.71 Section 26.71 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Granting and Maintaining Authorization § 26.71 Maintaining authorization. (a) Individuals may maintain authorization under the following conditions: (1)...

  18. 10 CFR 26.71 - Maintaining authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Maintaining authorization. 26.71 Section 26.71 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Granting and Maintaining Authorization § 26.71 Maintaining authorization. (a) Individuals may maintain authorization under the following conditions: (1)...

  19. Assessment of sperm for cryopreservation using the hypoosmotic viability test.

    PubMed

    Chan, P J; Tredway, D R; Pang, S C; Corselli, J; Su, B C

    1992-10-01

    In summary, the hypoosmotic viability parameter was significantly correlated with the outcome of the thawed sperm motility. The prefreeze supravital staining for sperm viability and the hypoosmotic sperm swelling test were not predictive of the thawed sperm total motility. The hypoosmotic viability parameter was not correlated to the postwarmed sperm motility after refrigeration. The results indicated that the integrity of the sperm membranes at the head were more important than the tail membrane. PMID:1426337

  20. Novel Cell Preservation Technique to Extend Bovine In Vitro White Blood Cell Viability

    PubMed Central

    Laurin, Emilie L.; McKenna, Shawn L. B.; Sanchez, Javier; Bach, Horacio; Rodriguez-Lecompte, Juan Carlos; Chaffer, Marcelo; Keefe, Greg P.

    2015-01-01

    Although cell-mediated immunity based diagnostics can be integral assays for early detection of various diseases of dairy cows, processing of blood samples for these tests is time-sensitive, often within 24 hours of collection, to maintain white blood cell viability. Therefore, to improve utility and practicality of such assays, the objective of this study was to assess the use of a novel white blood cell preservation technology in whole bovine blood. Blood samples from ten healthy cows were each divided into an unpreserved control sample and a test sample preserved with commercially-available cell transport medium. Samples were maintained at room temperature and stimulated with the mitogens pokeweed and concanavalinA, as well as with interleukin-12 p40. Stimulation was completed on days 1, 5, and 8 post-sampling. Viability of white blood cells was assessed through interferon gamma production determined with a commercial enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. In addition, mononuclear cell viability was assessed with propidium iodide flow cytometry. Greater interferon gamma production was observed on days 5 and 8 post-collection in preserved samples, with both pokeweed and concanavalinA stimulating positive interferon gamma production on day 5 post-collection. A greater proportion of the amount of interferon gamma produced on day 1 continued to be produced on days 5 and 8 post-collection with concanavalinA stimulation (with or without interleukin 12) as compared to pokeweed stimulation. Additionally, viable mononuclear cells were still present at eight days post-collection, with a higher mean proportion detected at days 5 and 8 in all stimulated preserved samples. This practical and simple method to extend in vitro white blood cell viability could benefit the efficient utilization of cell-based blood tests in ruminants. PMID:26447691

  1. Ovarian Fluid Mediates the Temporal Decline in Sperm Viability in a Fish with Sperm Storage

    PubMed Central

    Gasparini, Clelia; Evans, Jonathan P.

    2013-01-01

    A loss of sperm viability and functionality during sperm transfer and storage within the female reproductive tract can have important fitness implications by disrupting fertilization and impairing offspring development and survival. Consequently, mechanisms that mitigate the temporal decline in sperm function are likely to be important targets of selection. In many species, ovarian fluid is known to regulate and maintain sperm quality. In this paper, we use the guppy Poecilia reticulata, a highly polyandrous freshwater fish exhibiting internal fertilization and sperm storage, to determine whether ovarian fluid (OF) influences the decline in sperm viability (the proportion of live sperm in the ejaculate) over time and whether any observed effects depend on male sexual ornamentation. To address these questions we used a paired experimental design in which ejaculates from individual males were tested in vitro both in presence and absence of OF. Our results revealed that the temporal decline in sperm viability was significantly reduced in the presence of OF compared to a saline control. This finding raises the intriguing possibility that OF may play a role in mediating the decline in sperm quality due to the deleterious effects of sperm ageing, although other possible explanations for this observation are discussed. Interestingly, we also show that the age-related decline in sperm viability was contingent on male sexual ornamentation; males with relatively high levels of iridescence (indicating higher sexual attractiveness) exhibited a more pronounced decline in sperm viability over time than their less ornamented counterparts. This latter finding offers possible insights into the functional basis for the previously observed trade-off between these key components of pre- and postcopulatory sexual selection. PMID:23691216

  2. Cardiac Mr For The Assessment Of Myocardial Viability

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Han W.; Kim, Raymond J.

    2013-01-01

    This article focuses on delayed contrast enhanced MRI (DE-MRI) to assess myocardial viability. We start by discussing previous literature that evaluated the potential importance of myocardial viability testing and follow up with the more recent Surgical Treatment for Heart Disease Trial (STICH) trial results. We then provide an overview of the basic concepts and technical aspects of the current DE-MRI technique and review the initial studies demonstrating that DE-MRI before coronary revascularization can predict functional improvement. Finally, we use DE-MRI as a paradigm to discuss physiological insights into viability assessment and examine common assumptions in the metrics used to evaluate viability techniques. PMID:24066200

  3. Storage Viability and Optimization Web Service

    SciTech Connect

    Stadler, Michael; Marnay, Christ; Lai, Judy; Siddiqui, Afzal; Limpaitoon, Tanachai; Phan, Trucy; Megel, Olivier; Chang, Jessica; DeForest, Nicholas

    2010-10-11

    Non-residential sectors offer many promising applications for electrical storage (batteries) and photovoltaics (PVs). However, choosing and operating storage under complex tariff structures poses a daunting technical and economic problem that may discourage potential customers and result in lost carbon and economic savings. Equipment vendors are unlikely to provide adequate environmental analysis or unbiased economic results to potential clients, and are even less likely to completely describe the robustness of choices in the face of changing fuel prices and tariffs. Given these considerations, researchers at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) have designed the Storage Viability and Optimization Web Service (SVOW): a tool that helps building owners, operators and managers to decide if storage technologies and PVs merit deeper analysis. SVOW is an open access, web-based energy storage and PV analysis calculator, accessible by secure remote login. Upon first login, the user sees an overview of the parameters: load profile, tariff, technologies, and solar radiation location. Each parameter has a pull-down list of possible predefined inputs and users may upload their own as necessary. Since the non-residential sectors encompass a broad range of facilities with fundamentally different characteristics, the tool starts by asking the users to select a load profile from a limited cohort group of example facilities. The example facilities are categorized according to their North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) code. After the load profile selection, users select a predefined tariff or use the widget to create their own. The technologies and solar radiation menus operate in a similar fashion. After these four parameters have been inputted, the users have to select an optimization setting as well as an optimization objective. The analytic engine of SVOW is LBNL?s Distributed Energy Resources Customer Adoption Model (DER-CAM), which is a mixed

  4. Maintaining quality in blood banking.

    PubMed

    Harvey, E; Hewison, C; Nevalainen, D E; Lloyd, H L

    1995-03-01

    component will warrant redress. The degree of fault attributed to the producer will in part depend on whether they have met the best available standards at all stages in the preparation of the product. If a Transfusion Service can show that it's operation has external accreditation, particularly to an internationally recognised standard such as ISO 9000 and they can show that staff have been properly trained, that equipment is properly supplied and maintained and that the facility is appropriate to the work being carried out, then the liability that exists when something goes wrong will be reduced.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:7795421

  5. Bone-seeking radiopharmaceuticals for treatment of osseous metastases, Part 1: α therapy with 223Ra-dichloride.

    PubMed

    Pandit-Taskar, Neeta; Larson, Steven M; Carrasquillo, Jorge A

    2014-02-01

    Metastatic disease to bone is commonly seen in the advanced stages of many cancers. The cardinal symptom, pain, is often the cause of significant morbidity and reduced quality of life. Treatment of bone pain includes nonsteroidal analgesics and opiates; however, long-term use of these drugs is commonly associated with significant side effects, and tolerance is common. External-beam radiation therapy is effective mainly in localized disease sites. Bone-targeting radiopharmaceuticals are beneficial in the management of patients with multiple metastatic lesions. This article focuses on the 3 most commonly used agents: the Food and Drug Administration-approved (89)Sr-chloride, (153)Sm-ethylenediaminetetramethylene phosphonic acid (EDTMP), and (223)Ra-dichloride. We will discuss the physical characteristics, clinical data, dosage, and administration of these agents, including optimal patient selection and toxicity associated with their use. These radioactive agents have proven efficacy in the treatment of painful osseous metastases from prostate cancer and breast cancer. Significant recent advances include use of these agents in combination with chemotherapy and the use of the α emitter (223)Ra-dichloride in prostate cancer, primarily to improve survival and skeletal related events. The review is presented in 2 parts. The first will discuss the characteristics and clinical use of (223)Ra-dichloride, and the second will discuss the β emitters (89)Sr and (153)Sm-EDTMP. PMID:24343987

  6. Osseous reaction to implantation of two endodontic cements: Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) and calcium enriched mixture (CEM)

    PubMed Central

    Rahimi, Saeed; Shahi, Shahriar; Kazemi, Ali; Asgary, Saeed; Eghbal, Mohammad J.; Mesgariabbasi, Mehran; Mohajeri, Daryoush

    2012-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the present in vivo study was to determine bone tissue reaction to calcium enriched mixture (CEM) and mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) using a rat femur model. Study Design: Sixty-three rats were selected and randomly divided into three groups of 21 each [experimental groups (n=15), control (n=6)]. Implantation cavities were prepared in each femoral bone and randomly filled with the biomaterials only in the experimental groups. The animals in three groups were sacrificed 1, 4, and 8 weeks postoperatively. Histologic evaluations comprising inflammation severity and new bone formation were blindly made on H&E-stained decalcified 6-µm sections. Results: At 1, 4, and 8 weeks after implantation number of inflammatory cells had decreased in the CEM, MTA and control groups, respectively, with no statistically significant differences. Conversely, new bone formation had increased in all the experimental and control groups, without statistically significant differences. Conclusion: The results suggest that biocompatibility of MTA, as gold standard, and CEM cement as a new endodontic biomaterial are comparable Key words:Endodontics, MTA,CEM, osseous reaction. PMID:22549692

  7. Insights into the renal pathogenesis in Schimke immuno-osseous dysplasia: A renal histological characterization and expression analysis.

    PubMed

    Sarin, Sanjay; Javidan, Ashkan; Boivin, Felix; Alexopoulou, Iakovina; Lukic, Dusan; Svajger, Bruno; Chu, Stephanie; Baradaran-Heravi, Alireza; Boerkoel, Cornelius F; Rosenblum, Norman D; Bridgewater, Darren

    2015-01-01

    Schimke immuno-osseous dysplasia (SIOD) is a pleiotropic disorder caused by mutations in the SWI/SNF2-related, matrix-associated, actin-dependent regulator of chromatin, subfamily a-like-1 (SMARCAL1) gene, with multiple clinical features, notably end-stage renal disease. Here we characterize the renal pathology in SIOD patients. Our analysis of SIOD patient renal biopsies demonstrates the tip and collapsing variants of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS). Additionally, electron microscopy revealed numerous glomerular abnormalities most notably in the podocyte and Bowman's capsule. To better understand the role of SMARCAL1 in the pathogenesis of FSGS, we defined SMARCAL1 expression in the developing and mature kidney. In the developing fetal kidney, SMARCAL1 is expressed in the ureteric epithelium, stroma, metanephric mesenchyme, and in all stages of the developing nephron, including the maturing glomerulus. In postnatal kidneys, SMARCAL1 expression is localized to epithelial tubules of the nephron, collecting ducts, and glomerulus (podocytes and endothelial cells). Interestingly, not all cells within the same lineage expressed SMARCAL1. In renal biopsies from SIOD patients, TUNEL analysis detected marked increases in DNA fragmentation. Our results highlight the cells that may contribute to the renal pathogenesis in SIOD. Further, we suggest that disruptions in genomic integrity during fetal kidney development contribute to the pathogenesis of FSGS in SIOD patients. PMID:25319549

  8. Cytologic diagnosis of osseous lesions: a review with emphasis on the diagnosis of primary neoplasms of bone.

    PubMed

    Layfield, Lester J

    2009-04-01

    Fine-needle aspiration has been utilized as the initial diagnostic technique at a large number of body sites for over three quarters of a century. As early as the 1930s, fine-needle aspiration (FNA) was used to investigate lesions of the musculoskeletal system. In many early reports, FNA was most frequently and successfully used for the diagnosis of metastatic disease to bone. Less emphasis was placed on its utility for the investigation of primary neoplasms of bone and soft tissue. Current utilization of FNA continues to de-emphasize its application to the diagnosis of primary lesions of the musculoskeletal system. Recent advances in imaging techniques, immunohistochemistry, and molecular diagnostics along with an increasing familiarity among pathologists with the cytologic appearance of primary osseous tumors has led to reevaluation of the technique for investigation of these tumors. The diagnostic accuracy of FNA along with its relatively low cost and high degree of safety makes it a desirable technique for the investigation of primary lesions of the musculoskeletal system. This article reviews issues of diagnostic accuracy, optimal practice procedures, and benefits of the technique including cost reduction. The article will review criteria for selection of appropriate tissue targets for FNA to reduce the number of unsatisfactory specimens. Cytomorphologic features of the more common primary neoplasms of bone will be summarized along with recommendations for the utilization of immunohistochemistry and molecular diagnostics in the work-up of primary neoplasms of bone. PMID:19191289

  9. Viability, Advantages and Design Methodologies of M-Learning Delivery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zabel, Todd W.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the viability and principle design methodologies of Mobile Learning models in developing regions. Demographic and market studies were utilized to determine the viability of M-Learning delivery as well as best uses for such technologies and methods given socioeconomic and political conditions within the…

  10. Viability and functional integrity of washed platelets.

    PubMed

    Pineda, A A; Zylstra, V W; Clare, D E; Dewanjee, M K; Forstrom, L A

    1989-01-01

    The viability and functional integrity of saline- and ACD-saline-washed platelets were compared with those of unwashed platelets. After template bleeding time (TBT) was measured, 15 healthy volunteers underwent plateletpheresis and ingested 600 mg of aspirin. Autologous 111In-labeled platelets were transfused: unwashed (n = 5), washed with 0.9 percent saline solution (SS) (n = 5), and washed with a buffered 12.6 percent solution of ACD-A in 0.9 percent saline solution (n = 5). After transfusion, we measured TBT at 1, 4, and 24 hours; platelet survival at 10 minutes and 1, 4, and 24 hours and daily for 6 days; and the percentage of uptake in liver and spleen by quantitative whole-body radionuclide scintigraphy at 24 and 190 hours. We found that saline washing affected platelet recovery, 23.47 +/- 12 percent (p less than 0.001) as compared to 52.43 +/- 17 percent (p less than 0.002) for ACD-saline and 73.17 +/- 8 percent for control; that saline washing resulted in a greater liver uptake than control and ACD-saline-washed platelets (31.9 +/- 8% [p less than 0.001] vs 17.7 +/- 4.1 and 19.3 +/- 2.1% [p greater than 0.1], respectively); that, unlike control and ACD-saline-washed platelets, saline-washed platelets did not shorten bleeding time; and that neither type of washing affected survival. Although ACD-saline washing affects recovery, it also results in intact function, normal survival, higher recovery than SS platelets, and no significant liver uptake. PMID:2749876

  11. Economic viability of geriatric hip fracture centers.

    PubMed

    Clement, R Carter; Ahn, Jaimo; Mehta, Samir; Bernstein, Joseph

    2013-12-01

    Management of geriatric hip fractures in a protocol-driven center can improve outcomes and reduce costs. Nonetheless, this approach has not spread as broadly as the effectiveness data would imply. One possible explanation is that operating such a center is not perceived as financially worthwhile. To assess the economic viability of dedicated hip fracture centers, the authors built a financial model to estimate profit as a function of costs, reimbursement, and patient volume in 3 settings: an average US hip fracture program, a highly efficient center, and an academic hospital without a specific hip fracture program. Results were tested with sensitivity analysis. A local market analysis was conducted to assess the feasibility of supporting profitable hip fracture centers. The results demonstrate that hip fracture treatment only becomes profitable when the annual caseload exceeds approximately 72, assuming costs characteristic of a typical US hip fracture program. The threshold of profitability is 49 cases per year for high-efficiency hip fracture centers and 151 for the urban academic hospital under review. The largest determinant of profit is reimbursement, followed by costs and volume. In the authors’ home market, 168 hospitals offer hip fracture care, yet 85% fall below the 72-case threshold. Hip fracture centers can be highly profitable through low costs and, especially, high revenues. However, most hospitals likely lose money by offering hip fracture care due to inadequate volume. Thus, both large and small facilities would benefit financially from the consolidation of hip fracture care at dedicated hip fracture centers. Typical US cities have adequate volume to support several such centers. PMID:24579222

  12. Assessment of tissue viability by polarization spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nilsson, G.; Anderson, C.; Henricson, J.; Leahy, M.; O'Doherty, J.; Sjöberg, F.

    2008-09-01

    A new and versatile method for tissue viability imaging based on polarization spectroscopy of blood in superficial tissue structures such as the skin is presented in this paper. Linearly polarized light in the visible wavelength region is partly reflected directly by the skin surface and partly diffusely backscattered from the dermal tissue matrix. Most of the directly reflected light preserves its polarization state while the light returning from the deeper tissue layers is depolarized. By the use of a polarization filter positioned in front of a sensitive CCD-array, the light directly reflected from the tissue surface is blocked, while the depolarized light returning from the deeper tissue layers reaches the detector array. By separating the colour planes of the detected image, spectroscopic information about the amount of red blood cells (RBCs) in the microvascular network of the tissue under investigation can be derived. A theory that utilizes the differences in light absorption of RBCs and bloodless tissue in the red and green wavelength region forms the basis of an algorithm for displaying a colour coded map of the RBC distribution in a tissue. Using a fluid model, a linear relationship (cc. = 0.99) between RBC concentration and the output signal was demonstrated within the physiological range 0-4%. In-vivo evaluation using transepidermal application of acetylcholine by the way of iontophoresis displayed the heterogeneity pattern of the vasodilatation produced by the vasoactive agent. Applications of this novel technology are likely to be found in drug and skin care product development as well as in the assessment of skin irritation and tissue repair processes and even ultimately in a clinic case situation.

  13. Viability and functional integrity of washed platelets

    SciTech Connect

    Pineda, A.A.; Zylstra, V.W.; Clare, D.E.; Dewanjee, M.K.; Forstrom, L.A.

    1989-07-01

    The viability and functional integrity of saline- and ACD-saline-washed platelets were compared with those of unwashed platelets. After template bleeding time (TBT) was measured, 15 healthy volunteers underwent plateletpheresis and ingested 600 mg of aspirin. Autologous /sup 111/In-labeled platelets were transfused: unwashed (n = 5), washed with 0.9 percent saline solution (SS) (n = 5), and washed with a buffered 12.6 percent solution of ACD-A in 0.9 percent saline solution (n = 5). After transfusion, we measured TBT at 1, 4, and 24 hours; platelet survival at 10 minutes and 1, 4, and 24 hours and daily for 6 days; and the percentage of uptake in liver and spleen by quantitative whole-body radionuclide scintigraphy at 24 and 190 hours. We found that saline washing affected platelet recovery, 23.47 +/- 12 percent (p less than 0.001) as compared to 52.43 +/- 17 percent (p less than 0.002) for ACD-saline and 73.17 +/- 8 percent for control; that saline washing resulted in a greater liver uptake than control and ACD-saline-washed platelets (31.9 +/- 8% (p less than 0.001) vs 17.7 +/- 4.1 and 19.3 +/- 2.1% (p greater than 0.1), respectively); that, unlike control and ACD-saline-washed platelets, saline-washed platelets did not shorten bleeding time; and that neither type of washing affected survival. Although ACD-saline washing affects recovery, it also results in intact function, normal survival, higher recovery than SS platelets, and no significant liver uptake.

  14. Breeding maintainer lines for hybrid rice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Maintainer lines are a component of 3-line hybrid rice production, necessary to perpetuate the male-sterile (MS) line. In practice, it is often the maintainer that is bred with an array of desirable traits, then male-sterility is transferred in through several backcrosses with the new maintainer to...

  15. WS6 induces both alpha and beta cell proliferation without affecting differentiation or viability

    PubMed Central

    Boerner, Brian P.; George, Nicholas M.; Mir, Shakeel U.R.; Sarvetnick, Nora E.

    2016-01-01

    Agents that stimulate human pancreatic beta cell proliferation are needed to improve diabetes mellitus treatment. Recently, a small molecule, WS6, was observed to stimulate human beta cell proliferation. However, little is known about its other effects on human islets. To better understand the role of WS6 as a possible beta cell regenerative therapy, we carried out in-depth phenotypic analysis of WS6-treated human islets, exploring its effects on non-beta cell proliferation, beta cell differentiation, and islet cell viability. WS6 not only stimulated beta cell proliferation in cultured human islets (in agreement with previous reports), but also human alpha cell proliferation, indicating that WS6 is not a beta cell-specific mitogen. WS6 did not change the proportion of insulin-positive beta cells or the expression of beta cell-specific transcription factors, suggesting that WS6 does not alter beta cell differentiation, and WS6 had no effect on human islet cell apoptosis or viability. In conclusion, WS6 stimulates proliferation of both human beta and alpha cells while maintaining cellular viability and the beta cell differentiated phenotype. These findings expand the literature on WS6 and support the suggestion that WS6 may help increase human islet mass needed for successful treatment of diabetes. PMID:25739404

  16. Optimizing conservation strategies for Mexican freetailed bats: a population viability and ecosystem services approach

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wiederholt, Ruscena; Lopez-Hoffman, Laura; Svancara, Colleen; McCracken, Gary; Thogmartin, Wayne E.; Diffendorfer, James E.; Mattson, Brady; Bagstad, Kenneth J.; Cryan, Paul; Amy Russell; Semmens, Darius J.; Rodrigo A. Medellín

    2015-01-01

    Conservation planning can be challenging due to the need to balance biological concerns about population viability with social concerns about the benefits biodiversity provide to society, often while operating under a limited budget. Methods and tools that help prioritize conservation actions are critical for the management of at-risk species. Here, we use a multi-attribute utility function to assess the optimal maternity roosts to conserve for maintaining the population viability and the ecosystem services of a single species, the Mexican free-tailed bat (Tadarida brasiliensis mexicana). Mexican free-tailed bats provide ecosystem services such as insect pest-suppression in agricultural areas and recreational viewing opportunities, and may be threatened by climate change and development of wind energy. We evaluated each roost based on five attributes: the maternity roost’s contribution to population viability, the pest suppression ecosystem services to the surrounding area provided by the bats residing in the roost, the ecotourism value of the roost, the risks posed to each roost structure, and the risks posed to the population of bats residing in each roost. We compared several scenarios that prioritized these attributes differently, hypothesizing that the set of roosts with the highest rankings would vary according to the conservation scenario. Our results indicate that placing higher values on different roost attributes (e.g. population importance over ecosystem service value) altered the roost rankings. We determined that the values placed on various conservation objectives are an important determinant of habitat planning.

  17. Population viability analysis: using a modeling tool to assess the viability of tapir populations in fragmented landscapes.

    PubMed

    Medici, Emília Patrícia; Desbiez, Arnaud Leonard Jean

    2012-12-01

    A population viability analysis (PVA) was conducted of the lowland tapir populations in the Atlantic Forest of the Pontal do Paranapanema region, Brazil, including Morro do Diabo State Park (MDSP) and surrounding forest fragments. Results from the model projected that the population of 126 tapirs in MDSP is likely to persist over the next 100 years; however, 200 tapirs would be required to maintain a viable population. Sensitivity analysis showed that sub-adult mortality and adult mortality have the strongest influence on the dynamics of lowland tapir populations. High road-kill has a major impact on the MDSP tapir population and can lead to population extinction. Metapopulation modeling showed that dispersal of tapirs from MDSP to the surrounding fragments can be detrimental to the overall metapopulation, as fragments act as sinks. Nevertheless, the model showed that under certain conditions the maintenance of the metapopulation dynamics might be determinant for the persistence of tapirs in the region, particularly in the smaller fragments. The establishment of corridors connecting MDSP to the forest fragments models resulted in an increase in the stochastic growth rate, making tapirs more resilient to threats and catastrophes, but only if rates of mortality were not increased when using corridors. The PVA showed that the conservation of tapirs in the Pontal region depends on: the effective protection of MDSP; maintenance and, whenever possible, enhancement of the functional connectivity of the landscape, reducing mortality during dispersal and threats in the unprotected forest fragments; and neutralization of all threats affecting tapirs in the smaller forest fragments. PMID:23253367

  18. Enhancing Osteochondral Allograft Viability: Effects of Storage Media Composition

    PubMed Central

    Teng, Margie S.; Yuen, Audrey S.

    2008-01-01

    Osteochondral allograft transplantation is a well-accepted treatment for articular cartilage damage. However, chondrocyte viability declines during graft storage, which may compromise graft performance. We first tested the hypothesis that the composition of commonly used storage media affects the viability of articular chondrocytes over time; we then tested the hypothesis that the addition of insulin growth factor-1 or the apoptosis inhibitor ZVAD-fmk could enhance the storage properties of serum-free media. Bovine osteochondral grafts were stored at 4°C in lactated Ringer’s, Dulbecco’s modified eagle’s media (DMEM), DMEM supplemented with either insulin growth factor-1 or ZVAD-fmk, and a commercial storage media. Chondrocyte viability in lactated Ringer’s declined rapidly to 20.4% at 2 weeks. Viability in DMEM declined more slowly to 54.8% at 2 weeks and 31.2% at 3 weeks. Viability in commercial storage media was 83.6% at 3 weeks and 44.8% at 4 weeks. Viability was increased in DMEM + insulin growth factor-1 (56.4%) and DMEM + ZVAD (52.4%) at 3 weeks compared with DMEM alone. These results confirm the hypotheses that media composition greatly influences chondrocyte viability during cold storage and that insulin growth factor-1 and ZVAD improve the storage properties of DMEM. PMID:18506560

  19. Enhancing osteochondral allograft viability: effects of storage media composition.

    PubMed

    Teng, Margie S; Yuen, Audrey S; Kim, Hubert T

    2008-08-01

    Osteochondral allograft transplantation is a well-accepted treatment for articular cartilage damage. However, chondrocyte viability declines during graft storage, which may compromise graft performance. We first tested the hypothesis that the composition of commonly used storage media affects the viability of articular chondrocytes over time; we then tested the hypothesis that the addition of insulin growth factor-1 or the apoptosis inhibitor ZVAD-fmk could enhance the storage properties of serum-free media. Bovine osteochondral grafts were stored at 4 degrees C in lactated Ringer's, Dulbecco's modified eagle's media (DMEM), DMEM supplemented with either insulin growth factor-1 or ZVAD-fmk, and a commercial storage media. Chondrocyte viability in lactated Ringer's declined rapidly to 20.4% at 2 weeks. Viability in DMEM declined more slowly to 54.8% at 2 weeks and 31.2% at 3 weeks. Viability in commercial storage media was 83.6% at 3 weeks and 44.8% at 4 weeks. Viability was increased in DMEM + insulin growth factor-1 (56.4%) and DMEM + ZVAD (52.4%) at 3 weeks compared with DMEM alone. These results confirm the hypotheses that media composition greatly influences chondrocyte viability during cold storage and that insulin growth factor-1 and ZVAD improve the storage properties of DMEM. PMID:18506560

  20. Progressive osseous heteroplasia is not a Mendelian trait but a type 2 segmental manifestation of GNAS inactivation disorders: A hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Happle, Rudolf

    2016-05-01

    Progressive osseous heteroplasia (POH) is a segmental disorder characterized by progressive heterotopic ossification that extends from dermal and subcutaneous tissues to deeper structures. So far, it has been taken as a rarely occurring bone disease with autosomal dominant inheritance. Here, arguments are presented in favor of the alternative concept that the disorder is merely a type 2 segmental manifestation of autosomal dominant GNAS inactivation disorders. Type 2 segmental mosaicism arises, in a heterozygous embryo, from a somatic mutational event that occurs at an early developmental stage, resulting in loss of the corresponding wild-type allele and giving rise to a homozygous or hemizygous cell clone. As a characteristic feature, such type 2 segmental involvement is far more pronounced than the type 1 segmental mosaicism as noted in otherwise healthy individuals. The concept of type 2 segmental mosaicism has been proven at the molecular level in six human traits including neurofibromatosis 1, Hailey-Hailey disease, and Gorlin syndrome. In POH, molecular proof of principle is so far lacking. The following lines of reasoning, however, support the hypothesis that POH can be explained by a similar mechanism. Firstly, POH has been found to be associated with different phenotypes caused by inactivating GNAS mutations, which is why it cannot be categorized as one distinct Mendelian trait. Secondly, POH occurs as a rather rare complication of these autosomal dominant traits, which is not compatible with the assumption of a separate Mendelian disorder. Thirdly, in a case of plate-like osteoma that represents a more superficial variant of POH, molecular proof of the concept of type 2 segmental manifestation has already been provided, and the available literature suggests that POH can be best explained by a similar mechanism. Moreover, findings obtained in animal experiments support the assumption that human POH represents such superimposed segmental manifestation of

  1. The effects of guided tissue regeneration and fixation technique on osseous wound healing in rabbit zygomatic arch osteotomies.

    PubMed

    Mooney, M P; Mundell, R D; Stetzer, K; Ochs, M W; Milch, E A; Buckley, M J; Siegel, M I

    1996-01-01

    The development of fibrous nonunions after craniofacial surgery is thought to result from an interaction of biomechanical stress and the differential migration of various tissue types into the wound site during healing. The present study is designed to test this hypothesis through the manipulation of guided tissue regeneration and osteotomy fixation techniques in an experimental rabbit model. Bilateral, critical size (5 mm), vertical osteotomies (n = 32) were produced in the zygomatic arches of eight adult rabbits. The mobile bony segments were fixed rigidly or nonrigidly using bone microplates and screws or osteosynthetic wires. The defects were then covered with a resorbable collagen membrane or left uncovered. The rabbits were followed for 4 weeks with serial dorsoventral cephalographs and the zygomatic arches harvested for histological analysis. Cephalometric results revealed significantly (p < 0.001) increased bone growth in the margins of the defects covered with the collagen membrane; however, no significant (p > 0.05) differences were noted between fixation techniques. Histological analysis revealed that defects fixed rigidly and covered by the membrane showed the most rapid and organized osseous wound healing, followed by the defects that were fixed nonrigidly and membrane covered. The defects not covered by the collagen membrane showed invasion by fibroblasts resulting in fibrous nonunions. These results demonstrate the efficacy of guided tissue regeneration with a resorbable collagen membrane in preventing fibrous tissue ingrowth in large bony defects. The addition of rigid fixation at a potentially mobile site appeared to enhance bony trabecular organization but not the osteogenic rate in this rabbit model. PMID:9086901

  2. Osseous Pseudoprogression in Vertebral Bodies Treated with Stereotactic Radiosurgery: A Secondary Analysis of Prospective Phase I/II Clinical Trials

    PubMed Central

    Amini, Behrang; Beaman, Charles B.; Madewell, John E.; Allen, Pamela K.; Rhines, Laurence D.; Tatsui, Claudio E.; Tannir, Nizar M.; Li, Jing; Brown, Paul D.; Ghia, Amol J.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Osseous pseudoprogression (OPP) on MRI can mimic true progression in lesions treated with spine stereotactic radiosurgery (SSRS). Our aim is to describe the prevalence and time course of OPP, in order to assist radiologists in assessment of post-SSRS patients. Materials and Methods A secondary analysis of two prospective trials was performed. MRIs before and after SSRS were assessed for response. OPP was defined as transient growth in signal abnormality centered at the lesion with a sustained decline on follow-up MRI that was not attributable to chemotherapy. Results From the initial set of 223 patients, 37 lesions in 36 patients met inclusion criteria and were selected for secondary analysis. Five of the 37 lesions (14%) demonstrated OPP and 9 demonstrated progressive disease. There was significant association between single-fraction therapy and the development of OPP (p=0.01), and there was a significant difference in OPP-free survival between single- and multi-fraction regimens (p=0.0052). In lesions demonstrating OPP, time to peak size occurred between 9.7 and 24.4 weeks after SSRS (mean: 13.9 weeks, 95% CI: 8.6–19.1 weeks). The peak lesion size was between 4–10 mm larger than baseline. Most lesions returned to baseline size between 23–52.4 weeks following SSRS. Conclusions Progression on MRI obtained between 3 and 6 months following SSRS should be treated with caution, as OPP may be seen in > 1/3 of these lesions. Single-fraction SSRS may be associated with OPP. The possibility of OPP should be incorporated into prospective criteria for assessment of local control following SSRS. PMID:26494690

  3. Copper-doped borosilicate bioactive glass scaffolds with improved angiogenic and osteogenic capacity for repairing osseous defects.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Shichang; Wang, Hui; Zhang, Yadong; Huang, Wenhai; Rahaman, Mohamed N; Liu, Zhongtang; Wang, Deping; Zhang, Changqing

    2015-03-01

    There is growing interest in the use of synthetic biomaterials to deliver inorganic ions that are known to stimulate angiogenesis and osteogenesis in vivo. In the present study, we investigated the effects of varying amounts of copper in a bioactive glass on the response of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSCs) in vitro and on blood vessel formation and bone regeneration in rat calvarial defects in vivo. Porous scaffolds of a borosilicate bioactive glass (composition 6Na2O, 8K2O, 8MgO, 22CaO, 36B2O3, 18SiO2, 2P2O5, mol.%) doped with 0.5, 1.0 and 3.0wt.% CuO were created using a foam replication method. When immersed in simulated body fluid, the scaffolds released Cu ions into the medium and converted to hydroxyapatite. At the concentrations used, the Cu in the glass was not toxic to the hBMSCs cultured on the scaffolds in vitro. The alkaline phosphatase activity of the hBMSCs and the expression levels of angiogenic-related genes (vascular endothelial growth factor and basic fibroblast growth factor) and osteogenic-related genes (runt-related transcription factor 2, bone morphogenetic protein-2 and osteopontin) increased significantly with increasing amount of Cu in the glass. When implanted in rat calvarial defects in vivo, the scaffolds (3wt.% CuO) significantly enhanced both blood vessel formation and bone regeneration in the defects at 8weeks post-implantation. These results show that doping bioactive glass implants with Cu is a promising approach for enhancing angiogenesis and osteogenesis in the healing of osseous defects. PMID:25534470

  4. A common DLX3 gene mutation is responsible for tricho-dento-osseous syndrome in Virginia and North Carolina families.

    PubMed

    Price, J A; Wright, J T; Kula, K; Bowden, D W; Hart, T C

    1998-10-01

    Tricho-dento-osseous syndrome (TDO) is characterised by a variable clinical phenotype primarily affecting the hair, teeth, and bone. Different clinical features are observed between and within TDO families. It is not known whether the variable clinical features are the result of genetic heterogeneity or clinical variability. A gene for TDO was localised recently to chromosome 17q21 in four North Carolina families, and a 4 bp deletion in the human distal-less 3 gene (DLX3) was identified in all affected members. A previous genetic linkage study in a large Virginia kindred with TDO indicated possible linkage to the ABO, Gc, and Kell blood group loci. To examine whether TDO exhibits genetic heterogeneity, we have performed molecular genetic analysis to determine whether affected members of this Virginia kindred have the DLX3 gene deletion identified in North Carolina families. Results show that affected subjects (n=3) from the Virginia family have the same four nucleotide deletion previously identified in the North Carolina families. A common haplotype for three genetic markers surrounding the DLX3 gene was identified in all affected subjects in the North Carolina and Virginia families. These findings suggest that all people with TDO who have been evaluated have inherited the same DLX3 gene deletion mutation from a common ancestor. The variable clinical phenotype observed in these North Carolina and Virginia families, which share a common gene mutation, suggests that clinical variability is not the result of genetic heterogeneity at the major locus, but may reflect genetic heterogeneity at other epigenetic loci or contributing environmental factors or both. PMID:9783705

  5. Viability and Virulence of Entomopathogenic Nematodes Exposed to Ultraviolet Radiation.

    PubMed

    Shapiro-Ilan, David I; Hazir, Selcuk; Lete, Luis

    2015-09-01

    Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) can be highly effective biocontrol agents, but their efficacy can be reduced due to exposure to environmental stress such as from ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Our objectives were to 1) compare UV tolerance among a broad array of EPN species, and 2) investigate the relationship between reduced nematode viability (after exposure to UV) and virulence. Nematodes exposed to a UV radiation (254 nm) for 10 or 20 min were assessed separately for viability (survival) and virulence to Galleria mellonella. We compared 9 different EPN species and 15 strains: Heterorhabditis bacteriophora (Baine, fl11, Oswego, and Vs strains), H. floridensis (332), H. georgiana (Kesha), H. indica (HOM1), H. megidis (UK211), Steinernema carpocapsae (All, Cxrd, DD136, and Sal strains), S. feltiae (SN), S. rarum (17C&E), and S. riobrave (355). In viability assessments, steinernematids, particularly strains of S. carpocapsae, generally exhibited superior UV tolerance compared with the heterorhabditids. However, some heterorhabditids tended to be more tolerant than others, e.g., H. megidis and H. bacteriophora (Baine) were most susceptible and H. bacteriophora (Vs) was the only heterorhabditid that did not exhibit a significant effect after 10 min of exposure. All heterorhabditids experienced reduced viability after 20 min exposure though several S. carpocapsae strains did not. In total, after 10 or 20 min exposure, the viability of seven nematode strains did not differ from their non-UV exposed controls. In virulence assays, steinernematids (particularly S. carpocapsae strains) also tended to exhibit higher UV tolerance. However, in contrast to the viability measurements, all nematodes experienced a reduction in virulence relative to their controls. Correlation analysis revealed that viability among nematode strains is not necessarily related to virulence. In conclusion, our results indicate that the impact of UV varies substantially among EPNs, and viability alone

  6. Lake eutrophication and environmental change: A viability framework for resilience, vulnerability and adaptive capacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathias, Jean-Denis; Rougé, Charles; Deffuant, Guillaume

    2013-04-01

    We present a simple stochastic model of lake eutrophication to demonstrate how the mathematical framework of viability theory fosters operational definitions of resilience, vulnerability and adaptive capacity, and then helps understand which response one should bring to environmental changes. The model represents the phosphorus dynamics, given that high concentrations trigger a regime change from oligotrophic to eutrophic, and causes ecological but also economic losses, for instance from tourism. Phosphorus comes from agricultural inputs upstream of the lake, and we will consider a stochastic input. We consider the system made of both the lake and its upstream region, and explore how to maintain the desirable ecological and economic properties of this system. In the viability framework, we translate these desirable properties into state constraints, then examine how, given the dynamics of the model and the available policy options, the properties can be kept. The set of states for which there exists a policy to keep the properties is called the viability kernel. We extend this framework to both major perturbations and long-term environmental changes. In our model, since the phosphorus inputs and outputs from the lake depend on rainfall, we will focus on extreme rainfall events and long-term changes in the rainfall regime. They can be described as changes in the state of the system, and may displace it outside the viability kernel. Its response can then be described using the concepts of resilience, vulnerability and adaptive capacity. Resilience is the capacity to recover by getting back to the viability kernel where the dynamics keep the system safe, and in this work we assume it to be the first objective of management. Computed for a given trajectory, vulnerability is a measure of the consequence of violating a property. We propose a family of functions from which cost functions and other vulnerability indicators can be derived for any trajectory. There can be

  7. The role of the clinical nurse specialist in tissue viability.

    PubMed

    Flanagan, M

    The development of tissue viability clinical nurse specialists in the UK has occurred rapidly and haphazardly over the last decade. Lack of role definition has created ambiguity and additional demands which are not so apparent within more established specialist nurse roles. Many specialist nurses in tissue viability are currently practising without adequate supervision frameworks which may compromise both personal and professional role satisfaction. Evaluation of the specific contribution of tissue viability specialist nurses is problematic for a variety of reasons. These, together with the identification of those factors thought to contribute to role conflict, will be discussed. PMID:8845674

  8. An Optimized Injectable Hydrogel Scaffold Supports Human Dental Pulp Stem Cell Viability and Spreading

    PubMed Central

    Jones, T. D.; Kefi, A.; Sun, S.; Cho, M.; Alapati, S. B.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. HyStem-C™ is a commercially available injectable hydrogel composed of polyethylene glycol diacrylate (PEGDA), hyaluronan (HA), and gelatin (Gn). These components can be mechanically tuned to enhance cell viability and spreading. Methods. The concentration of PEGDA with an added disulfide bond (PEGSSDA) was varied from 0.5 to 8.0% (w/v) to determine the optimal concentration for injectable clinical application. We evaluated the cell viability of human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs) embedded in 2% (w/v) PEGSSDA-HA-Gn hydrogels. Volume ratios of HA : Gn from 100 : 0 to 25 : 75 were varied to encourage hDPSC spreading. Fibronectin (Fn) was added to our model to determine the effect of extracellular matrix protein concentration on hDPSC behavior. Results. Our preliminary data suggests that the hydrogel gelation time decreased as the PEGSSDA cross-linker concentration increased. The PEGSSDA-HA-Gn was biocompatible with hDPSCs, and increased ratios of HA : Gn enhanced cell viability for 14 days. Additionally, cell proliferation with added fibronectin increased significantly over time at concentrations of 1.0 and 10.0 μg/mL in PEGDA-HA-Gn hydrogels, while cell spreading significantly increased at Fn concentrations of 0.1 μg/mL. Conclusions. This study demonstrates that PEG-based injectable hydrogels maintain hDPSC viability and facilitate cell spreading, mainly in the presence of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins. PMID:27294191

  9. Influence of boundary-layer dynamics on pollen dispersion and viability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arritt, Raymond W.; Viner, Brian J.; Westgate, Mark E.

