Sample records for maintaining social order

  1. Social orders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Norman Schofield

    2010-01-01

    This review discusses the stability of social orders in light of the recent work Violence and Social Orders by Douglass North, John Wallis and Barry Weingast (hereafter NWW). The purpose of this book was to understand the two great\\u000a transitions that have occurred in human society. The first, the agricultural revolution, resulted in a transition from hunter–gather society to what

  2. Maintaining Ties on Social Media Sites: The Competing Effects of Balance, Exchange, and Betweenness

    E-print Network

    Kleinberg, Jon

    Maintaining Ties on Social Media Sites: The Competing Effects of Balance, Exchange, and Betweenness for using social media data to begin isolating the effects of three distinct social forces on relationship@cs.cornell.edu Abstract When users interact with one another on social media sites, the volume and frequency

  3. Social Studies and the Social Order: Transmission or Transformation?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanley, William B.

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author brings a historical perspective to the perennial question, "Should social studies teachers work to transmit the status quo or to transform it?" Should they transmit or transform the social order? When one looks at the question of education for social transformation in the context of American history, three prevailing…

  4. Socialization Among the Old Order Mennonites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John F. Peters

    1987-01-01

    The Old Order Mennonites continue with their separate and peculiar life ways amidst the modern Canadian society. Some very gradual change, primarily because of the inevitable association with the external social structure, is documented. However, effective socializa tion in ethnic maintenance is found because of: the strong adherence to the Swiss-German dialect, the religious-tradition base of their values, the self

  5. CAD models are an important step in several engineering projects. In order to maintain

    E-print Network

    Barbosa, Alberto

    Abstract CAD models are an important step in several engineering projects. In order to maintain. Keywords: Virtual Reality, CAD models, Collaborative Virtual Prototyping and Design review. 1. Introduction Nowadays the engineering projects are using CAD (Computer-Aided Design) tools not just to plan

  6. Maintaining Pedagogical Integrity of a Computer Mediated Course Delivery in Social Foundations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Shelley; Cobb-Roberts, Deirdre; Shircliffe, Barbara J.

    2013-01-01

    Transforming a face to face course to a computer mediated format in social foundations (interdisciplinary field in education), while maintaining pedagogical integrity, involves strategic collaboration between instructional technologists and content area experts. This type of planned partnership requires open dialogue and a mutual respect for prior…

  7. Bechstein's bats maintain individual social links despite a complete reorganisation of their colony structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baigger, A.; Perony, N.; Reuter, M.; Leinert, V.; Melber, M.; Grünberger, S.; Fleischmann, D.; Kerth, G.

    2013-09-01

    Several social mammals, including elephants and some primates, whales and bats, live in multilevel societies that form temporary subgroups. Despite these fission-fusion dynamics, group members often maintain long-term bonds. However, it is unclear whether such individual links and the resulting stable social subunits continue to exist after a complete reorganisation of a society, e.g. following a population crash. Here, we employed a weighted network analysis on 7,109 individual roosting records collected over 4 years in a wild Bechstein's bat colony. We show that, in response to a strong population decline, the colony's two stable social subunits fused into a non-modular social network. Nevertheless, in the first year after the crash, long-term bonds were still detectable, suggesting that the bats remembered previous individual relationships. Our findings are important for understanding the flexibility of animal societies in the face of dramatic changes and for the conservation of social mammals with declining populations.

  8. Modelling Primate Social Order: Ultimate and Proximate Explanations

    E-print Network

    Bryson, Joanna J.

    Modelling Primate Social Order: Ultimate and Proximate Explanations Hagen Lehmann and Joanna J.Lehmann@bath.ac.uk, J.J.Bryson@bath.ac.uk Abstract. For many species of primates, arguably including humans, social be understanding the bases of our social interaction. For many primate species social be- haviour has been

  9. Social Content and Higher Order Thinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartoonian, Michael

    History and the social sciences can be defined as recorded narratives or stories about the past or present that describe change and continuity over time and seek to explain this change and continuity through a series of cause and effect propositions based on evidence and shaped by the scholar's social frame of reference. In social studies there…

  10. Preserving and maintaining vital Ecosystem Services: the importance of linking knowledge from Geosciences and social-ecological System analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finger, David; Petursdottir, Thorunn

    2013-04-01

    Human kind has always been curios and motivated to understand and quantify environmental processes in order to predict and anticipate the evolution of vital ecosystem services. Even the very first civilizations used empirical correlations to predict outcomes of rains and subsequent harvest efficiencies. Along with the insights into the functioning of ecosystems, humans also became aware that their anthropogenic activities can have positive and negative impact on ecosystem services. In recent years, geosciences have brought forward new sophisticated observations and modeling tools, with the aim to improve predictions of ecological developments. At the same time, the added value of linking ecological factors to the surrounding social structure has received a growing acceptance among scientists. A social-ecological system approach brings in a holistic understanding of how these systems are inevitably interlinked and how their sustainability can be better maintained. We claim that the biggest challenge for geoscience in the coming decades will be to link these two disciplines in order to establish adequate strategies to preserve natural ecosystems and their services, parallel to their utilization. We will present various case studies from more than a decade of research, ranging from water quality in mountain lakes, climate change impacts on water availability and declining fishing yields in freshwaters and discuss how the studies outcomes could be given added value by interpreting them via social-ecological system analysis. For instance, sophisticated field investigations revealed that deep water mixing in lake Issyk-Kul, Kirgizstan, is intensively distributing pollutants in the entire lake. Although fishery is an important sector in the region, the local awareness of the importance of water quality is low. In Switzerland, strict water protection laws led to ologotrophication of alpine lakes, reducing fishing yields. While local fishermen argued that local fishery is more ecological than importing fish, their calls for artificial lake fertilization were rejected and are socially not accepted. Finally, climate change projections of water availability in the Alps reveal that water may become scarce during summer months due to vanishing glaciers. Financially the hydropower sector is the most important water user. However, other stakeholders, like farmers and the tourism sectors will be all competing for the decreasing resources. In all these three cases, a social-ecological system analysis could give an added value to the geoscience results by identifying solutions that are both ecological and socially suitable. We will conclude our talk by giving an outlook how we intend to link the two disciplines to perform integrative assessments, linking geoscience to the relevant social-ecological system analysis in order to come up with strategies to sustainably preserve vital ecosystem services.

  11. A Batch Algorithm for Maintaining a Topological Order David J. Pearce 1 Paul H.J. Kelly 2

    E-print Network

    Pearce, David J.

    A Batch Algorithm for Maintaining a Topological Order David J. Pearce 1 Paul H.J. Kelly 2 1 School of Engineering and Computer Science, Victoria University of Wellington, NZ, Email: david.pearce@ecs.vuw.ac.nz 2

  12. A Batch Algorithm for Maintaining a Topological Order David J. Pearce1 Paul H.J. Kelly2

    E-print Network

    Pearce, David J.

    A Batch Algorithm for Maintaining a Topological Order David J. Pearce1 Paul H.J. Kelly2 1 School of Engineering and Computer Science, Victoria University of Wellington, NZ, Email: david.pearce@ecs.vuw.ac.nz 2

  13. Bats are able to maintain long-term social relationships despite the high fission-fusion dynamics of their groups.

    PubMed

    Kerth, Gerald; Perony, Nicolas; Schweitzer, Frank

    2011-09-22

    Elephants, dolphins, as well as some carnivores and primates maintain social links despite their frequent splitting and merging in groups of variable composition, a phenomenon known as fission-fusion. Information on the dynamics of social links and interactions among individuals is of high importance to the understanding of the evolution of animal sociality, including that of humans. However, detailed long-term data on such dynamics in wild mammals with fully known demography and kin structures are scarce. Applying a weighted network analysis on 20,500 individual roosting observations over 5 years, we show that in two wild Bechstein's bat colonies with high fission-fusion dynamics, individuals of different age, size, reproductive status and relatedness maintain long-term social relationships. In the larger colony, we detected two stable subunits, each comprising bats from several family lineages. Links between these subunits were mainly maintained by older bats and persisted over all years. Moreover, we show that the full details of the social structure become apparent only when large datasets are used. The stable multi-level social structures in Bechstein's bat colonies resemble that of elephants, dolphins and some primates. Our findings thus may shed new light on the link between social complexity and social cognition in mammals. PMID:21307051

  14. Social Order and Adaptability in Animal and Human Cultures as Analogues for Agent Communities: Toward a Policy-Based Approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul J. Feltovich; Jeffrey M. Bradshaw; Renia Jeffers; Niranjan Suri; Andrzej Uszok

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we discuss some of the ways social order is maintained in animal and human realms, with the goal of enriching our thinking about mechanisms that might be employed in developing similar means of ordering communities of agents. We present examples from our current work in human- agent teamwork, and we speculate about some new directions this kind

  15. Political Skills That Superintendents Need to Embrace in Order to Maintain a Positive Working Relationship with Their Board Members

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muhammed, Anil Salim

    2012-01-01

    According to the literature, school districts are becoming increasingly political and complex. For superintendents to be successful in this environment they must exhibit great political skills in order to maintain positive working relationships with their boards of education. Thus, this study aimed to identify political skills that superintendents…

  16. Managing Stress and Maintaining Well-Being: Social Support, Problem-Focused Coping, and Avoidant Coping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chao, Ruth Chu-Lien

    2011-01-01

    This study tested a model that links stress, social support, problem-focused coping, and well-being. First, it looks at how high support significantly moderated the association between stress and well-being. Next, the students' problem-focused coping was seen as mediating this moderated association. Finally, a 3-way interaction of stress, social

  17. Using Videoconferencing to Establish and Maintain a Social Presence in Online Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moody, Robert A.; Wieland, Regi L.

