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Sample records for maintaining social order

  1. Sympathy and Social Order

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irwin, Kyle; McGrimmon, Tucker; Simpson, Brent

    2008-01-01

    Social order is possible only if individuals forgo the narrow pursuit of self-interest for the greater good. For over a century, social scientists have argued that sympathy mitigates self-interest and recent empirical work supports this claim. Much less is known about why actors experience sympathy in the first place, particularly in fleeting…

  2. Sympathy and Social Order

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irwin, Kyle; McGrimmon, Tucker; Simpson, Brent

    2008-01-01

    Social order is possible only if individuals forgo the narrow pursuit of self-interest for the greater good. For over a century, social scientists have argued that sympathy mitigates self-interest and recent empirical work supports this claim. Much less is known about why actors experience sympathy in the first place, particularly in fleeting…

  3. How to keep punishment to maintain cooperation: Introducing social vaccine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Hitoshi; Okada, Isamu

    2016-02-01

    Although there is much support for the punishment system as a sophisticated approach to resolving social dilemmas, more than a few researchers have also pointed out the limitations of such an approach. Second-order free riding is a serious issue facing the punishment system. Various pioneering works have suggested that an anti-social behavior or noise stemming from a mutation may, surprisingly, be helpful for avoiding second-order freeloaders. In this work, we show through mathematical analysis and an agent-based simulation of a model extending the meta-norms game that the coercive introduction of a small number of non-cooperators can maintain a cooperative regime robustly. This paradoxical idea was inspired by the effect of a vaccine, which is a weakened pathogen injected into a human body to create antibodies and ward off infection by that pathogen. Our expectation is that the coercive introduction of a few defectors, i.e., a social vaccine, will help maintain a highly cooperative regime because it will ensure that the punishment system works.

  4. Evaluating the Rank-Ordering Method for Standard Maintaining

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bramley, Tom; Gill, Tim

    2010-01-01

    The rank-ordering method for standard maintaining was designed for the purpose of mapping a known cut-score (e.g. a grade boundary mark) on one test to an equivalent point on the test score scale of another test, using holistic expert judgements about the quality of exemplars of examinees' work (scripts). It is a novel application of an old…

  5. Body Language and the Social Order; Communication as Behavioral Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheflen, Albert E.

    Human communication, verbal and especially nonverbal, is based upon lower and earlier primate development as well as on extensive culturally learned behavior. Kinesthetic study can discover behaviors which maintain and disrupt social orders of all types--governmental, economic, familial, and personal. Communicational behavior exerts controls and…

  6. Social Studies and the Social Order: Transmission or Transformation?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanley, William B.

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author brings a historical perspective to the perennial question, "Should social studies teachers work to transmit the status quo or to transform it?" Should they transmit or transform the social order? When one looks at the question of education for social transformation in the context of American history, three prevailing…

  7. Chimpanzees’ socially maintained food preferences indicate both conservatism and conformity

    PubMed Central

    Hopper, Lydia M.; Schapiro, Steven J.; Lambeth, Susan P.; Brosnan, Sarah F.

    2015-01-01

    Chimpanzees remain fixed on a single strategy, even if a novel, more efficient, strategy is introduced. Previous studies reporting such findings have incorporated paradigms in which chimpanzees learn one behavioural method and then are shown a new one that the chimpanzees invariably do not adopt. This study provides the first evidence that chimpanzees show such conservatism even when the new method employs the identical required behaviour as the first, but for a different reward. Groups of chimpanzees could choose to exchange one of two types of inedible tokens, with each token type being associated with a different food reward: one type was rewarded with a highly preferred food (grape) and the other type was rewarded with a less preferred food (carrot). Individuals first observed a model chimpanzee from their social group trained to choose one of the two types of tokens. In one group, this token earned a carrot, while in the other, control, group the token earned a grape. In both groups, chimpanzees conformed to the trained model’s choice. This was especially striking for those gaining the pieces of carrot, the less favoured reward. This resulted in a population-level trend of food choices, even when counter to their original, individual, preferences. Moreover, the chimpanzees’ food preferences did not change over time, demonstrating that these results were not due to a simple shift in preferences. We discuss social factors apparent in the interactions and suggest that, despite seeming to be inefficient, in chimpanzees, conformity may benefit them, possibly by assisting with the maintenance of group relations.

  8. Maintaining Pedagogical Integrity of a Computer Mediated Course Delivery in Social Foundations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Shelley; Cobb-Roberts, Deirdre; Shircliffe, Barbara J.

    2013-01-01

    Transforming a face to face course to a computer mediated format in social foundations (interdisciplinary field in education), while maintaining pedagogical integrity, involves strategic collaboration between instructional technologists and content area experts. This type of planned partnership requires open dialogue and a mutual respect for prior…

  9. Bechstein's bats maintain individual social links despite a complete reorganisation of their colony structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baigger, A.; Perony, N.; Reuter, M.; Leinert, V.; Melber, M.; Grünberger, S.; Fleischmann, D.; Kerth, G.

    2013-09-01

    Several social mammals, including elephants and some primates, whales and bats, live in multilevel societies that form temporary subgroups. Despite these fission-fusion dynamics, group members often maintain long-term bonds. However, it is unclear whether such individual links and the resulting stable social subunits continue to exist after a complete reorganisation of a society, e.g. following a population crash. Here, we employed a weighted network analysis on 7,109 individual roosting records collected over 4 years in a wild Bechstein's bat colony. We show that, in response to a strong population decline, the colony's two stable social subunits fused into a non-modular social network. Nevertheless, in the first year after the crash, long-term bonds were still detectable, suggesting that the bats remembered previous individual relationships. Our findings are important for understanding the flexibility of animal societies in the face of dramatic changes and for the conservation of social mammals with declining populations.

  10. Generalized Galileons: All scalar models whose curved background extensions maintain second-order field equations and stress tensors

    SciTech Connect

    Deffayet, C.; Deser, S.; Esposito-Farese, G.

    2009-09-15

    We extend to curved backgrounds all flat-space scalar field models that obey purely second-order equations, while maintaining their second-order dependence on both field and metric. This extension simultaneously restores to second order the, originally higher derivative, stress tensors as well. The process is transparent and uniform for all dimensions.

  11. Concept of a Nonviolent Social Order and Role of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirpal, Prem

    1974-01-01

    Presents the conditions for promoting a nonviolent social order (participation, freedom, justice, distribution of wealth, and cultural life) and how changes in the method, structure and content of education can help to attain this nonviolent order. (PG)

  12. Social Studies and the Social Order: Telling Stories of Resistance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKnight, Douglas; Chandler, Prentice

    2009-01-01

    The social studies profession has always been at its weakest in dealing with the analysis of racism and class (Ladson-Billings, 2003; Marshall, 2001), and the new technocratic atmosphere and discourse generated by No Child Left Behind (NCLB) will serve to make such analysis completely absent, despite the rhetoric of the National Council of the…

  13. Preserving and maintaining vital Ecosystem Services: the importance of linking knowledge from Geosciences and social-ecological System analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finger, David; Petursdottir, Thorunn

    2013-04-01

    Human kind has always been curios and motivated to understand and quantify environmental processes in order to predict and anticipate the evolution of vital ecosystem services. Even the very first civilizations used empirical correlations to predict outcomes of rains and subsequent harvest efficiencies. Along with the insights into the functioning of ecosystems, humans also became aware that their anthropogenic activities can have positive and negative impact on ecosystem services. In recent years, geosciences have brought forward new sophisticated observations and modeling tools, with the aim to improve predictions of ecological developments. At the same time, the added value of linking ecological factors to the surrounding social structure has received a growing acceptance among scientists. A social-ecological system approach brings in a holistic understanding of how these systems are inevitably interlinked and how their sustainability can be better maintained. We claim that the biggest challenge for geoscience in the coming decades will be to link these two disciplines in order to establish adequate strategies to preserve natural ecosystems and their services, parallel to their utilization. We will present various case studies from more than a decade of research, ranging from water quality in mountain lakes, climate change impacts on water availability and declining fishing yields in freshwaters and discuss how the studies outcomes could be given added value by interpreting them via social-ecological system analysis. For instance, sophisticated field investigations revealed that deep water mixing in lake Issyk-Kul, Kirgizstan, is intensively distributing pollutants in the entire lake. Although fishery is an important sector in the region, the local awareness of the importance of water quality is low. In Switzerland, strict water protection laws led to ologotrophication of alpine lakes, reducing fishing yields. While local fishermen argued that local fishery is more ecological than importing fish, their calls for artificial lake fertilization were rejected and are socially not accepted. Finally, climate change projections of water availability in the Alps reveal that water may become scarce during summer months due to vanishing glaciers. Financially the hydropower sector is the most important water user. However, other stakeholders, like farmers and the tourism sectors will be all competing for the decreasing resources. In all these three cases, a social-ecological system analysis could give an added value to the geoscience results by identifying solutions that are both ecological and socially suitable. We will conclude our talk by giving an outlook how we intend to link the two disciplines to perform integrative assessments, linking geoscience to the relevant social-ecological system analysis in order to come up with strategies to sustainably preserve vital ecosystem services.

  14. Maintaining patients' social contacts through displaying nonverbal awareness information on mobile devices.

    PubMed

    Ruschin, Detlef

    2015-08-01

    Awareness systems had been invented for supporting groups collaborating simultaneously over a network. They provide each group member with real-time information about the state of affairs on the remote locations of the other members. Awareness systems have also been observed to help remote collaborators develop the same shared sense of community that often emerges within co-located work groups, and this effect of creating or maintaining group cohesion is an important goal in itself. Purely social awareness systems can be employed by any kind of group, e.g. families, without shared work tasks. As a means of preventing loneliness they can be regarded as examples of biomedical technology. In this paper a demonstrator of an awareness-enhanced instant messaging system for elderly living alone is described along with assumptions about group processes that led to its specification. PMID:26738087

  15. Social support: An approach to maintaining the health of women who have experienced stillbirth

    PubMed Central

    Allahdadian, Maryam; Irajpour, Alireza; Kazemi, Ashraf; Kheirabadi, Gholamreza

    2015-01-01

    Background: Stillbirth is one of the deepest losses that can inflict a broad range of cognitive, mental, spiritual, and physical turmoil. Many researchers believe that the failure to provide the care required by health teams during the hard times is the main determinant of maternal mental health in the future. In other words, social support can significantly improve the mental health outcomes of mothers after stillbirth. This study aimed to explore social support to aid mothers in adaptation after the experience of stillbirth. Materials and Methods: This was a qualitative content analysis in which 15 women who had experienced stillbirth participated. They were selected through purposeful sampling method. Data were gathered by individual interviews recorded on audiotapes, transcribed, and analyzed. Interview transcriptions were coded and then classified. Finally, two main categories and five subcategories emerged. Results: Analysis of participants’ viewpoints and their statements about social support led to the emergence of the two main categories of support from relatives and support from social support systems with two and three subcategories, respectively. Analysis of findings showed that mothers experiencing stillbirth need the support of their spouse and family and friends through sympathizing, in performing everyday activities and to escape loneliness. These women require support from a peer group to exchange experiences and from trauma counseling centers to meet their needs. Conclusions: It seems necessary to revise and modify the care plan in the experience of stillbirth using these results and, of course, to be considered by a panel of experts in order to provide social support to these women. Thus, midwives and healthcare provider can act, based on the development and strengthening of social protection of women experiencing stillbirth, to provide these women with effective and appropriate care. PMID:26257802

  16. The leading eight: social norms that can maintain cooperation by indirect reciprocity.

    PubMed

    Ohtsuki, Hisashi; Iwasa, Yoh

    2006-04-21

    The theory of indirect reciprocation explains the evolution of cooperation among unrelated individuals, engaging in one-shot interaction. Using reputation, a player acquires information on who are worth cooperating and who are not. In a previous paper, we formalized the reputation dynamics, a rule to assign a binary reputation (good or bad) to each player when his action, his current reputation, and the opponent's reputation are given. We then examined all the possible reputation dynamics, and found that there exist only eight reputation dynamics named "leading eight" that can maintain the ESS with a high level of cooperation, even if errors are included in executing intended cooperation and in reporting the observation to the public. In this paper, we study the nature of these successful social norms. First, we characterize the role of each pivot of the reputation dynamics common to all of the leading eight. We conclude that keys to the success in indirect reciprocity are to be nice (maintenance of cooperation among themselves), retaliatory (detection of defectors, punishment, and justification of punishment), apologetic, and forgiving. Second, we prove the two basic properties of the leading eight, which give a quantitative evaluation of the ESS condition and the level of cooperation maintained at the ESS. PMID:16174521

  17. Bats are able to maintain long-term social relationships despite the high fission-fusion dynamics of their groups.

    PubMed

    Kerth, Gerald; Perony, Nicolas; Schweitzer, Frank

    2011-09-22

    Elephants, dolphins, as well as some carnivores and primates maintain social links despite their frequent splitting and merging in groups of variable composition, a phenomenon known as fission-fusion. Information on the dynamics of social links and interactions among individuals is of high importance to the understanding of the evolution of animal sociality, including that of humans. However, detailed long-term data on such dynamics in wild mammals with fully known demography and kin structures are scarce. Applying a weighted network analysis on 20,500 individual roosting observations over 5 years, we show that in two wild Bechstein's bat colonies with high fission-fusion dynamics, individuals of different age, size, reproductive status and relatedness maintain long-term social relationships. In the larger colony, we detected two stable subunits, each comprising bats from several family lineages. Links between these subunits were mainly maintained by older bats and persisted over all years. Moreover, we show that the full details of the social structure become apparent only when large datasets are used. The stable multi-level social structures in Bechstein's bat colonies resemble that of elephants, dolphins and some primates. Our findings thus may shed new light on the link between social complexity and social cognition in mammals. PMID:21307051

  18. Gender and the Social Order in Early Modern England.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amussen, Susan Dwyer

    The place of the family and the relationship between gender and social order in England between 1560 and 1725 are examined. The fear of disorder so prevalent in England in the late 16th and early 17th centuries was caused by the doubling of the population and extremely poor economic conditions. In the attempt to enforce order, the analogy between…

  19. Application of Herrnstein's hyperbola to time allocation of naturalistic human behavior maintained by naturalistic social reinforcement

    PubMed Central

    Beardsley, Scott D.; McDowell, J. J

    1992-01-01

    Five college students talked to an experimenter about various topics. Time spent looking at the experimenter was reinforced by verbal statements of praise and interest on five variable-interval schedules. Herrnstein's hyperbola provided a good description of the time-allocation data for 4 of the 5 subjects, and accounted for 95% of the variance of the median time-allocation data. The hyperbola provided a significantly better description of the data than a two-parameter ramp function with similar differential properties. Estimates of the asymptote, k, of the hyperbola varied among subjects from about 2 to about 15 seconds of eye contact per minute. These estimates were much smaller than the constant 60 seconds of eye contact per minute required by Herrnstein's matching theory. These results support the conclusion that Herrnstein's hyperbola describes naturalistic human behavior maintained by naturalistic social reinforcement as well as it describes the behavior of humans and nonhumans in typical laboratory preparations. The results also indicate that the hyperbolic form of the time-allocation version of Herrnstein's equation is accurate, but that the constant k requirement of matching theory may not hold. PMID:16812651

  20. Guidelines for Maintaining a Professional Compass in the Era of Social Networking

    PubMed Central

    Landman, Matthew P.; Shelton, Julia; Kauffmann, Rondi M.; Dattilo, Jeffery B.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The use of social networking (SN) sites such as Facebook and Twitter has skyrocketed over the past 5 years, with over 400 million current users. What was once isolated to high schools or college campuses has become increasingly ubiquitous in everyday life and across a multitude of industries. Medical centers and residency programs are not immune to this invasion. These sites present opportunities for the rapid dissemination of information from status updates to tweets to medical support groups and even clinical communication between patients and providers. While powerful, this technology also opens the door for misuse and policies for use will be necessary. We strive to begin a discourse in the surgical community regarding maintaining professionalism while using SN sites. Results The use of SN sites among surgical housestaff and faculty has not previously been addressed. To that end, we sought to ascertain the use of the SN site Facebook at our residency program. Of 88 residents and 127 faculty, 56 (64%) and 28 (22%) respectively have pages on Facebook. Of these, 50% are publicly accessible. Thirty-one percent of the publicly accessible pages had work –related comments posted, and of these comments, 14% referenced specific patient situations or were related to patient care. Conclusions Given the widespread use of SN sites in our surgical community and in society as a whole, every effort should be made to guard against professional truancy. We offer a set a guidelines consistent with the ACGME and ACS professionalism mandates regarding usage of these sites. By acknowledging this need and following these guidelines, surgeons will continue to define and uphold ethical boundaries and thus demonstrate a commitment to patient privacy and the highest levels of professionalism. PMID:21156295

  1. Navigating Access and Maintaining Established Practice: Social Studies Teachers' Technology Integration at Three Florida Middle Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheffield, Caroline

    2011-01-01

    This mixed methods multiple case study explored middle school social studies teachers' instructional use of digital technology at three suburban middle schools This mixed methods, multiple-case study explored middle school social studies teachers' instructional use of digital technology at three suburban middle schools in a large Florida school…

  2. Managing Stress and Maintaining Well-Being: Social Support, Problem-Focused Coping, and Avoidant Coping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chao, Ruth Chu-Lien

    2011-01-01

    This study tested a model that links stress, social support, problem-focused coping, and well-being. First, it looks at how high support significantly moderated the association between stress and well-being. Next, the students' problem-focused coping was seen as mediating this moderated association. Finally, a 3-way interaction of stress, social…

  3. High-order social interactions in groups of mice

    PubMed Central

    Shemesh, Yair; Sztainberg, Yehezkel; Forkosh, Oren; Shlapobersky, Tamar; Chen, Alon; Schneidman, Elad

    2013-01-01

    Social behavior in mammals is often studied in pairs under artificial conditions, yet groups may rely on more complicated social structures. Here, we use a novel system for tracking multiple animals in a rich environment to characterize the nature of group behavior and interactions, and show strongly correlated group behavior in mice. We have found that the minimal models that rely only on individual traits and pairwise correlations between animals are not enough to capture group behavior, but that models that include third-order interactions give a very accurate description of the group. These models allow us to infer social interaction maps for individual groups. Using this approach, we show that environmental complexity during adolescence affects the collective group behavior of adult mice, in particular altering the role of high-order structure. Our results provide new experimental and mathematical frameworks for studying group behavior and social interactions. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.00759.001 PMID:24015357

  4. High-Order Interference Effect Introduced by Polarization Mode Coupling in Polarization-Maintaining Fiber and Its Identification.

    PubMed

    Li, Chuang; Yang, Jun; Yu, Zhangjun; Yuan, Yonggui; Zhang, Jianzhong; Wu, Bing; Peng, Feng; Yuan, Libo

    2016-01-01

    The high-order interference (HOI)-The interferogram introduced by polarization mode couplings (PMC) of multiple perturbations-Will cause misjudgment of the realistic coupling points in polarization-maintaining fiber (PMF) which is tested with a white light interferometer (WLI) with large dynamic range. We present an optical path tracking (OPT) method for simplifying the analysis of HOI, and demonstrate the enhancement and suppression conditions for the HOIs. A strategy is proposed to readily identify HOI by altering the spliced angle between polarizers' pigtails and the PMF under test. Moreover, a PMF experiment with two perturbation points, for simplicity, is given as an example. As a result, all the characteristic interferograms including HOIs can be distinguished through just four measurements. Utilizing this identification method, we can estimate the realistic coupling points in PMFs and distinguish them from the interference signals including numerous HOIs. PMID:27011191

  5. [The social status of women. For a new world order].

    PubMed

    Gauffenic, A

    1985-01-01

    Curiosity about the place of women in development and solidarity with women's organizations in different economies prompt consideration of the individual and collective possibilities for women in public life and of the social status of women. Recent histories of Third World countries as reported in UN conferences held in Tunisia, Portugal, and New Delhi in 1982-83 and Western experience are the basis for identification of constraints in the development of women's movements and alternatives for participation of women in a new world order. Women have always contributed to the life and economic development of their countries, often in activities not recognized as economic, but they are excluded from processes of institutionalization and their presence is very rare at the highest levels of the social hierarchy. Women organized themselves and participated in the liberation movements of India, Malaysia, Libya, and Egypt, but were later relegated to their customary low status. Among the structural and ideological factors impeding access of women to political power and a true social status are cultural nationalism and religious ideology. Socialization is 1 of the processes by which members of a society acquire a common fund of knowledge, but norms produced by the dominant ideology, in this case male, pose a problem to dominated groups concerning the nature of their particularity. Such groups can strive for integration at the price of risking loss of identity, or they can contest the rules, situating themselves at the margin of the "laws" or rules. The essential question concerns the possibility of women rethinking the process and contents of socialization. A new system is required of perceptions, evaluations, and actions founded on new human values. In this perspective the women's movement would contribute to the realization of a new world order. Theories of equality, to comprehend reality in its entirety, must include equality while developing the concept of differences. A theory or an ethic of difference developed by feminists would lead individuals to recover their rights. PMID:12340318

  6. Using Videoconferencing to Establish and Maintain a Social Presence in Online Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moody, Robert A.; Wieland, Regi L.

    2010-01-01

    Successful operation of videoconferencing technology for interactive learning demands preparation and scheduling. Well-organized strategies for interaction assist faculty in meeting individual student needs and developing the "social presence" necessary to facilitate quality online learning. Organizations can be proactive by offering this…

  7. Maintaining Long-Distance Friendships: Communication Practices for Seeking and Providing Social Support across Geographic Divides

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lobburi, Patipan

    2012-01-01

    People seek and provide support through their personal social network, especially when they must cope with stress, deal with an emergency, or need help. Coping with a new culture or new environment is a stressful situation that sojourner students must face. Support through friendship plays an important role in facing such new situations. Focusing…

  8. Managing Stress and Maintaining Well-Being: Social Support, Problem-Focused Coping, and Avoidant Coping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chao, Ruth Chu-Lien

    2011-01-01

    This study tested a model that links stress, social support, problem-focused coping, and well-being. First, it looks at how high support significantly moderated the association between stress and well-being. Next, the students' problem-focused coping was seen as mediating this moderated association. Finally, a 3-way interaction of stress, social…

  9. Maintaining a Social-Emotional Intervention and its Benefits for Institutionalized Children

    PubMed Central

    McCall, Robert B.; Groark, Christina J.; Fish, Larry; Muhamedrahimov, Rifkat J.; Palmov, Oleg I.; Nikiforova, Natalia V.

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports the maintenance of one of the largest interventions conducted in St. Petersburg (Russian Federation) orphanages for children birth to 4 years using regular caregiving staff. One orphanage received training plus structural changes, another training only, and a third business as usual. The intervention produced substantial differences between these institutions on the HOME Inventory and on the Battelle Developmental Inventory scores for children. These institutional differences in HOME scores (N=298) and Battelle scores for children (N=357) departing the institutions for families in St. Petersburg and the USA were maintained for at least six years after the intervention project, result may be associated with to certain features of the intervention and activities during the follow-up interval. PMID:23551051

  10. Initiating and maintaining resistance training in older adults: a social cognitive theory-based approach

    PubMed Central

    Winett, R A; Williams, D M; Davy, B M

    2009-01-01

    Numerous research studies performed in “lab-gyms” with supervised training have demonstrated that simple, brief (20–30 min) resistance training protocols performed 2–3/week following the American College of Sports Medicine’s guidelines positively affect risk factors associated with heart disease, cancers, diabetes, sarcopenia and other disabilities. For more than a decade, resistance training has been recommended for adults, particularly older adults, as a prime preventive intervention, and increasing the prevalence of resistance training is an objective of Healthy People 2010. However, the prevalence rate for resistance training is only estimated at 10–15% for older adults, despite the leisure time of older adults and access to facilities in developed countries. The reasons that the prevalence rate remains low include public health policy not emphasising resistance training, misinformation, and the lack of theoretically driven approaches demonstrating effective transfer and maintenance of training to minimally supervised settings once initial, generally successful, supervised training is completed. Social cognitive theory (SCT) has been applied to physical activity and aerobic training with some success, but there are aspects of resistance training that are unique including its intensity, progression, precision, and time and place specificity. Social cognitive theory, particularly with a focus on self-regulation and response expectancy and affect within an ecological context, can be directly applied to these unique aspects of resistance training for long-term maintenance. PMID:18628361

  11. Order-disorder phase transition in a cliquey social network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wołoszyn, M.; Stauffer, D.; Kułakowski, K.

    2007-06-01

    We investigate the network model of community by Watts, Dodds and Newman (D.J. Watts et al., Science 296, 1302 (2002)) as a hierarchy of groups, each of 5 individuals. A homophily parameter α controls the probability proportional to exp (-αx) of selection of neighbours against distance x. The network nodes are endowed with spin-like variables si = ± 1, with Ising interaction J > 0. The Glauber dynamics is used to investigate the order-disorder transition. The transition temperature Tc is close to 3.8 for α < 0.0 and it falls down to zero above this value. The result provides a mathematical illustration of the social ability to a collective action via weak ties, as discussed by Granovetter in 1973.

  12. Doing psychology, doing inequality: rethinking the role of psychology in creating and maintaining social inequality.

    PubMed

    Sadi-Nakar, Merav

    2010-01-01

    The relationship between psychological disciplines and inequality has been a subject of great scholarly interest in the last several decades. Most works on the subject analyze macro features of psychological disciplines (mainly their evaluative tools, theoretical assumptions, and disciplinary power) and criticize them as biased against minorities. This paper re-examines the relationship between psychology and inequality from a micro, face-to-face standpoint. Drawing on close observations of 33 placement committees in which professionals from various psychological fields (psychology, social work, school counseling, etc.) discuss children’s eligibility for special education services, it portrays the actual doing of psychology as an inconsistent and malleable endeavor. In contrast to the macro-oriented research on the relationship between psychology and inequality, it shows that in actual face-to-face interactions, professionals use different types of folk concerns that often exchange formal evaluative criteria, theoretical assumptions or professional authority in final placement decisions. By revealing the different folk considerations professionals use to sort and analyze working- versus middle-class parents, this project adds an essential layer to scholarly understanding of the relationship between psychological practice and inequality. PMID:20827856

  13. Social support and the likelihood of maintaining and improving levels of physical activity: the Whitehall II Study

    PubMed Central

    De Vogli, Roberto; Stafford, Mai; Shipley, Martin J.; Marmot, Michael G.; Cox, Tom; Vahtera, Jussi; Väänänen, Ari; Heponiemi, Tarja; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Kivimäki, Mika

    2012-01-01

    Background: Evidence on the association between social support and leisure time physical activity (LTPA) is scarce and mostly based on cross-sectional data with different types of social support collapsed into a single index. The aim of this study was to investigate whether social support from the closest person was associated with LTPA. Methods: Prospective cohort study of 5395 adults (mean age 55.7 years, 3864 men) participating in the British Whitehall II study. Confiding/emotional support and practical support were assessed at baseline in 1997–99 using the Close Persons Questionnaire. LTPA was assessed at baseline and follow-up in (2002–04). Baseline covariates included socio-demographics, self-rated health, long-standing illnesses, physical functioning and common mental disorders. Results: Among participants who reported recommended levels of LTPA at baseline, those who experienced high confiding/emotional support were more likely to report recommended levels of LTPA at follow-up [odds ratio (OR): 1.39, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.12–1.70 in a model adjusted for baseline covariates]. Among those participants who did not meet the recommended target of LTPA at baseline, high confiding/emotional support was not associated with improvement in activity levels. High practical support was associated with both maintaining (OR: 1.34, 95% CI: 1.10–1.63) and improving (OR: 1.25, 95% CI: 1.02–1.53) LTPA levels. Conclusion: These findings suggest that emotional and practical support from the closest person may help the individual to maintain the recommended level of LTPA. Practical support also predicted a change towards a more active lifestyle. PMID:21750013

  14. The Social and Academic Consequences of Birth Order: Real, Artifactual, or Both?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steelman, Lala Carr; Powell, Brian

    1985-01-01

    Examined impact of birth order on social skills and academic performance of children and adolescents (N=3,568). Results revealed no significant relationship between birth order and academic performance but did reveal a significant positive relationship between birth order and social skills. Leadership skills were related to birth order for males.…

  15. Sub-100 fs pulses from an all-polarization maintaining Yb-fiber oscillator with an anomalous dispersion higher-order-mode fiber.

    PubMed

    Verhoef, A J; Zhu, L; Israelsen, S Møller; Grüner-Nielsen, L; Unterhuber, A; Kautek, W; Rottwitt, K; Baltuška, A; Fernández, A

    2015-10-01

    We present an Yb-fiber oscillator with an all-polarization-maintaining cavity with a higher-order-mode fiber for dispersion compensation. The polarization maintaining higher order mode fiber introduces not only negative second order dispersion but also negative third order dispersion in the cavity, in contrast to dispersion compensation schemes used in previous demonstrations of all-polarization maintaining Yb-fiber oscillators. The performance of the saturable absorber mirror modelocked oscillator, that employs a free space scheme for coupling onto the saturable absorber mirror and output coupling, was investigated for different settings of the intracavity dispersion. When the cavity is operated with close to zero net dispersion, highly stable 0.5-nJ pulses externally compressed to sub-100-fs are generated. These are to our knowledge the shortest pulses generated from an all-polarization-maintaining Yb-fiber oscillator. The spectral phase of the output pulses is well behaved and can be compensated such that wing-free Fourier transform limited pulses can be obtained. Further reduction of the net intracavity third order dispersion will allow generating broader output spectra and consequently shorter pulses, without sacrificing pulse fidelity. PMID:26480128

  16. Dare Public School Administrators Build a New Social Order?: Social Justice and the Possibly Perilous Politics of Educational Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lugg, Catherine A.; Shoho, Alan R.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to discuss how public school administrators with a social justice perspective have an obligation to permeate society beyond their schools and how they might address the perilous politics associated with advocating social change. Using George Counts' landmark 1932 speech, Dare the School Build a New Social Order? as the…

  17. Order from noise: Toward a social theory of geographic information

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Poore, B.S.; Chrisman, N.R.

    2006-01-01

    In the so-called Information Age, it is surprising that the concept of information is imprecisely defined and almost taken for granted. Historic and recent geographic information science (GIScience) literature relies on two conflicting metaphors, often espoused by the same author in adjacent paragraphs. The metaphor of invariance, derived from telecommunications engineering, defines information as a thing to be transported without loss through a conduit. Another metaphor, originating in the utopian movements of the 19th century, locates information within a hierarchy of refinement-a stopping place on the path to convert mere data into higher forms of knowledge and perhaps to wisdom. Both metaphors rely on long-forgotten debates outside geography and preclude us from seeing that there are important social and ethical concerns in the relationship between geographic information technologies and society. We examine the conflicts between competing metaphors and propose a social theory of geographic information. ?? 2006 by Association of American Geographers.

  18. A single dose of oxytocin nasal spray improves higher-order social cognition in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Guastella, Adam J; Ward, Philip B; Hickie, Ian B; Shahrestani, Sara; Hodge, Marie Antoinette Redoblado; Scott, Elizabeth M; Langdon, Robyn

    2015-11-01

    Schizophrenia is associated with significant impairments in both higher and lower order social cognitive performance and these impairments contribute to poor social functioning. People with schizophrenia report poor social functioning to be one of their greatest unmet treatment needs. Recent studies have suggested the potential of oxytocin as such a treatment, but mixed results render it uncertain what aspects of social cognition are improved by oxytocin and, subsequently, how oxytocin might best be applied as a therapeutic. The aim of this study was to determine whether a single dose of oxytocin improved higher-order and lower-order social cognition performance for patients with schizophrenia across a well-established battery of social cognition tests. Twenty-one male patients received both a single dose of oxytocin nasal spray (24IU) and a placebo, two weeks apart in a randomized within-subjects placebo controlled design. Following each administration, participants completed the social cognition tasks, as well as a test of general neurocognition. Results revealed that oxytocin particularly enhanced performance on higher order social cognition tasks, with no effects on general neurocognition. Results for individual tasks showed most improvement on tests measuring appreciation of indirect hints and recognition of social faux pas. These results suggest that oxytocin, if combined to enhance social cognition learning, may be beneficial when targeted at higher order social cognition domains. This study also suggests that these higher order tasks, which assess social cognitive processing in a social communication context, may provide useful markers of response to oxytocin in schizophrenia. PMID:26150070

  19. Leadership for Social Justice: Preparing 21st Century School Leaders for a New Social Order

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jean-Marie, Gaetane; Normore, Anthony H.; Brooks, Jeffrey S.

    2009-01-01

    At the dawn of the 21st century, there has been an increased focus on social justice and educational leadership (Bogotch, Beachum, Blount, Brooks & English, 2008; Marshall & Oliva, 2006; Shoho, Merchang & Lugg, 2005). This paper explores and extends themes in contemporary educational research on leadership preparation in terms of social justice…

  20. Selfish punishment with avoiding mechanism can alleviate both first-order and second-order social dilemma.

    PubMed

    Cui, Pengbi; Wu, Zhi-Xi

    2014-11-21

    Punishment, especially selfish punishment, has recently been identified as a potent promoter in sustaining or even enhancing the cooperation among unrelated individuals. However, without other key mechanisms, the first-order social dilemma and second-order social dilemma are still two enduring conundrums in biology and the social sciences even with the presence of punishment. In the present study, we investigate a spatial evolutionary four-strategy prisoner׳s dilemma game model with avoiding mechanism, where the four strategies are cooperation, defection, altruistic and selfish punishment. By introducing the low level of random mutation of strategies, we demonstrate that the presence of selfish punishment with avoiding mechanism can alleviate the two kinds of social dilemmas for various parametrizations. In addition, we propose an extended pair approximation method, whose solutions can essentially estimate the dynamical behaviors and final evolutionary frequencies of the four strategies. At last, considering the analogy between our model and the classical Lotka-Volterra system, we introduce interaction webs based on the spatial replicator dynamics and the transformed payoff matrix to qualitatively characterize the emergent co-exist strategy phases, and its validity are supported by extensive simulations. PMID:25088776

  1. Higher Order Thinking in High School Social Studies: An Analysis of Classrooms, Teachers, Students, and Leadership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newmann, Fred M.; And Others

    The papers in this report present selected findings from one phase of a five-year study on how to enhance higher order thinking skills in high school social studies classes. The study's purposes were to determine why it is difficult to emphasize these skills in social studies curriculums, what the barriers are, and how to overcome them. Five…

  2. Effects of Sex, Social Desirability, and Birth Order on the Defense Mechanisms Inventory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dudley, Gary E.

    1978-01-01

    Investigated effects of sex difference, social desirability instructions, and birth order of respondents on defense mechanisms inventory (DMI). Sex difference was found in projection only. Social desirability effects were found in turning-against-others, projection, principalization, and reversal. Thus, an interpretive caution is in order…

  3. Social learning and human mate preferences: a potential mechanism for generating and maintaining between-population diversity in attraction

    PubMed Central

    Little, Anthony C.; Jones, Benedict C.; DeBruine, Lisa M.; Caldwell, Christine A.

    2011-01-01

    Inspired by studies demonstrating mate-choice copying effects in non-human species, recent studies of attractiveness judgements suggest that social learning also influences human preferences. In the first part of our article, we review evidence for social learning effects on preferences in humans and other animals. In the second part, we present new empirical evidence that social learning not only influences the attractiveness of specific individuals, but can also generalize to judgements of previously unseen individuals possessing similar physical traits. The different conditions represent different populations and, once a preference arises in a population, social learning can lead to the spread of preferences within that population. In the final part of our article, we discuss the theoretical basis for, and possible impact of, biases in social learning whereby individuals may preferentially copy the choices of those with high status or better access to critical information about potential mates. Such biases could mean that the choices of a select few individuals carry the greatest weight, rapidly generating agreement in preferences within a population. Collectively, these issues suggest that social learning mechanisms encourage the spread of preferences for certain traits once they arise within a population and so may explain certain cross-cultural differences. PMID:21199841

  4. Higher-order social cognition in first-episode major depression.

    PubMed

    Ladegaard, Nicolai; Larsen, Erik Roj; Videbech, Poul; Lysaker, Paul H

    2014-04-30

    Patients suffering from major depression experience difficulties in multiple cognitive faculties. A growing body of research has linked affective disorders to abnormalities in social cognition and specifically the processing of discrete emotional stimuli. However, little inquiry has gone into possible impairment in higher-order social cognition including theory of mind, social perception and metacognition. Forty-four medication-naïve patients with first-episode unipolar major depressive disorder and an equal number of matched controls were assessed by the Metacognitive Assessment Scale-Abbreviated (MAS-A), The Frith-Happé animations (FHA) and The Awareness of Social Inference Test (TASIT). Additionally, neurocognition was assessed utilyzing the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB). Depressed patients showed impairment in all domains of higher-order social cognitive ability. Importantly, social cognitive variables retained their inter-group significance after controlling for possible covariates including neurocognition. Results indicate that first-episode depressed patients experience difficulties in all domains of higher-order social cognition including theory of mind, social perception and metacognition. PMID:24524945

  5. Maintaining the Social Flow of Evidence-Informed Palliative Care: Use and Misuse of YouTube

    PubMed Central

    Jamwal, Nisha Rani; Kumar, Senthil Paramasivam

    2016-01-01

    This review article is aimed to explore the use of the social media website YouTube (www.youtube.com) as an evidence resource in palliative care, for patients and caregivers, students and professionals, and providers and policy-makers in developing countries’ settings. The reviewed evidence reiterated the role of this social media website in palliative care practice, education and research in the area of cancer. Efficacy studies on impact of such media on palliative care delivery in developing countries are still lacking. PMID:26962290

  6. Maintaining the Social Flow of Evidence-Informed Palliative Care: Use and Misuse of YouTube.

    PubMed

    Jamwal, Nisha Rani; Kumar, Senthil Paramasivam

    2016-01-01

    This review article is aimed to explore the use of the social media website YouTube (www.youtube.com) as an evidence resource in palliative care, for patients and caregivers, students and professionals, and providers and policy-makers in developing countries' settings. The reviewed evidence reiterated the role of this social media website in palliative care practice, education and research in the area of cancer. Efficacy studies on impact of such media on palliative care delivery in developing countries are still lacking. PMID:26962290

  7. Care Orders as Successful Interventions: The Social Workers' Point of View

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pösö, Tarja; Eronen, Tuija

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the outcomes of care orders from the point of view of social workers. The aim is to cast light on the "black box" of substitute care by analysing the practice-based view on outcome in order to contribute to the complex debate on the relations of care and outcome. The article is based on a study using a survey, focus…

  8. An Investigation of Higher-Order Thinking Skills in Smaller Learning Community Social Studies Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Christopher; Bol, Linda; Pribesh, Shana

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the extent to which higher-order thinking skills are promoted in social studies classes in high schools that are implementing smaller learning communities (SLCs). Data collection in this mixed-methods study included classroom observations and in-depth interviews. Findings indicated that higher-order thinking was rarely…

  9. Care Orders as Successful Interventions: The Social Workers' Point of View

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pösö, Tarja; Eronen, Tuija

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the outcomes of care orders from the point of view of social workers. The aim is to cast light on the "black box" of substitute care by analysing the practice-based view on outcome in order to contribute to the complex debate on the relations of care and outcome. The article is based on a study using a survey, focus…

  10. An Investigation of Higher-Order Thinking Skills in Smaller Learning Community Social Studies Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Christopher; Bol, Linda; Pribesh, Shana

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the extent to which higher-order thinking skills are promoted in social studies classes in high schools that are implementing smaller learning communities (SLCs). Data collection in this mixed-methods study included classroom observations and in-depth interviews. Findings indicated that higher-order thinking was rarely…

  11. Incorporating social groups' responses in a descriptive model for second- and higher-order impact identification

    SciTech Connect

    Sutheerawatthana, Pitch; Minato, Takayuki

    2010-02-15

    The response of a social group is a missing element in the formal impact assessment model. Previous discussion of the involvement of social groups in an intervention has mainly focused on the formation of the intervention. This article discusses the involvement of social groups in a different way. A descriptive model is proposed by incorporating a social group's response into the concept of second- and higher-order effects. The model is developed based on a cause-effect relationship through the observation of phenomena in case studies. The model clarifies the process by which social groups interact with a lower-order effect and then generate a higher-order effect in an iterative manner. This study classifies social groups' responses into three forms-opposing, modifying, and advantage-taking action-and places them in six pathways. The model is expected to be used as an analytical tool for investigating and identifying impacts in the planning stage and as a framework for monitoring social groups' responses during the implementation stage of a policy, plan, program, or project (PPPPs).