    2013-04-01

    Adoption of genetically modified (GM) crops has raised concerns that GM traits can accidentally cross into conventional crops or wild relatives through the transport of wind-borne pollen. In order to evaluate this risk it is necessary to account both for dispersion of the pollen grains and environmental influences on pollen viability. The Lagrangian approach is suited to this problem because it allows tracking the environmental temperature and moisture that pollen grains experience as they travel. Taking advantage of this capability we have combined a high-resolution version of the WRF meteorological model with a Lagrangian particle dispersion model to predict maize pollen dispersion and viability. WRF is used to obtain fields of wind, turbulence kinetic energy, temperature, and humidity which are then used as input to the Lagrangian dispersion model. The dispersion model in turn predicts transport of a statistical sample of a pollen cloud from source plants to receptors. We also use the three-dimensional temperature and moisture fields from WRF to diagnose changes in moisture content of the pollen grains and consequent loss of viability. Results show that turbulent motions in the convective boundary layer counteract the large terminal velocity of maize pollen grains and lift them to heights of several hundred meters, so that they can be transported long distances before settling to the ground. We also found that pollen lifted into the upper part of the boundary layer remains more viable than has been inferred using surface observations of temperature and humidity. This is attributed to the thermal and moisture structure that typifies the daytime atmospheric boundary layer, producing an environment of low vapor pressure deficit in the upper boundary layer which helps maintain pollen viability.

  10. Prolonged viability of human organotypic skin explant in culture method (hOSEC)*

    PubMed Central

    Frade, Marco Andrey Cipriani; de Andrade, Thiago Antônio Moretti; Aguiar, Andréia Fernanda Carvalho Leone; Guedes, Flávia Araújo; Leite, Marcel Nani; Passos, Williane Rodrigues; Coelho, Eduardo Barbosa; Das, Pranab Kummar

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Currently, the cosmetic industry is overwhelmed in keeping up with the safety assessment of the increasing number of new products entering the market. To meet such demand, research centers have explored alternative methods to animal testing and also the large number of volunteers necessary for preclinical and clinical tests. OBJECTIVES: This work describes the human skin ex-vivo model (hOSEC: Human Organotypic Skin Explant Culture) as an alternative to test the effectiveness of cosmetics and demonstrate its viability through cutaneous keratinocytes' proliferative capacity up to 75 days in culture. METHODS: The skin explants obtained from surgeries were cultured in CO2-humid incubator. After 1, 7, 30 and 75 days in culture, skin fragments were harvested for analysis with histomorphological exam (HE staining) on all days of follow-up and immunohistochemistry for Ck5/6, Ck10 and Ki-67 only on the 75th day. RESULTS: On the 7th day, the epidermis was perfect in the dermoepidermal junction, showing the viability of the model. On the 30th day, the epidermis was thicker, with fewer layers on the stratum corneum, although the cutaneous structure was unaltered. On the 75th day, the skin became thinner but the dermoepidermal junctions were preserved and epidermal proliferation was maintained. After the 75th day on culture, the skin was similar to normal skin, expressing keratinocytes with Ck5/6 on supra-basal layers; Ck10 on differentiated layers; and viability could be assessed by the positivity of basal cells by Ki-67. CONCLUSION: The hOSEC model seems a good alternative to animal testing; it can be used as a preclinical test analogous to clinical human skin test with similar effectiveness and viability proven by immunohistological analyses. PMID:26131864

  11. The market viability of nuclear hydrogen technologies.

    SciTech Connect

    Botterud, A.; Conzelmann, G.; Petri, M. C.; Yildiz, B.

    2007-04-06

    The Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy is supporting system studies to gain a better understanding of nuclear power's potential role in a hydrogen economy and what hydrogen production technologies show the most promise. This assessment includes identifying commercial hydrogen applications and their requirements, comparing the characteristics of nuclear hydrogen systems to those market requirements, evaluating nuclear hydrogen configuration options within a given market, and identifying the key drivers and thresholds for market viability of nuclear hydrogen options. One of the objectives of the current analysis phase is to determine how nuclear hydrogen technologies could evolve under a number of different futures. The outputs of our work will eventually be used in a larger hydrogen infrastructure and market analysis conducted for DOE-EE using a system-level market simulation tool now underway. This report expands on our previous work by moving beyond simple levelized cost calculations and looking at profitability, risk, and uncertainty from an investor's perspective. We analyze a number of technologies and quantify the value of certain technology and operating characteristics. Our model to assess the profitability of the above technologies is based on Real Options Theory and calculates the discounted profits from investing in each of the production facilities. We use Monte-Carlo simulations to represent the uncertainty in hydrogen and electricity prices. The model computes both the expected value and the distribution of discounted profits from a production plant. We also quantify the value of the option to switch between hydrogen and electricity production in order to maximize investor profits. Uncertainty in electricity and hydrogen prices can be represented with two different stochastic processes: Geometric Brownian Motion (GBM) and Mean Reversion (MR). Our analysis finds that the flexibility to switch between hydrogen and electricity leads to

  12. Expression of angiotensin II receptors in the caprine ovary and improvement of follicular viability in vitro.

    PubMed

    Bruno, J B; Lima-Verde, I B; Celestino, J J H; Lima, L F; Matos, M H T; Faustino, L R; Donato, M A M; Peixoto, C A; Campello, C C; Silva, J R V; Figueiredo, J R

    2016-08-01

    This study aimed to evaluate mRNA levels of angiotensin II (ANG II) receptors (AGTR1 and AGTR2) in caprine follicles and to investigate the influence of ANG II on the viability and in vitro growth of preantral follicles. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to quantify AGTR1 and AGTR2 mRNA levels in the different follicular stages. For culture, caprine ovaries were collected, cut into 13 fragments and then either directly fixed for histological and ultrastructural analysis (fresh control) or placed in culture for 1 or 7 days in α-minumum essential medium plus (α-MEM+) with 0, 1, 5, 10, 50 or 100 ng/ml ANG II. Then, the fragments were destined to morphological, viability and ultrastructural analysis. The results showed that primordial follicles had higher levels of AGTR1 and AGTR2 mRNA than secondary follicles. Granulosa/theca cells from antral follicles had higher levels of AGTR1 mRNA than their respective cumulus-oocyte complex (COCs). After 7 days of culture, ANG II (10 or 50 ng/ml) maintained the percentages of normal follicles compared with α-MEM+. Fluorescence and ultrastructural microscopy confirmed follicular integrity in ANG II (10 ng/ml). In conclusion, a high expression of AGTR1 and AGTR2 is observed in primordial follicles. Granulosa/theca cells from antral follicles had higher levels of AGTR1 mRNA. Finally, 10 ng/ml ANG II maintained the viability of caprine preantral follicles after in vitro culture. PMID:26464313

  13. Oxygen Delivery from Hyperbarically Loaded Microtanks Extends Cell Viability in Anoxic Environments

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Colin A.; Hahn, Kathryn C.; Morrissette-McAlmon, Justin B.F.; Grayson, Warren L.

    2016-01-01

    Oxygen diffusion limitations within nascent tissue engineered (TE) grafts lead to the development of hypoxic regions, cell death, and graft failure. Previous efforts have been made to deliver oxygen within TE scaffolds, including peroxide-doping, perfluorocarbons, and hyperbaric oxygen therapy, to mitigate these effects and help maintain post transplantation cell viability, but these have suffered from significant drawbacks. Here we present a novel approach utilizing polymeric hollow-core microspheres that can be hyperbarically loaded with oxygen and subsequently provide prolonged oxygen delivery. These oxygen carriers are termed, microtanks. With an interest in orthopedic applications, we combined microtanks within polycaprolactone to form solid phase constructs with oxygen delivery capabilities. The mathematical laws governing oxygen delivery from microtank-loaded constructs are developed along with empirical validation. Constructs achieved periods of oxygen delivery out to 6 days, which was shown to prolong the survival of human adipose derived stem cells (hASCs) and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) as well as to enhance their cellular morphology under anoxic conditions. The results of this study suggest the microtank approach may be a feasible means of maintaining cell viability in TE scaffolds during the critical period of vascularization in vivo. PMID:25818444

  14. Oxygen delivery from hyperbarically loaded microtanks extends cell viability in anoxic environments.

    PubMed

    Cook, Colin A; Hahn, Kathryn C; Morrissette-McAlmon, Justin B F; Grayson, Warren L

    2015-06-01

    Oxygen diffusion limitations within nascent tissue engineered (TE) grafts lead to the development of hypoxic regions, cell death, and graft failure. Previous efforts have been made to deliver oxygen within TE scaffolds, including peroxide-doping, perfluorocarbons, and hyperbaric oxygen therapy, to mitigate these effects and help maintain post transplantation cell viability, but these have suffered from significant drawbacks. Here we present a novel approach utilizing polymeric hollow-core microspheres that can be hyperbarically loaded with oxygen and subsequently provide prolonged oxygen delivery. These oxygen carriers are termed, microtanks. With an interest in orthopedic applications, we combined microtanks within polycaprolactone to form solid phase constructs with oxygen delivery capabilities. The mathematical laws governing oxygen delivery from microtank-loaded constructs are developed along with empirical validation. Constructs achieved periods of oxygen delivery out to 6 days, which was shown to prolong the survival of human adipose derived stem cells (hASCs) and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) as well as to enhance their cellular morphology under anoxic conditions. The results of this study suggest the microtank approach may be a feasible means of maintaining cell viability in TE scaffolds during the critical period of vascularization in vivo. PMID:25818444

  15. [Diagnostic value of MRI versus 99Tcm-MDP bone scan in osseous metastasis of prostate cancer: a meta-analysis].

    PubMed

    Shen, Guohua; Zhou, Luyi; Jia, Zhiyun; Zhang, Wenjie; Wang, Qiao; Deng, Houfu

    2014-08-01

    This paper is aimed to assess the diagnostic value of MRI versus 99 Tcm-methylene diphosphonate (99 Tcm- MDP) bone scan (BS) for osseous metastases in patients with prostate cancer. The computer-based retrieval was conducted on PubMed, EMBASE, EBSCO, Web of Knowledge, the Cochrane Library and Ovid data bases to search for trials about diagnosing osseous metastases of prostate cancer with MRI and 99Tc"m-MDP BS. Selected with time acceptance and time exclusion criteria, the data quality were evaluated with QUADAS quality assessment tool and collected. We used the Meta-Disc software to conduct meta-analysis, and then calculated the pooled sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic odds ratio (DOR), drew the summary receiving operating characteristic (SROC) curve, and measured the area under curve (AUC) and Q value. Then five studies were included, involving 353 patients. The pooled sensitivity of MRI and BS was 0. 95 (95% CI 0. 90~0. 98) and 0. 67 (95% CI 0. 58~0. 75), respectively. The pooled specificity was 0. 97 (95% CI 0. 94~0. 99) and 0. 88 (95% CI 0. 83~0. 91), respectively. The pooled DOR was 402.99 (95% CI 119. 05 ~1364. 15) and 23. 85 (95% CI 1. 32~431. 48), respectively. The AUC was 0. 990 1 and 0. 624 1, respectively. The Q was 0. 958 7 and 0. 593 8. It can well be concluded that MRI is more effective than 99 Tcm-MDP BS in the diagnosis of osseous metastases in patients with prostate cancer. PMID:25464807

  16. [Diagnostic value of MRI versus 99Tcm-MDP bone scan in osseous metastasis of prostate cancer: a meta-analysis].

    PubMed

    Shen, Guohua; Zhou, Luyi; Jia, Zhiyun; Zhang, Wenjie; Wang, Qiao; Deng, Houfu

    2014-08-01

    This paper is aimed to assess the diagnostic value of MRI versus 99 Tcm-methylene diphosphonate (99 Tcm- MDP) bone scan (BS) for osseous metastases in patients with prostate cancer. The computer-based retrieval was conducted on PubMed, EMBASE, EBSCO, Web of Knowledge, the Cochrane Library and Ovid data bases to search for trials about diagnosing osseous metastases of prostate cancer with MRI and 99Tc"m-MDP BS. Selected with time acceptance and time exclusion criteria, the data quality were evaluated with QUADAS quality assessment tool and collected. We used the Meta-Disc software to conduct meta-analysis, and then calculated the pooled sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic odds ratio (DOR), drew the summary receiving operating characteristic (SROC) curve, and measured the area under curve (AUC) and Q value. Then five studies were included, involving 353 patients. The pooled sensitivity of MRI and BS was 0. 95 (95% CI 0. 90~0. 98) and 0. 67 (95% CI 0. 58~0. 75), respectively. The pooled specificity was 0. 97 (95% CI 0. 94~0. 99) and 0. 88 (95% CI 0. 83~0. 91), respectively. The pooled DOR was 402.99 (95% CI 119. 05 ~1364. 15) and 23. 85 (95% CI 1. 32~431. 48), respectively. The AUC was 0. 990 1 and 0. 624 1, respectively. The Q was 0. 958 7 and 0. 593 8. It can well be concluded that MRI is more effective than 99 Tcm-MDP BS in the diagnosis of osseous metastases in patients with prostate cancer. PMID:25508438

  17. Frequency-dependent viability in mutant strains of Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Curtsinger, J W; Sheen, F M

    1991-01-01

    We investigated the effects of genotypic frequencies on egg-to-adult viabilities in pairwise combinations of four strains of Drosophila melanogaster. The experiments involved mixture of a total of 42,000 eggs in varying proportions under controlled densities and observation of surviving adults. Viabilities were found to depend on frequencies in several genotypic combinations. In the most extreme case, the absolute viability of cn;bw females increased monotonically from 54% when common to 70% when rare. The results illustrate several statistical and methodological problems that might explain why some experiments have failed to detect frequency-dependent viabilities. These problems include heterogeneity between replications, sex differences in susceptibility to competition, and strong dependence of the experimental outcome on the choice of competitor genotypes. PMID:1901577

  18. [Myocardial viability, its importance for the therapeutic decision].

    PubMed

    Alexánderson, Erick; Ricalde, Alejandro; Meave, Aloha

    2005-01-01

    Myocardial viability detection is essential in patients with history of myocardial infarction whom develop ventricular dysfunction. Its detection influences the therapeutic decisions and the prognosis. Medical therapy in patients with ventricular dysfunction due to myocardial infarction and myocardial viability has been associated with higher morbidity and mortality rates than revascularization therapy, as well as improvements in the systolic function. Several imaging techniques used in the recognition of myocardial viability are available; these techniques are based on the assessment of the ventricular motion posterior to inotropic agents stimulation or on the demonstration of metabolic activity at the dysfunctional regions. In this study, some important aspects of each technique are reviewed, doing special emphasis in the utility of the Positron Emission Tomography (PET) which has been considered as the "gold standard" in the detection of myocardial viability. PMID:15909735

  19. Probiotic fermented sausage: viability of probiotic microorganisms and sensory characteristics.

    PubMed

    Rouhi, M; Sohrabvandi, S; Mortazavian, A M

    2013-01-01

    Probiotics are from functional foods that bring health benefits for humans. Nowadays, a major development in functional foods is related to food containing probiotic cultures, mainly lactic acid bacteria or bifidobacteria. Probiotics must be alive and ingested in sufficient amounts to exert the positive effects on the health and the well-being of the host. Therefore, viability of probiotic products (the minimum viable probiotic cells in each gram or milliliter of product till the time of consumption) is their most important characteristic. However, these organisms often show poor viability in fermented products due to their detrimental conditions. Today, the variety of fermented meat products available around the world is nearly equal to that of cheese. With meat products, raw fermented sausages could constitute an appropriate vehicle for such microorganisms into the human gastrointestinal tract. In present article, the viability of probiotic microorganisms in fermented sausage, the main factors affect their viability, and the sensorial characteristics of final product are discussed. PMID:23320906

  20. Flow Cytometry Approach to Quantify the Viability of Milk Somatic Cell Counts after Various Physico-Chemical Treatments

    PubMed Central

    Li, Na; Richoux, Romain; Perruchot, Marie-Hélène; Boutinaud, Marion; Mayol, Jean-François; Gagnaire, Valérie

    2015-01-01

    Flow cytometry has been used as a routine method to count somatic cells in milk, and to ascertain udder health and milk quality. However, few studies investigate the viability of somatic cells and even fewer at a subpopulation level to follow up how the cells can resist to various stresses that can be encountered during technological processes. To address this issue, a flow cytometry approach was used to simultaneously identify cell types of bovine milk using cell-specific antibodies and to measure the cell viability among the identified subpopulations by using a live/dead cell viability kit. Confirmation of the cell viability was performed by using conventional microscopy. Different physico-chemical treatments were carried out on standardized cell samples, such as heat treatment, various centrifugation rates and storage in milk or in PBS pH 7.4 for three days. Cytometry gating strategy was developed by using blood cell samples stored at 4°C in PBS and milk cell samples heat-treated at 80°C for 30 min as a control for the maximum (95.9%) and minimum (0.7%) values of cell viability respectively. Cell viability in the initial samples was 39.5% for all cells and varied for each cell population from 26.7% for PMNs, to 32.6% for macrophages, and 58.3% for lymphocytes. Regarding the physico-chemical treatments applied, somatic cells did not sustain heat treatment at 60°C and 80°C in contrast to changes in centrifugation rates, for which only the higher level, i.e. 5000×g led to a cell viability decrease, down to 9.4%, but no significant changes within the cell subpopulation distribution were observed. Finally, the somatic cells were better preserved in milk after 72h storage, in particular PMNs, that maintained a viability of 34.0 ± 2.9% compared to 4.9±1.9% in PBS, while there was almost no changes for macrophages (41.7 ± 5.7% in milk vs 31.2 ± 2.4% in PBS) and lymphocytes (25.3 ± 3.0% in milk vs 11.4 ± 3.1% in PBS). This study provides a new array to better

  1. In vitro radiolabel uptake viability assay for Onchocerca microfilariae

    SciTech Connect

    Callahan, H.L.; Wakeman, J.M.; Crouch, R.K.; James, E.R.

    1989-02-01

    A radiolabel uptake viability assay for Onchocerca cervicalis using (/sup 3/H)2-deoxy-D-glucose in Hanks' balanced salt solution, pH 7.5, at 30 C is described and compared to the traditional visual motility assay. A correlation of r = 0.92 between the assays was found, with the radiolabel uptake method apparently a more sensitive indicator of microfilarial viability.

  2. Neonatal ethical issues: viability, advance directives, family centered care.

    PubMed

    Sudia-Robinson, Tanya

    2011-01-01

    Ethical issues in perinatal and NICU settings can arise from a variety of situations. This article focuses on issues surrounding viability and the incorporation of advance directives and family-centered care. Prenatal education about infant viability, probable scenarios, and parental involvement in decision-making are addressed. Considerations for advance directives for complex births and critical decisions at the time of birth are also discussed. Implications for nurses and suggested dialogue strategies are provided. PMID:21407121

  3. Designing for Maintainability and System Availability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lalli, Vincent R.; Packard, Michael H.

    1997-01-01

    The final goal for a delivered system (whether a car, aircraft, avionics box or computer) should be its availability to operate and perform its intended function over its expected design life. Hence, in designing a system, we cannot think in terms of delivering the system and just walking away. The system supplier needs to provide support throughout the operating life of the product. Here, supportability requires an effective combination of reliability, maintainability, logistics and operations engineering (as well as safety engineering) to have a system that is available for its intended use throughout its designated mission lifetime. Maintainability is a key driving element in the effective support and upkeep of the system as well as providing the ability to modify and upgrade the system throughout its lifetime. This paper then, will concentrate on maintainability and its integration into the system engineering and design process. The topics to be covered include elements of maintainability, the total cost of ownership, how system availability, maintenance and logistics costs and spare parts cost effect the overall program costs. System analysis and maintainability will show how maintainability fits into the overall systems approach to project development. Maintainability processes and documents will focus on how maintainability is to be performed and what documents are typically generated for a large scale program. Maintainability analysis shows how trade-offs can be performed for various alternative components. The conclusions summarize the paper and are followed by specific problems for hands-on training.

  4. Space Maintainers in Dentistry: Past to Present

    PubMed Central

    Setia, Vikas; Pandit, Inder Kumar; Srivastava, Nikhil; Gugnani, Neeraj; Sekhon, Harveen Kaur

    2013-01-01

    Early orthodontic interventions are often initiated in the developing dentition to promote favourable developmental changes. Interceptive orthodontic can eliminate or reduce the severity of a developing malocclusion, the complexity of orthodontic treatment, overall treatment time and cost. The safest way to prevent future malocclusions from tooth loss is to place a space maintainer that is effective and durable. An appropriate use of space maintainer is advocated to hold the space until the eruption of permanent teeth. This case report describes the various changing trends in use of space maintainers: conventional band and loop, prefabricated band with custom made loop and glass fibre reinforced composite resins as space maintainers. PMID:24298544

  5. 42 CFR 431.230 - Maintaining services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Maintaining services. 431.230 Section 431.230 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Applicants and Recipients Procedures § 431.230 Maintaining services. (a) If the agency mails the 10-day or...

  6. 42 CFR 431.230 - Maintaining services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Maintaining services. 431.230 Section 431.230 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Applicants and Beneficiaries Procedures § 431.230 Maintaining services. (a) If the agency mails the 10-day...

  7. Percutaneous Radiofrequency Ablation of Painful Osseous Metastases: A Multi-center American College of Radiology Imaging Network Trial

    PubMed Central

    Dupuy, Damian E.; Liu, Dawei; Hartfeil, Donna; Hanna, Lucy; Blume, Jeffrey D.; Ahrar, Kamran; Lopez, Robert; Safran, Howard; DiPetrillo, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Background To determine if radiofrequency ablation (RFA) can safely reduce pain from osseous metastatic disease. Methods A single arm prospective trial in patients with a single painful bone metastasis with unremitting pain of at least a score above 50 on a pain scale of 0–100. Percutaneous CT guided RFA of the bone metastasis to temperatures above 60 degrees Celsius was performed. Endpoints were the toxicity and pain effects of RFA before and at 2 weeks, one and three months after RFA. Results 55 patients completed RFA. Grade 3 toxicities occurred in 3 of 55 patients (5%). RFA reduced pain at 1- and 3-month for all pain assessment measures. The average increase in pain relief from pre-RFA to 1-month follow-up is 26.27 (95% CI, 17.65 to 34.89, P<0.0001) and the increase from pre-RFA to 3-month follow-up is 16.38 (95% CI, 3.37 to 29.39, P=0.02). The average decrease in pain intensity from pre-RFA to 1-month follow-up was 26.9 (P<0.0001) and 14.2 for 3-month follow-up (P=0.02). The odds of being in lower pain severity at 1-month follow-up is 14.03 (95% CI, 2.33 to 25.73, P<0.0001) times higher than that at pre-RFA, and the odds at 3-month follow-up is 8.00 (95% CI, 0.85 to 15.15, P<0.001) times higher than that at pre-RFA. The average increase in mood from pre-RFA to 1-month follow-up was 19.9 (P<0.0001) and 14.9 for 3-month follow-up (P=0.005). Conclusion This cooperative group trial strongly suggests that RFA can safely palliate pain from bone metastases. PMID:20041484

  8. Comparison of reintroduction and enhancement effects on metapopulation viability

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Halsey, Samniqueka J; Bell, Timothy J.; McEachern, Kathryn; Pavlovic, Noel B.

    2015-01-01

    Metapopulation viability depends upon a balance of extinction and colonization of local habitats by a species. Mechanisms that can affect this balance include physical characteristics related to natural processes (e.g. succession) as well as anthropogenic actions. Plant restorations can help to produce favorable metapopulation dynamics and consequently increase viability; however, to date no studies confirm this is true. Population viability analysis (PVA) allows for the use of empirical data to generate theoretical future projections in the form of median time to extinction and probability of extinction. In turn, PVAs can inform and aid the development of conservation, recovery, and management plans. Pitcher's thistle (Cirsium pitcheri) is a dune endemic that exhibited metapopulation dynamics. We projected viability of three natural and two restored populations with demographic data spanning 15–23 years to determine the degree the addition of reintroduced population affects metapopulation viability. The models were validated by comparing observed and projected abundances and adjusting parameters associated with demographic and environmental stochasticity to improve model performance. Our chosen model correctly predicted yearly population abundance for 60% of the population-years. Using that model, 50-year projections showed that the addition of reintroductions increases metapopulation viability. The reintroduction that simulated population performance in early-successional habitats had the maximum benefit. In situ enhancements of existing populations proved to be equally effective. This study shows that restorations can facilitate and improve metapopulation viability of species dependent on metapopulation dynamics for survival with long-term persistence of C. pitcheri in Indiana likely to depend on continued active management.

  9. Clinical Evaluation of Tuberculosis Viability Microscopy for Assessing Treatment Response

    PubMed Central

    Datta, Sumona; Sherman, Jonathan M.; Bravard, Marjory A.; Valencia, Teresa; Gilman, Robert H.; Evans, Carlton A.

    2015-01-01

    Background. It is difficult to determine whether early tuberculosis treatment is effective in reducing the infectiousness of patients' sputum, because culture takes weeks and conventional acid-fast sputum microscopy and molecular tests cannot differentiate live from dead tuberculosis. Methods. To assess treatment response, sputum samples (n = 124) from unselected patients (n = 35) with sputum microscopy–positive tuberculosis were tested pretreatment and after 3, 6, and 9 days of empiric first-line therapy. Tuberculosis quantitative viability microscopy with fluorescein diacetate, quantitative culture, and acid-fast auramine microscopy were all performed in triplicate. Results. Tuberculosis quantitative viability microscopy predicted quantitative culture results such that 76% of results agreed within ±1 logarithm (rS = 0.85; P < .0001). In 31 patients with non-multidrug-resistant (MDR) tuberculosis, viability and quantitative culture results approximately halved (both 0.27 log reduction, P < .001) daily. For patients with non-MDR tuberculosis and available data, by treatment day 9 there was a >10-fold reduction in viability in 100% (24/24) of cases and quantitative culture in 95% (19/20) of cases. Four other patients subsequently found to have MDR tuberculosis had no significant changes in viability (P = .4) or quantitative culture (P = .6) results during early treatment. The change in viability and quantitative culture results during early treatment differed significantly between patients with non-MDR tuberculosis and those with MDR tuberculosis (both P < .001). Acid-fast microscopy results changed little during early treatment, and this change was similar for non-MDR tuberculosis vs MDR tuberculosis (P = .6). Conclusions. Tuberculosis quantitative viability microscopy is a simple test that within 1 hour predicted quantitative culture results that became available weeks later, rapidly indicating whether patients were responding to tuberculosis therapy

  10. On the histogenesis of osseous structures in epithelial tumours. A light and electronmicroscopical study illustrated at the so-called mixed tumour of the mammary gland in bitches (author's transl).

    PubMed

    Bomhard, D V; Schäffer, E; Sandersleben, J V

    1977-05-20

    The osseous areas of 126 canine mixed tumours of the mammary gland were studied by light microscopy. Seven cases were investigated in detail using the electronmicroscop. It is suggested, that these structures develop by enchondral ossification. There ist no indication that myoepithelial tumour cells play a role in formation of osteoid or osseous foci. The cells taking part in enchondral ossification in such tumours cannot be distinguished from cell normally found in enchondral ossification. They derive from the stroma growing into the chondroid matrix. Areas developed by enchondral ossification therefore cannot be considered as tumour tissue in the true sense. PMID:141796

  11. Density fluctuations represent a key process maintaining personality variation in a wild passerine bird.

    PubMed

    Nicolaus, Marion; Tinbergen, Joost M; Ubels, Richard; Both, Christiaan; Dingemanse, Niels J

    2016-04-01

    Heritable personality variation is subject to fluctuating selection in many animal taxa; a major unresolved question is why this is the case. A parsimonious explanation must involve a general ecological process: a likely candidate is the omnipresent spatiotemporal variation in conspecific density. We tested whether spatiotemporal variation in density within and among nest box plots of great tits (Parus major) predicted variation in selection acting on exploratory behaviour (n = 48 episodes of selection). We found viability selection favouring faster explorers under lower densities but slower explorers under higher densities. Temporal variation in local density represented the primary factor explaining personality-related variation in viability selection. Importantly, birds did not anticipate changes in selection by means of adaptive density-dependent plasticity. This study thereby provides an unprecedented example of the key importance of the interplay between fluctuating selection and lack of adaptive behavioural plasticity in maintaining animal personality variation in the wild. PMID:26929092

  12. Effect of doping in carbon nanotubes on the viability of biomimetic chitosan-carbon nanotubes-hydroxyapatite scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Fonseca-García, Abril; Mota-Morales, Josué D; Quintero-Ortega, Iraís A; García-Carvajal, Zaira Y; Martínez-López, V; Ruvalcaba, Erika; Landa-Solís, Carlos; Solis, Lilia; Ibarra, Clemente; Gutiérrez, María C; Terrones, Mauricio; Sanchez, Isaac C; del Monte, Francisco; Velasquillo, María C; Luna-Bárcenas, G

    2014-10-01

    This work describes the preparation and characterization of biomimetic chitosan/multiwall carbon nanotubes/nano-hydroxyapatite (CTS/MWCNT/nHAp) scaffolds and their viability for bone tissue engineering applications. The cryogenic process ice segregation-induced self-assembly (ISISA) was used to fabricate 3D biomimetic CTS scaffolds. Proper combination of cryogenics, freeze-drying, nature and molecular ratio of solutes give rise to 3D porous interconnected scaffolds with clusters of nHAp distributed along the scaffold surface. The effect of doping in CNT (e.g. with oxygen and nitrogen atoms) on cell viability was tested. Under the same processing conditions, pore size was in the range of 20-150 μm and irrespective on the type of CNT. Studies on cell viability with scaffolds were carried out using human cells from periosteum biopsy. Prior to cell seeding, the immunophenotype of mesenchymal periosteum or periosteum-derived stem cells (MSCs-PCs) was characterized by flow cytometric analysis using fluorescence-activated and characteristic cell surface markers for MSCs-PCs. The characterized MSCs-PCs maintained their periosteal potential in cell cultures until the 2nd passage from primary cell culture. Thus, the biomimetic CTS/MWCNT/nHAp scaffolds demonstrated good biocompatibility and cell viability in all cases such that it can be considered as promising biomaterials for bone tissue engineering. PMID:23894015

  13. Relative shortening and functional tethering of spinal cord in adolescent scoliosis - Result of asynchronous neuro-osseous growth, summary of an electronic focus group debate of the IBSE.

    PubMed

    Chu, Winnie Cw; Lam, Wynnie Mw; Ng, Bobby Kw; Tze-Ping, Lam; Lee, Kwong-Man; Guo, Xia; Cheng, Jack Cy; Burwell, R Geoffrey; Dangerfield, Peter H; Jaspan, Tim

    2008-01-01

    There is no generally accepted scientific theory for the causes of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). As part of its mission to widen understanding of scoliosis etiology, the International Federated Body on Scoliosis Etiology (IBSE) introduced the electronic focus group (EFG) as a means of increasing debate on knowledge of important topics. This has been designated as an on-line Delphi discussion. The Statement for this debate was written by Dr WCW Chu and colleagues who examine the spinal cord to vertebral growth interaction during adolescence in scoliosis. Using the multi-planar reconstruction technique of magnetic resonance imaging they investigated the relative length of spinal cord to vertebral column including ratios in 28 girls with AIS (mainly thoracic or double major curves) and 14 age-matched normal girls. Also evaluated were cerebellar tonsillar position, somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEPs), and clinical neurological examination. In severe AIS compared with normal controls, the vertebral column is significantly longer without detectable spinal cord lengthening. They speculate that anterior spinal column overgrowth relative to a normal length spinal cord exerts a stretching tethering force between the two ends, cranially and caudally leading to the initiation and progression of thoracic AIS. They support and develop the Roth-Porter concept of uncoupled neuro-osseous growth in the pathogenesis of AIS which now they prefer to term 'asynchronous neuro-osseous growth'. Morphological evidence about the curve apex suggests that the spinal cord is also affected, and a 'double pathology' is suggested. AIS is viewed as a disorder with a wide spectrum and a common neuroanatomical abnormality namely, a spinal cord of normal length but short relative to an abnormally lengthened anterior vertebral column. Neuroanatomical changes and/or abnormal neural function may be expressed only in severe cases. This asynchronous neuro-osseous growth concept is regarded as

  14. [Discordant pattern, visual identification of myocardial viability with PET].

    PubMed

    Alexánderson, E; Ricalde, A; Zerón, J; Talayero, J A; Cruz, P; Adame, G; Mendoza, G; Meave, A

    2006-01-01

    PET (positron emission tomography) as a non-invasive imaging method for studying cardiac perfusion and metabolism has turned into the gold standard for detecting myocardial viability. The utilization of 18 FDG as a tracer for its identification permits to spot the use of exogenous glucose by the myocardium segments. By studying and comparing viability and perfusion results, for which the latter uses tracers such as 13N-ammonia, three different patterns for myocardial viability evaluation arise:. transmural concordant pattern, non-transmural concordant pattern, and the discordant pattern; the last one exemplifies the hibernating myocardium and proves the presence of myocardial viability. The importance of its detection is fundamental for the study of an ischemic patient, since it permits the establishment of and exact diagnosis, prognosis, and the best treatment option. It also allows foreseeing functional recovery of the affected region as well as the ejection fraction rate after revascularization treatment if this is determined as necessary. All these elements regarding viability are determinant in order to reduce adverse events and help improving patients' prognosis. PMID:17315610

  15. Mechanisms maintaining grassland biodiversity and ecosystem stability

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ecologists need to know how particular processes influence biodiversity and ecosystem stability. We demonstrate how data from biodiversity-ecosystem functioning experiments can be used to identify and quantify the classes of mechanisms maintaining biodiversity and ecosystem stability. We predicted...

  16. Ecology: Tribal Warfare Maintains Microbial Diversity.

    PubMed

    Greig, Duncan; Goddard, Matthew

    2015-07-20

    When two tribes of Myxococcus bacteria attack each other, the most numerous usually wins. Established colonies can therefore resist invaders by outnumbering them. This shows how positive frequency dependence can maintain diversity across spatially structured environments. PMID:26196492

  17. Control system maintains compartment at constant temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindberg, J. G.

    1966-01-01

    Gas-filled permeable insulating material maintains an enclosed compartment at a uniform temperature. The material is interposed between the two walls of a double-walled enclosure surrounding the compartment.