    2010-01-01

    Successful operation of videoconferencing technology for interactive learning demands preparation and scheduling. Well-organized strategies for interaction assist faculty in meeting individual student needs and developing the "social presence" necessary to facilitate quality online learning. Organizations can be proactive by offering this…

  18. Maintaining Long-Distance Friendships: Communication Practices for Seeking and Providing Social Support across Geographic Divides

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lobburi, Patipan

    2012-01-01

    People seek and provide support through their personal social network, especially when they must cope with stress, deal with an emergency, or need help. Coping with a new culture or new environment is a stressful situation that sojourner students must face. Support through friendship plays an important role in facing such new situations. Focusing…

  19. High-order social interactions in groups of mice

    PubMed Central

    Shemesh, Yair; Sztainberg, Yehezkel; Forkosh, Oren; Shlapobersky, Tamar; Chen, Alon; Schneidman, Elad

    2013-01-01

    Social behavior in mammals is often studied in pairs under artificial conditions, yet groups may rely on more complicated social structures. Here, we use a novel system for tracking multiple animals in a rich environment to characterize the nature of group behavior and interactions, and show strongly correlated group behavior in mice. We have found that the minimal models that rely only on individual traits and pairwise correlations between animals are not enough to capture group behavior, but that models that include third-order interactions give a very accurate description of the group. These models allow us to infer social interaction maps for individual groups. Using this approach, we show that environmental complexity during adolescence affects the collective group behavior of adult mice, in particular altering the role of high-order structure. Our results provide new experimental and mathematical frameworks for studying group behavior and social interactions. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.00759.001 PMID:24015357

  20. Economic use of tropical moist forests while maintaining biological, physical and social values

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Davidson

    1985-01-01

    Summary  The biological, physical and social values of tropical moist forests (TMFs) can be defined from a subjective human viewpoint.\\u000a The fragility of these forests, i.e. their reaction to outside forces, is determined by their nature and by ecological principles,\\u000a both of which are largely objective. The forest, as a complex living system, acts as an objective entity. If utilization exceeds

  1. [The social status of women. For a new world order].

    PubMed

    Gauffenic, A

    1985-01-01

    Curiosity about the place of women in development and solidarity with women's organizations in different economies prompt consideration of the individual and collective possibilities for women in public life and of the social status of women. Recent histories of Third World countries as reported in UN conferences held in Tunisia, Portugal, and New Delhi in 1982-83 and Western experience are the basis for identification of constraints in the development of women's movements and alternatives for participation of women in a new world order. Women have always contributed to the life and economic development of their countries, often in activities not recognized as economic, but they are excluded from processes of institutionalization and their presence is very rare at the highest levels of the social hierarchy. Women organized themselves and participated in the liberation movements of India, Malaysia, Libya, and Egypt, but were later relegated to their customary low status. Among the structural and ideological factors impeding access of women to political power and a true social status are cultural nationalism and religious ideology. Socialization is 1 of the processes by which members of a society acquire a common fund of knowledge, but norms produced by the dominant ideology, in this case male, pose a problem to dominated groups concerning the nature of their particularity. Such groups can strive for integration at the price of risking loss of identity, or they can contest the rules, situating themselves at the margin of the "laws" or rules. The essential question concerns the possibility of women rethinking the process and contents of socialization. A new system is required of perceptions, evaluations, and actions founded on new human values. In this perspective the women's movement would contribute to the realization of a new world order. Theories of equality, to comprehend reality in its entirety, must include equality while developing the concept of differences. A theory or an ethic of difference developed by feminists would lead individuals to recover their rights. PMID:12340318

  2. SocialWiki: Bring Order to Wiki Systems with Social Context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Haifeng; Ye, Shaozhi; Bhattacharyya, Prantik; Rowe, Jeff; Gribble, Ken; Wu, S. Felix

    A huge amount of administrative effort is required for large wiki systems to produce and maintain high quality pages with existing naive access control policies. This paper introduces SocialWiki, a prototype wiki system which leverages the power of social networks to automatically manage reputation and trust for wiki users based on the content they contribute and the ratings they receive. SocialWiki also utilizes interests to facilitate collaborative editing. Although a wiki page is visible to everyone, it can only be edited by a group of users who share similar interests and have a certain level of trust with each other. The editing privilege is circulated among these users to prevent/reduce vandalisms and spams, and to encourage user participation by adding social context to the revision process of a wiki page. By presenting the design and implementation of this proof-of-concept system, we show that social context can be used to build an efficient, self-adaptive and robust collaborative editing system.

  3. Effect of homosexuality upon public health and social order.

    PubMed

    Cameron, P; Cameron, K; Proctor, K

    1989-06-01

    Are homosexuals "not dangers to society" and is homosexuality "compatible with full health"? To answer these questions 4,340 adult respondents drawn via area probability sampling from 5 metropolitan areas of the USA self-administered an extensive sexuality/public order questionnaire of over 500 items. Bisexuals and homosexuals (about 4% of the sample) as compared to heterosexuals: (1) more frequently exposed themselves to biological hazards (e.g., sadomasochism, fisting, bestiality, ingestion of feces); (2) exposed themselves sexually to more different bodies (e.g., more frequently admitted to participating in orgies, reported considerably larger numbers of sexual partners); (3) more frequently reported participating in socially disruptive sex (e.g., deliberate infection of others, cheating in marriage, making obscene phone calls); and (4) more frequently reported engaging in socially disruptive activities (e.g., criminality, shoplifting, tax cheating). From the standpoints of individual health, public health and social order, participating in homosexual activity could be viewed as dangerous to society and incompatible with full health. PMID:2762461

  4. Maintaining a Social-Emotional Intervention and its Benefits for Institutionalized Children

    PubMed Central

    McCall, Robert B.; Groark, Christina J.; Fish, Larry; Muhamedrahimov, Rifkat J.; Palmov, Oleg I.; Nikiforova, Natalia V.

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports the maintenance of one of the largest interventions conducted in St. Petersburg (Russian Federation) orphanages for children birth to 4 years using regular caregiving staff. One orphanage received training plus structural changes, another training only, and a third business as usual. The intervention produced substantial differences between these institutions on the HOME Inventory and on the Battelle Developmental Inventory scores for children. These institutional differences in HOME scores (N=298) and Battelle scores for children (N=357) departing the institutions for families in St. Petersburg and the USA were maintained for at least six years after the intervention project, result may be associated with to certain features of the intervention and activities during the follow-up interval. PMID:23551051

  5. [Social order, stability, and certainty violence and social power in early modern history].

    PubMed

    Pröve, Ralf

    2014-01-01

    This article develops a comprehensive critique of historical research focussing on the mutual relations between social power and violence. According to the methodological initial hypothesis, due to the inadequate distinction between indigenious concept (from sources) and heuristic (from reseach) in the historical sciences, there have been very few valuable insights into these relations to date. In order to expand the research focus which is the objective of this article, the analysis draws on the two actor-centric reference systems of "certainty" and "order". The key idea behind this, operationalizing certainty/uncertainty by means of order/disorder, is a promising way of programmatically combining a vertical and horizontal network of relationships of power, violence, certainty, and order. PMID:25600019

  6. Point-of-view video-mediated procedure is effective for teaching children with autism to maintain eye contact and initiate and maintain scripted social interactions with others

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dennis W. Moore; Angelika Anderson

    2010-01-01

    This review provides a summary and appraisal commentary on the treatment review by Tetreault, A. S., & Lerman, D. C. (2010). Teaching social skills to children with autism using point-of-view video modeling. Education and Treatment of Children, 33, 395–419.Source of funding and disclosure of interest: No source of funding reported, and the original authors of this research report no conflicts

  7. A peer-to-peer normative system to achieve social order

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    of other agents if they are norm compliant. Social Control mainly refers to the fact that each agent norms and social control. This paper presents a normative P2P architecture to obtain social order. Social control is obtained by providing a non-intrusive control infrastructure that helps the agents

  8. Space and Social Order. Discussion Paper No. 514-78.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edelman, Murray

    Public buildings and the settings in which people work and live significantly influence acceptance of social inequalities, social roles, and definitions of individual competence, merit, and power. Spaces do not convey meanings as if they were simple codes, but rather objectify whatever shared meanings a group of people need to reinforce in one…

  9. Selfish punishment with avoiding mechanism can alleviate both first-order and second-order social dilemma

    E-print Network

    Cui, Pengbi

    2014-01-01

    Punishment, especially selfish punishment, has recently been identified as a potent promoter in sustaining or even enhancing the cooperation among unrelated individuals. However, without other key mechanisms, the first-order social dilemma and second-order social dilemma are still two enduring conundrums in biology and the social sciences even with the presence of punishment. In the present study, we investigate a spatial evolutionary four-strategy prisoner's dilemma game model with avoiding mechanism, where the four strategies are cooperation, defection, altruistic and selfish punishment. By introducing the low level of random mutation of strategies, we demonstrate that the presence of selfish punishment with avoiding mechanism can alleviate the two kinds of social dilemmas for various parametrizations. In addition, we propose an extended pair approximation method, whose solutions can essentially estimate the dynamical behaviors and final evolutionary frequencies of the four strategies. At last, considering ...

  10. Retailers as creatures and creators of the social order

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stanley C. Hollander

    2002-01-01

    Asserts that the goods which retailers sell and the way in which they sell them impact significantly on the cultural fabric and pattern of civil life. Provides perspectives from both the past and current retail environment. Considers various methods by which retail distributors make interventions in the social life of communities. Concludes that there is a need for those who

  11. Divining the Social Order: Class, Gender, and Magazine Astrology Columns

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William Evans

    1996-01-01

    This content analysis compares the astrological advice offered in magazines targeted at working- and middle-class women. Readers' social class was a far better predictor than readers' zodiac sign of the nature of astrological advice offered. Working-class horoscopes were less likely than middle-class horoscopes to advise readers to travel and spend money. Working-class horoscopes were less likely than middle-class horoscopes to

  12. Social learning and human mate preferences: a potential mechanism for generating and maintaining between-population diversity in attraction

    PubMed Central

    Little, Anthony C.; Jones, Benedict C.; DeBruine, Lisa M.; Caldwell, Christine A.