  12. Social-Ecological, Motivational and Volitional Factors for Initiating and Maintaining Physical Activity in the Context of HIV

    PubMed Central

    Ley, Clemens; Barrio, María Rato; Leach, Lloyd

    2015-01-01

    Sport and exercise can have several health benefits for people living with HIV. These benefits can be achieved through different types of physical activity, adapting to disease progression, motivation and social-ecological options. However, physical activity levels and adherence to exercise are generally low in people living with HIV. At the same time, high drop-out rates in intervention studies are prevalent; even though they often entail more favourable conditions than interventions in the natural settings. Thus, in the framework of an intervention study, the present study aims to explore social-ecological, motivational and volitional correlates of South African women living with HIV with regard to physical activity and participation in a sport and exercise health promotion programme. The qualitative data was produced in the framework of a non-randomised pre-post intervention study that evaluated structure, processes and outcomes of a 10-week sport and exercise programme. All 25 participants of the programme were included in this analysis, independent of compliance. Data was produced through questionnaires, participatory group discussions, body image pictures, research diaries and individual semi-structured interviews. All participants lived in a low socioeconomic, disadvantaged setting. Hence, the psychological correlates are contextualised and social-ecological influences on perception and behaviour are discussed. The results show the importance of considering social-cultural and environmental influences on individual motives, perceptions and expectancies, the fear of disclosure and stigmatisation, sport and exercise-specific group dynamics and self-supporting processes. Opportunities and strategies to augment physical activity and participation in sport and exercise programmes in the context of HIV are discussed. PMID:26587078

  13. The Creation of Social Order in a Sixth-Grade Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuwahara, Yuri

    This paper presents a case study of how social order was created through teacher-student interactions in a single sixth-grade classroom, based on videotaped classroom observations, interviews, and student questionnaires. The paper describes the classroom teacher's teaching methods, use of required texts, and use of standardized tests, especially…

  14. "Standing Porter at the Door of Thought": The Social Order of the Christian Science Church.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, Douglas J.

    This examination of the social order of the Church of Christ, Scientist, provides a valuable learning opportunity for leaders of any organizational entity--or for any student of organizational communication/behavior. The study addresses labor, trust, power, and legitimization of activity within the church. It raises the issue of whether Christian…

  15. Adaptation to low body temperature influences pulmonary surfactant composition thereby increasing fluidity while maintaining appropriately ordered membrane structure and surface activity.

    PubMed

    Suri, Lakshmi N M; McCaig, Lynda; Picardi, Maria V; Ospina, Olga L; Veldhuizen, Ruud A W; Staples, James F; Possmayer, Fred; Yao, Li-Juan; Perez-Gil, Jesus; Orgeig, Sandra

    2012-07-01

    The interfacial surface tension of the lung is regulated by phospholipid-rich pulmonary surfactant films. Small changes in temperature affect surfactant structure and function in vitro. We compared the compositional, thermodynamic and functional properties of surfactant from hibernating and summer-active 13-lined ground squirrels (Ictidomys tridecemlineatus) with porcine surfactant to understand structure-function relationships in surfactant membranes and films. Hibernating squirrels had more surfactant large aggregates with more fluid monounsaturated molecular species than summer-active animals. The latter had more unsaturated species than porcine surfactant. Cold-adapted surfactant membranes displayed gel-to-fluid transitions at lower phase transition temperatures with reduced enthalpy. Both hibernating and summer-active squirrel surfactants exhibited lower enthalpy than porcine surfactant. LAURDAN fluorescence and DPH anisotropy revealed that surfactant bilayers from both groups of squirrels possessed similar ordered phase characteristics at low temperatures. While ground squirrel surfactants functioned well during dynamic cycling at 3, 25, and 37 degrees C, porcine surfactant demonstrated poorer activity at 3 degrees C but was superior at 37 degrees C. Consequently the surfactant composition of ground squirrels confers a greater thermal flexibility relative to homeothermic mammals, while retaining tight lipid packing at low body temperatures. This may represent the most critical feature contributing to sustained stability of the respiratory interface at low lung volumes. Thus, while less effective than porcine surfactant at 37 degrees C, summer-active surfactant functions adequately at both 37 degrees C and 3 degrees C allowing these animals to enter hibernation. Here further compositional alterations occur which improve function at low temperatures by maintaining adequate stability at low lung volumes and when temperature increases during arousal from hibernation. PMID:22387458

  16. The Relationship between Second-Order False Belief and Display Rules Reasoning: The Integration of Cognitive and Affective Social Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naito, Mika; Seki, Yoshimi

    2009-01-01

    To investigate the relation between cognitive and affective social understanding, Japanese 4- to 8-year-olds received tasks of first- and second-order false beliefs and prosocial and self-presentational display rules. From 6 to 8 years, children comprehended display rules, as well as second-order false belief, using social pressures justifications…

  17. The Relationship between Second-Order False Belief and Display Rules Reasoning: The Integration of Cognitive and Affective Social Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naito, Mika; Seki, Yoshimi

    2009-01-01

    To investigate the relation between cognitive and affective social understanding, Japanese 4- to 8-year-olds received tasks of first- and second-order false beliefs and prosocial and self-presentational display rules. From 6 to 8 years, children comprehended display rules, as well as second-order false belief, using social pressures justifications…

  18. . . . that the social order prevails: death, ritual and the 'Roman' nurse.

    PubMed

    Goopy, Suzanne

    2006-06-01

    In this article, the importance of ritual as a collective response to death is discussed. A case example, taken from a larger ethnographic study, is used to explore the responses and reactions of a group of Italian nurses to death as it occurs within an intensive care unit in Rome, Italy. The material presented is used to analyse the significance that cultural, religious and social beliefs and quasi-beliefs can have in nursing practice. The issues highlighted in this examination of the place of ritual in death are located and discussed within their highly specific cultural context and suggest that, where emphasis remains on nurses as a collective rather than on the individual nurse, ritual acts to ensure that social and moral order prevails. PMID:16700754

  19. Maintaining evolvability.

    PubMed

    Crow, James F

    2008-12-01

    Although molecular methods, such as QTL mapping, have revealed a number of loci with large effects, it is still likely that the bulk of quantitative variability is due to multiple factors, each with small effect. Typically, these have a large additive component. Conventional wisdom argues that selection, natural or artificial, uses up additive variance and thus depletes its supply. Over time, the variance should be reduced, and at equilibrium be near zero. This is especially expected for fitness and traits highly correlated with it. Yet, populations typically have a great deal of additive variance, and do not seem to run out of genetic variability even after many generations of directional selection. Long-term selection experiments show that populations continue to retain seemingly undiminished additive variance despite large changes in the mean value. I propose that there are several reasons for this. (i) The environment is continually changing so that what was formerly most fit no longer is. (ii) There is an input of genetic variance from mutation, and sometimes from migration. (iii) As intermediate-frequency alleles increase in frequency towards one, producing less variance (as p --> 1, p(1 - p) --> 0), others that were originally near zero become more common and increase the variance. Thus, a roughly constant variance is maintained. (iv) There is always selection for fitness and for characters closely related to it. To the extent that the trait is heritable, later generations inherit a disproportionate number of genes acting additively on the trait, thus increasing genetic variance. For these reasons a selected population retains its ability to evolve. Of course, genes with large effect are also important. Conspicuous examples are the small number of loci that changed teosinte to maize, and major phylogenetic changes in the animal kingdom. The relative importance of these along with duplications, chromosome rearrangements, horizontal transmission and polyploidy is yet to be determined. It is likely that only a case-by-case analysis will provide the answers. Despite the difficulties that complex interactions cause for evolution in Mendelian populations, such populations nevertheless evolve very well. Longlasting species must have evolved mechanisms for coping with such problems. Since such difficulties do not arise in asexual populations, a comparison of epistatic patterns in closely related sexual and asexual species might provide some important insights. PMID:19147924

  20. The relationship between second-order false belief and display rules reasoning: the integration of cognitive and affective social understanding.

    PubMed

    Naito, Mika; Seki, Yoshimi

    2009-01-01

    To investigate the relation between cognitive and affective social understanding, Japanese 4- to 8-year-olds received tasks of first- and second-order false beliefs and prosocial and self-presentational display rules. From 6 to 8 years, children comprehended display rules, as well as second-order false belief, using social pressures justifications decreasingly and motivational justifications with embedded perspectives increasingly with age. Although not related to either type of display across ages, second-order tasks were associated with both types of display tasks only at 8 years when examined in each age group. Results suggest that children base their second-order theory of mind and display rules understanding on distinct reasoning until middle childhood, during which time the originally distinct aspects of social understanding are integrated. PMID:19120423

  1. More than Mere Numbers: The Impact of Lethal Control on the Social Stability of a Top-Order Predator

    PubMed Central

    Wallach, Arian D.; Ritchie, Euan G.; Read, John; O'Neill, Adam J.

    2009-01-01

    Population control of socially complex species may have profound ecological implications that remain largely invisible if only their abundance is considered. Here we discuss the effects of control on a socially complex top-order predator, the dingo (Canis lupus dingo). Since European occupation of Australia, dingoes have been controlled over much of the continent. Our aim was to investigate the effects of control on their abundance and social stability. We hypothesized that dingo abundance and social stability are not linearly related, and proposed a theoretical model in which dingo populations may fluctuate between three main states: (A) below carrying capacity and socially fractured, (B) above carrying capacity and socially fractured, or (C) at carrying capacity and socially stable. We predicted that lethal control would drive dingoes into the unstable states A or B, and that relaxation of control would allow recovery towards C. We tested our predictions by surveying relative abundance (track density) and indicators of social stability (scent-marking and howling) at seven sites in the arid zone subject to differing degrees of control. We also monitored changes in dingo abundance and social stability following relaxation and intensification of control. Sites where dingoes had been controlled within the previous two years were characterized by low scent-marking activity, but abundance was similar at sites with and without control. Signs of social stability steadily increased the longer an area was allowed to recover from control, but change in abundance did not follow a consistent path. Comparison of abundance and stability among all sites and years demonstrated that control severely fractures social groups, but that the effect of control on abundance was neither consistent nor predictable. Management decisions involving large social predators must therefore consider social stability to ensure their conservation and ecological functioning. PMID:19724642

  2. Teaching Strategies Used to Maintain Classroom Order

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    With the ever evolving environment of the classroom setting the role of the teacher is constantly being challenged and the responsibilities remain the same. Teachers are required to create a safe learning environment for student learning. Although this is an overwhelming responsibility it is not impossible. This study explored teachers'…

  3. Analysis of Social Variables when an Initial Functional Analysis Indicates Automatic Reinforcement as the Maintaining Variable for Self-Injurious Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuhn, Stephanie A. Contrucci; Triggs, Mandy

    2009-01-01

    Self-injurious behavior (SIB) that occurs at high rates across all conditions of a functional analysis can suggest automatic or multiple functions. In the current study, we conducted a functional analysis for 1 individual with SIB. Results indicated that SIB was, at least in part, maintained by automatic reinforcement. Further analyses using…

  4. Siblings, Birth Order, and Cooperative-Competitive Social Behavior: A Comparison of Anglo-American and Mexican-American Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, George P.; Kagan, Spencer

    1982-01-01

    Tested the hypothesis that differences in cooperative-competitive social behavior between Anglo-Americans and Mexican Americans is a result of larger family size among the latter group. Found that, even after controlling for number of siblings and birth order, statistically significant differences in such behavior remained between the two groups.…

  5. First- and second-order sociality determine survival and reproduction in cooperative cichlids.

    PubMed

    Jungwirth, Arne; Taborsky, Michael

    2015-11-22

    Cooperative breeders serve as a model to study the evolution of cooperation, where costs and benefits of helping are typically scrutinized at the level of group membership. However, cooperation is often observed in multi-level social organizations involving interactions among individuals at various levels. Here, we argue that a full understanding of the adaptive value of cooperation and the evolution of complex social organization requires identifying the effect of different levels of social organization on direct and indirect fitness components. Our long-term field data show that in the cooperatively breeding, colonial cichlid fish Neolamprologus pulcher, both large group size and high colony density significantly raised group persistence. Neither group size nor density affected survival at the individual level, but they had interactive effects on reproductive output; large group size raised productivity when local population density was low, whereas in contrast, small groups were more productive at high densities. Fitness estimates of individually marked fish revealed indirect fitness benefits associated with staying in large groups. Inclusive fitness, however, was not significantly affected by group size, because the direct fitness component was not increased in larger groups. Together, our findings highlight that the reproductive output of groups may be affected in opposite directions by different levels of sociality, and that complex forms of sociality and costly cooperation may evolve in the absence of large indirect fitness benefits and the influence of kin selection. PMID:26582022

  6. The Contribution of Distance Education in Providing Education for a Just Social Order.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rumble, Greville

    Concerned with the means by which distance education programs can be used to further social justice in various parts of the world, this paper considers both the generally recognized strengths of and some potential problems in three aspects of such programs--access, curriculum, and a monopolistic tendency. It draws on the experience of the…

  7. "[T]o Carve out New Orders in Experience": Imagination in a Social Action Literacy Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epstein, Shira Eve

    2009-01-01

    When students take a stance on authentic social issues in their English classrooms, they have the opportunity to imagine their world as otherwise. Along with attention to other intellectual skills and civic skills, educators should prioritize the development of imagination, as it is "crucial" if students are to "project and embrace a vision for…

  8. Poverty, Inequality and the Future of Social Policy: Western States in the New World Order.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McFate, Katherine, Ed.; Lawson, Roger, Ed.; Wilson, William Julius, Ed.

    This book analyzes forces fraying the social fabric of many countries, and the reasons why some Western countries have been more successful than others in addressing these trends. Part 1, "Poverty, Income Inequality, and Labor Market Insecurity: A Comparative Perspective," includes (1) "Markets and States: Poverty Trends and Transfer System…

  9. Poverty, Inequality and the Future of Social Policy: Western States in the New World Order.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McFate, Katherine, Ed.; Lawson, Roger, Ed.; Wilson, William Julius, Ed.

    This book analyzes forces fraying the social fabric of many countries, and the reasons why some Western countries have been more successful than others in addressing these trends. Part 1, "Poverty, Income Inequality, and Labor Market Insecurity: A Comparative Perspective," includes (1) "Markets and States: Poverty Trends and Transfer System…

  10. Higher Order Thinking in the Teaching of Social Studies: Connections between Theory and Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newmann, Fred M.

    An attempt is made to synthesize the diverse perspectives on the teaching of thinking, especially in the area of social studies. A conception is developed that incorporates major theoretical orientations as well as the views of teachers. The conception emphasizes interpretation, analysis, and manipulation of information to solve problems that…

  11. Social Support and Conformity: The Effect of Differentiation from the Group and Order of Responding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Vernon L.; Levine, John M.

    In this experiment two variables relevant to explaining the social support phenomenon were investigated. Response position of the partner (first vs fourth) and contact between partner and S prior to the group situation (contact vs. no contact) were manipulated. Male and female Ss responded to visual, information, and opinion items in a group…

  12. The Difficulty of Maintaining Positive Intervention Effects: A Look at Disruptive Behavior, Deviant Peer Relations, and Social Skills During the Middle School Years

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the effects of the Fast Track preventive intervention on youths’ functioning in three domains: disruptive behavior problems, involvement with deviant peers, and social skills during the middle school years. Eight hundred ninety-one children had been randomly assigned by sets of schools within four sites to intervention (n = 445) or to control (n = 446) conditions. In contrast to prior findings of the effectiveness of the Fast Track intervention during the elementary school years, the current findings indicate that Fast Track had little overall impact on children’s functioning in these domains during this age period. There were positive intervention effects on only 2 of 17 outcomes examined. Although the intervention had positive impact on children’s hyperactive and self-reported delinquent behaviors in seventh grade, there were no intervention effects on other externalizing behavior problems or on social skills, and there was a negative intervention effect on children’s involvement with deviant peers during this age period. PMID:24319308

  13. Collective Weibull behavior of social atoms: Application of the rank-ordering statistics to historical extreme events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chien-Chih; Tseng, Chih-Yuan; Telesca, Luciano; Chi, Sung-Ching; Sun, Li-Chung

    2012-02-01

    Analogous to crustal earthquakes in natural fault systems, we here consider the dynasty collapses as extreme events in human society. Duration data of ancient Chinese and Egyptian dynasties provides a good chance of exploring the collective behavior of the so-called social atoms. By means of the rank-ordering statistics, we demonstrate that the duration data of those ancient dynasties could be described with good accuracy by the Weibull distribution. It is thus amazing that the distribution of time to failure of human society, i.e. the disorder of a historical dynasty, follows the widely accepted Weibull process as natural material fails.

  14. Investment in higher order central processing regions is not constrained by brain size in social insects

    PubMed Central

    Muscedere, Mario L.; Gronenberg, Wulfila; Moreau, Corrie S.; Traniello, James F. A.

    2014-01-01

    The extent to which size constrains the evolution of brain organization and the genesis of complex behaviour is a central, unanswered question in evolutionary neuroscience. Advanced cognition has long been linked to the expansion of specific brain compartments, such as the neocortex in vertebrates and the mushroom bodies in insects. Scaling constraints that limit the size of these brain regions in small animals may therefore be particularly significant to behavioural evolution. Recent findings from studies of paper wasps suggest miniaturization constrains the size of central sensory processing brain centres (mushroom body calyces) in favour of peripheral, sensory input centres (antennal and optic lobes). We tested the generality of this hypothesis in diverse eusocial hymenopteran species (ants, bees and wasps) exhibiting striking variation in body size and thus brain size. Combining multiple neuroanatomical datasets from these three taxa, we found no universal size constraint on brain organization within or among species. In fact, small-bodied ants with miniscule brains had mushroom body calyces proportionally as large as or larger than those of wasps and bees with brains orders of magnitude larger. Our comparative analyses suggest that brain organization in ants is shaped more by natural selection imposed by visual demands than intrinsic design limitations. PMID:24741016

  15. The Associations Between the Religious Background, Social Supports, and Do-Not-Resuscitate Orders in Taiwan: An Observational Study.

    PubMed

    Lin, Kuan-Han; Chen, Yih-Sharng; Chou, Nai-Kuan; Huang, Sheng-Jean; Wu, Chau-Chung; Chen, Yen-Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Prior studies have demonstrated important implications related to religiosity and a do-not-resuscitate (DNR) decision. However, the association between patients' religious background and DNR decisions is vague. In particular, the association between the religious background of Buddhism/Daoism and DNR decisions has never been examined. The objective of this study was to examine the association between patients' religious background and their DNR decisions, with a particular focus on Buddhism/Daoism.The medical records of the patients who were admitted to the 3 surgical intensive care units (SICU) in a university-affiliated medical center located at Northern Taiwan from June 1, 2011 to December 31, 2013 were retrospectively collected. We compared the clinical/demographic variables of DNR patients with those of non-DNR patients using the Student t test or ? test depending on the scale of the variables. We used multivariate logistic regression analysis to examine the association between the religious backgrounds and DNR decisions.A sample of 1909 patients was collected: 122 patients had a DNR order; and 1787 patients did not have a DNR order. Old age (P?=?0.02), unemployment (P?=?0.02), admission diagnosis of "nonoperative, cardiac failure/insufficiency" (P?=?0.03), and severe acute illness at SICU admission (P?orders. Patients' religious background of Buddhism/Daoism (P?=?0.04), married marital status (P?=?0.02), and admission diagnosis of "postoperative, major surgery" (P?=?0.02) were less likely to have a DNR order written during their SICU stay. Furthermore, patients with poor social support, as indicated by marital and working status, were more likely to consent to a DNR order during SICU stay.This study showed that the religious background of Buddhism/Daoism was significantly associated with a lower likelihood of consenting to a DNR, and poor social support was significantly associated with a higher likelihood of having a DNR order written during SICU stay. PMID:26817913

  16. Software Maintainability Index Revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Welker, Kurt Dean

    2001-08-01

    For many years now, software practitioners have been collecting metrics from source code in an effort to better understand the software they are developing or changing. Maintainability Index (MI) is a composite metric that incorporates a number of traditional source code metrics into a single number that indicates relative maintainability. As originally proposed by Oman and Hagemeister, the MI is comprised of weighted Halstead metrics (effort or volume), McCabe's Cyclomatic Complexity, lines of code (LOC), and number of comments [1, 2]. Two equations were presented: one that considered comments and one that did not.

  17. Maintaining a Healthy Weight

    MedlinePLUS

    ... with age. The secret to maintaining a healthy weight is to balance “energy in” and “energy out.” Energy in means the calories you get from the food and beverages you consume. Energy ... you be to keep a healthy weight? The answer is different for each person, but ...

  18. Maintaining Medicinal Plant Germplasm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    For all plant genetic resources collections, including medicinal plant germplasm, maintaining the genetic integrity of material held ex situ is of major importance. This holds true for all intended end uses of the material whether it is as a source for crop improvement, medical research, as voucher...

  19. Polarization-maintaining property of tapered polarization-maintaining fibers.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaozhen; Niedermayer, Graeme; Lin, Ganbin; Lu, Ping; Wang, Baishi; Chen, Liang; Bao, Xiaoyi

    2013-03-10

    Distributed group birefringence of tapered polarization-maintaining fibers (PMFs) is measured by employing a high-resolution optical frequency-domain reflectometry system. Autocorrelation data processing reveals distributed mode coupling between the fast and slow modes and higher-order modes excited by the tapering process along the taper region. The polarization-maintaining property of a tapered PMF is examined by distributed group birefringence along the tapered PMF with a spatial resolution of ~1.25 cm and a polarization-extinction ratio at the fiber taper output over the wavelength range of 1510-1570 nm. With a waist diameter of 80 μm, the polarization state of the launched light is maintained and the birefringence of the tapered PMF is slightly reduced from 3.28×10(-4) to 2.89×10(-4) at the taper waist. For both the waist diameters of 60 and 40 μm, mode coupling is observed in the form of significantly decreased birefringence by a factor of ~10 at the taper waists. PMID:23478756

  20. Neural correlates of the empathic perceptual processing of realistic social interaction scenarios displayed from a first-order perspective.

    PubMed

    Fehr, T; Achtziger, A; Roth, G; Strüber, D

    2014-10-01

    The neural processing of impulsive behavior is a central topic in various clinical and non-clinical contexts. To investigate neural and behavioral correlates of the empathic processing of complex social scenarios, especially considering ecological validity of the experimental procedure, we developed and investigated a video stimulus inventory. It includes realistic neutral, social-positive, and reactive-aggressive action scenarios. Short video-clips showing these social scenarios from a first-person perspective triggering different emotional states were presented to a non-clinical sample of 20 young adult male participants during fMRI measurements. Both affective interaction conditions (social-positive and reactive-aggressive) were contrasted against a neutral baseline condition and against each other. Behavioral evaluation data largely confirmed the validity of the emotion-inducing stimulus material. Reactive-aggressive and social-positive interaction scenarios produced widely overlapping fMRI activation patterns in hetero-modal association cortices, but also in subcortical regions, such as the peri-aqueductal gray. Reactive-aggressive compared to social-positive scenarios yielded a more anterior distribution of activations in pre-motor and inferior frontal brain regions associated to motor-preparation and inhibitory control processing as well as in the insula associated to pain- and/or aversion-processing. We argue that there are both principally common neural networks recruited for the processing of reactive-aggressive and social-positive scenarios, but also exclusive network parts in particular involved depending on individual socialization. PMID:24814646

  1. Exploring the Construction of Social Class in Educational Discourse: The Rational Order of the Nation State versus Global Uncertainties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rassool, Naz

    2004-01-01

    This article aims to create intellectual space in which issues of social inequality and education can be analyzed and discussed in relation to the multifaceted and multi-levelled complexities of the modern world. It is divided into three sections. Section One locates the concept of social class in the context of the modern nation state during the…

  2. [Maintaining telomere length].

    PubMed

    Wysoczańska, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Telomeres protect the ends of chromosomes maintaining genome stability. The activity of telomerase enzyme, or alternatively the process of recombination, regulates the length of telomeres. In the absence of these mechanisms, excessive shortening of telomeres reach its critical level. Excessively shortened telomeres do not protect chromosome ends, the cell division cycle is stopped while the inactivity of replication process generates cellular senescence and cell death. On the other hand, critically shortened telomeres may promote chromosomal instability. These changes can lead to the development of carcinogenesis. In this process enzymatic activity of telomerase is reactivated. To maintain the protection of the chromosome ends, telomeres bind the stabilizing protein complex (shelterin). The presence of these protective proteins prevents undesirable DNA damage and initiates the repair system pathways. Molecular technologies enable the evaluation of telomere lengths, the analysis of telomerase expression and activity, and detection of mutations, polymorphic and epigenetic changes in telomere--shelterin--telomerase complex related genes. The purpose of research is to describe new mechanisms that affect the biology of telomere lengths, and to determine the impact on bone marrow failures, development of haematological malignancies, neurodegenerative diseases and others disorders associated with chromosomal instability. The model of modern therapies based on telomere biology explains the significance of the maintenance of telomere lengths in the process of cellular senescence and carcinogenesis. PMID:24379272

  3. Social Orders and Interactions among Children in Age-Mixed Classes in Primary Schools--New Perspectives from a Synthesis of Ethnographic Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huf, Christina; Raggl, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    The article synthesises data from two ethnographic projects, which both explore interactions of children in age-mixed groups in primary schools. It illuminates critical perspectives on social orders and children's interactions in age-mixed classes by showing how pupils in age-mixed groups become involved in power relations and how the teacher's…

  4. Social Orders and Interactions among Children in Age-Mixed Classes in Primary Schools--New Perspectives from a Synthesis of Ethnographic Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huf, Christina; Raggl, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    The article synthesises data from two ethnographic projects, which both explore interactions of children in age-mixed groups in primary schools. It illuminates critical perspectives on social orders and children's interactions in age-mixed classes by showing how pupils in age-mixed groups become involved in power relations and how the teacher's…

  5. ADAS Update and Maintainability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Leela R.

    2010-01-01

    Since 2000, both the National Weather Service Melbourne (NWS MLB) and the Spaceflight Meteorology Group (SMG) have used a local data integration system (LOIS) as part of their forecast and warning operations. The original LOIS was developed by the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) in 1998 (Manobianco and Case 1998) and has undergone subsequent improvements. Each has benefited from three-dimensional (3-D) analyses that are delivered to forecasters every 15 minutes across the peninsula of Florida. The intent is to generate products that enhance short-range weather forecasts issued in support of NWS MLB and SMG operational requirements within East Central Florida. The current LDIS uses the Advanced Regional Prediction System (ARPS) Data Analysis System (AD AS) package as its core, which integrates a wide variety of national, regional, and local observational data sets. It assimilates all available real-time data within its domain and is run at a finer spatial and temporal resolution than current national or regional-scale analysis packages. As such, it provides local forecasters with a more comprehensive understanding of evolving fine-scale weather features. Over the years, the LDIS has become problematic to maintain since it depends on AMU-developed shell scripts that were written for an earlier version of the ADAS software. The goals of this task were to update the NWS MLB/SMG LDIS with the latest version of ADAS, incorporate new sources of observational data, and upgrade and modify the AMU-developed shell scripts written to govern the system. In addition, the previously developed ADAS graphical user interface (GUI) was updated. Operationally, these upgrades will result in more accurate depictions of the current local environment to help with short-range weather forecasting applications, while also offering an improved initialization for local versions of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model used by both groups.

  6. 'From Man to Bacteria': W.D. Hamilton, the theory of inclusive fitness, and the post-war social order.

    PubMed

    Swenson, Sarah A

    2015-02-01

    W.D. Hamilton's theory of inclusive fitness aimed to define the evolved limits of altruism with mathematical precision. Although it was meant to apply universally, it has been almost irretrievably entwined with the particular case of social insects that featured in his famous 1964 papers. The assumption that social insects were central to Hamilton's early work contradicts material in his rich personal archive. In fact, careful study of Hamilton's notes, letters, diaries, and early essays indicates the extent to which he had humans in mind when he decided altruism was a topic worthy of biological inquiry. For this reason, this article reconsiders the role of extra-scientific factors in Hamilton's early theorizing. In doing so, it offers an alternative perspective as to why Hamilton saw self-sacrifice to be an important subject. Although the traditional narrative prioritizes his distaste for benefit-of-the-species explanations as a motivating factor behind his foundational work, I argue that greater attention ought to be given to Hamilton's hope that science could be used to address social ills. By reconsidering the meaning Hamilton intended inclusive fitness to have, we see that while he was no political ideologue, the socio-political relevance of his theory was nevertheless integral to its development. PMID:25594921

  7. "Confinement of the higher orders": the social role of private lunatic asylums in Ireland, C. 1820-60.

    PubMed

    Mauger, Alice

    2012-04-01

    The period 1820-60 marked an era of transition and diversity in Ireland that rapidly transformed the face of Irish society. Inextricably linked with these processes was the expansion of Ireland's private asylum system. This system diverged from its British counterpart both in the socioeconomic cohort it served and in the role it played within the mental health-care system as a whole. The implementation of the 1842 Private Asylums (Ireland) Act, the first legislative measure geared exclusively toward the system, highlighted the growing importance of private care in Ireland as well as providing for the licensing and regulation of these institutions for the first time. To date, historians of Irish medicine have focused almost exclusively on the pauper insane. This article aims to shift this emphasis toward other categories of the Irish insane through exploration of the Irish private asylum system, its growth throughout the period, and the social profile of private patients. I shall also interrogate the trade in lunacy model through exploration of financial considerations, discharge and recovery rates, and conditions of care and argue that while Irish private institutions were a lucrative business venture, the quality of care upheld was apparently high. Finally, I shall argue that Irish private asylums catered primarily for the upper classes and briefly explore alternative provisional measures for other non-pauper sectors of society. PMID:21355010

  8. Women's work. Maintaining a healthy body weight.

    PubMed

    Welch, Nicky; Hunter, Wendy; Butera, Karina; Willis, Karen; Cleland, Verity; Crawford, David; Ball, Kylie

    2009-08-01

    This study describes women's perceptions of the supports and barriers to maintaining a healthy weight among currently healthy weight women from urban and rural socio-economically disadvantaged areas. Using focus groups and interviews, we asked women about their experiences of maintaining a healthy weight. Overwhelmingly, women described their healthy weight practices in terms of concepts related to work and management. The theme of 'managing health' comprised issues of managing multiple responsibilities, time, and emotions associated with healthy practices. Rural women faced particular difficulties in accessing supports at a practical level (for example, lack of childcare) and due to the gendered roles they enacted in caring for others. Family background (in particular, mothers' attitudes to food and weight) also appeared to influence perceptions about healthy weight maintenance. In the context of global increases in the prevalence of obesity, the value of initiatives aimed at supporting healthy weight women to maintain their weight should not be under-estimated. Such initiatives need to work within the social and personal constraints that women face in maintaining good health. PMID:19446587

  9. Social Phobia (Social Anxiety Disorder): Always Embarrassed

    MedlinePLUS

    ... phobia? For More Information Share Social Phobia (Social Anxiety Disorder): Always Embarrassed Download PDF Download ePub Order ... If so, you may have a type of anxiety disorder called social phobia, also called social anxiety ...

  10. Motives for maintaining personal journal blogs.

    PubMed

    Hollenbaugh, Erin E

    2011-01-01

    Although much has been learned about political and news blogs, there has been a lack of research on personal journal blogs. They deserve further research attention because of the implications blogs have in many bloggers' immediate social networks, as well as the opportunities for scientific inquiry in a rich and evolving communication environment. This study explored bloggers' motives for maintaining personal journal blogs, or blogs that resemble diaries about one's personal life. Stemming from the uses and gratifications perspective, antecedents (age, sex, loneliness, disclosiveness) and blogging motives composed a model for predicting the amount of blog use. Seven motives emerged from online survey data: helping/informing, social connection, pass time, exhibitionism, archiving/organizing, professionalism, and get feedback. Age, sex, loneliness, and disclosiveness predicted different motives, and the total model (age, sex, loneliness, disclosiveness, and motives) was useful for explaining 13% of the variance in the amount of blog use. PMID:21329438

  11. Simple Fixed Functional Space Maintainer

    PubMed Central

    Sarawgi, Aditi; Marwah, Nikhil; Gumber, Parvind; Dutta, Samir

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT% Premature loss of a primary tooth is one of the most common etiology for malocclusion. Space maintainers are employed to prevent this complication. In anterior region, esthetics is an important concern along with function and space management. Fiber-reinforced composite (FRC) retained space maintainer solves all these purposes ef ficiently and ef fectively. In addition, the technique is simple and the appliance is very comfortable inside the oral cavity. Here is a case of premature loss of anterior primary tooth which was replaced by FRC retained esthetic functional space maintainer. The appliance was found to be functioning satisfactorily inside the oral cavity till the last visit (1 Year). How to cite this article: Goenka P, Sarawgi A, Marwah N, Gumber P, Dutta S. Simple Fixed Functional Space Maintainer. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2014;7(3):225-228. PMID:25709309

  12. Maintaining Chaos in High Dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    in, Visarath; Spano, Mark L.; Ding, Mingzhou

    1998-01-01

    In dynamical systems, as a parameter is varied past a critical value, a chaotic attractor may be destroyed by a crisis. This attractor is replaced by a chaotic transient, which eventually leads to a different attractor. We present a method for maintaining chaotic dynamics after the crisis. The model, formulated for arbitrary dimensions, directs the phase space trajectory toward a target region near the periodic saddle orbit that mediates the crisis. It is used to maintain chaos numerically in the Ikeda map and experimentally in a magnetoelastic ribbon.

  13. Maintaining Sustainability for Green Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Mike

    2011-01-01

    The promise of sustainably designed school facilities is that they will operate more efficiently and last longer than buildings constructed in more traditional ways. But that promise comes with a big if. The payoff is delivered only if the facility managers operate and maintain the buildings in ways that adhere to sustainable strategies called for…

  14. Strategies for Maintaining Community Integration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gruber, Fred

    1986-01-01

    This article outlines strategies of maintaining integration emphasizing: (1) housing offices and counseling; (2) community action to alter real estate policies; (3) school action including public relations and human relations thinking; (4) community organization of commercial and religious institutions; (5) financial incentives for pro-integrative…

  15. Maintaining Sustainability for Green Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Mike

    2011-01-01

    The promise of sustainably designed school facilities is that they will operate more efficiently and last longer than buildings constructed in more traditional ways. But that promise comes with a big if. The payoff is delivered only if the facility managers operate and maintain the buildings in ways that adhere to sustainable strategies called for…

  16. [Maintaining patients' autonomy at home].

    PubMed

    Niang, Bénédicte; Coudre, Jean Pierre

    2015-01-01

    To maintain the flow of hospital discharges, the patient's return home with support from a home nursing service is important. If any difficulties are identified, there are various programmes or good practices which can be put into place. The future law on adapting society to ageing also comprises a scheme combining home assistance and nursing care. PMID:26144953

  17. Maintaining Discipline in Classroom Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gnagey, William J.

    This document focuses on classroom discipline and how the teacher can maintain an environment that will optimize appropriate learning. Part 1 defines classroom discipline. Part 2 discusses classroom misbehavior and describes a number of classroom management techniques. Part 3 offers suggestions for control techniques. Part 4 discusses techniques…

  18. Radiation Propulsion For Maintaining Orbits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richter, Robert

    1995-01-01

    Brief report proposes radiative propulsion systems for maintaining precise orbits of spacecraft. Radiation from electrical heaters directed outward by paraboloidal reflectors to produce small forces to oppose uncontrolled drag and solar-radiative forces perturbing orbits. Minimizes or eliminates need to fire rocket thrusters to correct orbits.

  19. Issues in Purchasing and Maintaining Intrinsic Standards

    SciTech Connect

    PETTIT,RICHARD B.; JAEGER,KLAUS; EHRLICH,CHARLES D.

    2000-09-12

    Intrinsic standards are widely used in the metrology community because they realize the best level uncertainty for many metrology parameters. For some intrinsic standards, recommended practices have been developed to assist metrologists in the selection of equipment and the development of appropriate procedures in order to realize the intrinsic standard. As with the addition of any new standard, the metrology laboratory should consider the pros and cons relative to their needs before purchasing the standard so that the laboratory obtains the maximum benefit from setting up and maintaining these standards. While the specific issues that need to be addressed depend upon the specific intrinsic standard and the level of realization, general issues that should be considered include ensuring that the intrinsic standard is compatible with the laboratory environment, that the standard is compatible with the current and future workload, and whether additional support standards will be required in order to properly maintain the intrinsic standard. When intrinsic standards are used to realize the best level of uncertainty for a specific metrology parameter, they usually require critical and important maintenance activities. These activities can including training of staff in the system operation, as well as safety procedures; performing periodic characterization measurements to ensure proper system operation; carrying out periodic intercomparisons with similar intrinsic standards so that proper operation is demonstrated; and maintaining control or trend charts of system performance. This paper has summarized many of these important issues and therefore should be beneficial to any laboratory that is considering the purchase of an intrinsic standard.