  18. An Introduction to Reliability and Maintainability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berridge, C. R.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the need to include studies of reliability and maintainability during the design of any system. Topic areas addressed include availability calculations, complex systems and standby redundancy, availability and malfunction levels, design techniques, fault trees, functional maintenance, and others. (DH)

  19. Older Runners Can Maintain Their 'Fuel Efficiency'

    MedlinePlus

    ... of oxygen consumption is what researchers call "running economy." They found that even though the gait of ... still maintain youthful energy levels, or good running economy, while exercising. "There's good evidence that it's never ...

  20. Maintainability planning for the Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Egan, G. R.

    1986-01-01

    The planned NASA Space Station, which is expected to have many years of on-orbit operation, for the first time confronts spacecraft designers with major questions of maintainability in design. A Maintainability Guidelines Document has been distributed to all Space Station Definition and Preliminary Design personnel of the Space Station Program Office. Trade studies are being performed to determine the most economical balance between initial (reliability) cost and life cycle cost (crew time and replacement hardware) costs.

  1. Viability, infectivity and fatty acid synthetic activity of Perkinsus marinus meront cells incubated in estuarine and artificial seawater.

    PubMed

    Chu, Fu-Lin E; Lund, Eric D

    2006-07-25

    We investigated the viability and fatty acid synthetic activity of in vitro cultured Perkinsus marinus (Dermo) in lipid-free medium and estuarine water, and the infectivity of P. marinus maintained in artificial seawater (ASW). Viability and fatty acid synthetic activity in 7 d old P. marinus meronts maintained in lipid-free medium and estuarine water were tested. The infectivity of meronts incubated in ASW was examined by first incubating P. marinus meronts in ASW for 2, 3 or 7 d, and then inoculating viable ASW-incubated meronts into the shell cavity of individual oysters Crassostrea virginica. P. marinus infection prevalence and intensity in oysters were determined 9 wk post-inoculation. Heavy mortality occurred in meronts maintained in estuarine water, a drop from an initial value of 100% viable to 7.8 and 6.1% after 3 and 14 d incubation, respectively. Viability was 85 and 67% in meronts maintained in lipid-free medium for 3 and 24 d, respectively. Meronts kept in lipid-free medium for 14 d retained their ability to synthesize fatty acids. Viable meronts incubated in ASW remained infective for up to 7 d. The infection prevalences were 85, 48 and 100%, in the treatments inoculated with viable meronts that were incubated in ASW for 2, 3 and 7 d, respectively. Infection prevalence in the group inoculated with viable meronts immediately after they were transferred to ASW ranged from 61 to 85%. Our results suggest that in nature meronts can survive for at least 14 d outside the host. Viable meronts are not only infective, but are also able to replicate and retain their fatty acid synthetic ability for 7 d. PMID:16956060

  2. Dead or Alive: Molecular Assessment of Microbial Viability

    PubMed Central

    Meschke, John S.

    2014-01-01

    Nucleic acid-based analytical methods, ranging from species-targeted PCRs to metagenomics, have greatly expanded our understanding of microbiological diversity in natural samples. However, these methods provide only limited information on the activities and physiological states of microorganisms in samples. Even the most fundamental physiological state, viability, cannot be assessed cross-sectionally by standard DNA-targeted methods such as PCR. New PCR-based strategies, collectively called molecular viability analyses, have been developed that differentiate nucleic acids associated with viable cells from those associated with inactivated cells. In order to maximize the utility of these methods and to correctly interpret results, it is necessary to consider the physiological diversity of life and death in the microbial world. This article reviews molecular viability analysis in that context and discusses future opportunities for these strategies in genetic, metagenomic, and single-cell microbiology. PMID:25038100

  3. Multimodality imaging in the assessment of myocardial viability

    PubMed Central

    Partington, Sara L.; Kwong, Raymond Y.

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of heart failure due to coronary artery disease continues to increase, and it portends a worse prognosis than non-ischemic cardiomyopathy. Revascularization improves prognosis in these high-risk patients who have evidence of viability; therefore, optimal assessment of myocardial viability remains essential. Multiple imaging modalities exist for differentiating viable myocardium from scar in territories with contractile dysfunction. Given the multiple modalities available, choosing the best modality for a specific patient can be a daunting task. In this review, the physiology of myocardial hibernation and stunning will be reviewed. All the current methods available for assessing viability including echocardiography, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, nuclear imaging with single photon emission tomography and positron emission tomography imaging and cardiac computed tomography will be reviewed. The effectiveness of the various techniques will be compared, and the limitations of the current literature will be discussed. PMID:21069458

  4. Myocardial Viability and Revascularization: Current Understanding and Future Directions.

    PubMed

    Patel, Pavan; Ivanov, Alexander; Ramasubbu, Kumudha

    2016-06-01

    The initial observation of functional recovery in dysfunctional myocardium following revascularization led to the introduction of the concept of hibernating myocardium. Since then, the pathophysiologic basis of hibernating myocardium has been well described. Multiple imaging modalities have been utilized to prospectively detect viable myocardium and thus predict its functional recovery following revascularization. It has been hypothesized that viability imaging will be instrumental in the selection of patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy likely to benefit from revascularization. Multiple observational studies built a large body of evidence supporting this concept. However, data from prospective studies failed to substantiate utility of viability testing. This review aims to summarize the current literature and describe the role of viability imaging in current clinical practice as well as future directions. PMID:27115143

  5. Maintainability program requirements for space systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    This document is established to provide common general requirements for all NASA programs to: design maintainability into all systems where maintenance is a factor in system operation and mission success; and ensure that maintainability characteristics are developed through the systems engineering process. These requirements are not new. Design for ease of maintenance and minimization of repair time have always been fundamental requirements of the systems engineering process. However, new or reusable orbital manned and in-flight maintainable unmanned space systems demand special emphasis on maintainability, and this document has been prepared to meet that need. Maintainability requirements on many NASA programs differ in phasing and task emphasis from requirements promulgated by other Government agencies. This difference is due to the research and development nature of NASA programs where quantities produced are generally small; therefore, the depth of logistics support typical of many programs is generally not warranted. The cost of excessive maintenance is very high due to the logistics problems associated with the space environment. The ability to provide timely maintenance often involves safety considerations for manned space flight applications. This document represents a basic set of requirements that will achieve a design for maintenance. These requirements are directed primarily at manned and unmanned orbital space systems. To be effective, maintainability requirements should be tailored to meet specific NASA program and project needs and constraints. NASA activities shall invoke the requirements of this document consistent with program planning in procurements or on inhouse development efforts.

  6. Environment dependence of mutational parameters for viability in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed Central

    Fry, James D; Heinsohn, Stefanie L

    2002-01-01

    The genomic rate of mildly deleterious mutations (U) figures prominently in much evolutionary and ecological theory. In Drosophila melanogaster, estimates of U have varied widely, from <0.1 to nearly 1 per zygote. The source of this variation is unknown, but could include differences in the conditions used for assaying fitness traits. We examined how assay conditions affect estimates of the rates and effects of viability-depressing mutations in two sets of lines with accumulated spontaneous mutations on the second chromosome. In each set, the among-line variance in egg-to-adult viability was significantly greater when viability was assayed using a high parental density than when it was assayed using a low density. In contrast, the proportional decline in viability due to new mutations did not differ between densities. Two other manipulations, lowering the temperature and adding ethanol to the medium, had no significant effects on either the mean decline or among-line variance. Cross-environment genetic correlations in viability were generally close to one, implying that most mutations reduced viability in all environments. Using data from the low-density, lower-bound estimates of U approached the classic, high values of Mukai and Ohnishi; at the high density, U estimates were similar to recently reported low values. The difference in estimated mutation rates, taken at face value, would imply that many mutations affected fitness at low density but not at high density, but this is shown to be incompatible with the observed high cross-environment correlations. Possible reasons for this discrepancy are discussed. Regardless of the interpretation, the results show that assay conditions can have a large effect on estimates of mutational parameters for fitness traits. PMID:12136018

  7. Isolated human islets require hyperoxia to maintain islet mass, metabolism, and function.

    PubMed

    Komatsu, Hirotake; Kang, Dongyang; Medrano, Leonard; Barriga, Alyssa; Mendez, Daniel; Rawson, Jeffrey; Omori, Keiko; Ferreri, Kevin; Tai, Yu-Chong; Kandeel, Fouad; Mullen, Yoko

    2016-02-12

    Pancreatic islet transplantation has been recognized as an effective treatment for Type 1 diabetes; however, there is still plenty of room to improve transplantation efficiency. Because islets are metabolically active they require high oxygen to survive; thus hypoxia after transplant is one of the major causes of graft failure. Knowing the optimal oxygen tension for isolated islets would allow a transplant team to provide the best oxygen environment during pre- and post-transplant periods. To address this issue and begin to establish empirically determined guidelines for islet maintenance, we exposed in vitro cultured islets to different partial oxygen pressures (pO2) and assessed changes in islet volume, viability, metabolism, and function. Human islets were cultured for 7 days in different pO2 media corresponding to hypoxia (90 mmHg), normoxia (160 mmHg), and hyerpoxia (270 or 350 mmHg). Compared to normoxia and hypoxia, hyperoxia alleviated the loss of islet volume, maintaining higher islet viability and metabolism as measured by oxygen consumption and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion responses. We predict that maintaining pre- and post-transplanted islets in a hyperoxic environment will alleviate islet volume loss and maintain islet quality thereby improving transplant outcomes. PMID:26801563

  8. Economic Viability of Brewery Spent Grain as a Biofuel

    SciTech Connect

    Morrow, Charles

    2016-01-01

    This report summarizes an investigation into the technical feasibility and economic viability of use grain wastes from the beer brewing process as fuel to generate the heat needed in subsequent brewing process. The study finds that while use of spent grain as a biofuel is technically feasible, the economics are not attractive. Economic viability is limited by the underuse of capital equipment. The investment in heating equipment requires a higher utilization that the client brewer currently anticipates. It may be possible in the future that changing factors may swing the decision to a more positive one.

  9. Viability and growth of clinical isolates of Haemophilus influenzae.

    PubMed

    Flournoy, D J; Jones, J B

    1985-08-01

    Studies were done on clinical isolates of Haemophilus influenzae to investigate viability and determine the effects of disc-agar diffusion (DAD) medium modification on antimicrobial susceptibility results. Most isolates were viable for two days in distilled water, up to a week on chocolate agar and months when frozen in skim milk at -70 degrees C. Differences in viability were not related to biotype, serotype, beta-lactamase production or site of isolation of isolates. Several medium modifications resulted in better growth of isolates for antimicrobial susceptibility testing by DAD, but the zone sizes of inhibition differed from those of the recommended medium. PMID:3877620

  10. Viability and stability of biological control agents on cotton and snap bean seeds.

    PubMed

    Elliott, M L; Des Jardin, E A; Batson, W E; Caceres, J; Brannen, P M; Howell, C R; Benson, D M; Conway, K E; Rothrock, C S; Schneider, R W; Ownley, B H; Canaday, C H; Keinath, A P; Huber, D M; Sumner, D R; Motsenbocker, C E; Thaxton, P M; Cubeta, M A; Adams, P D; Backman, P A; Fajardo, J; Newman, M A; Pereira, R M

    2001-08-01

    Cotton and snap bean were selected for a multi-year, multi-state regional (south-eastern USA) research project to evaluate the efficacy of both commercial and experimental bacterial and fungal biological control agents for the management of damping-off diseases. The goal for this portion of the project was to determine the viability and stability of biological agents after application to seed. The biological seed treatments used included: (1) Bacillaceae bacteria, (2) non-Bacillaceae bacteria, (3) the fungus Trichoderma and (4) the fungus Beauveria bassiana. Seed assays were conducted to evaluate the following application factors: short-term (< or = 3 months) stability after seed treatment; quality (i.e. isolate purity); compatibility with chemical pesticides and other biocontrol agents; application uniformity between years and plant species. For the bacterial treatments, the Bacillaceae genera (Bacillus and Paenibacillus) maintained the greatest population of bacteria per seed, the best viability over time and the best application uniformity across years and seed type. The non-Bacillaceae genera Burkholderia and Pseudomonas had the least viability and uniformity. Although Beauveria bassiana was only evaluated one year, the seed fungal populations were high and uniform. The seed fungal populations and uniformity for the Trichoderma isolates were more variable, except for the commercial product T-22. However, this product was contaminated with a Streptomyces isolate in both the years that it was evaluated. The study demonstrated that Bacillaceae can be mixed with Trichoderma isolates or with numerous pesticides to provide an integrated pest control/growth enhancement package. PMID:11517723

  11. In situ monitoring of surgical flap viability using THz imaging (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bajwa, Neha; Sung, Shijun; Grundfest, Warren; Taylor, Zachary

    2016-03-01

    This paper explores the utility of reflective THz imaging to assess the viability of surgical flaps. Flap surgery is a technique where tissue is harvested from a donor site and moved to a recipient while keeping the blood supply intact. This technique is common in head and neck tumor resection surgery where the reconstruction of complex and sensitive anatomic structures is routine following the resection of large and/or invasive tumors. Successful flap surgery results in tissue that is sufficiently perfused with both blood and extracellular water. If insufficient fluid levels are maintained, the flap tissue becomes necrotic and must be excised immediately to prevent infection developing and spreading to the surrounding areas. The goal of this work is to investigate the hydration of surgical flaps and correlate image features to successful graft outcomes. Advancement flaps were created on the abdomens of rat models. One rat model was labeled control and care was taken to ensure a successful flap outcome. The flap on the second rat was compromised with restricted blood flow and allowed to fail. The flaps of both rats were imaged once a day over the course of a week at which point the compromised flap had begun to show signs of necrosis. Significant differences in tissue water content were observed between rats over the experimental period. The results suggest that THz imaging may enable early assessment of flap viability.

  12. Preservation of Rhizobium viability and symbiotic infectivity by suspension in water

    SciTech Connect

    Crist, D.K.; Wyza, R.E.; Mills, K.K.; Bauer, W.D.; Evans, W.R.

    1984-05-01

    Three Rhizobium japonicum strains and two slow-growing cowpea-type Rhizobium strains were found to remain viable and able to rapidly nodulate their respective hosts after being stored in purified water at ambient temperatures for periods of 1 year and longer. Three fast-growing Rhizobium species did not remain viable under the same water storage conditions. After dilution of slow-growing Rhizobium strains with water to 10/sup 3/ to 10/sup 5/ cells ml/sup -1/, the bacteria multiplied until the viable cell count reached levels of between 10/sub 6/ and 10/sup 7/ cells ml/sup -1/. The viable cell count subsequently remained fairly constant. When the rhizobia were diluted to 10/sup 7/ cells ml/sup -1/, they did not multiply, but full viability was maintained. If the rhizobia were washed and suspended at 10/sup 9/ cells ml/sup -1/, viability slowly declined to 10/sup 7/ cells ml/sup -1/ during 9 months of storage. Scanning electron microscopy showed that no major morphological changes took place during storage. Preservation of slow-growing rhizobia in water suspensions could provide a simple and inexpensive alternative to current methods for the preservation of rhizobia for legume inoculation. 25 references, 7 figures, 2 tables.

  13. Circulatory shear flow alters the viability and proliferation of circulating colon cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Rong; Emery, Travis; Zhang, Yongguo; Xia, Yuxuan; Sun, Jun; Wan, Jiandi

    2016-01-01

    During cancer metastasis, circulating tumor cells constantly experience hemodynamic shear stress in the circulation. Cellular responses to shear stress including cell viability and proliferation thus play critical roles in cancer metastasis. Here, we developed a microfluidic approach to establish a circulatory microenvironment and studied circulating human colon cancer HCT116 cells in response to a variety of magnitude of shear stress and circulating time. Our results showed that cell viability decreased with the increase of circulating time, but increased with the magnitude of wall shear stress. Proliferation of cells survived from circulation could be maintained when physiologically relevant wall shear stresses were applied. High wall shear stress (60.5 dyne/cm2), however, led to decreased cell proliferation at long circulating time (1 h). We further showed that the expression levels of β-catenin and c-myc, proliferation regulators, were significantly enhanced by increasing wall shear stress. The presented study provides a new insight to the roles of circulatory shear stress in cellular responses of circulating tumor cells in a physiologically relevant model, and thus will be of interest for the study of cancer cell mechanosensing and cancer metastasis. PMID:27255403

  14. Early progressive changes in tissue viability in the seated spinal cord injured subject.

    PubMed

    Bogie, K M; Nuseibeh, I; Bader, D L

    1995-03-01

    The patient with spinal cord injury is at high risk of tissue breakdown at all times due to a number of adverse factors, such as reduced mobility and anaesthesia. It is therefore essential that each patient is prescribed appropriate support media during initial rehabilitation. In this study, the effectiveness of prescribed wheelchair cushions has been assessed in terms of tissue response at the ischial tuberosities. A total of 42 subjects who had sustained traumatic spinal cord injury within 1 year were monitored on at least two occasions during initial rehabilitation. Changes in transcutaneous gas response (TcPO2 and TcPCO2) were monitored concurrently with regional interface pressures. A series of six transcutaneous gas variables were established, as markers of tissue viability. Non-parametric statistical analyses revealed some significant correlations between these variables. The results of this study also indicate that (1) spinal cord injury subjects with lesions below T6 show a progressive decrease in ability to maintain blood flow in sitting on prescribed support cushions and (2) SCI subjects with lesions above T6 show a progressive improvement in tissue viability status at the seating support interface. Therefore results imply that paraplegics are at a potentially higher risk of tissue breakdown than tetraplegics and thus require effective support cushions with strict adherence to a pressure relief regime. PMID:7784116

  15. The Effect of Tuning Cold Plasma Composition on Glioblastoma Cell Viability

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Xiaoqian; Sherman, Jonathan; Murphy, William; Ratovitski, Edward; Canady, Jerome; Keidar, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Previous research in cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) and cancer cell interaction has repeatedly proven that the cold plasma induced cell death. It is postulated that the reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) play a major role in the CAP cancer therapy. In this paper, we seek to determine a mechanism of CAP therapy on glioblastoma cells (U87) through an understanding of the composition of the plasma, including treatment time, voltage, flow-rate and plasma-gas composition. In order to determine the threshold of plasma treatment on U87, normal human astrocytes (E6/E7) were used as the comparison cell line. Our data showed that the 30 sec plasma treatment caused 3-fold cell death in the U87 cells compared to the E6/E7 cells. All the other compositions of cold plasma were performed based on this result: plasma treatment time was maintained at 30 s per well while other plasma characteristics such as voltage, flow rate of source gas, and composition of source gas were changed one at a time to vary the intensity of the reactive species composition in the plasma jet, which may finally have various effect on cells reflected by cell viability. We defined a term “plasma dosage” to summarize the relationship of all the characteristics and cell viability. PMID:24878760

  16. Circulatory shear flow alters the viability and proliferation of circulating colon cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Fan, Rong; Emery, Travis; Zhang, Yongguo; Xia, Yuxuan; Sun, Jun; Wan, Jiandi

    2016-01-01

    During cancer metastasis, circulating tumor cells constantly experience hemodynamic shear stress in the circulation. Cellular responses to shear stress including cell viability and proliferation thus play critical roles in cancer metastasis. Here, we developed a microfluidic approach to establish a circulatory microenvironment and studied circulating human colon cancer HCT116 cells in response to a variety of magnitude of shear stress and circulating time. Our results showed that cell viability decreased with the increase of circulating time, but increased with the magnitude of wall shear stress. Proliferation of cells survived from circulation could be maintained when physiologically relevant wall shear stresses were applied. High wall shear stress (60.5 dyne/cm(2)), however, led to decreased cell proliferation at long circulating time (1 h). We further showed that the expression levels of β-catenin and c-myc, proliferation regulators, were significantly enhanced by increasing wall shear stress. The presented study provides a new insight to the roles of circulatory shear stress in cellular responses of circulating tumor cells in a physiologically relevant model, and thus will be of interest for the study of cancer cell mechanosensing and cancer metastasis. PMID:27255403

  17. Human Cerebrospinal Fluid Promotes Neuronal Viability and Activity of Hippocampal Neuronal Circuits In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Perez-Alcazar, Marta; Culley, Georgia; Lyckenvik, Tim; Mobarrez, Kristoffer; Bjorefeldt, Andreas; Wasling, Pontus; Seth, Henrik; Asztely, Frederik; Harrer, Andrea; Iglseder, Bernhard; Aigner, Ludwig; Hanse, Eric; Illes, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    For decades it has been hypothesized that molecules within the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) diffuse into the brain parenchyma and influence the function of neurons. However, the functional consequences of CSF on neuronal circuits are largely unexplored and unknown. A major reason for this is the absence of appropriate neuronal in vitro model systems, and it is uncertain if neurons cultured in pure CSF survive and preserve electrophysiological functionality in vitro. In this article, we present an approach to address how human CSF (hCSF) influences neuronal circuits in vitro. We validate our approach by comparing the morphology, viability, and electrophysiological function of single neurons and at the network level in rat organotypic slice and primary neuronal cultures cultivated either in hCSF or in defined standard culture media. Our results demonstrate that rodent hippocampal slices and primary neurons cultured in hCSF maintain neuronal morphology and preserve synaptic transmission. Importantly, we show that hCSF increases neuronal viability and the number of electrophysiologically active neurons in comparison to the culture media. In summary, our data indicate that hCSF represents a physiological environment for neurons in vitro and a superior culture condition compared to the defined standard media. Moreover, this experimental approach paves the way to assess the functional consequences of CSF on neuronal circuits as well as suggesting a novel strategy for central nervous system (CNS) disease modeling. PMID:26973467

  18. Evaluation of Periodontal Ligament Cell Viability in Three Different Storage Media: An in Vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Sanjay; Reddy, Y. G.; Mittal, Rakesh; Agarwal, Vishal; Singh, Chanchal; Singh, Amandeep

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: This study was undertaken to evaluate the viability of periodontal ligament (PDL) cells of avulsed teeth in three different storage media. Materials and Methods: Forty-five premolars extracted for orthodontic therapeutic purposes were randomly and equally divided into three groups based on storage media used [Group I: milk (control); Group II: aloe vera (experimental); Group III: egg white (experimental)]. Following extractions, the teeth were placed in one of the three different storage media for 30 minutes, following which the scrapings of the PDL from these teeth were collected in Falcon tubes containing collagenase enzyme in 2.5 mL of phosphate buffered saline. The tubes were subsequently incubated for 30 minutes and centrifuged for five minutes at 800 rpm. The obtained PDL cells were stained with Trypan Blue and were observed under optical microscope. The percentage of viable cells was calculated. Results: Aloe vera showed the highest percentage of viable cells (114.3±8.0), followed by egg white (100.9±6.3) and milk (101.1±7.3). Conclusion: Within the limitations of this study, it appears that aloe vera maintains PDL cell viability better than egg white or milk. PMID:26877742

  19. Dendrimer mediated clustering of bacteria: improved aggregation and evaluation of bacterial response and viability.

    PubMed

    Leire, Emma; Amaral, Sandra P; Louzao, Iria; Winzer, Klaus; Alexander, Cameron; Fernandez-Megia, Eduardo; Fernandez-Trillo, Francisco

    2016-06-24

    Here, we evaluate how cationic gallic acid-triethylene glycol (GATG) dendrimers interact with bacteria and their potential to develop new antimicrobials. We demonstrate that GATG dendrimers functionalised with primary amines in their periphery can induce the formation of clusters in Vibrio harveyi, an opportunistic marine pathogen, in a generation dependent manner. Moreover, these cationic GATG dendrimers demonstrate an improved ability to induce cluster formation when compared to poly(N-[3-(dimethylamino)propyl]methacrylamide) [p(DMAPMAm)], a cationic linear polymer previously shown to cluster bacteria. Viability of the bacteria within the formed clusters and evaluation of quorum sensing controlled phenotypes (i.e. light production in V. harveyi) suggest that GATG dendrimers may be activating microbial responses by maintaining a high concentration of quorum sensing signals inside the clusters while increasing permeability of the microbial outer membranes. Thus, the reported GATG dendrimers constitute a valuable platform for the development of novel antimicrobial materials that can target microbial viability and/or virulence. PMID:27127812

  20. Circulatory shear flow alters the viability and proliferation of circulating colon cancer cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Rong; Emery, Travis; Zhang, Yongguo; Xia, Yuxuan; Sun, Jun; Wan, Jiandi

    2016-06-01

    During cancer metastasis, circulating tumor cells constantly experience hemodynamic shear stress in the circulation. Cellular responses to shear stress including cell viability and proliferation thus play critical roles in cancer metastasis. Here, we developed a microfluidic approach to establish a circulatory microenvironment and studied circulating human colon cancer HCT116 cells in response to a variety of magnitude of shear stress and circulating time. Our results showed that cell viability decreased with the increase of circulating time, but increased with the magnitude of wall shear stress. Proliferation of cells survived from circulation could be maintained when physiologically relevant wall shear stresses were applied. High wall shear stress (60.5 dyne/cm2), however, led to decreased cell proliferation at long circulating time (1 h). We further showed that the expression levels of β-catenin and c-myc, proliferation regulators, were significantly enhanced by increasing wall shear stress. The presented study provides a new insight to the roles of circulatory shear stress in cellular responses of circulating tumor cells in a physiologically relevant model, and thus will be of interest for the study of cancer cell mechanosensing and cancer metastasis.

  1. Impact of proliferation strategies on food web viability in a model with closed nutrient cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szwabiński, Janusz

    2012-11-01

    A food web model with a closed nutrient cycle is presented and analyzed via Monte Carlo simulations. The model consists of three trophic levels, each of which is populated by animals of one distinct species. While the species at the intermediate level feeds on the basal species, and is eaten by the predators living at the highest level, the basal species itself uses the detritus of animals from higher levels as the food resource. The individual organisms remain localized, but the species can invade new lattice areas via proliferation. The impact of different proliferation strategies on the viability of the system is investigated. From the phase diagrams generated in the simulations it follows that in general a strategy with the intermediate level species searching for food is the best for the survival of the system. The results indicate that both the intermediate and top level species play a critical role in maintaining the structure of the system.

  2. Viability of human composite tissue model for experimental study of burns.

    PubMed

    Qu, Miao; Kruse, Stephan; Pitsch, Heinz; Pallua, Norbert; Nourbakhsh, Mahtab

    2016-08-01

    Experimental studies of burns are primarily performed with animal models that have important anatomical and physiological differences relative to human systems. The aim of this study was to develop a human experimental burn model using composite tissue obtained from bariatric surgery. We established a new protocol to maintain viable sections of human cutaneous and subcutaneous (sub/cutaneous) tissue in vitro. Under the conditions selected, multiparametric flow cytometry and histological analysis confirmed the viability and integrity of the human sub/cutaneous tissue for at least 5 days. Furthermore, we utilized a precision McKenna burner to inflict burns on the human tissue model under well-defined thermal conditions in vitro. Our data showed a localized, temporally restricted polarization of the resident macrophages in the subcutaneous human tissue in response to specific thermal forces. Therefore, our model provides a useful alternative to animal studies for further detailed investigations of human responses to injuries and treatments. PMID:27585227

  3. Economic viability of beef cattle grazing systems under prolonged drought

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Prolonged drought in the Southern Great Plains of the USA in recent years has raised concerns about vulnerability of beef cattle grazing systems under adverse climate change. To help address the economic viability of beef grazing operations in the Southern Great Plains, this paper provides an econom...

  4. Effect of Lanthanide Complex Structure on Cell Viability and Association

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    A systematic study of the effect of hydrophobicity and charge on the cell viability and cell association of lanthanide metal complexes is presented. The terbium luminescent probes feature a macrocyclic polyaminocarboxylate ligand (DOTA) in which the hydrophobicity of the antenna and that of the carboxyamide pendant arms are independently varied. Three sensitizing antennas were investigated in terms of their function in vitro: 2-methoxyisophthalamide (IAM(OMe)), 2-hydroxyisophthalamide (IAM), and 6-methylphenanthridine (Phen). Of these complexes, Tb-DOTA-IAM exhibited the highest quantum yield, although the higher cell viability and more facile synthesis of the structurally related Tb-DOTA-IAM(OMe) platform renders it more attractive. Further modification of this latter core structure with carboxyamide arms featuring hydrophobic benzyl, hexyl, and trifluoro groups as well as hydrophilic amino acid based moieties generated a family of complexes that exhibit high cell viability (ED50 > 300 μM) regardless of the lipophilicity or the overall complex charge. Only the hexyl-substituted complex reduced cell viability to 60% in the presence of 100 μM complex. Additionally, cellular association was investigated by ICP-MS and fluorescence microscopy. Surprisingly, the hydrophobic moieties did not increase cell association in comparison to the hydrophilic amino acid derivatives. It is thus postulated that the hydrophilic nature of the 2-methoxyisophthalamide antenna (IAM(OMe)) disfavors the cellular association of these complexes. As such, responsive luminescent probes based on this scaffold would be appropriate for the detection of extracellular species. PMID:24901440

  5. 37 CFR 1.807 - Viability of deposit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Viability of deposit. 1.807 Section 1.807 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES Biotechnology Invention Disclosures Deposit...

  6. 37 CFR 1.807 - Viability of deposit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Viability of deposit. 1.807 Section 1.807 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES Biotechnology Invention Disclosures Deposit...

  7. 37 CFR 1.807 - Viability of deposit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Viability of deposit. 1.807 Section 1.807 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES Biotechnology Invention Disclosures Deposit...

  8. 37 CFR 1.807 - Viability of deposit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Viability of deposit. 1.807 Section 1.807 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES Biotechnology Invention Disclosures Deposit...

  9. Metam sodium reduces viability and infectivity of Eimeria oocysts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Metam sodium (MS, sodium N-methyldithiocarbamate) is a widely used soil pesticide. Fumigation or chemical sterilization of poultry litter containing infectious oocysts could be an effective strategy to block the transmission of avian coccidia. In the current study the effect of MS on the viability ...

  10. 37 CFR 1.807 - Viability of deposit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Viability of deposit. 1.807 Section 1.807 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES Biotechnology Invention Disclosures Deposit...

  11. Sewage sludge pasteurization by gamma radiation: Financial viability case studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swinwood, Jean F.; Kotler, Jiri

    This paper examines the financial viability of sewage sludge pasteurization by gamma radiation, by examining the following three North American scenarios: 1) Small volume sewage treatment plant experiencing high sludge disposal costs. 2) Large volume sewage treatment plant experiencing low sludge disposal costs. 3) Large volume sewage treatment plant experiencing high sludge disposal costs.

  12. Proving the Viability of a School Choice Voucher. Policy Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haller, Scott

    2015-01-01

    A recent Pioneer Institute report written by Ken Ardon and Cara Stilling Candal, "Modeling Urban Scholarship Vouchers in Massachusetts," explores the viability of a school choice voucher program in the Commonwealth. Nationally, school choice has been shown to improve parent satisfaction and student achievement, reduce racial segregation,…

  13. Evaluating the Viability of Mobile Learning to Enhance Management Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macdonald, Iain; Chiu, Jason

    2011-01-01

    A qualitative research project was conducted to test the viability of augmenting an e-learning program for workplace learners using mobile content delivered through smart phones. Ten learners taking a six week web-based e-learning course were given smart phones which enabled them to access approximately 70% of the course content, in addition to…

  14. Proof of Economic Viability of Blended Learning Business Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Druhmann, Carsten; Hohenberg, Gregor

    2014-01-01

    The discussion on economically sustainable business models with respect to information technology is lacking in many aspects of proven approaches. In the following contribution the economic viability is valued based on a procedural model for design and evaluation of e-learning business models in the form of a case study. As a case study object a…

  15. Dual fluorochrome flow cytometric assessment of yeast viability

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A novel staining protocol is reported for the assessment of viability in yeast, specifically the biocontrol yeast, Pichia anomala. Employing both the red fluorescent membrane potential sensitive oxonol stain DiBAC4(5) (Bis-(1,3-dibutylbarbituric acid)pentamethine oxonol), a structural analog of the ...

  16. The Polymerase Activity of Mammalian DNA Pol ζ Is Specifically Required for Cell and Embryonic Viability

    PubMed Central

    Lange, Sabine S.; Tomida, Junya; Boulware, Karen S.; Bhetawal, Sarita; Wood, Richard D.

    2016-01-01

    DNA polymerase ζ (pol ζ) is exceptionally important for maintaining genome stability. Inactivation of the Rev3l gene encoding the polymerase catalytic subunit causes a high frequency of chromosomal breaks, followed by lethality in mouse embryos and in primary cells. Yet it is not known whether the DNA polymerase activity of pol ζ is specifically essential, as the large REV3L protein also serves as a multiprotein scaffold for translesion DNA synthesis via multiple conserved structural domains. We report that Rev3l cDNA rescues the genomic instability and DNA damage sensitivity of Rev3l-null immortalized mouse fibroblast cell lines. A cDNA harboring mutations of conserved catalytic aspartate residues in the polymerase domain of REV3L could not rescue these phenotypes. To investigate the role of REV3L DNA polymerase activity in vivo, a Rev3l knock-in mouse was constructed with this polymerase-inactivating alteration. No homozygous mutant mice were produced, with lethality occurring during embryogenesis. Primary fibroblasts from mutant embryos showed growth defects, elevated DNA double-strand breaks and cisplatin sensitivity similar to Rev3l-null fibroblasts. We tested whether the severe Rev3l-/- phenotypes could be rescued by deletion of DNA polymerase η, as has been reported with chicken DT40 cells. However, Rev3l-/- Polh-/- mice were inviable, and derived primary fibroblasts were as sensitive to DNA damage as Rev3l-/- Polh+/+ fibroblasts. Therefore, the functions of REV3L in maintaining cell viability, embryonic viability and genomic stability are directly dependent on its polymerase activity, and cannot be ameliorated by an additional deletion of pol η. These results validate and encourage the approach of targeting the DNA polymerase activity of pol ζ to sensitize tumors to DNA damaging agents. PMID:26727495

  17. Effect of aerosolization on culturability and viability of gram-negative bacteria.

    PubMed

    Heidelberg, J F; Shahamat, M; Levin, M; Rahman, I; Stelma, G; Grim, C; Colwell, R R

    1997-09-01

    Estimations of the bacterial content of air can be more easily made now than a decade ago, with colony formation the method of choice for enumeration of airborne bacteria. However, plate counts are subject to error because bacteria exposed to the air may remain viable yet lose the ability to form colonies, i.e., they become viable but nonculturable. If airborne bacteria exhibit this phenomenon, colony formation data will significantly underestimate the bacterial populations in air samples. The objective of the study reported here was to determine the effect of aerosolization on viability and colony-forming ability of Serratia marcescens, Klebsiella planticola, and Cytophaga allerginae. A collision nebulizer was used to spray bacterial suspensions into an aerosol chamber, after which duplicate samples were collected in all-glass impingers over a 4-h period. Humidity was maintained at ca. 20 to 25%, and temperature was maintained at 20 to 22 degrees C for each of two replicate trials per microorganism. Viability was determined by using a modified direct viable count method, employing nalidixic acid or aztreonam and p-iodonitrotetrazolium violet (INT). Cells were stained with acridine orange and observed by epifluorescence microscopy to enumerate total and viable cells. Viable cells were defined as those elongating in the presence of antibiotic and/or reducing INT. CFU were determined by plating on tryptic soy agar and R2A agar. It was found that culture techniques did not provide an adequate description of the bacterial burdens of indoor air (i.e., less than 10% of the aerosolized bacteria were capable of forming visible colonies). It is concluded that total cell count procedures provide a better approximation of the number of bacterial cells in air and that procedures other than plate counting are needed to enumerate bacteria in aerosol samples, especially if the public health quality of indoor air is to be estimated. PMID:9293010

  18. Automated Methods to Maintain Aircraft Separation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lauderdale, Todd

    2011-01-01

    The air traffic control system in the United States has a great track-record for safety. As more aircraft enter the system at a given time, the situation becomes more complex though. Researchers at NASA are attempting to leverage advances in many fields including optimization, data mining, and numerical modeling of systems to improve the air-transportation system maintaining safety while increasing throughput and reducing delays. This talk will give a brief overview of the research at NASA towards modernizing the air-transportation system. It will then focus on the specific area of automation tools for maintaining physical separation between aircraft known as Separation Assurance.

  19. Bacterial plasmolysis as a physical indicator of viability

    SciTech Connect

    Korber, D.R.; Choi, A.; Wolfaardt, G.M.; Caldwell, D.E.

    1996-11-01

    Bacterial plasmolytic response to osmotic stress was evaluated as a physical indicator of membrane integrity and hence cellular viability. Digital image analysis and either low-magnification dark-field, high-magnification phase-contrast, or confocal laser microscopy, in conjunction with pulse application of a 1.5 NaCl solution, were used as a rapid, growth-independent method for quantifying the viability of attached biofilm bacteria. Bacteria were considered viable if they were capable of plasmolysis, as quantified by changes in cell area or light scattering. When viable Salmonella enteritidis biofilm cells were exposed to 1.5 M NaCl, and {approximately}50% reduction in cell protoplast area (as determined by high-magnification phase-contrast microscopy) was observed. In contrast, heat- and formalin-killed S. enteritidis cells were unresponsive to NaCl treatment. Furthermore, the mean dark-field cell area of a viable, sessile population of Pseudomonas fluorescens cells ({approximately}1,100 cells) increased by 50% as a result of salt stress, from 1,035 {+-} 162 to 1,588 {+-} 284 {mu}m{sup 2}, because of increased light scattering of the condensed, plasmolyzed cell protoplast. Light scattering of ethanol-killed control biofilm cells underwent little change following salt stress. When the results obtained with scanning confocal laser microscopy and a fluorescent viability probe were compared with the accuracy of plasmolysis as a viability indicator, it was found that the two methods were in close agreement. Used alone or in conjunction with fluorochemical probes, physical indicators of membrane integrity provided a rapid, direct, growth-independent method for determining the viability of biofilm bacteria known to undergo plasmolysis, and this method may have value during efficacy testing of biocides and other antimicrobial agents when nondestructive time course analyses and required. 42 refs., 7 figs.