    2011-01-01

    Inspired by studies demonstrating mate-choice copying effects in non-human species, recent studies of attractiveness judgements suggest that social learning also influences human preferences. In the first part of our article, we review evidence for social learning effects on preferences in humans and other animals. In the second part, we present new empirical evidence that social learning not only influences the attractiveness of specific individuals, but can also generalize to judgements of previously unseen individuals possessing similar physical traits. The different conditions represent different populations and, once a preference arises in a population, social learning can lead to the spread of preferences within that population. In the final part of our article, we discuss the theoretical basis for, and possible impact of, biases in social learning whereby individuals may preferentially copy the choices of those with high status or better access to critical information about potential mates. Such biases could mean that the choices of a select few individuals carry the greatest weight, rapidly generating agreement in preferences within a population. Collectively, these issues suggest that social learning mechanisms encourage the spread of preferences for certain traits once they arise within a population and so may explain certain cross-cultural differences. PMID:21199841

  13. Setting and maintaining

    E-print Network

    Harman, Neal.A.

    Setting and maintaining boundaries within the context of attachment relationships Menna Thomas-child relationship'? 2. What are `boundaries' and how to set and maintain them? 3. Different ways of coping ·Traditional behaviour principles of reinforcement and conditioning ·Impact of family social setting on parent

  14. Leadership for Social Justice: Preparing 21st Century School Leaders for a New Social Order

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jean-Marie, Gaetane; Normore, Anthony H.; Brooks, Jeffrey S.

    2009-01-01

    At the dawn of the 21st century, there has been an increased focus on social justice and educational leadership (Bogotch, Beachum, Blount, Brooks & English, 2008; Marshall & Oliva, 2006; Shoho, Merchang & Lugg, 2005). This paper explores and extends themes in contemporary educational research on leadership preparation in terms of social justice…

  15. More Order without More Law: A Theory of Social Norms and Organizational Cultures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter H. Huang; Ho-Mou Wu

    1994-01-01

    This article applies psychological game theory to study the maintenance of social order. It models the control of corruption in principal-supervisor-agent relationships. The models possess multiple equilibria, which correspond to certain social norms and organizational cultures or their absence. The models demonstrate how expectations concerning the likelihood of corrupt behavior can influence decisions to engage in such behavior via the

  16. Economic Order and Social Insurance (Specifics and Evolution of the Interrelations. Reference Solutions)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Neno Pavlov

    2006-01-01

    The evolutional development of the economic theory and practice of liberalization of the economy order in the last years leave a profound imprint on the conception for changes and building new modes of social security schemes in Europe and the world. A prove of this are performed radical structural reforms in the social security in the East Europe, Asia, Latin

  17. Disaster, Environment and Social Order: Reflections on Katrina Gaylord Nelson Retrospective Lecture Series

    E-print Network

    Sheridan, Jennifer

    Disaster, Environment and Social Order: Reflections on Katrina Gaylord Nelson Retrospective Lecture in everybody's history. They become a datum in everybody's store of knowledge. They become a part of everybody

  18. Moving Locally and Maintaining Social Networks: A Challenge for Mothers in Sweden and the U.S.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larner, Mary B.

    The United States is known as a mobile society and recently Sweden has also seen higher rates of mobility. A study was conducted to examine how local residential mobility affects the lives of families in Sweden and in black and white communities in the United States, and to investigate how moving affects social networks. Interviews were conducted…

  19. Higher-order social cognition in first-episode major depression.

    PubMed

    Ladegaard, Nicolai; Larsen, Erik Roj; Videbech, Poul; Lysaker, Paul H

    2014-04-30

    Patients suffering from major depression experience difficulties in multiple cognitive faculties. A growing body of research has linked affective disorders to abnormalities in social cognition and specifically the processing of discrete emotional stimuli. However, little inquiry has gone into possible impairment in higher-order social cognition including theory of mind, social perception and metacognition. Forty-four medication-naïve patients with first-episode unipolar major depressive disorder and an equal number of matched controls were assessed by the Metacognitive Assessment Scale-Abbreviated (MAS-A), The Frith-Happé animations (FHA) and The Awareness of Social Inference Test (TASIT). Additionally, neurocognition was assessed utilyzing the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB). Depressed patients showed impairment in all domains of higher-order social cognitive ability. Importantly, social cognitive variables retained their inter-group significance after controlling for possible covariates including neurocognition. Results indicate that first-episode depressed patients experience difficulties in all domains of higher-order social cognition including theory of mind, social perception and metacognition. PMID:24524945

  20. Selfish punishment with avoiding mechanism can alleviate both first-order and second-order social dilemma.

    PubMed

    Cui, Pengbi; Wu, Zhi-Xi

    2014-11-21

    Punishment, especially selfish punishment, has recently been identified as a potent promoter in sustaining or even enhancing the cooperation among unrelated individuals. However, without other key mechanisms, the first-order social dilemma and second-order social dilemma are still two enduring conundrums in biology and the social sciences even with the presence of punishment. In the present study, we investigate a spatial evolutionary four-strategy prisoner?s dilemma game model with avoiding mechanism, where the four strategies are cooperation, defection, altruistic and selfish punishment. By introducing the low level of random mutation of strategies, we demonstrate that the presence of selfish punishment with avoiding mechanism can alleviate the two kinds of social dilemmas for various parametrizations. In addition, we propose an extended pair approximation method, whose solutions can essentially estimate the dynamical behaviors and final evolutionary frequencies of the four strategies. At last, considering the analogy between our model and the classical Lotka-Volterra system, we introduce interaction webs based on the spatial replicator dynamics and the transformed payoff matrix to qualitatively characterize the emergent co-exist strategy phases, and its validity are supported by extensive simulations. PMID:25088776

  1. SOCIAL SECURITY NUMBERS In order to be eligible for a Social Security Number (SSN) you will need to present evidence of work authorization

    E-print Network

    Heller, Eric

    SOCIAL SECURITY NUMBERS In order to be eligible for a Social Security Number (SSN) you will need to present evidence of work authorization to an official at a local Social Security Administration (SSA to apply for a Social Security Number on line or via an agency. You must have a personal interview

  2. EMPLOYMENT LETTER REQUIREMENT FOR SOCIAL SECURITY CARD: In order to be hired at the University of Florida, international students must have a Social Security

    E-print Network

    Pilyugin, Sergei S.

    EMPLOYMENT LETTER REQUIREMENT FOR SOCIAL SECURITY CARD: In order to be hired at the University of Florida, international students must have a Social Security Number (SSN). If they do not already have one and the Social Security Office in order to submit an application for an SSN card. SSN REQUIREMENTS FOR EMPLOYMENT

  3. Incorporating social groups' responses in a descriptive model for second- and higher-order impact identification

    SciTech Connect

    Sutheerawatthana, Pitch, E-mail: pitch.venture@gmail.co [Department of International Studies, Graduate School of Frontier Sciences, University of Tokyo, 5-1-5, Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8563 (Japan); Minato, Takayuki, E-mail: minato@k.u-tokyo.ac.j [Department of International Studies, Graduate School of Frontier Sciences, University of Tokyo, 5-1-5, Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8563 (Japan)

    2010-02-15

    The response of a social group is a missing element in the formal impact assessment model. Previous discussion of the involvement of social groups in an intervention has mainly focused on the formation of the intervention. This article discusses the involvement of social groups in a different way. A descriptive model is proposed by incorporating a social group's response into the concept of second- and higher-order effects. The model is developed based on a cause-effect relationship through the observation of phenomena in case studies. The model clarifies the process by which social groups interact with a lower-order effect and then generate a higher-order effect in an iterative manner. This study classifies social groups' responses into three forms-opposing, modifying, and advantage-taking action-and places them in six pathways. The model is expected to be used as an analytical tool for investigating and identifying impacts in the planning stage and as a framework for monitoring social groups' responses during the implementation stage of a policy, plan, program, or project (PPPPs).

  4. ORDERING CREATIVITY? KNOWLEDGE, CREATIVITY, AND SOCIAL INTERACTION IN THE ADVERTISING INDUSTRY

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Oded Nov; Matthew Jones

    Creativity and knowledge are closely linked. Recent research into the relations between them highlights social and organisational aspects. However, creativity seems difficult for ordering, and creative processes often involve people with different knowledge bases, requiring the integration of different types of knowledge. While the management of creativity in organisations is seen as a complex task, organisations do try to order

  5. An Investigation of Higher-Order Thinking Skills in Smaller Learning Community Social Studies Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Christopher; Bol, Linda; Pribesh, Shana

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the extent to which higher-order thinking skills are promoted in social studies classes in high schools that are implementing smaller learning communities (SLCs). Data collection in this mixed-methods study included classroom observations and in-depth interviews. Findings indicated that higher-order thinking was rarely…

  6. Care Orders as Successful Interventions: The Social Workers' Point of View

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pösö, Tarja; Eronen, Tuija

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the outcomes of care orders from the point of view of social workers. The aim is to cast light on the "black box" of substitute care by analysing the practice-based view on outcome in order to contribute to the complex debate on the relations of care and outcome. The article is based on a study using a survey, focus…

  7. Crime, policing and social order: on the expressive nature of public confidence in policing.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Jonathan; Bradford, Ben

    2009-09-01

    Public confidence in policing is receiving increasing attention from UK social scientists and policy-makers. The criminal justice system relies on legitimacy and consent to an extent unlike other public services: public support is vital if the police and other criminal justice agencies are to function both effectively and in accordance with democratic norms. Yet we know little about the forms of social perception that stand prior to public confidence and police legitimacy. Drawing on data from the 2003/2004 British Crime Survey and the 2006/2007 London Metropolitan Police Safer Neighbourhoods Survey, this paper suggests that people think about their local police in ways less to do with the risk of victimization (instrumental concerns about personal safety) and more to do with judgments of social cohesion and moral consensus (expressive concerns about neighbourhood stability, cohesion and loss of collective authority). Across England and Wales the police may not primarily be seen as providers of a narrow sense of personal security, held responsible for crime and safety. Instead the police may stand as symbolic 'moral guardians' of social stability and order, held responsible for community values and informal social controls. We also present evidence that public confidence in the London Metropolitan Police Service expresses broader social anxieties about long-term social change. We finish our paper with some thoughts on a sociological analysis of the cultural place of policing: confidence (and perhaps ultimately the legitimacy of the police) might just be wrapped up in broader public concerns about social order and moral consensus. PMID:19703172

  8. The facilitator as gatekeeper: A critical analysis of social order in facilitation sessions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mike Brown