  20. Disturbance maintains alternative biome states.

    PubMed

    Dantas, Vinícius de L; Hirota, Marina; Oliveira, Rafael S; Pausas, Juli G

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the mechanisms controlling the distribution of biomes remains a challenge. Although tropical biome distribution has traditionally been explained by climate and soil, contrasting vegetation types often occur as mosaics with sharp boundaries under very similar environmental conditions. While evidence suggests that these biomes are alternative states, empirical broad-scale support to this hypothesis is still lacking. Using community-level field data and a novel resource-niche overlap approach, we show that, for a wide range of environmental conditions, fire feedbacks maintain savannas and forests as alternative biome states in both the Neotropics and the Afrotropics. In addition, wooded grasslands and savannas occurred as alternative grassy states in the Afrotropics, depending on the relative importance of fire and herbivory feedbacks. These results are consistent with landscape scale evidence and suggest that disturbance is a general factor driving and maintaining alternative biome states and vegetation mosaics in the tropics. PMID:26493189

  1. NMG documentation, part 3: maintainer`s guide

    SciTech Connect

    Fritsch, F.N.; Dickinson, R.P. Jr.

    1996-07-01

    This is the third of a three-part report documenting NMG, the Numerical Mathematics Guide. Part I is aimed at the user of the systenL It contains an introduction, with an out- line of the complete report, and Chapter 1, User`s Point of View. Part II is aimed at the programmer and contains Chapter 2, How It Works. Part III is aimed at the maintainer of NMG and contains Chapter 3, Maintenance, and Chapter 4, Validation. Because its contents are so specialized, Part III will receive only limited distribution. Note that each chapter has its own page numbering and table of contents.

  2. 48 CFR 1306.202 - Establishing or maintaining alternative sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... OF COMMERCE COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Full and Open Competition... exclude a source from a contract action in order to establish or maintain an alternate source is set...

  3. 48 CFR 1306.202 - Establishing or maintaining alternative sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... OF COMMERCE COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Full and Open Competition... exclude a source from a contract action in order to establish or maintain an alternate source is set...

  4. 48 CFR 1306.202 - Establishing or maintaining alternative sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... OF COMMERCE COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Full and Open Competition... exclude a source from a contract action in order to establish or maintain an alternate source is set...

  5. 48 CFR 1306.202 - Establishing or maintaining alternative sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... OF COMMERCE COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Full and Open Competition... exclude a source from a contract action in order to establish or maintain an alternate source is set...

  6. 48 CFR 1306.202 - Establishing or maintaining alternative sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... OF COMMERCE COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Full and Open Competition... exclude a source from a contract action in order to establish or maintain an alternate source is set...

  7. Maintaining technical excellence requires a national plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidson, T. F.

    1991-01-01

    To meet the challenge of technical excellence, AIA established a rocket propulsion committee to develop the National Rocket Propulsion Strategic Plan. Developing such a plan required a broad spectrum of experience and disciplines. The Strategic Plan team needed the participation of industry, government, and academia. The plan provides, if followed, a means for the U.S. to maintain technical excellence and world leadership in rocket propulsion. To implement the National Rocket Propulsion Strategic Plan is to invest in the social, economic, and technological futures of America. The plan lays the basis for upgrading existing propulsion systems and a firm base for future full scale development, production, and operation of rocket propulsion systems for space, defense, and commercial applications.

  8. Maintained Individual Data Distributed Likelihood Estimation (MIDDLE).

    PubMed

    Boker, Steven M; Brick, Timothy R; Pritikin, Joshua N; Wang, Yang; Oertzen, Timo von; Brown, Donald; Lach, John; Estabrook, Ryne; Hunter, Michael D; Maes, Hermine H; Neale, Michael C

    2015-01-01

    Maintained Individual Data Distributed Likelihood Estimation (MIDDLE) is a novel paradigm for research in the behavioral, social, and health sciences. The MIDDLE approach is based on the seemingly impossible idea that data can be privately maintained by participants and never revealed to researchers, while still enabling statistical models to be fit and scientific hypotheses tested. MIDDLE rests on the assumption that participant data should belong to, be controlled by, and remain in the possession of the participants themselves. Distributed likelihood estimation refers to fitting statistical models by sending an objective function and vector of parameters to each participant's personal device (e.g., smartphone, tablet, computer), where the likelihood of that individual's data is calculated locally. Only the likelihood value is returned to the central optimizer. The optimizer aggregates likelihood values from responding participants and chooses new vectors of parameters until the model converges. A MIDDLE study provides significantly greater privacy for participants, automatic management of opt-in and opt-out consent, lower cost for the researcher and funding institute, and faster determination of results. Furthermore, if a participant opts into several studies simultaneously and opts into data sharing, these studies automatically have access to individual-level longitudinal data linked across all studies. PMID:26717128

  9. Establishing and Maintaining Intimate Relationships among Nursing Home Residents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crose, Royda

    1990-01-01

    Argues that nursing home mental health counselors should address nursing home residents' need for assistance in conflict resolution, having meaningful social interactions, and in developing and maintaining feelings of self-worth. Describes benefits of group therapy approach using life review format to help build basic trust and feelings of…

  10. Experimental Evidence that Social Relationships Determine Individual Foraging Behavior.

    PubMed

    Firth, Josh A; Voelkl, Bernhard; Farine, Damien R; Sheldon, Ben C

    2015-12-01

    Social relationships are fundamental to animals living in complex societies [1-3]. The extent to which individuals base their decisions around their key social relationships, and the consequences this has on their behavior and broader population level processes, remains unknown. Using a novel experiment that controlled where individual wild birds (great tits, Parus major) could access food, we restricted mated pairs from being allowed to forage at the same locations. This introduced a conflict for pair members between maintaining social relationships and accessing resources. We show that individuals reduce their own access to food in order to sustain their relationships and that individual foraging activity was strongly influenced by their key social counterparts. By affecting where individuals go, social relationships determined which conspecifics they encountered and consequently shaped their other social associations. Hence, while resource distribution can determine individuals' spatial and social environment [4-8], we illustrate how key social relationships themselves can govern broader social structure. Finally, social relationships also influenced the development of social foraging strategies. In response to forgoing access to resources, maintaining pair bonds led individuals to develop a flexible "scrounging" strategy, particularly by scrounging from their pair mate. This suggests that behavioral plasticity can develop to ameliorate conflicts between social relationships and other demands. Together, these results illustrate the importance of considering social relationships for explaining behavioral variation due to their significant impact on individual behavior and demonstrate the consequences of key relationships for wider processes. PMID:26585280

  11. What Does God Know? Supernatural Agents' Access to Socially Strategic and Non-Strategic Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purzycki, Benjamin G.; Finkel, Daniel N.; Shaver, John; Wales, Nathan; Cohen, Adam B.; Sosis, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Current evolutionary and cognitive theories of religion posit that supernatural agent concepts emerge from cognitive systems such as theory of mind and social cognition. Some argue that these concepts evolved to maintain social order by minimizing antisocial behavior. If these theories are correct, then people should process information about…

  12. What Does God Know? Supernatural Agents' Access to Socially Strategic and Non-Strategic Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purzycki, Benjamin G.; Finkel, Daniel N.; Shaver, John; Wales, Nathan; Cohen, Adam B.; Sosis, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Current evolutionary and cognitive theories of religion posit that supernatural agent concepts emerge from cognitive systems such as theory of mind and social cognition. Some argue that these concepts evolved to maintain social order by minimizing antisocial behavior. If these theories are correct, then people should process information about…

  13. Maintaining consistency in distributed systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birman, Kenneth P.

    1991-01-01

    In systems designed as assemblies of independently developed components, concurrent access to data or data structures normally arises within individual programs, and is controlled using mutual exclusion constructs, such as semaphores and monitors. Where data is persistent and/or sets of operation are related to one another, transactions or linearizability may be more appropriate. Systems that incorporate cooperative styles of distributed execution often replicate or distribute data within groups of components. In these cases, group oriented consistency properties must be maintained, and tools based on the virtual synchrony execution model greatly simplify the task confronting an application developer. All three styles of distributed computing are likely to be seen in future systems - often, within the same application. This leads us to propose an integrated approach that permits applications that use virtual synchrony with concurrent objects that respect a linearizability constraint, and vice versa. Transactional subsystems are treated as a special case of linearizability.

  14. When to maintain centrifugal pumps

    SciTech Connect

    Karassik, I.J.

    1993-04-01

    Centrifugal pumps comprise critical maintenance equipment. The rationale of when to maintain them relates to a spreading tendency to contain costs in the face of tight money. Plant managers are thus entitled to a thorough analysis of whether reduced expenditures truly lower costs or actually hinder maintenance and increase costs. Absence of such an analysis hides the fact that proper and timely maintenance has a double effect: it not only reduces power consumption but also extends equipment life, and thus reduces the frequency of labor and material expenditures for scheduled or crisis maintenance. Centrifugal pump maintenance can demonstrate well the validity of this observation. The paper discusses: restoring internal clearances; real cost of renewing clearances; and monitoring clearances and pump performance.

  15. Post Title V: Maintaining compliance

    SciTech Connect

    Hanisch, J.L.

    1996-12-31

    Title V of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) requires states to implement state-run operating permits. The permits program is designed to fold all federal requirements into one document. The permit is designed to have a five year life. It must include not only an initial certification of compliance, but also an annual certification that the facility is in compliance with all applicable requirements. The certification must be signed by the plant manager and must be made after reasonable inquiry. Each source should develop a compliance manual which can form the foundation for the annual compliance certification. This session is designed to provide facility managers with an approach to making sure that the facility maintains the documentation necessary for the plant manager to annually certify compliance.

  16. [Organization and character of measures to realize and conduct medical examinations of workers in Krasnoyarsk area according to Russian Health and Social Development Ministry Order No. 302n (12/04/2011)].

    PubMed

    Tereshchenko, Iu A; Zakharinskaia, O N; Demko, I V; Fedoreev, R V; ZaÄ­tsev, N G

    2013-01-01

    The article presents organizational, informational, educational and methodic measures accomplished in Krasnoyarsk area, aimed to timely and high-quality fulfil the Russian Health and Social Development Ministry Order No 302n (12/04/2011) in its part concerning procedure of mandatory preliminary and periodic medical examinations of workers. PMID:23785802

  17. 10 CFR 26.71 - Maintaining authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Maintaining authorization. 26.71 Section 26.71 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Granting and Maintaining Authorization § 26.71 Maintaining authorization. (a) Individuals may maintain authorization under the following conditions: (1)...

  18. 10 CFR 26.71 - Maintaining authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maintaining authorization. 26.71 Section 26.71 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Granting and Maintaining Authorization § 26.71 Maintaining authorization. (a) Individuals may maintain authorization under the following conditions: (1)...

  19. 10 CFR 26.71 - Maintaining authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Maintaining authorization. 26.71 Section 26.71 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Granting and Maintaining Authorization § 26.71 Maintaining authorization. (a) Individuals may maintain authorization under the following conditions: (1)...

  20. 10 CFR 26.71 - Maintaining authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Maintaining authorization. 26.71 Section 26.71 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Granting and Maintaining Authorization § 26.71 Maintaining authorization. (a) Individuals may maintain authorization under the following conditions: (1)...

  1. 10 CFR 26.71 - Maintaining authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Maintaining authorization. 26.71 Section 26.71 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Granting and Maintaining Authorization § 26.71 Maintaining authorization. (a) Individuals may maintain authorization under the following conditions: (1)...

  2. Enemies maintain hyperdiverse tropical forests.

    PubMed

    Terborgh, John

    2012-03-01

    Understanding tropical forest tree diversity has been a major challenge to ecologists. In the absence of compensatory mechanisms, two powerful forces, drift and competition, are expected to erode diversity quickly, especially in communities containing scores or hundreds of rare species. Here, I review evidence bearing on four compensatory mechanisms that have been subsumed under the terms "density dependence" or "negative density dependence": (1) intra- and (2) interspecific competition and the action of (3) density-responsive and (4) distance-responsive biotic agents, as postulated by Janzen and Connell. To achieve ontological integration, I examine evidence based on studies employing seeds, seedlings, and saplings. Available evidence points overwhelmingly to the action of both host-generalist and host-restricted biotic agents as causing most seed and seedling mortality, implying that species diversity is maintained via top-down forcing. The overall effect of most host-generalist seed predators and herbivores is to even out the distribution of surviving propagules. Spatially restricted recruitment appears to result mainly, if not exclusively, from the actions of host-restricted agents, principally microarthropods and fungi, that attack hosts in a distance-dependent fashion as Janzen and Connell proposed. Near total failure of propagules close to reproductive conspecifics ensures that successful reproduction occurs through a scant rain of dispersed seeds. Densities of dispersed seeds and seedlings arising from them are so low as to generally preclude the operation of density dependence, at least during early ontogenetic stages. I conclude that Janzen and Connell were essentially correct and that diversity maintenance results from top-down forcing acting in a spatially nonuniform fashion. PMID:22322219

  3. Maintaining polarization in polarimetric multiphoton microscopy.

    PubMed

    Bélanger, Erik; Turcotte, Raphaël; Daradich, Amy; Sadetsky, Grégory; Gravel, Pierre; Bachand, Karine; De Koninck, Yves; Côté, Daniel C

    2015-11-01

    Polarimetric measurements in multiphoton microscopy can reveal information about the local molecular order of a sample. However, the presence of a dichroic through which the excitation beam propagates will generally scramble its polarization. We propose a simple scheme whereby a second properly-oriented compensation dichroic is used to negate any alteration regardless of the wavelength and the initial polarization. We demonstrate how this robust and rapid approach simplifies polarimetric measurements in second-harmonic generation, two-photon excited fluorescence and coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering. Illustration of the polarization maintaining strategy with the compensating dichroic oriented such that its s- and p-axes are interchanged with these of the primary dichroic. PMID:25691172

  4. Utilization of Design for Assembly Guideline to Enhance Product Maintainability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdullah, A. B.; Hasim, M. H.; Yusoff, M. S.; Wahab, K. A.; Ripin, Z. M.

    This study discussed the relationship between design for assembly and maintainability in order to remain product/system performance and at the same time to extend their life. The maintenance efficiency is measure based on maintainability index, which is derived based on several assembly criteria such as disassembly, assembly direction and tools used. To increase the maintainability, redesign of the potential components based on design for assembly guideline have been made. A case study of drum brake is carried out to clarify the work.

  5. Getting affairs in order: influences of social support and religious coping on end-of-life planning among open-heart surgery patients.

    PubMed

    Ai, Amy L; Hopp, Faith; Shearer, Marshall

    2006-01-01

    Despite growing interest in end-of-life issues, little research has been done concerning end-of-life plans made by patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD), a disease that constitutes the highest mortality in the United States. Even less information is available on patients who undergo major cardiac surgery, a life-altering procedure with some risk of death, in terms of their engagement in end-of-life planning (EOLP). This prospective study enabled the contributors to explore EOLP among 309 middle-aged and older open-heart surgery patients, using survey data from three sequential interviews. A hierarchical logistic regression model shows that older age, higher education, greater social support, and negative religious coping were positively related to the likelihood of engaging in EOLP. Minority race was inversely related to EOLP. Findings suggest the potential role for social workers in helping cardiac patients to access social spiritual resources, and to consider engagement in EOLP. PMID:17387083

  6. Maintaining product-process balance in community antipoverty initiatives.

    PubMed

    Hannah, Gordon

    2006-01-01

    Antipoverty initiatives strive to improve distressed communities by producing outputs, such as housing, new businesses, and enhanced social services, and by building the capacity of communities to address their own problems. Although crucial for addressing the social and cultural factors contributing to community problems and for the sustainability of initiatives, capacity building is frequently set aside once implementation of initiatives begins. This article explores the funding realities, implementation demands, and power dynamics between stakeholders that result in output production being favored over capacity building. Examples from past and ongoing initiatives illustrate points and drive recommendations to help future initiatives maintain a balance between producing outputs and building capacity. PMID:16512506

  7. [Population change and social organization].

    PubMed

    Tu, J C

    1986-06-01

    This paper, published in Taiwan in June, 1986, studies the impact of demographic changes on social organization through stable population theory as applied to the USA. The stable population model indicates a constant age differential between death ratio and birth ratio maintained for a period of time in a given population. Since the 1950's, the population growth rate in the US has been 1.5%; social security tax revenue should increase 50% to maintain equilibrium. According to the US Census Bureau, in 1940, 11 people in 100 were age 65 or over; in 1980, 19 per 100; and 1 estimate places 32 in 100 over 65 in the year 2030. In 90 years the proportion of senior citizens will increase 3 times; social security taxes should consequently also increase 3 times. The stable population model would mean that social security tax should double its current rate to maintain equilibrium. However, based on the actual change in the population's age structure, social security tax should in fact increase at least 3 times. From 1940 to the present, social security tax revenue has already increased 3 times. Turning to education, in 1961, 4.39 million babies were born in the US. By the mid-1970's, births had slowed to an annual average of 3 million. The decrease in number of university students and posts available to Ph.Ds follows the birth rate change of 20 years earlier. Many graduate institutions will be influenced by this decrease in births. From another perspective, the birth rate decrease has also reduced the educational burden on society, and should provide more opportunities and resources. However, in the American educational system, research opportunities are determined by teaching positions which are dependent upon university enrollment figures. The US Census Bureau predicts that enrollment rates must double in order to compensate for the decrease in university age population. PMID:12222424

  8. An Historical Analysis of the Educational Ideas of George S. Counts and the Role of the School in the Modern Social Order.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romanish, Bruce A.

    The ideas of the populist George S. Counts on education's role in fostering democratic economic change are relevant to a consideration of modern problems and the prospects for American socialism (defined here as community and worker control of economic production). Counts, writing in the 1920s and 1930s, felt strongly that capitalism no longer…

  9. We Call It "Our Language": A Children's Swahili Pidgin Transforms Social and Symbolic Order on a Remote Hillside in Up-Country Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilmore, Perry

    2011-01-01

    This study describes a rare Swahili pidgin created by two five-year-old boys, one American and one African. The discussion examines the linguistic and social factors affecting the "origins, maintenance, change and loss" (Hymes 1971) of their language and the place it created for their friendship. This place, constructed by and through language,…

  10. We Call It "Our Language": A Children's Swahili Pidgin Transforms Social and Symbolic Order on a Remote Hillside in Up-Country Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilmore, Perry

    2011-01-01

    This study describes a rare Swahili pidgin created by two five-year-old boys, one American and one African. The discussion examines the linguistic and social factors affecting the "origins, maintenance, change and loss" (Hymes 1971) of their language and the place it created for their friendship. This place, constructed by and through language,…

  11. Maintaining Arrays of Contiguous Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bender, Michael A.; Fekete, Sándor P.; Kamphans, Tom; Schweer, Nils

    In this paper we consider methods for dynamically storing a set of different objects (“modules”) in a physical array. Each module requires one free contiguous subinterval in order to be placed. Items are inserted or removed, resulting in a fragmented layout that makes it harder to insert further modules. It is possible to relocate modules, one at a time, to another free subinterval that is contiguous and does not overlap with the current location of the module. These constraints clearly distinguish our problem from classical memory allocation. We present a number of algorithmic results, including a bound of {?}(n^2) on physical sorting if there is a sufficiently large free space and sum up NP-hardness results for arbitrary initial layouts. For online scenarios in which modules arrive one at a time, we present a method that requires O(1) moves per insertion or deletion and amortized cost O(m_i lg hat{m}) per insertion or deletion, where m i is the module’s size, hat{m} is the size of the largest module and costs for moves are linear in the size of a module.

  12. Social disorder and diagnostic order: the US Mental Hygiene Movement, the Midtown Manhattan study and the development of psychiatric epidemiology in the 20th century

    PubMed Central

    March, Dana; Oppenheimer, Gerald M

    2014-01-01

    Recent scholarship regarding psychiatric epidemiology has focused on shifting notions of mental disorders. In psychiatric epidemiology in the last decades of the 20th century and the first decade of the 21st century, mental disorders have been perceived and treated largely as discrete categories denoting an individual’s mental functioning as either pathological or normal. In the USA, this grew partly out of evolving modern epidemiological work responding to the State’s commitment to measure the national social and economic burdens of psychiatric disorders and subsequently to determine the need for mental health services and to survey these needs over time. Notably absent in these decades have been environmentally oriented approaches to cultivating normal, healthy mental states, approaches initially present after World War II. We focus here on a set of community studies conducted in the 1950s, particularly the Midtown Manhattan study, which grew out of a holistic conception of mental health that depended on social context and had a strong historical affiliation with: the Mental Hygiene Movement and the philosophy of its founder, Adolf Meyer; the epidemiological formation of field studies and population surveys beginning early in the 20th century, often with a health policy agenda; the recognition of increasing chronic disease in the USA; and the radical change in orientation within psychiatry around World War II. We place the Midtown Manhattan study in historical context—a complex narrative of social institutions, professional formation and scientific norms in psychiatry and epidemiology, and social welfare theory that begins during the Progressive era (1890-1920) in the USA. PMID:25031047

  13. Reply to Thornton, "Social Studies Misunderstood."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egan, Kieran

    1984-01-01

    In this ongoing debate, Egan still maintains that because social studies is based on incorrect theories of child learning and aims to socialize and because the idea of social studies is confusing, the discipline should be allowed to die. (RM)

  14. An Evaluation of Strategies to Maintain Mands at Practical Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sidener, Tina M.; Shabani, Daniel B.; Carr, James E.; Roland, Jonathan P.

    2006-01-01

    In order to teach individuals with developmental disabilities to request stimuli they are motivated to obtain (mand), it is often necessary to initially deliver the item requested immediately and frequently. This may result in an undesirably high rate of mands that is impractical to maintain. The purpose of the current investigation was to extend…

  15. Breaking the Sound Barrier: Starting and Maintaining an Audiobook Collection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaye, Sheldon; Baxter, Beth

    1994-01-01

    Discusses factors for libraries to consider when starting and maintaining an audiobook collection, including patron profiles; funding and budgeting; selection and ordering; listener preferences, including abridged versus unabridged titles; packaging and appearance; shelving and location; and future possibilities. A sidebar provides detailed…

  16. Identifying Specific Sensory Modalities Maintaining the Stereotypy of Students with Multiple Profound Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tang, Jung-Chang; Patterson, Tina G.; Kennedy, Craig H.

    2003-01-01

    Four experiments with six students with multiple profound disabilities examined the function of behavioral stereotypies and sensory modalities maintaining them. Findings are discussed in terms of the sensory and social reinforcers that maintain stereotypy, assessment procedures used to identify reinforcers, and the interpretation of assessment…

  17. Developing and maintaining reflection in clinical journals.

    PubMed

    Paterson, B L

    1995-06-01

    There is a pressing need in today's world for nurses who are willing and able to transform health care. Teaching strategies that foster reflection are in order. The use of dialogue journals has been widely reported in the nursing literature as an effective strategy for assisting students to reflect about learning experiences in the clinical area. Despite the promise that journal writing will enhance students' ability to reflect on their clinical learning experiences, not all students respond positively to journal writing as a learning tool. The paper is a discussion of some of the common difficulties that arise in the use of clinical journals as a reflective strategy in nursing education. Common problems in the use of clinical journals include procrastination; superficial, nonreflective entries; waning enthusiasm about the activity; and unwillingness or inability to reflect. The possible etiologies for these problems will be explored. Specifically, the paper will focus on ways to prevent or minimize these concerns by maintaining and enhancing the factors required for students to reflect in clinical journals. PMID:7616945

  18. Neurosteroids; potential underpinning roles in maintaining homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Rahmani, Behrouz; Ghasemi, Rasoul; Dargahi, Leila; Ahmadiani, Abolhassan; Haeri, Ali

    2016-01-01

    The neuroactive steroids which are synthesized in the brain and nervous system are known as "Neurosteroids". These steroids have crucial functions such as contributing to the myelination and organization of the brain connectivity. Under the stressful circumstances, the concentrations of neurosteroid products such as allopregnanolone (ALLO) and allotetrahydrodeoxycorticosterone (THDOC) alter. It has been suggested that these stress-derived neurosteroids modulate the physiological response to stress. Moreover, it has been demonstrated that the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis mediates the physiological adaptation following stress in order to maintain homeostasis. Although several regulatory pathways have been introduced, the exact role of neurosteroids in controlling HPA axis is not clear to date. In this review, we intend to discern specific pathways associated with regulation of HPA axis in which neuroactive steroids have the main role. In this respect, we propose pathways that may be initiated after neurosteroidogenesis in different brain subregions following acute stress which are potentially capable of activating or inhibiting the HPA axis. PMID:26432100

  19. An Empirical Analysis of the Impact of Recruitment Patterns on RDS Estimates among a Socially Ordered Population of Female Sex Workers in China

    PubMed Central

    Yamanis, Thespina J.; Merli, M. Giovanna; Neely, William Whipple; Tian, Felicia Feng; Moody, James; Tu, Xiaowen; Gao, Ersheng

    2013-01-01

    Respondent-driven sampling (RDS) is a method for recruiting “hidden” populations through a network-based, chain and peer referral process. RDS recruits hidden populations more effectively than other sampling methods and promises to generate unbiased estimates of their characteristics. RDS’s faithful representation of hidden populations relies on the validity of core assumptions regarding the unobserved referral process. With empirical recruitment data from an RDS study of female sex workers (FSWs) in Shanghai, we assess the RDS assumption that participants recruit nonpreferentially from among their network alters. We also present a bootstrap method for constructing the confidence intervals around RDS estimates. This approach uniquely incorporates real-world features of the population under study (e.g., the sample’s observed branching structure). We then extend this approach to approximate the distribution of RDS estimates under various peer recruitment scenarios consistent with the data as a means to quantify the impact of recruitment bias and of rejection bias on the RDS estimates. We find that the hierarchical social organization of FSWs leads to recruitment biases by constraining RDS recruitment across social classes and introducing bias in the RDS estimates. PMID:24288418

  20. Key role of social work in effective communication and conflict resolution process: Medical Orders for Life-Sustaining Treatment (MOLST) Program in New York and shared medical decision making at the end of life.

    PubMed

    Bomba, Patricia A; Morrissey, Mary Beth; Leven, David C

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the authors review the development of the Medical Orders for Life-Sustaining Treatment (MOLST) Program and recent landmark legislation in New York State in the context of advance care planning and shared medical decision making at the end of life. Social workers are central health care professionals in working with patients, families, practitioners, health care agents, and surrogates in the health systems and in the communication and conflict resolution process that is integral to health care decision making. The critical importance of ethics and end-of-life training and education for social workers is also addressed. Data from a pilot study evaluating interdisciplinary ethics training on legal and ethical content in communication and conflict resolution skills in health care decision making are reported. Recommendations are made for research on education and training of social workers, and investigation of the role and influence of systems in shaping social work involvement in end-of-life and palliative care. PMID:21391078

  1. Designing for Maintainability and System Availability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lalli, Vincent R.; Packard, Michael H.

    1997-01-01

    The final goal for a delivered system (whether a car, aircraft, avionics box or computer) should be its availability to operate and perform its intended function over its expected design life. Hence, in designing a system, we cannot think in terms of delivering the system and just walking away. The system supplier needs to provide support throughout the operating life of the product. Here, supportability requires an effective combination of reliability, maintainability, logistics and operations engineering (as well as safety engineering) to have a system that is available for its intended use throughout its designated mission lifetime. Maintainability is a key driving element in the effective support and upkeep of the system as well as providing the ability to modify and upgrade the system throughout its lifetime. This paper then, will concentrate on maintainability and its integration into the system engineering and design process. The topics to be covered include elements of maintainability, the total cost of ownership, how system availability, maintenance and logistics costs and spare parts cost effect the overall program costs. System analysis and maintainability will show how maintainability fits into the overall systems approach to project development. Maintainability processes and documents will focus on how maintainability is to be performed and what documents are typically generated for a large scale program. Maintainability analysis shows how trade-offs can be performed for various alternative components. The conclusions summarize the paper and are followed by specific problems for hands-on training.

  2. Space Maintainers in Dentistry: Past to Present

    PubMed Central

    Setia, Vikas; Pandit, Inder Kumar; Srivastava, Nikhil; Gugnani, Neeraj; Sekhon, Harveen Kaur

    2013-01-01

    Early orthodontic interventions are often initiated in the developing dentition to promote favourable developmental changes. Interceptive orthodontic can eliminate or reduce the severity of a developing malocclusion, the complexity of orthodontic treatment, overall treatment time and cost. The safest way to prevent future malocclusions from tooth loss is to place a space maintainer that is effective and durable. An appropriate use of space maintainer is advocated to hold the space until the eruption of permanent teeth. This case report describes the various changing trends in use of space maintainers: conventional band and loop, prefabricated band with custom made loop and glass fibre reinforced composite resins as space maintainers. PMID:24298544

  3. Making views self-maintainable for data warehousing

    SciTech Connect

    Quass, D.; Widom, J.; Gupta, A.; Mumick, I.S.

    1996-12-31

    A data warehouse stores materialized views over data from one or more sources in order to provide fast access to the integrated data, regardless of the availability of the data sources. Warehouse views need to be maintained in response to changes to the base data in the sources. Except for very simple views, maintaining a warehouse view requires access to data that is not available in the view itself. Hence, to maintain the view, one either has to query the data sources or store auxiliary data in the warehouse. We show that by using key and referential integrity constraints, we often can maintain a select-project-join view without going to the data sources or replicating the base relations in their entirety in the warehouse. We derive a set of auxiliary views such that the warehouse view and the auxiliary views together are self-maintainable-they can be maintained without going to the data sources or replicating all base data. In addition, our technique can be applied to simplify traditional materialized view maintenance by exploiting key and referential integrity constraints.

  4. Sharing the sandbox: Evolutionary mechanisms that maintain bacterial cooperation

    PubMed Central

    Bruger, Eric; Waters, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Microbes are now known to participate in an extensive repertoire of cooperative behaviors such as biofilm formation, production of extracellular public-goods, group motility, and higher-ordered multicellular structures. A fundamental question is how these cooperative tasks are maintained in the face of non-cooperating defector cells. Recently, a number of molecular mechanisms including facultative participation, spatial sorting, and policing have been discovered to stabilize cooperation. Often these different mechanisms work in concert to reinforce cooperation. In this review, we describe bacterial cooperation and the current understanding of the molecular mechanisms that maintain it. PMID:26918128

  5. Encapsulation method for maintaining biodecontamination activity

    DOEpatents

    Rogers, Robert D.; Hamilton, Melinda A.; Nelson, Lee O.; Benson, Jennifer; Green, Martin J.; Milner, Timothy N.

    2002-01-01

    A method for maintaining the viability and subsequent activity of microorganisms utilized in a variety of environments to promote biodecontamination of surfaces. One application involves the decontamination of concrete surfaces. Encapsulation of microbial influenced degradation (MID) microorganisms has shown that MID activity is effectively maintained under passive conditions, that is, without manual addition of moisture or nutrients, for an extended period of time.

  6. Encapsulation method for maintaining biodecontamination activity

    DOEpatents

    Rogers, Robert D.; Hamilton, Melinda A.; Nelson, Lee O.; Benson, Jennifer; Green, Martin J.; Milner, Timothy N.

    2006-04-11

    A method for maintaining the viability and subsequent activity of microorganisms utilized in a variety of environments to promote biodecontamination of surfaces. One application involves the decontamination of concrete surfaces. Encapsulation of microbial influenced degradation (MID) microorganisms has shown that MID activity is effectively maintained under passive conditions, that is, without manual addition of moisture or nutrients, for an extended period of time.

  7. Voluntary rewards mediate the evolution of pool punishment for maintaining public goods in large populations.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Tatsuya; Uchida, Satoshi; Chen, Xiaojie

    2015-01-01

    Punishment is a popular tool when governing commons in situations where free riders would otherwise take over. It is well known that sanctioning systems, such as the police and courts, are costly and thus can suffer from those who free ride on other's efforts to maintain the sanctioning systems (second-order free riders). Previous game-theory studies showed that if populations are very large, pool punishment rarely emerges in public good games, even when participation is optional, because of second-order free riders. Here we show that a matching fund for rewarding cooperation leads to the emergence of pool punishment, despite the presence of second-order free riders. We demonstrate that reward funds can pave the way for a transition from a population of free riders to a population of pool punishers. A key factor in promoting the transition is also to reward those who contribute to pool punishment, yet not abstaining from participation. Reward funds eventually vanish in raising pool punishment, which is sustainable by punishing the second-order free riders. This suggests that considering the interdependence of reward and punishment may help to better understand the origins and transitions of social norms and institutions. PMID:25753335

  8. Voluntary rewards mediate the evolution of pool punishment for maintaining public goods in large populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasaki, Tatsuya; Uchida, Satoshi; Chen, Xiaojie

    2015-03-01

    Punishment is a popular tool when governing commons in situations where free riders would otherwise take over. It is well known that sanctioning systems, such as the police and courts, are costly and thus can suffer from those who free ride on other's efforts to maintain the sanctioning systems (second-order free riders). Previous game-theory studies showed that if populations are very large, pool punishment rarely emerges in public good games, even when participation is optional, because of second-order free riders. Here we show that a matching fund for rewarding cooperation leads to the emergence of pool punishment, despite the presence of second-order free riders. We demonstrate that reward funds can pave the way for a transition from a population of free riders to a population of pool punishers. A key factor in promoting the transition is also to reward those who contribute to pool punishment, yet not abstaining from participation. Reward funds eventually vanish in raising pool punishment, which is sustainable by punishing the second-order free riders. This suggests that considering the interdependence of reward and punishment may help to better understand the origins and transitions of social norms and institutions.

  9. [Social medicine and social engineering].

    PubMed

    Qvarsell, R

    1995-01-01

    In a rather complicated process starting at the middle of the 19th century and ending hundred years later social medicine was established as a science. Different theories on the social origin of the diseases and even different perspectives on the role of medicine in society did influence and shape the new discipline. The tradition from Rudolf Virchow and Alfred Grotjahn emphasizing the importance of the social causes of the diseases and the tradition from social hygiene with its stress on the hereditarian background of many diseases was mixed together in the early history of social medicine. Many of those trying to establish the new discipline thought that it could be used in order to prevent the spreading of diseases in society and also hinder the development of social maladjustments of different kinds, as for instance criminality and vagrancy. The political framework of social medicine was very much related to what in the Swedish debate later on was to be called social engineering. Both within the tradition of social liberalism and the social democratic party the ideals of a rational society governed by experts was very influential in the period between the two world wars. Some of the advocates for social medicine did even try to formulate a political programme with the new science as a base. The most influential of those was the forensic pspychiatrist Olof Kinberg (1873-1960). In a series of books and articles during the first half of the 19th century Kinberg developed a theory of a society governed by doctors educated within this new branch of science. He thought that almost every kind of social problem could be handled by these experts. Social maladjustment, criminality and even car accidents could be reduced to a minimum if only the new knowledge of the biological and medical causes of human behavior was allowed to influence the social and political organization of the society. Especially during the 1930s some politicians and also social scientists thought that politics in the future had to be some kind of applied science. In order to govern a complicated society it was necessary to use the knowledge developed within the sciences dealing with the relation between man and society. After the second world war this way of thinking was a little bit obsolete, but it did influence many of those working within the public sphere as administrators and experts. PMID:11624759

  10. Ecology: Tribal Warfare Maintains Microbial Diversity.

    PubMed

    Greig, Duncan; Goddard, Matthew

    2015-07-20

    When two tribes of Myxococcus bacteria attack each other, the most numerous usually wins. Established colonies can therefore resist invaders by outnumbering them. This shows how positive frequency dependence can maintain diversity across spatially structured environments. PMID:26196492

  11. 7 CFR 1430.508 - Maintaining records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS DAIRY PRODUCTS Dairy Market Loss Assistance Program § 1430.508 Maintaining records. Dairy operations making application for benefits under this... after the date of the cash payment to dairy operations under this program....

  12. 7 CFR 1430.508 - Maintaining records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS DAIRY PRODUCTS Dairy Market Loss Assistance Program § 1430.508 Maintaining records. Dairy operations making application for benefits under this... after the date of the cash payment to dairy operations under this program....

  13. 7 CFR 1430.508 - Maintaining records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS DAIRY PRODUCTS Dairy Market Loss Assistance Program § 1430.508 Maintaining records. Dairy operations making application for benefits under this... after the date of the cash payment to dairy operations under this program....

  14. 7 CFR 1430.508 - Maintaining records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS DAIRY PRODUCTS Dairy Market Loss Assistance Program § 1430.508 Maintaining records. Dairy operations making application for benefits under this... after the date of the cash payment to dairy operations under this program....

  15. Control system maintains compartment at constant temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindberg, J. G.

    1966-01-01

    Gas-filled permeable insulating material maintains an enclosed compartment at a uniform temperature. The material is interposed between the two walls of a double-walled enclosure surrounding the compartment.

  16. 7 CFR 1430.508 - Maintaining records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS DAIRY PRODUCTS Dairy Market Loss Assistance Program § 1430.508 Maintaining records. Dairy operations making application for benefits under this... after the date of the cash payment to dairy operations under this program....

  17. Mechanisms maintaining grassland biodiversity and ecosystem stability

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ecologists need to know how particular processes influence biodiversity and ecosystem stability. We demonstrate how data from biodiversity-ecosystem functioning experiments can be used to identify and quantify the classes of mechanisms maintaining biodiversity and ecosystem stability. We predicted...

  18. 7 CFR 784.12 - Maintaining records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... SPECIAL PROGRAMS 2004 EWE LAMB REPLACEMENT AND RETENTION PAYMENT PROGRAM § 784.12 Maintaining records... accounts must be retained for 3 years after the date of payment to the sheep and lamb operations under...

  19. 7 CFR 784.12 - Maintaining records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... SPECIAL PROGRAMS 2004 EWE LAMB REPLACEMENT AND RETENTION PAYMENT PROGRAM § 784.12 Maintaining records... accounts must be retained for 3 years after the date of payment to the sheep and lamb operations under...

  20. 7 CFR 784.12 - Maintaining records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... SPECIAL PROGRAMS 2004 EWE LAMB REPLACEMENT AND RETENTION PAYMENT PROGRAM § 784.12 Maintaining records... accounts must be retained for 3 years after the date of payment to the sheep and lamb operations under...

  1. 7 CFR 784.12 - Maintaining records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... SPECIAL PROGRAMS 2004 EWE LAMB REPLACEMENT AND RETENTION PAYMENT PROGRAM § 784.12 Maintaining records... accounts must be retained for 3 years after the date of payment to the sheep and lamb operations under...

  2. 7 CFR 784.12 - Maintaining records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... SPECIAL PROGRAMS 2004 EWE LAMB REPLACEMENT AND RETENTION PAYMENT PROGRAM § 784.12 Maintaining records... accounts must be retained for 3 years after the date of payment to the sheep and lamb operations under...

  3. Explaining Social Constructivism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keaton, Shaughan A.; Bodie, Graham D.