  20. Increase in Periodontal Interleukin-1β Gene Expression Following Osseous Resective Surgery Using Conventional Rotary Instruments Compared with Piezosurgery: A Split-Mouth Randomized Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Aimetti, Mario; Ferrarotti, Francesco; Bergandi, Loredana; Saksing, Laura; Parducci, Francesca; Romano, Federica

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the early inflammatory response following osseous resective surgery (ORS) with Piezosurgery compared to commonly used diamond burs. A sample was selected of 24 bilateral posterior sextants requiring ORS in 12 chronic periodontitis patients in a split-mouth design. In 12 sextants, bone recontouring was performed using a piezoelectric device. In the contralateral sextants, rotary instruments were used. Sextants treated with Piezosurgery obtained similar 12-month clinical results but lower postsurgical gene expression of interleukin-1β (IL-1β), a well-known proinflammatory cytokine, and lower patient morbidity compared with sextants treated with rotary instruments. In spite of the longer surgical time, the use of Piezosurgery for ORS seems to promote more favorable wound healing compared with rotary instruments, as the lower pain and the low levels of IL-1β mRNA at the surgical sites suggest a milder underlying inflammatory response. PMID:27333006

  1. Solitary Painful Osseous Metastases: Correlation of Imaging Features with Pain Palliation after Radiofrequency Ablation—A Multicenter American College of Radiology Imaging Network Study

    PubMed Central

    Guenette, Jeffrey P.; Lopez, Michael J.; Kim, Eunhee

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To identify the correlation of pre- and postablation imaging features with pain relief, pain intensity, and patient mood after radiofrequency (RF) ablation of solitary painful osseous metastases. Materials and Methods: This prospective, multicenter group trial was approved by each institutional review board. Participants were enrolled between November 1, 2001, and April 6, 2006. Written informed consent was obtained from all subjects, and patient confidentiality protocols were followed in compliance with HIPAA. Computed tomography (CT)-guided RF ablation and contrast material–enhanced 1-month follow-up CT and/or magnetic resonance imaging were performed in 49 subjects (24 men, 25 women; age range, 34–83 years) with a confirmed malignant solitary bone lesion of maximum dimension of 8 cm or smaller that was causing intractable pain. Pain intensity and patient mood were measured before and after RF ablation. Tumor imaging features were recorded. Unadjusted and adjusted linear mixed-effects models, with a random intercept for each subject, were used to model patient mood, pain relief, and pain intensity scores at three times after ablation as a function of each tumor characteristic. Results: Decreased postablation tumor pain correlated with preablation tumor volume (P = .02) and pathologic fracture (P = .01), while pain relief correlated with pathologic fracture (P = .03) and percentage of bone-tumor interface (BTI) ablated (P = .02). Conversely, presence of an irregular rim after ablation (P = .02) and rim thickness (P = .01) correlated with increased pain. There was no evidence in this study that RF ablation of larger tumor percentage or larger volume leads to better pain relief or decreased pain (P > .05). Conclusion: Existing pathologic fracture and smaller tumor size appear to be predictive parameters of success when selecting patients for palliative RF ablation of painful solitary osseous metastases. Successful palliation also appears to be related

  2. 7 CFR 1430.508 - Maintaining records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS DAIRY PRODUCTS Dairy Market Loss Assistance Program § 1430.508 Maintaining records. Dairy operations making application for benefits under this... after the date of the cash payment to dairy operations under this program....

  3. 7 CFR 1430.508 - Maintaining records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS DAIRY PRODUCTS Dairy Market Loss Assistance Program § 1430.508 Maintaining records. Dairy operations making application for benefits under this... after the date of the cash payment to dairy operations under this program....

  4. 7 CFR 1430.508 - Maintaining records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS DAIRY PRODUCTS Dairy Market Loss Assistance Program § 1430.508 Maintaining records. Dairy operations making application for benefits under this... after the date of the cash payment to dairy operations under this program....

  5. 7 CFR 1430.508 - Maintaining records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS DAIRY PRODUCTS Dairy Market Loss Assistance Program § 1430.508 Maintaining records. Dairy operations making application for benefits under this... after the date of the cash payment to dairy operations under this program....

  6. 7 CFR 1430.508 - Maintaining records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS DAIRY PRODUCTS Dairy Market Loss Assistance Program § 1430.508 Maintaining records. Dairy operations making application for benefits under this... after the date of the cash payment to dairy operations under this program....

  7. 7 CFR 786.112 - Maintaining records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS DAIRY DISASTER ASSISTANCE PAYMENT PROGRAM (DDAP-III) § 786.112 Maintaining... after the date of payment to their dairy operations under this program. Destruction of the records...

  8. 7 CFR 786.112 - Maintaining records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS DAIRY DISASTER ASSISTANCE PAYMENT PROGRAM (DDAP-III) § 786.112 Maintaining... after the date of payment to their dairy operations under this program. Destruction of the records...

  9. Maintaining Interest in Operator Requal Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lapp, H. J., Jr.

    A study reviewed operator training programs at Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station to determine their interface with plant operations and to devise new ways of maintaining interest in requalification (requal) training. The operator training review committee that was formed to implement the review documented over 100 issues and concerns…

  10. Obtaining, Maintaining, and Advancing Your Fitness Certification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierce, Patricia; Herman, Susan

    2004-01-01

    Public awareness of health, fitness, and exercise has increased and the fitness industry has expanded in recent years. Yet, ironically, the health of our nation continues to deteriorate. Now more than ever there is the need for qualified fitness professionals to help individuals to improve or maintain health and fitness. Since fitness…

  11. Maintaining and Repairing. CAP Job Function.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. National Center for Research in Vocational Education.

    This Job Function Booklet (Maintaining and Repairing) is one of the 14 components (see note) of the Career Alert Planning (CAP) program, a set of individualized materials designed to help participants find out about themselves and about the kind of work for which they are suited. In this program, participants become acquainted with occupations…

  12. Maintaining Hope in the Face of Evil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Geri

    2002-01-01

    P. G. Zimbardo (2001) and M. E. P. Seligman (in an interview with S. Carpenter, 2001) discuss evil and hope in response to the September 11, 2001, disaster. The implications for counseling are presented with an emphasis on how counselors can maintain hope for themselves and their clients in the face of evil. (Author)

  13. Maintaining ideal body weight counseling sessions

    SciTech Connect

    Brammer, S.H.

    1980-10-09

    The purpose of this program is to provide employees with the motivation, knowledge and skills necessary to maintain ideal body weight throughout life. The target audience for this program, which is conducted in an industrial setting, is the employee 40 years of age or younger who is at or near his/her ideal body weight.

  14. How Do Positive Views Maintain Life Satisfaction?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Chia-Huei; Tsai, Ying-Mei; Chen, Lung Hung

    2009-01-01

    This study proposes three mediation pathways to explain how the positive views (perceived control, optimism and self-enhancement) proposed by Cummins and Nistico (Journal of Happiness Studies 3:37-69 2002) maintain life satisfaction. The three pathways were enhancing self-esteem, reducing have-want discrepancy and changing importance perceptions.…

  15. Safety, reliability, maintainability and quality provisions for the Space Shuttle program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    This publication establishes common safety, reliability, maintainability and quality provisions for the Space Shuttle Program. NASA Centers shall use this publication both as the basis for negotiating safety, reliability, maintainability and quality requirements with Shuttle Program contractors and as the guideline for conduct of program safety, reliability, maintainability and quality activities at the Centers. Centers shall assure that applicable provisions of the publication are imposed in lower tier contracts. Centers shall give due regard to other Space Shuttle Program planning in order to provide an integrated total Space Shuttle Program activity. In the implementation of safety, reliability, maintainability and quality activities, consideration shall be given to hardware complexity, supplier experience, state of hardware development, unit cost, and hardware use. The approach and methods for contractor implementation shall be described in the contractors safety, reliability, maintainability and quality plans. This publication incorporates provisions of NASA documents: NHB 1700.1 'NASA Safety Manual, Vol. 1'; NHB 5300.4(IA), 'Reliability Program Provisions for Aeronautical and Space System Contractors'; and NHB 5300.4(1B), 'Quality Program Provisions for Aeronautical and Space System Contractors'. It has been tailored from the above documents based on experience in other programs. It is intended that this publication be reviewed and revised, as appropriate, to reflect new experience and to assure continuing viability.

  16. A synthetic biochemistry molecular purge valve module that maintains redox balance.

    PubMed

    Opgenorth, Paul H; Korman, Tyler P; Bowie, James U

    2014-01-01

    The greatest potential environmental benefit of metabolic engineering would be the production of high-volume commodity chemicals, such as biofuels. Yet, the high yields required for the economic viability of low-value chemicals is particularly hard to achieve in microbes owing to the myriad competing biochemical pathways. An alternative approach, which we call synthetic biochemistry, is to eliminate the organism by constructing biochemical pathways in vitro. Viable synthetic biochemistry, however, will require simple methods to replace the cellular circuitry that maintains cofactor balance. Here we design a simple purge valve module for maintaining NADP(+)/NADPH balance. We test the purge valve in the production of polyhydroxybutyryl bioplastic and isoprene--pathways where cofactor generation and utilization are unbalanced. We find that the regulatory system is highly robust to variations in cofactor levels and readily transportable. The molecular purge valve provides a step towards developing continuously operating, sustainable synthetic biochemistry systems. PMID:24936528

  17. Fungal Spores Viability on the International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomoiu, I.; Chatzitheodoridis, E.; Vadrucci, S.; Walther, I.; Cojoc, R.

    2016-04-01

    In this study we investigated the security of a spaceflight experiment from two points of view: spreading of dried fungal spores placed on the different wafers and their viability during short and long term missions on the International Space Station (ISS). Microscopic characteristics of spores from dried spores samples were investigated, as well as the morphology of the colonies obtained from spores that survived during mission. The selected fungal species were: Aspergillus niger, Cladosporium herbarum, Ulocladium chartarum, and Basipetospora halophila. They have been chosen mainly based on their involvement in the biodeterioration of different substrate in the ISS as well as their presence as possible contaminants of the ISS. From biological point of view, three of the selected species are black fungi, with high melanin content and therefore highly resistant to space radiation. The visual inspection and analysis of the images taken before and after the short and the long term experiments have shown that all biocontainers were returned to Earth without damages. Microscope images of the lids of the culture plates revealed that the spores of all species were actually not detached from the surface of the wafers and did not contaminate the lids. From the adhesion point of view all types of wafers can be used in space experiments, with a special comment on the viability in the particular case of iron wafers when used for spores that belong to B. halophila (halophilic strain). This is encouraging in performing experiments with fungi without risking contamination. The spore viability was lower in the experiment for long time to ISS conditions than that of the short experiment. From the observations, it is suggested that the environment of the enclosed biocontainer, as well as the species'specific behaviour have an important effect, reducing the viability in time. Even the spores were not detached from the surface of the wafers, it was observed that spores used in the

  18. Fetal viability as a threshold to personhood. A legal analysis.

    PubMed

    Peterfy, A

    1995-12-01

    This essay opens with an examination of US laws concerning fetal viability as they apply to induced abortion, to a mother's right to refuse medical treatment necessary to save the life of a fetus, and to the rights to file suit for the wrongful death of unborn children. The history of abortion policies in the US is traced from the common law period of the early 19th century to the restrictive post-Civil War laws and the decisions of the Supreme Court in Roe vs. Wade, which upheld the constitutionality of previability abortions; Webster vs. Reproductive Health Services, in which the Court assigned viability to the 20th week of pregnancy and acknowledged that States could have a compelling previability interest in the fetus; and the Casey decision, which provided tolerance for limits on the availability of abortion before viability as long as the limits did not create an "undue burden" on the woman seeking the abortion. Courts dealing with the issue of compelling a mother to undergo medical treatment to save her fetus have been inconsistent as they balanced the state's interest in the fetus against the mother's rights to privacy. Judges have tended to err on the side of forcing the medical interventions, but the most recent trend is against this sort of judgement. In these cases, fetal viability has also served as a dividing line. The inconsistency of the legal system is illustrated by the fact that, whereas the fetus now has a legal existence, wrongful death actions entered on behalf of a nonviable fetus have often been denied although courts have been more willing to extend protection to fetuses in wrongful death tort cases than in abortion or medical intervention cases. Criminal law has a unique set of rules for dealing with fetuses as some states have broadened their definitions of "homicide" to include fetuses, even nonviable fetuses. Courts, however, are reluctant to enlarge criminal statutes on their own. While the central position given to the role of

  19. Hyaluronic Acid (800 kDa) Supplementation of University of Wisconsin Solution Improves Viability of Osteochondral Grafts and Reduces Matrix Metalloproteinase Expression during Cold Preservation

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Takuya; Uchida, Kentaro; Onuma, Kenji; Inoue, Gen; Aikawa, Jun; Takano, Shotaro; Sekiguchi, Hiroyuki; Fujimaki, Hisako; Miyagi, Masayuki; Takaso, Masashi

    2015-01-01

    Osteochondral allografting is a promising option for the treatment of large cartilage defects. However, because the cell viability of osteochondral tissues (OCTs) gradually reduces during storage at 4°C, methods for maintaining the cell viability of fresh OCTs are needed to improve transplantation outcomes. Here, we evaluated whether the supplementation of preservation solution with one of three different molecular weight forms of hyaluronic acid (HA) improved the viability of rat OCTs during long-term cold storage. The supplementation of University of Wisconsin (UW) solution with 800 kDa significantly improved the cell viability of OCT after 14 days at 4°C compared to nonsupplemented UW solution. In contrast, UW solution supplemented with either 1900 or 6000 kDa HA did not markedly improve the cell viability of the OCT. Real-time PCR analysis revealed that the levels of matrix metalloproteinases 2, 3, and 9 were significantly decreased in OCT stored in UW solution supplemented with 800 kDa HA. Although further studies in human OCT are warranted, these findings demonstrate that the use of 800 kDa HA in place of serum may be a suitable approach for the long-term preservation of osteochondral allografts designated for the repair of large cartilage defects in the clinical setting. PMID:26199955

  20. Managing Self-Governing Primary Schools in the Locally Maintained, Grant-Maintained and Private Sectors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Les; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Discusses a study that surveyed heads of locally maintained, grant-maintained, and private sector (British) primary schools concerning their management styles. Questionnaire and interview data suggest that autonomous primary schools are characterized by collective decision making and high job satisfaction levels. Private sector school heads'…

  1. Hybrid Viability and Fertility in Co-occuring Plant Species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez, E.; Garcia, C.; Yost, J.

    2012-12-01

    Similar species of plants can co-exist due to reproductive barriers that keep them from hybridizing. In the case of Lasthenia gracilis and L. californica, certain reproductive barriers allow them to co-exist at Jasper Ridge without hybridization. The two species are locally adapted to different regions of the same hillside, and have slight differences in flowering time but hybrids can be created at low rate in the green house. We tested the viability and fertility of green house produced hybrids to quantify post-zygotic reproductive isolation at Jasper Ridge. We planted 10 hybrid seeds and 10 control seeds from 11 different families. We measured the percent germination, survival to flowering and pollen fertility of the seeds. We expect lower germination, lower survival to flowering, and lower pollen viability of hybrid seeds as compared to control seeds.

  2. Myocardial Viability: From Proof of Concept to Clinical Practice

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Timothy C.; Hsu, Chijen; Denniss, Alan Robert

    2016-01-01

    Ischaemic left ventricular (LV) dysfunction can arise from myocardial stunning, hibernation, or necrosis. Imaging modalities have become front-line methods in the assessment of viable myocardial tissue, with the aim to stratify patients into optimal treatment pathways. Initial studies, although favorable, lacked sufficient power and sample size to provide conclusive outcomes of viability assessment. Recent trials, including the STICH and HEART studies, have failed to confer prognostic benefits of revascularisation therapy over standard medical management in ischaemic cardiomyopathy. In lieu of these recent findings, assessment of myocardial viability therefore should not be the sole factor for therapy choice. Optimization of medical therapy is paramount, and physicians should feel comfortable in deferring coronary revascularisation in patients with coronary artery disease with reduced LV systolic function. Newer trials are currently underway and will hopefully provide a more complete understanding of the pathos and management of ischaemic cardiomyopathy. PMID:27313943

  3. Myocardial Viability: From Proof of Concept to Clinical Practice.

    PubMed

    Bhat, Aditya; Gan, Gary C H; Tan, Timothy C; Hsu, Chijen; Denniss, Alan Robert

    2016-01-01

    Ischaemic left ventricular (LV) dysfunction can arise from myocardial stunning, hibernation, or necrosis. Imaging modalities have become front-line methods in the assessment of viable myocardial tissue, with the aim to stratify patients into optimal treatment pathways. Initial studies, although favorable, lacked sufficient power and sample size to provide conclusive outcomes of viability assessment. Recent trials, including the STICH and HEART studies, have failed to confer prognostic benefits of revascularisation therapy over standard medical management in ischaemic cardiomyopathy. In lieu of these recent findings, assessment of myocardial viability therefore should not be the sole factor for therapy choice. Optimization of medical therapy is paramount, and physicians should feel comfortable in deferring coronary revascularisation in patients with coronary artery disease with reduced LV systolic function. Newer trials are currently underway and will hopefully provide a more complete understanding of the pathos and management of ischaemic cardiomyopathy. PMID:27313943

  4. Viability of Loma salmonae (Microsporidia) under laboratory conditions.

    PubMed

    Shaw, R W; Kent, M L; Adamson, M L

    2000-12-01

    The viability of the fish-infecting microsporidian Loma salmonae Morrison and Sprague, 1981 was determined under laboratory conditions by polar filament extrusion and infectivity to chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). Extrusion rates of isolated spores decreased from 51.0% to 0.0% by 100 days after storage in fresh or sea water at 4 degrees C. Spores stored up to 95 days in either solution infected 80.0-100.0% of exposed chinook, although no spores infected fish at 100 days in one trial. Viability in Earl's balanced salt solution was tested up to 50 days, with 23.7% of spores extruding filaments and 80.0% of exposed chinook becoming infected. Spores frozen to -20 degrees C or -70 degrees C were unable to infect fish. PMID:11133113

  5. Viability of vector-tensor theories of gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Jimenez, Jose Beltran; Maroto, Antonio L. E-mail: maroto@fis.ucm.es

    2009-02-15

    We present a detailed study of the viability of general vector-tensor theories of gravity in the presence of an arbitrary temporal background vector field. We find that there are six different classes of theories which are indistinguishable from General Relativity by means of local gravity experiments. We study the propagation speeds of scalar, vector and tensor perturbations and obtain the conditions for classical stability of those models. We compute the energy density of the different modes and find the conditions for the absence of ghosts in the quantum theory. We conclude that the only theories which can pass all the viability conditions for arbitrary values of the background vector field are not only those of the pure Maxwell type, but also Maxwell theories supplemented with a (Lorentz type) gauge fixing term.

  6. Mammalian cell viability in electrospun composite nanofiber structures.

    PubMed

    Canbolat, Mehmet Fatih; Tang, Christina; Bernacki, Susan H; Pourdeyhimi, Behnam; Khan, Saad

    2011-10-10

    Incorporation of mammalian cells into nanofibers (cell electrospinning) and multilayered cell-nanofiber structures (cell layering) via electrospinning are promising techniques for tissue engineering applications. We investigate the viability of 3T3-L1 mouse fibroblasts after incorporation into poly(vinyl alcohol) nanofibers and multilayering with poly(caprolactone) nanofibers and analyze the possible factors that affect cell viability. We observe that cells do not survive cell electrospinning but survive cell layering. Assessing the factors involved in cell electrospinning, we find that dehydration and fiber stretching are the main causes of cell death. In cell layering, the choice of solvent is critical, as residual solvent in the electrospun fibers could be detrimental to the cells. PMID:21984502

  7. Cosmological viability conditions for f(T) dark energy models

    SciTech Connect

    Setare, M.R.; Mohammadipour, N. E-mail: N.Mohammadipour@uok.ac.ir

    2012-11-01

    Recently f(T) modified teleparallel gravity where T is the torsion scalar has been proposed as the natural gravitational alternative for dark energy. We perform a detailed dynamical analysis of these models and find conditions for the cosmological viability of f(T) dark energy models as geometrical constraints on the derivatives of these models. We show that in the phase space exists two cosmologically viable trajectory which (i) The universe would start from an unstable radiation point, then pass a saddle standard matter point which is followed by accelerated expansion de sitter point. (ii) The universe starts from a saddle radiation epoch, then falls onto the stable matter era and the system can not evolve to the dark energy dominated epoch. Finally, for a number of f(T) dark energy models were proposed in the more literature, the viability conditions are investigated.

  8. Autophagy maintains stemness by preventing senescence.

    PubMed

    García-Prat, Laura; Martínez-Vicente, Marta; Perdiguero, Eusebio; Ortet, Laura; Rodríguez-Ubreva, Javier; Rebollo, Elena; Ruiz-Bonilla, Vanessa; Gutarra, Susana; Ballestar, Esteban; Serrano, Antonio L; Sandri, Marco; Muñoz-Cánoves, Pura

    2016-01-01

    During ageing, muscle stem-cell regenerative function declines. At advanced geriatric age, this decline is maximal owing to transition from a normal quiescence into an irreversible senescence state. How satellite cells maintain quiescence and avoid senescence until advanced age remains unknown. Here we report that basal autophagy is essential to maintain the stem-cell quiescent state in mice. Failure of autophagy in physiologically aged satellite cells or genetic impairment of autophagy in young cells causes entry into senescence by loss of proteostasis, increased mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress, resulting in a decline in the function and number of satellite cells. Re-establishment of autophagy reverses senescence and restores regenerative functions in geriatric satellite cells. As autophagy also declines in human geriatric satellite cells, our findings reveal autophagy to be a decisive stem-cell-fate regulator, with implications for fostering muscle regeneration in sarcopenia. PMID:26738589

  9. Maintaining professional resilience through group restorative supervision.

    PubMed

    Wallbank, Sonya

    2013-08-01

    Restorative clinical supervision has been delivered to over 2,500 professionals and has shown to be highly effective in reducing burnout, stress and increasing compassion satisfaction. Demand for the programme has shown that a sustainable model of implementation is needed for organisations who may not be able to invest in continued individual sessions. Following the initial six sessions, group restorative supervision has been developed and this paper reports on the programme's success in maintaining and continuing to improve compassion satisfaction, stress and burnout through the process of restorative group supervision. This means that organisations can continue to maintain the programme once the initial training has been completed and have confidence within the restorative group supervision to support professionals in managing the emotional demands of their role. The restorative groups have also had inadvertent positive benefits in workplace functioning. The paper outlines how professionals have been able to use this learning to support them in being more effective. PMID:23986988

  10. Device Maintains Water At The Triple Point

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    West, J. W.; Burkett, C. G.

    1988-01-01

    Inexpensive device maintains water at 0.01 degree C for 10 weeks or longer. New device consists of four basic assemblies; small, commercial chest freezer containing insulated water tank; insulated copper cell holder; "ice switch" for cycling freezer compressor and externally-mounted air pump for circulation. Access hole in freezer lid allows triple point measurements without opening lid. Modified freezer used to calibrate standard platinum resistance thermomenters.

  11. Techniques to maintain functionality during degraded performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCoy, Joseph R.; White, Joshua S.

    2010-04-01

    In technology the notion of beyond state-of-the-art often begins when a paradigm is shifted. In this paper the authors present their work which has fundamentally enabled an enterprise to insure operational viability under the very real cyber facts: "we are under constant attack, it is a hostile space and we can control the point of contact." That point of contact is the optical bit stream which is currently beyond the scope of the standard cyber toolset. EverisTM, in working with our customers, has developed the tools to capture, view, analyze, and control the correlative (interdependent network, metadata, data and users) information as it traverses the core, regional, and global fiber optic networks. This capability to visualize below the operational picture afforded by current network intrusion detection systems can be combined with real-time intervention at the network core yielding prioritization, identification, and authentication of authentication. This directly translates into sophisticated end user interaction across the interdependencies often viewed as the "cloud". Everis has demonstrated unique applications based on this capability that includes mitigation of DDOS (Distributed Denial of Service), identification of "forged" IP (Internet Protocol) addresses, malicious executable destruction, WAN (Wide Area Network) IPS (Intrusion Prevention System) and connectionless routing vs. connection based switching.

  12. Viability and DNA fragmentation in differently sorted boar spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    De Ambrogi, M; Spinaci, M; Galeati, G; Tamanini, C

    2006-11-01

    Sperm cell defense against DNA damage relies on two factors: the tight packaging of chromatin, based on condensation and substitution of histones with protamines, and the antioxidant agents present in seminal plasma. These defenses are extremely important as mature sperm is unable to repair DNA damage and even if a successful fertilization occurs, embryo undergoes apoptosis at the time of genomic activation. Sex-sorting exposes spermatozoa to stress sources such as high pressure, laser beam and electrical charge. The aim of this work was to determine how sorting procedures affect viability and DNA integrity in boar spermatozoa, by using the newly developed Sperm-Sus-Halomax. Four sperm populations were considered: CONTROL (no treatment), REAL (sex-sorted semen), BULK (semen sorted without sex separation) and NO LASER (semen only exposed to the high pressure, but including also cells normally discarded from sex-sorting). A significantly (P=0.019) lower viability in NO LASER (64.71%) than in CONTROL (78.6%) and REAL (80.5%) groups was found; this was accompanied by a significantly (P=0.001) higher DNA fragmentation index (DFI) in NO LASER group (6.86%) respect to CONTROL (3.30%) and REAL (3.42%) groups. BULK group did not show any difference in viability or DFI as compared to the other groups. In conclusion, we may believe that sex-sorting procedure as a whole does not affect either viability or DFI and that shear mechanical forces are a relevant source of DNA damage for sorted semen. PMID:16814375

  13. Effects of Fluid Shear Stress on Cancer Stem Cell Viability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sunday, Brittney; Triantafillu, Ursula; Domier, Ria; Kim, Yonghyun

    2014-11-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs), which are believed to be the source of tumor formation, are exposed to fluid shear stress as a result of blood flow within the blood vessels. It was theorized that CSCs would be less susceptible to cell death than non-CSCs after both types of cell were exposed to a fluid shear stress, and that higher levels of fluid shear stress would result in lower levels of cell viability for both cell types. To test this hypothesis, U87 glioblastoma cells were cultured adherently (containing smaller populations of CSCs) and spherically (containing larger populations of CSCs). They were exposed to fluid shear stress in a simulated blood flow through a 125-micrometer diameter polyetheretherketone (PEEK) tubing using a syringe pump. After exposure, cell viability data was collected using a BioRad TC20 Automated Cell Counter. Each cell type was tested at three physiological shear stress values: 5, 20, and 60 dynes per centimeter squared. In general, it was found that the CSC-enriched U87 sphere cells had higher cell viability than the CSC-depleted U87 adherent cancer cells. Interestingly, it was also observed that the cell viability was not negatively affected by the higher fluid shear stress values in the tested range. In future follow-up studies, higher shear stresses will be tested. Furthermore, CSCs from different tumor origins (e.g. breast tumor, prostate tumor) will be tested to determine cell-specific shear sensitivity. National Science Foundation Grant #1358991 supported the first author as an REU student.

  14. Fermented red ginseng extract inhibits cancer cell proliferation and viability.

    PubMed

    Oh, Jisun; Jeon, Seong Bin; Lee, Yuri; Lee, Hyeji; Kim, Ju; Kwon, Bo Ra; Yu, Kang-Yeol; Cha, Jeong-Dan; Hwang, Seung-Mi; Choi, Kyung-Min; Jeong, Yong-Seob

    2015-04-01

    Red ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer) is the most widely recognized medicinal herb due to its remedial effects in various disorders, such as cancers, diabetes, and heart problems. In this study, we investigated the anticancer effect of fermented red ginseng extract (f-RGE; provided by Jeonju Biomaterials Institute, Jeonju, South Korea) in a parallel comparison with the effect of nonfermented red ginseng extract (nf-RGE; control) on several cancer cell lines--MCF-7 breast cancer cells, HepG2 hepatocellular carcinoma cells, and reprogrammed MCF-7 cells (mimicking cancer stem cells). Cells were cultured at various concentrations of RGE (from 0.5 up to 5 mg/mL) and their viabilities and proliferative properties were examined. Our data demonstrate the following: (1) nf-RGE inhibited cell viability at ≥1 mg/mL for MCF-7 cells and ≥2 mg/mL for HepG2 cells, (2) in the presence of a carcinogenic agent, 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA), nf-RGE treatment in combination with paclitaxel synergistically decreased MCF-7 as well as HepG2 cell viability, (3) f-RGE (which contained a greater level of Rg3 content) more effectively decreased the viability of MCF-7 and HepG2 cells compared to nf-RGE, and (4) f-RGE appeared more potent for inhibiting cancerous differentiation of reprogrammed MCF-7 cells in a synergistic fashion with paclitaxel, especially in the presence of TPA, compared to nf-RGE. These findings suggest that f-RGE treatment may be more effective for decreasing cancer cell survival by inducing apoptotic cell death and also presumably for preventing cancer stem cell differentiation compared to nf-RGE. PMID:25658580

  15. Issues in Purchasing and Maintaining Intrinsic Standards

    SciTech Connect

    PETTIT,RICHARD B.; JAEGER,KLAUS; EHRLICH,CHARLES D.

    2000-09-12

    Intrinsic standards are widely used in the metrology community because they realize the best level uncertainty for many metrology parameters. For some intrinsic standards, recommended practices have been developed to assist metrologists in the selection of equipment and the development of appropriate procedures in order to realize the intrinsic standard. As with the addition of any new standard, the metrology laboratory should consider the pros and cons relative to their needs before purchasing the standard so that the laboratory obtains the maximum benefit from setting up and maintaining these standards. While the specific issues that need to be addressed depend upon the specific intrinsic standard and the level of realization, general issues that should be considered include ensuring that the intrinsic standard is compatible with the laboratory environment, that the standard is compatible with the current and future workload, and whether additional support standards will be required in order to properly maintain the intrinsic standard. When intrinsic standards are used to realize the best level of uncertainty for a specific metrology parameter, they usually require critical and important maintenance activities. These activities can including training of staff in the system operation, as well as safety procedures; performing periodic characterization measurements to ensure proper system operation; carrying out periodic intercomparisons with similar intrinsic standards so that proper operation is demonstrated; and maintaining control or trend charts of system performance. This paper has summarized many of these important issues and therefore should be beneficial to any laboratory that is considering the purchase of an intrinsic standard.

  16. Interventions to Maintain Mobility: What Works?

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Lesley A.; Schmidt, Erica L.; Ball, Karlene

    2012-01-01

    Mobility, in broad terms, includes everything from the ability to move within your immediate environment (e.g., get out of bed) to the ability to drive across the country. Mobility is essential to maintaining independence and wellbeing, particularly for older adults. This is highlighted by the large number of interventions developed for older adults with the goal of maintaining such mobility. The current paper reviews the state of the science with respect to mobility interventions. Inclusion criteria for the review were: (1) articles must have been peer-reviewed; (2) interventions were evaluated in a randomized controlled trial (RCT); (3) studies included a mobility outcome such as lifespace, driving, or walking ability, (4) studies included a sample of healthy community-dwelling older adults (e.g., not investigations of disease conditions); and (5) studies reported enough empirical data and detail such that results could potentially be replicated. Three main types of interventions were identified: cognitive training, educational interventions, and exercise interventions. A detailed summary and evaluation of each type of intervention, and the current evidence regarding its effectiveness in maintaining mobility, are discussed. Several interventions show clear evidence of effectiveness, and thus are prime areas for translation of results to the older population. Needs and issues for future intervention research are also detailed. PMID:23083492

  17. Alertness maintaining tasks (AMTs) while driving.

    PubMed

    Oron-Gilad, Tal; Ronen, Adi; Shinar, David

    2008-05-01

    We evaluated the effectiveness of alertness maintaining tasks (AMTs) on driver performance, subjective feelings, and psychophysiological state in monotonous simulated driving in two experiments. In the first experiment, 12 professional truck drivers participated in five sessions of simulated driving: driving only, driving with one of three AMTs (counterbalanced), and driving while listening to music. AMTs were not equally effective in maintaining alertness. The trivia AMT prevented driving performance deterioration, and increased alertness (measured by standardized HRV). The choice reaction time AMT was least demanding but also increased subjective sleepiness and reduced arousal (measured by alpha/beta ratio). The working memory AMT caused a significant decrement in driving speed, increased subjective fatigue, and was regarded by the participants as detrimental to driving. Trivia was preferred by the majority of the drivers over the other two AMTs. Experiment 2 further examined the utility of the trivia AMT. When the drivers engaged in the trivia AMT they maintained better driving performance and perceived the driving duration as shorter than the control condition. The two experiments demonstrated that AMTs can have a positive effect on alertness. The effect is localized in the sense that it does not persist beyond the period of the AMT activation. PMID:18460351

  18. Intracellular trehalose and sorbitol synergistically promoting cell viability of a biocontrol yeast, Pichia anomala, for aflatoxin reduction.

    PubMed

    Hua, Sui Sheng T; Hernlem, Bradley J; Yokoyama, Wallace; Sarreal, Siov Bouy L

    2015-05-01

    Pichia anomala (Wickerhamomyces anomalus) WRL-076 was discovered by a visual screening bioassay for its antagonism against Aspergillus flavus. The yeast was shown to significantly inhibit aflatoxin production and the growth of A. flavus. P. anomala is a potential biocontrol agent for reduction of aflatoxin in the food chain. Maintaining the viability of biocontrol agents in formulated products is a great challenge for commercial applications. Four media, NYG, NYGS, NYGT and NYGST are described which support good growth of yeast cells and were tested as storage formulations. Post growth supplement of 5 % trehalose to NYGST resulted in 83 % viable yeast cells after 12 months in cold storage. Intracellular sorbitol and trehalose concentrations were determined by HPLC analysis at the beginning of the storage and at the end of 12 month. Correlation of cell viability to both trehalose and sorbitol suggested a synergistic effect. Bonferroni (Dunn) t Test, Tukey's Studentized Range (HSD) Test and Duncan's Multiple Range Test, all showed that yeast cell viability in samples with both intracellular trehalose and sorbitol were significantly higher than those with either or none, at a 95 % confidence level. DiBAC4(5) and CFDA-AM were used as the membrane integrity fluorescent stains to create a two-color vital staining scheme with red and green fluorescence, respectively. Yeast cells stored in formulations NYG and NYGS with no detectable trehalose, displayed mostly red fluorescence. Yeast cells in NYGST+5T showed mostly green fluorescence. PMID:25700743

  19. Formation of size-controllable spheroids using gingiva-derived stem cells and concave microwells: Morphology and viability tests

    PubMed Central

    LEE, SUNG-IL; YEO, SEONG-IL; KIM, BO-BAE; KO, YOUNGKYUNG; PARK, JUN-BEOM

    2016-01-01

    Human mesenchymal stem cells have previously been isolated and characterized from the gingiva, and gingiva-derived stem cells have been applied for tissue engineering purposes. The present study was performed to generate size-controllable stem cell spheroids using concave microwells. Gingiva-derived stem cells were isolated, and the stem cells of 1×105 (group A) or 2×105 (group B) cells were seeded in polydimethylsiloxane-based, concave micromolds with 600 µm diameters. The morphology of the microspheres was viewed under an inverted microscope, and the changes in the diameter and cell viability were analyzed. The gingiva-derived stem cells formed spheroids in the concave microwells. The diameters of the spheroids were larger in group A compared to group B. No significant changes in shape or diameter were noted with increases in incubation time. Cell viability was higher in group B at each time point when compared with group A. Within the limits of the study, the size-controllable stem cell spheroids could be generated from gingival cells using microwells. The shape of the spheroids and their viability were clearly maintained during the experimental periods. PMID:26870343

  20. Metronidazole Decreases Viability of DLD-1 Colorectal Cancer Cell Line

    PubMed Central

    Sadowska, Anna; Krętowski, Rafał; Szynaka, Beata; Cechowska-Pasko, Marzanna

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The aim of our study was to evaluate the impact of metronidazole (MTZ) on DLD-1 colorectal cancer cell (CRC) line. Toxicity of MTZ was determined by MTT test. Cells were incubated with MTZ used in different concentrations for 24, 48, and 72 hours. The effect of MTZ on DNA synthesis was measured as [3H]-thymidine incorporation. The morphological changes in human DLD-1 cell line were defined by transmission electron microscope OPTON 900. The influence of MTZ on the apoptosis of DLD-1 cell lines was detected by flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy, while cell concentration, volume, and diameter were displayed by Scepter Cell Counter from Millipore. Our results show that cell viability was diminished in all experimental groups in comparison with the control, and the differences were statistically significant. We did not find any significant differences in [3H]-thymidine incorporation in all experimental groups and times of observation. Cytofluorimetric assays demonstrated a statistically significant increase of apoptotic rate in MTZ concentrations 10 and 50 μg/mL after 24 hours; 0.1, 10, 50, and 250 μg/mL after 48 hours; and in all concentrations after 72 hours compared with control groups. In the ultrastructural studies, necrotic or apoptotic cells were occasionally seen. In conclusion, MTZ affects human CRC cell line viability. The reduction of cell viability was consistent with the apoptotic test. PMID:23777253

  1. Enhancement of cell viability after treatment with polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Bartl, J; Walitza, S; Grünblatt, E

    2014-01-24

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is highly prevalent in children and adolescents and both environmental and genetic factors play major roles. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are postulated to contribute to the development of the infant brain and an imbalance in these may increase the risk of ADHD. In recent clinical studies, supplementation with PUFAs improved symptoms of ADHD in some cases. Similarly, some beneficial effects were observed with PUFA treatment in neuronal cell cultures. Therefore, in this study, we hypothesized that a specific PUFA combination (available on the market as Equazen™ [Vifor Pharma, Switzerland]) along with iron, zinc, or vitamin B5 (vitB5) would produce an additive beneficial effect on the viability of rat pheochromocytoma-12 dopaminergic cells. The specific PUFA combination alone, as well as added to each of the three nutrients, was tested in a dose-response manner. The specific PUFAs significantly improved cell viability, starting at very low doses (100pM) from 60h up to 90h; while the combined treatment with vitB5 and minerals did not provide additional benefit. Our results confirmed the beneficial effect of the specific PUFAs on neuronal cell viability; although supplementation with minerals and vitB5 did not enhance this effect. PMID:24269370

  2. Sphingosine Kinase Activity Is Not Required for Tumor Cell Viability

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Matthew L.; Carlson, Timothy; Coxon, Angela; Fajardo, Flordeliza; Frank, Brendon; Gustin, Darin; Kamb, Alexander; Kassner, Paul D.; Li, Shyun; Li, Yihong; Morgenstern, Kurt; Plant, Matthew; Quon, Kim; Ruefli-Brasse, Astrid; Schmidt, Joanna; Swearingen, Elissa; Walker, Nigel; Wang, Zhulun; Watson, J. E. Vivienne; Wickramasinghe, Dineli; Wong, Mariwil; Xu, Guifen; Wesche, Holger

    2013-01-01

    Sphingosine kinases (SPHKs) are enzymes that phosphorylate the lipid sphingosine, leading to the formation of sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P). In addition to the well established role of extracellular S1P as a mitogen and potent chemoattractant, SPHK activity has been postulated to be an important intracellular regulator of apoptosis. According to the proposed rheostat theory, SPHK activity shifts the intracellular balance from the pro-apoptotic sphingolipids ceramide and sphingosine to the mitogenic S1P, thereby determining the susceptibility of a cell to apoptotic stress. Despite numerous publications with supporting evidence, a clear experimental confirmation of the impact of this mechanism on tumor cell viability in vitro and in vivo has been hampered by the lack of suitable tool reagents. Utilizing a structure based design approach, we developed potent and specific SPHK1/2 inhibitors. These compounds completely inhibited intracellular S1P production in human cells and attenuated vascular permeability in mice, but did not lead to reduced tumor cell growth in vitro or in vivo. In addition, siRNA experiments targeting either SPHK1 or SPHK2 in a large panel of cell lines failed to demonstrate any statistically significant effects on cell viability. These results show that the SPHK rheostat does not play a major role in tumor cell viability, and that SPHKs might not be attractive targets for pharmacological intervention in the area of oncology. PMID:23861887

  3. Nuclear cardiac imaging for the assessment of myocardial viability

    PubMed Central

    Slart, R.H.J.A.; Bax, J.J.; van der Wall, E.E.; van Veldhuisen, D.J.; Jager, P.L.; Dierckx, R.A.