    2002-01-01

    The acceptance of the need to facilitate an experience through group discussion is well documented in adventure education literature. While there is a considerable amount of material on how to process an experience, few studies have sought to explicate the nature of leader-student interaction and the resultant social order in a facilitation session. Using an ethnomethodological approach, this paper analyses

  9. The Facilitator as Gatekeeper: A Critical Analysis of Social Order in Facilitation Sessions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Mike

    2002-01-01

    An ethnomethodological approach was used to analyze the organization of talk, the leader-student interaction, and resultant social order during group discussion among 2 male leaders and 15 ninth-grade Australian boys participating in a school-sponsored outdoor experience. Results focus on how the leaders structured the interaction and regulated…

  10. Challenging social cognition models of adherence: cycles of discourse, historical bodies, and interactional order.

    PubMed

    Murdoch, Jamie; Salter, Charlotte; Poland, Fiona; Cross, Jane

    2015-02-01

    Attempts to model individual beliefs as a means of predicting how people follow clinical advice have dominated adherence research, but with limited success. In this article, we challenge assumptions underlying this individualistic philosophy and propose an alternative formulation of context and its relationship with individual actions related to illness. Borrowing from Scollon and Scollon's three elements of social action—historical body, interaction order, and discourses in place—we construct an alternative set of research methods and demonstrate their application with an example of a person talking about asthma management. We argue that talk- or illness-related behavior, both viewed as forms of social action, manifest themselves as an intersection of cycles of discourse, shifting as individuals move through these cycles across time and space. We conclude by discussing how these dynamics of social action can be studied and how clinicians might use this understanding when negotiating treatment with patients. PMID:25231944

  11. Adaptation to low body temperature influences pulmonary surfactant composition thereby increasing fluidity while maintaining appropriately ordered membrane structure and surface activity.

    PubMed

    Suri, Lakshmi N M; McCaig, Lynda; Picardi, Maria V; Ospina, Olga L; Veldhuizen, Ruud A W; Staples, James F; Possmayer, Fred; Yao, Li-Juan; Perez-Gil, Jesus; Orgeig, Sandra

    2012-07-01

    The interfacial surface tension of the lung is regulated by phospholipid-rich pulmonary surfactant films. Small changes in temperature affect surfactant structure and function in vitro. We compared the compositional, thermodynamic and functional properties of surfactant from hibernating and summer-active 13-lined ground squirrels (Ictidomys tridecemlineatus) with porcine surfactant to understand structure-function relationships in surfactant membranes and films. Hibernating squirrels had more surfactant large aggregates with more fluid monounsaturated molecular species than summer-active animals. The latter had more unsaturated species than porcine surfactant. Cold-adapted surfactant membranes displayed gel-to-fluid transitions at lower phase transition temperatures with reduced enthalpy. Both hibernating and summer-active squirrel surfactants exhibited lower enthalpy than porcine surfactant. LAURDAN fluorescence and DPH anisotropy revealed that surfactant bilayers from both groups of squirrels possessed similar ordered phase characteristics at low temperatures. While ground squirrel surfactants functioned well during dynamic cycling at 3, 25, and 37 degrees C, porcine surfactant demonstrated poorer activity at 3 degrees C but was superior at 37 degrees C. Consequently the surfactant composition of ground squirrels confers a greater thermal flexibility relative to homeothermic mammals, while retaining tight lipid packing at low body temperatures. This may represent the most critical feature contributing to sustained stability of the respiratory interface at low lung volumes. Thus, while less effective than porcine surfactant at 37 degrees C, summer-active surfactant functions adequately at both 37 degrees C and 3 degrees C allowing these animals to enter hibernation. Here further compositional alterations occur which improve function at low temperatures by maintaining adequate stability at low lung volumes and when temperature increases during arousal from hibernation. PMID:22387458

  12. Security in OpenSocial-Instrumented Social Networking Services

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matthias Häsel; Luigi Lo Iacono

    2010-01-01

    \\u000a Securing social networking services is challenging and becomes even more complex when third-party applications are able to\\u000a access user data. Still, adequate security and privacy solutions are imperative in order to build and maintain trust in such\\u000a extensible social platforms. This paper discusses security issues in the context of OpenSocial-instrumented social networking\\u000a services. It shows that the OpenSocial specification is

  13. Anterograde C1ql1 signaling is required in order to determine and maintain a single-winner climbing fiber in the mouse cerebellum.

    PubMed

    Kakegawa, Wataru; Mitakidis, Nikolaos; Miura, Eriko; Abe, Manabu; Matsuda, Keiko; Takeo, Yukari H; Kohda, Kazuhisa; Motohashi, Junko; Takahashi, Akiyo; Nagao, Soichi; Muramatsu, Shin-ichi; Watanabe, Masahiko; Sakimura, Kenji; Aricescu, A Radu; Yuzaki, Michisuke

    2015-01-21

    Neuronal networks are dynamically modified by selective synapse pruning during development and adulthood. However, how certain connections win the competition with others and are subsequently maintained is not fully understood. Here, we show that C1ql1, a member of the C1q family of proteins, is provided by climbing fibers (CFs) and serves as a crucial anterograde signal to determine and maintain the single-winner CF in the mouse cerebellum throughout development and adulthood. C1ql1 specifically binds to the brain-specific angiogenesis inhibitor 3 (Bai3), which is a member of the cell-adhesion G-protein-coupled receptor family and expressed on postsynaptic Purkinje cells. C1ql1-Bai3 signaling is required for motor learning but not for gross motor performance or coordination. Because related family members of C1ql1 and Bai3 are expressed in various brain regions, the mechanism described here likely applies to synapse formation, maintenance, and function in multiple neuronal circuits essential for important brain functions. PMID:25611509

  14. First Order Models of Human Crowds with Behavioral-Social Dynamics

    E-print Network

    Bellomo, Nicola; Gibelli, Livio; Pieri, Alexandre

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a new approach to behavioral-social dynamics of human crowds. First order models are derived based on mass conservation at the macroscopic scale, while methods of the kinetic theory are used to model the decisional process by which walking individuals select their velocity direction. Crowd heterogeneity is modeled by dividing the whole system into subsystems identified by different features. The passage from one subsystem to the other is induced by interactions. It is shown how heterogeneous individual behaviors can modify the collective dynamics, as well as how local unusual behaviors can propagate in the crowd. The paper also proposes a system approach to the modeling of the dynamics in complex venues, where individuals move through areas with different features.

  15. More than mere numbers: the impact of lethal control on the social stability of a top-order predator.

    PubMed

    Wallach, Arian D; Ritchie, Euan G; Read, John; O'Neill, Adam J

    2009-01-01

    Population control of socially complex species may have profound ecological implications that remain largely invisible if only their abundance is considered. Here we discuss the effects of control on a socially complex top-order predator, the dingo (Canis lupus dingo). Since European occupation of Australia, dingoes have been controlled over much of the continent. Our aim was to investigate the effects of control on their abundance and social stability. We hypothesized that dingo abundance and social stability are not linearly related, and proposed a theoretical model in which dingo populations may fluctuate between three main states: (A) below carrying capacity and socially fractured, (B) above carrying capacity and socially fractured, or (C) at carrying capacity and socially stable. We predicted that lethal control would drive dingoes into the unstable states A or B, and that relaxation of control would allow recovery towards C. We tested our predictions by surveying relative abundance (track density) and indicators of social stability (scent-marking and howling) at seven sites in the arid zone subject to differing degrees of control. We also monitored changes in dingo abundance and social stability following relaxation and intensification of control. Sites where dingoes had been controlled within the previous two years were characterized by low scent-marking activity, but abundance was similar at sites with and without control. Signs of social stability steadily increased the longer an area was allowed to recover from control, but change in abundance did not follow a consistent path. Comparison of abundance and stability among all sites and years demonstrated that control severely fractures social groups, but that the effect of control on abundance was neither consistent nor predictable. Management decisions involving large social predators must therefore consider social stability to ensure their conservation and ecological functioning. PMID:19724642

  16. From higher order thinking to higher order behavior: exploring the relationship between early cognitive skills and social competence in black boys.

    PubMed

    Scott, Kristin M; Barbarin, Oscar A; Brown, Jeffrey M

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the relations of higher order (i.e., abstract) thinking (HOT) skills to specific domains of social competence in Black boys (n = 108) attending publicly sponsored prekindergarten (pre-K) programs. Data for the study were collected as part of the National Center for Early Development and Learning (NCEDL) Multi-State Study, a national, longitudinal study examining the quality and outcomes in a representative sample of publicly sponsored pre-K programs in six states (N = 240). Pre-K and kindergarten teachers rated randomly selected children on measures of abstract thinking, self-regulation, and social functioning at the beginning and end of each school year. Applying structural equation modeling, compared with earlier time points, HOT measured in the fall of kindergarten significantly predicted each of the domains of social competence in the spring of kindergarten, with the exception of peer social skills, while controlling for general cognitive ability. Results suggest that early intervention to improve HOT may be an effective and more focused approach to address concerns about Black boys' early social competencies in specific domains and potentially reduce the risk of later social difficulties. PMID:23889011

  17. Analysis of Social Variables when an Initial Functional Analysis Indicates Automatic Reinforcement as the Maintaining Variable for Self-Injurious Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuhn, Stephanie A. Contrucci; Triggs, Mandy

    2009-01-01

    Self-injurious behavior (SIB) that occurs at high rates across all conditions of a functional analysis can suggest automatic or multiple functions. In the current study, we conducted a functional analysis for 1 individual with SIB. Results indicated that SIB was, at least in part, maintained by automatic reinforcement. Further analyses using…

  18. Maintaining Maintainability = Recognizing Reachability Tim Menzies

    E-print Network

    Menzies, Tim

    Maintaining Maintainability = Recognizing Reachability Tim Menzies NASA/WVU IV&V Facility 100 University Drive, Fairmont WV 26554, USA tim@menzies.com;http://www.tim.menzies.com Bojan Cukic Dept an operational profile). White-box (WB) testing costs more than black-box to define: analysts must reflect over

  19. The Contribution of Distance Education in Providing Education for a Just Social Order.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rumble, Greville

    Concerned with the means by which distance education programs can be used to further social justice in various parts of the world, this paper considers both the generally recognized strengths of and some potential problems in three aspects of such programs--access, curriculum, and a monopolistic tendency. It draws on the experience of the…

  20. Poverty, Inequality and the Future of Social Policy: Western States in the New World Order.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McFate, Katherine, Ed.; Lawson, Roger, Ed.; Wilson, William Julius, Ed.