    2011-01-01

    Many versions of social constructivism (SC) maintain that objects exist only after they enter communicative space. At one level an object's existence is determined through an individual's sensory perception; through communicative acts, both intra- and interpersonally, they are defined and eventually embody meaning. The social process of defining…

  4. Explaining Social Constructivism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keaton, Shaughan A.; Bodie, Graham D.

    2011-01-01

    Many versions of social constructivism (SC) maintain that objects exist only after they enter communicative space. At one level an object's existence is determined through an individual's sensory perception; through communicative acts, both intra- and interpersonally, they are defined and eventually embody meaning. The social process of defining…

  5. Addressing Social Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoebel, Susan

    1991-01-01

    Maintains that advertising can help people become more aware of social responsibilities. Describes a successful nationwide newspaper advertising competition for college students in which ads address social issues such as literacy, drugs, teen suicide, and teen pregnancy. Notes how the ads have helped grassroots programs throughout the United…

  6. Addressing Social Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoebel, Susan

    1991-01-01

    Maintains that advertising can help people become more aware of social responsibilities. Describes a successful nationwide newspaper advertising competition for college students in which ads address social issues such as literacy, drugs, teen suicide, and teen pregnancy. Notes how the ads have helped grassroots programs throughout the United…

  7. Maintainability planning for the Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Egan, G. R.

    1986-01-01

    The planned NASA Space Station, which is expected to have many years of on-orbit operation, for the first time confronts spacecraft designers with major questions of maintainability in design. A Maintainability Guidelines Document has been distributed to all Space Station Definition and Preliminary Design personnel of the Space Station Program Office. Trade studies are being performed to determine the most economical balance between initial (reliability) cost and life cycle cost (crew time and replacement hardware) costs.

  8. Classifiers and social control in wheelchair rugby.

    PubMed

    Wu, S K

    2001-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the features of wheelchair rugby classifiers in order to maintain social control in wheelchair rugby. The examination centered on the theme-resources used by classifiers to maintain the authority of International Wheelchair Rugby Federation (IWRF). Data were collected using participant observation methodology at national and international wheelchair rugby championships and a survey of the 14 IWRF authorized classifiers. The results of this study identified five essential features of IWRF classifiers. In particular, they need to have a background in medicine or physical therapy. In addition, IWRF classifiers use their medical and sporting knowledge and experience to control the wheelchair rugby classification process and to maintain fairness of competition. The results of this study may help to train Taiwanese professionals with medical or sporting backgrounds to become international classifiers and also to develop appropriate training programs for national classifiers. PMID:11416963

  9. Social Work Experience and Development in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sibin, Wang

    2013-01-01

    This article presents the experience and limitations of government-run social work and the nonprofessional nature of social work, and suggests that the rapid development of social work and its professionalization are the inevitable results of the reform in the system. The author maintains that under market socialism, social work requires the…

  10. Social Work Experience and Development in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sibin, Wang

    2013-01-01

    This article presents the experience and limitations of government-run social work and the nonprofessional nature of social work, and suggests that the rapid development of social work and its professionalization are the inevitable results of the reform in the system. The author maintains that under market socialism, social work requires the…

  11. Order, topology and preference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sertel, M. R.

    1971-01-01

    Some standard order-related and topological notions, facts, and methods are brought to bear on central topics in the theory of preference and the theory of optimization. Consequences of connectivity are considered, especially from the viewpoint of normally preordered spaces. Examples are given showing how the theory of preference, or utility theory, can be applied to social analysis.

  12. Order Up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibeault, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Change orders. The words can turn the stomachs of administrators. Horror stories about change orders create fear and distrust among school officials, designers and builders. Can change orders be avoided? If car manufacturers can produce millions of intricately designed vehicles, why can't the same quality control be achieved on a construction…

  13. Predictors of maintained high-risk behaviors among impoverished women.

    PubMed Central

    Nyamathi, A M; Bennett, C; Leake, B

    1995-01-01

    The researchers sought to explore and describe the demographic, cognitive, psychosocial, and behavioral factors associated with the continued risky behavior of a convenience sample of homeless and drug-addicted women two to four weeks after they had completed an AIDS education program. The sample included 942 crack users and 767 women who had multiple sex partners. Analyses revealed that impoverished women who maintained multiple sexual partners were less likely to be in drug recovery programs than in homeless shelters. They were more likely to share needles and be involved sexually with male injection drug users compared with impoverished women who did not maintain multiple sexual partners. Persistent crack users were older than those who reported cessation of crack use, were more often African American, and were more likely to have sex partners who were injecting drug users. Women who demonstrated less improvement in depression and distress scores, concerns, use of affective coping, appraisal of threat, and social support were more likely to maintain crack use and multiple partners. The study's implications for the design of intervention programs aimed at risk reduction based on ethnicity are discussed. PMID:7480615

  14. Maintaining process continuity during voltage dips

    SciTech Connect

    Beckner, C.

    1982-07-01

    The probability of maintaining process continuity during voltage dips can be greatly enhanced by arranging the motor control circuits so that the essential motors remain connected to the line during a voltage dip. It is equally important to remove the nonessential load from the line to minimize the system disturbance while re-accelerating the process. However keeping the motor connected to the line during a voltage outage and subsequent reclosure can result in motor damage. Therefore, where reclosing can occur, it is necessary to consider the preventive measures to minimize the probability of motor damage while maintaining maximum reliability of service.

  15. Automated Methods to Maintain Aircraft Separation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lauderdale, Todd

    2011-01-01

    The air traffic control system in the United States has a great track-record for safety. As more aircraft enter the system at a given time, the situation becomes more complex though. Researchers at NASA are attempting to leverage advances in many fields including optimization, data mining, and numerical modeling of systems to improve the air-transportation system maintaining safety while increasing throughput and reducing delays. This talk will give a brief overview of the research at NASA towards modernizing the air-transportation system. It will then focus on the specific area of automation tools for maintaining physical separation between aircraft known as Separation Assurance.

  16. Polarization-maintaining single-mode fibers.

    PubMed

    Akers, F I; Thompson, R E

    1982-05-15

    Polarization-maintaining single-mode fibers will find application in acoustooptic sensors and fiber gyroscopes. In this study both stress-induced birefringence and elliptical core polarization-maintaining single-mode fibers were developed and evaluated. The two fiber types were compared in terms of core dimension, numerical aperture, attenuation, and beat length, a measure of the polarization maintenance. For comparative beat length values the stress-induced birefringence fibers had lower attenuation and larger core diameter than the elliptical core fibers. PMID:20389927

  17. Order Nidovirales

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter, entitled "Order Nidovirales", is for inclusion in the Ninth Report of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV), to be published as both a single volume text and online. The chapter details the taxonomy of members of the Nidovirus order, including family Arteriviridae o...

  18. How Do Positive Views Maintain Life Satisfaction?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Chia-Huei; Tsai, Ying-Mei; Chen, Lung Hung

    2009-01-01

    This study proposes three mediation pathways to explain how the positive views (perceived control, optimism and self-enhancement) proposed by Cummins and Nistico (Journal of Happiness Studies 3:37-69 2002) maintain life satisfaction. The three pathways were enhancing self-esteem, reducing have-want discrepancy and changing importance perceptions.…

  19. Maintaining Effective Classroom Control in Vocational Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowen, Blannie E., Ed.; McCracken, J. David

    This handbook is designed to assist vocational teachers in maintaining effective classroom and laboratory control. Following an introduction to the topic, the importance of effective control and teacher attitude are overviewed. The third section offers definitions of discipline and "in loco parentis", a perspective on discipline, and reasons for…

  20. Control system maintains selected liquid level

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bergeson, R. L.; Schuck, J. W.

    1966-01-01

    Single-sensor control system maintains liquid hydrogen at a preselected desired level within a tank, regardless of boiloff. It calibrates output in percentage. Thus, when the fuel is at the desired level, the system output will indicate 100 percent regardless of what percent of tank capacity the fuel has reached.

  1. How Do Positive Views Maintain Life Satisfaction?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Chia-Huei; Tsai, Ying-Mei; Chen, Lung Hung

    2009-01-01

    This study proposes three mediation pathways to explain how the positive views (perceived control, optimism and self-enhancement) proposed by Cummins and Nistico (Journal of Happiness Studies 3:37-69 2002) maintain life satisfaction. The three pathways were enhancing self-esteem, reducing have-want discrepancy and changing importance perceptions.…

  2. Reliability and maintainability seminar: summary of proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Beek, C.R.

    1981-04-01

    The following are described briefly: Overview of the Federal Reliability and Maintainability Program Plan, Summary of Proceedngs, Overview of Southern Solar Energy Center Programs, and Solar Domestic Hot Water Design Guidelines Handbook. Also included are the Seminar Agenda and the list of Seminar Attendees. (MHR)

  3. Halema'uma'u Maintains Basic Geometry

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    The lava lake at Halema'uma'u has maintained the same basic geometry since February of this year. This thermal image was taken during a helicopter overflight, and shows the lava surface deep within the vent cavity. The lava surface is kidney-shaped and approximately 60 x 90 meters in size, and situa...

  4. Obtaining, Maintaining, and Advancing Your Fitness Certification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierce, Patricia; Herman, Susan

    2004-01-01

    Public awareness of health, fitness, and exercise has increased and the fitness industry has expanded in recent years. Yet, ironically, the health of our nation continues to deteriorate. Now more than ever there is the need for qualified fitness professionals to help individuals to improve or maintain health and fitness. Since fitness…

  5. Maintaining Hope in the Face of Evil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Geri

    2002-01-01

    P. G. Zimbardo (2001) and M. E. P. Seligman (in an interview with S. Carpenter, 2001) discuss evil and hope in response to the September 11, 2001, disaster. The implications for counseling are presented with an emphasis on how counselors can maintain hope for themselves and their clients in the face of evil. (Author)

  6. Maintaining ideal body weight counseling sessions

    SciTech Connect

    Brammer, S.H.

    1980-10-09

    The purpose of this program is to provide employees with the motivation, knowledge and skills necessary to maintain ideal body weight throughout life. The target audience for this program, which is conducted in an industrial setting, is the employee 40 years of age or younger who is at or near his/her ideal body weight.

  7. Maintaining Interest in Operator Requal Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lapp, H. J., Jr.

    A study reviewed operator training programs at Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station to determine their interface with plant operations and to devise new ways of maintaining interest in requalification (requal) training. The operator training review committee that was formed to implement the review documented over 100 issues and concerns…

  8. Climbing social media in medicine's hierarchy of needs.

    PubMed

    Chretien, Katherine C; Kind, Terry

    2014-10-01

    The social media and medicine landscape is evolving rapidly. Early research, social media policies, and educational efforts focused on risk avoidance, while more current efforts have encouraged reflection and explored opportunities. This trajectory has affirmed physicians' professional commitment to maintaining public trust in the face of new challenges in the digital age. In this Commentary, the authors propose viewing physicians' social media use as a hierarchy of needs, similar to Maslow's psychological theory which posits that more basic levels of needs must be met before higher, aspirational levels can be fully attained. The three levels in the social media in medicine's hierarchy of needs are Security, Reflection, and Discovery. Critical to this model is respecting the essential need for Security in order to move towards Reflection and into Discovery. The social media in medicine hierarchy of needs pyramid rests on a foundation of Public Trust. How physicians as a profession have responded to past--and continue to respond to present and future--social media challenges to professionalism reveals what matters most: maintaining public trust and honoring the physicians' contract with society. A victory for online professionalism would be providing trainees with the tools and guidance needed to ascend to Discovery, while ensuring that their basic social media needs are first met. To do this, physician educators need to continue increasing trainees' awareness through designing relevant curricula, encouraging reflection, and providing positive role modeling and effective mentorship. PMID:25076202

  9. Science, Technology and the Social Order.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morehouse, Ward, Ed.

    The collective theme of these seven essays calls for a new perspective on science and technology so that they are dedicated to the pursuit of truth and human liberties rather than to power, control, and exploitation. The authors of the essays are with various international development and research centers and projects in seven countries. John…

  10. Managing Self-Governing Primary Schools in the Locally Maintained, Grant-Maintained and Private Sectors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Les; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Discusses a study that surveyed heads of locally maintained, grant-maintained, and private sector (British) primary schools concerning their management styles. Questionnaire and interview data suggest that autonomous primary schools are characterized by collective decision making and high job satisfaction levels. Private sector school heads'…

  11. Maintaining balance for a long voyage.

    PubMed

    Shehata, Cherie L; Anthony, Na'alehu; Maskarinec, Gregory G

    2007-03-01

    This article introduces cultural aspects of health, using Hokule'a, the voyaging canoe, as a model for maintaining balance on a long voyage through life. Maintaining balance encompasses physical, nutritional and mental health. This triangle is crucial for the well-being of a person. In the stress of the modern world we often disregard the basics in an effort to become more efficient and more productive, neglecting physical activity, eating fast foods instead of healthy meals, and forgetting our mental well-being. Eventually, this can lead to devastating co-morbidities. We discuss balanced nutrition, physical activity, and mental health, relating to living on the canoe, with lessons that can be applied to daily living. PMID:19772161

  12. Maintaining professional resilience through group restorative supervision.

    PubMed

    Wallbank, Sonya

    2013-08-01

    Restorative clinical supervision has been delivered to over 2,500 professionals and has shown to be highly effective in reducing burnout, stress and increasing compassion satisfaction. Demand for the programme has shown that a sustainable model of implementation is needed for organisations who may not be able to invest in continued individual sessions. Following the initial six sessions, group restorative supervision has been developed and this paper reports on the programme's success in maintaining and continuing to improve compassion satisfaction, stress and burnout through the process of restorative group supervision. This means that organisations can continue to maintain the programme once the initial training has been completed and have confidence within the restorative group supervision to support professionals in managing the emotional demands of their role. The restorative groups have also had inadvertent positive benefits in workplace functioning. The paper outlines how professionals have been able to use this learning to support them in being more effective. PMID:23986988

  13. Autophagy maintains stemness by preventing senescence.

    PubMed

    García-Prat, Laura; Martínez-Vicente, Marta; Perdiguero, Eusebio; Ortet, Laura; Rodríguez-Ubreva, Javier; Rebollo, Elena; Ruiz-Bonilla, Vanessa; Gutarra, Susana; Ballestar, Esteban; Serrano, Antonio L; Sandri, Marco; Muñoz-Cánoves, Pura

    2016-01-01

    During ageing, muscle stem-cell regenerative function declines. At advanced geriatric age, this decline is maximal owing to transition from a normal quiescence into an irreversible senescence state. How satellite cells maintain quiescence and avoid senescence until advanced age remains unknown. Here we report that basal autophagy is essential to maintain the stem-cell quiescent state in mice. Failure of autophagy in physiologically aged satellite cells or genetic impairment of autophagy in young cells causes entry into senescence by loss of proteostasis, increased mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress, resulting in a decline in the function and number of satellite cells. Re-establishment of autophagy reverses senescence and restores regenerative functions in geriatric satellite cells. As autophagy also declines in human geriatric satellite cells, our findings reveal autophagy to be a decisive stem-cell-fate regulator, with implications for fostering muscle regeneration in sarcopenia. PMID:26738589

  14. Device Maintains Water At The Triple Point

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    West, J. W.; Burkett, C. G.

    1988-01-01

    Inexpensive device maintains water at 0.01 degree C for 10 weeks or longer. New device consists of four basic assemblies; small, commercial chest freezer containing insulated water tank; insulated copper cell holder; "ice switch" for cycling freezer compressor and externally-mounted air pump for circulation. Access hole in freezer lid allows triple point measurements without opening lid. Modified freezer used to calibrate standard platinum resistance thermomenters.

  15. Interventions to Maintain Mobility: What Works?

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Lesley A.; Schmidt, Erica L.; Ball, Karlene

    2012-01-01

    Mobility, in broad terms, includes everything from the ability to move within your immediate environment (e.g., get out of bed) to the ability to drive across the country. Mobility is essential to maintaining independence and wellbeing, particularly for older adults. This is highlighted by the large number of interventions developed for older adults with the goal of maintaining such mobility. The current paper reviews the state of the science with respect to mobility interventions. Inclusion criteria for the review were: (1) articles must have been peer-reviewed; (2) interventions were evaluated in a randomized controlled trial (RCT); (3) studies included a mobility outcome such as lifespace, driving, or walking ability, (4) studies included a sample of healthy community-dwelling older adults (e.g., not investigations of disease conditions); and (5) studies reported enough empirical data and detail such that results could potentially be replicated. Three main types of interventions were identified: cognitive training, educational interventions, and exercise interventions. A detailed summary and evaluation of each type of intervention, and the current evidence regarding its effectiveness in maintaining mobility, are discussed. Several interventions show clear evidence of effectiveness, and thus are prime areas for translation of results to the older population. Needs and issues for future intervention research are also detailed. PMID:23083492

  16. Intraocular adrenaline maintains mydriasis during cataract surgery.

    PubMed Central

    Corbett, M C; Richards, A B

    1994-01-01

    Cataract surgery is performed more easily if mydriasis can be maintained until the intraocular lens has been inserted. Intraocular irrigation with adrenaline is thought to be of benefit in this respect, and is used by some surgeons but not others. This prospective double blind controlled trial assessed the efficacy and safety of using perioperative adrenaline during extracapsular cataract surgery, as an adjunct to preoperative topical mydriatics. Seventy patients were randomised to receive intraocular irrigation fluid with or without 1:1,000,000 adrenaline. The adrenaline entering the eye through the anterior capsulotomy needle helped to resist the miosis induced by expression of the nucleus (7.1 versus 6.5 mm). The mydriasis maintained during irrigation aspiration was significantly greater in the group receiving adrenaline (6.6 versus 6.0 mm, p < 0.02). Their pupil diameters were also significantly larger at 20 minutes (p < 0.001) and 30 minutes (p < 0.01) into surgery. Pupillary constriction to a diameter of less than 5 mm occurred more frequently in the group not receiving adrenaline. Pulse rate and blood pressure in the 27 patients who had local anaesthesia showed no significant difference between the treatment groups (p > 0.05), and there was no significant variation from baseline (p > 0.05). Intraocular irrigation with adrenaline 1:1,000,000 is a safe and effective means of maintaining mydriasis during cataract surgery. PMID:8123633

  17. Teaching and maintaining ethical behavior in a professional organization.

    PubMed

    Brodhead, Matthew T; Higbee, Thomas S

    2012-01-01

    In addition to continuing education mandates by the Behavior Analyst Certification Board (BACB), behavior-analytic professional organizations may adopt systems that teach and maintain ethical behavior in its employees. Systems of ethical supervision and management may allow for an organization to customize training that prevents ethical misconduct by employees. These systems may also allow supervisors to identify ethical problems in their infancy, allowing the organization to mitigate concerns before they further develop. Systems of ethical management and supervision also may help to improve services and promote consumer protection. Additional benefits might include both avoiding litigation and loss of consumers and income. These systems may promote the field of Behavior Analysis as a desirable, consumer-friendly approach to solving socially significant behavior problems. PMID:23730470

  18. Teaching and Maintaining Ethical Behavior in a Professional Organization

    PubMed Central

    Brodhead, Matthew T.; Higbee, Thomas S.

    2012-01-01

    In addition to continuing education mandates by the Behavior Analyst Certification Board (BACB), behavior-analytic professional organizations may adopt systems that teach and maintain ethical behavior in its employees. Systems of ethical supervision and management may allow for an organization to customize training that prevents ethical misconduct by employees. These systems may also allow supervisors to identify ethical problems in their infancy, allowing the organization to mitigate concerns before they further develop. Systems of ethical management and supervision also may help to improve services and promote consumer protection. Additional benefits might include both avoiding litigation and loss of consumers and income. These systems may promote the field of Behavior Analysis as a desirable, consumer-friendly approach to solving socially significant behavior problems. PMID:23730470

  19. Counterbalancing for Serial Order Carryover Effects in Experimental Condition Orders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Joseph L.

    2012-01-01

    Reactions of neural, psychological, and social systems are rarely, if ever, independent of previous inputs and states. The potential for serial order carryover effects from one condition to the next in a sequence of experimental trials makes counterbalancing of condition order an essential part of experimental design. Here, a method is proposed…

  20. Counterbalancing for Serial Order Carryover Effects in Experimental Condition Orders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Joseph L.

    2012-01-01

    Reactions of neural, psychological, and social systems are rarely, if ever, independent of previous inputs and states. The potential for serial order carryover effects from one condition to the next in a sequence of experimental trials makes counterbalancing of condition order an essential part of experimental design. Here, a method is proposed…

  1. Identifying crucial parameter correlations maintaining bursting activity.

    PubMed

    Doloc-Mihu, Anca; Calabrese, Ronald L

    2014-06-01

    Recent experimental and computational studies suggest that linearly correlated sets of parameters (intrinsic and synaptic properties of neurons) allow central pattern-generating networks to produce and maintain their rhythmic activity regardless of changing internal and external conditions. To determine the role of correlated conductances in the robust maintenance of functional bursting activity, we used our existing database of half-center oscillator (HCO) model instances of the leech heartbeat CPG. From the database, we identified functional activity groups of burster (isolated neuron) and half-center oscillator model instances and realistic subgroups of each that showed burst characteristics (principally period and spike frequency) similar to the animal. To find linear correlations among the conductance parameters maintaining functional leech bursting activity, we applied Principal Component Analysis (PCA) to each of these four groups. PCA identified a set of three maximal conductances (leak current, [Formula: see text]Leak; a persistent K current, [Formula: see text]K2; and of a persistent Na+ current, [Formula: see text]P) that correlate linearly for the two groups of burster instances but not for the HCO groups. Visualizations of HCO instances in a reduced space suggested that there might be non-linear relationships between these parameters for these instances. Experimental studies have shown that period is a key attribute influenced by modulatory inputs and temperature variations in heart interneurons. Thus, we explored the sensitivity of period to changes in maximal conductances of [Formula: see text]Leak, [Formula: see text]K2, and [Formula: see text]P, and we found that for our realistic bursters the effect of these parameters on period could not be assessed because when varied individually bursting activity was not maintained. PMID:24945358

  2. A method to maintain infant temperature.

    PubMed

    Holzman, I R

    1985-04-01

    A new insulating material (Thinsulate) was used to provide thermal protection for newborn infants. Infant core temperature was measured as part of a randomized study comparing the efficacy of an insulated bunting, an insulated hat, and routine management. The new bunting was superior in terms of its ability to maintain the infant's core temperature on arrival in the regular nursery. Nursing staff and parental acceptance was high, and further consideration should be given to defining the role of this new insulating material in the care of the newborn. PMID:3976629

  3. Maintainability design of underground mining equipment. Volume 2. Maintainability design guidelines. Research report (Final)

    SciTech Connect

    Conway, E.J.; Unger, R.

    1989-09-01

    The objectives of the project were to: (1) determine the extent to which maintainability design concepts and principles have been applied to the design of underground coal mining equipment, (2) try to assess its impact on productivity and personnel safety, and (3) develop maintainability guidelines to enhance the design of new or rebuilt equipment. An equipment design review was completed at ten operational coal mines. The purpose was to identify design approaches and features that enhanced and degraded the maintenance process. Mine management, safety, and maintenance personnel were also interviewed to identify machine specific design problems. Six original equipment manufacturers were visited and the procedures used to enhance the maintainability of their equipment discussed. Volume I of the Final Technical Report presents an overview of procedures and protocol used and a summary of the findings. Volume II includes the maintainability design guide for mobile underground mining equipment.

  4. Furloughs and Faculty Management of Time: Maintaining Quality in an Economic Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Loring; Hohman, Melinda; Mathiesen, Sally; Finnegan, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    An anonymous Web-based survey was used to gather the perceptions and experiences from 114 faculty members teaching in 16 social work programs in the California State University system about the effect of severe budget cuts on their educational activities. Most respondents reported they worked on their furlough days and maintained the same or…

  5. Effects of Multisensory Environments on Stereotyped Behaviours Assessed as Maintained by Automatic Reinforcement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Lindsay; Trusler, Karen; Furniss, Frederick; Lancioni, Giulio

    2012-01-01

    Background: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of the sensory equipment provided in a multi-sensory environment (MSE) and the level of social contact provided on levels of stereotyped behaviours assessed as being maintained by automatic reinforcement. Method: Stereotyped and engaged behaviours of two young people with severe…

  6. The role of infrasounds in maintaining whale herds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Payne, Roger S.

    2001-05-01

    For whales and dolphins a basic social unit is the herd. In several species, herds have been observed to maintain the same speed, direction, and membership overnight, and while swimming in waters of near-zero visibility-evidence that individuals can stay together using nonvisual cues. The most likely such cue is sound. If whale herds are held together with sound, yet we define herds as groups of whales seen moving together, then we are using visual criteria to judge what is an acoustic phenomenon, and our conclusions about a most basic unit of cetacean social structure, the herd, are at least incomplete, and, quite possibly, worthless. By calling herds, heards, we remind ourselves that sound controls herd size. We then consider that some whale infrasound can propagate across deep water at useful intensities (even in today's ship-noise-polluted ocean) for thousands of kilometers. The distance to which blue and fin whale sounds propagate before falling below background noise is given, and the possible advantages these whales obtain from such sounds is explored. The conclusion is that by sharing information on food finds infrasonically, fin and blue whales may have developed a way to divide up the food resources of an entire ocean.

  7. Reliability/maintainability/testability design for dormancy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seman, Robert M.; Etzl, Julius M.; Purnell, Arthur W.

    1988-05-01

    This document has been prepared as a tool for designers of dormant military equipment and systems. The purpose of this handbook is to provide design engineers with Reliability/Maintainability/Testability design guidelines for systems which spend significant portions of their life cycle in a dormant state. The dormant state is defined as a nonoperating mode where a system experiences very little or no electrical stress. The guidelines in this report present design criteria in the following categories: (1) Part Selection and Control; (2) Derating Practices; (3) Equipment/System Packaging; (4) Transportation and Handling; (5) Maintainability Design; (6) Testability Design; (7) Evaluation Methods for In-Plant and Field Evaluation; and (8) Product Performance Agreements. Whereever applicable, design guidelines for operating systems were included with the dormant design guidelines. This was done in an effort to produce design guidelines for a more complete life cycle. Although dormant systems spend significant portions of their life cycle in a nonoperating mode, the designer must design the system for the complete life cycle, including nonoperating as well as operating modes. The guidelines are primarily intended for use in the design of equipment composed of electronic parts and components. However, they can also be used for the design of systems which encompass both electronic and nonelectronic parts, as well as for the modification of existing systems.

  8. Maintaining heterokaryosis in pseudo-homothallic fungi.

    PubMed

    Grognet, Pierre; Silar, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Among all the strategies displayed by fungi to reproduce and propagate, some species have adopted a peculiar behavior called pseudo-homothallism. Pseudo-homothallic fungi are true heterothallics, i.e., they need 2 genetically-compatible partners to mate, but they produce self-fertile mycelium in which the 2 different nuclei carrying the compatible mating types are present. This lifestyle not only enables the fungus to reproduce without finding a compatible partner, but also to cross with any mate it may encounter. However, to be fully functional, pseudo-homothallism requires maintaining heterokaryosis at every stage of the life cycle. We recently showed that neither the structure of the mating-type locus nor hybrid-enhancing effect due to the presence of the 2 mating types accounts for the maintenance of heterokaryosis in the pseudo-homothallic fungus P. anserina. In this addendum, we summarize the mechanisms creating heterokaryosis in P. anserina and 2 other well-known pseudo-homothallic fungi, Neurospora tetrasperma and Agaricus bisporus. We also discuss mechanisms potentially involved in maintaining heterokaryosis in these 3 species. PMID:26479494

  9. To Grow, Nurture, and Maintain: Soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, I.; Lam, K.; Hennelly, L. O.; Archie, J. P.

    2012-12-01

    The importance and difficulties encountered in a sustainable urban farm can be witnessed at the Stanford Earth Systems Educational Garden, in the growth, maintenance, and nurturing of the soil. Techniques and chemicals developed in the mid to late 1900's have infiltrated the traditional farming techniques that allowed humans to continuously farm for hundreds of years. The sudden spur of interest in sustainability has lead many, including Stanford Earth Systems, to reincorporate traditional methods in conjunction with modern technology. To override the damage made by chemicals and industrial farming, we had to recognize that healthy crops originated from healthy soil; thus we began investigating how to nourish soil. We began to research the ideal composition and structure of soil and methods to create and maintain fertile soil. Secondly, we prioritized the importance of nurturing plants and fed the plants with a plethora of natural fertilizers. We also created a compost pile so that the soil could rehabilitate and refill with nutrients with help provided by bacteria. Lastly, we had to maintain the soil to keep the soil viable for future crops. To do this, we had to acknowledge the chemical composition of the soil and plant cover crops to ensure that the nutrients are replenished. Our experiences enabled us to understand the time and effort required to manage suitable crops, animals, and structures for an urban farm.

  10. Maintaining heterokaryosis in pseudo-homothallic fungi

    PubMed Central

    Grognet, Pierre; Silar, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Among all the strategies displayed by fungi to reproduce and propagate, some species have adopted a peculiar behavior called pseudo-homothallism. Pseudo-homothallic fungi are true heterothallics, i.e., they need 2 genetically-compatible partners to mate, but they produce self-fertile mycelium in which the 2 different nuclei carrying the compatible mating types are present. This lifestyle not only enables the fungus to reproduce without finding a compatible partner, but also to cross with any mate it may encounter. However, to be fully functional, pseudo-homothallism requires maintaining heterokaryosis at every stage of the life cycle. We recently showed that neither the structure of the mating-type locus nor hybrid-enhancing effect due to the presence of the 2 mating types accounts for the maintenance of heterokaryosis in the pseudo-homothallic fungus P. anserina. In this addendum, we summarize the mechanisms creating heterokaryosis in P. anserina and 2 other well-known pseudo-homothallic fungi, Neurospora tetrasperma and Agaricus bisporus. We also discuss mechanisms potentially involved in maintaining heterokaryosis in these 3 species. PMID:26479494

  11. Chewing Maintains Hippocampus-Dependent Cognitive Function

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Huayue; Iinuma, Mitsuo; Onozuka, Minoru; Kubo, Kin-Ya

    2015-01-01

    Mastication (chewing) is important not only for food intake, but also for preserving and promoting the general health. Recent studies have showed that mastication helps to maintain cognitive functions in the hippocampus, a central nervous system region vital for spatial memory and learning. The purpose of this paper is to review the recent progress of the association between mastication and the hippocampus-dependent cognitive function. There are multiple neural circuits connecting the masticatory organs and the hippocampus. Both animal and human studies indicated that cognitive functioning is influenced by mastication. Masticatory dysfunction is associated with the hippocampal morphological impairments and the hippocampus-dependent spatial memory deficits, especially in elderly. Mastication is an effective behavior for maintaining the hippocampus-dependent cognitive performance, which deteriorates with aging. Therefore, chewing may represent a useful approach in preserving and promoting the hippocampus-dependent cognitive function in older people. We also discussed several possible mechanisms involved in the interaction between mastication and the hippocampal neurogenesis and the future directions for this unique fascinating research. PMID:26078711

  12. Rhesus Monkeys (Macaca Mulatta) Maintain Learning Set Despite Second-Order Stimulus-Response Spatial Discontiguity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beran, Michael J.; Washburn, David A.; Rumbaugh, Duane M.

    2007-01-01

    In many discrimination-learning tests, spatial separation between stimuli and response loci disrupts performance in rhesus macaques. However, monkeys are unaffected by such stimulus-response spatial discontiguity when responses occur through joystick-based computerized movement of a cursor. To examine this discrepancy, five monkeys were tested on…

  13. Domain specificity in social interactions, social thought, and social development.

    PubMed

    Turiel, Elliot

    2010-01-01

    J. E. Grusec and M. Davidov (this issue) have taken good steps in formulating a domain-specific view of parent-child interactions. This commentary supports the introduction of domain specificity to analyses of parenting. Their formulation is an advance over formulations that characterized parental practices globally. This commentary calls for inclusion of definitions of the classification system of domain-specific interactions and criteria for each domain. It is also maintained that Grusec and Davidov's domains of social interaction imply that processes of development are involved, along with socialization; that bidirectionality in parent-child relations needs to be extended to include mutual influences and the construction of domains of social thought; and that conflicts and opposition within families coexist with compliance and social harmony. PMID:20573100

  14. How homologous recombination maintains telomere integrity.

    PubMed

    Tacconi, Eliana M C; Tarsounas, Madalena

    2015-06-01

    Telomeres protect the ends of linear chromosomes against loss of genetic information and inappropriate processing as damaged DNA and are therefore crucial to the maintenance of chromosome integrity. In addition to providing a pathway for genome-wide DNA repair, homologous recombination (HR) plays a key role in telomere replication and capping. Consistent with this, the genomic instability characteristic of HR-deficient cells and tumours is driven in part by telomere dysfunction. Here, we discuss the mechanisms by which HR modulates the response to intrinsic cellular challenges that arise during telomere replication, as well as its impact on the assembly of telomere protective structures. How normal and tumour cells differ in their ability to maintain telomeres is deeply relevant to the search for treatments that would selectively eliminate cells whose capacity for HR-mediated repair has been compromised. PMID:25430998

  15. Maintaining human productivity during Mars transit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Statler, Irving C.; Billings, Charles E.

    1989-01-01

    This paper addresses the special nature of the human-machine relationship during a trip to Mars. In particular, the potential for monotony and boredom during a long-duration space voyage and the effect on motivation and productivity can be important considerations to the health and welfare of the crew. For the voyage to Mars, a design may be considered that will purposefully maintain some level of workload for the crew as a preventive measure for the deterioration of productivity that comes with boredom. This paper speculates on these considerations, on the appropriate level of workload for maximum productivity, and on what might be done during the mission to alleviate the problems caused by monotony and boredom.

  16. Maintaining robust connectivity in heterogeneous robotic networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruz, P.; Fierro, R.; Lu, W.; Ferrari, S.

    2013-05-01

    In this paper, we are interested in exploiting the heterogeneity of a robotic network made of ground and aerial agents to sense multiple targets in a cluttered environment. Maintaining wireless communication on this type of networks is fundamentally important specially for cooperative purposes. The proposed heterogeneous network consists of ground sensors, e.g., OctoRoACHes, and aerial routers, e.g., quadrotors. Adaptive potential field methods are used to coordinate the ground mobile sensors. Moreover, a reward function for the aerial mobile wireless routers is formulated to guarantee communication coverage among the ground sensors and a fixed base station. A sub-optimal controller is proposed based on an approximate control policy iteration technique. Simulation results of a case study are presented to illustrate the proposed methodology.

  17. Peru struggles to maintain crude production

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-14

    Revival of Peru's moribund oil and gas industry in the 1990s hinges on whether the new administration of President Alberto Fujimori is successful in attracting foreign investment in Peru. Fujimori's success would mean Peru pushing ahead into stepped up exploration and major development projects, such as the huge Camisea gas/condensate field discovered 2 years ago. His failure could mean Peru continuing to fall further behind in its already lagging low oil production. Huge sums of money will be needed. Peru also needs to succeed in its efforts to become creditworthy again for international agencies, foreign governments, and commercial banks. Meanwhile, Petroleos del Peru SA (Petroperu), the state oil company, will have to transfer an increasing share of its operations to private investors. But the company is likely to try to hold onto producing fields, even though it is unable to maintain full output.

  18. Maintaining Quality in a Decommissioning Environment

    SciTech Connect

    Attas, Michael

    2008-01-15

    The decommissioning of AECL's Whiteshell Laboratories is Canada's largest nuclear decommissioning project to date. This research laboratory has operated for forty years since it was set up in 1963 in eastern Manitoba as the Whiteshell Nuclear Research Establishment, complete with 60 MW(Th) test reactor, hot cells, particle accelerators, and multiple large-scale research programs. Returning the site to almost complete green state will require several decades of steady work in combination with periods of storage-with-surveillance. In this paper our approach to maintaining quality during the long decommissioning period is explained. In this context, 'quality' includes both regulatory aspects (compliance with required standards) and business aspects (meeting the customers' needs and exceeding their expectations). Both aspects are discussed, including examples and lessons learned. The five years of development and implementation of a quality assurance program for decommissioning the WL site have led to a number of lessons learned. Many of these are also relevant to other decommissioning projects, in Canada and elsewhere: - Early discussions with the regulator can save time and effort later in the process; - An iterative process in developing documentation allows for steady improvements and input throughout the process; - Consistent 2-way communication with staff regarding the benefits of a quality program assists greatly in adoption of the philosophy and procedures; - Top-level management must lead in promoting quality; - Field trials of procedures ('beta testing') ensures they are easy to use as well as useful. Success in decommissioning the Whiteshell Laboratories depends on the successful implementation of a rigorous quality program. This will help to ensure both safety and efficiency of all activities on site, from planning through execution and reporting. The many aspects of maintaining this program will continue to occupy quality practitioners in AECL, reaping steady benefits to AECL and to its customers, the people of Canada.

  19. Maintaining good morale in old age.

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, M D

    1997-01-01

    Traditional aging studies have seen life's later years as a time of inevitable biological and social decline. Psychological decline might also be expected, but this is not true for most older people, according to epidemiologic studies. Thus, we must ask: Why is aging not as emotionally threatening as might be expected? Why do some older people do better than others? How should medicine address these issues? It is only possible to understand the successful emotional aging of most elders if the customary diathesis-stress model is supplemented by a developmental perspective. Expectations as well as capacities diminish with aging. This means that subjective health appears more tightly linked with morale than objective health. Some older people experience recurrence of mental disorders (for example, major depression) first present earlier in life. Others experience new disorders such as minor depression in response to biological or social losses. As geriatric medicine comes to increasingly focus on chronic disease, attention to morale is an important strategy for maximizing quality of life. Physicians will need improved skills in the detection and treatment of problems in morale if they are to provide optimum care for their older patients. PMID:9348760

  20. Maintaining older brain functionality: A targeted review.

    PubMed

    Ballesteros, Soledad; Kraft, Eduard; Santana, Silvina; Tziraki, Chariklia

    2015-08-01

    The unprecedented growth in the number of older adults in our society is accompanied by the exponential increase in the number of elderly people who will suffer cognitive decline and dementia in the next decades. This will create an enormous cost for governments, families and individuals. Brain plasticity and its role in brain adaptation to the process of aging is influenced by other changes as a result of co-morbidities, environmental factors, personality traits (psychosocial variables) and genetic and epigenetic factors. This review summarizes recent findings obtained mostly from interventional studies that aim to prevent and/or delay age-related cognitive decline in healthy adults. There are a multitude of such studies. In this paper, we focused our review on physical activity, computerized cognitive training and social enhancement interventions on improving cognition, physical health, independent living and wellbeing of older adults. The methodological limitations of some of these studies, and the need for new multi-domain synergistic interventions, based on current advances in neuroscience and social-brain theories, are discussed. PMID:26054789

  1. Social Phobia (Social Anxiety Disorder)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... At Risk? Diagnosis Treatments Living With Clinical Trials Social Phobia (Social Anxiety Disorder) Causes Social phobia sometimes runs ... participants with social phobia. Share Science News About Social Phobia Bullying Exerts Psychiatric Effects Into Adulthood Brain Imaging ...