    2005-01-01

    An important aspect of the diagnostic and prognostic work-up of patients with ischaemic cardiomyopathy is the assessment of myocardial viability. Patients with left ventricular dysfunction who have viable myocardium are the patients at highest risk because of the potential for ischaemia but at the same time benefit most from revascularisation. It is important to identify viable myocardium in these patients, and radionuclide myocardial scintigraphy is an excellent tool for this. Single-photon emission computed tomography perfusion scintigraphy (SPECT), whether using 201thallium, 99mTc-sestamibi, or 99mTc- tetrofosmin, in stress and/or rest protocols, has consistently been shown to be an effective modality for identifying myocardial viability and guiding appropriate management. Metabolic and perfusion imaging with positron emission tomography radiotracers frequently adds additional information and is a powerful tool for predicting which patients will have an improved outcome from revascularisation. New techniques in the nuclear cardiology field, such as attenuation corrected SPECT, dual isotope simultaneous acquisition (DISA) SPECT and gated FDG PET are promising and will further improve the detection of myocardial viability. Also the combination of multislice computed tomography scanners with PET opens possibilities of adding coronary calcium scoring and noninvasive coronary angiography to myocardial perfusion imaging and quantification. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3 PMID:25696432

  4. Effect of plastic catheter material on bacterial adherence and viability.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Lopez, G; Pascual, A; Perea, E J

    1991-06-01

    The kinetics of adherence of single isolates of Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli to catheters made of polyvinyl chloride (PVC), Teflon, siliconised latex, polyurethane and Vialon was evaluated by a radiometric assay. Radiolabelled bacteria (10(8) cfu/ml) were incubated in vials containing 1-cm lengths of catheter for up to 3 days. The peak of maximal adherence to each biomaterial was reached after 24 h for P. aeruginosa and after 72 h for the other strains. Bacterial adherence to PVC and siliconised latex was significantly higher (2-6 times; p less than 0.05) than to the other biomaterials for all the strains. The lowest values of adherence were observed with polyurethane and Vialon for the staphylococci but with Teflon for E. coli and P. aeruginosa. Bacterial viability and growth was evaluated in eluates obtained from incubation of segments of each catheter in buffer for 24 h. None of the eluates affected the viability of the staphylococci. However, all of them, significantly increased the growth of E. coli and P. aeruginosa with the exception of the eluate from siliconised latex, in which the inoculum count was reduced to an undetectable level for E. coli. We conclude that bacterial adherence to catheters may depend in part on the nature of the biomaterial and that certain substances eluted from the catheters may affect the viability and growth of different micro-organisms. PMID:1905357

  5. Drying process strongly affects probiotics viability and functionalities.

    PubMed

    Iaconelli, Cyril; Lemetais, Guillaume; Kechaou, Noura; Chain, Florian; Bermúdez-Humarán, Luis G; Langella, Philippe; Gervais, Patrick; Beney, Laurent

    2015-11-20

    Probiotic formulations are widely used and are proposed to have a variety of beneficial effects, depending on the probiotic strains present in the product. The impact of drying processes on the viability of probiotics is well documented. However, the impact of these processes on probiotics functionality remains unclear. In this work, we investigated variations in seven different bacterial markers after various desiccation processes. Markers were composed of four different viability evaluation (combining two growth abilities and two cytometric measurements) and in three in vitro functionalities: stimulation of IL-10 and IL-12 production by PBMCs (immunomodulation) and bacterial adhesion to hexadecane. We measured the impact of three drying processes (air-drying, freeze-drying and spray-drying), without the use of protective agents, on three types of probiotic bacteria: Bifidobacterium bifidum, Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus zeae. Our results show that the bacteria respond differently to the three different drying processes, in terms of viability and functionality. Drying methods produce important variations in bacterial immunomodulation and hydrophobicity, which are correlated. We also show that adherence can be stimulated (air-drying) or inhibited (spray-drying) by drying processes. Results of a multivariate analysis show no direct correlation between bacterial survival and functionality, but do show a correlation between probiotic responses to desiccation-rewetting and the process used to dry the bacteria. PMID:26325197

  6. Effect of low-level laser irradiation on proliferation and viability of human dental pulp stem cells.

    PubMed

    Zaccara, Ivana Maria; Ginani, Fernanda; Mota-Filho, Haroldo Gurgel; Henriques, Águida Cristina Gomes; Barboza, Carlos Augusto Galvão

    2015-12-01

    A positive effect of low-level laser irradiation (LLLI) on the proliferation of some cell types has been observed, but little is known about its effect on dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs). The aim of this study was to identify the lowest energy density able to promote the proliferation of DPSCs and to maintain cell viability. Human DPSCs were isolated from two healthy third molars. In the third passage, the cells were irradiated or not (control) with an InGaAlP diode laser at 0 and 48 h using two different energy densities (0.5 and 1.0 J/cm²). Cell proliferation and viability and mitochondrial activity were evaluated at intervals of 24, 48, 72, and 96 h after the first laser application. Apoptosis- and cell cycle-related events were analyzed by flow cytometry. The group irradiated with an energy density of 1.0 J/cm² exhibited an increase of cell proliferation, with a statistically significant difference (p < 0.05) compared to the control group at 72 and 96 h. No significant changes in cell viability were observed throughout the experiment. The distribution of cells in the cell cycle phases was consistent with proliferating cells in all three groups. We concluded that LLLI, particularly a dose of 1.0 J/cm², contributed to the growth of DPSCs and maintenance of its viability. This fact indicates this therapy to be an important future tool for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine involving stem cells. PMID:26341379

  7. CHONDROCYTE VIABILITY IS HIGHER AFTER PROLONGED STORAGE AT 37°C THAN AT 4°C FOR OSTEOCHONDRAL GRAFTS

    PubMed Central

    Pallante, Andrea L.; Bae, Won C.; Chen, Albert C.; Görtz, Simon; Bugbee, William D.; Sah, Robert L.

    2010-01-01

    Background Osteochondral allografts are currently stored at 4°C for 2–6 weeks before implantation. At 4°C, chondrocyte viability, especially in the superficial zone, deteriorates starting at 2 weeks. Alternative storage conditions could maintain chondrocyte viability beyond 2 weeks, and thereby facilitate increased graft availability and enhanced graft quality. Purpose Determine effects of prolonged 37°C storage compared to traditional 4°C storage on chondrocyte viability and cartilage matrix content. Study Design Controlled Laboratory Study Methods Osteochondral samples from humeral heads of adult goats were analyzed (i) fresh, or after storage in medium for (ii) 14d at 4°C including 10% FBS, (iii) 28d at 4°C including 10% FBS, (iv) 28d at 37°C without FBS, (v) 28d at 37°C including 2% FBS, or (vi) 28d at 37°C including 10% FBS. Portions of samples were analyzed by microscopy after LIVE/DEAD® staining to determine chondrocyte viability and density, both en face (to visualize the articular surface) and vertically (overall and in superficial, middle, and deep zones). The remaining cartilage was analyzed for sulfated-glycosaminoglycan and collagen. Results 37°C storage maintained high chondrocyte viability compared to 4°C storage. Viability of samples after 28d at 37°C was ~80% at the cartilage surface en face, ~65% in the superficial zone, and ~70% in the middle zone, which was much higher than ~45%, ~20%, and ~35%, respectively, in 4°C samples after 28d, and slightly decreased from ~100%, ~85%, and ~95%, respectively, in fresh controls. Cartilage thickness, glycosaminoglycan content, and collagen content were maintained for 37°C and 4°C samples compared to fresh controls. Conclusion 37°C storage of osteochondral grafts supports long-term chondrocyte viability, especially at the vulnerable surface and superficial zone of cartilage. Clinical Relevance Storage of allografts at physiological temperature of 37°C may prolong storage duration, improve

  8. Laboratory services: regaining and maintaining control.

    PubMed

    Lee, Graham R; Fitzgibbon, Maria C; O'Shea, Paula

    2016-06-13

    Purpose - After implementing an internal quality control (IQC) programme, the purpose of this paper is to maintain the requisite analytical performance for clinical laboratory staff, thereby safeguarding patient test results for their intended medical purpose. Design/methodology/approach - The authors address how quality can be maintained and if lost, how it can be regained. The methodology is based on the experience working in clinical laboratory diagnostics and is in accord with both international accreditation requirements and laboratory best practice guidelines. Findings - Monitoring test performance usually involves both prospective and retrospective IQC data analysis. The authors present a number of different approaches together with software tools currently available and emerging, that permit performance monitoring at the level of the individual analyser, across analysers and laboratories (networks). The authors make recommendations on the appropriate response to IQC rule warnings, failures and metrics that indicate analytical control loss, that either precludes further analysis, or signifies deteriorating performance and eventual unsuitability. The authors provide guidance on systematic troubleshooting, to identify undesirable performance and consider risk assessment preventive measures and continuous quality improvement initiatives; e.g., material acceptance procedures, as tools to help regain and maintain analytical control and minimise potential for patient harm. Practical implications - The authors provide a template for use by laboratory scientific personnel that ensures the optimal monitoring of analytical test performance and response when it changes undesirably. Originality/value - The proposed template has been designed to meet the International Organisation for Standardisation for medical laboratories ISO15189:2012 requirements and therefore includes the use of External Quality Assessment and patient results data, as an adjunct to IQC data. PMID

  9. Identifying Crucial Parameter Correlations Maintaining Bursting Activity

    PubMed Central

    Doloc-Mihu, Anca; Calabrese, Ronald L.

    2014-01-01

    Recent experimental and computational studies suggest that linearly correlated sets of parameters (intrinsic and synaptic properties of neurons) allow central pattern-generating networks to produce and maintain their rhythmic activity regardless of changing internal and external conditions. To determine the role of correlated conductances in the robust maintenance of functional bursting activity, we used our existing database of half-center oscillator (HCO) model instances of the leech heartbeat CPG. From the database, we identified functional activity groups of burster (isolated neuron) and half-center oscillator model instances and realistic subgroups of each that showed burst characteristics (principally period and spike frequency) similar to the animal. To find linear correlations among the conductance parameters maintaining functional leech bursting activity, we applied Principal Component Analysis (PCA) to each of these four groups. PCA identified a set of three maximal conductances (leak current, Leak; a persistent K current, K2; and of a persistent Na+ current, P) that correlate linearly for the two groups of burster instances but not for the HCO groups. Visualizations of HCO instances in a reduced space suggested that there might be non-linear relationships between these parameters for these instances. Experimental studies have shown that period is a key attribute influenced by modulatory inputs and temperature variations in heart interneurons. Thus, we explored the sensitivity of period to changes in maximal conductances of Leak, K2, and P, and we found that for our realistic bursters the effect of these parameters on period could not be assessed because when varied individually bursting activity was not maintained. PMID:24945358

  10. Population viability impacts of habitat additions and subtractions: A simulation experiment with endangered kangaroo rats

    EPA Science Inventory

    Species viability is influenced by the quality, quantity and configuration of habitat. For species at risk, a principal challenge is to identify landscape configurations that, if realized, would improve a population’s viability or restoration potential. Critical habitat patche...

  11. Effects of water- and lipid-soluble antioxidants on turkey sperm viability, membrane integrity, and motility during liquid storage.

    PubMed

    Donoghue, A M; Donoghue, D J

    1997-10-01

    Aerobic conditions are required to maintain the viability of turkey sperm in vitro. In mammalian sperm, excess oxygen during in vitro storage results in lipid peroxidation, causing membrane damage and reduced sperm motility and subsequent fertility. The effect of adding antioxidants to turkey sperm during liquid storage was studied. Semen was collected and pooled from 20 toms and antioxidants were tested at a minimum of six concentrations, n = 6 observations per concentration. Semen was diluted into Beltsville Poultry Semen Extender. Extended semen served as a control; treatments were extended semen supplemented with tocopherol (vitamin E, 1 to 80 micrograms/mL); butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT, 0.02 to 1.25 mM); Tempo (0.039 to 1.25 microM), or vitamin C (1 to 400 micrograms/mL) and stored at 5 C for 48 h. Sperm viability in extended semen was evaluated after 0, 24, or 48 h storage. Membrane integrity and motility were also measured. Flow cytometric analysis was done using the live/dead stain combination (SYBR-14/propidium iodide) for sperm viability, and membrane integrity was assessed using a hypo-osmotic stress test. Sperm motility was evaluated subjectively. Control sperm viability was reduced almost 50% between 0 and 48 h. However, supplementation with vitamin E, Tempo, and BHT maintained populations of viable sperm similar to the 0 h levels at 48 h. Hypo-osmotic membrane integrity in the control sperm was reduced to approximately 22% (at 24 h, P < or = 0.05) and 5% (at 48 h, P < or = 0.05) of the total sperm population. Similar to controls after 24 h in vitro storage, sperm treated with the antioxidants vitamin E, Tempo, and BHT had reduced hypo-osmotic membrane integrity compared to 0 h samples. However, many of these treated samples maintained hypo-osmotic membrane integrity observed from 24 through 48 h (range, 21.5 to 44.6%), whereas hypo-osmotic membrane integrity fell to 4.6% at 48 h for the control (P < or = 0.05). Vitamin C treatments were similar to

  12. The implications of habitat management on the population viability of the endangered Ohlone tiger beetle (Cicindela ohlone) metapopulation.

    PubMed

    Cornelisse, Tara M; Bennett, Michelle K; Letourneau, Deborah K

    2013-01-01

    Despite their role in providing ecosystem services, insects remain overlooked in conservation planning, and insect management approaches often lack a rigorous scientific basis. The endangered Ohlone tiger beetle (Cicindela ohlone) occurs in a 24-km(2) area in Santa Cruz County, California. The once larger metapopulation now consists of subpopulations inhabiting five patches of coastal prairie where it depends on bare ground for mating, foraging, and oviposition. Human activities have eliminated natural disturbances and spread invasive grasses, reducing C. ohlone's bare-ground habitat. Management actions to restore critical beetle habitat consist of cattle and horse grazing, maintaining slow bicycle speeds on occupied public trails, and artificial creation of bare-ground plots. Recreational biking trails help maintain bare ground, but can cause beetle mortality if left unregulated. We tracked C. ohlone survivorship and estimated fecundity for three years. We then constructed a stage-structured population projection matrix model to estimate population viability among the five patches, and to evaluate the success of management interventions. We demonstrate that habitat creation, regulation of bicycle speed, and migration between patches increase C. ohlone survival and population viability. Our results can be directly applied to management actions for conservation outcomes that will reduce species extinction risk and promote recolonization of extirpated patches. PMID:23951067

  13. To Grow, Nurture, and Maintain: Soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, I.; Lam, K.; Hennelly, L. O.; Archie, J. P.

    2012-12-01

    The importance and difficulties encountered in a sustainable urban farm can be witnessed at the Stanford Earth Systems Educational Garden, in the growth, maintenance, and nurturing of the soil. Techniques and chemicals developed in the mid to late 1900's have infiltrated the traditional farming techniques that allowed humans to continuously farm for hundreds of years. The sudden spur of interest in sustainability has lead many, including Stanford Earth Systems, to reincorporate traditional methods in conjunction with modern technology. To override the damage made by chemicals and industrial farming, we had to recognize that healthy crops originated from healthy soil; thus we began investigating how to nourish soil. We began to research the ideal composition and structure of soil and methods to create and maintain fertile soil. Secondly, we prioritized the importance of nurturing plants and fed the plants with a plethora of natural fertilizers. We also created a compost pile so that the soil could rehabilitate and refill with nutrients with help provided by bacteria. Lastly, we had to maintain the soil to keep the soil viable for future crops. To do this, we had to acknowledge the chemical composition of the soil and plant cover crops to ensure that the nutrients are replenished. Our experiences enabled us to understand the time and effort required to manage suitable crops, animals, and structures for an urban farm.

  14. Maintaining Ancient Organelles: Mitochondrial Biogenesis and Maturation

    PubMed Central

    Vega, Rick B.; Horton, Julie L.; Kelly, Daniel P.

    2015-01-01

    The ultrastructure of the cardiac myocyte is remarkable for the high density of mitochondria tightly packed between sarcomeres. This structural organization is designed to provide energy in the form of ATP to fuel normal pump function of the heart. A complex system comprised of regulatory factors and energy metabolic machinery, encoded by both mitochondrial and nuclear genomes, is required for the coordinate control of cardiac mitochondrial biogenesis, maturation, and high-capacity function. This process involves the action of a transcriptional regulatory network that builds and maintains the mitochondrial genome, and to drive the expression of the energy transduction machinery. This finely tuned system is responsive to developmental and physiological cues as well as changes in fuel substrate availability. Deficiency of components critical for mitochondrial energy production frequently manifests as a cardiomyopathic phenotype, underscoring the requirement to maintain high respiration rates in the heart. Although a precise causative role is not clear, there is increasing evidence that perturbations in this regulatory system occur in the hypertrophied and failing heart. This review summarizes current knowledge and highlights recent advances in our understanding of the transcriptional regulatory factors and signaling networks that serve to regulate mitochondrial biogenesis and function in the mammalian heart. PMID:25999422

  15. Online maintaining appearance model using particle filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Siying; Lan, Tian; Wang, Jianyu; Ni, Guoqiang

    2008-03-01

    Tracking by foreground matching heavily depends on the appearance model to establish object correspondences among frames and essentially, the appearance model should encode both the difference part between the object and background to guarantee the robustness and the stable part to ensure tracking consistency. This paper provides a solution for online maintaining appearance models by adjusting features in the model. Object appearance is co-modeled by a subset of Haar features selected from the over-complete feature dictionary which encodes the discriminative part of object appearance and the color histogram which describes the stable appearance. During the particle filtering process, feature values both from background patches and object observations are sampled efficiently by the aid of "foreground" and "background" particles respectively. Based on these sampled values, top-ranked discriminative features are added and invalid features are removed out to ensure the object being distinguishable from current background according to the evolving appearance model. The tracker based on this online appearance model maintaining technique has been tested on people and car tracking tasks and promising experimental results are obtained.

  16. Maintaining heterokaryosis in pseudo-homothallic fungi.

    PubMed

    Grognet, Pierre; Silar, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Among all the strategies displayed by fungi to reproduce and propagate, some species have adopted a peculiar behavior called pseudo-homothallism. Pseudo-homothallic fungi are true heterothallics, i.e., they need 2 genetically-compatible partners to mate, but they produce self-fertile mycelium in which the 2 different nuclei carrying the compatible mating types are present. This lifestyle not only enables the fungus to reproduce without finding a compatible partner, but also to cross with any mate it may encounter. However, to be fully functional, pseudo-homothallism requires maintaining heterokaryosis at every stage of the life cycle. We recently showed that neither the structure of the mating-type locus nor hybrid-enhancing effect due to the presence of the 2 mating types accounts for the maintenance of heterokaryosis in the pseudo-homothallic fungus P. anserina. In this addendum, we summarize the mechanisms creating heterokaryosis in P. anserina and 2 other well-known pseudo-homothallic fungi, Neurospora tetrasperma and Agaricus bisporus. We also discuss mechanisms potentially involved in maintaining heterokaryosis in these 3 species. PMID:26479494

  17. Chewing Maintains Hippocampus-Dependent Cognitive Function

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Huayue; Iinuma, Mitsuo; Onozuka, Minoru; Kubo, Kin-Ya

    2015-01-01

    Mastication (chewing) is important not only for food intake, but also for preserving and promoting the general health. Recent studies have showed that mastication helps to maintain cognitive functions in the hippocampus, a central nervous system region vital for spatial memory and learning. The purpose of this paper is to review the recent progress of the association between mastication and the hippocampus-dependent cognitive function. There are multiple neural circuits connecting the masticatory organs and the hippocampus. Both animal and human studies indicated that cognitive functioning is influenced by mastication. Masticatory dysfunction is associated with the hippocampal morphological impairments and the hippocampus-dependent spatial memory deficits, especially in elderly. Mastication is an effective behavior for maintaining the hippocampus-dependent cognitive performance, which deteriorates with aging. Therefore, chewing may represent a useful approach in preserving and promoting the hippocampus-dependent cognitive function in older people. We also discussed several possible mechanisms involved in the interaction between mastication and the hippocampal neurogenesis and the future directions for this unique fascinating research. PMID:26078711

  18. Design guidelines for remotely maintainable equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clarke, Margaret M.; Manouchehri, Davoud

    1988-01-01

    The quantity and complexity of on-orbit assets will increase significantly over the next decade. Maintaining and servicing these costly assets represent a difficult challenge. Three general methods are proposed to maintain equipment while it is still in orbit: an extravehicular activity (EVA) crew can perform the task in an unpressurized maintenance area outside any space vehicle; an intravehicular activity (IVA) crew can perform the maintenance in a shirt sleeve environment, perhaps at a special maintenance work station in a space vehicle; or a telerobotic manipulator can perform the maintenance in an unpressurized maintenance area at a distance from the crew (who may be EVA, IVA, or on the ground). However, crew EVA may not always be possible; the crew may have other demands on their time that take precedence. In addition, the orbit of the tasks themselves may be impossible for crew entry. Also crew IVA may not always be possible as option for equipment maintenance. For example, the equipment may be too large to fit through the vehicle airlock. Therefore, in some circumstances, the third option, telerobotic manipulation, may be the only feasible option. Telerobotic manipulation has, therefore, an important role for on-orbit maintenance. It is not only used for the reasons outlined above, but also used in some cases as backup to the EVA crew in an orbit that they can reach.

  19. Function and viability of human islets encapsulated in alginate sheets: in vitro and in vivo culture.

    PubMed

    Lamb, M; Storrs, R; Li, S; Liang, O; Laugenour, K; Dorian, R; Chapman, D; Ichii, H; Imagawa, D; Foster, C; King, S; Lakey, J R T

    2011-11-01

    Islet encapsulation offers an immune system barrier for islet transplantation, and encapsulation within an alginate sheetlike structure offers the ability to be retrievable after transplanted. This study aims to show that human islets encapsulated into islet sheets remain functional and viable after 8 weeks in culture or when transplanted into the subcutaneous space of rats. Human islets were isolated from cadaveric organs. Dissociation and purification were done using enzymatic digestion and a continuous Ficoll-UWD gradient. Purified human islets were encapsulated in alginate sheets. Human Islet sheets were either kept in culture, at 37°C and 5% CO(2), or transplanted subcutaneously into Lewis rats. After 1, 2, 4, and 8 weeks, the human islet sheets were retrieved from the rats and assessed. The viability of the sheets was measured using fluorescein diacetate (FDA)/propidium iodide (PI), and function was measured through glucose-stimulated insulin release, in which the sheets were incubated for an hour in low-glucose concentration (2.8 mmol/L) and then high (28 mmol/L), then high (28 mmol/L) plus 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (50 μm). Human islet sheets remained both viable, above 70%, and functional, with a stimulation index (insulin secretion in high glucose divided by insulin secretion in low glucose) above 1.5, over 8 weeks of culture or subcutaneous transplantation. Islet transplantation continues to make advances in the treatment of type 1 diabetes. These preliminary results suggest that encapsulated islets sheets can survive and maintain islet viability and function in vivo, within the subcutaneous region. PMID:22099772

  20. Inbreeding avoidance influences the viability of reintroduced populations of African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus).

    PubMed

    Becker, Penny A; Miller, Philip S; Gunther, Micaela Szykman; Somers, Michael J; Wildt, David E; Maldonado, Jesús E

    2012-01-01

    The conservation of many fragmented and small populations of endangered African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) relies on understanding the natural processes affecting genetic diversity, demographics, and future viability. We used extensive behavioural, life-history, and genetic data from reintroduced African wild dogs in South Africa to (1) test for inbreeding avoidance via mate selection and (2) model the potential consequences of avoidance on population persistence. Results suggested that wild dogs avoided mating with kin. Inbreeding was rare in natal packs, after reproductive vacancies, and between sibling cohorts (observed on 0.8%, 12.5%, and 3.8% of occasions, respectively). Only one of the six (16.7%) breeding pairs confirmed as third-order (or closer) kin consisted of animals that were familiar with each other, while no other paired individuals had any prior association. Computer-simulated populations allowed to experience inbreeding had only a 1.6% probability of extinction within 100 years, whereas all populations avoiding incestuous matings became extinct due to the absence of unrelated mates. Populations that avoided mating with first-order relatives became extinct after 63 years compared with persistence of 37 and 19 years for those also prevented from second-order and third-order matings, respectively. Although stronger inbreeding avoidance maintains significantly more genetic variation, our results demonstrate the potentially severe demographic impacts of reduced numbers of suitable mates on the future viability of small, isolated wild dog populations. The rapid rate of population decline suggests that extinction may occur before inbreeding depression is observed. PMID:22615933

  1. Inbreeding Avoidance Influences the Viability of Reintroduced Populations of African Wild Dogs (Lycaon pictus)

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Penny A.; Miller, Philip S.; Gunther, Micaela Szykman; Somers, Michael J.; Wildt, David E.; Maldonado, Jesús E.

    2012-01-01

    The conservation of many fragmented and small populations of endangered African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) relies on understanding the natural processes affecting genetic diversity, demographics, and future viability. We used extensive behavioural, life-history, and genetic data from reintroduced African wild dogs in South Africa to (1) test for inbreeding avoidance via mate selection and (2) model the potential consequences of avoidance on population persistence. Results suggested that wild dogs avoided mating with kin. Inbreeding was rare in natal packs, after reproductive vacancies, and between sibling cohorts (observed on 0.8%, 12.5%, and 3.8% of occasions, respectively). Only one of the six (16.7%) breeding pairs confirmed as third-order (or closer) kin consisted of animals that were familiar with each other, while no other paired individuals had any prior association. Computer-simulated populations allowed to experience inbreeding had only a 1.6% probability of extinction within 100 years, whereas all populations avoiding incestuous matings became extinct due to the absence of unrelated mates. Populations that avoided mating with first-order relatives became extinct after 63 years compared with persistence of 37 and 19 years for those also prevented from second-order and third-order matings, respectively. Although stronger inbreeding avoidance maintains significantly more genetic variation, our results demonstrate the potentially severe demographic impacts of reduced numbers of suitable mates on the future viability of small, isolated wild dog populations. The rapid rate of population decline suggests that extinction may occur before inbreeding depression is observed. PMID:22615933

  2. Heterosis for viability, fecundity, and male fertility in Drosophila melanogaster: comparison of mutational and standing variation.

    PubMed Central

    Fry, J D; Heinsohn, S L; Mackay, T F

    1998-01-01

    If genetic variation for fitness traits in natural populations ("standing" variation) is maintained by recurrent mutation, then quantitative-genetic properties of standing variation should resemble those of newly arisen mutations. One well-known property of standing variation for fitness traits is inbreeding depression, with its converse of heterosis or hybrid vigor. We measured heterosis for three fitness traits, pre-adult viability, female fecundity, and male fertility, among a set of inbred Drosophilia melanogaster lines recently derived from the wild, and also among a set of lines that had been allowed to accumulate spontaneous mutations for over 200 generations. The inbred lines but not the mutation-accumulation (MA) lines showed heterosis for pre-adult viability. Both sets of lines showed heterosis for female fecundity, but heterosis for male fertility was weak or absent. Crosses among a subset of the MA lines showed that they were strongly differentiated for male fertility, with the differences inherited in autosomal fashion; the absence of heterosis for male fertility among the MA lines was therefore not caused by an absence of mutations affecting this trait. Crosses among the inbred lines also gave some, albeit equivocal, evidence for male fertility variation. The contrast between the results for female fecundity and those for male fertility suggests that mutations affecting different fitness traits may differ in their average dominance properties, and that such differences may be reflected in properties of standing variation. The strong differentiation among the MA lines in male fertility further suggests that mutations affecting this trait occur at a high rate. PMID:9539433

  3. Effect of dilution rate on feline urethral sperm motility, viability, and DNA integrity.

    PubMed

    Prochowska, Sylwia; Niżański, Wojciech; Ochota, Małgorzata; Partyka, Agnieszka

    2014-12-01

    This study was designed to investigate if the characteristics of feline urethral sperm can be affected by high dilution in an artificial medium. The semen collected by urethral catheterization from eight male cats was evaluated for sperm concentration and motility and subsequently diluted with a TRIS-based extender to the concentration of spermatozoa 10 × 10(6)/mL, 5 × 10(6)/mL, and 1 × 10(6)/mL. Immediately after the extension samples were assessed for motility, cell viability using SYBR-14 and propidium iodide, acrosome integrity using lectin from Arachis hypogaea Alexa Fluor 488 Conjugate, and propidium iodide and chromatin status by acridine orange. Compared with 10 × 10(6)/mL dilution rate, spermatozoa diluted to 1 × 10(6) sperm/mL had a significantly lower proportion of motile (31.1% ± 19.8 and 0.7% ± 1.6, respectively, P < 0.05) and viable spermatozoa (88.3% ± 3.1 and 69.1% ± 12.8, respectively, P < 0.01). There was no dilution-related difference in the acrosome integrity (76.7% ± 11.9 vs. 75.9% ± 10.6) and chromatin status (defragmentation index, 3.3% ± 0.97 vs. 3.4% ± 1.7). These results indicate that feline urethral semen is susceptible to high dilution rate, and some sperm characteristics can be artifactually changed by semen dilution. It also suggests the potential role of seminal plasma in maintaining sperm motility and viability in high dilution rates. PMID:25262548

  4. Monitoring viability of seeds in gene banks: developing software tools to increase efficiency

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Monitoring the decline of seed viability is essential for effective long term seed storage in ex situ collections. Recent FAO Genebank Standards recommend monitoring intervals at one-third the time predicted for viability to fall to 85% of initial viability. This poster outlines the development of ...

  5. Pollen viability and storage temperature for Southern highbush and Rabbiteye blueberry breeding

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pollen viability, as measured by tetrad germination, has been reported, but these studies focused on freshly collected pollen and did not address viability of pollen stored at different temperatures over time. Moreover, genetic differences in pollen viability have been reported in blueberry genotype...

  6. Projecting the success of plant restoration with population viability analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bell, T.J.; Bowles, M.L.; McEachern, A.K.

    2003-01-01

    Conserving viable populations of plant species requires that they have high probabilities of long-term persistence within natural habitats, such as a chance of extinction in 100 years of less than 5% (Menges 1991, 1998; Brown 1994; Pavlik 1994; Chap. 1, this Vol.). For endangered and threatened species that have been severely reduces in range and whose habitats have been fragmented, important species conservation strategies may include augmenting existing populations or restoring new viable populations (Bowles and Whelan 1994; Chap. 2, this Vol.). Restoration objectives may include increasing population numbers to reduce extinction probability, deterministic manipulations to develop a staged cohort structure, or more complex restoration of a desired genetic structure to allow outcrossing or increase effective population size (DeMauro 1993, 1994; Bowles et al. 1993, 1998; Pavlik 1994; Knapp and Dyer 1998; Chap. 2, this Vol.). These efforts may require translocation of propagules from existing (in situ) populations, or from ex situ botanic gardens or seed storage facilities (Falk et al. 1996; Guerrant and Pavlik 1998; Chap. 2, this Vol.). Population viability analysis (PVA) can provide a critical foundation for plant restoration, as it models demographic projections used to evaluate the probability of population persistence and links plant life history with restoration strategies. It is unknown how well artificially created populations will meet demographic modeling requirements (e.g., due to artificial cohort transitions) and few, if any, PVAs have been applied to restorations. To guide application of PVA to restored populations and to illustrate potential difficulties, we examine effects of planting different life stages, model initial population sizes needed to achieve population viability, and compare demographic characteristics between natural and restored populations. We develop and compare plant population restoration viability analysis (PRVA) case studies of

  7. Pollen Dispersion, Pollen Viability and Pistil Receptivity in Leymus chinensis

    PubMed Central

    HUANG, ZEHAO; ZHU, JINMAO; MU, XIJIN; LIN, JINXING

    2004-01-01

    • Background and Aims Leymus chinensis is an economically and ecologically important grass that is widely distributed across eastern areas of the Eurasian steppe. A major problem facing its propagation by man is its low sexual reproductivity. The causes of low fecundity are uncertain, largely because many aspects of the reproductive biology of this species remained unknown or incomplete. This study aims to address some of these issues. • Methods Pollen dispersion, pollen viability, pollen longevity and pistil receptivity were studied in a representative, natural population of L. chinensis growing in Inner Mongolia. • Key Results Flowering of L. chinensis occurred at the end of June and lasted for 5 d. Pollination peaked between 1600 h and 1700 h, and about 56·1 % of the total pollen grains were released at this time. Pollen density was highest towards the middle of flowering spikes and lowest at the bottom over the 5 d measurement period. Pollen viability (62·4 %) assessed using TTC was more accurate than using IKI (85·6 %); 50 % of pollen arriving on stigmas germinated. Pollen remained viable for only 3 h and the pollen : ovule ratio was 79 333 : 1. Pistil receptivity lasted for only 3 h and, overall, 86·7 % of pistils were pollinated. Within the spike, the relative fecundity of different positions was middle > lower > upper throughout the period of pollination; daily variation of fecundity was similar to that of the pollen flow. The spikes that opened on the day of highest pollen density exhibited the highest fecundity (36·0 %). No seeds were produced by self‐pollination. • Conclusions The data suggest that low pollen viability, short pollen longevity and short pistil receptivity all appear to contribute to the low seed production typical of this important forage crop. PMID:14744707

  8. Laser viability method for red blood cell-state monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapotko, Dmitry; Kuchinsky, Georgy; Antonishina, Elena; Scoromnik, Elena

    1996-01-01

    The method for RBC state control is based upon single cell viability control after illumination with laser pulse. Heat shock resulting from absorption of laser energy by a cell is considered as a cell load. This load acts from inside of the cell, is pulsed (10-5) and can be delivered directly to the chosen cells. The result of each illumination as cell survival or damage is controlled optically by monitoring the cells' response on a pulse through photothermal technique. Under fixed laser parameters the percentage of damaged cells is viability index (VI) for a certain cell population. The testing procedure includes consequential illumination of each cell in population and calculation of VI. Experimental set up is based upon optical microscope. Dual laser thermal lens technique is used for cell illumination and monitoring. For cell loading 5 ns pulses, 400 divided by 600 nm with energies up to 20 (mu) J are generated by tunable dye laser. Cell monitoring is realized with cw He-Ne (632.8 nm) laser and photodetector. All data acquisition routines are automated. Up to 3 cell suspensions can be studied in a multisample chamber designed to secure cells. An amount of cell suspension required is 1 (mu) l. One population test at a fixed wavelength takes 2 divided by 3 min. In experiments with rats, treated with LPS E. Coli injection to stimulate fever and a septic stress we found that variation of RBC viability becomes apparent in 20 - 30 min after injection, while the clinical changes (blood pressure, body temperature, skin temperature) become detectable after 1 hour. The results obtained show that the method can reveal additional properties of the cells most abundant for monitoring and diagnostic tasks.

  9. Methods for isolation and viability assessment of biological organisms

    SciTech Connect

    Letant, Sonia Edith; Baker, Sarah Elyse; Bond, Tiziana; Chang, Allan Shih-Ping

    2015-02-03

    Isolation of biological or chemical organisms can be accomplished using a surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) system. The SERS system can be a single or a stacked plurality of photonic crystal membranes with noble-metal lined through pores for flowing analyte potentially containing the biological or chemical organisms. The through pores can be adapted to trap individual biological or chemical organisms and emit SERS spectra, which can then be detected by a detector and further analyzed for viability of the biological or chemical organism.

  10. Effect of microemulsions on cell viability of human dermal fibroblasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Juyi; Mironava, Tatsiana; Simon, Marcia; Rafailovich, Miriam; Garti, Nissim

    Microemulsions are optically clear, thermostable and isotropic mixture consisting of water, oil and surfactants. Their advantages of ease preparation, spontaneous formation, long-term stability and enhanced solubility of bioactive materials make them great potentials as vehicles in food and pharmaceutical applications. In this study, comparative in vitro cytotoxicity tests were performed to select a best formulation of microemulsion with the least toxicity for human dermal fibroblasts. Three different kinds of oils and six different kinds of surfactants were used to form microemulsions by different ratios. The effect of oil type and surfactant type as well as their proportions on cell proliferation and viability were tested.