    This book analyzes forces fraying the social fabric of many countries, and the reasons why some Western countries have been more successful than others in addressing these trends. Part 1, "Poverty, Income Inequality, and Labor Market Insecurity: A Comparative Perspective," includes (1) "Markets and States: Poverty Trends and Transfer System…

  1. Bringing order to your photos: event-driven classification of flickr images based on social knowledge

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Claudiu S. Firan; Mihai Georgescu; Wolfgang Nejdl; Raluca Paiu

    2010-01-01

    With the rapidly increasing popularity of Social Media sites, a lot of user generated content has been injected in the Web, thus resulting in a large amount of both multimedia items (music - Last.fm, MySpace.com, pictures - Flickr, Picasa, videos - YouTube) and textual data (tags and other text-based documents). As a consequence, especially for multimedia content it has become

  2. Sport and Physical Education and the New World Order: Dare We Be Agents of Social Change?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    George H. Sage

    1993-01-01

    This lecture explores the content and context of the discourse of “a new world order” because this discourse has become part of the public discourse. Meanings about the new world order are part of a “contested terrain,” and as such they are part of a larger component of political, economic, and cultural conflicts, the outcomes of which are not preordained

  3. Cooperation in social dilemmas: free riding may be thwarted by second-order reward rather than by punishment.

    PubMed

    Kiyonari, Toko; Barclay, Pat

    2008-10-01

    Cooperation among nonrelatives can be puzzling because cooperation often involves incurring costs to confer benefits on unrelated others. Punishment of noncooperators can sustain otherwise fragile cooperation, but the provision of punishment suffers from a "second-order" free-riding problem because nonpunishers can free ride on the benefits from costly punishment provided by others. One suggested solution to this problem is second-order punishment of nonpunishers; more generally, the threat or promise of higher order sanctions might maintain the lower order sanctions that enforce cooperation in collective action problems. Here the authors report on 3 experiments testing people's willingness to provide second-order sanctions by having participants play a cooperative game with opportunities to punish and reward each other. The authors found that people supported those who rewarded cooperators either by rewarding them or by punishing nonrewarders, but people did not support those who punished noncooperators--they did not reward punishers or punish nonpunishers. Furthermore, people did not approve of punishers more than they did nonpunishers, even when nonpunishers were clearly unwilling to use sanctions to support cooperation. The results suggest that people will much more readily support positive sanctions than they will support negative sanctions. PMID:18808262

  4. Maintaining Plant Genebanks

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Brian R. Shmaefsky (Kingwood College; )

    2003-06-02

    This lesson explores the benefits and problems of maintaining plant genebanks globally. Students can plan a genebank or agricultural cryopreservation business venture, write a biography about a famous botanist, present views at a genebank symposium for developing nations and more!

  5. Maintaining Medicinal Plant Germplasm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    For all plant genetic resources collections, including medicinal plant germplasm, maintaining the genetic integrity of material held ex situ is of major importance. This holds true for all intended end uses of the material whether it is as a source for crop improvement, medical research, as voucher...

  6. August 2008 Maintained by

    E-print Network

    Le Roy, Robert J.

    TELEPHONE DIRECTORY August 2008 Maintained by: Information Systems & Technology 22222 #12 listed below or any activity that you feel is unusual may be the sign of criminal activity. Do you may do so. a scream or call for help the sound of a whistle or loud horn a strange vehicle

  7. Polarization-maintaining property of tapered polarization-maintaining fibers.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaozhen; Niedermayer, Graeme; Lin, Ganbin; Lu, Ping; Wang, Baishi; Chen, Liang; Bao, Xiaoyi

    2013-03-10

    Distributed group birefringence of tapered polarization-maintaining fibers (PMFs) is measured by employing a high-resolution optical frequency-domain reflectometry system. Autocorrelation data processing reveals distributed mode coupling between the fast and slow modes and higher-order modes excited by the tapering process along the taper region. The polarization-maintaining property of a tapered PMF is examined by distributed group birefringence along the tapered PMF with a spatial resolution of ~1.25 cm and a polarization-extinction ratio at the fiber taper output over the wavelength range of 1510-1570 nm. With a waist diameter of 80 ?m, the polarization state of the launched light is maintained and the birefringence of the tapered PMF is slightly reduced from 3.28×10(-4) to 2.89×10(-4) at the taper waist. For both the waist diameters of 60 and 40 ?m, mode coupling is observed in the form of significantly decreased birefringence by a factor of ~10 at the taper waists. PMID:23478756

  8. Order, Order!

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This activity helps students develop a sense of the relative size of quantities in time, length and mass. Learners rank their estimates of given measures in order from least to greatest and justify their decisions. The Teachers' Notes page includes suggestions for implementation, discussion questions, ideas for extension and support, printable cards (pdf), and a link to a related problem, "In Order" (cataloged separately). The solutions page shows that students used standard units of measure to make their comparisons.

  9. Maintaining Wellbeing during Unemployment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoare, P. Nancey; Machin, M. Anthony

    2006-01-01

    A survey of 371 unemployed people in South East Queensland explored whether deprivation of the latent benefits of employment was able to predict psychological distress after controlling for other key correlates. A standard multiple regression found that the latent benefits (time structure, social contact, collective purpose, enforced activity, and…

  10. Integration: Maintaining the Momentum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carle, Wayne M.

    This address asserts that the profession of school administrator cannot reach full maturity unless it recognizes, one and for all, that separate schools are as unsound educationally as they are legally and morally; unless it decreases the deliberation and increases the speed which it brings leadership to America's major unresolved social,…

  11. Acoustic Levitator Maintains Resonance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barmatz, M. B.; Gaspar, M. S.

    1986-01-01

    Transducer loading characteristics allow resonance tracked at high temperature. Acoustic-levitation chamber length automatically adjusted to maintain resonance at constant acoustic frequency as temperature changes. Developed for containerless processing of materials at high temperatures, system does not rely on microphones as resonance sensors, since microphones are difficult to fabricate for use at temperatures above 500 degrees C. Instead, system uses acoustic transducer itself as sensor.

  12. Direct bonded space maintainers.

    PubMed

    Santos, V L; Almeida, M A; Mello, H S; Keith, O

    1993-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate clinically a bonded space maintainer, which would reduce chair-side time and cost. Sixty appliances were fabricated from 0.7 mm stainless steel round wire and bonded using light-cured composite to the two teeth adjacent to the site of extraction of a posterior primary tooth. Twenty males and sixteen females (age range 5-9-years-old) were selected from the Pedodontic clinic of the State University of Rio de Janeiro. The sixty space maintainers were divided into two groups according to the site in which they were placed: a) absent first primary molar and b) absent second primary molar. Impressions and study models were obtained prior to and 6 months after bonding the appliances. During this period only 8.3% of failures were observed, most of them from occlusal or facial trauma. Student t-test did not show statistically significant alterations in the sizes of the maintained spaces during the trial period. PMID:8217886

  13. Exploring the Construction of Social Class in Educational Discourse: The Rational Order of the Nation State versus Global Uncertainties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rassool, Naz

    2004-01-01

    This article aims to create intellectual space in which issues of social inequality and education can be analyzed and discussed in relation to the multifaceted and multi-levelled complexities of the modern world. It is divided into three sections. Section One locates the concept of social class in the context of the modern nation state during the…

  14. Dome pressure maintaining valve

    SciTech Connect

    Snyder, D.E.

    1990-12-04

    This patent describes a system for maintaining dome fluid pressure in a pilot operated relief valve. It comprises: a fluid pressure maintenance means having an inlet port for receiving pressurized fluid supply from a source requiring pressure relief maintenance and an outlet port for expelling the pressurized fluid from the fluid pressure maintenance means; the fluid pressure maintenance means being placed in a circuit between a sensor inlet and the pilot valve, means capable of being adapted with fixed or adjustable pressure setting functionality; the fluid pressure maintenance means outlet port in communication with a dome of the relief valve through the pilot; the fluid pressure maintenance means functioning through a poppet check valve for equalizing inlet and outlet pressure. The poppet check valve providing inlet flow and check for reverse flow; the poppet check valve and a piston valve integrated into one piston valve embodiment with the piston valve providing outlet flow in a backflow relief mode; and the fluid pressure maintenance means having a pressure storage chamber for providing a maintaining fluid pressure in the relief valve dome.

  15. Reagan: Maintain Antarctic program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    President Ronald Reagan has decided that the United States should maintain an ‘active and influential presence’ in Antarctica to support the nation's interests. Following a review of a study by the Antarctica Policy Group, Reagan issued a memorandum, dated February 5, to the heads of 14 government agencies, including the National Science Foundation (NSF), the Office of Science and Technology Policy, and the Office of Management and Budget.The U.S. presence in Antarctica ‘shall include the conduct of scientific activities in major disciplines; year-round occupation of the South Pole and two coastal stations; and availability of related necessary logistics support,’ wrote the President. In addition, NSF should continue to budget for the entire U.S. program in Antarctica. Short-term programs by other agencies require the recommendation of the Antarctica Policy Group and should be coordinated within the framework of NSF logistics support.