  2. Child and Nonviolent Social Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boulding, Elise

    1974-01-01

    Examines the nature of the child and the impact of socialization experiences on his capacity to act nonviolently in a changing social order. Presents a socialization model that draws on different disciplinary frameworks and research areas (animal and human ethnology, social learning theories, altruism studies, and reviews of protest movements).…

  3. Commentary: Interventions To Facilitate Socialization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krantz, Patricia J.

    2000-01-01

    This article reviews research on social interventions that facilitate socialization in children with autism. It urges researchers to measure not only the social interaction skills of young people with autism but also the social exchanges of their typical peers in order to better structure teaching activities for youngsters with autism. (Contains…

  4. Social Class and the Socialization Process: A Review of Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zigler, Edward

    One part of this review of research contains summaries of studies offering sociogenic or psychogenic explanations for the behavior of members of different social classes. The former position, which deemphasizes the importance of child rearing practices in the socialization process, maintains that the adult personality modal to a particular class…

  5. Social Networking and the Social and Emotional Wellbeing of Adolescents in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bourgeois, Amanda; Bower, Julie; Carroll, Annemaree

    2014-01-01

    Technology and social networking tools and sites are changing the way young people build and maintain their social connections with others (Boyd & Ellison, 2008). This study utilised a new measure, The Self in a Social Context, Virtual Connectedness subscale (SSC-VC subscale), to examine the effects of social networking tools and sites on…

  6. Social Networking and the Social and Emotional Wellbeing of Adolescents in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bourgeois, Amanda; Bower, Julie; Carroll, Annemaree

    2014-01-01

    Technology and social networking tools and sites are changing the way young people build and maintain their social connections with others (Boyd & Ellison, 2008). This study utilised a new measure, The Self in a Social Context, Virtual Connectedness subscale (SSC-VC subscale), to examine the effects of social networking tools and sites on…

  7. What's your personal social media strategy?

    PubMed

    Dutta, Soumitra

    2010-11-01

    Social media are changing the way we do business and how leaders are perceived, from the shop floor to the CEO suite. But whereas the best businesses are creating comprehensive strategies in thi area, research suggests that few corporate Leaders have a social media presence--say, a Facebook or Linked in of page--and that those do don't use it strategically. Today's leaders must embrace social media for three reasons, First, they provide a low-cost, highly accessible platform on which to build your personal brand, communicating who you are both within and outside your company. Second, they allow you to engage rapidly and simultaneously with peers, employees, customers, and the broader public--in order to leverage relationships, show commitment to a cause, and demonstrate a capacity for reflection. Third, they give you an opportunity to learn from instant information and unvarnished feedback. To formulate your personal social media strategy, it helps to clarify your goals (personal, professional, or both), desired audience (private or public), and resources (can you justify using your company's?). You must also consider the risks of maintaining a large number of connections and of sharing content online. Active participation in social media can be a powerful tool--the difference between leading effectively and ineffectively, and between advancing and faltering in the pursuit of your goals. PMID:21049685

  8. Maintaining osmotic balance with an aglomerular kidney.

    PubMed

    McDonald, M Danielle; Grosell, Martin

    2006-04-01

    The gulf toadfish, Opsanus beta, is a marine teleost fish with an aglomerular kidney that is highly specialized to conserve water. Despite this adaptation, toadfish have the ability to survive when in dilute hypoosmotic seawater environments. The objectives of this study were to determine the joint role of the kidney and intestine in maintaining osmotic and ionic balance and to investigate whether toadfish take advantage of their urea production ability and use urea as an osmolyte. Toadfish were gradually acclimated to different salinities (0.5, 2.5, 5, 10, 15, 22, 33, 50 and 70 ppt (1.5%, 7.5%, 15%, 30%, 45%, 67%, 100%, 151% and 212% seawater)) and muscle tissue, urine, blood and intestinal fluids were analyzed for ion and in some cases urea concentration. The renal and intestinal ionoregulatory processes of toadfish responded to changes in salinity and when gradually acclimated, toadfish maintain a relatively constant plasma osmolality at environmental salinities of 5 to 50 ppt. However, at salinities lower (2.5 ppt) or higher (70 ppt) than this range, a significant deviation from resting plasma and urine osmolality as well as changes in muscle water content was measured, suggesting osmoregulatory difficulties at these salinities. The renal system compensates for dilute seawater by reducing Na+ reabsorption by the bladder, which allowed excess water to be excreted. In the case of hypersalinity, Na+ reabsorption was increased, which resulted in a conservation of water and the concentration of Mg2+, Cl-, SO(4)2- and urea. A similar pattern was observed within the gastrointestinal system. Notably, Mg2+, HCO3- and SO4(2-) were the dominant ions in the intestinal fluid under control and hypersaline conditions due to the absorption of Na+, Cl- and water. When exposed to dilute seawater conditions, the absorption of Na+ was greatly reduced which likely increased water elimination. As a result of decreased environmental levels and a reduction in drinking rate, Mg2+ and SO4(2-) in intestinal fluids under hypoosmotic conditions were greatly reduced. While urea did play a minor role in renal osmoregulation, toadfish appear to preferentially regulate Na+ and to some extend Cl- in urine and intestinal fluids. PMID:16483812

  9. Selection maintaining protein stability at equilibrium.

    PubMed

    Miyazawa, Sanzo

    2016-02-21

    The common understanding of protein evolution has been that neutral mutations are fixed by random drift, and a proportion of neutral mutations depending on the strength of structural and functional constraints primarily determines evolutionary rate. Recently it was indicated that fitness costs due to misfolded proteins are a determinant of evolutionary rate and selection originating in protein stability is a driving force of protein evolution. Here we examine protein evolution under the selection maintaining protein stability. Protein fitness is a generic form of fitness costs due to misfolded proteins; s=?exp(?G/kT)(1-exp(??G/kT)), where s and ??G are selective advantage and stability change of a mutant protein, ?G is the folding free energy of the wildtype protein, and ? is a parameter representing protein abundance and indispensability. The distribution of ??G is approximated to be a bi-Gaussian distribution, which represents structurally slightly- or highly-constrained sites. Also, the mean of the distribution is negatively proportional to ?G. The evolution of this gene has an equilibrium point (?Ge) of protein stability, the range of which is consistent with observed values in the ProTherm database. The probability distribution of Ka/Ks, the ratio of nonsynonymous to synonymous substitution rate per site, over fixed mutants in the vicinity of the equilibrium shows that nearly neutral selection is predominant only in low-abundant, non-essential proteins of ?Ge>-2.5kcal/mol. In the other proteins, positive selection on stabilizing mutations is significant to maintain protein stability at equilibrium as well as random drift on slightly negative mutations, although the average ?Ka/Ks? is less than 1. Slow evolutionary rates can be caused by both high protein abundance/indispensability and large effective population size, which produces positive shifts of ??G through decreasing ?Ge, and strong structural constraints, which directly make ??G more positive. Protein abundance/indispensability more affect evolutionary rate for less constrained proteins, and structural constraint for less abundant, less essential proteins. The effect of protein indispensability on evolutionary rate may be hidden by the variation of protein abundance and detected only in low-abundant proteins. Also, protein stability (-?Ge/kT) and ?Ka/Ks? are predicted to decrease as growth temperature increases. PMID:26678801

  10. Communicating contentious geoscience issues and maintaining impartiality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nice, S. E.; Mitchell, C.

    2013-12-01

    Shale Gas exploration in the UK has been major and often controversial news in the British media over the last 2 years. The British Geological Survey (BGS) has been an integral part of this story as the UK Governments independent and impartial advisor on geosciences. BGS has been involved in writing policy on fracking and induced earthquakes as well as researching potential quantities of shale gas in the UK and also researching natural methane levels in groundwater before large scale fracking activities begin. Shale Gas in the UK, as in the US and Europe has caused much controversy and as a result has many pro and anti fracking campaigns. The challenge for BGS has been to deliver front line science, whilst maintaining complete impartiality on the subject. The BGS communications team developed a strategy over this period to ensure that our message was clear and strong. This involved working closely with the scientists involved to formulate key messages that could delivered through controlled statements on the BGS webpages, press releases, at press conferences as well as on broadcast and print media. Our scientists were media trained during this time to ensure that they stayed en message and wouldn't be caught by the press or opponents of fracking into making statements that could have been used to either scare up the position or give the antagonist room to cast doubt on our impartiality. This strategy proved highly successful and BGS managed to communicate the facts, remain impartial whilst avoiding attempts to undermine the potential for Shale gas exploitation in the UK. The success of this communication strategy was due to the cooperation of the scientists, a clear strategy from the communications team and the unequivocal support of the senior executive at BGS. This abstract will conclude how the BGS has developed its communication strategy to be more streamlined and open. BGS must allow it's scientists to talk to the media about the science that they do. Much of the research that we do is paid for by the British taxpayer and it's our obligation to make sure we communicate what we're doing and why we're doing it to the public in a transparent and easy to understand way whilst ensuring that we maintain our reputation for being a trusted, independent and impartial source of expert advice.

  11. Transformative Pedagogy for Social Capital

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willis, Peter

    2007-01-01

    This paper explores ways in which pedagogy for an elaborated form of transformative learning can be a useful catalyst for the development of social capital in community and workplace groups and networks. I begin with an example and then explore ideas of learning challenges embedded in building and maintaining social capital. I consider the…

  12. Mental Models in Social Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandez-Berrocal, Pablo; Santamaria, Carlos

    2006-01-01

    In this study, the authors introduce a new way to analyze cognitive change during social interactions, based on the mental model theory of reasoning. From this approach, cognitive performance can be improved for solving problems that require multiple models when participants in a social interaction group maintain qualitatively different models of…

  13. Work Adjustment of the Methadone-Maintained Corporate Employee

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yankowitz, Robert; Randell, Joan

    1977-01-01

    The work adjustment of 26 methadone-maintained corporate employees was evaluated. Results indicated: (a) relative to their nonmethadone-maintained coworkers, the methadone-maintained employees had comparable job performance and superior punctuality and attendance; and (b) the methadone-maintained skilled laborers were satisfied with their…

  14. CDC20 maintains tumor initiating cells

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Qi; Wu, Qiulian; Mack, Stephen C.; Yang, Kailin; Kim, Leo; Hubert, Christopher G.; Flavahan, William A.; Chu, Chengwei; Bao, Shideng; Rich, Jeremy N.

    2015-01-01

    Glioblastoma is the most prevalent and lethal primary intrinsic brain tumor. Glioblastoma displays hierarchical arrangement with a population of self-renewing and tumorigenic glioma tumor initiating cells (TICs), or cancer stem cells. While non-neoplastic neural stem cells are generally quiescent, glioblastoma TICs are often proliferative with mitotic control offering a potential point of fragility. Here, we interrogate the role of cell-division cycle protein 20 (CDC20), an essential activator of anaphase-promoting complex (APC) E3 ubiquitination ligase, in the maintenance of TICs. By chromatin analysis and immunoblotting, CDC20 was preferentially expressed in TICs relative to matched non-TICs. Targeting CDC20 expression by RNA interference attenuated TIC proliferation, self-renewal and in vivo tumor growth. CDC20 disruption mediated its effects through induction of apoptosis and inhibition of cell cycle progression. CDC20 maintains TICs through degradation of p21CIP1/WAF1, a critical negative regulator of TICs. Inhibiting CDC20 stabilized p21CIP1/WAF1, resulting in repression of several genes critical to tumor growth and survival, including CDC25C, c-Myc and Survivin. Transcriptional control of CDC20 is mediated by FOXM1, a central transcription factor in TICs. These results suggest CDC20 is a critical regulator of TIC proliferation and survival, linking two key TIC nodes – FOXM1 and p21CIP1/WAF1 — elucidating a potential point for therapeutic intervention. PMID:25938542

  15. Support activities to maintain SUMS flight readiness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, Willie

    1992-01-01

    The Shuttle Upper Atmosphere Mass Spectrometer (SUMS), a component experiment of the NASA Orbital Experiments Program (OEX), was flown aboard the shuttle Columbia (OV102) mounted at the forward end of the nose landing gear well with an atmospheric gas inlet system fitted to the lower fuselage (chin panel) surface. The SUMS was designed to provide atmospheric data in flow regimes inaccessible prior to the development of the Space Transportation System (STS). The experiment mission operation began about one hour prior to shuttle de-orbit entry maneuver and continued until reaching 1.6 torr (about 86 km altitude). The SUMS mass spectrometer consists of the spare unit from the Viking mission to Mars. Bendix Aerospace under contract to NASA LaRC incorporated the Viking mass spectrometer, a microprocessor based logic card, a pressurized instrument case, and the University of Texas at Dallas provided a gas inlet system into a configuration suited to interface with the shuttle Columbia. The SUMS experiment underwent static and dynamic calibration as well as vacuum maintenance before and after STS 40 shuttle flight. The SUMS flew a total of 3 times on the space shuttle Columbia. Between flights the SUMS was maintained in flight ready status. The flight data has been analyzed by the NASA LaRC Aerothermodynamics Branch. Flight data spectrum plots and reports are presented in the Appendices to the Final Technical Report for NAS1-17399.

  16. Support activities to maintain SUMS flight readiness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, Willie

    1992-05-01

    The Shuttle Upper Atmosphere Mass Spectrometer (SUMS), a component experiment of the NASA Orbital Experiments Program (OEX), was flown aboard the shuttle Columbia (OV102) mounted at the forward end of the nose landing gear well with an atmospheric gas inlet system fitted to the lower fuselage (chin panel) surface. The SUMS was designed to provide atmospheric data in flow regimes inaccessible prior to the development of the Space Transportation System (STS). The experiment mission operation began about one hour prior to shuttle de-orbit entry maneuver and continued until reaching 1.6 torr (about 86 km altitude). The SUMS mass spectrometer consists of the spare unit from the Viking mission to Mars. Bendix Aerospace under contract to NASA LaRC incorporated the Viking mass spectrometer, a microprocessor based logic card, a pressurized instrument case, and the University of Texas at Dallas provided a gas inlet system into a configuration suited to interface with the shuttle Columbia. The SUMS experiment underwent static and dynamic calibration as well as vacuum maintenance before and after STS 40 shuttle flight. The SUMS flew a total of 3 times on the space shuttle Columbia. Between flights the SUMS was maintained in flight ready status. The flight data has been analyzed by the NASA LaRC Aerothermodynamics Branch. Flight data spectrum plots and reports are presented in the Appendices to the Final Technical Report for NAS1-17399.

  17. Virus Movement Maintains Local Virus Population Diversity

    SciTech Connect

    J. Snyder; B. Wiedenheft; M. Lavin; F. Roberto; J. Spuhler; A. Ortmann; T. Douglas; M. Young

    2007-11-01

    Viruses are the largest reservoir of genetic material on the planet, yet little is known about the population dynamics of any virus within its natural environment. Over a 2-year period, we monitored the diversity of two archaeal viruses found in hot springs within Yellowstone National Park (YNP). Both temporal phylogeny and neutral biodiversity models reveal that virus diversity in these local environments is not being maintained by mutation but rather by high rates of immigration from a globally distributed metacommunity. These results indicate that geographically isolated hot springs are readily able to exchange viruses. The importance of virus movement is supported by the detection of virus particles in air samples collected over YNP hot springs and by their detection in metacommunity sequencing projects conducted in the Sargasso Sea. Rapid rates of virus movement are not expected to be unique to these archaeal viruses but rather a common feature among virus metacommunities. The finding that virus immigration rather than mutation can dominate community structure has significant implications for understanding virus circulation and the role that viruses play in ecology and evolution by providing a reservoir of mobile genetic material.

  18. Virus movement maintains local virus population diversity.

    PubMed

    Snyder, Jamie C; Wiedenheft, Blake; Lavin, Matthew; Roberto, Francisco F; Spuhler, Josh; Ortmann, Alice C; Douglas, Trevor; Young, Mark

    2007-11-27

    Viruses are the largest reservoir of genetic material on the planet, yet little is known about the population dynamics of any virus within its natural environment. Over a 2-year period, we monitored the diversity of two archaeal viruses found in hot springs within Yellowstone National Park (YNP). Both temporal phylogeny and neutral biodiversity models reveal that virus diversity in these local environments is not being maintained by mutation but rather by high rates of immigration from a globally distributed metacommunity. These results indicate that geographically isolated hot springs are readily able to exchange viruses. The importance of virus movement is supported by the detection of virus particles in air samples collected over YNP hot springs and by their detection in metacommunity sequencing projects conducted in the Sargasso Sea. Rapid rates of virus movement are not expected to be unique to these archaeal viruses but rather a common feature among virus metacommunities. The finding that virus immigration rather than mutation can dominate community structure has significant implications for understanding virus circulation and the role that viruses play in ecology and evolution by providing a reservoir of mobile genetic material. PMID:18025457

  19. Arteriolar niches maintain haematopoietic stem cell quiescence

    PubMed Central

    Kunisaki, Yuya; Bruns, Ingmar; Scheiermann, Christoph; Ahmed, Jalal; Pinho, Sandra; Zhang, Dachuan; Mizoguchi, Toshihide; Wei, Qiaozhi; Lucas, Daniel; Ito, Keisuke; Mar, Jessica C.; Bergman, Aviv; Frenette, Paul S.

    2013-01-01

    Cell cycle quiescence is a critical feature contributing to haematopoietic stem cell (HSC) maintenance. Although various candidate stromal cells have been identified as potential HSC niches, the spatial localization of quiescent HSCs in the bone marrow (BM) remains unclear. Here, using a novel approach that combines whole-mount confocal immunofluorescence imaging techniques and computational modelling to analyse significant tridimensional associations among vascular structures, stromal cells and HSCs, we show that quiescent HSCs associate specifically with small arterioles that are preferentially found in endosteal BM. These arterioles are ensheathed exclusively by rare NG2+ pericytes, distinct from sinusoid-associated LepR+ cells. Pharmacological or genetic activation of HSC cell cycle alters the distribution of HSCs from NG2+ peri-arteriolar niches to LepR+ peri-sinusoidal niches. Conditional depletion of NG2+ cells induces HSC cycling and reduces functional long-term repopulating HSCs in BM. These results thus indicate that arteriolar niches are indispensable to maintain HSC quiescence. PMID:24107994

  20. Transposition as a mechanism for maintaining telomere length in Drosophila

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, J.M.; Biessmann, H.

    1993-12-31

    Telomeres are structures at the termini of linear chromosomes that serve to maintain the stability of those ends. Several functions have been attributed to telomeres, at least two of these are vital. The vital functions are (a) to {open_quotes}cap{close_quotes} the natural chromosome ends in order to distinguish them from broken ends and, thus, to protect them from recombination, repair, and degradation, and (b) to maintain chromosome length by periodic elongation and, thus, to counteract the inability of DNA polymerases to replicate linear chromosomes completely. While very little is known about capping, the mechanisms of telomere elongation in a number of organisms are being elucidated. Several models for elongation have been proposed. Recent evidence suggests that two of these may operate in different organisms or under different conditions. In many species elongation is accomplished by the interaction of two telomeric DNA repeats. The repeating unit is generally 6-8 basepairs (bp) long and guanine-rich on one strand. The sequence of the repeating unit is evolutionarily conserved, being very similar in ciliated protozoa, flowering plants and vertebrates. The second component is an enzyme, telomerase, that adds more copies of the repeating unit at the terminus. Telomerase resembles reverse transcriptases in structure and carries an associated RNA that is used as a template for the telomere extension.

  1. The Human Brain Maintains Contradictory and Redundant Auditory Sensory Predictions

    PubMed Central

    Pieszek, Marika; Widmann, Andreas; Gruber, Thomas; Schröger, Erich

    2013-01-01

    Computational and experimental research has revealed that auditory sensory predictions are derived from regularities of the current environment by using internal generative models. However, so far, what has not been addressed is how the auditory system handles situations giving rise to redundant or even contradictory predictions derived from different sources of information. To this end, we measured error signals in the event-related brain potentials (ERPs) in response to violations of auditory predictions. Sounds could be predicted on the basis of overall probability, i.e., one sound was presented frequently and another sound rarely. Furthermore, each sound was predicted by an informative visual cue. Participants’ task was to use the cue and to discriminate the two sounds as fast as possible. Violations of the probability based prediction (i.e., a rare sound) as well as violations of the visual-auditory prediction (i.e., an incongruent sound) elicited error signals in the ERPs (Mismatch Negativity [MMN] and Incongruency Response [IR]). Particular error signals were observed even in case the overall probability and the visual symbol predicted different sounds. That is, the auditory system concurrently maintains and tests contradictory predictions. Moreover, if the same sound was predicted, we observed an additive error signal (scalp potential and primary current density) equaling the sum of the specific error signals. Thus, the auditory system maintains and tolerates functionally independently represented redundant and contradictory predictions. We argue that the auditory system exploits all currently active regularities in order to optimally prepare for future events. PMID:23308266

  2. Maintaining standing balance by handrail grasping.

    PubMed

    Sarraf, Thiago A; Marigold, Daniel S; Robinovitch, Stephen N

    2014-01-01

    Maintaining balance while standing on a moving bus or subway is challenging, and falls among passengers are a significant source of morbidity. Standing passengers often rely on handrail grasping to resist perturbations to balance. We conducted experiments that simulated vehicle starts, to examine how handrail location (overhead or shoulder-height), perturbation direction (forward, backward, left or right), and perturbation magnitude (1 or 2m/s(2)) affected the biomechanical effort (peak centre-of-pressure (COP) excursion and hand force) and muscle activations (onset and integrated EMG activity) involved in balance maintenance. COP excursions, hand forces and muscle activations were altered in a functional manner based on task constraints and perturbation characteristics. Handrail position affected normalized values of peak COP and hand force during forward and backward, but not sideways perturbations. During backward perturbations, COP excursion was greater when grasping overhead than shoulder-height. During forward perturbations, hand force was greater when grasping shoulder-height than overhead. Biceps activations were earlier during shoulder-height than overhead grasping, while tibialis anterior activity was higher during overhead than shoulder-height grasping. Our results indicate that, when facing forward or backward to the direction of vehicle motion, overhead grasping minimizes hand force, while shoulder-height grasping minimizes COP excursion. In contrast, grasping with a sideways stance eliminates the effect of handrail location, and was associated with equal or lower biomechanical effort. This suggests that, at least for vehicle starts, the most reasonable strategy may be to stand sideways to the direction of the vehicle movement, and grasp either at shoulder-height or overhead. PMID:23948334

  3. Maintaining homeostasis by decision-making.

    PubMed

    Korn, Christoph W; Bach, Dominik R

    2015-05-01

    Living organisms need to maintain energetic homeostasis. For many species, this implies taking actions with delayed consequences. For example, humans may have to decide between foraging for high-calorie but hard-to-get, and low-calorie but easy-to-get food, under threat of starvation. Homeostatic principles prescribe decisions that maximize the probability of sustaining appropriate energy levels across the entire foraging trajectory. Here, predictions from biological principles contrast with predictions from economic decision-making models based on maximizing the utility of the endpoint outcome of a choice. To empirically arbitrate between the predictions of biological and economic models for individual human decision-making, we devised a virtual foraging task in which players chose repeatedly between two foraging environments, lost energy by the passage of time, and gained energy probabilistically according to the statistics of the environment they chose. Reaching zero energy was framed as starvation. We used the mathematics of random walks to derive endpoint outcome distributions of the choices. This also furnished equivalent lotteries, presented in a purely economic, casino-like frame, in which starvation corresponded to winning nothing. Bayesian model comparison showed that--in both the foraging and the casino frames--participants' choices depended jointly on the probability of starvation and the expected endpoint value of the outcome, but could not be explained by economic models based on combinations of statistical moments or on rank-dependent utility. This implies that under precisely defined constraints biological principles are better suited to explain human decision-making than economic models based on endpoint utility maximization. PMID:26024504

  4. Maintaining Homeostasis by Decision-Making

    PubMed Central

    Korn, Christoph W.; Bach, Dominik R.

    2015-01-01

    Living organisms need to maintain energetic homeostasis. For many species, this implies taking actions with delayed consequences. For example, humans may have to decide between foraging for high-calorie but hard-to-get, and low-calorie but easy-to-get food, under threat of starvation. Homeostatic principles prescribe decisions that maximize the probability of sustaining appropriate energy levels across the entire foraging trajectory. Here, predictions from biological principles contrast with predictions from economic decision-making models based on maximizing the utility of the endpoint outcome of a choice. To empirically arbitrate between the predictions of biological and economic models for individual human decision-making, we devised a virtual foraging task in which players chose repeatedly between two foraging environments, lost energy by the passage of time, and gained energy probabilistically according to the statistics of the environment they chose. Reaching zero energy was framed as starvation. We used the mathematics of random walks to derive endpoint outcome distributions of the choices. This also furnished equivalent lotteries, presented in a purely economic, casino-like frame, in which starvation corresponded to winning nothing. Bayesian model comparison showed that—in both the foraging and the casino frames—participants’ choices depended jointly on the probability of starvation and the expected endpoint value of the outcome, but could not be explained by economic models based on combinations of statistical moments or on rank-dependent utility. This implies that under precisely defined constraints biological principles are better suited to explain human decision-making than economic models based on endpoint utility maximization. PMID:26024504

  5. The critical power to maintain thermally stable molecular junctions.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanlei; Xu, Zhiping

    2014-01-01

    With the rise of atomic-scale devices such as molecular electronics and scanning probe microscopies, energy transport processes through molecular junctions have attracted notable research interest recently. In this work, heat dissipation and transport across diamond/benzene/diamond molecular junctions are explored by performing atomistic simulations. We identify the critical power Pcr to maintain thermal stability of the junction through efficient dissipation of local heat. We also find that the molecule-probe contact features a power-dependent interfacial thermal resistance RK in the order of 10(9)?kW(-1). Moreover, both Pcr and RK display explicit dependence on atomic structures of the junction, force and temperature. For instance, Pcr can be elevated in multiple-molecule junctions, and streching the junction enhances RK by a factor of 2. The applications of these findings in molecular electronics and scanning probing measurements are discussed, providing practical guidelines in their rational design. PMID:25005801

  6. The critical power to maintain thermally stable molecular junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yanlei; Xu, Zhiping

    2014-07-01

    With the rise of atomic-scale devices such as molecular electronics and scanning probe microscopies, energy transport processes through molecular junctions have attracted notable research interest recently. In this work, heat dissipation and transport across diamond/benzene/diamond molecular junctions are explored by performing atomistic simulations. We identify the critical power Pcr to maintain thermal stability of the junction through efficient dissipation of local heat. We also find that the molecule-probe contact features a power-dependent interfacial thermal resistance RK in the order of 109?kW-1. Moreover, both Pcr and RK display explicit dependence on atomic structures of the junction, force and temperature. For instance, Pcr can be elevated in multiple-molecule junctions, and streching the junction enhances RK by a factor of 2. The applications of these findings in molecular electronics and scanning probing measurements are discussed, providing practical guidelines in their rational design.

  7. What does God know? Supernatural agents' access to socially strategic and non-strategic information.

    PubMed

    Purzycki, Benjamin G; Finkel, Daniel N; Shaver, John; Wales, Nathan; Cohen, Adam B; Sosis, Richard

    2012-07-01

    Current evolutionary and cognitive theories of religion posit that supernatural agent concepts emerge from cognitive systems such as theory of mind and social cognition. Some argue that these concepts evolved to maintain social order by minimizing antisocial behavior. If these theories are correct, then people should process information about supernatural agents' socially strategic knowledge more quickly than non-strategic knowledge. Furthermore, agents' knowledge of immoral and uncooperative social behaviors should be especially accessible to people. To examine these hypotheses, we measured response-times to questions about the knowledge attributed to four different agents--God, Santa Claus, a fictional surveillance government, and omniscient but non-interfering aliens--that vary in their omniscience, moral concern, ability to punish, and how supernatural they are. As anticipated, participants respond more quickly to questions about agents' socially strategic knowledge than non-strategic knowledge, but only when agents are able to punish. PMID:22462490

  8. From Court Order to Community Commitment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doorey, Nancy; Harter, Bruce

    2003-01-01

    Describes how after the lifting of years of court-ordered desegregation, the citizens of Wilmington, Delaware, voted not to return to neighborhood schools, choosing instead to maintain the school district's socioeconomic and racial diversity. (PKP)

  9. How the past weighs on the present: social representations of history and their role in identity politics.

    PubMed

    Liu, James H; Hilton, Denis J

    2005-12-01

    Socially shared representations of history have been important in creating, maintaining and changing a people's identity. Their management and negotiation are central to interethnic and international relations. We present a narrative framework to represent how collectively significant events become (selectively) incorporated in social representations that enable positioning of ethnic, national and supranational identities. This perspective creates diachronic (temporal) links between the functional (e.g. realistic conflict theory), social identity, and cognitive perspectives on intergroup relations. The charters embedded in these representations condition nations with similar interests to adopt different political stances in dealing with current events, and can influence the perceived stability and legitimacy of social orders. They are also instrumental in determining social identity strategies for reacting to negative social comparisons, and can influence the relationships between national and ethnic identities. PMID:16368018

  10. Design and Application of the Exploration Maintainability Analysis Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stromgren, Chel; Terry, Michelle; Crillo, William; Goodliff, Kandyce; Maxwell, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Conducting human exploration missions beyond Low Earth Orbit (LEO) will present unique challenges in the areas of supportability and maintainability. The durations of proposed missions can be relatively long and re-supply of logistics, including maintenance and repair items, will be limited or non-existent. In addition, mass and volume constraints in the transportation system will limit the total amount of logistics that can be flown along with the crew. These constraints will require that new strategies be developed with regards to how spacecraft systems are designed and maintained. NASA is currently developing Design Reference Missions (DRMs) as an initial step in defining future human missions. These DRMs establish destinations and concepts of operation for future missions, and begin to define technology and capability requirements. Because of the unique supportability challenges, historical supportability data and models are not directly applicable for establishing requirements for beyond LEO missions. However, supportability requirements could have a major impact on the development of the DRMs. The mass, volume, and crew resources required to support the mission could all be first order drivers in the design of missions, elements, and operations. Therefore, there is a need for enhanced analysis capabilities to more accurately establish mass, volume, and time requirements for supporting beyond LEO missions. Additionally, as new technologies and operations are proposed to reduce these requirements, it is necessary to have accurate tools to evaluate the efficacy of those approaches. In order to improve the analysis of supportability requirements for beyond LEO missions, the Space Missions Analysis Branch at the NASA Langley Research Center is developing the Exploration Maintainability Analysis Tool (EMAT). This tool is a probabilistic simulator that evaluates the need for repair and maintenance activities during space missions and the logistics and crew requirements to support those activities. Using a Monte Carlo approach, the tool simulates potential failures in defined systems, based on established component reliabilities, and then evaluates the capability of the crew to repair those failures given a defined store of spares and maintenance items. Statistical analysis of Monte Carlo runs provides probabilistic estimates of overall mission safety and reliability. This paper will describe the operation of the EMAT, including historical data sources used to populate the model, simulation processes, and outputs. Analysis results are provided for a candidate exploration system, including baseline estimates of required sparing mass and volume. Sensitivity analysis regarding the effectiveness of proposed strategies to reduce mass and volume requirements and improve mission reliability is included in these results.

  11. Maintaining quality of life at the end of life.

    PubMed

    Rummans, T A; Bostwick, J M; Clark, M M

    2000-12-01

    Despite the successful growth of the hospice movement during the past 30 years in the United States, almost 85% of Americans continue to die in hospitals or nursing homes. While the benefits of palliative care principles are well established, palliative care interventions remain underused in clinical practice in the settings in which most Americans die. Our premise is that physicians as a group perpetuate end-of-life suffering rather than ease the transition from life to death. We also believe that maintaining quality of life (QOL) at the end of life requires a multidimensional approach orchestrated by physicians drawing on the full range of available physical, psychological, social, and spiritual interventions. This article defines the meaning of QOL at the end of life and then examines the ramifications of failing to attend to QOL concerns in dying patients. It reviews strategies that physicians can use to advance palliative care approaches, thereby reducing terminally ill patients' suffering in the institutions in which most die. PMID:11126840

  12. What is social about social perception research?

    PubMed Central

    Teufel, Christoph; von dem Hagen, Elisabeth; Plaisted-Grant, Kate C.; Edmonds, James J.; Ayorinde, John O.; Fletcher, Paul C.; Davis, Greg

    2012-01-01

    A growing consensus in social cognitive neuroscience holds that large portions of the primate visual brain are dedicated to the processing of social information, i.e., to those aspects of stimuli that are usually encountered in social interactions such as others' facial expressions, actions, and symbols. Yet, studies of social perception have mostly employed simple pictorial representations of conspecifics. These stimuli are social only in the restricted sense that they physically resemble objects with which the observer would typically interact. In an equally important sense, however, these stimuli might be regarded as “non-social”: the observer knows that they are viewing pictures and might therefore not attribute current mental states to the stimuli or might do so in a qualitatively different way than in a real social interaction. Recent studies have demonstrated the importance of such higher-order conceptualization of the stimulus for social perceptual processing. Here, we assess the similarity between the various types of stimuli used in the laboratory and object classes encountered in real social interactions. We distinguish two different levels at which experimental stimuli can match social stimuli as encountered in everyday social settings: (1) the extent to which a stimulus' physical properties resemble those typically encountered in social interactions and (2) the higher-level conceptualization of the stimulus as indicating another person's mental states. We illustrate the significance of this distinction for social perception research and report new empirical evidence further highlighting the importance of mental state attribution for perceptual processing. Finally, we discuss the potential of this approach to inform studies of clinical conditions such as autism. PMID:23355814

  13. The Need for Individually Guided Social Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conte, Anthony E.; McAulay, John D.

    1978-01-01

    Maintains that a social studies program should be concerned with preparation of students for participation in a democratic society and suggests that an elementary school social studies program should deal with values, information dissemination, political processes, decision making, and socialization. (Author/DB)

  14. Maintaining career marketability as a professional nurse.

    PubMed

    O'Halloran, V E

    1996-01-01

    As we rush around attending to the essentials of our lives (family, friends, clients, employers), what is left? Nursing Forum invites readers to engage in thoughts and activities that may awaken an untouched place. We hope these writings will kindle your personal involvement in something that was previously avoided--because of bias, fear, or uneasiness--in order to stretch your mind and spirit. The ability to be competitive in the shifting marketplace of professional nursing practice is dependent upon a nurse attaining the credentials or experiences being sought. Identifying those knowledges and skills and developing a working plan to achieve them is essential. The Career Development Work Plan presented here is the framework to help do that, and the accompanying Professional File Management system provides the mechanism to monitor and document achievements and abilities over time. This career development approach provides the foundation and preparation nurses will need when presenting themselves to the professional job market. PMID:9052190

  15. Censorship in Social Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seiferth, Berniece B.

    In order to determine how much censorship was taking place in Illinois social studies classes, 200 principals were asked to respond to a questionnaire regarding censorship of teaching methods and social studies textbooks. The principals were asked to respond to the following topics concerning the degree of censorship encountered for each item:…

  16. Achieving and maintaining quality in the laboratory.

    PubMed

    Hertzberg, M S; Mammen, J; McCraw, A; Nair, S C; Srivastava, A

    2006-07-01

    In order to ensure the delivery of a service of the highest possible quality, it is an essential requirement that laboratories undertake strict internal quality control (QC) measures as well as participate in external quality assessment (EQA) schemes. For any given test, a critical part of the internal QC process involves the establishment of reference intervals using samples taken from normal individuals, and then calculating limits representing the 95% range. This forms the basis for assessment of abnormal test results, which will in turn impact on laboratory performance in proficiency testing exercises in EQA programmes. Whereas for plasma-based assay systems, variability in performance in EQA exercises is usually determined by measurement of a coefficient of variation (CV), results of genetic testing is usually measured in absolute terms. Despite this, results of genetic EQA programmes confirm that errors in testing do occur, as much because of inadvertent sample switching and transcription errors as to analytical mistakes. EQA programmes involving identification of mutations by DNA sequencing, such as haemophilia, is made difficult by the high information content of sequence data. Nevertheless, results show that errors are usually made in the naming of the mutations, indicating that this is an evolving and poorly standardized area. Developing countries face particular challenges in the encouragement of laboratories to participate in local EQA programmes, as well as in relation to the logistical issues of sample provision, distribution and result collation in an effective and affordable manner. PMID:16683998

  17. Measuring and assessing maintainability at the end of high level design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Briand, Lionel C.; Morasca, Sandro; Basili, Victor R.

    1993-01-01

    Software architecture appears to be one of the main factors affecting software maintainability. Therefore, in order to be able to predict and assess maintainability early in the development process we need to be able to measure the high-level design characteristics that affect the change process. To this end, we propose a measurement approach, which is based on precise assumptions derived from the change process, which is based on Object-Oriented Design principles and is partially language independent. We define metrics for cohesion, coupling, and visibility in order to capture the difficulty of isolating, understanding, designing and validating changes.

  18. 10 CFR 1304.114 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. 1304.114 Section 1304.114 Energy NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 1304.114 Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. The Board has the responsibility for maintaining...

  19. 10 CFR 1304.111 - Maintaining records of disclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Maintaining records of disclosures. 1304.111 Section 1304.111 Energy NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 1304.111 Maintaining records of disclosures. (a) The Board shall maintain a log containing the date, nature, and purpose of each disclosure...

  20. 10 CFR 1304.111 - Maintaining records of disclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maintaining records of disclosures. 1304.111 Section 1304.111 Energy NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 1304.111 Maintaining records of disclosures. (a) The Board shall maintain a log containing the date, nature, and purpose of each disclosure...

  1. 10 CFR 1304.114 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. 1304.114 Section 1304.114 Energy NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 1304.114 Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. The Board has the responsibility for maintaining...

  2. 10 CFR 1304.114 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. 1304.114 Section 1304.114 Energy NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 1304.114 Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. The Board has the responsibility for maintaining...

  3. 10 CFR 1304.114 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. 1304.114 Section 1304.114 Energy NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 1304.114 Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. The Board has the responsibility for maintaining...

  4. 10 CFR 1304.114 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. 1304.114 Section 1304.114 Energy NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 1304.114 Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. The Board has the responsibility for maintaining...

  5. 10 CFR 1304.111 - Maintaining records of disclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Maintaining records of disclosures. 1304.111 Section 1304.111 Energy NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 1304.111 Maintaining records of disclosures. (a) The Board shall maintain a log containing the date, nature, and purpose of each disclosure...

  6. 10 CFR 1304.111 - Maintaining records of disclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Maintaining records of disclosures. 1304.111 Section 1304.111 Energy NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 1304.111 Maintaining records of disclosures. (a) The Board shall maintain a log containing the date, nature, and purpose of each disclosure...