  11. Borderline viability: controversies in caring for the extremely premature infant.

    PubMed

    Leuthner, Steven R

    2014-12-01

    Controversy surrounding the decision to resuscitate at the limits or borderline of viability has been at the center of neonatal ethical debate for decades. This debate has led to numerous reports from individual institutions, councils, and advisory committees that all have remarkable consistency in the development of gestational age-based guidelines. This article reviews legal or regulatory concerns that may contradict ethical discussion and guidelines, discriminatory and scientific basis concerns with consensus guidelines, and personal controversy about how to determine best interest. Guidelines are a reasonable place to start in helping determine parental authority and autonomy. The article also addresses controversies raised in counseling and costs. PMID:25459775

  12. On the viability of local criteria for chaos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saa, Alberto

    2004-12-01

    Recently, Zsczȩsny and Dobrowolski proposed a geometrical criterion for local instability based on the geodesic deviation equation. Although such a criterion can be useful in some cases, we show here that, in general, it is neither necessary nor sufficient for the occurrence of chaos. To this purpose, we introduce a class of chaotic two-dimensional systems with Gaussian curvature everywhere positive and, hence, locally stable. We show explicitly that chaotic behavior arises from some trajectories that reach certain non-convex parts of the boundary of the effective Riemannian manifold. Our result questions, once more, the viability of local, curvature-based criteria to predict chaotic behavior.

  13. Heartwarming memories: Nostalgia maintains physiological comfort.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xinyue; Wildschut, Tim; Sedikides, Constantine; Chen, Xiaoxi; Vingerhoets, Ad J J M

    2012-08-01

    Nostalgia, a sentimental longing or wistful affection for the past, is a predominantly positive and social emotion. Recent evidence suggests that nostalgia maintains psychological comfort. Here, we propose, and document in five methodologically diverse studies, a broader homeostatic function for nostalgia that also encompasses the maintenance of physiological comfort. We show that nostalgia--an emotion with a strong connotation of warmth--is triggered by coldness. Participants reported stronger nostalgia on colder (vs. warmer) days and in a cold (vs. neutral or warm) room. Nostalgia, in turn, modulates the interoceptive feeling of temperature. Higher levels of music-evoked nostalgia predicted increased physical warmth, and participants who recalled a nostalgic (vs. ordinary autobiographical) event perceived ambient temperature as higher. Finally, and consistent with the close central nervous system integration of temperature and pain sensations, participants who recalled a nostalgic (vs. ordinary autobiographical) event evinced greater tolerance to noxious cold. PMID:22390713

  14. Maintaining human productivity during Mars transit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Statler, Irving C.; Billings, Charles E.

    1989-01-01

    This paper addresses the special nature of the human-machine relationship during a trip to Mars. In particular, the potential for monotony and boredom during a long-duration space voyage and the effect on motivation and productivity can be important considerations to the health and welfare of the crew. For the voyage to Mars, a design may be considered that will purposefully maintain some level of workload for the crew as a preventive measure for the deterioration of productivity that comes with boredom. This paper speculates on these considerations, on the appropriate level of workload for maximum productivity, and on what might be done during the mission to alleviate the problems caused by monotony and boredom.

  15. Maintained generalization of delay-specific remembering.

    PubMed

    White, K Geoffrey; Sargisson, Rebecca J

    2011-07-01

    According to the discrimination hypothesis (White, 2002), remembering is a delay-specific discrimination made at the time of retrieval. In the present experiment the delay-specific nature of the discrimination was made explicit by making correct choices in a delayed matching-to-sample task performed by pigeons conditional on whether the retention interval was short or long. Retention interval was varied over several durations in a maintained generalization test without reinforcement for correct matching responses. Opposing gradients demonstrated generalization of delay-specific remembering, consistent with the view that the temporal dimension of the retention interval can be treated in the same way as non-temporal dimensions of the sample stimulus. PMID:21704683

  16. Peru struggles to maintain crude production

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-14

    Revival of Peru's moribund oil and gas industry in the 1990s hinges on whether the new administration of President Alberto Fujimori is successful in attracting foreign investment in Peru. Fujimori's success would mean Peru pushing ahead into stepped up exploration and major development projects, such as the huge Camisea gas/condensate field discovered 2 years ago. His failure could mean Peru continuing to fall further behind in its already lagging low oil production. Huge sums of money will be needed. Peru also needs to succeed in its efforts to become creditworthy again for international agencies, foreign governments, and commercial banks. Meanwhile, Petroleos del Peru SA (Petroperu), the state oil company, will have to transfer an increasing share of its operations to private investors. But the company is likely to try to hold onto producing fields, even though it is unable to maintain full output.

  17. Implementing and maintaining an infusion alliance.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Britt M

    2010-01-01

    Infusion therapy models are ever changing and growing in modern health care. New technologies and problems arise daily as researchers and clinicians explore our world. As technologies advance, health care costs are also skyrocketing. The vast majority of hospitalized patients will receive some form of infusion therapy during their stay, and many will continue to receive therapy after they are discharged from the inpatient setting. Infusion alliances can aid cost containment by decreasing infusion-related complication rates, affect customer satisfaction, and promote interdisciplinary collaboration. This article discusses the potential benefits of an infusion alliance, details steps for using the performance improvement process when implementing and maintaining an alliance, and outlines the components of a successful business plan. PMID:20841983

  18. Maintaining robust connectivity in heterogeneous robotic networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruz, P.; Fierro, R.; Lu, W.; Ferrari, S.

    2013-05-01

    In this paper, we are interested in exploiting the heterogeneity of a robotic network made of ground and aerial agents to sense multiple targets in a cluttered environment. Maintaining wireless communication on this type of networks is fundamentally important specially for cooperative purposes. The proposed heterogeneous network consists of ground sensors, e.g., OctoRoACHes, and aerial routers, e.g., quadrotors. Adaptive potential field methods are used to coordinate the ground mobile sensors. Moreover, a reward function for the aerial mobile wireless routers is formulated to guarantee communication coverage among the ground sensors and a fixed base station. A sub-optimal controller is proposed based on an approximate control policy iteration technique. Simulation results of a case study are presented to illustrate the proposed methodology.

  19. [Maintaining solidarity: is mutuality the solution?].

    PubMed

    Gevers, J K M; Ploem, M C

    2013-01-01

    Solidarity is essentially the willingness to contribute to the community and its demands, which may even involve contributing more than one is expecting to receive. Another principle is mutuality: this refers to a balance between rights and obligations or between mutual obligations. In its advisory document 'The importance of mutuality......solidarity takes work!', The Dutch Council for Public Health and Health Care underlines the importance of ensuring solidarity within the Dutch health care system, e.g. by encouraging patients to take responsibility for their own health, possibly by introducing elements of mutuality. In our contribution, we comment on the Council's advice. Although we fully agree with the overall conclusion that solidarity should be maintained within the system, we do not see how the introduction of increased mutuality will contribute to this goal. PMID:23945438

  20. Maintaining technical excellence requires a national plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidson, T. F.

    1991-01-01

    To meet the challenge of technical excellence, AIA established a rocket propulsion committee to develop the National Rocket Propulsion Strategic Plan. Developing such a plan required a broad spectrum of experience and disciplines. The Strategic Plan team needed the participation of industry, government, and academia. The plan provides, if followed, a means for the U.S. to maintain technical excellence and world leadership in rocket propulsion. To implement the National Rocket Propulsion Strategic Plan is to invest in the social, economic, and technological futures of America. The plan lays the basis for upgrading existing propulsion systems and a firm base for future full scale development, production, and operation of rocket propulsion systems for space, defense, and commercial applications.

  1. Extramedullary Soft Tissue Involvement and Discrepant Osseous Uptake on Tc-99m MDP and Ga-67 Citrate Scintigraphy in a Patient With Multiple Myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Szu-Ying; Wang, Shan-Ying; Shiau, Yu-Chien; Wu, Yen-Wen

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Multiple myeloma (MM) is a plasma cell neoplasm with skeletal destruction which could also spread to extramedullary regions. Common diagnostic imaging modalities include skeletal radiography, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Recently, PET/CT is proposed as an ideal tomographic tool for diagnosis and follow-up, but impending factors includes high cost, limited availability of cameras and radiotracers. Bone scan and gallium scan are usually considered of limited clinical value. Herein, we present a 66-year-old Taiwanese man with MM, who was hospitalized to our hospital for bone pain control. Bone and gallium scintigraphies were obtained for bone pain and infection workup. However, unexpected features of discordant osseous uptake with high gallium-to-bone uptake ratio and extramedullary gallium uptake were noted which both indicated poor prognosis of MM. The patient then passed away due to rapid disease progression. In conclusion, although gallium and bone scintigraphies are considered less sensitive for MM, combined use may be a good alternative for 18F-FDG PET/CT in evaluation of disease extent and prognosis, especially in high-risk patients or with suspicion of disease progression.

  2. Selection of donor and organ viability criteria: expanding donation criteria.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, E; Andrés, A

    2007-01-01

    Donation criteria have been becoming more flexible over the years. Currently, the only absolute exclusion criteria are human immunodeficiency virus infection (HIV), uncontrolled tumor disease and bacterial or viral infections. ClinicaL. conditions dictate organ viability criteria: biochemical, morphological and functional, that must be fulfilled by the donors and their organs in order to focus the decision on which donor organs can be used. These criteria attempt to assure that the transplanted organs function after the extraction, transformation, implantation and reperfusion process without transmitting any infectious or tumour disease. In recent years, the gross and microscopic appearance has become one of the fundamental criteria for selection of potentially viable organs. At present, there is no age limit for hepatic and renal donation; the principal contra-indication is chronic organ damage. The use of each organ must be decided individually after a profound analysis of all the viability criteria, weighing the advantages and disadvantages of the implant of a certain organ for the recipient. PMID:17702512

  3. The evolutionary dynamics of haplodiploidy: Genome architecture and haploid viability

    PubMed Central

    Blackmon, Heath; Hardy, Nate B.; Ross, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Haplodiploid reproduction, in which males are haploid and females are diploid, is widespread among animals, yet we understand little about the forces responsible for its evolution. The current theory is that haplodiploidy has evolved through genetic conflicts, as it provides a transmission advantage to mothers. Male viability is thought to be a major limiting factor; diploid individuals tend to harbor many recessive lethal mutations. This theory predicts that the evolution of haplodiploidy is more likely in male heterogametic lineages with few chromosomes, as genes on the X chromosome are often expressed in a haploid environment, and the fewer the chromosome number, the greater the proportion of the total genome that is X‐linked. We test this prediction with comparative phylogenetic analyses of mites, among which haplodiploidy has evolved repeatedly. We recover a negative correlation between chromosome number and haplodiploidy, find evidence that low chromosome number evolved prior to haplodiploidy, and that it is unlikely that diplodiploidy has reevolved from haplodiploid lineages of mites. These results are consistent with the predicted importance of haploid male viability. PMID:26462452

  4. Effects of Triclosan on Neural Stem Cell Viability and Survival

    PubMed Central

    Park, Bo Kyung; Gonzales, Edson Luck T.; Yang, Sung Min; Bang, Minji; Choi, Chang Soon; Shin, Chan Young

    2016-01-01

    Triclosan is an antimicrobial or sanitizing agent used in personal care and household products such as toothpaste, soaps, mouthwashes and kitchen utensils. There are increasing evidence of the potentially harmful effects of triclosan in many systemic and cellular processes of the body. In this study, we investigated the effects of triclosan in the survivability of cultured rat neural stem cells (NSCs). Cortical cells from embryonic day 14 rat embryos were isolated and cultured in vitro. After stabilizing the culture, triclosan was introduced to the cells with concentrations ranging from 1 μM to 50 μM and in varied time periods. Thereafter, cell viability parameters were measured using MTT assay and PI staining. TCS decreased the cell viability of treated NSC in a concentration-dependent manner along with increased expressions of apoptotic markers, cleaved caspase-3 and Bax, while reduced expression of Bcl2. To explore the mechanisms underlying the effects of TCS in NSC, we measured the activation of MAPKs and intracellular ROS. TCS at 50 μM induced the activations of both p38 and JNK, which may adversely affect cell survival. In contrast, the activities of ERK, Akt and PI3K, which are positively correlated with cell survival, were inhibited. Moreover, TCS at this concentration augmented the ROS generation in treated NSC and depleted the glutathione activity. Taken together, these results suggest that TCS can induce neurodegenerative effects in developing rat brains through mechanisms involving ROS activation and apoptosis initiation. PMID:26759708

  5. Cell viability and angiogenic potential of a bioartificial adipose substitute.

    PubMed

    Panneerselvan, Anitha; Nguyen, Luong T H; Su, Yan; Teo, Wee Eong; Liao, Susan; Ramakrishna, Seeram; Chan, Ching Wan

    2015-06-01

    An implantable scaffold pre-seeded with cells needs to remain viable and encourage rapid angiogenesis in order to replace injured tissues, especially for tissue defect repairs. We created a bioartificial adipose graft composed of an electrospun 3D nanofibrous scaffold and fat tissue excised from New Zealand white rabbits. Cell viability and angiogenesis potential of the bioartificial substitute were examined during four weeks of culture in Dulbecco's Modified Eagle Medium by immunohistochemical staining with LIVE/DEAD® cell kit and PECAM-1 antibody, respectively. In addition, a Matrigel® assay was performed to examine the possibility of blood vessels sprouting from the bioartificial graft. Our results showed that cells within the graft were viable and vascular tubes were present at week 4, while cells in a fat tissue block were dead in vitro. In addition, capillaries were observed sprouting from the graft into the Matrigel, demonstrating its angiogenic potential. We expect that improved cell viability and angiogenesis in the bioartificial substitute, compared to intact autologous graft, could potentially contribute to its survival following implantation. PMID:23166045

  6. The in vitro impact of toothpaste extracts on cell viability.

    PubMed

    Cvikl, Barbara; Lussi, Adrian; Gruber, Reinhard

    2015-06-01

    Toothpastes contain three main components: detergents, abrasives, and fluoride. Detergents, particularly sodium lauryl sulfate, have been proposed as components that enable toothpastes to produce cytotoxic effects in vitro. However, not all toothpastes contain sodium lauryl sulfate, and almost no studies have found an association between detergents and the in vitro cytotoxicity of toothpastes. The present study examined the in vitro cytotoxicity of nine commercially available toothpastes containing four different detergents. Toothpastes were diluted in serum-free medium, centrifuged, and filter sterilized. The half-lethal concentration of the toothpaste-conditioned medium (TCM) was calculated based on the formation of formazan by gingival fibroblasts, oral squamous cell carcinoma HSC-2 cells, and L929 cells. Cell proliferation was analyzed, and live-dead staining was performed, after exposure of cells to conditioned medium prepared with 1% toothpaste (1% TCM). It was found that toothpastes containing sodium lauryl sulfate and amine fluoride strongly inhibited cell viability with the half-lethal concentration being obtained with conditioned medium prepared with approximately 1% toothpaste (1% TCM). Toothpastes containing cocamidopropyl betaine and Steareth-20 showed higher half-lethal concentration values, with the half-lethal concentration being obtained with conditioned medium prepared with 10% (10% TCM) and 70% (70% TCM) toothpaste, respectively. Proliferation and live-dead data were consistent with the cell-viability analyses. These results demonstrate that the type of detergent in toothpastes can be associated with changes in in vitro cell toxicity. PMID:25782087

  7. Effect of dopamine on viability of BHK-21 cells.

    PubMed

    Moshkov, D A; Abramova, M B; Shubina, V S; Lavrovskaya, V P; Pavlik, L L; Lezhnev, E I

    2010-09-01

    We studied the effects of dopamine added to culture medium on survival of floating or adherent BHK-21 cells differing by organization of actin cytoskeleton. The viability of floating cells more drastically decreased with increasing dopamine concentration and duration of exposure than that of adherent cells. The cells worse adhered to the substrate and formed a monolayer. The formed monolayer degrades, cell borders become blurred, cells, polygonal in the control, are rounded. Preliminary blockade of dopamine receptors with haloperidol, inessential for cell survival and morphology, does not prevent the destructive effect of dopamine on the cells. Ultrastructural study revealed increased density of filamentous actin threads in deep compartments of cell cytoplasm after dopamine treatment, this increase being more pronounced in cells grown in suspension. Bearing in mind the polymerizing effect of dopamine on globular actin in vitro and the fact that the content of this protein in floating cells is higher than in adherent cells, we can conclude that the decrease in viability of BHK-21 cells is caused by interaction of dopamine with cytoplasmic globular actin. PMID:21246101

  8. Viability of bacteria in unused air filter media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maus, R.; Goppelsröder, A.; Umhauer, H.

    Different experimental techniques were applied to determine the effects of different air filter media on the viability of bacteria. Rinse suspensions of unused filter media were employed in standard inhibition tests to determine the effects of filter ingredients on bacterial growth under ideal nutritional conditions. Furthermore, a new test procedure was proposed and validated to determine the survival of viable microorganisms in fibrous air filters as a function of different parameters. Samples of filter media were challenged with microbial aerosols in an experimental set-up designed for measuring the collection efficiencies of fibrous filters. The loaded filter samples were then challenged with clean air under controlled conditions for a definite time span and numbers of viable microorganisms in the filter media were determined as colony forming units. The filter samples were retrieved from unused filter media usually employed in common air conditioning and ventilation systems. Under ideal nutritional and moisture conditions, growth of investigated microorganisms in nutrient broth and on nutrient agar was not inhibited by the inclusion of filter samples or rinse solutions of different filters in the growth medium with one exception. M. luteus and E. coli collected in air filter media and exposed to low air humidity (RH = 30-60%) showed a decline in their viability as a function of time (within 1 h). The decline rate was dependent on the type of bacteria employed and also the filter material itself.

  9. Proteus mirabilis viability after lithotripsy of struvite calculi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prabakharan, Sabitha; Teichman, Joel M. H.; Spore, Scott S.; Sabanegh, Edmund; Glickman, Randolph D.; McLean, Robert J. C.

    2000-05-01

    Urinary calculi composed of struvite harbor urease-producing bacteria within the stone. The photothermal mechanism of holmium:YAG lithotripsy is uniquely different than other lithotripsy devices. We postulated that bacterial viability of struvite calculi would be less for calculi fragmented with holmium:YAG irradiation compared to other lithotripsy devices. Human calculi of known struvite composition (greater than 90% magnesium ammonium phosphate hexahydrate) were incubated with Proteus mirabilis. Calculi were fragmented with no lithotripsy (controls), or shock wave, intracorporeal ultrasonic, electrohydraulic, pneumatic, holmium:YAG or pulsed dye laser lithotripsy. After lithotripsy, stone fragments were sonicated and specimens were serially plated for 48 hours at 38 C. Bacterial counts and the rate of bacterial sterilization were compared. Median bacterial counts (colony forming units per ml) were 8 X 106 in controls and 3 X 106 in shock wave, 3 X 107 in ultrasonic, 4 X 105 in electrohydraulic, 8 X 106 in pneumatic, 5 X 104 in holmium:YAG and 1 X 106 in pulsed dye laser lithotripsy, p less than 0.001. The rate of bacterial sterilization was 50% for holmium:YAG lithotripsy treated stones versus 0% for each of the other cohorts, p less than 0.01. P. mirabilis viability is less after holmium:YAG irradiation compared to other lithotripsy devices.

  10. Noninvasive diagnosis of seed viability using infrared thermography

    PubMed Central

    Kranner, Ilse; Kastberger, Gerald; Hartbauer, Manfred; Pritchard, Hugh W.

    2010-01-01

    Recent advances in the noninvasive analyses of plant metabolism include stress imaging techniques, mainly developed for vegetative tissues. We explored if infrared thermography can be used to predict whether a quiescent seed will germinate or die upon water uptake. Thermal profiles of viable, aged, and dead Pisum sativum seeds were recorded, and image analysis of 22,000 images per individual seed showed that infrared thermography can detect imbibition- and germination-associated biophysical and biochemical changes. These “thermal fingerprints” vary with viability in this species and in Triticum aestivum and Brassica napus seeds. Thermogenesis of the small individual B. napus seeds was at the limit of the technology. We developed a computer model of “virtual pea seeds,” that uses Monte Carlo simulation, based on the heat production of major seed storage compounds to unravel physico-chemical processes of thermogenesis. The simulation suggests that the cooling that dominates the early thermal profiles results from the dissolution of low molecular-weight carbohydrates. Moreover, the kinetics of the production of such “cooling” compounds over the following 100 h is dependent on seed viability. We also developed a deterministic tool that predicts in the first 3 hours of water uptake, when seeds can be redried and stored again, whether or not a pea seed will germinate. We believe that the early separation of individual, ungerminated seeds (live, aged, or dead) before destructive germination assessment creates unique opportunities for integrative studies on cell death, differentiation, and development. PMID:20133712

  11. Infrared signatures to discriminate viability of autoclaved Bacillus spores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Matthew D. W.; Valentine, Nancy B.; Johnson, Timothy J.

    2011-11-01

    Optical methods can offer good sensitivity for detecting small amounts of chemicals and biologicals, and as these methods mature, are some of the few techniques that can offer true standoff detection. For detection of biological species, determining the viability is clearly important: Certain species of gram-positive bacteria are capable of forming endospores, specialized structures that arise when living conditions become unfavorable or little growth medium is available. Spores are also resistant to many chemicals as well as changes in heat or pH; such spores can remain dormant from months to years until more favorable conditions arise, resulting in germination back to the vegetative state. This persistence characteristic of bacterial spores allows for contamination of a surface (e.g. food or medical equipment) even after the surface has been nominally cleaned. Bacterial spores have also been used as biological weapons, as in the case of B. anthracis. Thus, having rapid analytical methods to determine a spore's viability after attempts to clean a given environment is crucial. The increasing availability of portable spectrometers may provide a key to such rapid onsite analysis. The present study was designed to determine whether infrared spectroscopy may be used to differentiate between viable vs. dead B. subtilis and B. atrophaeus spores. Preliminary results show that the reproducible differences in the IR signatures can be used to identify the viable vs. the autoclaved (dead) spores.

  12. Infrared Signatures to Discriminate Viability of Autoclaved Bacillus Spores

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, Matthew D.; Valentine, Nancy B.; Johnson, Timothy J.

    2011-10-06

    Optical methods can offer good sensitivity for detecting small amounts of chemicals and biologicals, and as these methods mature, are some of the few techniques that can offer true standoff detection. For detection of biological species, determining the viability is clearly important: Certain species of gram-positive bacteria are capable of forming endospores, specialized structures that arise when living conditions become unfavorable or little growth medium is available, being resistant to many chemicals as well as changes in heat or pH. Such spores can remain dormant from months to years until more favorable conditions arise, resulting in germination back to the vegetative state. This persistence characteristic of bacterial spores allows for contamination of a surface (e.g. food or medical equipment) even after the surface has been nominally cleaned. Bacterial spores have also been used as biological weapons, as in the case with B. anthracis. Thus, rapid analysis to determine a spore's viability in a given environment or after attempts to sterilize a given environment is crucial. The increasing availability of portable spectrometers may provide a key to such rapid onsite analysis. The present study was designed to determine whether infrared spectroscopy may be used to differentiate between viable vs. dead B. subtilis and B. atrophaeus spores. Preliminary results show that the reproducible differences in the IR signatures can be used to identify viable vs. autoclaved (dead) B. subtilis and B. atrophaeus bacterial spores.

  13. Effects of Triclosan on Neural Stem Cell Viability and Survival.

    PubMed

    Park, Bo Kyung; Gonzales, Edson Luck T; Yang, Sung Min; Bang, Minji; Choi, Chang Soon; Shin, Chan Young

    2016-01-01

    Triclosan is an antimicrobial or sanitizing agent used in personal care and household products such as toothpaste, soaps, mouthwashes and kitchen utensils. There are increasing evidence of the potentially harmful effects of triclosan in many systemic and cellular processes of the body. In this study, we investigated the effects of triclosan in the survivability of cultured rat neural stem cells (NSCs). Cortical cells from embryonic day 14 rat embryos were isolated and cultured in vitro. After stabilizing the culture, triclosan was introduced to the cells with concentrations ranging from 1 μM to 50 μM and in varied time periods. Thereafter, cell viability parameters were measured using MTT assay and PI staining. TCS decreased the cell viability of treated NSC in a concentration-dependent manner along with increased expressions of apoptotic markers, cleaved caspase-3 and Bax, while reduced expression of Bcl2. To explore the mechanisms underlying the effects of TCS in NSC, we measured the activation of MAPKs and intracellular ROS. TCS at 50 μM induced the activations of both p38 and JNK, which may adversely affect cell survival. In contrast, the activities of ERK, Akt and PI3K, which are positively correlated with cell survival, were inhibited. Moreover, TCS at this concentration augmented the ROS generation in treated NSC and depleted the glutathione activity. Taken together, these results suggest that TCS can induce neurodegenerative effects in developing rat brains through mechanisms involving ROS activation and apoptosis initiation. PMID:26759708

  14. Determination of Ancylostoma caninum ova viability using metabolic profiling.

    PubMed

    Gyawali, P; Beale, D J; Ahmed, W; Karpe, A V; Magalhaes, R J Soares; Morrison, P D; Palombo, E A

    2016-09-01

    Differentiation between viable and non-viable hookworm ova in environmental samples is necessary in order to implement strategies to mitigate re-infections in endemic regions. In this study, an untargeted metabolic profiling method was developed that utilised gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) in order to investigate hookworm ova viability. Ancylostoma caninum was used to investigate the metabolites within viable and non-viable ova. Univariate and multivariate statistical analyses of the data resulted in the identification of 53 significant metabolites across all hookworm ova samples. The major compounds observed in viable and non-viable hookworm ova were tetradecanoic acid, commonly known as myristic acid [fold change (FC) = 0.4], and dodecanoic acid, commonly known as lauric acid (FC = 0.388). Additionally, the viable ova had self-protecting metabolites such as prostaglandins, a typical feature absent in non-viable ova. The results of this study demonstrate that metabolic profiling using GC-MS methods can be used to determine the viability of canine hookworm ova. Further studies are needed to assess the applicability of metabolic profiling using GC-MS to detect viable hookworm ova in the mixed (viable and non-viable) populations from environmental samples and identify the metabolites specific to human hookworm species. PMID:27236650

  15. Viability of Hanseniaspora uvarum yeast preserved by lyophilization and cryopreservation.

    PubMed

    de Arruda Moura Pietrowski, Giovana; Grochoski, Mayara; Sartori, Gabriela Felkl; Gomes, Tatiane Aparecida; Wosiacki, Gilvan; Nogueira, Alessandro

    2015-08-01

    Hanseniaspora yeasts are known to produce volatile compounds that give fruity aromas in wine and fermented fruit. This study aimed to verify the feasibility of the Hanseniaspora uvarum strain that had been isolated and identified during a previous study and preserved by lyophilization and freezing at -80 °C (cryopreservation). This strain was assessed in relation to its macroscopic and microscopic morphology and for its ability to ferment apple must. After having been subjected to lyophilization and cryopreservation, viability was assessed in relation to these characteristics during 12 months of storage. The strain showed stable colonial features and its microscopic appearance was unchanged during all recoveries. The plate count results showed consistency in both processes. Regarding the fermentative capacity, the kinetic results showed 100% viability for the strain subjected to lyophilization, as well as for those preserved at -80 °C. These results demonstrate that the preservation methods used are compatible with the maintenance of the relevant characteristics of the strain for the period of evaluation of this study (12 months). PMID:26095929

  16. The postmitotic Saccharomyces cerevisiae after spaceflight showed higher viability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Zong-Chun; Li, Xiao-Fei; Wang, Yan; Wang, Jie; Sun, Yan; Zhuang, Feng-Yuan

    2011-06-01

    The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been proposed as an ideal model organism for clarifying the biological effects caused by spaceflight conditions. The postmitotic S. cerevisiae cells onboard Practice eight recoverable satellite were subjected to spaceflight for 15 days. After recovery, the viability, the glycogen content, the activities of carbohydrate metabolism enzymes, the DNA content and the lipid peroxidation level in yeast cells were analyzed. The viability of the postmitotic yeast cells after spaceflight showed a three-fold increase as compared with that of the ground control cells. Compared to the ground control cells, the lipid peroxidation level in the spaceflight yeast cells markedly decreased. The spaceflight yeast cells also showed an increase in G2/M cell population and a decrease in Sub-G1 cell population. The glycogen content and the activities of hexokinase and succinate dehydrogenase significantly decreased in the yeast cells after spaceflight. In contrast, the activity of malate dehydrogenase showed an obvious increase after spaceflight. These results suggested that microgravity or spaceflight could promote the survival of postmitotic S. cerevisiae cells through regulating carbohydrate metabolism, ROS level and cell cycle progression.

  17. Effect of zinc oxide nanoparticles on viability of human spermatozoa

    PubMed Central

    Barkhordari, Abolfazl; Hekmatimoghaddam, Seyedhossein; Jebali, Ali; Khalili, Mohammad Ali; Talebi, Alireza; Noorani, Marzieh

    2013-01-01

    Background: The extensive use of different nanoparticles has raised great concerns about their occupational and biological safety. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxic effect of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) on viability of spermatozoa. Materials and Methods: Semen samples were obtained from 15 healthy persons, and were analyzed using WHO guidelines. Each semen sample was separately incubated with different concentrations of ZnO NPs (10, 100, 500, and 1000 µg/mL) at 37oC for 45, 90, and 180 minutes. Then, the cell death percentage of spermatozoa was measured by MTT assay. Mann-Whitney test was used for comparison of different times and concentrations. Results: The maximum cell death percentage was 20.8%, 21.2%, and 33.2% after 45, 90, and 180 minutes, respectively. In case of concentration, the highest concentration (1000 µg/mL) of ZnO NPs led to the highest toxicity for all incubation times. Statistically, there were significant differences in cell viability after 180 minutes vs. 45 and 90 minutes. Conclusion: This study indicated that cytotoxicity of ZnO NPs is dose and time dependent. This article extracted from M.Sc. thesis. (Marzieh Noorani) PMID:24639818

  18. Effect of Antarctic solar radiation on sewage bacteria viability.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Kevin A

    2005-06-01

    The majority of coastal Antarctic research stations discard untreated sewage waste into the near-shore marine environment. However, Antarctic solar conditions are unique, with ozone depletion increasing the proportion of potentially damaging ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation reaching the marine environment. This study assessed the influence of Antarctic solar radiation on the viability of Escherichia coli and sewage microorganisms at Rothera Research Station, Adelaide Island, Antarctic Peninsula. Cell viability decreased with increased exposure time and with exposure to shorter wavelengths of solar radiation. Cell survival also declined with decreasing cloud cover, solar zenith angle and ozone column depth. However, particulates in sewage increased the persistence of viable bacteria. Ultraviolet radiation doses over Rothera Point were highest during the austral summer. During this time, solar radiation may act to partially reduce the number of viable sewage-derived microorganisms in the surface seawater around Antarctic outfalls. Nevertheless, this effect is not reliable and every effort should be made to fully treat sewage before release into the Antarctic marine environment. PMID:15927228

  19. A New Methodology for Evaluation of Nematode Viability

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Sebastião Rodrigo; Mendes, Tiago Antônio Oliveira; Bueno, Lilian Lacerda; de Araújo, Jackson Victor; Bartholomeu, Daniella Castanheira; Fujiwara, Ricardo Toshio

    2015-01-01

    Nematodes infections are responsible for debilitating conditions and economic losses in domestic animals as well as livestock and are considered an important public health problem due to the high prevalence in humans. The nematode resistance for drugs has been reported for livestock, highlighting the importance for development of new anthelmintic compounds. The aim of the current study was to apply and compare fluorimetric techniques using Sytox and propidium iodide for evaluating the viability of C. elegans larvae after treatment with anthelmintic drugs. These fluorescent markers were efficient to stain larvae treated with ivermectin and albendazole sulfoxide. We observed that densitometric values were proportional to the concentration of dead larvae stained with both markers. Furthermore, data on motility test presented an inverse correlation with fluorimetric data when ivermectin was used. Our results showed that lower concentrations of drugs were effective to interfere in the processes of cellular transport while higher drugs concentrations were necessary in order to result in any damage to cell integrity. The methodology described in this work might be useful for studies that aim to evaluate the viability of nematodes, particularly for testing of new anthelminthic compounds using an easy, economic, reproducible, and no time-consuming technique. PMID:25866820

  20. Communicating contentious geoscience issues and maintaining impartiality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nice, S. E.; Mitchell, C.

    2013-12-01

    Shale Gas exploration in the UK has been major and often controversial news in the British media over the last 2 years. The British Geological Survey (BGS) has been an integral part of this story as the UK Governments independent and impartial advisor on geosciences. BGS has been involved in writing policy on fracking and induced earthquakes as well as researching potential quantities of shale gas in the UK and also researching natural methane levels in groundwater before large scale fracking activities begin. Shale Gas in the UK, as in the US and Europe has caused much controversy and as a result has many pro and anti fracking campaigns. The challenge for BGS has been to deliver front line science, whilst maintaining complete impartiality on the subject. The BGS communications team developed a strategy over this period to ensure that our message was clear and strong. This involved working closely with the scientists involved to formulate key messages that could delivered through controlled statements on the BGS webpages, press releases, at press conferences as well as on broadcast and print media. Our scientists were media trained during this time to ensure that they stayed en message and wouldn't be caught by the press or opponents of fracking into making statements that could have been used to either scare up the position or give the antagonist room to cast doubt on our impartiality. This strategy proved highly successful and BGS managed to communicate the facts, remain impartial whilst avoiding attempts to undermine the potential for Shale gas exploitation in the UK. The success of this communication strategy was due to the cooperation of the scientists, a clear strategy from the communications team and the unequivocal support of the senior executive at BGS. This abstract will conclude how the BGS has developed its communication strategy to be more streamlined and open. BGS must allow it's scientists to talk to the media about the science that they do. Much of

  1. Expression of polycomb protein BMI-1 maintains the plasticity of basal bronchial epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Torr, Elizabeth; Heath, Meg; Mee, Maureen; Shaw, Dominick; Sharp, Tyson V; Sayers, Ian

    2016-08-01

    The airway epithelium is altered in respiratory disease and is thought to contribute to disease etiology. A caveat to disease research is that the technique of isolation of bronchial epithelial cells from patients is invasive and cells have a limited lifespan. The aim of this study was to extensively characterize the plasticity of primary human bronchial epithelial cells that have been engineered to delay cell senescence including the ability of these cells to differentiate. Cells were engineered to express BMI-1 or hTERT using viral vector systems. Cells were characterized at passage (p) early (p5), mid (p10), and late (p15) stage for: BMI-1, p16, and CK14 protein expression, viability and the ability to differentiate at air-liquid interface (ALI), using a range of techniques including immunohistochemistry (IHC), immunofluorescence (IF), transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), MUC5AC and beta tubulin (BTUB) staining. BMI-1-expressing cells maintained elevated levels of the BMI-1 protein and the epithelial marker CK14 and showed a suppression of p16. BMI-1-expressing cells had a viability advantage, differentiated at ALI, and had a normal karyotype. In contrast, hTERT-expressing cells had a reduced viability, showed limited differentiation, and had an abnormal karyotype. We therefore provide extensive characterization of the plasticity of BMI-1 expressing cells in the context of the ALI model. These cells retain properties of wild-type cells and may be useful to characterize respiratory disease mechanisms in vitro over sustained periods. PMID:27558999

  2. What Kind of Signaling Maintains Pluripotency and Viability in Human-Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells Cultured on Laminin-511 with Serum-Free Medium?

    PubMed Central

    Nakashima, Yoshiki; Omasa, Takeshi

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Xeno-free medium contains no animal-derived components, but is composed of minimal growth factors and is serum free; the medium may be supplemented with insulin, transferrin, and selenium (ITS medium). Serum-free and xeno-free culture of human-induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) uses a variety of components based on ITS medium and Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium/Ham's nutrient mixture F12 (DMEM/F12) that contain high levels of iron salt and glucose. Culture of hiPSCs also requires scaffolding materials, such as extracellular matrix, collagen, fibronectin, laminin, proteoglycan, and vitronectin. The scaffolding component laminin-511, which is composed of α5, β1, and γ1 chains, binds to α3β1, α6β1, and α6β4 integrins on the cell membrane to induce activation of the PI3K/AKT- and Ras/MAPK-dependent signaling pathways. In hiPSCs, the interaction of laminin-511/α6β1 integrin with the cell–cell adhesion molecule E-cadherin confers protection against apoptosis through the Ras homolog gene family member A (RhoA)/Rho kinase (ROCK) signaling pathway (the major pathways for cell death) and the proto-oncogene tyrosine-protein kinase Fyn (Fyn)-RhoA-ROCK signaling pathway. The expression levels of α6β1 integrin and E-cadherin on cell membranes are controlled through the activation of insulin receptor/insulin, FGF receptor/FGF2, or activin-like kinase 5 (ALK5)-dependent TGF-β signaling. A combination of growth factors, medium constituents, cell membrane-located E-cadherin, and α6β1 integrin-induced signaling is required for pluripotent cell proliferation and for optimal cell survival on a laminin-511 scaffold. In this review, we discuss and explore the influence of growth factors on the cadherin and integrin signaling pathways in serum-free and xeno-free cultures of hiPSCs during the preparation of products for regenerative medicinal therapies. In addition, we suggest the optimum serum-free medium components for use with laminin-511, a new scaffold for hiPSC culture. PMID:27096107

  3. Virus Movement Maintains Local Virus Population Diversity

    SciTech Connect

    J. Snyder; B. Wiedenheft; M. Lavin; F. Roberto; J. Spuhler; A. Ortmann; T. Douglas; M. Young

    2007-11-01

    Viruses are the largest reservoir of genetic material on the planet, yet little is known about the population dynamics of any virus within its natural environment. Over a 2-year period, we monitored the diversity of two archaeal viruses found in hot springs within Yellowstone National Park (YNP). Both temporal phylogeny and neutral biodiversity models reveal that virus diversity in these local environments is not being maintained by mutation but rather by high rates of immigration from a globally distributed metacommunity. These results indicate that geographically isolated hot springs are readily able to exchange viruses. The importance of virus movement is supported by the detection of virus particles in air samples collected over YNP hot springs and by their detection in metacommunity sequencing projects conducted in the Sargasso Sea. Rapid rates of virus movement are not expected to be unique to these archaeal viruses but rather a common feature among virus metacommunities. The finding that virus immigration rather than mutation can dominate community structure has significant implications for understanding virus circulation and the role that viruses play in ecology and evolution by providing a reservoir of mobile genetic material.