  16. Can social workers and police be partners when dealing with bikie-gang related domestic violence and sexual assault?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lesley Cooper; Julia Anaf; Margaret Bowden

    2008-01-01

    Welfare and criminal justice systems manifest different goals, cultures, values and working methods. In Australia, the welfare sector has a culture of empowerment and concern for victims’ rights, within which social workers focus on social justice and social change. In contrast, the criminal justice sector (police) is patriarchal and para-military in structure, focusing on enforcing and maintaining community order and

  17. Maintaining proper dental records.

    PubMed

    Leeuw, Wilhemina

    2014-01-01

    Referred to as Standard of Care, the legal duty of a dentist requires exercising the degree of skill and care that would be exhibited by other prudent dentists faced with the same patient-care situation. Primarily, the goal of keeping good dental records is to maintain continuity of care. Diligent and complete documentation and charting procedures are essential to fulfilling the Standard of Care. Secondly, because dental records are considered legal documents they help protect the interest of the dentist and/or the patient by establishing the details of the services rendered. Patients today are better educated and more assertive than ever before and dentists must be equipped to protect themselves against malpractice claims. Every record component must be handled as if it could be summoned to a court room and scrutinized by an attorney, judge or jury. Complete, accurate, objective and honest entries in a patient record are the only way to defend against any clinical and/or legal problems that might arise. Most medical and dental malpractice claims arise from an unfavorable interaction with the dentist and not from a poor treatment outcome. By implementing the suggestions mentioned in this course, dental health care professionals can minimize the legal risks associated with the delivery of dental care to promote greater understanding for patients of their rights and privileges to their complete record. PMID:24834675

  18. Participants' perspective on maintaining behaviour change: a qualitative study within the European Diabetes Prevention Study

    PubMed Central

    Penn, Linda; Moffatt, Suzanne M; White, Martin

    2008-01-01

    Background The European Diabetes Prevention Study (EDIPS) is an RCT of diet and exercise interventions in people with impaired glucose tolerance. We undertook a qualitative study, nested within the EDIPS in Newcastle-upon-Tyne, UK, aiming to understand the experience of participants who maintained behaviour change, in order to inform future interventions. Methods Participants were purposively sampled, according to success criteria for diet and physical activity change maintenance, and invited to attend individual semi-structured interviews. Fifteen participants completed an interview and reflected on their experience over three to five years. We used the Framework method to analyse the transcribed data. Results Main themes were identified as factors that help (props) and those that hinder (burdens) behaviour change maintenance at different organisational levels: individual (both physical and psychological), social and environmental. Pre-existing physical conditions (such as arthritis) and social demands (such as caring for an ageing relative) hindered, whereas the benefits of becoming fitter and of having social and professional support helped, participants in maintaining behaviour change. Participants' long term experiences highlighted the salience of the continuous change in their physical, social and environmental conditions over time. Conclusion The construct of props and burdens facilitates a holistic view of participants' behaviour. Efforts to encourage behaviour change maintenance should take account of context and the way this changes over time, and should include strategies to address these issues. The experience of participants who maintain behaviour change highlights the challenges for the wider implementation of diabetes prevention strategies. Trial Registration (ISRCTN 15670600) PMID:18616797

  19. ADAS Update and Maintainability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Leela R.

    2010-01-01

    Since 2000, both the National Weather Service Melbourne (NWS MLB) and the Spaceflight Meteorology Group (SMG) have used a local data integration system (LOIS) as part of their forecast and warning operations. The original LOIS was developed by the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) in 1998 (Manobianco and Case 1998) and has undergone subsequent improvements. Each has benefited from three-dimensional (3-D) analyses that are delivered to forecasters every 15 minutes across the peninsula of Florida. The intent is to generate products that enhance short-range weather forecasts issued in support of NWS MLB and SMG operational requirements within East Central Florida. The current LDIS uses the Advanced Regional Prediction System (ARPS) Data Analysis System (AD AS) package as its core, which integrates a wide variety of national, regional, and local observational data sets. It assimilates all available real-time data within its domain and is run at a finer spatial and temporal resolution than current national or regional-scale analysis packages. As such, it provides local forecasters with a more comprehensive understanding of evolving fine-scale weather features. Over the years, the LDIS has become problematic to maintain since it depends on AMU-developed shell scripts that were written for an earlier version of the ADAS software. The goals of this task were to update the NWS MLB/SMG LDIS with the latest version of ADAS, incorporate new sources of observational data, and upgrade and modify the AMU-developed shell scripts written to govern the system. In addition, the previously developed ADAS graphical user interface (GUI) was updated. Operationally, these upgrades will result in more accurate depictions of the current local environment to help with short-range weather forecasting applications, while also offering an improved initialization for local versions of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model used by both groups.

  20. Compulsory citizenship for the disenfranchised: benchmarking students, schools, and social and political attitudes before the Citizenship Order

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zoë Slote Morris; Peter John; David Halpern

    2003-01-01

    This article reviews the current state of the debate about the political orientation and social attitudes of young people. After cautioning against a pessimistic view of moral decline, the article reports the results from a survey of 1249 young people in Hertfordshire. While showing evidence of low levels of political knowledge, interest, trust and efficacy, the findings do not confirm

  1. Women's work. Maintaining a healthy body weight.

    PubMed

    Welch, Nicky; Hunter, Wendy; Butera, Karina; Willis, Karen; Cleland, Verity; Crawford, David; Ball, Kylie

    2009-08-01

    This study describes women's perceptions of the supports and barriers to maintaining a healthy weight among currently healthy weight women from urban and rural socio-economically disadvantaged areas. Using focus groups and interviews, we asked women about their experiences of maintaining a healthy weight. Overwhelmingly, women described their healthy weight practices in terms of concepts related to work and management. The theme of 'managing health' comprised issues of managing multiple responsibilities, time, and emotions associated with healthy practices. Rural women faced particular difficulties in accessing supports at a practical level (for example, lack of childcare) and due to the gendered roles they enacted in caring for others. Family background (in particular, mothers' attitudes to food and weight) also appeared to influence perceptions about healthy weight maintenance. In the context of global increases in the prevalence of obesity, the value of initiatives aimed at supporting healthy weight women to maintain their weight should not be under-estimated. Such initiatives need to work within the social and personal constraints that women face in maintaining good health. PMID:19446587

  2. Signals in Social Supernets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Judith Donath

    2007-01-01

    Social network sites (SNSs) provide a new way to organize and navigate an egocentric social network. Are they a fad, briefly popular but ultimately useless? Or are they the harbingers of a new and more powerful social world, where the ability to maintain an immense network - a social \\

  3. What Does God Know? Supernatural Agents' Access to Socially Strategic and Non-Strategic Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purzycki, Benjamin G.; Finkel, Daniel N.; Shaver, John; Wales, Nathan; Cohen, Adam B.; Sosis, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Current evolutionary and cognitive theories of religion posit that supernatural agent concepts emerge from cognitive systems such as theory of mind and social cognition. Some argue that these concepts evolved to maintain social order by minimizing antisocial behavior. If these theories are correct, then people should process information about…

  4. On Maintaining Concentration Neil Tennant

    E-print Network

    Tennant, Neil

    @jstor.org. http://www.jstor.org Tue Mar 18 17:37:32 2008 #12;On Maintaining Concentration Peter Milne (this issue, then, can be done to save the situation in the light of Milne's counterexample? The sequent that Milne: (y) Maintain Concentration! What Milne has shown is that concentration lapsed when I formulated

  5. "Confinement of the higher orders": the social role of private lunatic asylums in Ireland, C. 1820-60.

    PubMed

    Mauger, Alice

    2012-04-01

    The period 1820-60 marked an era of transition and diversity in Ireland that rapidly transformed the face of Irish society. Inextricably linked with these processes was the expansion of Ireland's private asylum system. This system diverged from its British counterpart both in the socioeconomic cohort it served and in the role it played within the mental health-care system as a whole. The implementation of the 1842 Private Asylums (Ireland) Act, the first legislative measure geared exclusively toward the system, highlighted the growing importance of private care in Ireland as well as providing for the licensing and regulation of these institutions for the first time. To date, historians of Irish medicine have focused almost exclusively on the pauper insane. This article aims to shift this emphasis toward other categories of the Irish insane through exploration of the Irish private asylum system, its growth throughout the period, and the social profile of private patients. I shall also interrogate the trade in lunacy model through exploration of financial considerations, discharge and recovery rates, and conditions of care and argue that while Irish private institutions were a lucrative business venture, the quality of care upheld was apparently high. Finally, I shall argue that Irish private asylums catered primarily for the upper classes and briefly explore alternative provisional measures for other non-pauper sectors of society. PMID:21355010

  6. “Confinement of the Higher Orders”: The Social Role of Private Lunatic Asylums in Ireland, c. 1820–60

    PubMed Central

    Mauger, Alice

    2012-01-01

    The period 1820–60 marked an era of transition and diversity in Ireland that rapidly transformed the face of Irish society. Inextricably linked with these processes was the expansion of Ireland's private asylum system. This system diverged from its British counterpart both in the socioeconomic cohort it served and in the role it played within the mental health-care system as a whole. The implementation of the 1842 Private Asylums (Ireland) Act, the first legislative measure geared exclusively toward the system, highlighted the growing importance of private care in Ireland as well as providing for the licensing and regulation of these institutions for the first time. To date, historians of Irish medicine have focused almost exclusively on the pauper insane. This article aims to shift this emphasis toward other categories of the Irish insane through exploration of the Irish private asylum system, its growth throughout the period, and the social profile of private patients. I shall also interrogate the trade in lunacy model through exploration of financial considerations, discharge and recovery rates, and conditions of care and argue that while Irish private institutions were a lucrative business venture, the quality of care upheld was apparently high. Finally, I shall argue that Irish private asylums catered primarily for the upper classes and briefly explore alternative provisional measures for other non-pauper sectors of society. PMID:21355010

  7. Functional analysis screening for problem behavior maintained by automatic reinforcement.

    PubMed

    Querim, Angie C; Iwata, Brian A; Roscoe, Eileen M; Schlichenmeyer, Kevin J; Ortega, Javier Virués; Hurl, Kylee E

    2013-01-01

    A common finding in previous research is that problem behavior maintained by automatic reinforcement continues to occur in the alone condition of a functional analysis (FA), whereas behavior maintained by social reinforcement typically is extinguished. Thus, the alone condition may represent an efficient screening procedure when maintenance by automatic reinforcement is suspected. We conducted a series of 5-min alone (or no-interaction) probes for 30 cases of problem behavior and compared initial predictions of maintenance or extinction to outcomes obtained in subsequent FAs. Results indicated that data from the screening procedure accurately predicted that problem behavior was maintained by automatic reinforcement in 21 of 22 cases and by social reinforcement in 7 of 8 cases. Thus, results of the screening accurately predicted the function of problem behavior (social vs. automatic reinforcement) in 28 of 30 cases. PMID:24114084

  8. Maintaining Subsurface Drip Irrigation Systems

    E-print Network

    Enciso, Juan; Porter, Dana; Bordovsky, Jim; Fipps, Guy

    2004-09-07

    A subsurface drip irrigation system should last more than 20 years if properly maintained. Important maintenance procedures include cleaning the filters, flushing the lines, adding chlorine and injecting acids. Details of these procedures...