  7. 10 CFR 1304.111 - Maintaining records of disclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Maintaining records of disclosures. 1304.111 Section 1304.111 Energy NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 1304.111 Maintaining records of disclosures. (a) The Board shall maintain a log containing the date, nature, and purpose of each disclosure...

  8. 9 CFR 439.20 - Criteria for maintaining accreditation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Criteria for maintaining accreditation... ACT ACCREDITATION OF NON-FEDERAL CHEMISTRY LABORATORIES § 439.20 Criteria for maintaining accreditation. (a) To maintain accreditation, an analytical laboratory must fulfill the requirements...

  9. Social and Cognitive Correlates of Children’s Lying Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Talwar, Victoria; Lee, Kang

    2012-01-01

    The relation between children’s lie-telling and their social and cognitive development was examined. Children (3 - 8 years) were told not to peek at a toy. Most children peeked and later lied about peeking. Children’s subsequent verbal statements were not always consistent with their initial denial and leaked critical information revealing their deceit. Children’s conceptual moral understanding of lies, executive functioning, and theory-of-mind understanding were also assessed. Children’s initial false denials were related to their first-order belief understanding and their inhibitory control. Children’s ability to maintain their lies was related to their second-order belief understanding. Children’s lying was related to their moral evaluations. These finding suggest that social and cognitive factors may play an important role in children’s lie-telling abilities. PMID:18717895

  10. Social and cognitive correlates of children's lying behavior.

    PubMed

    Talwar, Victoria; Lee, Kang

    2008-01-01

    The relation between children's lie-telling and their social and cognitive development was examined. Children (3-8 years) were told not to peek at a toy. Most children peeked and later lied about peeking. Children's subsequent verbal statements were not always consistent with their initial denial and leaked critical information revealing their deceit. Children's conceptual moral understanding of lies, executive functioning, and theory-of-mind understanding were also assessed. Children's initial false denials were related to their first-order belief understanding and their inhibitory control. Children's ability to maintain their lies was related to their second-order belief understanding. Children's lying was related to their moral evaluations. These findings suggest that social and cognitive factors may play an important role in children's lie-telling abilities. PMID:18717895

  11. Guide to Operating and Maintaining EnergySmart Schools

    SciTech Connect

    2010-01-01

    Through a commitment to high performance, school districts are discovering that smart energy choices can create lasting benefits for students, communities, and the environment. For example, an energy efficient school district with 4,000 students can save as much as $160,000 a year in energy costs. Over 10 years, those savings can reach $1.6 million, translating into the ability to hire more teachers, purchase more textbooks and computers, or invest in additional high performance facilities. Beyond these bottomline benefits, schools can better foster student health, decrease absenteeism, and serve as centers of community life. The U.S. Department of Energy's EnergySmart Schools Program promotes a 30 percent improvement in existing school energy use. It also encourages the building of new schools that exceed code (ASHRAE 90.11999) by 50 percent or more. The program provides resources like this Guide to Operating and Maintaining EnergySmart Schools to assist school decisionmakers in planning, financing, operating, and maintaining energy efficient, high performance schools. It also offers education and training for building industry professionals. Operations and maintenance refer to all scheduled and unscheduled actions for preventing equipment failure or decline with the goal of increasing efficiency, reliability, and safety. A preventative maintenance program is the organized and planned performance of maintenance activities in order to prevent system or production problems or failures from occurring. In contrast, deferred maintenance or reactive maintenance (also called diagnostic or corrective maintenance) is conducted to address an existing problem. This guide is a primary resource for developing and implementing a districtor schoolwide operations and maintenance (O&M) program that focuses on energy efficiency. The EnergySmart Schools Solutions companion CD contains additional supporting information for design, renovation, and retrofit projects. The objective of this guide is to provide organizational and technical information for integrating energy and high performance facility management into existing O&M practices. The guide allows users to adapt and implement suggested O&M strategies to address specific energy efficiency goals. It recognizes and expands on existing tools and resources that are widely used throughout the high performance school industry. External resources are referenced throughout the guide and are also listed within the EnergySmart Schools O&M Resource List (Appendix J). While this guide emphasizes the impact of the energy efficiency component of O&M, it encourages taking a holistic approach to maintaining a high-performance school. This includes considering various environmental factors where energy plays an indirect or direct role. For example, indoor air quality, site selection, building orientation, and water efficiency should be considered. Resources to support these overlapping aspects will be cited throughout the guide.

  12. Should we maintain baby hatches in our society?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background A baby hatch called the “Stork’s Cradle” has been in place at Jikei Hospital in Kumamoto City, Japan, since May 10, 2007. Babyklappes were first established in Germany in 2000, and there are currently more than 90 locations. Attitudes regarding baby hatches are divided in Japan and neither opinions for nor against baby hatches have thus far been overwhelming. To consider the appropriateness of baby hatches, we present and examine the validity of each major objection to establishing baby hatches. Discussion There are various objections to baby hatches as follows: It violates a child’s right to know the identity of his or her biological parents by allowing anonymous birth; it neglects fulfillment of the biological parents’ basic obligation to raise their child and its very availability induces abandonment of infants; some people abuse it for very selfish reasons; it cannot save babies’ lives; the rights of one parent can be ignored if the other surrenders a child without his or her consent; it puts a baby in medical jeopardy; and it has no clear legal basis. The authors would argue that there are many plausible refutations for each objection mainly based on priority of child’s right to life, pregnant women’s vulnerability and necessity of anonymity, social responsibility to protect and raise children, differences between dropping a child off at a baby hatch and child neglect, limited function of social childcare center, inevitability of abuse by a minority of people, necessary distinction between outcomes that occur only because baby hatches exist and those that occur regardless of their existence, important local direct and upmost measures for women in trouble, and difference between ambiguous legality and illegality. Summary We argue that a certain number of baby hatches should continue to be established as a last resort, in a form that can maintain anonymity if the parent dropping the child off so desires. It should be supported if it is initiated with good intentions; if the maximum possible effort is made at said facility to protect the interests, rights, and safety of the child; and if no clear evidence of harm exists. PMID:23433312

  13. Constructivism and Revitalizing Social Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blaik-Hourani, Rida

    2011-01-01

    The United Arab Emirates (UAE) is developing its Social Studies curriculum and pedagogy for public schools. Practically speaking, teaching Social Studies in the UAE is still based on the traditional way of teaching; route memorization is the means of acquiring knowledge. In order to enhance Social Studies constructivist teaching-learning, there is…

  14. The key actors maintaining elders in functional autonomy in Bobo-Dioulasso (Burkina Faso)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Globally, a significant increase in functional disability among the elderly is expected in the near future. It is therefore vital to begin considering how Sub-Saharan Africa countries can best start building or strengthening the care and support system for that target population. Study objectives are: 1) identify the key actors of the social system who maintain elders in functional autonomy at home in Bobo-Dioulasso (Burkina Faso) and 2) to describe the functional status of older people living at home. Methods We conducted a longitudinal descriptive study among the elderly aged 60 and above (351). Their functional status was evaluated using the Functional Autonomy Measurement System (SMAF). Data analysis was done using the statistical software package STATA (SE11). Results In Bobo-Dioulasso, 68% of seniors have good functional capacity or a slight incapacity and 32% have moderate to severe incapacities. Older people die before (3%) or during (14%) moderate to severe disabilities. This would mean that the quality of medical and/or social care is not good for maintaining functional autonomy of older people with moderate to severe disabilities. Two main groups of people contribute to maintain elders in functional autonomy: the elderly themselves and their family. Community, private or public structures for maintaining elders in functional autonomy are non-existent. The social system for maintaining elders in functional autonomy is incomplete and failing. In case of functional handicap at home, the elders die. But stakeholders are not conscious of this situation; they believe that this system is good for maintaining elders in functional autonomy. Conclusion It is likely that the absence of formal care and support structure likely shortens the lifespan of severely disabled older people. Stakeholders have not yet looked at this possibility. The stakeholders should seriously think about: 1) how to establish the third level of actors who can fulfill the needs to maintain elders in functional autonomy that are not satisfied by others (family members or the older individuals themselves), and 2) how to reinforce the role of each actor and the collaboration between the different groups of people of this system. PMID:24997509

  15. Social Reconstruction: The Controversy over the Textbooks of Harold Rugg.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bagenstos, Naida Tushnet

    The paper examines the controversy over the use of Harold Rugg's textbooks in the social studies curriculum during the 1930s and 40s. The first section discusses the philosophy of social reconstruction maintaining that teachers and students should be in the forefront of social change. Rugg's major contribution to social reconstruction was a…

  16. 75 FR 5893 - Suspension of Community Eligibility for Failure To Maintain Adequate Floodplain Management...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-05

    ... FR 51735. Executive Order 13132, Federalism. This rule involves no policies that have ] federalism....C. 4001 et seq., Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1978, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR... To Maintain Adequate Floodplain Management Regulations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management...

  17. 42 CFR 424.516 - Additional provider and supplier requirements for enrolling and maintaining active enrollment...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... the HHS Common Rule at 45 CFR part 76. (b) Reporting requirements Independent Diagnostic Testing... DMEPOS or referred home health, laboratory, imaging, or specialist services is required to maintain... eligible professional who ordered or referred the DMEPOS, laboratory, imaging, or specialist...

  18. Issues and Methods for Assessing COTS Reliability, Maintainability, and Availability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneidewind, Norman F.; Nikora, Allen P.

    1998-01-01

    Many vendors produce products that are not domain specific (e.g., network server) and have limited functionality (e.g., mobile phone). In contrast, many customers of COTS develop systems that am domain specific (e.g., target tracking system) and have great variability in functionality (e.g., corporate information system). This discussion takes the viewpoint of how the customer can ensure the quality of COTS components. In evaluating the benefits and costs of using COTS, we must consider the environment in which COTS will operate. Thus we must distinguish between using a non-mission critical application like a spreadsheet program to produce a budget and a mission critical application like military strategic and tactical operations. Whereas customers will tolerate an occasional bug in the former, zero tolerance is the rule in the latter. We emphasize the latter because this is the arena where there are major unresolved problems in the application of COTS. Furthermore, COTS components may be embedded in the larger customer system. We refer to these as embedded systems. These components must be reliable, maintainable, and available, and must be with the larger system in order for the customer to benefit from the advertised advantages of lower development and maintenance costs. Interestingly, when the claims of COTS advantages are closely examined, one finds that to a great extent these COTS components consist of hardware and office products, not mission critical software [1]. Obviously, COTS components are different from custom components with respect to one or more of the following attributes: source, development paradigm, safety, reliability, maintainability, availability, security, and other attributes. However, the important question is whether they should be treated differently when deciding to deploy them for operational use; we suggest the answer is no. We use reliability as an example to justify our answer. In order to demonstrate its reliability, a COTS component must pass the same reliability evaluations as the custom components, otherwise the COTS components will be the weakest link in the chain of components and will be the determinant of software system reliability. The challenge is that there will be less information available for evaluating COTS components than for custom components but this does not mean we should despair and do nothing. Actually, there is a lot we can do even in the absence of documentation on COTS components because the customer will have information about how COTS components are to be used in the larger system. To illustrate our approach, we will consider the reliability, maintainability, and availability (RMA) of COTS components as used in larger systems. Finally, COTS suppliers might consider increasing visibility into their products to assist customers in determining the components' fitness for use in a particular application. We offer ideas of information that would be useful to customers, and what vendors might do to provide it.

  19. Other Minorities: Old Order Amish and Hutterites

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    1977-01-01

    Social studies curricula should include units on the Old Order Amish and the Hutterites. The author outlines the life styles and beliefs of each group, stressing their independence from the national society and their interdependence within their own communities. (AV)

  20. Flower color polymorphism maintained by overdominant selection in Sisyrinchium sp.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Yuma; Takakura, Koh-ichi; Kawata, Masakado

    2015-11-01

    Negative frequency-dependent selection derived from positive frequency-dependent foraging is the best-known selection force maintaining genetic polymorphism within a population. However, in flowering plants, positive frequency-dependent foraging by pollinators is expected to accelerate the loss of low-frequency morphs by conferring a fitness advantage to the common morph, leading to monomorphism. In Japan, a non-native species, Sisyrinchium sp., exhibits conspicuous flower color polymorphism within a population comprising both purple morphs (homozygous recessive) and white morphs (heterozygous or homozygous dominant). Here we quantified genotype-specific reproductive success in order to reveal the contribution of overdominant selection on the maintenance of flower color polymorphism in this species. In artificial pollination experiments using individuals with identified genotypes, female reproductive success was higher in the heterozygote than in either homozygote. The frequency of purple morphs in natural populations (ca. 31%) is similar to the frequency predicted by overdominant selection (25%). Our results suggest that overdominant selection contributes to the maintenance of color morphs in the natural population of this species. PMID:26354759

  1. How many TCR clonotypes does a body maintain?

    PubMed

    Lythe, Grant; Callard, Robin E; Hoare, Rollo L; Molina-París, Carmen

    2016-01-21

    We consider the lifetime of a T cell clonotype, the set of T cells with the same T cell receptor, from its thymic origin to its extinction in a multiclonal repertoire. Using published estimates of total cell numbers and thymic production rates, we calculate the mean number of cells per TCR clonotype, and the total number of clonotypes, in mice and humans. When there is little peripheral division, as in a mouse, the number of cells per clonotype is small and governed by the number of cells with identical TCR that exit the thymus. In humans, peripheral division is important and a clonotype may survive for decades, during which it expands to comprise many cells. We therefore devise and analyse a computational model of homeostasis of a multiclonal population. Each T cell in the model competes for self pMHC stimuli, cells of any one clonotype only recognising a small fraction of the many subsets of stimuli. A constant mean total number of cells is maintained by a balance between cell division and death, and a stable number of clonotypes by a balance between thymic production of new clonotypes and extinction of existing ones. The number of distinct clonotypes in a human body may be smaller than the total number of naive T cells by only one order of magnitude. PMID:26546971

  2. How many TCR clonotypes does a body maintain?

    PubMed Central

    Lythe, Grant; Callard, Robin E.; Hoare, Rollo L.; Molina-París, Carmen

    2016-01-01

    We consider the lifetime of a T cell clonotype, the set of T cells with the same T cell receptor, from its thymic origin to its extinction in a multiclonal repertoire. Using published estimates of total cell numbers and thymic production rates, we calculate the mean number of cells per TCR clonotype, and the total number of clonotypes, in mice and humans. When there is little peripheral division, as in a mouse, the number of cells per clonotype is small and governed by the number of cells with identical TCR that exit the thymus. In humans, peripheral division is important and a clonotype may survive for decades, during which it expands to comprise many cells. We therefore devise and analyse a computational model of homeostasis of a multiclonal population. Each T cell in the model competes for self pMHC stimuli, cells of any one clonotype only recognising a small fraction of the many subsets of stimuli. A constant mean total number of cells is maintained by a balance between cell division and death, and a stable number of clonotypes by a balance between thymic production of new clonotypes and extinction of existing ones. The number of distinct clonotypes in a human body may be smaller than the total number of naive T cells by only one order of magnitude. PMID:26546971

  3. Using Photovoice as a Tool to Engage Social Work Students in Social Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peabody, Carolyn G.

    2013-01-01

    In order to ensure that social workers graduating from social work programs embrace social justice's central role in their professional careers, educators must find creative, theoretically grounded, practice-relevant ways of conveying this value and socializing social work students. This article describes the use of Photovoice as one tool for…

  4. The future of health social work.

    PubMed

    Pecukonis, Edward V; Cornelius, Llewellyn; Parrish, Margarete

    2003-01-01

    The practice of social work in health care is at a critical juncture, and laces an uncertain future. The authors provide an overview of the challenges facing social work practice within the health care setting, as well as recommendations for enhancing social work practice and education. Challenges discussed include economic factors, demographic changes, and technological advances influencing the practice of social work in health care. The need for a proactive stance among social work professionals and educators is promoted. The proposed changes are intended to stimulate discussion and an exchange of ideas needed to maintain Social Work's relevance and integrity in the evolving health care delivery system. PMID:14526873

  5. Using Computers in the Social Studies Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Charles

    1986-01-01

    Advocates the use of databases and simulations in social studies classrooms. Maintains that quality instruction, both before and after computer use, determines the quality of the learning experience. Provides titles of several simulation and database products. (JDH)

  6. Nutritional ecology beyond the individual: a conceptual framework for integrating nutrition and social interactions

    PubMed Central

    Lihoreau, Mathieu; Buhl, Jerome; Charleston, Michael A; Sword, Gregory A; Raubenheimer, David; Simpson, Stephen J

    2015-01-01

    Over recent years, modelling approaches from nutritional ecology (known as Nutritional Geometry) have been increasingly used to describe how animals and some other organisms select foods and eat them in appropriate amounts in order to maintain a balanced nutritional state maximising fitness. These nutritional strategies profoundly affect the physiology, behaviour and performance of individuals, which in turn impact their social interactions within groups and societies. Here, we present a conceptual framework to study the role of nutrition as a major ecological factor influencing the development and maintenance of social life. We first illustrate some of the mechanisms by which nutritional differences among individuals mediate social interactions in a broad range of species and ecological contexts. We then explain how studying individual- and collective-level nutrition in a common conceptual framework derived from Nutritional Geometry can bring new fundamental insights into the mechanisms and evolution of social interactions, using a combination of simulation models and manipulative experiments. PMID:25586099

  7. 48 CFR 6.202 - Establishing or maintaining alternative sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ACQUISITION REGULATION ACQUISITION PLANNING COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Full and Open Competition After Exclusion... maintaining an essential engineering, research, or development capability to be provided by an educational...

  8. 48 CFR 1406.202 - Establishing or maintaining alternative sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... OF THE INTERIOR COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Full and Open... authorized to approve the determinations and findings (D&Fs) to establish or maintain an alternative...

  9. 48 CFR 1406.202 - Establishing or maintaining alternative sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... OF THE INTERIOR COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Full and Open... authorized to approve the determinations and findings (D&Fs) to establish or maintain an alternative...

  10. 48 CFR 1406.202 - Establishing or maintaining alternative sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... OF THE INTERIOR COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Full and Open... authorized to approve the determinations and findings (D&Fs) to establish or maintain an alternative...

  11. 48 CFR 1406.202 - Establishing or maintaining alternative sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... OF THE INTERIOR COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Full and Open... authorized to approve the determinations and findings (D&Fs) to establish or maintain an alternative...

  12. 48 CFR 1406.202 - Establishing or maintaining alternative sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... OF THE INTERIOR COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Full and Open... authorized to approve the determinations and findings (D&Fs) to establish or maintain an alternative...

  13. 15 CFR 286.9 - Maintaining recognized status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ACCREDITATION AND ASSESSMENT PROGRAMS NATIONAL VOLUNTARY CONFORMITY ASSESSMENT SYSTEM EVALUATION (NVCASE) PROGRAM § 286.9 Maintaining recognized...

  14. 15 CFR 286.9 - Maintaining recognized status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ACCREDITATION AND ASSESSMENT PROGRAMS NATIONAL VOLUNTARY CONFORMITY ASSESSMENT SYSTEM EVALUATION (NVCASE) PROGRAM § 286.9 Maintaining recognized...

  15. 15 CFR 286.9 - Maintaining recognized status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ACCREDITATION AND ASSESSMENT PROGRAMS NATIONAL VOLUNTARY CONFORMITY ASSESSMENT SYSTEM EVALUATION (NVCASE) PROGRAM § 286.9 Maintaining recognized...

  16. 15 CFR 286.9 - Maintaining recognized status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ACCREDITATION AND ASSESSMENT PROGRAMS NATIONAL VOLUNTARY CONFORMITY ASSESSMENT SYSTEM EVALUATION (NVCASE) PROGRAM § 286.9 Maintaining recognized...

  17. 15 CFR 286.9 - Maintaining recognized status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ACCREDITATION AND ASSESSMENT PROGRAMS NATIONAL VOLUNTARY CONFORMITY ASSESSMENT SYSTEM EVALUATION (NVCASE) PROGRAM § 286.9 Maintaining recognized...

  18. Social Experiments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slover-Linett, Cheryl; Stoner, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Earlier this year, CASE formed a social media task force to explore what educational institutions are trying to achieve with social media presence and learn about social media engagements at member institutions. CASE, in partnership with mStoner and Slover Linett Strategies, in June launched a benchmarking survey on social media in advancement by…

  19. Social Experiments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slover-Linett, Cheryl; Stoner, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Earlier this year, CASE formed a social media task force to explore what educational institutions are trying to achieve with social media presence and learn about social media engagements at member institutions. CASE, in partnership with mStoner and Slover Linett Strategies, in June launched a benchmarking survey on social media in advancement by…

  20. Social Inventions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conger, D. Stuart

    Just as programs and organizations have too frequently been established for the presumed benefit of mankind but do not work out as expected because the social methods available are not good enough, so the author proposes that the existence of social problems in general bespeak the need for new social inventions. Social inventions provide laws,…

  1. Social supports and prevention strategies as adjuncts and alternatives to sedation and anesthesia for people with special needs.

    PubMed

    Glassman, Paul; Miller, Christine

    2009-01-01

    People with special needs are assuming a more prominent place in our society. The number of people living in communities with medical, physical, and psychological conditions is increasing dramatically. In spite of the advances that people with special needs have made in recognition of their right to live in society and access services open to other people, their oral health is still significantly poorer than that of other groups. There are a number of modalities that can complement or replace pharmacological interventions and allow individuals to have dental treatment in a dental office or clinic. These include behavioral or psychological interventions and social support and prevention strategies. Social supports include care management and integration of oral health services with general health and social service systems. Preventive programs using modern "medical model" oral health prevention strategies also have the potential to reduce the burden of disease among people with special needs and therefore reduce the need for dental procedures. A social support system using community-based Dental Hygienists acting as Dental Coordinators, is described along with outcomes demonstrating improved oral health for people with special needs living in community residential care facilities. Combined social support systems and community prevention strategies have the potential to reduce the need for pharmacological interventions in order to maintain oral health in populations of people with special needs. Social supports and modern preventive strategies must be included in the range of options available in communities in order to improve and maintain oral health for people with special needs. PMID:19152566

  2. FUNCTIONAL ANALYSIS OF INAPPROPRIATE SOCIAL INTERACTIONS IN STUDENTS WITH ASPERGER'S SYNDROME

    PubMed Central

    Roantree, Christina F; Kennedy, Craig H

    2012-01-01

    We analyzed the inappropriate social interactions of 3 students with Asperger's syndrome whose behavior was maintained by social positive reinforcement. We tested whether inappropriate social behavior was sensitive to social positive reinforcement contingencies and whether such contingencies could be reversed to increase the probability of socially appropriate responding. Our results show that social positive reinforcers can be identified for inappropriate social interactions and that appropriate social behaviors can be sensitive to reinforcement contingency reversals. PMID:23060671

  3. 49 CFR 1310.2 - Requirement to maintain tariffs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirement to maintain tariffs. 1310.2 Section... BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) CARRIER RATES AND SERVICE TERMS TARIFF REQUIREMENTS FOR HOUSEHOLD GOODS CARRIERS § 1310.2 Requirement to maintain tariffs. (a) Except when providing...

  4. Species interaction mechanisms maintain grassland plant species diversity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Theory has outpaced empirical research in pursuit of identifying mechanisms maintaining species diversity. Here we demonstrate how data from diversity-ecosystem functioning experiments can be used to test maintenance of diversity theory. We predict that grassland plant diversity can be maintained by...

  5. 27 CFR 478.123 - Records maintained by manufacturers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Records maintained by manufacturers. 478.123 Section 478.123 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO... of Industry Operations may authorize alternate records to be maintained by a licensed manufacturer...

  6. 27 CFR 478.123 - Records maintained by manufacturers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Records maintained by manufacturers. 478.123 Section 478.123 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO... of Industry Operations may authorize alternate records to be maintained by a licensed manufacturer...

  7. 27 CFR 478.123 - Records maintained by manufacturers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Records maintained by manufacturers. 478.123 Section 478.123 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO... of Industry Operations may authorize alternate records to be maintained by a licensed manufacturer...

  8. 27 CFR 478.123 - Records maintained by manufacturers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Records maintained by manufacturers. 478.123 Section 478.123 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO... of Industry Operations may authorize alternate records to be maintained by a licensed manufacturer...

  9. 48 CFR 906.202 - Establishing or maintaining alternative sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... maintaining alternative sources. 906.202 Section 906.202 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY COMPETITION ACQUISITION PLANNING COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Full and Open Competition After Exclusion of Sources 906.202 Establishing or maintaining alternative sources. (b)(1) Every proposed...

  10. Object Representations Maintain Attentional Control Settings across Space and Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schreij, Daniel; Olivers, Christian N. L.

    2009-01-01

    Previous research has revealed that we create and maintain mental representations for perceived objects on the basis of their spatiotemporal continuity. An important question is what type of information can be maintained within these so-called object files. We provide evidence that object files retain specific attentional control settings for…

  11. Continuous microbial cultures maintained by electronically-controlled device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eisler, W. J., Jr.; Webb, R. B.

    1967-01-01

    Photocell-controlled instrument maintains microbial culture. It uses commercially available chemostat glassware, provides adequate aeration through bubbling of the culture, maintains the population size and density, continuously records growth rates over small increments of time, and contains a simple, sterilizable nutrient control mechanism.

  12. 31 CFR 205.24 - How are accurate estimates maintained?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How are accurate estimates maintained... Treasury-State Agreement § 205.24 How are accurate estimates maintained? (a) If a State has knowledge that an estimate does not reasonably correspond to the State's cash needs for a Federal assistance...

  13. 33 CFR 150.555 - How must cranes be maintained?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Operations § 150.555 How must cranes be maintained? Cranes must be operated, maintained, and tested in accordance with 46 CFR part 109, subpart F. ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How must cranes be...

  14. 7 CFR 3560.625 - Maintaining the physical asset.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maintaining the physical asset. 3560.625 Section 3560.625 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE... Maintaining the physical asset. On-farm labor housing must meet state and local building and occupancy codes....

  15. 7 CFR 3560.625 - Maintaining the physical asset.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Maintaining the physical asset. 3560.625 Section 3560.625 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE... Maintaining the physical asset. On-farm labor housing must meet state and local building and occupancy codes....

  16. 19 CFR 163.2 - Persons required to maintain records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Persons required to maintain records. 163.2 Section 163.2 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) RECORDKEEPING § 163.2 Persons required to maintain records. (a) General. Except as otherwise provided in paragraph...

  17. 34 CFR 668.163 - Maintaining and accounting for funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., ACG, National SMART Grant, TEACH Grant, FSEOG, and FWS program funds in an interest-bearing bank... not have to maintain Direct Loan, Federal Pell Grant, ACG, National SMART Grant, TEACH Grant, FSEOG... just-in-time payment method. (4) If an institution maintains Direct Loan, Federal Pell Grant,...

  18. 34 CFR 668.163 - Maintaining and accounting for funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Maintaining and accounting for funds. 668.163 Section 668.163 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION STUDENT ASSISTANCE GENERAL PROVISIONS Cash Management § 668.163 Maintaining and accounting for funds....

  19. 19 CFR 143.6 - Failure to maintain performance standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Failure to maintain performance standards. 143.6 Section 143.6 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) SPECIAL ENTRY PROCEDURES Automated Broker Interface § 143.6 Failure to maintain performance standards....

  20. Object Representations Maintain Attentional Control Settings across Space and Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schreij, Daniel; Olivers, Christian N. L.

    2009-01-01

    Previous research has revealed that we create and maintain mental representations for perceived objects on the basis of their spatiotemporal continuity. An important question is what type of information can be maintained within these so-called object files. We provide evidence that object files retain specific attentional control settings for…

  1. Maintaining a Social-Emotional Intervention and Its Benefits for Institutionalized Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCall, Robert B.; Groark, Christina J.; Fish, Larry; Muhamedrahimov, Rifkat J.; Palmov, Oleg I.; Nikiforova, Natalia V.

    2013-01-01

    This article reports the maintenance of one of the largest interventions conducted in St. Petersburg (Russian Federation) orphanages for children birth to 4 years using regular caregiving staff. One orphanage received training plus structural changes, another training only, and a third business as usual. The intervention produced substantial…

  2. Maintaining a Social-Emotional Intervention and Its Benefits for Institutionalized Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCall, Robert B.; Groark, Christina J.; Fish, Larry; Muhamedrahimov, Rifkat J.; Palmov, Oleg I.; Nikiforova, Natalia V.

    2013-01-01

    This article reports the maintenance of one of the largest interventions conducted in St. Petersburg (Russian Federation) orphanages for children birth to 4 years using regular caregiving staff. One orphanage received training plus structural changes, another training only, and a third business as usual. The intervention produced substantial…

  3. Evolving Reliability and Maintainability Allocations for NASA Ground Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Munoz, Gisela; Toon, Jamie; Toon, Troy; Adams, Timothy C.; Miranda, David J.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the methodology that was developed to allocate reliability and maintainability requirements for the NASA Ground Systems Development and Operations (GSDO) program's subsystems. As systems progressed through their design life cycle and hardware data became available, it became necessary to reexamine the previously derived allocations. Allocating is an iterative process; as systems moved beyond their conceptual and preliminary design phases this provided an opportunity for the reliability engineering team to reevaluate allocations based on updated designs and maintainability characteristics of the components. Trade-offs in reliability and maintainability were essential to ensuring the integrity of the reliability and maintainability analysis. This paper will discuss the value of modifying reliability and maintainability allocations made for the GSDO subsystems as the program nears the end of its design phase.

  4. Evolving Reliability and Maintainability Allocations for NASA Ground Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Munoz, Gisela; Toon, Troy; Toon, Jamie; Conner, Angelo C.; Adams, Timothy C.; Miranda, David J.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the methodology and value of modifying allocations to reliability and maintainability requirements for the NASA Ground Systems Development and Operations (GSDO) program’s subsystems. As systems progressed through their design life cycle and hardware data became available, it became necessary to reexamine the previously derived allocations. This iterative process provided an opportunity for the reliability engineering team to reevaluate allocations as systems moved beyond their conceptual and preliminary design phases. These new allocations are based on updated designs and maintainability characteristics of the components. It was found that trade-offs in reliability and maintainability were essential to ensuring the integrity of the reliability and maintainability analysis. This paper discusses the results of reliability and maintainability reallocations made for the GSDO subsystems as the program nears the end of its design phase.

  5. Evolving Reliability and Maintainability Allocations for NASA Ground Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Munoz, Gisela; Toon, T.; Toon, J.; Conner, A.; Adams, T.; Miranda, D.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the methodology and value of modifying allocations to reliability and maintainability requirements for the NASA Ground Systems Development and Operations (GSDO) programs subsystems. As systems progressed through their design life cycle and hardware data became available, it became necessary to reexamine the previously derived allocations. This iterative process provided an opportunity for the reliability engineering team to reevaluate allocations as systems moved beyond their conceptual and preliminary design phases. These new allocations are based on updated designs and maintainability characteristics of the components. It was found that trade-offs in reliability and maintainability were essential to ensuring the integrity of the reliability and maintainability analysis. This paper discusses the results of reliability and maintainability reallocations made for the GSDO subsystems as the program nears the end of its design phase.

  6. Desirable factors for maintaining normal BMI of urban affluent women of Delhi.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Anu Taneja; Siddhu, Anupa

    2015-01-01

    The study aimed to identify desirable social, familial, reproductive, dietary, and lifestyle factors for maintaining normal body mass index (BMI) of urban affluent women (25-45 years) in Delhi, India. A total of 387 urban affluent women with at least one living child participated in this cross-sectional study conducted from March 2008 to April 2010. Women were classified into four BMI categories on the basis of World Health Organization (WHO; 2004) classification for Asians. Significant factors for maintaining normal BMI were: Younger age, less parity, nuclear family, normal weight status of parents, postpartum weight gain between 2 and 3 kg, regularity in taking meals, fixed meal size, self-perceived normal weight, and shorter sitting time and television viewing time. Multivariate regression analysis identified five determining factors for maintaining BMI, which are normal weight of father, self-perceived normal weight, fixed meal size, sitting time less than 6 h/day, and television viewing time less than 1 h/day. By small lifestyle modifications, normal BMI can be maintained. PMID:25758732

  7. Components for Maintaining and Publishing Earth Science Vocabularies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, S. J. D.; Yu, J.

    2014-12-01

    Shared vocabularies are an important aid to geoscience data interoperability. Many organizations maintain useful vocabularies, with Geologic Surveys having a particularly long history of vocabulary and lexicon development. However, the mode of publication is heterogeneous, ranging from PDFs and HTML web pages, spreadsheets and CSV, through various user-interfaces and APIs. Update and maintenance ranges from tightly-governed and externally opaque, through various community processes, all the way to crowd-sourcing ('folksonomies'). A general expectation, however, is for greater harmonization and vocabulary re-use. In order to be successful this requires (a) standardized content formalization and APIs (b) transparent content maintenance and versioning. We have been trialling a combination of software dealing with registration, search and linking. SKOS is designed for formalizing multi-lingual, hierarchical vocabularies, and has been widely adopted in earth and environmental sciences. SKOS is an RDF vocabulary, for which SPARQL is the standard low-level API. However, for interoperability between SKOS vocabulary sources, a SKOS-based API (i.e. based on the SKOS predicates prefLabel, broader, narrower, etc) is required. We have developed SISSvoc for this purpose, and used it to deploy a number of vocabularies on behalf of the IUGS, ICS, NERC, OGC, the Australian Government, and CSIRO projects. SISSvoc Search provides simple search UI on top of one or more SISSvoc sources. Content maintenance is composed of many elements, including content-formalization, definition-update, and mappings to related vocabularies. Typically there is a degree of expert judgement required. In order to provide confidence in users, two requirements are paramount: (i) once published, a URI that denotes a vocabulary item must remain dereferenceable; (ii) the history and status of the content denoted by a URI must be available. These requirements match the standard 'registration' paradigm which is implemented in the Linked Data Registry, which is currently used by WMO and the UK Environment Agency for publication of vocabularies. Together, these components provide a powerful and flexible system for providing earth science vocabularies for the community, consistent with semantic web and linked-data principles.

  8. Social Networking: Keeping It Clean

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waters, John K.

    2011-01-01

    The need to maintain an unpolluted learning environment is no easy task for schools and districts that have incorporated social networking sites into their educational life. The staff and teachers at Blaine High School in Minnesota's Anoka-Hennepin District 11 had been considering the pros and cons of establishing a school Facebook page when the…

  9. Boosting Social and Emotional Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beland, Kathy

    2007-01-01

    Beland maintains that high school students will need a high level of skill in the social and emotional arena to be ready for competitive employment in the 21st century. In a 2006 survey, human resource professionals said five skills were most crucial to high school graduates' success: professionalism/work ethic; teamwork; oral communications;…

  10. Microcomputers in Social Studies Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Little, Timothy

    1986-01-01

    Based on the microcomputer's instructional potential, this article maintains that social studies ought to rank first among school subjects in microcomputer use. It advocates use of all types of software, from drill and practice to simulations, and highlights the use of databases. (TRS)

  11. Social Networking: Keeping It Clean

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waters, John K.

    2011-01-01

    The need to maintain an unpolluted learning environment is no easy task for schools and districts that have incorporated social networking sites into their educational life. The staff and teachers at Blaine High School in Minnesota's Anoka-Hennepin District 11 had been considering the pros and cons of establishing a school Facebook page when the…

  12. Interest, Social Studies, and the Emerging Adolescent.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    This paper suggests that emerging adolescents in middle schools will do better in social studies if activities are encouraged that develop and maintain student interest. Goal centered, interesting learning opportunities are a must in the social studies curriculum. Middle school students need ample opportunities to engage in problem solving.…

  13. Followership in Ecology/Environment Social Movements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clavner, Jerry B.; Sumodi, Veronica R.

    The paper analyzes the failure of the ecology/environmental movement to develop into a social movement and to generate a mass following. The movement has had difficulty not only in organizing collective behavior but also in maintaining the necessary momentum to change into a full-fledged social movement. Obvious reasons are that ecologists…

  14. The Sociological Imagination and Social Responsibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hironimus-Wendt, Robert J.; Wallace, Lora Ebert

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we maintain that sociologists should deliberately teach social responsibility as a means of fulfilling the promise that C. Wright Mills envisioned. A key aspect of the sociological imagination includes a sense of social responsibility, but that aspect is best learned through a combination of experience and academic knowledge.…

  15. Social orienting in gaze leading: a mechanism for shared attention.

    PubMed

    Edwards, S Gareth; Stephenson, Lisa J; Dalmaso, Mario; Bayliss, Andrew P

    2015-08-01

    Here, we report a novel social orienting response that occurs after viewing averted gaze. We show, in three experiments, that when a person looks from one location to an object, attention then shifts towards the face of an individual who has subsequently followed the person's gaze to that same object. That is, contrary to 'gaze following', attention instead orients in the opposite direction to observed gaze and towards the gazing face. The magnitude of attentional orienting towards a face that 'follows' the participant's gaze is also associated with self-reported autism-like traits. We propose that this gaze leading phenomenon implies the existence of a mechanism in the human social cognitive system for detecting when one's gaze has been followed, in order to establish 'shared attention' and maintain the ongoing interaction. PMID:26180071

  16. Social Phobia

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and avoid some of them altogether. continue The Fear Reaction Like other phobias, social phobia is a ... every time. No big deal."). previous continue What Fears Are Involved? With social phobia, a person's fears ...

  17. Social network.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Andrea

    2015-10-01

    The Better Care Exchange is a social network for health and social care professionals that enables information and knowledge sharing on good practice and better integrated care, and the implementation of Better Care Fund plans. PMID:26419571

  18. Reducing errant ordered radiology exams.

    PubMed

    Duman, Benjamin; Martin, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    With grant funds, Providence Saint Patrick Hospital set out to reduce the occurrences of errant ordered radiology exams from clinicians. The goal was to also provide a tool that would assist in reducing unwarranted dose from diagnostic imaging modalities. An interactive web based utility for CT protocols was developed, which included ACR Appropriateness Criteria that was easy to use and maintain. The second stage of the program will be expanded to include more modalities, as well as to provide patients with a convenient source of information. PMID:22413608

  19. Variable Order and Distributed Order Fractional Operators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lorenzo, Carl F.; Hartley, Tom T.

    2002-01-01

    Many physical processes appear to exhibit fractional order behavior that may vary with time or space. The continuum of order in the fractional calculus allows the order of the fractional operator to be considered as a variable. This paper develops the concept of variable and distributed order fractional operators. Definitions based on the Riemann-Liouville definitions are introduced and behavior of the operators is studied. Several time domain definitions that assign different arguments to the order q in the Riemann-Liouville definition are introduced. For each of these definitions various characteristics are determined. These include: time invariance of the operator, operator initialization, physical realization, linearity, operational transforms. and memory characteristics of the defining kernels. A measure (m2) for memory retentiveness of the order history is introduced. A generalized linear argument for the order q allows the concept of "tailored" variable order fractional operators whose a, memory may be chosen for a particular application. Memory retentiveness (m2) and order dynamic behavior are investigated and applications are shown. The concept of distributed order operators where the order of the time based operator depends on an additional independent (spatial) variable is also forwarded. Several definitions and their Laplace transforms are developed, analysis methods with these operators are demonstrated, and examples shown. Finally operators of multivariable and distributed order are defined in their various applications are outlined.