  4. Exploring how nurse lecturers maintain clinical credibility.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Melanie T

    2005-01-01

    The role of the nurse lecturer is changing. There is growing pressure from the government and professionals alike to recruit nurse teachers who posses both practical and recent experience of nursing [Department of Health, 1999. Making a Difference: Strengthening the Nursing, Midwifery and Health Visiting Contribution to Health and Health Care. DOH, London; UKCC, 2000. Standards for the Preparation of Teachers of Nursing, Midwifery and Health Visiting. UKCC, London]. Whilst much of the literature available suggests a growing concern amongst practitioners, students and nurse educationalists themselves about the importance of being ;clinically credible', what is not clear is how tangible it is to maintain currency and clinical credibility. In addition, the term ;clinical credibility' is in itself ill-defined. An exploratory study was undertaken within one higher education institution which sought to seek the views of nurse lecturers. The principles of ethnography were applied to this research. The sample included six of the most recently appointed nurse lecturers within one academic faculty who taught predominantly on pre-registration programmes. Data from individual and focus group interviews was analysed using a thematic content analysis approach. The findings are discussed which embrace the concepts of: working ;hands on' in the clinical area, clinical currency, transferability of skills, clinical visibility and role development. Recommendations for the development of professional practice are offered. PMID:19038175

  5. Achieving and maintaining cognitive vitality with aging.

    PubMed

    Fillit, Howard M; Butler, Robert N; O'Connell, Alan W; Albert, Marilyn S; Birren, James E; Cotman, Carl W; Greenough, William T; Gold, Paul E; Kramer, Arthur F; Kuller, Lewis H; Perls, Thomas T; Sahagan, Barbara G; Tully, Tim

    2002-07-01

    Cognitive vitality is essential to quality of life and survival in old age. With normal aging, cognitive changes such as slowed speed of processing are common, but there is substantial interindividual variability, and cognitive decline is clearly not inevitable. In this review, we focus on recent research investigating the association of various lifestyle factors and medical comorbidities with cognitive aging. Most of these factors are potentially modifiable or manageable, and some are protective. For example, animal and human studies suggest that lifelong learning, mental and physical exercise, continuing social engagement, stress reduction, and proper nutrition may be important factors in promoting cognitive vitality in aging. Manageable medical comorbidities, such as diabetes, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia, also contribute to cognitive decline in older persons. Other comorbidities such as smoking and excess alcohol intake may contribute to cognitive decline, and avoiding these activities may promote cognitive vitality in aging. Various therapeutics, including cognitive enhancers and protective agents such as antioxidants and anti-inflammatories, may eventually prove useful as adjuncts for the prevention and treatment of cognitive decline with aging. The data presented in this review should interest physicians who provide preventive care management to middle-aged and older individuals who seek to maintain cognitive vitality with aging. PMID:12108606

  6. Support activities to maintain SUMS flight readiness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, Willie

    1992-01-01

    The Shuttle Upper Atmosphere Mass Spectrometer (SUMS), a component experiment of the NASA Orbital Experiments Program (OEX), was flown aboard the shuttle Columbia (OV102) mounted at the forward end of the nose landing gear well with an atmospheric gas inlet system fitted to the lower fuselage (chin panel) surface. The SUMS was designed to provide atmospheric data in flow regimes inaccessible prior to the development of the Space Transportation System (STS). The experiment mission operation began about one hour prior to shuttle de-orbit entry maneuver and continued until reaching 1.6 torr (about 86 km altitude). The SUMS mass spectrometer consists of the spare unit from the Viking mission to Mars. Bendix Aerospace under contract to NASA LaRC incorporated the Viking mass spectrometer, a microprocessor based logic card, a pressurized instrument case, and the University of Texas at Dallas provided a gas inlet system into a configuration suited to interface with the shuttle Columbia. The SUMS experiment underwent static and dynamic calibration as well as vacuum maintenance before and after STS 40 shuttle flight. The SUMS flew a total of 3 times on the space shuttle Columbia. Between flights the SUMS was maintained in flight ready status. The flight data has been analyzed by the NASA LaRC Aerothermodynamics Branch. Flight data spectrum plots and reports are presented in the Appendices to the Final Technical Report for NAS1-17399.

  7. MAVS maintains mitochondrial homeostasis via autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xiaofeng; Sun, Liwei; Zhao, Yuanyuan; Li, Ying; Lin, Wei; Chen, Dahua; Sun, Qinmiao

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial antiviral signalling protein (MAVS) acts as a critical adaptor protein to transduce antiviral signalling by physically interacting with activated RIG-I and MDA5 receptors. MAVS executes its functions at the outer membrane of mitochondria to regulate downstream antiviral signalling, indicating that the mitochondria provides a functional platform for innate antiviral signalling transduction. However, little is known about whether and how MAVS-mediated antiviral signalling contributes to mitochondrial homeostasis. Here we show that the activation of MAVS is sufficient to induce autophagic signalling, which may mediate the turnover of the damaged mitochondria. Importantly, we find MAVS directly interacts with LC3 through its LC3-binding motif ‘YxxI’, suggesting that MAVS might act as an autophagy receptor to mediate mitochondrial turnover upon excessive activation of RLR signalling. Furthermore, we provide evidence that both MAVS self-aggregation and its interaction with TRAF2/6 proteins are important for MAVS-mediated mitochondrial turnover. Collectively, our findings suggest that MAVS acts as a potential receptor for mitochondria-associated autophagic signalling to maintain mitochondrial homeostasis. PMID:27551434

  8. CDC20 maintains tumor initiating cells

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Qi; Wu, Qiulian; Mack, Stephen C.; Yang, Kailin; Kim, Leo; Hubert, Christopher G.; Flavahan, William A.; Chu, Chengwei; Bao, Shideng; Rich, Jeremy N.

    2015-01-01

    Glioblastoma is the most prevalent and lethal primary intrinsic brain tumor. Glioblastoma displays hierarchical arrangement with a population of self-renewing and tumorigenic glioma tumor initiating cells (TICs), or cancer stem cells. While non-neoplastic neural stem cells are generally quiescent, glioblastoma TICs are often proliferative with mitotic control offering a potential point of fragility. Here, we interrogate the role of cell-division cycle protein 20 (CDC20), an essential activator of anaphase-promoting complex (APC) E3 ubiquitination ligase, in the maintenance of TICs. By chromatin analysis and immunoblotting, CDC20 was preferentially expressed in TICs relative to matched non-TICs. Targeting CDC20 expression by RNA interference attenuated TIC proliferation, self-renewal and in vivo tumor growth. CDC20 disruption mediated its effects through induction of apoptosis and inhibition of cell cycle progression. CDC20 maintains TICs through degradation of p21CIP1/WAF1, a critical negative regulator of TICs. Inhibiting CDC20 stabilized p21CIP1/WAF1, resulting in repression of several genes critical to tumor growth and survival, including CDC25C, c-Myc and Survivin. Transcriptional control of CDC20 is mediated by FOXM1, a central transcription factor in TICs. These results suggest CDC20 is a critical regulator of TIC proliferation and survival, linking two key TIC nodes – FOXM1 and p21CIP1/WAF1 — elucidating a potential point for therapeutic intervention. PMID:25938542

  9. Two retrotransposons maintain telomeres in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Pardue, M.-L.; Rashkova, S.; Casacuberta, E.; DeBaryshe, P.G.; George, J. A.; Traverse, K.L.

    2005-01-01

    Telomeres across the genus Drosophila are maintained, not by telomerase, but by two non-LTR retrotransposons, HeT-A and TART, that transpose specifically to chromosome ends. Successive transpositions result in long head-to-tail arrays of these elements. Thus Drosophila telomeres, like those produced by telomerase, consist of repeated sequences reverse transcribed from RNA templates. The Drosophila repeats, complete and 5′-truncated copies of HeT-A and TART, are more complex than telomerase repeats; nevertheless these evolutionary variants have functional similarities to the more common telomeres. Like other telomeres, the Drosophila arrays are dynamic, fluctuating around an average length that can be changed by changes in the genetic background. Several proteins that interact with telomeres in other species have been found to have homologues that interact with Drosophila telomeres. Although they have hallmarks of non-LTR retrotransposons, HeT-A and TART appear to have a special relationship to Drosophila. Their Gag proteins are efficiently transported into diploid nuclei where HeT-A Gag recruits TART Gag to chromosome ends. Gags of other non-LTR elements remain predominantly in the cytoplasm. These studies provide intriguing evolutionary links between telomeres and retrotransposable elements. PMID:16132810

  10. Neurosteroids; potential underpinning roles in maintaining homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Rahmani, Behrouz; Ghasemi, Rasoul; Dargahi, Leila; Ahmadiani, Abolhassan; Haeri, Ali

    2016-01-01

    The neuroactive steroids which are synthesized in the brain and nervous system are known as "Neurosteroids". These steroids have crucial functions such as contributing to the myelination and organization of the brain connectivity. Under the stressful circumstances, the concentrations of neurosteroid products such as allopregnanolone (ALLO) and allotetrahydrodeoxycorticosterone (THDOC) alter. It has been suggested that these stress-derived neurosteroids modulate the physiological response to stress. Moreover, it has been demonstrated that the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis mediates the physiological adaptation following stress in order to maintain homeostasis. Although several regulatory pathways have been introduced, the exact role of neurosteroids in controlling HPA axis is not clear to date. In this review, we intend to discern specific pathways associated with regulation of HPA axis in which neuroactive steroids have the main role. In this respect, we propose pathways that may be initiated after neurosteroidogenesis in different brain subregions following acute stress which are potentially capable of activating or inhibiting the HPA axis. PMID:26432100

  11. MAVS maintains mitochondrial homeostasis via autophagy.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiaofeng; Sun, Liwei; Zhao, Yuanyuan; Li, Ying; Lin, Wei; Chen, Dahua; Sun, Qinmiao

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial antiviral signalling protein (MAVS) acts as a critical adaptor protein to transduce antiviral signalling by physically interacting with activated RIG-I and MDA5 receptors. MAVS executes its functions at the outer membrane of mitochondria to regulate downstream antiviral signalling, indicating that the mitochondria provides a functional platform for innate antiviral signalling transduction. However, little is known about whether and how MAVS-mediated antiviral signalling contributes to mitochondrial homeostasis. Here we show that the activation of MAVS is sufficient to induce autophagic signalling, which may mediate the turnover of the damaged mitochondria. Importantly, we find MAVS directly interacts with LC3 through its LC3-binding motif 'YxxI', suggesting that MAVS might act as an autophagy receptor to mediate mitochondrial turnover upon excessive activation of RLR signalling. Furthermore, we provide evidence that both MAVS self-aggregation and its interaction with TRAF2/6 proteins are important for MAVS-mediated mitochondrial turnover. Collectively, our findings suggest that MAVS acts as a potential receptor for mitochondria-associated autophagic signalling to maintain mitochondrial homeostasis. PMID:27551434

  12. Virus movement maintains local virus population diversity.

    PubMed

    Snyder, Jamie C; Wiedenheft, Blake; Lavin, Matthew; Roberto, Francisco F; Spuhler, Josh; Ortmann, Alice C; Douglas, Trevor; Young, Mark

    2007-11-27

    Viruses are the largest reservoir of genetic material on the planet, yet little is known about the population dynamics of any virus within its natural environment. Over a 2-year period, we monitored the diversity of two archaeal viruses found in hot springs within Yellowstone National Park (YNP). Both temporal phylogeny and neutral biodiversity models reveal that virus diversity in these local environments is not being maintained by mutation but rather by high rates of immigration from a globally distributed metacommunity. These results indicate that geographically isolated hot springs are readily able to exchange viruses. The importance of virus movement is supported by the detection of virus particles in air samples collected over YNP hot springs and by their detection in metacommunity sequencing projects conducted in the Sargasso Sea. Rapid rates of virus movement are not expected to be unique to these archaeal viruses but rather a common feature among virus metacommunities. The finding that virus immigration rather than mutation can dominate community structure has significant implications for understanding virus circulation and the role that viruses play in ecology and evolution by providing a reservoir of mobile genetic material. PMID:18025457

  13. Protecting America's secrets while maintaining academic freedom.

    PubMed

    Keel, Brooks A

    2004-04-01

    The terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, and the subsequent anthrax mail attacks, have had a profound impact on Americans' personal and professional lives and have sparked an active debate regarding the delicate balance between the need for national security and the pursuit of academic freedom. Although academic freedom can be defined in many ways, there are four primary tenets of freedom in an academic environment: freedom to research, freedom to publish, freedom to teach, and freedom to speak. Each of these tenets has come under attack in the wake of September 11, 2001. In this report the author further defines academic freedom and reflects upon recent events that have had a real or perceived impact on this freedom, including (1) attempts to categorize and restrict some research as "sensitive," (2) implementation of export control laws and select agent regulations, (3) limitations on the publication of research findings, (4) prohibition of certain foreign nationals from collaborating with U.S. researchers and receiving education and training in U.S. colleges and universities, and (5) restraint of faculty free speech. The author offers some suggestions as to how academia might achieve a proper balance between protecting our national security while promoting and maintaining academic freedom. PMID:15044166

  14. Work Adjustment of the Methadone-Maintained Corporate Employee

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yankowitz, Robert; Randell, Joan

    1977-01-01

    The work adjustment of 26 methadone-maintained corporate employees was evaluated. Results indicated: (a) relative to their nonmethadone-maintained coworkers, the methadone-maintained employees had comparable job performance and superior punctuality and attendance; and (b) the methadone-maintained skilled laborers were satisfied with their…

  15. Catalase addition to vitrification solutions maintains goat ovarian preantral follicles stability.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, A A; Faustino, L R; Silva, C M G; Castro, S V; Lobo, C H; Santos, F W; Santos, R R; Campello, C C; Bordignon, V; Figueiredo, J R; Rodrigues, A P R

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to verify whether the addition of catalase (20 IU/mL) at different steps of goat ovarian tissue vitrification affects ROS levels, follicular morphology and viability, stromal cell density, apoptosis and the expression of proteins related to DNA-damage signaling (γH2AX) and repair (53BP1). Goat ovarian tissues were analyzed fresh (control) or after vitrification: without catalase (VS-/WS-), with catalase in vitrification solutions (VS+/WS-), with catalase in washing solutions (VS-/WS+) or with catalase in both solutions (VS+/WS+). The vitrification without catalase had higher ROS levels than the control. The catalase, regardless the step of addition, maintained ROS levels similar to the control. There were no difference between treatments regarding follicular viability, stromal cell density and detection of γH2AX and 53BP1. There was no difference in follicular morphology and DNA fragmentation between groups vitrified. In conclusion, catalase addition to vitrification solutions prevents ROS formation in cryopreserved goat ovarian tissues. PMID:24972862

  16. Initiate and Maintain Cavitation by Combining High Amplitude Bursts and Continuous Ultrasound Exposure in Culture Medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mestas, J.-L.; Alberti, L.; Chesnais, S.; Lafon, C.; Blay, J.-Y.; Cathignol, D.

    2006-05-01

    Ultrasound can produce a variety of nonthermal bioeffects via acoustic cavitation. Most studies on cavitation effects pointed on the difficulty of initiating and controlling the cavitation phenomenon. Our objective is to obtain reproducible viability and transfection rate in the case of the application of a continuous low intensity ultrasound exposure. We propose to initiate and maintain cavitation in the medium by combining a continuous ultrasound exposure with periodical high amplitude bursts. Cells were exposed to ultrasound (444.5 kHz) transmitted through the bottom of twelve-well culture plates containing prostatic cells (AT2, 2.5 106 cells/mL), the plasmid DsRed in transfection case (200 μg/mL) and culture media. The cavitation effects were evaluated on the cell viability and transfection, determined 0 to 3 days after exposure by a flow cytometer (FACScan; total counted events: 10 000). Bursts of 1.73 W/cm2 intensity level had no effect on cells when their duration was lower than 100 ms and their frequency lower than 4 bursts/min. When combined with continuous exposure, only one burst of 1.73 W/cm2 intensity level and 50 ms duration was sufficient to activate the cavitation phenomenon in the medium.

  17. Maintaining Homeostasis by Decision-Making

    PubMed Central

    Korn, Christoph W.; Bach, Dominik R.

    2015-01-01

    Living organisms need to maintain energetic homeostasis. For many species, this implies taking actions with delayed consequences. For example, humans may have to decide between foraging for high-calorie but hard-to-get, and low-calorie but easy-to-get food, under threat of starvation. Homeostatic principles prescribe decisions that maximize the probability of sustaining appropriate energy levels across the entire foraging trajectory. Here, predictions from biological principles contrast with predictions from economic decision-making models based on maximizing the utility of the endpoint outcome of a choice. To empirically arbitrate between the predictions of biological and economic models for individual human decision-making, we devised a virtual foraging task in which players chose repeatedly between two foraging environments, lost energy by the passage of time, and gained energy probabilistically according to the statistics of the environment they chose. Reaching zero energy was framed as starvation. We used the mathematics of random walks to derive endpoint outcome distributions of the choices. This also furnished equivalent lotteries, presented in a purely economic, casino-like frame, in which starvation corresponded to winning nothing. Bayesian model comparison showed that—in both the foraging and the casino frames—participants’ choices depended jointly on the probability of starvation and the expected endpoint value of the outcome, but could not be explained by economic models based on combinations of statistical moments or on rank-dependent utility. This implies that under precisely defined constraints biological principles are better suited to explain human decision-making than economic models based on endpoint utility maximization. PMID:26024504

  18. Andean flat subduction maintained by slab tunneling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schepers, Gerben; van Hinsbergen, Douwe; Kosters, Martha; Boschman, Lydian; McQuarrie, Nadine; Spakman, Wim

    2016-04-01

    In two segments below the Andean mountain belt, the Nazca Plate is currently subducting sub-horizontally below South America over a distance of 200-300 km before the plate bends into the mantle. Such flat slab segments have pronounced effects on orogenesis and magmatism and are widely believed to be caused by the downgoing plate resisting subduction due to its local positive buoyancy. In contrast, here we show that flat slabs primarily result from a local resistance against rollback rather than against subduction. From a kinematic reconstruction of the Andean fold-thrust belt we determine up to ~390 km of shortening since ~50 Ma. During this time the South American Plate moved ~1400 km westward relative to the mantle, thus forcing ~1000 km of trench retreat. Importantly, since the 11-12 Ma onset of flat slab formation, ~1000 km of Nazca Plate subduction occurred, much more than the flat slab lengths, which leads to our main finding that the flat slabs, while being initiated by arrival of buoyant material at the trench, are primarily maintained by locally impeded rollback. We suggest that dynamic support of flat subduction comes from the formation of slab tunnels below segments with the most buoyant material. These tunnels trap mantle material until tearing of the tunnel wall provides an escape route. Fast subduction of this tear is followed by a continuous slab and the process can recur during ongoing rollback of the 7000 km wide Nazca slab at segments with the most buoyant subducting material, explaining the regional and transient character of flat slabs. Our study highlights the importance of studying subduction dynamics in absolute plate motion context.

  19. Maintaining homeostasis by decision-making.

    PubMed

    Korn, Christoph W; Bach, Dominik R

    2015-05-01

    Living organisms need to maintain energetic homeostasis. For many species, this implies taking actions with delayed consequences. For example, humans may have to decide between foraging for high-calorie but hard-to-get, and low-calorie but easy-to-get food, under threat of starvation. Homeostatic principles prescribe decisions that maximize the probability of sustaining appropriate energy levels across the entire foraging trajectory. Here, predictions from biological principles contrast with predictions from economic decision-making models based on maximizing the utility of the endpoint outcome of a choice. To empirically arbitrate between the predictions of biological and economic models for individual human decision-making, we devised a virtual foraging task in which players chose repeatedly between two foraging environments, lost energy by the passage of time, and gained energy probabilistically according to the statistics of the environment they chose. Reaching zero energy was framed as starvation. We used the mathematics of random walks to derive endpoint outcome distributions of the choices. This also furnished equivalent lotteries, presented in a purely economic, casino-like frame, in which starvation corresponded to winning nothing. Bayesian model comparison showed that--in both the foraging and the casino frames--participants' choices depended jointly on the probability of starvation and the expected endpoint value of the outcome, but could not be explained by economic models based on combinations of statistical moments or on rank-dependent utility. This implies that under precisely defined constraints biological principles are better suited to explain human decision-making than economic models based on endpoint utility maximization. PMID:26024504

  20. Maintaining professional activity during breast cancer treatment.

    PubMed

    Ganem, G; Antoine, E-C; Touboul, C; Naman, H; Dohollou, N; Facchini, T; Coscas, Y; Lortholary, A; Catala, S; Jacquot, S; Lhomel, C; Eisinger, F

    2016-05-01

    The question of returning to work and pursuing professional activity during cancer treatment is an increasingly important consideration. The present work focuses on factors affecting the feasibility of maintaining professional activity during treatment for breast cancer, for women who wished to do so. Written questionnaires were collected from 216 patients between March and November 2012. Since the onset of their treatment, 31.4% of the women (68/216) had not been on sick-leave. The main factors associated with the pursuit of professional activity were: considering the availability of their physician to answer questions as unimportant [OR = 18.83 (3.60-98.53); P ≤ 0.05]; considering the diagnosis of cancer as likely to have a weak impact on career perspectives [OR = 4.07 (2.49-6.64); P ≤ 0.05]; not having any children in the household [OR = 3.87 (2.38-6.28); P ≤ 0.05]; being in a managerial position [OR = 3.13 (1.88-5.21); P ≤ 0.05]. Negative predictive factors were: physician mentioning adverse effects of the treatment [OR = 0.31 (0.16-0.58); P ≤ 0.05], and patient rating workload as high [OR = 0.26 (0.15-0.46); P ≤ 0.05]. As a result of advances in therapeutic strategies, more patients will expect healthcare professionals, as well as employers and occupational health societies, to prioritise issues pertaining to the maintenance of professional activities during cancer treatment. PMID:26891443

  1. Maintaining the cold chain for vaccines.

    PubMed

    Petrović, Vladimir; Seguljev, Zorica; Gajin, Branka

    2005-01-01

    Cold chain for vaccines a is a system for storing and transporting vaccines at very low temperatures to maintain their effectiveness before use. Because vaccines are sensitive biological substances, their exposition to high temperatures directly affects the quality of vaccines and safety of immunization. The goal of this study was to assess the safety of cold chain for vaccines within the cold chain system in two services of Health Center Novi Sad. Cold Chain Monitors (CCM) and Freeze Watch (FW) indicators were used. A total of 155 (94.5%) Cold Chain Monitors (CCM) and 100 (95.2%) Freeze Watch (FW) indicators were analyzed. Only one CCM showed a breack in cold chain. A total of 3 CCMs indicated risk of vaccine wastage. A total of 9 CCMs were colorized without risk of vaccine wastage. FWs were positive in a high percentage in both services of Health Center Novi Sad. FWs were exposed to low temperatures during transport. Statistically significant differencies in the number of exposed CCMs to high temperatures and the number of exposed FWs to low temperatures were observed in these two services. A statistically significant difference in number of FWs exposed to low temperatures was observed in regard to the period of transport and the period of storage at the vaccination stations. The study shows high level of safety of the cold chain in two services of Health Center Novi Sad Cold Chain Monitor is a reliable indicator of the quality of cold chain for vaccines. Freeze Watch is a reliable indicator of the quality of cold chain during storage of vaccines, but not during their transport. PMID:16296574

  2. [Effect of heavy water on the viability of bacteria].

    PubMed

    Dronova, N V; Parkhomenko, T V; Popov, V G; Sventitskiĭ, E N; Iakovleva, L Iu

    1988-01-01

    Influence of heavy water (D2O) on the membrane energization, the efflux of hydrogen ions and the respiration of bacteria E. coli M-17 was studied. As has been shown, heavy water of a low concentration (0.05-0.20% v/v) activates and of a high concentration (above 10%) inhibits the absorption of lipophilic cation tetraphenylphosphonium (TPP+) and of oxygen by cells. The return of these characteristics to the initial levels after the removal of D2O points to a reversible action of D2O. A protective effect of D2O towards membrane energization and rate of respiration on dried cells was observed. This fact is in agreement with the data on viability of bacteria. The indicated protective action increases at the stage of rehydration in the presence of D2O. PMID:3390482

  3. Modelling the viability of heat recovery from combined sewers.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Aal, M; Smits, R; Mohamed, M; De Gussem, K; Schellart, A; Tait, S

    2014-01-01

    Modelling of wastewater temperatures along a sewer pipe using energy balance equations and assuming steady-state conditions was achieved. Modelling error was calculated, by comparing the predicted temperature drop to measured ones in three combined sewers, and was found to have an overall root mean squared error of 0.37 K. Downstream measured wastewater temperature was plotted against modelled values; their line gradients were found to be within the range of 0.9995-1.0012. The ultimate aim of the modelling is to assess the viability of recovering heat from sewer pipes. This is done by evaluating an appropriate location for a heat exchanger within a sewer network that can recover heat without impacting negatively on the downstream wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). Long sewers may prove to be more viable for heat recovery, as heat lost can be reclaimed before wastewater reaching the WWTP. PMID:25051477

  4. SEVO (Space Environment Viability of Organics) Preliminary Results from Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, A.; Ehrenfreund, P.; Mattioda, A.; Quinn, R.; Ricco, A. J.; Bramall, N.; Chittenden, J.; Bryson, K.; Minelli, G.

    2012-01-01

    SEVO (Space Environment Viability of Organics) is one of two astrobiology experiments onboard the NASA Organism/Organics Exposure to Orbital Stresses (O/OREOS) cubesat, launched in November 2010. The satellite is still operational with nominal performance and records data on a regular basis. In the SEVO experiment, four astrobiologically relevant organic thin films are exposed to radiation in low-earth orbit, including the unfiltered solar spectrum from approximately 120 - 2600 nm. The thin films are contained in each of four separate micro-environments: an atmosphere containing CO2, a low relative humidity (approximately 2%) atmosphere, an inert atmosphere representative of interstellar/interplanetary space, and a SiO2 mineral surface to measure the effects of surface catalysis. The UV/Vis spectrum of each sample is monitored in situ, with a spectrometer onboard the satellite.

  5. Optical monitoring of tissue viability using reflected spectroscopy in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayevsky, Avraham; Kraut, Ari; Manor, Tamar; Sonn, Judith; Zurovsky, Yehuda

    2001-05-01

    Only few techniques that could provide real-time continuous multiparametric physiological data have been developed. Therefore, experimental and clinical monitoring devices for organ and tissue viability evaluation are still lacking. In this study, we present the new concept of tissue vitality defined as a product of a few parameters monitored in real- time by a combined measurement of tissue blood flow and volume as well as the oxidation reduction state of the mitochondria. The hypothesis behind the new approach is that in order to evaluate in real-time tissue vitality, it is necessary to monitor both microcirculatory blood flow and volume as well as the intracellular O2 balance as reflected in the mitochondrial redox state.

  6. Technical viability and development needs for waste forms and facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Pegg, I.; Gould, T.

    1996-05-01

    The objective of this breakout session was to provide a forum to discuss technical issues relating to plutonium-bearing waste forms and their disposal facilities. Specific topics for discussion included the technical viability and development needs associated with the waste forms and/or disposal facilities. The expected end result of the session was an in-depth (so far as the limited time would allow) discussion of key issues by the session participants. The session chairs expressed allowance for, and encouragement of, alternative points of view, as well as encouragement for discussion of any relevant topics not addressed in the paper presentations. It was not the intent of this session to recommend or advocate any one technology over another.

  7. Myocardial viability in coronary artery chronic total occlusion.

    PubMed

    Vefali, Huseng; Manda, Yugandhar; Shirani, Jamshid

    2015-01-01

    Coronary artery chronic total occlusion (CTO) has rapidly become a popular target of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Technical and technological advances required for approaching these anatomically complex and challenging lesions have progressed at an extraordinary pace and have led to amazing success rates. Patient selection, however, has primarily focused on patient symptoms, lesion characteristics, as well as the state of collateral circulation. Multiple national and international registries have been established to follow the progress of percutaneous CTO recanalization and have provided valuable information. Concern, however, exists that this challenging procedure will become the "standard of care" before its effectiveness and appropriateness is tested in prospective controlled trials. This manuscript reviews the current state of patient selection and the need for careful assessment of the presence and extent of myocardial viability prior to lengthy, resource-intensive, and potentially high-risk procedures. PMID:25413581

  8. RSS1 regulates the cell cycle and maintains meristematic activity under stress conditions in rice

    PubMed Central

    Ogawa, Daisuke; Abe, Kiyomi; Miyao, Akio; Kojima, Mikiko; Sakakibara, Hitoshi; Mizutani, Megumi; Morita, Haruka; Toda, Yosuke; Hobo, Tokunori; Sato, Yutaka; Hattori, Tsukaho; Hirochika, Hirohiko; Takeda, Shin

    2011-01-01

    Plant growth and development are sustained by continuous cell division in the meristems, which is perturbed by various environmental stresses. For the maintenance of meristematic functions, it is essential that cell division be coordinated with cell differentiation. However, it is unknown how the proliferative activities of the meristems and the coordination between cell division and differentiation are maintained under stressful conditions. Here we show that a rice protein, RSS1, whose stability is controlled by cell cycle phases, contributes to the vigour of meristematic cells and viability under salinity conditions. These effects of RSS1 are exerted by regulating the G1–S transition, possibly through an interaction of RSS1 with protein phosphatase 1, and are mediated by the phytohormone, cytokinin. RSS1 is conserved widely in plant lineages, except eudicots, suggesting that RSS1-dependent mechanisms might have been adopted in specific lineages during the evolutionary radiation of angiosperms. PMID:21505434

  9. TOR complex 2-Ypk1 signaling maintains sphingolipid homeostasis by sensing and regulating ROS accumulation.

    PubMed

    Niles, Brad J; Joslin, Amelia C; Fresques, Tara; Powers, Ted

    2014-02-13

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are produced during normal metabolism and can function as signaling molecules. However, ROS at elevated levels can damage cells. Here, we identify the conserved target of rapamycin complex 2 (TORC2)/Ypk1 signaling module as an important regulator of ROS in the model eukaryotic organism, S. cerevisiae. We show that TORC2/Ypk1 suppresses ROS produced both by mitochondria as well as by nonmitochondrial sources, including changes in acidification of the vacuole. Furthermore, we link vacuole-related ROS to sphingolipids, essential components of cellular membranes, whose synthesis is also controlled by TORC2/Ypk1 signaling. In total, our data reveal that TORC2/Ypk1 act within a homeostatic feedback loop to maintain sphingolipid levels and that ROS are a critical regulatory signal within this system. Thus, ROS sensing and signaling by TORC2/Ypk1 play a central physiological role in sphingolipid biosynthesis and in the maintenance of cell growth and viability. PMID:24462291

  10. Viability of imaging structures inside human dentin using dental transillumination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grandisoli, C. L.; Alves-de-Souza, F. D.; Costa, M. M.; Castro, L.; Ana, P. A.; Zezell, D. M.; Lins, E. C.

    2014-02-01

    Dental Transillumination (DT) is a technique for imaging internal structures of teeth by detecting infrared radiation transmitted throughout the specimens. It was successfully used to detect caries even considering dental enamel and dentin scatter infrared radiation strongly. Literature reports enamel's scattering coefficient is 10 to 30 times lower than dentin; this explain why DT is useful for imaging pathologies in dental enamel, but does not disable its using for imaging dental structures or pathologies inside the dentin. There was no conclusive data in the literature about the limitations of using DT to access biomedical information of dentin. The goal in this study was to present an application of DT to imaging internal structures of dentin. Slices of tooth were confectioned varying the thickness of groups from 0.5 mm up to 2,5 mm. For imaging a FPA InGaAs camera Xeva 1.7- 320 (900-1700 nm; Xenics, Inc., Belgium) and a 3W lamp-based broadband light source (Ocean Optics, Inc., USA) was used; bandpass optical filters at 1000+/-10 nm, 1100+/-10 nm, 1200+/-10 nm and 1300+/-50 nm spectral region were also applied to spectral selection. Images were captured for different camera exposure times and finally a computational processing was applied. The best results revealed the viability to imaging dent in tissue with thickness up to 2,5 mm without a filter (900-1700nm spectral range). After these results a pilot experiment of using DT to detect the pulp chamber of an incisive human tooth was made. New data showed the viability to imaging the pulp chamber of specimen.

  11. Viability and Detectability of Photosynthesis on Earth-like Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolstencroft, Ramon; Raven, John

    Based on current understanding of how photosynthesis arose and developed on Earth,we consider what factors would limit or encourage the viability of photosynthetically energized organisms on Earth-like planets (ELP's) orbiting nearby ms stars with a range of surface temperature. Assuming that the ELP originally had an atmosphere similar to that of the early Earth and orbited within the parent star's habitable zone ,the main factors are: (1) an adequate photon flux incident on the organism in the photosynthetically active region (400 to 700nm on Earth); and (2) the need to avoid UV-B radiation - prior to the production of an atmospheric UV screen of ozone - which would damage the organism's DNA. Significant photosynthesis with the generation of molecular oxygen could take place with an incident photon flux at the organism of at least ten times that on today's Earth. If the parent star is hot enough for there to be appreciable levels of UV radiation, photosynthetic organisms can seek lower UV light levels in the ELP ocean with the benefit of the greater attenuation of UV-B radiation than of the 400-700nm radiation. In the case of cool stars where the flux of photosynthetically active photons may be too low, a major change in the photosynthetic apparatus would be required from the two-photon photosystem of terrestrial photosynthesis, which energises the electron transfer needed in photosynthesis, to a three- or four-photon photosystem which can make use of lower energy photons. The implications for the viability and spectroscopic detectability of photosynthetic organisms on ELP's will be discussed.

  12. Effects of sunlight on bacteriophage viability and structure.

    PubMed Central

    Wommack, K E; Hill, R T; Muller, T A; Colwell, R R

    1996-01-01

    Current estimates of viral abundance in natural waters rely on direct counts of virus-like particles (VLPs), using either transmission or epifluorescence microscopy. Direct counts of VLPs, while useful in studies of viral ecology, do not indicate whether the observed VLPs are capable of infection and/or replication. Rapid decay in bacteriophage viability under environmental conditions has been observed. However, it has not been firmly established whether there is a corresponding degradation of the virus particles. To address this question, viable and direct counts were carried out employing two Chesapeake Bay bacteriophages in experimental microcosms incubated for 56 h at two depths in the York River estuary. Viruses incubated in situ in microcosms at the surface yielded decay rates in full sunlight of 0.11 and 0.06 h-1 for CB 38 phi and CB 7 phi, respectively. The number of infective particles in microcosms in the dark and at a depth of 1 m was not significantly different from laboratory controls, with decay rates averaging 0.052 h-1 for CB 38 phi and 0.037 h-1 for CB 7 phi. Direct counts of bacteriophages decreased in teh estuarine microcosms, albeit only at a rate of 0.028 h-1, and were independent of treatment. Destruction of virus particles is concluded to be a process separate from loss of infectivity. It is also concluded that strong sunlight affects the viability of bacteriophages in surface waters, with the result that direct counts of VLPs overestimate the number of bacteriophage capable of both infection and replication. However, in deeper waters, where solar radiation is not a significant factor, direct counts should more accurately estimate numbers of viable bacteriophage. PMID:8919794

  13. Thermoforming of Tracheal Cartilage: Viability, Shape Change, and Mechanical Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Chae, Yongseok; Protsenko, Dmitriy; Holden, Paul K.; Chlebicki, Cara; Wong, Brian J.F.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives Trauma, emergent tracheostomy, and prolonged intubation are common causes of severe deformation and narrowing of the trachea. Laser technology may be used to reshape tracheal cartilage using minimally invasive methods. The objectives of this study were to determine: (1) the dependence of tracheal cartilage shape change on temperature and laser dosimetry using heated saline bath immersion and laser irradiation, respectively, (2) the effect of temperature on the mechanical behavior of cartilage, and (3) tissue viability as a function of laser dosimetry. Materials and Methods Ex vivo rabbit trachea cartilage specimens were bent and secured around a cylinder (6 mm), and then immersed in a saline bath (45 and 72°C) for 5– 100 seconds. In separate experiments, tracheal specimens were irradiated with a diode laser (λ = 1.45 μm, 220–400 J/cm2). Mechanical analysis was then used to determine the elastic modulus in tension after irradiation. Fluorescent viability assays combined with laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM) were employed to image and identify thermal injury regions. Results Shape change transition zones, between 62 and 66°C in the saline heating bath and above power densities of 350 J/cm2 (peak temperatures 65±10°C) for laser irradiation were identified. Above these zones, the elastic moduli were higher (8.2±4 MPa) than at lower temperatures (4.5±3 MPa). LSCM identified significant loss of viable chondrocytes within the laser-irradiation zones. Conclusion Our results indicate a change in mechanical properties occurs with laser irradiation and further demonstrates that significant thermal damage is concurrent with clinically relevant shape change in the elastic cartilage tissues of the rabbit trachea using the present laser and dosimetry parameters. PMID:18798288

  14. High speed measurement of corn seed viability using hyperspectral imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ambrose, Ashabahebwa; Kandpal, Lalit Mohan; Kim, Moon S.; Lee, Wang-Hee; Cho, Byoung-Kwan

    2016-03-01

    Corn is one of the most cultivated crops all over world as food for humans as well as animals. Optimized agronomic practices and improved technological interventions during planting, harvesting and post-harvest handling are critical to improving the quantity and quality of corn production. Seed germination and vigor are the primary determinants of high yield notwithstanding any other factors that may play during the growth period. Seed viability may be lost during storage due to unfavorable conditions e.g. moisture content and temperatures, or physical damage during mechanical processing e.g. shelling, or over heating during drying. It is therefore vital for seed companies and farmers to test and ascertain seed viability to avoid losses of any kind. This study aimed at investigating the possibility of using hyperspectral imaging (HSI) technique to discriminate viable and nonviable corn seeds. A group of corn samples were heat treated by using microwave process while a group of seeds were kept as control group (untreated). The hyperspectral images of corn seeds of both groups were captured between 400 and 2500 nm wave range. Partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) was built for the classification of aged (heat treated) and normal (untreated) corn seeds. The model showed highest classification accuracy of 97.6% (calibration) and 95.6% (prediction) in the SWIR region of the HSI. Furthermore, the PLS-DA and binary images were capable to provide the visual information of treated and untreated corn seeds. The overall results suggest that HSI technique is accurate for classification of viable and non-viable seeds with non-destructive manner.