  9. Maintaining the environmental-racial order in northern New Mexico

    E-print Network

    Wilmsen, Carl

    2007-01-01

    to that discourse: 1) the image of Spanish injustices doneSpanish injustices perpetrated on the Indians is invoked in discourse.Spanish cultures. While this claim to hybridity enabled the creation of new oppositional discourses,

  10. Social Change

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Created and maintained by Gene Shackman, who holds a PhD in sociology from SUNY Albany, this Website serves as a directory of annotated links for scholarship and resources in the area of social change. Included here are links to theory, research, data sources, social history sites, national profiles, bibliographies and syllabi, gateways, and pertinent organizations. The author has also posted an essay offering a summary of theories of social change. The links are credible and frequently updated; the annotations, clear and concise.

  11. Research notes on social order and subjectivity: individuals' experience of susto and fallen fontanelle in a rural community in central Mexico.

    PubMed

    Castro, R; Eroza, E

    1998-06-01

    Disciplines such as sociology and anthropology have showed that the experience of illness, is above all, a social product, that is, that social factors of different kinds play a central role in shaping individuals' subjectivity. This paper refers to the case of Ocuituco, a rural town of central Mexico. The article presents some of the results achieved through an interpretive sociological study of individuals' subjective experience of traditional illnesses such as susto, soul-loss, and fallen fontanelle. The aim is to analyze how Ocuituco's inhabitants attach meaning to, interpret, and experience these illnesses. The main point being made is that the subjective experience of traditional illnesses is shaped both by the cultural background of individuals, and by the sociological features of the setting where these individuals live. Data are interpreted in connection both to structural factors (poverty, medicalization, and patriarchy), and to the main traits that characterize individuals' view of their world: a sense of uncertainty, a sense of the unexpected as being normal, a sense of being oppressed, a familiarity with a patriarchal order. It is shown that both susto and fallen fontanelle are belief systems which allow individuals to interpret their circumstances and attach meaning to their problematic everyday life. PMID:9693875

  12. Issues in Purchasing and Maintaining Intrinsic Standards

    SciTech Connect

    PETTIT,RICHARD B.; JAEGER,KLAUS; EHRLICH,CHARLES D.

    2000-09-12

    Intrinsic standards are widely used in the metrology community because they realize the best level uncertainty for many metrology parameters. For some intrinsic standards, recommended practices have been developed to assist metrologists in the selection of equipment and the development of appropriate procedures in order to realize the intrinsic standard. As with the addition of any new standard, the metrology laboratory should consider the pros and cons relative to their needs before purchasing the standard so that the laboratory obtains the maximum benefit from setting up and maintaining these standards. While the specific issues that need to be addressed depend upon the specific intrinsic standard and the level of realization, general issues that should be considered include ensuring that the intrinsic standard is compatible with the laboratory environment, that the standard is compatible with the current and future workload, and whether additional support standards will be required in order to properly maintain the intrinsic standard. When intrinsic standards are used to realize the best level of uncertainty for a specific metrology parameter, they usually require critical and important maintenance activities. These activities can including training of staff in the system operation, as well as safety procedures; performing periodic characterization measurements to ensure proper system operation; carrying out periodic intercomparisons with similar intrinsic standards so that proper operation is demonstrated; and maintaining control or trend charts of system performance. This paper has summarized many of these important issues and therefore should be beneficial to any laboratory that is considering the purchase of an intrinsic standard.

  13. Congestion Aware Forwarding in Delay Tolerant and Social Opportunistic Networks

    E-print Network

    Aickelin, Uwe

    maintaining high buffer availability and low delays. This paper explores a number of social, buffer and delay of the network in order to keep low delays, high success ratios and high availability of nodes. We conduct for opportunistic forwarding that supports optimization of multipoint high volume data flow transfer while

  14. Establishing and Maintaining Intimate Relationships among Nursing Home Residents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crose, Royda

    1990-01-01

    Argues that nursing home mental health counselors should address nursing home residents' need for assistance in conflict resolution, having meaningful social interactions, and in developing and maintaining feelings of self-worth. Describes benefits of group therapy approach using life review format to help build basic trust and feelings of…

  15. Maintaining Sustainability for Green Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Mike

    2011-01-01

    The promise of sustainably designed school facilities is that they will operate more efficiently and last longer than buildings constructed in more traditional ways. But that promise comes with a big if. The payoff is delivered only if the facility managers operate and maintain the buildings in ways that adhere to sustainable strategies called for…

  16. LEARN TO BUILD AND MAINTAIN

    E-print Network

    Viglas, Anastasios

    of person we are. There is no such thing as a perfect relationship. We do much better when we can accept meaningful relationships and interests exist If you are in a romantic relationship you might also likeLEARN TO BUILD AND MAINTAIN HEALTHY RELATIONSHIPS CAPS #12;PLAY As humans we use our relationships

  17. Topic-based social network analysis for virtual communities of interests in the Dark Web

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gaston L'Huillier; Sebastián A. Ríos; Hector Alvarez; Felipe Aguilera

    2010-01-01

    The study of extremist groups and their interaction is a crucial task in order to maintain homeland security and peace. Tools such as social networks analysis and text mining have contributed to the understanding of this kind of groups in order to develop counter-terrorism applications. This work addresses the topic-based community key members extraction problem, for which our method combines

  18. Maintaining technical excellence requires a national plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidson, T. F.

    1991-01-01

    To meet the challenge of technical excellence, AIA established a rocket propulsion committee to develop the National Rocket Propulsion Strategic Plan. Developing such a plan required a broad spectrum of experience and disciplines. The Strategic Plan team needed the participation of industry, government, and academia. The plan provides, if followed, a means for the U.S. to maintain technical excellence and world leadership in rocket propulsion. To implement the National Rocket Propulsion Strategic Plan is to invest in the social, economic, and technological futures of America. The plan lays the basis for upgrading existing propulsion systems and a firm base for future full scale development, production, and operation of rocket propulsion systems for space, defense, and commercial applications.

  19. Topic-based social network analysis for virtual communities of interests in the dark web

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gaston L'Huillier; Hector Alvarez; Sebastián A. Ríos; Felipe Aguilera

    2011-01-01

    The study of extremist groups and their interaction is a crucial task in order to maintain homeland security and peace. Tools such as social networks analysis and text mining have contributed to their understanding in order to develop counter-terrorism applications. This work addresses the topic-based community key-members extraction problem, for which our method combines both text mining and social network

  20. NMG documentation, part 3: maintainer`s guide

    SciTech Connect

    Fritsch, F.N.; Dickinson, R.P. Jr.

    1996-07-01

    This is the third of a three-part report documenting NMG, the Numerical Mathematics Guide. Part I is aimed at the user of the systenL It contains an introduction, with an out- line of the complete report, and Chapter 1, User`s Point of View. Part II is aimed at the programmer and contains Chapter 2, How It Works. Part III is aimed at the maintainer of NMG and contains Chapter 3, Maintenance, and Chapter 4, Validation. Because its contents are so specialized, Part III will receive only limited distribution. Note that each chapter has its own page numbering and table of contents.

  1. 10 CFR 26.71 - Maintaining authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 false Maintaining authorization. 26.71 Section 26.71 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Granting and Maintaining Authorization § 26.71 Maintaining authorization. (a)...

  2. 10 CFR 26.71 - Maintaining authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 false Maintaining authorization. 26.71 Section 26.71 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Granting and Maintaining Authorization § 26.71 Maintaining authorization. (a)...

  3. Capturing, structuring and maintaining knowledge: a social software approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul Jackson

    2010-01-01

    Purpose – Knowledge capture from experts is important when that knowledge is of value, scarce, and threatened by loss, as is the case with the expected departure of “baby boomers” from the workforce. This paper seeks to provide a theoretically grounded, practical methodology for initial knowledge capture and ongoing maintenance of this knowledge using “Web 2.0” technologies. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The

  4. PROTECTING YOUR IDENTITY In order to protect the identity of our payees,

    E-print Network

    Winfree, Erik

    the SSN in order to maintain compliance with privacy standards. WAYS YOU CAN HELP Caltech Employees) that include sensitive information such as social security numbers (SSN), unless specifically requested by our Department. When an SSN is added or included with documents received by our office, we are required to redact

  5. Maintaining consistency in distributed systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birman, Kenneth P.

    1991-01-01

    In systems designed as assemblies of independently developed components, concurrent access to data or data structures normally arises within individual programs, and is controlled using mutual exclusion constructs, such as semaphores and monitors. Where data is persistent and/or sets of operation are related to one another, transactions or linearizability may be more appropriate. Systems that incorporate cooperative styles of distributed execution often replicate or distribute data within groups of components. In these cases, group oriented consistency properties must be maintained, and tools based on the virtual synchrony execution model greatly simplify the task confronting an application developer. All three styles of distributed computing are likely to be seen in future systems - often, within the same application. This leads us to propose an integrated approach that permits applications that use virtual synchrony with concurrent objects that respect a linearizability constraint, and vice versa. Transactional subsystems are treated as a special case of linearizability.