  20. Temporal regulation of kin recognition maintains recognition-cue diversity and suppresses cheating

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Hsing-I; Shaulsky, Gad

    2015-01-01

    Kin recognition, the ability to distinguish kin from non-kin, can facilitate cooperation between relatives. Evolutionary theory predicts that polymorphism in recognition cues, which is essential for effective recognition, would be unstable. Individuals carrying rare recognition cues would benefit less from social interactions than individuals with common cues, leading to loss of the genetic-cue diversity. We test this evolutionary hypothesis in Dictyostelium discoideum, which forms multicellular fruiting bodies by aggregation and utilizes two polymorphic membrane proteins to facilitate preferential cooperation. Surprisingly, we find that rare recognition variants are tolerated and maintain their frequencies among incompatible majority during development. Although the rare variants are initially excluded from the aggregates, they subsequently rejoin the aggregate and produce spores. Social cheating is also refrained in late development, thus limiting the cost of chimerism. Our results suggest a potential mechanism to sustain the evolutionary stability of kin-recognition genes and to suppress cheating. PMID:26018043

  1. Methadone Anonymous: A 12-Step Program for Methadone Maintained Heroin Addicts.

    PubMed

    Gilman, Stephen M.; Galanter, Marc; Dermatis, Helen

    2001-12-01

    Methadone Anonymous (MA) is a new 12-step fellowship developed for methadone maintained heroin addicts. A total of 53 MA members completed a survey assessing factors related to methadone maintenance treatment program (MMTP) entry, drug use, MA participation, beliefs concerning effectiveness of MMTP and MA, and level of social cohesiveness. Length of time in MA was associated with a decreased use of alcohol, cocaine, and marijuana. Clients rated components of MA to be significantly more helpful to recovery than MMTP treatment components. Affiliation to five MA members known best by the respondents was significantly greater than affiliation to non-MA members. Length of time in MA was positively associated with MA affiliation. Social affiliation and endorsement of 12-step principles were positively correlated. These findings suggest that MA participation has benefits not available in professionally driven MMTP, and should be further studied. PMID:12466684

  2. Delineating subtypes of self-injurious behavior maintained by automatic reinforcement.

    PubMed

    Hagopian, Louis P; Rooker, Griffin W; Zarcone, Jennifer R

    2015-09-01

    Self-injurious behavior (SIB) is maintained by automatic reinforcement in roughly 25% of cases. Automatically reinforced SIB typically has been considered a single functional category, and is less understood than socially reinforced SIB. Subtyping automatically reinforced SIB into functional categories has the potential to guide the development of more targeted interventions and increase our understanding of its biological underpinnings. The current study involved an analysis of 39 individuals with automatically reinforced SIB and a comparison group of 13 individuals with socially reinforced SIB. Automatically reinforced SIB was categorized into 3 subtypes based on patterns of responding in the functional analysis and the presence of self-restraint. These response features were selected as the basis for subtyping on the premise that they could reflect functional properties of SIB unique to each subtype. Analysis of treatment data revealed important differences across subtypes and provides preliminary support to warrant additional research on this proposed subtyping model. PMID:26223959

  3. 21 CFR 1305.27 - Preservation of electronic orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Preservation of electronic orders. 1305.27 Section... II CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES Electronic Orders § 1305.27 Preservation of electronic orders. (a) A... two years. (c) If electronic order records are maintained on a central server, the records must...

  4. 21 CFR 1305.27 - Preservation of electronic orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Preservation of electronic orders. 1305.27 Section... II CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES Electronic Orders § 1305.27 Preservation of electronic orders. (a) A... two years. (c) If electronic order records are maintained on a central server, the records must...

  5. 21 CFR 1305.27 - Preservation of electronic orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Preservation of electronic orders. 1305.27 Section... II CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES Electronic Orders § 1305.27 Preservation of electronic orders. (a) A... two years. (c) If electronic order records are maintained on a central server, the records must...

  6. 21 CFR 1305.27 - Preservation of electronic orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Preservation of electronic orders. 1305.27 Section... II CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES Electronic Orders § 1305.27 Preservation of electronic orders. (a) A... two years. (c) If electronic order records are maintained on a central server, the records must...

  7. 21 CFR 1305.27 - Preservation of electronic orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Preservation of electronic orders. 1305.27 Section... II CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES Electronic Orders § 1305.27 Preservation of electronic orders. (a) A... two years. (c) If electronic order records are maintained on a central server, the records must...

  8. Social Individualism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornille, Thomas A.; Harrigan, John

    Relationships between individuals and society have often been presented from the perspective of the social institution. Social psychology has addressed the variables that affect the individual in relationships with larger groups. Social individualism is a conceptual framework that explores the relationship of the individual and society from the…

  9. Increasing Maintainability of a Wastewater-Recovery Unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dehner, G. F.; Brose, H. F.

    1987-01-01

    Modified system leaks less and easier to disassemble for maintenance. Redesign of wastewater-recovery system separates water from urine: improved operation and system easier to maintain. Details of redesign, chiefly affected hollow-fiber-membrane evaporator, described in report.

  10. Allocating SMART Reliability and Maintainability Goals to NASA Ground Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gillespie, Amanda; Monaghan, Mark

    2013-01-01

    This paper will describe the methodology used to allocate Reliability and Maintainability (R&M) goals to Ground Systems Development and Operations (GSDO) subsystems currently being designed or upgraded.

  11. 7 CFR 3560.625 - Maintaining the physical asset.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS On-Farm Labor Housing § 3560.625 Maintaining the physical asset. On-farm labor housing must meet state and local building and occupancy codes....

  12. 7 CFR 3560.625 - Maintaining the physical asset.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS On-Farm Labor Housing § 3560.625 Maintaining the physical asset. On-farm labor housing must meet state and local building and occupancy codes....

  13. 7 CFR 3560.625 - Maintaining the physical asset.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS On-Farm Labor Housing § 3560.625 Maintaining the physical asset. On-farm labor housing must meet state and local building and occupancy codes....

  14. Rearing and Maintaining Midge Cultures (Chironomus tentans) for Laboratory Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hein, John; Mahadeva, Madhu N.

    1992-01-01

    The life history of the Chironomus tentans can be observed in easily established and maintained laboratory cultures. Projects for the classroom include observing hydration of an egg mass; embryonic development, hatching and larval feeding; larval activity; and mating activity. (MDH)

  15. Strategies for Buying and Maintaining Audio Visual Equipment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalmbach, John A.; Kruzel, Richard D.

    1989-01-01

    Presents guidelines for purchasing and maintaining audiovisual equipment most often used in the classroom. Highlights include selecting a vendor; purchasing associations; preventive maintenance; optical equipment, including overhead projectors, slide projectors, movie projectors, and filmstrip projectors; and electromagnetic equipment, including…

  16. ELECTRIC HOLDING FURNACE IN THE MALLEABLE FOUNDRY MAINTAINS CONSTANT TEMPERATURES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ELECTRIC HOLDING FURNACE IN THE MALLEABLE FOUNDRY MAINTAINS CONSTANT TEMPERATURES FOR IRON PRIOR TO FILLING MOBILE LADLES. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, Malleable Foundry, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  17. 29 CFR 1471.510 - Who maintains the EPLS?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Excluded Parties List System § 1471.510 Who maintains the EPLS? In... suspension system, the agency enters the information about the excluded person into the EPLS....

  18. 31 CFR 19.510 - Who maintains the EPLS?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Excluded Parties List System § 19.510 Who maintains the EPLS? In... suspension system, the agency enters the information about the excluded person into the EPLS....

  19. 48 CFR 6.202 - Establishing or maintaining alternative sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... emergency or industrial mobilization; (3) Be in the interest of national defense in establishing or maintaining an essential engineering, research, or development capability to be provided by an educational...

  20. 48 CFR 6.202 - Establishing or maintaining alternative sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... emergency or industrial mobilization; (3) Be in the interest of national defense in establishing or maintaining an essential engineering, research, or development capability to be provided by an educational...

  1. Integrating reliability and maintainability into a concurrent engineering environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, Clifton B.; Peterson, Robert R.

    1993-02-01

    This paper describes the results of a reliability and maintainability study conducted at the University of California, San Diego and supported by private industry. Private industry thought the study was important and provided the university access to innovative tools under cooperative agreement. The current capability of reliability and maintainability tools and how they fit into the design process is investigated. The evolution of design methodologies leading up to today's capability is reviewed for ways to enhance the design process while keeping cost under control. A method for measuring the consequences of reliability and maintainability policy for design configurations in an electronic environment is provided. The interaction of selected modern computer tool sets is described for reliability, maintainability, operations, and other elements of the engineering design process. These tools provide a robust system evaluation capability that brings life cycle performance improvement information to engineers and their managers before systems are deployed, and allow them to monitor and track performance while it is in operation.

  2. Strategies for Buying and Maintaining Audio Visual Equipment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalmbach, John A.; Kruzel, Richard D.

    1989-01-01

    Presents guidelines for purchasing and maintaining audiovisual equipment most often used in the classroom. Highlights include selecting a vendor; purchasing associations; preventive maintenance; optical equipment, including overhead projectors, slide projectors, movie projectors, and filmstrip projectors; and electromagnetic equipment, including…

  3. 27 CFR 46.242 - Period for maintaining records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... PRODUCTS AND CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES Floor Stocks Tax on Certain Tobacco Products, Cigarette Papers, and Cigarette Tubes Held for Sale on April 1, 2009 Records § 46.242 Period for maintaining records. The...

  4. 27 CFR 46.242 - Period for maintaining records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... PRODUCTS AND CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES Floor Stocks Tax on Certain Tobacco Products, Cigarette Papers, and Cigarette Tubes Held for Sale on April 1, 2009 Records § 46.242 Period for maintaining records. The...

  5. 27 CFR 46.242 - Period for maintaining records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... PRODUCTS AND CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES Floor Stocks Tax on Certain Tobacco Products, Cigarette Papers, and Cigarette Tubes Held for Sale on April 1, 2009 Records § 46.242 Period for maintaining records. The...

  6. 27 CFR 46.242 - Period for maintaining records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... PRODUCTS AND CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES Floor Stocks Tax on Certain Tobacco Products, Cigarette Papers, and Cigarette Tubes Held for Sale on April 1, 2009 Records § 46.242 Period for maintaining records. The...

  7. 27 CFR 46.242 - Period for maintaining records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... PRODUCTS AND CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES Floor Stocks Tax on Certain Tobacco Products, Cigarette Papers, and Cigarette Tubes Held for Sale on April 1, 2009 Records § 46.242 Period for maintaining records. The...

  8. Control circuit maintains unity power factor of reactive load

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kramer, M.; Martinage, L. H.

    1966-01-01

    Circuit including feedback control elements automatically corrects the power factor of a reactive load. It maintains power supply efficiency where negative load reactance changes and varies by providing corrective error signals to the control windings of a power supply transformer.

  9. Maintaining dental records: Are we ready for forensic needs?

    PubMed Central

    Astekar, Madhusudan; Saawarn, Swati; Ramesh, Gayathri; Saawarn, Nisheeth

    2011-01-01

    Context: Dental remains are usually the last to get destroyed among body parts after death. They may be useful for personal identification in cases of mass disasters and decomposed unidentified bodies. Dental records may help in the identification of suspects in criminal investigations and in medicolegal cases. Maintenance of dental records is legally mandatory in most of the European and American countries. Unfortunately, the law is not very clear in India, and the awareness is very poor. Aims: To assess the awareness regarding the dental record maintenance among dentists in Rajasthan, to deduce the quality of average dental records kept by them and to evaluate the potential use of their maintained records, in any of forensic or medicolegal cases. Settings and Design: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 100 dental practitioners of different cities in Rajasthan, India. Materials and Methods: Data were collected through a structured questionnaire, which was responded by the study population in the course of a telephonic interview. The questionnaire addressed on the mode of maintaining dental records in their regular practice. Statistical Analysis Used: The data so gathered were subjected for descriptive analysis. Results: As for knowledge or awareness about maintaining dental records, surprisingly a very low percentile (about 38%) of surveyed dentists maintained records. Sixty-two percent of the dentists were maintaining no records at all. Conclusion: Nonmaintenance or poor quality of records maintained indicates that the dentists in Rajasthan are not prepared for any kind of forensic and medicolegal need if it arises. PMID:22408320

  10. Social Indicators and Social Reporting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parke, Robert; Seidman, David

    1978-01-01

    Describes the several research traditions which combine to form the social indicators movement. All the traditions share concern for measurement, analysis, and reporting of aspects of social conditions to a general audience. Journal available from: American Academy of Political and Social Science, 3937 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania…

  11. Analysis of Shuttle Orbiter Reliability and Maintainability Data for Conceptual Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, W. D.; White, N. H.; Ebeling, C. E.

    1996-01-01

    In order to provide a basis for estimating the expected support required of new systems during their conceptual design phase, Langley Research Center has recently collected Shuttle Orbiter reliability and maintainability data from the various data base sources at Kennedy Space Center. This information was analyzed to provide benchmarks, trends, and distributions to aid in the analysis of new designs. This paper presents a summation of those results and an initial interpretation of the findings.

  12. The neural circuitry of expertise: perceptual learning and social cognition.

    PubMed

    Harré, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Amongst the most significant questions we are confronted with today include the integration of the brain's micro-circuitry, our ability to build the complex social networks that underpin society and how our society impacts on our ecological environment. In trying to unravel these issues one place to begin is at the level of the individual: to consider how we accumulate information about our environment, how this information leads to decisions and how our individual decisions in turn create our social environment. While this is an enormous task, we may already have at hand many of the tools we need. This article is intended to review some of the recent results in neuro-cognitive research and show how they can be extended to two very specific and interrelated types of expertise: perceptual expertise and social cognition. These two cognitive skills span a vast range of our genetic heritage. Perceptual expertise developed very early in our evolutionary history and is a highly developed part of all mammals' cognitive ability. On the other hand social cognition is most highly developed in humans in that we are able to maintain larger and more stable long term social connections with more behaviorally diverse individuals than any other species. To illustrate these ideas I will discuss board games as a toy model of social interactions as they include many of the relevant concepts: perceptual learning, decision-making, long term planning and understanding the mental states of other people. Using techniques that have been developed in mathematical psychology, I show that we can represent some of the key features of expertise using stochastic differential equations (SDEs). Such models demonstrate how an expert's long exposure to a particular context influences the information they accumulate in order to make a decision.These processes are not confined to board games, we are all experts in our daily lives through long exposure to the many regularities of daily tasks and social contexts. PMID:24381550

  13. The neural circuitry of expertise: perceptual learning and social cognition

    PubMed Central

    Harré, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Amongst the most significant questions we are confronted with today include the integration of the brain's micro-circuitry, our ability to build the complex social networks that underpin society and how our society impacts on our ecological environment. In trying to unravel these issues one place to begin is at the level of the individual: to consider how we accumulate information about our environment, how this information leads to decisions and how our individual decisions in turn create our social environment. While this is an enormous task, we may already have at hand many of the tools we need. This article is intended to review some of the recent results in neuro-cognitive research and show how they can be extended to two very specific and interrelated types of expertise: perceptual expertise and social cognition. These two cognitive skills span a vast range of our genetic heritage. Perceptual expertise developed very early in our evolutionary history and is a highly developed part of all mammals' cognitive ability. On the other hand social cognition is most highly developed in humans in that we are able to maintain larger and more stable long term social connections with more behaviorally diverse individuals than any other species. To illustrate these ideas I will discuss board games as a toy model of social interactions as they include many of the relevant concepts: perceptual learning, decision-making, long term planning and understanding the mental states of other people. Using techniques that have been developed in mathematical psychology, I show that we can represent some of the key features of expertise using stochastic differential equations (SDEs). Such models demonstrate how an expert's long exposure to a particular context influences the information they accumulate in order to make a decision.These processes are not confined to board games, we are all experts in our daily lives through long exposure to the many regularities of daily tasks and social contexts. PMID:24381550

  14. Hong Kong Chinese family caregiving: cultural categories of bodily order and the location of self.

    PubMed

    Holroyd, Eleanor

    2003-02-01

    This ethnographic study entailed interviews and observations over 2 years involving 35 Hong Kong Chinese families caring for elderly coresidential members. Bodily disorder was a starting point from which to locate identifiably Chinese attempts to restore disrupted family relations. Themes included bodies out of order--challenging Confucian-informed models of family obligation; controlling bodily excretions; the body in decay; and the body as the location of self. The management of bodily order by Chinese caregivers provides a cultural category in which personal experiences are ordered as public matters within specific local contexts. Caregivers dealt with both the demands of bodily needs and the imperative to maintain a social relationship. The establishment of bodily and self-order reflects a Chinese social system whereby moral duties are located primarily in kinship. The author summarizes culturally specific ways in which health professionals working with Chinese families involved in long-term care can target assessment and interventions before the onset of physical and emotional deterioration. PMID:12643026

  15. Toward a Methodology for Conducting Social Impact Assessments Using Quality of Social Life Indicators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olsen, Marvin E.; Merwin, Donna J.

    Broadly conceived, social impacts refer to all changes in the structure and functioning of patterned social ordering that occur in conjunction with an environmental, technological, or social innovation or alteration. Departing from the usual cost-benefit analysis approach, a new methodology proposes conducting social impact assessment grounded in…

  16. Toward a Methodology for Conducting Social Impact Assessments Using Quality of Social Life Indicators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olsen, Marvin E.; Merwin, Donna J.

    Broadly conceived, social impacts refer to all changes in the structure and functioning of patterned social ordering that occur in conjunction with an environmental, technological, or social innovation or alteration. Departing from the usual cost-benefit analysis approach, a new methodology proposes conducting social impact assessment grounded in…

  17. A Simple Self-Maintaining Metabolic System: Robustness, Autocatalysis, Bistability

    PubMed Central

    Piedrafita, Gabriel; Montero, Francisco; Morán, Federico; Cárdenas, María Luz; Cornish-Bowden, Athel

    2010-01-01

    A living organism must not only organize itself from within; it must also maintain its organization in the face of changes in its environment and degradation of its components. We show here that a simple (M,R)-system consisting of three interlocking catalytic cycles, with every catalyst produced by the system itself, can both establish a non-trivial steady state and maintain this despite continuous loss of the catalysts by irreversible degradation. As long as at least one catalyst is present at a sufficient concentration in the initial state, the others can be produced and maintained. The system shows bistability, because if the amount of catalyst in the initial state is insufficient to reach the non-trivial steady state the system collapses to a trivial steady state in which all fluxes are zero. It is also robust, because if one catalyst is catastrophically lost when the system is in steady state it can recreate the same state. There are three elementary flux modes, but none of them is an enzyme-maintaining mode, the entire network being necessary to maintain the two catalysts. PMID:20700491

  18. Space invaders: the moral-spatial order in neighbour dispute discourse.

    PubMed

    Stokoe, Elizabeth H; Wallwork, Jodi

    2003-12-01

    This paper investigates the interactional construction of neighbour relationships in the context of disputational talk. Neighbour dispute data were recorded in two contexts: community mediation and televised documentaries. The data were transcribed and subsequently analysed using an approach that combined ethnomethodological methods with discursive psychology, focusing on participants' orientations to and constructions of spatial categories and place formulations. Three broad themes emerged from our analysis. First, we found that the construction and regulation of normative neighbour relationships were formulated in a discourse of spatial practice. Second, we found that, through complaints about spatial transgressions and 'good' and 'bad' neighbours, the moral order was reproduced and maintained. Finally, we found that, although participants were oriented to a distinction between 'private' and 'public' spaces, talk about boundaries revealed the highly contingent nature of spatial division. We suggest that in order to better understand neighbour relationships, social psychologists must explore the way people construct and account for the spaces they interact within. PMID:14715117

  19. Disintegrating Social Sciences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perrow, Charles

    1982-01-01

    Argues that social scientists convey the impression of rational behavior by means of self-serving research techniques. Concludes that their artificially constructed order masks the disorder of everyday existence and that they should have tolerance for human frailties. (Author/WD)

  20. Sequence in the Social Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    2010-01-01

    Quality sequence in the social studies is of utmost importance. Sequence emphasizes "when" selected concepts should be stressed in ongoing lessons and units of study. The social studies teacher needs to observe pupils carefully in teaching and learning situations to ascertain suitable, ordered experiences for pupils. Pupils face frustration if the…

  1. Epithelial bridges maintain tissue integrity during collective cell migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vedula, Sri Ram Krishna; Hirata, Hiroaki; Nai, Mui Hoon; Brugués, Agustí; Toyama, Yusuke; Trepat, Xavier; Lim, Chwee Teck; Ladoux, Benoit

    2014-01-01

    The ability of skin to act as a barrier is primarily determined by the efficiency of skin cells to maintain and restore its continuity and integrity. In fact, during wound healing keratinocytes migrate collectively to maintain their cohesion despite heterogeneities in the extracellular matrix. Here, we show that monolayers of human keratinocytes migrating along functionalized micropatterned surfaces comprising alternating strips of extracellular matrix (fibronectin) and non-adherent polymer form suspended multicellular bridges over the non-adherent areas. The bridges are held together by intercellular adhesion and are subjected to considerable tension, as indicated by the presence of prominent actin bundles. We also show that a model based on force propagation through an elastic material reproduces the main features of bridge maintenance and tension distribution. Our findings suggest that multicellular bridges maintain tissue integrity during wound healing when cell-substrate interactions are weak and may prove helpful in the design of artificial scaffolds for skin regeneration.

  2. Attaining and maintaining criticality in a neuronal network model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Jiayi; Beggs, John M.

    2013-04-01

    We propose a cellular automaton model for neuronal networks that combines short-term synaptic plasticity with long-term metaplasticity. We investigate how these two mechanisms contribute to attaining and maintaining operation at the critical point. We find that short-term plasticity, represented in the model by synaptic depression and synaptic recovery, is sufficient to allow the system to attain the critical state, if the level of plasticity is properly chosen. However, it is not sufficient to maintain the criticality if the system is perturbed. But the long time scale change in the short-term plasticity, a change in the way synaptic efficacy is modified, allows the system to recover from perturbation. Working together, these two time scales of plasticity could help the system to attain and maintain criticality, leading to a self-organized critical state.

  3. Fiber Optic Repair and Maintainability (FORM) Program Progresses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Advanced aircraft will employ fiber-optic interconnection components to transmit information from airframe and propulsion sensors to the flight control computers. Although these optical interconnects have been rigorously tested under laboratory conditions to determine their operating and environmental limits, there is concern as to their repairability and maintainability when placed in actual service. The Fiber Optic Repair and Maintainability (FORM) flight test program will provide data to enable designers to improve these fiber-optic interconnection systems for the next generation of aircraft. FORM is identifying critical problems in installing, maintaining, testing, and repairing fiber-optic interconnection systems in an operational avionics environment. This program is a cooperative Government/industry effort to evaluate optical component acceptability and installation techniques for aircraft.

  4. Epithelial bridges maintain tissue integrity during collective cell migration.

    PubMed

    Vedula, Sri Ram Krishna; Hirata, Hiroaki; Nai, Mui Hoon; Brugués, Agustí; Toyama, Yusuke; Trepat, Xavier; Lim, Chwee Teck; Ladoux, Benoit

    2014-01-01

    The ability of skin to act as a barrier is primarily determined by the efficiency of skin cells to maintain and restore its continuity and integrity. In fact, during wound healing keratinocytes migrate collectively to maintain their cohesion despite heterogeneities in the extracellular matrix. Here, we show that monolayers of human keratinocytes migrating along functionalized micropatterned surfaces comprising alternating strips of extracellular matrix (fibronectin) and non-adherent polymer form suspended multicellular bridges over the non-adherent areas. The bridges are held together by intercellular adhesion and are subjected to considerable tension, as indicated by the presence of prominent actin bundles. We also show that a model based on force propagation through an elastic material reproduces the main features of bridge maintenance and tension distribution. Our findings suggest that multicellular bridges maintain tissue integrity during wound healing when cell-substrate interactions are weak and may prove helpful in the design of artificial scaffolds for skin regeneration. PMID:24292420

  5. Advanced remotely maintainable force-reflecting servomanipulator concept

    SciTech Connect

    Kuban, D.P.; Martin, H.L.

    1984-01-01

    A remotely maintainable force-reflecting servomanipulator concept is being developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory as part of the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program. This new manipulator addresses requirements of advanced nuclear fuel reprocessing with emphasis on force reflection, remote maintainability, reliability, radiation tolerance, and corrosion resistance. The advanced servomanipulator is uniquely subdivided into remotely replaceable modules which will permit in situ manipulator repair by spare module replacement. Manipulator modularization and increased reliability are accomplished through a force transmission system that uses gears and torque tubes. Digital control algorithms and mechanical precision are used to offset the increased backlash, friction, and inertia resulting from the gear drives. This results in the first remotely maintainable force-reflecting servomanipulator in the world. 10 references, 4 figures, 1 table.

  6. Genetic and Epigenetic Mechanisms That Maintain Hematopoietic Stem Cell Function

    PubMed Central

    Kosan, Christian; Godmann, Maren

    2016-01-01

    All hematopoiesis cells develop from multipotent progenitor cells. Hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) have the ability to develop into all blood lineages but also maintain their stemness. Different molecular mechanisms have been identified that are crucial for regulating quiescence and self-renewal to maintain the stem cell pool and for inducing proliferation and lineage differentiation. The stem cell niche provides the microenvironment to keep HSC in a quiescent state. Furthermore, several transcription factors and epigenetic modifiers are involved in this process. These create modifications that regulate the cell fate in a more or less reversible and dynamic way and contribute to HSC homeostasis. In addition, HSC respond in a unique way to DNA damage. These mechanisms also contribute to the regulation of HSC function and are essential to ensure viability after DNA damage. How HSC maintain their quiescent stage during the entire life is still matter of ongoing research. Here we will focus on the molecular mechanisms that regulate HSC function. PMID:26798358

  7. Student Perceptions of Social Presence and Attitudes toward Social Media: Results of a Cross-Sectional Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leafman, Joan S.; Mathieson, Kathleen M.; Ewing, Helen

    2013-01-01

    Establishing and maintaining social presence in an online environment that depends on a learning management system (LMS) can be challenging. While students believe social presence to be important, LMS platforms have yet to discover a way to deliver this expectation. The growth of social media tools presents opportunities outside an LMS to foster…

  8. Social Ferment and School Finance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hack, Walter G.

    1972-01-01

    Describes the nature of contemporary society in terms of gross or general changes observed during the past twenty years in order to consider possible breakthroughs of school finance as products of social ferment. (Author/AN)

  9. The Space Station Freedom Reliability and Maintainability Assessment Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blumentritt, Will; Doran, Linda; Sample, Keith

    1993-01-01

    The Reliability and Maintainability Assessment Tool is a stochastic, event-oriented simulation model that has been developed to analyze the functional reliability, availability, and maintainability characteristics of the Space Station Freedom. This tool simulates failures and performs corrective and preventive maintenance tasks, utilizing user-specified maintenance resources, including crewmembers and/or robotics, and accommodates the growth of the station. The model dynamically interfaces with minimal cut sets derived from reliability block diagrams to assess functional status and to determine queuing priorities.

  10. Maintainability design criteria for packaging of spacecraft replaceable electronic equipment.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kappler, J. R.; Folsom, A. B.

    1972-01-01

    Maintainability must be designed into long-duration spacecraft and equipment to provide the required high probability of mission success with the least cost and weight. The ability to perform repairs quickly and easily in a space environment can be achieved by imposing specific maintainability design criteria on spacecraft equipment design and installation. A study was funded to investigate and define design criteria for electronic equipment that would permit rapid removal and replacement in a space environment. The results of the study are discussed together with subsequent simulated zero-g demonstration tests of a mockup with new concepts for packaging.

  11. Understanding how differentiation is maintained: lessons from the Drosophila brain.

    PubMed

    Froldi, Francesca; Cheng, Louise Y

    2016-04-01

    The ability to maintain cells in a differentiated state and to prevent them from reprogramming into a multipotent state has recently emerged as a central theme in neural development as well as in oncogenesis. In the developing central nervous system (CNS) of the fruit fly Drosophila, several transcription factors were recently identified to be required in postmitotic cells to maintain differentiation, and in their absence, mature neurons undergo dedifferentiation, giving rise to proliferative neural stem cells and ultimately to tumor growth. In this review, we will highlight the current understanding of dedifferentiation and cell plasticity in the Drosophila CNS. PMID:26817462

  12. Stigmatised Choices: Social Class, Social Exclusion and Secondary School Markets in the Inner City

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reay, Diane; Lucey, Helen

    2004-01-01

    The transition to secondary school is rarely conceptualised as an important influence in maintaining and contributing to wider processes of social exclusion in the inner city. This article argues that the seeds of social exclusion are sown in under-resourced, struggling inner-city schooling, and their germination is found in class practices,…

  13. Stigmatised Choices: Social Class, Social Exclusion and Secondary School Markets in the Inner City

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reay, Diane; Lucey, Helen

    2004-01-01

    The transition to secondary school is rarely conceptualised as an important influence in maintaining and contributing to wider processes of social exclusion in the inner city. This article argues that the seeds of social exclusion are sown in under-resourced, struggling inner-city schooling, and their germination is found in class practices,…

  14. Social capital, health, and elderly driver status

    PubMed Central

    Isbel, Stephen T.; Berry, Helen L.

    2016-01-01

    Driving a car enables many people to engage in meaningful activities that, in turn, help develop and maintain personal social capital. Social capital, a combination of community participation and social cohesion, is important in maintaining well-being. This paper argues that social capital can provide a framework for investigating the general role of transportation and driving a car specifically to access activities that contribute to connectedness and well-being among older people. This paper proposes theoretically plausible and empirically testable hypotheses about the relationship between driver status, social capital, and well-being. A longitudinal study may provide a new way of understanding, and thus of addressing, the well-being challenges that occur when older people experience restrictions to, or loss of, their driver’s license.

  15. Method of maintaining activity of hydrogen-sensing platinum electrode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harman, J. N., III

    1968-01-01

    Three-electrode hydrogen sensor containing a platinum electrode maintained in a highly catalytic state, operates with a minimal response time and maximal sensitivity to the hydrogen gas being sensed. Electronic control and readout circuitry reactivates the working electrode of the sensor to a state of maximal catalytic activity.

  16. 44 CFR 321.3 - Maintaining the mobilization base.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... base. 321.3 Section 321.3 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PREPAREDNESS MAINTENANCE OF THE MOBILIZATION BASE (DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY, MARITIME ADMINISTRATION) § 321.3 Maintaining the mobilization base. (a)...

  17. Authoring and Maintaining of Educational Applications on the Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helic, Denis; Maurer, Hermann; Scherbakov, Nick

    This paper discusses problems concerning the design of educational applications in general, as well as specific problems connected with educational applications meant to be published on the Web. A new approach to the authoring and maintaining of Web-based educational applications is proposed which is based on the concept of hypermedia composites.…

  18. Mechanical Properties of Irradiated Polarization-Maintaining Optical Fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moeti, L.; Moghazy, S.; Ally, A.; Barnes, S.; Watkins, L.; Cuddihy, E.

    1996-01-01

    Polarization-maintaining optical fibers, referred to as PANDA fibers, were subjected to Cobalt 60 radiation (300,000 Rad). The mechanical properties of the PANDA fibers were measured after exposure to gamma radiation and compared to non-irradiated PANDA fibers.

  19. Photocopy of photograph (digital image maintained in LBNL Photo Lab ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of photograph (digital image maintained in LBNL Photo Lab Collection, XBD200503-00117-176). March 2005. CENTRAL COLUMN SUPPORT TO ROOF SHOWING CRANES CENTER SUPPORT TRACK, BEVATRON - University of California Radiation Laboratory, Bevatron, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, Alameda County, CA

  20. 36 CFR 1222.34 - How must agencies maintain records?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true How must agencies maintain records? 1222.34 Section 1222.34 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION RECORDS MANAGEMENT CREATION AND MAINTENANCE OF FEDERAL RECORDS Agency Recordkeeping Requirements § 1222.34 How must agencies...

  1. Maintaining Equivalent Cut Scores for Small Sample Test Forms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dwyer, Andrew C.

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the effectiveness of three approaches for maintaining equivalent performance standards across test forms with small samples: (1) common-item equating, (2) resetting the standard, and (3) rescaling the standard. Rescaling the standard (i.e., applying common-item equating methodology to standard setting ratings to account for…

  2. 27 CFR 478.122 - Records maintained by importers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Records maintained by importers. 478.122 Section 478.122 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO...) Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph (b) of this section, the Director of Industry Operations may...

  3. 27 CFR 478.122 - Records maintained by importers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Records maintained by importers. 478.122 Section 478.122 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO...) Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph (b) of this section, the Director of Industry Operations may...

  4. 27 CFR 478.122 - Records maintained by importers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Records maintained by importers. 478.122 Section 478.122 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO...) Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph (b) of this section, the Director of Industry Operations may...

  5. 27 CFR 478.122 - Records maintained by importers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Records maintained by importers. 478.122 Section 478.122 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO...) Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph (b) of this section, the Director of Industry Operations may...

  6. 48 CFR 6.202 - Establishing or maintaining alternative sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Establishing or maintaining alternative sources. 6.202 Section 6.202 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION ACQUISITION PLANNING COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Full and Open Competition After...

  7. 48 CFR 306.202 - Establishing or maintaining alternative sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Establishing or maintaining alternative sources. 306.202 Section 306.202 Federal Acquisition Regulations System HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Full and Open...

  8. 48 CFR 306.202 - Establishing or maintaining alternative sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Establishing or maintaining alternative sources. 306.202 Section 306.202 Federal Acquisition Regulations System HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Full and Open...

  9. 48 CFR 306.202 - Establishing or maintaining alternative sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Establishing or maintaining alternative sources. 306.202 Section 306.202 Federal Acquisition Regulations System HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Full and Open...

  10. 48 CFR 6.202 - Establishing or maintaining alternative sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Establishing or maintaining alternative sources. 6.202 Section 6.202 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION ACQUISITION PLANNING COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Full and Open Competition After...

  11. 48 CFR 306.202 - Establishing or maintaining alternative sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Establishing or maintaining alternative sources. 306.202 Section 306.202 Federal Acquisition Regulations System HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Full and Open...

  12. 48 CFR 306.202 - Establishing or maintaining alternative sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Establishing or maintaining alternative sources. 306.202 Section 306.202 Federal Acquisition Regulations System HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Full and Open...

  13. PULMONARY CELL POPULATIONS IN HAMSTERS MAINTAINED UNDER EGYPTIAN LABORATORY CONDITIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The study was conducted to obtain baseline values for pulmonary cells in golden hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) bred and maintained under the laboratory conditions of Al-Azhar University in Egypt. An improvised technique is presented for measuring pulmonary cells obtained by lung...

  14. 32 CFR 298.3 - Records maintained by DIS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... responsibilities. In implementing this policy, DIS follows the procedures set forth in 32 CFR part 286. DIS... 5105.42, “Defense Investigative Service (DA&M),” (32 CFR part 361) including investigative and... 32 National Defense 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Records maintained by DIS. 298.3 Section...

  15. 32 CFR 298.3 - Records maintained by DIS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... responsibilities. In implementing this policy, DIS follows the procedures set forth in 32 CFR part 286. DIS... 5105.42, “Defense Investigative Service (DA&M),” (32 CFR part 361) including investigative and... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Records maintained by DIS. 298.3 Section...

  16. Small mammal herbivory: Feedbacks that help maintain desertified ecosystems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We tested the hypothesis that herbivores contribute to feedbacks maintaining arid ecosystems in a degraded state. We studied small mammal herbivory on a subshrub, broom snakeweed (Gutierrezia sarothrae), and perennial grasses at three sites: (1) ungrazed black grama (Bouteloua eriopoda) grassland; (...

  17. Mitochondrial one-carbon metabolism maintains redox balance during hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Reyes, Inmaculada; Chandel, Navdeep S.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Mitochondria generate high levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) to activate pro-tumorigenic signaling pathways. In parallel, the mitochondria must also increase their antioxidant capacity to lower ROS levels and prevent cancer cell death. In this issue, Ye et al. demonstrate that serine catabolism through one-carbon metabolism within the mitochondrial matrix is necessary to maintain this redox balance. PMID:25477105

  18. Optical Intrusion Detection Sensor with Polarization Maintaining Fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumagai, Tatsuya; Ogura, Akira; Ohnuki, Wataru; Tan, Kotaro; Sato, Tomonori

    2008-10-01

    An optical intrusion-detection sensor based on a Sagnac interferometer has been developed for fence-mounted perimeter security applications. The interferometer is completely made of polarization maintaining fiber and related components. This sensor has been adopted by some important institutions as part of their physical security systems.

  19. 48 CFR 406.202 - Establishing or maintaining alternative sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Establishing or maintaining alternative sources. 406.202 Section 406.202 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Full and Open Competition...

  20. 48 CFR 206.202 - Establishing or maintaining alternative sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Open Competition After Exclusion of Sources 206.202 Establishing or maintaining alternative sources. (a) Agencies may use this authority to totally or partially exclude a particular source from a contract action... source to be excluded from the contract action. Include the information at PGI 206.202(b), as...

  1. 48 CFR 206.202 - Establishing or maintaining alternative sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Open Competition After Exclusion of Sources 206.202 Establishing or maintaining alternative sources. (a) Agencies may use this authority to totally or partially exclude a particular source from a contract action... source to be excluded from the contract action. Include the information at PGI 206.202(b), as...

  2. 48 CFR 406.202 - Establishing or maintaining alternative sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Establishing or maintaining alternative sources. 406.202 Section 406.202 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Full and Open Competition...

  3. 48 CFR 2406.202 - Establishing or maintaining alternative sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Establishing or maintaining alternative sources. 2406.202 Section 2406.202 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Full and...

  4. 48 CFR 606.202 - Establishing or maintaining alternate sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Establishing or maintaining alternate sources. 606.202 Section 606.202 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF STATE COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Full and Open Competition...

  5. 48 CFR 606.202 - Establishing or maintaining alternate sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Establishing or maintaining alternate sources. 606.202 Section 606.202 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF STATE COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Full and Open Competition...

  6. 48 CFR 606.202 - Establishing or maintaining alternate sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Establishing or maintaining alternate sources. 606.202 Section 606.202 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF STATE COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Full and Open Competition...