  15. A global viability assessment of the European eel.

    PubMed

    Bevacqua, Daniele; Melià, Paco; Gatto, Marino; De Leo, Giulio A

    2015-09-01

    The global European eel (Anguilla anguilla) stock is critically endangered according to the IUCN, and the European Commission has urged the development of conservation plans aimed to ensure its viability. However, the complex life cycle of this panmictic species, which reproduces in the open ocean but spends most of its prereproductive life in continental waters (thus embracing a huge geographic range and a variety of habitat types), makes it difficult to assess the long-term effectiveness of conservation measures. The interplay between local and global stressors raises intriguing cross-scale conservation challenges that require a comprehensive modelling approach to be addressed. We developed a full life cycle model of the global European eel stock, encompassing both the oceanic and the continental phases of eel's life, and explicitly allowing for spatial heterogeneity in vital rates, availability of suitable habitat and settlement potential via a metapopulation approach. We calibrated the model against a long-term time series of global European eel catches and used it to hindcast the dynamics of the stock in the past and project it over the 21st century under different management scenarios. Although our analysis relies on a number of inevitable simplifying assumptions and on data that may not embrace the whole range of variation in population dynamics at the small spatiotemporal scale, our hindcast is consistent with the general pattern of decline of the stock over recent decades. The results of our projections suggest that (i) habitat loss played a major role in the European eel decline; (ii) the viability of the global stock is at risk if appropriate protection measures are not implemented; (iii) the recovery of spawner escapement requires that fishing mortality is significantly reduced; and (iv) the recovery of recruitment might not be feasible if reproductive output is not enhanced. PMID:25965113

  16. Rapid Fluorescence Assessment of the Viability of Stressed Lactococcus lactis

    PubMed Central

    Bunthof, Christine J.; van den Braak, Sabina; Breeuwer, Pieter; Rombouts, Frank M.; Abee, Tjakko

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this study was to establish the use of the fluorescent probes carboxyfluorescein (cF) and propidium iodide (PI) for rapid assessment of viability, using Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis ML3 exposed to different stress treatments. The cF labeling indicated the reproductive capacity of mixtures of nontreated cells and cells killed at 70°C very well. However, after treatment up to 60°C the fraction of cF-labeled cells remained high, whereas the survival decreased for cells treated at above 50°C and was completely lost for those treated at 60°C. In an extended series of experiments, cell suspensions were exposed to heating, freezing, low pH, or bile salts, after which the colony counts, acidification capacity, glycolytic activity, PI exclusion, cF labeling, and cF efflux were measured and compared. The acidification capacity corresponded with the number of CFU. The glycolytic activity, which is an indicator of vitality, was more sensitive to the stress conditions than the reproduction, acidification, and fluorescence parameters. The cF labeling depended on membrane integrity, as was confirmed by PI exclusion. The fraction of cF-labeled cells was not a general indicator of reproduction or acidification, nor was PI exclusion or cF labeling capacity (the internal cF concentration). When the cells were labeled by cF, a subsequent lactose-energized efflux assay was needed for decisive viability assessment. This novel assay proved to be a good and rapid indicator of the reproduction and acidification capacities of stressed L. lactis and has potential for physiological research and dairy applications related to lactic acid bacteria. PMID:10427066

  17. Effect of Storage Method on Spore Viability in Five Globally Threatened Fern Species

    PubMed Central

    QUINTANILLA, LUIS G.; AMIGO, JAVIER; PANGUA, EMILIA; PAJARÓN, SANTIAGO

    2002-01-01

    Spore germination of five globally threatened fern species [Culcita macrocarpa C. Presl, Dryopteris aemula (Aiton) O. Kuntze, D. corleyi Fraser‐Jenkins, D. guanchica Gibby and Jermy and Woodwardia radicans (L.) Sm.] was determined after 1, 6 or 12 months of storage in glass vials (dry storage) or on agar (wet storage) at –20, 5 or 20 °C. In all species, storage technique, storage temperature and the technique–temperature interaction all had a significant effect on germination percentage. In most cases, the germination percentage was best maintained by wet storage at 5 or 20 °C. In the case of the hygrophilous species C. macrocarpa and W. radicans, 6 or 12 months’ dry storage killed most spores. Only Woodwardia radicans germinated in the dark during wet storage at 20 °C. Wet storage at 5 °C prevented dark germination, and reduced bacterial and fungal contamination. Wet storage at –20 °C killed all or most spores in all species. In the three Dryopteris species, the differences among the storage conditions tested were smaller than in C. macrocarpa and W. radicans, and the decline in spore viability during storage was less marked, with high germination percentages being observed after 12 months of dry storage at all three temperatures. Dry storage, which has lower preparation time and space requirements than wet storage, was generally more effective at the lower temperatures (–20 or 5 °C). PMID:12324269

  18. Rice Aldehyde Dehydrogenase7 Is Needed for Seed Maturation and Viability1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Jun-Hye; Kim, Sung-Ryul; An, Gynheung

    2009-01-01

    Aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDHs) catalyze the irreversible oxidation of a wide range of reactive aldehydes to their corresponding carboxylic acids. Although the proteins have been studied from various organisms and at different growth stages, their roles in seed development have not been well elucidated. We obtained T-DNA insertional mutants in OsALDH7, which is remarkably inducible by oxidative and abiotic stresses. Interestingly, endosperms from the osaldh7 null mutants accumulated brown pigments during desiccation and storage. Extracts from the mutant seeds showed a maximum absorbance peak at 360 nm, the wavelength that melanoidin absorbs. Under UV light, those extracts also exhibited much stronger fluorescence than the wild type, suggesting that the pigments are melanoidin. These pigments started to accumulate in the late seed developmental stage, the time when OsALDH7 expression began to increase significantly. Purified OsALDH7 protein showed enzyme activities to malondialdehyde, acetaldehyde, and glyceraldehyde. These results suggest that OsALDH7 is involved in removing various aldehydes formed by oxidative stress during seed desiccation. The mutant seeds were more sensitive to our accelerated aging treatment and accumulated more malondialdehyde than the wild type. These data imply that OsALDH7 plays an important role in maintaining seed viability by detoxifying the aldehydes generated by lipid peroxidation. PMID:19052152

  19. Morphology and Viability of Pleistocene Microbiota from the CRREL Permafrost Tunnel Near Fox, Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoover, Richard B.

    2000-01-01

    The U. S. Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory maintains the CRREL Permafrost Tunnel at Fox, Alaska (-10 miles north of Fairbanks.) The active microbial ecosystems and the cryopreserved anabiotic viable microorganisms and dead microbial remains and biomarkers frozen within the permafrost and ice of the CRREL Permafrost Tunnel are of direct relevance to Astrobiology. Microbial extremophiles from permafrost and ice provide information concerning where and how should we search for evidence of life elsewhere in the Cosmos. The permafrost and ice wedges of the Fox tunnel preserves a magnificent of record of Pliocene, Pleistocene and Holocene life on Earth spanning more than 2.5 million years. This record includes frozen fossil bacteria, archaea, algae, mosses, higher plants, insects and mammals. In this paper we present the preliminary results of studies of the morphology, ultramicrostructure and elemental distributions of Fox tunnel microbiota as determined in-situ by the Environmental Scanning Electron Microscope (ESEM) and the Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM) investigations. The long-term viability of cryopreserved microbiota and potential implications to Astrobiology will be discussed.

  20. Using the Viability Theory to Assess the Flexibility of Forest Managers Under Ecological Intensification.

    PubMed

    Mathias, Jean-Denis; Bonté, Bruno; Cordonnier, Thomas; de Morogues, Francis

    2015-11-01

    Greater demand for wood material has converged with greater demand for biodiversity conservation to make balancing forest ecosystem services a key societal issue. Forest managers, owners, or policymakers need new approaches and methods to evaluate their ability to adapt to this dual objective. We analyze the ability of forest owners to define sustainable forest management options based on viability theory and a new flexibility index. This new indicator gauges the adaptive capacity of forest owners based on the number of sustainable actions available to them at a given time. Here we study a public forest owner who regulates harvest intensity and frequency in order to meet demand for timber wood at forest scale and to meet a biodiversity recommendation via a minimum permanently maintained volume of deadwood per hectare at stand scale. Dynamical systems theory was used to model uneven-aged forest dynamics-including deadwood dynamics-and the dynamics of timber wood demand and tree removals. Uneven-aged silver fir forest management in the "Quatre Montagnes region" (Vercors, France) is used as an illustrative example. The results explain situations where a joint increase in wood production and deadwood retention does not reduce the flexibility index more than increasing either one dimension alone, thus opening up ecological intensification options. To conclude, we discuss the value of the new flexibility index for addressing environmental management and ecological intensification issues. PMID:26093825

  1. Using the Viability Theory to Assess the Flexibility of Forest Managers Under Ecological Intensification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathias, Jean-Denis; Bonté, Bruno; Cordonnier, Thomas; de Morogues, Francis

    2015-11-01

    Greater demand for wood material has converged with greater demand for biodiversity conservation to make balancing forest ecosystem services a key societal issue. Forest managers, owners, or policymakers need new approaches and methods to evaluate their ability to adapt to this dual objective. We analyze the ability of forest owners to define sustainable forest management options based on viability theory and a new flexibility index. This new indicator gauges the adaptive capacity of forest owners based on the number of sustainable actions available to them at a given time. Here we study a public forest owner who regulates harvest intensity and frequency in order to meet demand for timber wood at forest scale and to meet a biodiversity recommendation via a minimum permanently maintained volume of deadwood per hectare at stand scale. Dynamical systems theory was used to model uneven-aged forest dynamics—including deadwood dynamics—and the dynamics of timber wood demand and tree removals. Uneven-aged silver fir forest management in the "Quatre Montagnes region" (Vercors, France) is used as an illustrative example. The results explain situations where a joint increase in wood production and deadwood retention does not reduce the flexibility index more than increasing either one dimension alone, thus opening up ecological intensification options. To conclude, we discuss the value of the new flexibility index for addressing environmental management and ecological intensification issues.

  2. Impediments to eye transplantation: ocular viability following optic-nerve transection or enucleation

    PubMed Central

    Ellenberg, D; Shi, J; Jain, S; Chang, J-H; Ripps, H; Brady, S; Melhem, E R; Lakkis, F; Adamis, A; Chen, D-F; Ellis-Behnke, R; Langer, R S; Strittmatter, S M; Azar, D T

    2010-01-01

    Maintenance of ocular viability is one of the major impediments to successful whole-eye transplantation. This review provides a comprehensive understanding of the current literature to help guide future studies in order to overcome this hurdle. A systematic multistage review of published literature was performed. Three specific questions were addressed: (1) Is recovery of visual function following eye transplantation greater in cold-blooded vertebrates when compared with mammals? (2) Is outer retina function following enucleation and reperfusion improved compared with enucleation alone? (3) Following optic-nerve transection, is there a correlation between retinal ganglion cell (RGC) survival and either time after transection or proximity of the transection to the globe? In a majority of the studies performed in the literature, recovery of visual function can occur after whole-eye transplantation in cold-blooded vertebrates. Following enucleation (and reperfusion), outer retinal function is maintained from 4 to 9 h. RGC survival following optic-nerve transection is inversely related to both the time since transection and the proximity of transection to the globe. Lastly, neurotrophins can increase RGC survival following optic-nerve transection. This review of the literature suggests that the use of a donor eye is feasible for whole-eye transplantation. PMID:19286686

  3. Life history mediates mate limitation and population viability in self-incompatible plant species

    PubMed Central

    Thrall, Peter H; Encinas-Viso, Francisco; Hoebee, Susan E; Young, Andrew G

    2014-01-01

    Genetically controlled self-incompatibility systems represent links between genetic diversity and plant demography with the potential to directly impact on population dynamics. We use an individual-based spatial simulation to investigate the demographic and genetic consequences of different self-incompatibility systems for plants that vary in reproductive capacity and lifespan. The results support the idea that, in the absence of inbreeding effects, populations of self-incompatible species will often be smaller and less viable than self-compatible species, particularly for shorter-lived organisms or where potential fecundity is low. At high ovule production and low mortality, self-incompatible and self-compatible species are demographically similar, thus self-incompatibility does not automatically lead to reduced mate availability or population viability. Overall, sporophytic codominant self-incompatibility was more limiting than gametophytic or sporophytic dominant systems, which generally behaved in a similar fashion. Under a narrow range of conditions, the sporophytic dominant system maintained marginally greater mate availability owing to the production of S locus homozygotes. While self-incompatibility reduces population size and persistence for a broad range of conditions, the actual number of S alleles, beyond that required for reproduction, is important for only a subset of life histories. For these situations, results suggest that addition of new S alleles may result in significant demographic rescue. PMID:24683451

  4. Thioredoxin 1 protects astrocytes from oxidative stress by maintaining peroxiredoxin activity

    PubMed Central

    WANG, MENGFEI; ZHU, KUNTING; ZHANG, LUYU; LI, LINGYU; ZHAO, JING

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that thioredoxin 1 (Trx1) exerts neuroprotective effects against cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury caused by oxidative stress. While Trx1 is known to maintain the anti-oxidant activity of 2-Cys peroxiredoxins (Prdxs), the underlying mechanisms of its protective effects have remained to be elucidated, which was the aim of the present study. For this, an in vitro ischemic model of hypoxemia lasting for 4 h, followed by 24 h of reperfusion was used. Primary astrocytes from neonatal rats were pre-treated with small interfering RNA targeting Trx1 prior to oxygen glucose deprivation/reperfusion (OGD/R). MTS and lactate dehydrogenase assays were performed to evaluate cell viability. Reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and western blot analysis were employed to assess the mRNA and protein expression levels of Prdx1-4 and Prdx-SO3. Furthermore, a dual luciferase reporter assay was used to assess the interaction between activator protein-1 (AP-1) and Trx1. The present study demonstrated that OGD/R decreased the cell viability and increased cellular damage, which was more marked following Trx1 knockdown. The expression of Prdx1-4 and Prdx-SO3 protein was higher in the cells subjected to OGD/R. Knockdown of Trx1 markedly decreased the levels of Prdx1-4 but increased Prdx-SO3 mRNA and protein levels. The results of the present study also suggested that AP-1 directly activated the expression of Trx1. The present study demonstrated that Trx1 exerts its neuroprotective effects by preventing oxidative stress in astrocytes via maintaining Prdx expression. PMID:26846911

  5. Aptamer–polymer functionalized silicon nanosubstrates for enhanced recovered circulating tumor cell viability and in vitro chemosensitivity testing

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Qinglin; Peng, Caixia; Zhan, Yan; Fan, Liang; Wang, Mengyi; Zhou, Qing; Liu, Jue; Lv, Xiaojuan; Tang, Qiu; Li, Jun; Huang, Xiaodong; Xia, Jiahong

    2016-01-01

    Selection of the optimal chemotherapy regimen for an individual cancer patient is challenging. The existing chemosensitivity tests are costly, time-consuming, and not amenable to wide utilization within a clinic. This limitation might be addressed by the recently proposed use of circulating tumor cells (CTCs), which provide an opportunity to noninvasively monitor response to therapy. Over the past few decades, various techniques were developed to capture and recover CTCs, but these techniques were often limited by a capture and recovery performance tradeoff between high viability and high efficiency. In this work, we used anti-epithelial cell adhesion molecule coated aptamer–poly (N-isopropylacrylamide) functionalized silicon nanowire substrates to capture and release epithelial cell adhesion molecule-positive CTCs at 32°C and 4°C, respectively. Then, we applied the nuclease to digest the aptamer to release the captured CTCs (near or at the end of the polymer brush), which cannot be released by heating/cooling process. High viability and purity CTCs could be achieved by decreasing the heating/cooling cycles and enzymatic treatment rounds. Furthermore, the time-saving process is helpful to maintain the morphology and enhance vitality of the recovered CTCs and is beneficial to the subsequent cell culture in vitro. We validated the feasibility of chemosensitivity testing based on the recovered HCC827 cells using an adenosine triphosphate–tumor chemosensitivity assay, and the results suggested that our method can determine which agent and what concentration have the best chemosensitivity for the culturing recovered CTCs. So, the novel method capable of a highly effective capture and recovery of high viability CTCs will pave the way for chemosensitivity testing. PMID:27274239

  6. Aptamer-polymer functionalized silicon nanosubstrates for enhanced recovered circulating tumor cell viability and in vitro chemosensitivity testing.

    PubMed

    Shen, Qinglin; Peng, Caixia; Zhan, Yan; Fan, Liang; Wang, Mengyi; Zhou, Qing; Liu, Jue; Lv, Xiaojuan; Tang, Qiu; Li, Jun; Huang, Xiaodong; Xia, Jiahong

    2016-01-01

    Selection of the optimal chemotherapy regimen for an individual cancer patient is challenging. The existing chemosensitivity tests are costly, time-consuming, and not amenable to wide utilization within a clinic. This limitation might be addressed by the recently proposed use of circulating tumor cells (CTCs), which provide an opportunity to noninvasively monitor response to therapy. Over the past few decades, various techniques were developed to capture and recover CTCs, but these techniques were often limited by a capture and recovery performance tradeoff between high viability and high efficiency. In this work, we used anti-epithelial cell adhesion molecule coated aptamer-poly (N-isopropylacrylamide) functionalized silicon nanowire substrates to capture and release epithelial cell adhesion molecule-positive CTCs at 32°C and 4°C, respectively. Then, we applied the nuclease to digest the aptamer to release the captured CTCs (near or at the end of the polymer brush), which cannot be released by heating/cooling process. High viability and purity CTCs could be achieved by decreasing the heating/cooling cycles and enzymatic treatment rounds. Furthermore, the time-saving process is helpful to maintain the morphology and enhance vitality of the recovered CTCs and is beneficial to the subsequent cell culture in vitro. We validated the feasibility of chemosensitivity testing based on the recovered HCC827 cells using an adenosine triphosphate-tumor chemosensitivity assay, and the results suggested that our method can determine which agent and what concentration have the best chemosensitivity for the culturing recovered CTCs. So, the novel method capable of a highly effective capture and recovery of high viability CTCs will pave the way for chemosensitivity testing. PMID:27274239

  7. Suppressed osteoclast differentiation at the chondro-osseous junction mediates endochondral ossification retardation in long bones of Wistar fetal rats with prenatal ethanol exposure.

    PubMed

    Pan, Zhengqi; Zhang, Xianrong; Shangguan, Yangfan; Hu, Hang; Chen, Liaobin; Wang, Hui

    2016-08-15

    Prenatal ethanol exposure (PEE) inhibits longitudinal growth of fetal bones, but the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. In this study, we aimed to investigate how PEE induces the retardation of long bone development in fetal rats. Pregnant Wistar rats were treated with ethanol or distilled water (control group) by gavage from gestational day (GD) 9 to 20. Fetuses were delivered by cesarean section on GD20. Fetal sera were collected for assessing corticosterone (CORT) level. Fetal long bones were harvested for histochemical, immunohistochemical and gene expression analysis. Primary chondrocytes were treated with ethanol or CORT for analyzing genes expression. PEE fetuses showed a significant reduction in birth weight and body length. The serum CORT concentration in PEE group was significantly increased, while the body weight, body length and femur length all were significantly decreased in the PEE group. The length of the epiphyseal hypertrophy zone was enlarged, whereas the length of the primary ossification center was significantly reduced in PEE fetuses. TUNEL assay showed reduced apoptosis in the PEE group. Further, the gene expression of osteoprotegerin (OPG) was markedly up-regulated. In vitro experiments showed that CORT (but not ethanol) treatment significantly activated the expression of OPG, while the application of glucocorticoid receptor inhibitor, mifepristone, attenuated these change induced by CORT. These results indicated that PEE-induced glucocorticoid over-exposure enhanced the expression of OPG in fetal epiphyseal cartilage and further lead to the suppressed osteoclast differentiation in the chondro-osseous junction and consequently inhibited the endochondral ossification in long bones of fetal rats. PMID:27338645

  8. Adverse Events in the Long-Term Follow-Up of Patients Treated With Samarium Sm 153 Lexidronam for Osseous Metastases

    SciTech Connect

    Paravati, Anthony J.; Russo, Andrea L.; Aitken, Candice

    2011-10-01

    Purpose: To investigate adverse events after samarium Sm 153 lexidronam and the effect of pre- and post-samarium Sm 153 lexidronam external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) and/or chemotherapy on myelosuppression in patients who received samarium Sm 153 lexidronam for osseous metastases. Methods and Materials: We performed a single-institution retrospective review of 139 patients treated with samarium Sm 153 lexidronam between November 1997 and February 2008. New-onset adverse events after samarium Sm 153 lexidronam were reported. The effect of samarium Sm 153 lexidronam on platelet and peripheral white blood cell counts and the duration of myelosuppression after samarium Sm 153 lexidronam plus EBRT and/or chemotherapy were calculated. Differences in the prevalence of adverse events among patients with varying treatment histories were evaluated with the Pearson chi-square test. Results: Hematologic follow-up was available for 103 patients. Chemotherapy and/or EBRT had no effect on the magnitude or duration of myelosuppression. The most common nonhematologic adverse events were acute lower extremity edema (n = 27) and acute and transient neuropathy (n = 29). Patients treated with chemotherapy after samarium Sm 153 lexidronam had a higher prevalence of lower extremity edema (9 of 18 [50%]) than those who were not treated with chemotherapy after samarium Sm 153 lexidronam (18 of 85 [21.2%]) (p = 0.01, chi-square test). No adverse events were correlated with EBRT. Conclusions: Our observation of new-onset, acute and transient edema and neuropathy after samarium Sm 153 lexidronam and of a relationship between edema and post-samarium Sm 153 lexidronam chemotherapy suggests the need for re-examination of patients in past series or for a prospective investigation with nonhematologic adverse events as a primary endpoint.

  9. Uncoupled neuro-osseous growth in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis? A preliminary study of 90 adolescents with whole-spine three-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Lao, Li-Feng; Shen, Jian-Xiong; Chen, Zheng-Guang; Wang, Yi-Peng; Wen, Xi-Sheng; Qiu, Gui-Xing

    2011-07-01

    Previous literatures revealed abnormal cross-sectional morphology of spinal cord in AIS, suggesting the presence of disproportional growth between the neural and skeletal system. No accurate measurement of whole spine by MRI multiplanar reconstruction and their correlation with Cobb angle were studied. In this study, MRI three-dimensional reconstruction of the whole spine was performed in 90 adolescents (49 AIS with thoracic/thoracolumbar curve, and 41 age-matched healthy controls). Measurements of the ratio of anteroposterior (AP) and transverse (TS) diameter of the cord, the concave and convex lateral cord space (LCS) were obtained at the apical level in AIS patients. Cerebellar tonsillar level related to the basion-opsithion line, location of conus medullaris, cord length, vertebral column length, cord/vertebral column length ratio were obtained. All of the same parameters were also measured in healthy controls at matched vertebral levels and their correlations with Cobb angle were made. We notice that AP, TS, AP/TS and LCS ratio were increased in AIS subjects with low-lying position of cerebellar tonsillar level and elevating position of conus medullary when compared with healthy controls (P < 0.01). AP, AP/TS and LCS ratio were correlated significantly with Cobb angle (P < 0.05). Cord length and vertebral column length were not significantly different between AIS and control group. However, cord/vertebral column length ratio was significantly smaller in AIS group (P < 0.01). Cord length, vertebral column length and cord/vertebral column length ratio were not related with age or Cobb angle (P > 0.05). These data suggest the presence of uncoupled neuro-osseous growth along the longitudinal axis of spinal cord with associated morphologic changes of cross-sectional configuration and relative position of the cord. Some changes are significantly relevant with Cobb angle, which may indicate pathogenesis of AIS. PMID:20552379

  10. Application of viability theory for road vehicle active safety during cornering manoeuvres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vandanjon, P.-O.; Coiret, A.; Lorino, T.

    2014-02-01

    Viability theory proposes geometric metaphors in addition to classical ordinary differential equation analysis. In this paper, advantages of applying viability theory to road safety domain are presented. The exact issue is to determine if, from an initial state of a vehicle/road/driver system, a soft controls strategy is compatible with a safe driving sequence. The case of a car negotiating a curve is considered. The application of the viability theory to this issue offers the advantage to avoid classical full computing of the system. Instead of that, it consists on verifying that the states and the controls belong to a subset called the viability kernel. The construction and the use of the viability kernel for a vehicle system dynamic is proposed by using support vector machines algorithm. Then, the applicability of this theory is demonstrated through experimental tests. This innovative application of the viability theory to vehicle dynamics with road safety concerns could benefit to robust embedded warning systems.

  11. Seasonal variation in viability of cryopreserved Vaccinium dormant buds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Berries of several Vaccinium L (Ericaceae) species have become an integral part of everyday diets of a vast American population. The most economically important are blueberry and cranberry. The USDA-ARS, National Plant Germplasm System maintains over 1,500 accessions of living plants and seeds at a ...

  12. The Viability of Commodity Cartels: The Case of Oil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergeijk, Peter A. G. van

    1989-01-01

    Explains the rise and fall of the oil cartel by applying an elasticity of demand analysis. Beginning from the demand side of the market, offers a simple derivation of the elasticity of demand for the cartel's product. Maintains that method helps undergraduates comprehend basic properties, requiring only an understanding of the elasticities of…

  13. Genome-wide RNAi screens in human brain tumor isolates reveal a novel viability requirement for PHF5A

    PubMed Central

    Hubert, Christopher G.; Bradley, Robert K.; Ding, Yu; Toledo, Chad M.; Herman, Jacob; Skutt-Kakaria, Kyobi; Girard, Emily J.; Davison, Jerry; Berndt, Jason; Corrin, Philip; Hardcastle, Justin; Basom, Ryan; Delrow, Jeffery J.; Webb, Thomas; Pollard, Steven M.; Lee, Jeongwu; Olson, James M.; Paddison, Patrick J.

    2013-01-01

    To identify key regulators of human brain tumor maintenance and initiation, we performed multiple genome-wide RNAi screens in patient-derived glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) stem cells (GSCs). These screens identified the plant homeodomain (PHD)-finger domain protein PHF5A as differentially required for GSC expansion, as compared with untransformed neural stem cells (NSCs) and fibroblasts. Given PHF5A's known involvement in facilitating interactions between the U2 snRNP complex and ATP-dependent helicases, we examined cancer-specific roles in RNA splicing. We found that in GSCs, but not untransformed controls, PHF5A facilitates recognition of exons with unusual C-rich 3′ splice sites in thousands of essential genes. PHF5A knockdown in GSCs, but not untransformed NSCs, astrocytes, or fibroblasts, inhibited splicing of these genes, leading to cell cycle arrest and loss of viability. Notably, pharmacologic inhibition of U2 snRNP activity phenocopied PHF5A knockdown in GSCs and also in NSCs or fibroblasts overexpressing MYC. Furthermore, PHF5A inhibition compromised GSC tumor formation in vivo and inhibited growth of established GBM patient-derived xenograft tumors. Our results demonstrate a novel viability requirement for PHF5A to maintain proper exon recognition in brain tumor-initiating cells and may provide new inroads for novel anti-GBM therapeutic strategies. PMID:23651857

  14. Genome-wide RNAi screens in human brain tumor isolates reveal a novel viability requirement for PHF5A.

    PubMed

    Hubert, Christopher G; Bradley, Robert K; Ding, Yu; Toledo, Chad M; Herman, Jacob; Skutt-Kakaria, Kyobi; Girard, Emily J; Davison, Jerry; Berndt, Jason; Corrin, Philip; Hardcastle, Justin; Basom, Ryan; Delrow, Jeffery J; Webb, Thomas; Pollard, Steven M; Lee, Jeongwu; Olson, James M; Paddison, Patrick J

    2013-05-01

    To identify key regulators of human brain tumor maintenance and initiation, we performed multiple genome-wide RNAi screens in patient-derived glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) stem cells (GSCs). These screens identified the plant homeodomain (PHD)-finger domain protein PHF5A as differentially required for GSC expansion, as compared with untransformed neural stem cells (NSCs) and fibroblasts. Given PHF5A's known involvement in facilitating interactions between the U2 snRNP complex and ATP-dependent helicases, we examined cancer-specific roles in RNA splicing. We found that in GSCs, but not untransformed controls, PHF5A facilitates recognition of exons with unusual C-rich 3' splice sites in thousands of essential genes. PHF5A knockdown in GSCs, but not untransformed NSCs, astrocytes, or fibroblasts, inhibited splicing of these genes, leading to cell cycle arrest and loss of viability. Notably, pharmacologic inhibition of U2 snRNP activity phenocopied PHF5A knockdown in GSCs and also in NSCs or fibroblasts overexpressing MYC. Furthermore, PHF5A inhibition compromised GSC tumor formation in vivo and inhibited growth of established GBM patient-derived xenograft tumors. Our results demonstrate a novel viability requirement for PHF5A to maintain proper exon recognition in brain tumor-initiating cells and may provide new inroads for novel anti-GBM therapeutic strategies. PMID:23651857

  15. Drosophila Uri, a PP1α binding protein, is essential for viability, maintenance of DNA integrity and normal transcriptional activity

    PubMed Central

    Kirchner, Jasmin; Vissi, Emese; Gross, Sascha; Szoor, Balazs; Rudenko, Andrey; Alphey, Luke; White-Cooper, Helen

    2008-01-01

    Background Protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) is involved in diverse cellular processes, and is targeted to substrates via interaction with many different protein binding partners. PP1 catalytic subunits (PP1c) fall into PP1α and PP1β subfamilies based on sequence analysis, however very few PP1c binding proteins have been demonstrated to discriminate between PP1α and PP1β. Results URI (unconventional prefoldin RPB5 interactor) is a conserved molecular chaperone implicated in a variety of cellular processes, including the transcriptional response to nutrient signalling and maintenance of DNA integrity. We show that Drosophila Uri binds PP1α with much higher affinity than PP1β, and that this ability to discriminate between PP1c forms is conserved to humans. Most Uri is cytoplasmic, however we found some protein associated with active RNAPII on chromatin. We generated a uri loss of function allele, and show that uri is essential for viability in Drosophila. uri mutants have transcriptional defects, reduced cell viability and differentiation in the germline, and accumulate DNA damage in their nuclei. Conclusion Uri is the first PP1α specific binding protein to be described in Drosophila. Uri protein plays a role in transcriptional regulation. Activity of uri is required to maintain DNA integrity and cell survival in normal development. PMID:18412953

  16. Different Cell Viability Assays Reveal Inconsistent Results After Bleomycin Electrotransfer In Vitro.

    PubMed

    Jakštys, Baltramiejus; Ruzgys, Paulius; Tamošiūnas, Mindaugas; Šatkauskas, Saulius

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to compare different and commonly used cell viability assays after CHO cells treatment with anticancer drug bleomycin (20 nM), high voltage (HV) electric pulses (4 pulses, 1200 V/cm, 100 µs, 1 Hz), and combination of bleomycin and HV electric pulses. Cell viability was measured using clonogenic assay, propidium iodide (PI) assay, MTT assay, and employing flow cytometry modality to precisely count cells in definite volume of the sample (flow cytometry assay). Results showed that although clonogenic cell viability drastically decreased correspondingly to 57 and 3 % after cell treatment either with HV pulses or combination of bleomycin and HV pulses (bleomycin electrotransfer), PI assay performed ~15 min after the treatments indicated nearly 100 % cell viability. MTT assay performed at 6-72 h time points after these treatments revealed that MTT cell viability is highly dependent on evaluation time point and decreased with later evaluation time points. Nevertheless, in comparison to clonogenic cell viability, MTT cell viability after bleomycin electrotransfer at all testing time points was significantly higher. Flow cytometry assay if used at later times, 2-3 days after the treatment, allowed reliable evaluation of cell viability. In overall, our results showed that in order to estimate cell viability after cell treatment with combination of the bleomycin and electroporation the most reliable method is clonogenic assay. Improper use of PI and MTT assays can lead to misinterpretation of the experimental results. PMID:26077843

  17. Effect of temperature and storage media on human periodontal ligament fibroblast viability.

    PubMed

    Souza, Beatriz Dulcineia Mendes; Lückemeyer, Débora Denardin; Felippe, Wilson Tadeu; Simões, Cláudia Maria Oliveira; Felippe, Mara Cristina Santos

    2010-06-01

    Many solutions have been examined as possible storage media for avulsed teeth. The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of several storage media to preserve cultured periodontal ligament fibroblasts (PDLF) under different temperatures. The media tested were: sterile Hank's balanced salt solution (sHBSS), non-sterile HBSS (nHBSS), skimmed milk, Save-A-Tooth((R)), Minimum Essential Medium (MEM) and water (negative control). MEM at 37 degrees C was used as positive control. PDLF were obtained from explants of extracted healthy human teeth. Plates containing confluent PDLF were soaked in the various media for 3, 6, 24, 48 and 72 h at 37 degrees C and 20 degrees C. After incubation, viability of the cells was determined using the tetrazolium salt-based colorimetric (MTT) assay and the Trypan Blue exclusion test after 6, 24, 48 and 72 h of incubation at 20 degrees C. The results were analyzed statistically using Kruskal-Wallis, Scheffé and Mann-Whitney (alpha = 5%) tests. Results from the MTT assay at 37 degrees C and 20 degrees C showed that skimmed milk was the best storage medium for up to 24 and 48 h, respectively, followed by nHBSS and sHBSS. Results from the Trypan Blue exclusion test showed that the best storage media were milk, sHBSS and nHBSS, with no statistical differences, for any time period. The Save-A-Tooth((R)) had a detrimental effect on cells after 24 h. The influence of temperature on the effectiveness of the storage media tested showed at 20 degrees C a decreasing order of efficacy as follows: milk > sHBSS and nHBSS > MEM > Save-A-Tooth((R)) > water while at 37 degrees C it was: MEM > nHBSS > milk > sHBSS > Save-A-Tooth((R)) > water. In conclusion, incubation temperature altered the effectiveness of the storage media and skimmed milk at 20 degrees C was better than HBSS in maintaining PDLF viability. PMID:20572843

  18. Adaptive response to starvation in the fish pathogen Flavobacterium columnare: cell viability and ultrastructural changes

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The ecology of columnaris disease, caused by Flavobacterium columnare, is poorly understood despite the economic losses that this disease inflicts on aquaculture farms worldwide. Currently, the natural reservoir for this pathogen is unknown but limited data have shown its ability to survive in water for extended periods of time. The objective of this study was to describe the ultrastructural changes that F. columnare cells undergo under starvation conditions. Four genetically distinct strains of this pathogen were monitored for 14 days in media without nutrients. Culturability and cell viability was assessed throughout the study. In addition, cell morphology and ultrastructure was analyzed using light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. Revival of starved cells under different nutrient conditions and the virulence potential of the starved cells were also investigated. Results Starvation induced unique and consistent morphological changes in all strains studied. Cells maintained their length and did not transition into a shortened, coccus shape as observed in many other Gram negative bacteria. Flavobacterium columnare cells modified their shape by morphing into coiled forms that comprised more than 80% of all the cells after 2 weeks of starvation. Coiled cells remained culturable as determined by using a dilution to extinction strategy. Statistically significant differences in cell viability were found between strains although all were able to survive in absence of nutrients for at least 14 days. In later stages of starvation, an extracellular matrix was observed covering the coiled cells. A difference in growth curves between fresh and starved cultures was evident when cultures were 3-months old but not when cultures were starved for only 1 month. Revival of starved cultures under different nutrients revealed that cells return back to their original elongated rod shape upon encountering nutrients. Challenge

  19. Role of atmospheric corrosion of aluminum alloys in viability of intrinsic-surface methods for tagging military hardware

    SciTech Connect

    Maiya, P.S.; Kassner, T.F.

    1991-11-01

    A primary requirement for authentication of tags for military equipment desigated as treaty-limited items (TLIs) is that the surface topograhy of the tag area be maintained after exposure to a variety of atmospheric conditions over many years. This report summarizes the chemical and physical properties of atmospheric as they relate to localized corrosion of aluminum and aluminum alloys. The role of impurity species that exacerbate corrison, and that hence may interfere with tag verification, is discussed. Because exposure times for the tag materials are much longer than those practical in laboratory experiments, it is important to understand the kinetics of processes occurring in these alloys and the viability of various protection schemes. General principles and limitations of testing in natural atmospheres and in the laboratory are discussed. Corrosion results indicate that the tag surface must be protected, and a tag protection scheme is proposed.

  20. Nuclear imaging techniques for the assessment of myocardial viability.

    PubMed

    Jain, D; Zaret, B L

    1995-02-01

    Regional and global left ventricular dysfunction caused by coronary artery disease may be reversible in a significant proportion of cases. This fact has important clinical implications. Apart from symptoms of angina and angiographic severity of coronary artery disease, potential for an improvement in left ventricular dysfunction should be taken into account when considering revascularization for the management of patients with coronary artery disease. Because left ventricular function is an important determinant of long-term prognosis in patients with coronary artery disease, identification and appropriate treatment of reversible left ventricular dysfunction may improve prognosis in many patients with significant left ventricular dysfunction. Table 1 describes the impact of myocardial viability in relation to the clinical objectives in various groups of patients with coronary artery disease. The choice of the optimal technique for the detection of myocardial viability is a matter of ongoing debate. There is no consensus in the literature for an optimal investigative approach to predict an improvement in left ventricular function following revascularization. Most of the studies in this field are based on small numbers of patients. Further studies in larger patient populations are needed. This debate is further complicated by the fact that none of the available technologies provides a quantitative estimate of viable myocardium or the extent of improvement that can be expected following revascularization. Currently the choice of technique depends on the clinical question to be answered, the local availability of the technique, and local expertise. Obviously, cost considerations may also play an important role in choice of technique. In patients with chronic stable coronary artery disease in whom reversibility of stress-induced perfusion abnormalities is the question, stress-redistribution-rest Tl-201 imaging may be the preferred modality. In patients with congestive