  7. 48 CFR 406.202 - Establishing or maintaining alternative sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Establishing or maintaining alternative sources. 406.202 Section 406.202 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Full and Open Competition...

  8. 48 CFR 606.202 - Establishing or maintaining alternate sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Establishing or maintaining alternate sources. 606.202 Section 606.202 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF STATE COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Full and Open Competition...

  9. 48 CFR 406.202 - Establishing or maintaining alternative sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Establishing or maintaining alternative sources. 406.202 Section 406.202 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Full and Open Competition...

  10. 48 CFR 606.202 - Establishing or maintaining alternate sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Establishing or maintaining alternate sources. 606.202 Section 606.202 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF STATE COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Full and Open Competition...

  11. 48 CFR 406.202 - Establishing or maintaining alternative sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Establishing or maintaining alternative sources. 406.202 Section 406.202 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Full and Open Competition...

  12. 48 CFR 206.202 - Establishing or maintaining alternative sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Open Competition After Exclusion of Sources 206.202 Establishing or maintaining alternative sources. (a) Agencies may use this authority to totally or partially exclude a particular source from a contract action... source to be excluded from the contract action. Include the information at PGI 206.202(b), as...

  13. Motivational Influences on Performance Maintained by Food Reinforcement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North, Stephen T.; Iwata, Brian A.

    2005-01-01

    In Study 1, we examined the independent effects of reinforcer consumption during sessions and meal consumption prior to sessions on performance maintained by food reinforcement. Nine individuals with developmental disabilities participated. On alternate days, a preferred edible item was delivered during (a) seven sessions conducted before lunch…

  14. TECHNIQUE FOR SCREENING AND MAINTAINING SMALLER GENOMIC LIBRARIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A technique for screening and simultaneously maintaining individual clones of the gene library for long-term storage is described. his method is particularly useful for identification and cloning of genes from cosmid-based genomic libraries of prokaryotes that constitute a smalle...

  15. Nuclear policy impacts at the national laboratories: maintaining the deterrence

    SciTech Connect

    Beck, James Bradley

    2010-08-24

    In this presentation, the author will discuss recent nuclear policy impacts, including the 2010 Nuclear Posture Review, and the impacts they have on maintaining the nuclear deterrent. Specifically, he will highlight some of the remaining questions and challenges that remain to the nation and to the national laboratories. (auth)

  16. 48 CFR 906.202 - Establishing or maintaining alternative sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... action under the authority of 48 CFR 6.202(a) shall be supported by a determination and finding (D&F... maintaining alternative sources. 906.202 Section 906.202 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY COMPETITION ACQUISITION PLANNING COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Full and Open Competition...

  17. 48 CFR 906.202 - Establishing or maintaining alternative sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... action under the authority of 48 CFR 6.202(a) shall be supported by a determination and finding (D&F... maintaining alternative sources. 906.202 Section 906.202 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY COMPETITION ACQUISITION PLANNING COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Full and Open Competition...

  18. 48 CFR 906.202 - Establishing or maintaining alternative sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... action under the authority of 48 CFR 6.202(a) shall be supported by a determination and finding (D&F... maintaining alternative sources. 906.202 Section 906.202 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY COMPETITION ACQUISITION PLANNING COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Full and Open Competition...

  19. 48 CFR 906.202 - Establishing or maintaining alternative sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... action under the authority of 48 CFR 6.202(a) shall be supported by a determination and finding (D&F... maintaining alternative sources. 906.202 Section 906.202 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY COMPETITION ACQUISITION PLANNING COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Full and Open Competition...

  20. Maintaining Healthy Behaviors Following Weight Loss: A Grounded Theory Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zunker, Christie; Cox, Tiffany L.; Ard, Jamy D.; Ivankova, Nataliya V.; Rutt, Candace D.; Baskin, Monica L.

    2011-01-01

    This study explored the process of how women maintained their healthy behaviors after a weight management program using a grounded theory approach. We conducted 2 focus groups and 23 interviews with a purposeful sample of African American and Caucasian women aged 30 and older who lost greater than 5% of their body weight during a weight management…

  1. Guide to Operating and Maintaining EnergySmart Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Energy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The guide allows users to adapt and implement suggested O&M (operating and maintaining) strategies to address specific energy efficiency goals. It recognizes and expands on existing tools and resources that are widely used throughout the high-performance school industry. The guide is organized into the following sections: (1) Chapter 1:…

  2. 34 CFR 668.163 - Maintaining and accounting for funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., ACG, National SMART Grant, TEACH Grant, FSEOG, and FWS program funds in an interest-bearing bank... not have to maintain Direct Loan, Federal Pell Grant, ACG, National SMART Grant, TEACH Grant, FSEOG..., National SMART Grant, TEACH Grant, FSEOG, and FWS program funds in an interest-bearing or...

  3. 34 CFR 668.163 - Maintaining and accounting for funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., ACG, National SMART Grant, TEACH Grant, FSEOG, and FWS program funds in an interest-bearing bank... not have to maintain Direct Loan, Federal Pell Grant, ACG, National SMART Grant, TEACH Grant, FSEOG..., National SMART Grant, TEACH Grant, FSEOG, and FWS program funds in an interest-bearing or...

  4. 34 CFR 668.163 - Maintaining and accounting for funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., ACG, National SMART Grant, TEACH Grant, FSEOG, and FWS program funds in an interest-bearing bank... not have to maintain Direct Loan, Federal Pell Grant, ACG, National SMART Grant, TEACH Grant, FSEOG..., National SMART Grant, TEACH Grant, FSEOG, and FWS program funds in an interest-bearing or...

  5. The military operator's experience of reliability and maintainability characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, R. Mcc.

    An account is given of the British Army's approach to the achievement of high reliability and maintainability in rotorcraft during the procurement process. Attention is given to experience accumulated to date with the Gazelle, Scout, Agusta A109A, and Lynx helicopters; these offer lessons with respect to the Gem engine, fuel filtering, vibration, and an aircraft flight control system.

  6. Impact of Agile Software Development Model on Software Maintainability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gawali, Ajay R.

    2012-01-01

    Software maintenance and support costs account for up to 60% of the overall software life cycle cost and often burdens tightly budgeted information technology (IT) organizations. Agile software development approach delivers business value early, but implications on software maintainability are still unknown. The purpose of this quantitative study…

  7. Guidelines for Beginning and Maintaining a Toy Lending Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rettig, Michael A.

    1998-01-01

    Toy-lending libraries provide parents and professionals with opportunities for shared play and the loan of toys. This article reviews the history of toy-lending libraries and the purpose of Lekoteks, the Swedish toy library. Guidelines and suggestions for developing and maintaining a toy-lending library are discussed. (JPB)

  8. 2 CFR 182.40 - How is the guidance maintained?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false How is the guidance maintained? 182.40 Section 182.40 Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET GOVERNMENTWIDE GUIDANCE FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS Reserved GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL...

  9. Maintaining Healthy Behaviors Following Weight Loss: A Grounded Theory Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zunker, Christie; Cox, Tiffany L.; Ard, Jamy D.; Ivankova, Nataliya V.; Rutt, Candace D.; Baskin, Monica L.

    2011-01-01

    This study explored the process of how women maintained their healthy behaviors after a weight management program using a grounded theory approach. We conducted 2 focus groups and 23 interviews with a purposeful sample of African American and Caucasian women aged 30 and older who lost greater than 5% of their body weight during a weight management…

  10. 22 CFR 171.2 - Types of records maintained.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    .... Certain records that pertain to individuals are also maintained such as applications for U.S. passports, applications for visas to enter the U.S., records on consular assistance given abroad by U.S. Foreign Service... available through the Department's Web site: http://www.state.gov or directly at the FOIA home page:...

  11. 22 CFR 171.2 - Types of records maintained.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    .... Certain records that pertain to individuals are also maintained such as applications for U.S. passports, applications for visas to enter the U.S., records on consular assistance given abroad by U.S. Foreign Service... available through the Department's Web site: http://www.state.gov or directly at the FOIA home page:...

  12. 2 CFR 180.40 - How are these guidelines maintained?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false How are these guidelines maintained? 180.40 Section 180.40 Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET GOVERNMENTWIDE GUIDANCE FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS Reserved OMB GUIDELINES TO AGENCIES ON GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND...

  13. Genetic and somatic effects in animals maintained on tritiated water

    SciTech Connect

    Carsten, A.L.; Brooks, A.; Commerford, S.L.; Cronkite, E.P.

    1981-01-01

    The possible genetic (dominant lethal mutations (DLM) and cytogenetic changes in the regenerating liver) and somatic (hematopoietic stem cell changes, growth and nonspecific life time shortening) effects in mice maintained on tritiated water (HTO) over two generations was investigated. Results to date are summarized. (ACR)

  14. 2 CFR 180.510 - Who maintains the EPLS?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... procurement debarment and suspension system, the agency enters the information about the excluded person into... AGREEMENTS Reserved OMB GUIDELINES TO AGENCIES ON GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Excluded Parties List System § 180.510 Who maintains the EPLS? The General Services Administration...

  15. 7 CFR 3017.510 - Who maintains the EPLS?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... nonprocurement or procurement debarment and suspension system, the agency enters the information about the..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Excluded Parties List System § 3017.510 Who maintains the EPLS? In accordance with the OMB guidelines, the General...

  16. 22 CFR 1508.510 - Who maintains the EPLS?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... action to exclude a person under the nonprocurement or procurement debarment and suspension system, the....510 Foreign Relations AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT FOUNDATION GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Excluded Parties List System § 1508.510 Who maintains the EPLS? In accordance with the...

  17. 29 CFR 98.510 - Who maintains the EPLS?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... under the nonprocurement or procurement debarment and suspension system, the agency enters the... of the Secretary of Labor GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Excluded Parties List System § 98.510 Who maintains the EPLS? In accordance with the OMB guidelines, the...

  18. 21 CFR 1404.510 - Who maintains the EPLS?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... action to exclude a person under the nonprocurement or procurement debarment and suspension system, the... Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Excluded Parties List System § 1404.510 Who maintains the EPLS? In accordance with the...

  19. 22 CFR 208.510 - Who maintains the EPLS?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... action to exclude a person under the nonprocurement or procurement debarment and suspension system, the... Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Excluded Parties List System § 208.510 Who maintains the EPLS? In accordance with the...

  20. 22 CFR 1006.510 - Who maintains the EPLS?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... action to exclude a person under the nonprocurement or procurement debarment and suspension system, the....510 Foreign Relations INTER-AMERICAN FOUNDATION GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Excluded Parties List System § 1006.510 Who maintains the EPLS? In accordance with the...

  1. 41 CFR 51-4.3 - Maintaining qualification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Maintaining qualification. 51-4.3 Section 51-4.3 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to Public Contracts COMMITTEE FOR PURCHASE FROM PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED 4-NONPROFIT AGENCIES §...

  2. 40 CFR 63.5190 - What records must I maintain?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true What records must I maintain? 63.5190 Section 63.5190 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air...

  3. Motivational Influences on Performance maintained by Food Reinforcement

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    In Study 1, we examined the independent effects of reinforcer consumption during sessions and meal consumption prior to sessions on performance maintained by food reinforcement. Nine individuals with developmental disabilities participated. On alternate days, a preferred edible item was delivered during (a) seven sessions conducted before lunch (repeated-reinforcement condition) versus (b) one session each conducted before and after lunch (pre- and postmeal conditions). Results for 7 of 9 participants showed decreased response rates across sessions in the repeated-reinforcement condition; results for 3 of 9 participants showed decreased rates during postmeal relative to premeal conditions. Two participants who did not show a decrement in responding during either comparison participated in Study 2, in which reinforcer consumption during sessions, combined with meal consumption prior to sessions, also had no effect on their performance. In Study 3, we determined whether (a) choice of reinforcers, (b) increased break time between sessions, (c) varied reinforcers, or (d) intermittent reinforcement schedules mitigated the satiation effects observed for the 7 participants in Study 1. Presession choice of reinforcers resulted in maintained performance for 2 of 6 participants exposed to this condition. Varied reinforcement resulted in maintained performance for only 1 of 5 participants exposed to this condition. Neither the increased break between sessions nor the intermittent reinforcement schedule was effective in maintaining performance for the participants who were exposed to these conditions. PMID:16270842

  4. Improved maintainability of space-based reusable rocket engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barkhoudarian, S.; Szemenyei, B.; Nelson, R. S.; Pauckert, R.; Harmon, T.

    1988-01-01

    Advanced, noninferential, noncontacting, in situ measurement technologies, combined with automated testing and expert systems, can provide continuous, automated health monitoring of critical space-based rocket engine components, requiring minimal disassembly and no manual data analysis, thus enhancing their maintainability. This paper concentrates on recent progress of noncontacting combustion chamber wall thickness condition-monitoring technologies.

  5. Maintaining or Disrupting Inequality: Diversity Statements in the University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merkl, Linda

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of my study was to identify whether university Diversity Statements aid in maintaining or disrupting inequality in the university. Using critical discourse analysis, I analyzed an initial sample of eleven Diversity Statements to develop a list of common themes found within the diversity statements. Using a maximum variation method, I…

  6. Assessment and Treatment of Elopement Maintained by Access to Stereotypy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falcomata, Terry S.; Roane, Henry S.; Feeney, Brian J.; Stephenson, Kasey M.

    2010-01-01

    We evaluated a treatment for elopement maintained by access to stereotypic door play. First, we conducted a functional analysis of elopement that produced undifferentiated results. Next, we conducted an assessment in which we evaluated the relation between elopement and door play. Results suggested a functional relation between the 2 behaviors…

  7. 44 CFR 321.3 - Maintaining the mobilization base.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Maintaining the mobilization base. 321.3 Section 321.3 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY... alternate production capacity in case disaster destroys current facilities, such capacity to be located...

  8. 34 CFR 364.35 - What records must be maintained?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What records must be maintained? 364.35 Section 364.35 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION... CENTERS FOR INDEPENDENT LIVING PROGRAM: GENERAL PROVISIONS What Are the State Plan Requirements? §...

  9. Maintaining connections in children's grief narratives in popular film.

    PubMed

    Sedney, Mary Anne

    2002-04-01

    Children's grief narratives in popular films were examined for their portrayal of connection-maintaining strategies with the deceased. Comparisons were made between strategies found in actual parentally bereaved children and in child characters in films. Implications of these filmed grief narratives for models of grieving and for practice are discussed. PMID:15792067

  10. 30 CFR 285.602 - What records must I maintain?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What records must I maintain? 285.602 Section 285.602 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE RENEWABLE ENERGY ALTERNATE USES OF EXISTING FACILITIES ON THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Plans and...

  11. Impact of Agile Software Development Model on Software Maintainability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gawali, Ajay R.

    2012-01-01

    Software maintenance and support costs account for up to 60% of the overall software life cycle cost and often burdens tightly budgeted information technology (IT) organizations. Agile software development approach delivers business value early, but implications on software maintainability are still unknown. The purpose of this quantitative study…

  12. Maintaining or Disrupting Inequality: Diversity Statements in the University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merkl, Linda

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of my study was to identify whether university Diversity Statements aid in maintaining or disrupting inequality in the university. Using critical discourse analysis, I analyzed an initial sample of eleven Diversity Statements to develop a list of common themes found within the diversity statements. Using a maximum variation method, I…

  13. Temporal variability in detritus resource maintains diversity of bacterial communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiltunen, Teppo; Laakso, Jouni; Kaitala, Veijo; Suomalainen, Lotta-Riina; Pekkonen, Minna

    2008-05-01

    Competition theory generally predicts that diversity is maintained by temporal environmental fluctuations. One of the many suggested mechanisms for maintaining diversity in fluctuating environments is the gleaner-opportunist trade-off, whereby gleaner species have low threshold resource levels and low maximum growth rates in high resource concentration while opportunist species show opposite characteristics. We measured the growth rates of eight heterotrophic aquatic bacteria under different concentrations of chemically complex plant detritus resource. The growth rates revealed gleaner-opportunist trade-offs. The role of environmental variability in maintaining diversity was tested in a 28-day experiment with three different resource fluctuation regimes imposed on two four-species bacterial communities in microcosms. We recorded population densities with serial dilution plating and total biomass as turbidity. Changes in resource availability were measured from filter-sterilised medium by re-introducing the consumer species and recording short-term growth rates. The type of environmental variation had no effect on resource availability, which declined slowly during the experiment and differed in level between the communities. However, the slowly fluctuating environment had the highest Shannon diversity index, biomass, and coefficient of variation of biomass in both communities. We did not find a clear link between the gleaner-opportunist trade-off and diversity in fluctuating environments. Nevertheless, our results do not exclude this explanation and support the general view that temporal environmental variation maintains species diversity also in communities feeding chemically complex resource.

  14. The relevance of maintaining and worsening processes in psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Mancini, Francesco; Gangemi, Amelia

    2015-01-01

    The states called "psychopathology" are very diverse, but Lane et al.'s single-process explanation does little to account for this diversity. Moreover, some other crucial phenomena of psychopathology do not fit this theory: the role of negative evaluations of conscious emotions, and the role of emotions without physiological correlates. And it does not consider the processes maintaining disorders. PMID:26050677

  15. 40 CFR 62.14460 - What records must I maintain?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What records must I maintain? 62.14460 Section 62.14460 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF STATE PLANS FOR DESIGNATED FACILITIES AND POLLUTANTS Federal Plan Requirements for...

  16. Banded vs Bonded Space Maintainers: Finding Better Way Out

    PubMed Central

    Kumar Pandit, Inder; Srivastava, Nikhil; Gugnani, Neeraj; Gupta, Monika

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives: Of this in vivo study was to evaluate various space maintainers in terms of survival rate, gingival health and presence of caries. Design: A total of 60 extraction sites in the age group of 4 to 9 years were divided into four groups and different space maintainers were placed in them viz (conventional band and loop, prefabricated band with custom made loop, Ribbond, Super splint). Results: Prefabricated bands with custom made loop showed maximum success rates (84.6%), while super splint (33.33%) was found to be least successful. In terms of gingival health, prefabricated band with custom made loop reported minimum cases with poor gingival health (27.2%), while maximum cases with poor gingival health (50%) were reported with Super splint. None of the space maintainers developed caries at the end of 9 months. How to cite this article: Setia v, Pandit IK, Srivastava N, Gugnani N, Gupta M. Banded vs Bonded Space Maintainers: Finding Better Way Out. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2014;7(2):97-104. PMID:25356008

  17. Alzheimer's disease and language impairments: social intervention and medical treatment.

    PubMed

    Klimova, Blanka; Maresova, Petra; Valis, Martin; Hort, Jakub; Kuca, Kamil

    2015-01-01

    Communication is very important for people to be successfully integrated into social environment and make and maintain relationship. Particularly, language difficulties lead to social exclusion of the people affected with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and contribute to a significant decrease in the quality of their life and also have a big impact on their family members who in most cases become their caregivers who need to communicate with their loved ones in order to meet their needs. Therefore, the goal of this study is to describe language impairments in the individual phases of AD and discuss their improvement with respect to AD on the basis of literature review. The authors of this article use traditional research methods in order to achieve the goal set mentioned earlier. First, a method of literature review of available sources describing language impairments in the individual phases of AD is exploited. Second, to show how informal caregivers and relevant drugs can successfully intervene in the improvement of these language impairments, a method of comparison of different research studies exploring such social intervention and medical treatment is used. PMID:26346123

  18. [Social cooperatives in Italy].

    PubMed

    Villotti, P; Zaniboni, S; Fraccaroli, F

    2014-06-01

    This paper describes the role of social cooperatives in Italy as a type of economic, non-profit organization and their role in contributing to the economic and social growth of the country. The purpose of this paper is to learn more about the experience of the Italian social cooperatives in promoting the work integration process of disadvantaged workers, especially those suffering from mental disorders, from a theoretical and an empirical point of view. Social enterprise is the most popular and consolidated legal and organizational model for social enterprises in Italy, introduced by Law 381/91. Developed during the early 1980s, and formally recognized by law in the early 1990s, social cooperatives aim at pursuing the general interest of the community to promote the human needs and social inclusion of citizens. They are orientated towards aims that go beyond the interest of the business owners, the primary beneficiary of their activities is the community, or groups of disadvantaged people. In Italy, Law 381/91 distinguishes between two categories of social cooperatives, those producing goods of social utility, such as culture, welfare and educational services (A-type), and those providing economic activities for the integration of disadvantaged people into employment (B-type). The main purpose of B-type social cooperatives is to integrate disadvantaged people into the open labour market. This goal is reached after a period of training and working experience inside the firm, during which the staff works to improve both the social and professional abilities of disadvantaged people. During the years, B-type social co-ops acquired a particular relevance in the care of people with mental disorders by offering them with job opportunities. Having a job is central in the recovery process of people suffering from mental diseases, meaning that B-type social co-ops in Italy play an important rehabilitative and integrative role for this vulnerable population of workers. The recent literature has highlighted that difficulties with employment are a feature of mental disorders, with high unemployment rates and short job tenure. Yet, success in employment for this population can be expected when they are provided with adequate support and opportunities. B-type social cooperatives in Italy are found to be very useful in order to help this disadvantaged category of workers find and keep a job. The work environment is more flexible and allows a better integration with less stigma and better work accommodations compared to the open labour market and/or other public/private organizations. Results from B-type Italian social cooperatives studies show that mentally ill workers value the importance of working, are highly satisfied with their job, are motivated to continue working, are engaged in their job and willing to work in the competitive labour market. Also, studies show that environmental characteristics of the social cooperative, such as the implementation of work accommodations and the possibility to work in an environment that is highly supportive, have an impact on increasing the likelihood of being highly satisfied with the job, which in turn is positively related to job tenure. In sum, this article shed light on the historical background that led to the development of social cooperatives in Italy. Furthermore, the features of B-type co-ops that play a central role in facilitating the work integration of people with mental disorders are described in this paper. In general, Italian B-type social cooperatives are found to provide a meaningful work experience to people with mental disorders, that help them increase not only vocational outcomes, but also psycho-social outcomes, and generally to help them better integrate into society. PMID:24948479

  19. Social Revolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villano, Matt

    2007-01-01

    MySpace and Facebook may have been pioneers in the world of social software, but nowadays, colleges and universities across the country are embracing better and more targeted forms of technology, to enable their campus users to interact. Today, the world of social software includes traditional venues and formats: (1) blogs; (2) wikis; and (3)…

  20. Mechanical properties of different types of space maintainers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beldiman, M.-A.; Mârţu, I.; Leiţoiu, B.; Luchian, I.; Lupescu, O.; Bârcă, E. S.

    2015-11-01

    Currently, inside the oral cavity, the dental space maintainers are subjected to forces exerted on them when performing various functions; therefore, it is important to know how each of these mechanisms behave and respond to forces that are applied directly to them. The mechanical properties of the materials used in dentistry are defined by a set of characteristics representing the behaviour of their particular working conditions and it is qualitatively expressed by a number of parameters.The study aimed to determine the pressing force that can be taken by four 4 types of space maintainers frequently used in practice - fixed and removable, applied on four samples realized with human teeth extracted for orthodontic purposes. Static tests were carried out on a machine type short WDW-5 EC with a maximum force of 5 kN and a loading speed of 5 mm/min by a special testing machine, with an innovative appliance; data recording was automatically performed, using a computer with a special program that present the specific diagrams. Experimental determinations included the following aspects: to determine the maximum force that can be supported by each sample, and to observe the deformations. The values obtained indicate that the best option in terms of behavior under the conditions specified is the removable appliance, and the less functional version is the fixed space maintainer using brackets. According to tests conducted, the fracture strength was found to be more important for fixed space maintainers (band and loop, for example) so, in practice is using more frequent these types of space maintainers.

  1. Fertilization test performance using Arbacia punctulata maintained in static culture

    SciTech Connect

    Serbst, J.R.; Wright, L.; Sheehan, C.V.; Fitzpatrick, K.

    1995-12-31

    The sea urchin fertilization test using the Atlantic urchin, Arbacia punctulata, is widely utilized in evaluating toxicity of receiving waters and effluents as part of the NPDES program. While this species is easily maintained in uncontaminated, flow-through seawater systems, laboratories without access to flowing seawater either obtain new urchins for each test or maintain populations in static cultures. This study was conducted to assess test success and reproducibility of fertilization tests conducted using urchins maintained in separate-sex, static, temperature-controlled aquaria containing filtered natural seawater. Test performance was evaluated by periodically conducting the standard sea urchin fertilization test (EPA 600/4-87-028) using a common reference toxicant, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) Thirteen tests were conducted between September 1993 and May 1994 using one population of urchins, and five tests were conducted between June and December 1994 with a second population of urchins. Test success was 100% (control fertilization > 50%) with a control fertilization mean of 96.4% (S.D. = 3.3). There were no differences between mean EC{sub 50} values calculated for each set of tests (p < 0.05). The running mean value for toxicity was 7.1 mg/L (S.D. = 1.26) for 18 tests, with a CV of 17.7%, comparing favorably with values generated using urchins maintained in flowing seawater. The running mean value for toxicity in these tests was 2.4 mg/L (S.D. = 0.9) for 18 tests conducted between November 1987 and July 1989 (ASTM STP 1124). Data from all urchin tests were used to construct a control chart defining normal ranges for SDS toxicity. This study demonstrated that fertile, adult sea urchins can produce consistent toxicity responses with low variability while being maintained in static, temperature regulated culture facilities.

  2. 48 CFR 204.7005 - Assignment of order codes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Assignment of order codes... Identification Numbers 204.7005 Assignment of order codes. (a) Defense Procurement and Acquisition Policy, Program Development and Implementation, maintains the order code assignments for use in the first...

  3. 48 CFR 204.7005 - Assignment of order codes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Assignment of order codes... Identification Numbers 204.7005 Assignment of order codes. (a) Defense Procurement and Acquisition Policy, Program Development and Implementation, maintains the order code assignments for use in the first...

  4. 48 CFR 204.7005 - Assignment of order codes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Assignment of order codes... Identification Numbers 204.7005 Assignment of order codes. (a) Defense Procurement and Acquisition Policy, Program Development and Implementation, maintains the order code assignments for use in the first...

  5. 48 CFR 204.7005 - Assignment of order codes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Assignment of order codes... Identification Numbers 204.7005 Assignment of order codes. (a) Defense Procurement and Acquisition Policy, Program Development and Implementation, maintains the order code assignments for use in the first...

  6. [Social phobia].

    PubMed

    Bandelow, B; Wedekind, D

    2014-05-01

    With a lifetime prevalence of 13% social phobia (social anxiety disorder) is a common and serious condition that should not be played down because of the burden associated with the disorder, an increased suicide rate and the frequent comorbidity with substance abuse disorders. Social phobia is characterized by the excessive and unrealistic fear of being scrutinized or criticized by others. The disorder often begins in adolescence.Symptoms of social phobia can be effectively treated with evidence-based treatment, including cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) and psychopharmacological medications. In the present paper, treatment recommendations are given, which are based on a systematic review of all available randomized trials for the treatment of social phobia. Among psychological therapies, variants of CBT have been proven to be effective in controlled studies. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and the selective serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI) venlafaxine are among the drugs of first choice. PMID:24718882

  7. The dynamics of social capital and health.

    PubMed

    Lavalle, Tiziana; Omosebi, Charles Damimola; Desmarteau, Robert H

    2016-01-01

    In the wake of Robert Putnam's arrival in Italy to study regionalization, this review of the literature on social capital aimed to establish whether current knowledge, social or socio-anthropological research have yielded new findings on how social capital is built and maintained or developed in a community and to what extent this influences social well-being. This is particularly important for those working in the health sector to make sure that health-related decision-making and behaviour foster rather than destroy the development of social capital. Our literature search was based on specific articles published in scientific journals in the humanist, managerial and medical fields, book titles or subtitles containing references to "social capital or social cooperation or reciprocity". Our findings led us to the conclusion that a complex series of coordinated actions are required for social capital to develop and that, once developed, social capital has a positive impact on social relations, economic results and social stability. In addition, we understood why it is useful to retain three stages, conditioning, development and capitalization, in modelling the development of social capital. Conditioning requires transparency, pragmatism and long-term vision. Development and capitalization require the predominant variables to be chosen. The development of social capital is part of a good strategy for health promotion and prevention. PMID:26828341

  8. Order Theoretical Semantic Recommendation

    SciTech Connect

    Joslyn, Cliff A.; Hogan, Emilie A.; Paulson, Patrick R.; Peterson, Elena S.; Stephan, Eric G.; Thomas, Dennis G.

    2013-07-23

    Mathematical concepts of order and ordering relations play multiple roles in semantic technologies. Discrete totally ordered data characterize both input streams and top-k rank-ordered recommendations and query output, while temporal attributes establish numerical total orders, either over time points or in the more complex case of startend temporal intervals. But also of note are the fully partially ordered data, including both lattices and non-lattices, which actually dominate the semantic strcuture of ontological systems. Scalar semantic similarities over partially-ordered semantic data are traditionally used to return rank-ordered recommendations, but these require complementation with true metrics available over partially ordered sets. In this paper we report on our work in the foundations of partial order measurement in ontologies, with application to top-k semantic recommendation in workflows.

  9. Adherence of Bordetella bronchiseptica 276 to porcine trachea maintained in organ culture.

    PubMed Central

    Dugal, F; Girard, C; Jacques, M

    1990-01-01

    Two organ culture models have been adapted for porcine tracheae in order to study colonization by Bordetella bronchiseptica. Rings or segments excised from tracheae of newborn piglets were incubated overnight at 37 degrees C in a nutrient medium under 5% CO2-95% air conditions. Tracheal segments were infected with B bronchiseptica 276, and after different incubation times, bacterial counts were done. B. bronchiseptica adhered well to tracheae maintained in culture, and no statistically significant differences between the two models were observed. Noninfected tracheal mucosae maintained a normal appearance for several days, whereas infected mucosae showed typical damage caused by B. bronchiseptica, namely, loss of ciliary activity and cilia and sloughing of ciliated cells. Our data indicated that porcine tracheal organ culture could be advantageously used to study in vitro colonization by B. bronchiseptica. Images PMID:2383001

  10. Adherence of Bordetella bronchiseptica 276 to porcine trachea maintained in organ culture.

    PubMed

    Dugal, F; Girard, C; Jacques, M

    1990-06-01

    Two organ culture models have been adapted for porcine tracheae in order to study colonization by Bordetella bronchiseptica. Rings or segments excised from tracheae of newborn piglets were incubated overnight at 37 degrees C in a nutrient medium under 5% CO2-95% air conditions. Tracheal segments were infected with B bronchiseptica 276, and after different incubation times, bacterial counts were done. B. bronchiseptica adhered well to tracheae maintained in culture, and no statistically significant differences between the two models were observed. Noninfected tracheal mucosae maintained a normal appearance for several days, whereas infected mucosae showed typical damage caused by B. bronchiseptica, namely, loss of ciliary activity and cilia and sloughing of ciliated cells. Our data indicated that porcine tracheal organ culture could be advantageously used to study in vitro colonization by B. bronchiseptica. PMID:2383001

  11. Minimal Orderings Revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Peyton, B.W.

    1999-07-01

    When minimum orderings proved too difficult to deal with, Rose, Tarjan, and Leuker instead studied minimal orderings and how to compute them (Algorithmic aspects of vertex elimination on graphs, SIAM J. Comput., 5:266-283, 1976). This paper introduces an algorithm that is capable of computing much better minimal orderings much more efficiently than the algorithm in Rose et al. The new insight is a way to use certain structures and concepts from modern sparse Cholesky solvers to re-express one of the basic results in Rose et al. The new algorithm begins with any initial ordering and then refines it until a minimal ordering is obtained. it is simple to obtain high-quality low-cost minimal orderings by using fill-reducing heuristic orderings as initial orderings for the algorithm. We examine several such initial orderings in some detail.

  12. Whereto, the Social Studies: Social Studies or the Social Sciences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaver, James P.

    This paper defines, inquires into the relationships, and analyzes the terms social sciences and social studies. Too often social studies are a simplified instructional adaptation from the social sciences in which curricular decisions are made on the basis of dictates of the social science disciplines and of college prerequisites. A social studies…

  13. Cultural Aspects in Social Anxiety and Social Anxiety Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Hofmann, Stefan G.; Asnaani, Anu; Hinton, Devon E.

    2010-01-01

    To examine cultural aspects in social anxiety and social anxiety disorder (SAD), we reviewed the literature on the prevalence rates, expressions, and treatments of social anxiety/SAD as they relate to culture, race, and ethnicity. We further reviewed factors that contribute to the differences in social anxiety/SAD between different cultures, including individualism/collectivism, perception of social norms, self-construal, gender roles, and gender role identification. Our review suggests that the prevalence and expression of social anxiety/SAD depends on the particular culture. Asian cultures typically show the lowest rates, whereas Russian and US samples show the highest rates, of SAD. Taijin kyofusho is discussed as a possible culture-specific expression of social anxiety, although the empirical evidence concerning the validity of this syndrome has been mixed. It is concluded that the individual's social concerns need to be examined in the context of the person's cultural, racial, and ethnic background in order to adequately assess the degree and expression of social anxiety and social anxiety disorder. This has direct relevance for the upcoming DSM-V. PMID:21132847

  14. Social mix policies in Paris: discourses, policies and social effects.

    PubMed

    Bacqué, Marie-Hélène; Fijalkow, Yankel; Launay, Lydie; Vermeersch, Stéphanie

    2011-01-01

    Since the 1980s, the issue of social mix has become a public policy category in France. Enshrined in legislation, yet remaining controversial, it represents a major premise on which housing policies have been reconfigured. The concept of social mix is essentially based on who lives where, but it is also evoked in the context of urban renewal schemes for social housing estates, as well as in relation to new-build developments. A study of the bases of social mix policies conducted in Paris since 2001 in the context of the embourgeoisement of the capital shows the fundamental role of social housing stock. The City Council has become involved in policy decisions about both the location and the allocation of social housing. Particular attention has been paid to the middle classes in the name of the principle of ‘balancing the population’. In order to measure the effects of the policy, this article relies on an analysis of two City of Paris schemes that have the stated intent of creating social mix. One of these schemes consists of redeveloping a working-class neighbourhood, Goutte d'Or, while the other involves the new acquisition of social housing in various more affluent neighbourhoods in the capital. This comparative study of the population shows that, whether in a neighbourhood poised for gentrification or in a more affluent neighbourhood, this policy has major effects on forms of local social cohesion, setting in motion individual trajectories and reshaping social and/or ethnic identities. PMID:21542203

  15. Using GPS and VLBI technology to maintain 14 digit synchronization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ward, S. C.

    1984-01-01

    To facilitate the navigation of spacecraft to the outer planets, Jupiter and beyond, the JPL-NASA Deep Space Network (DSN) has implemented three ensembles of atomic clocks at widely separated locations. These clocks must be maintained, synchronized, to with a few parts in 10 to the 13th power of each other and, the entire group must be maintained, to a lesser degree, in synchronism with Coordinated Universal Time (UTC)NBS/USNO. Over the last 1 1/2 years the DSN has been using Global Positioning Satellites (GPS) and Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) technology to perform these critical Frequency and Time (F&T) synchronization tasks. A year of F&T synchronization data collected from the intercomparison of 3 sets of cesium and hydrogen maser driven clock ensembles through the use of GPS and VLBI techniques are covered. Also covered, are some of the problems met and limitations of these two techniques at their present level of technology.

  16. Experimental control for initiating and maintaining rotation of parametric pendulum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaziri, V.; Najdecka, A.; Wiercigroch, M.

    2014-04-01

    In this paper, the authors have studied experimentally the control methods of a parametric pendulum excited harmonically to initiate and maintain a period one rotation - the most superior response for energy harvesting. For initiating the period one rotation inherent in the system, first the bang-bang method is applied. Then a new method where velocity is monitored is proposed and applied and finally the time-delayed feedback method with multi-switching is considered. Ultimately the problem of maintaining the rotation of the pendulum is addressed. For first time, robustness and sensitivity of the latter method to change of frequency and amplitude of excitation and added noise are studied. Finally, it has been demonstrated how the delayed feedback method can be applied in a system of two pendula to ensure synchronized rotation.

  17. Polarization maintaining linear cavity Er-doped fiber femtosecond laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Heesuk; Jang, Yoon-Soo; Kim, Seungman; Lee, Keunwoo; Han, Seongheum; Kim, Young-Jin; Kim, Seung-Woo

    2015-10-01

    We present a polarization-maintaining (PM) type of Er-doped fiber linear oscillator designed to produce femtosecond laser pulses with high operational stability. Mode locking is activated using a semiconductor saturable absorber mirror (SESAM) attached to one end of the linear PM oscillator. To avoid heat damage, the SESAM is mounted on a copper-silicon-layered heat sink and connected to the linear oscillator through a fiber buffer dissipating the residual pump power. A long-term stability test is performed to prove that the proposed oscillator design maintains a soliton-mode single-pulse operation without breakdown of mode locking over a week period. With addition of an Er-doped fiber amplifier, the output power is raised to 180 mW with 60 fs pulse duration, from which an octave-spanning supercontinuum is produced.

  18. Polarization maintaining buffered Fourier domain mode-locked swept source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jun; Jing, Joe; Wang, Pinghe; Chen, Zhongping

    2012-01-01

    A polarization maintaining buffered Fourier domain mode-locked (FDML) swept source at center wavelength of 1310 nm for multiplying the scanning rate of FDML swept source was demonstrated. The scanning rate of the buffered FDML swept source was doubled without sacrificing the output power of the swept source by combining two orthogonally polarized outputs with a polarization beam combiner (PBC). The stability of the swept source was improved significantly because the polarization state of the laser beam inside the cavity is maintained without any polarization controllers. With the linear polarization states of the output laser beam, the buffered FDML swept source is also ready to be used in a PSOCT system. The swept source is capable of a tuning range of more than 150 nm at a 102 kHz sweeping rate. An FDOCT system was developed with the built swept source.

  19. Maintaining Engagement in Long-term Interventions with Relational Agents

    PubMed Central

    Bickmore, Timothy; Schulman, Daniel; Yin, Langxuan

    2011-01-01

    We discuss issues in designing virtual humans for applications which require long-term voluntary use, and the problem of maintaining engagement with users over time. Concepts and theories related to engagement from a variety of disciplines are reviewed. We describe a platform for conducting studies into long-term interactions between humans and virtual agents, and present the results of two longitudinal randomized controlled experiments in which the effect of manipulations of agent behavior on user engagement was assessed. PMID:21318052

  20. Ballast system for maintaining constant pressure in a glove box

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shlichta, Paul J. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A ballast system is disclosed for a glove box including a fixed platform on which is mounted an inflatable bag on top of which resides a cover and a weight. The variable gas volume of the inflatable bag communicates with that of the glove box via a valved tube. The weight and the gas volume are selected to maintain a relatively constant pressure in the glove box despite variations in the glove box volume while avoiding the use of complicated valving apparatus.