  6. Social Sustainability: Geography 446

    E-print Network

    improve and maintain sustainable development. The above issues are underlined by four components: 1 as a way to foster equitable and inclusive community development and to make social sustainability of the colleges). #12;3. Leadership · Maintain UBC's role as academic institution model of sustainable practices

  7. Revised April 2013 Marketing/Social Media Internship

    E-print Network

    Hemmers, Oliver

    Revised April 2013 Marketing/Social Media Internship Job Title: Marketing/Social Media Internship and sports programs/events; social marketing/social media; print and digital flyer design; social norming & Facilities Maintain social media networks Develop/revise social norming messages/campaigns Create

  8. Conceptualising value creation for social change management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rebekah Russell-Bennett; Josephine Previte; Nadia Zainuddin

    2009-01-01

    Australian and international governments are increasingly adopting social marketing as a social change management tool to deal with complex social problems. Government decision makers typically need to balance the use of business models and management theories whilst maintaining the integrity of government policy. In taking this approach, decision makers experience management tensions between a social mission to equitably deliver social

  9. Social Work Experience and Development in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sibin, Wang

    2013-01-01

    This article presents the experience and limitations of government-run social work and the nonprofessional nature of social work, and suggests that the rapid development of social work and its professionalization are the inevitable results of the reform in the system. The author maintains that under market socialism, social work requires the…

  10. Explaining Social Constructivism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keaton, Shaughan A.; Bodie, Graham D.

    2011-01-01

    Many versions of social constructivism (SC) maintain that objects exist only after they enter communicative space. At one level an object's existence is determined through an individual's sensory perception; through communicative acts, both intra- and interpersonally, they are defined and eventually embody meaning. The social process of defining…

  11. Addressing Social Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoebel, Susan

    1991-01-01

    Maintains that advertising can help people become more aware of social responsibilities. Describes a successful nationwide newspaper advertising competition for college students in which ads address social issues such as literacy, drugs, teen suicide, and teen pregnancy. Notes how the ads have helped grassroots programs throughout the United…

  12. Alcohol Use Reduction Program in Methadone Maintained Individuals with Hepatitis C Virus Infection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adeline Nyamathi; Viviane de Castro; Donna McNeese-Smith; Kamala Nyamathi; Steven Shoptaw; Mary Marfisee; Farinaz Khalilifard; Allan Cohen

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this article was to investigate the personal and social barriers experienced by methadone maintained clients when seeking treatment for alcohol abuse along with strategies for engaging such clients in treatment programs. A qualitative design using semi-structured focus groups was used to obtain the perspectives of 41 methadone-maintained clients in Los Angeles, California. Sessions were recorded, transcribed, and

  13. 7 CFR 1430.508 - Maintaining records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 2010-01-01 false Maintaining records. 1430.508 Section 1430.508 Agriculture Regulations of the Department...PRODUCTS Dairy Market Loss Assistance Program § 1430.508 Maintaining records. Dairy operations...

  14. 7 CFR 1430.312 - Maintaining records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 2010-01-01 false Maintaining records. 1430.312 Section 1430.312 Agriculture Regulations of the Department... 2004 Dairy Disaster Assistance Payment Program § 1430.312 Maintaining records. Persons applying...

  15. 7 CFR 1430.612 - Maintaining records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 2010-01-01 false Maintaining records. 1430.612 Section 1430.612 Agriculture Regulations of the Department...Disaster Assistance Payment Program II (DDAP-II) § 1430.612 Maintaining records. Persons applying...

  16. Maintaining Minimum Spanning Trees in Dynamic Graphs

    E-print Network

    King, Valerie

    Maintaining Minimum Spanning Trees in Dynamic Graphs Monika R. Henzinger 1 and Valerie King 2 1 for maintaining a minimum spanning tree in time o( p n) per operation. To be precise, the algorithm uses O(n 1 We consider the problem of maintaining a minimum spanning tree during an arbitrary sequence of edge

  17. The development of corporate social responsibility in the Australian construction industry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    2008-01-01

    In the Australian construction industry, large companies develop corporate social responsibility (CSR) in order to maintain an image of being a good corporate citizen. CSR relevant to the construction industry is defined including the following activities: moral obligation to be a good citizen; sustainability; reputation; relationship with employees and unions; relationship with suppliers and community representatives; and commitment to reporting

  18. An evaluation of strategies to maintain mands at practical levels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tina M. Sidener; Daniel B. Shabani; James E. Carr; Jonathan P. Roland

    2006-01-01

    In order to teach individuals with developmental disabilities to request stimuli they are motivated to obtain (mand), it is often necessary to initially deliver the item requested immediately and frequently. This may result in an undesirably high rate of mands that is impractical to maintain. The purpose of the current investigation was to extend the findings of previous research on

  19. An Evaluation of Strategies to Maintain Mands at Practical Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sidener, Tina M.; Shabani, Daniel B.; Carr, James E.; Roland, Jonathan P.

    2006-01-01

    In order to teach individuals with developmental disabilities to request stimuli they are motivated to obtain (mand), it is often necessary to initially deliver the item requested immediately and frequently. This may result in an undesirably high rate of mands that is impractical to maintain. The purpose of the current investigation was to extend…

  20. Maintaining Arrays of Contiguous Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bender, Michael A.; Fekete, Sándor P.; Kamphans, Tom; Schweer, Nils

    In this paper we consider methods for dynamically storing a set of different objects (“modules”) in a physical array. Each module requires one free contiguous subinterval in order to be placed. Items are inserted or removed, resulting in a fragmented layout that makes it harder to insert further modules. It is possible to relocate modules, one at a time, to another free subinterval that is contiguous and does not overlap with the current location of the module. These constraints clearly distinguish our problem from classical memory allocation. We present a number of algorithmic results, including a bound of {?}(n^2) on physical sorting if there is a sufficiently large free space and sum up NP-hardness results for arbitrary initial layouts. For online scenarios in which modules arrive one at a time, we present a method that requires O(1) moves per insertion or deletion and amortized cost O(m_i lg hat{m}) per insertion or deletion, where m i is the module’s size, hat{m} is the size of the largest module and costs for moves are linear in the size of a module.

  1. ERC Advanced Grants 2008 -SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES The first part of the list shows proposals invited for funding (alphabetic order).

    E-print Network

    De Cindio, Fiorella

    . Dorret Boomsma Vrije Universiteit NL GMI Genetics of Mental Illness SH4 Prof. David Burr Fondazione Histories: Shared, Connected, Entangled SH6 Prof. Didier Fassin Ecole des hautes études en sciences sociales Building process in Latin American history: a comparative study, 1820-1870 SH6 Prof. Roberto Gargiani Ecole

  2. We Call It "Our Language": A Children's Swahili Pidgin Transforms Social and Symbolic Order on a Remote Hillside in Up-Country Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilmore, Perry

    2011-01-01

    This study describes a rare Swahili pidgin created by two five-year-old boys, one American and one African. The discussion examines the linguistic and social factors affecting the "origins, maintenance, change and loss" (Hymes 1971) of their language and the place it created for their friendship. This place, constructed by and through language,…

  3. The Lower-Order Expectations of High-Stakes Tests: A Four-State Analysis of Social Studies Standards and Test Alignment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeWitt, Scott W.; Patterson, Nancy; Blankenship, Whitney; Blevins, Brooke; DiCamillo, Lorrei; Gerwin, David; Gradwell, Jill M.; Gunn, John; Maddox, Lamont; Salinas, Cinthia; Saye, John; Stoddard, Jeremy; Sullivan, Caroline C.

    2013-01-01

    This study indicates that the state-mandated high-stakes social studies assessments in four states do not require students to demonstrate that they have met the cognitive demands articulated in the state-mandated learning standards. Further, the assessments do not allow students to demonstrate the critical thinking skills required by the…

  4. Climbing social media in medicine's hierarchy of needs.

    PubMed

    Chretien, Katherine C; Kind, Terry

    2014-10-01

    The social media and medicine landscape is evolving rapidly. Early research, social media policies, and educational efforts focused on risk avoidance, while more current efforts have encouraged reflection and explored opportunities. This trajectory has affirmed physicians' professional commitment to maintaining public trust in the face of new challenges in the digital age. In this Commentary, the authors propose viewing physicians' social media use as a hierarchy of needs, similar to Maslow's psychological theory which posits that more basic levels of needs must be met before higher, aspirational levels can be fully attained. The three levels in the social media in medicine's hierarchy of needs are Security, Reflection, and Discovery. Critical to this model is respecting the essential need for Security in order to move towards Reflection and into Discovery. The social media in medicine hierarchy of needs pyramid rests on a foundation of Public Trust. How physicians as a profession have responded to past--and continue to respond to present and future--social media challenges to professionalism reveals what matters most: maintaining public trust and honoring the physicians' contract with society. A victory for online professionalism would be providing trainees with the tools and guidance needed to ascend to Discovery, while ensuring that their basic social media needs are first met. To do this, physician educators need to continue increasing trainees' awareness through designing relevant curricula, encouraging reflection, and providing positive role modeling and effective mentorship. PMID:25076202

  5. Voluntary rewards mediate the evolution of pool punishment for maintaining public goods in large populations.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Tatsuya; Uchida, Satoshi; Chen, Xiaojie

    2015-01-01

    Punishment is a popular tool when governing commons in situations where free riders would otherwise take over. It is well known that sanctioning systems, such as the police and courts, are costly and thus can suffer from those who free ride on other's efforts to maintain the sanctioning systems (second-order free riders). Previous game-theory studies showed that if populations are very large, pool punishment rarely emerges in public good games, even when participation is optional, because of second-order free riders. Here we show that a matching fund for rewarding cooperation leads to the emergence of pool punishment, despite the presence of second-order free riders. We demonstrate that reward funds can pave the way for a transition from a population of free riders to a population of pool punishers. A key factor in promoting the transition is also to reward those who contribute to pool punishment, yet not abstaining from participation. Reward funds eventually vanish in raising pool punishment, which is sustainable by punishing the second-order free riders. This suggests that considering the interdependence of reward and punishment may help to better understand the origins and transitions of social norms and institutions. PMID:25753335

  6. Voluntary rewards mediate the evolution of pool punishment for maintaining public goods in large populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasaki, Tatsuya; Uchida, Satoshi; Chen, Xiaojie

    2015-03-01

    Punishment is a popular tool when governing commons in situations where free riders would otherwise take over. It is well known that sanctioning systems, such as the police and courts, are costly and thus can suffer from those who free ride on other's efforts to maintain the sanctioning systems (second-order free riders). Previous game-theory studies showed that if populations are very large, pool punishment rarely emerges in public good games, even when participation is optional, because of second-order free riders. Here we show that a matching fund for rewarding cooperation leads to the emergence of pool punishment, despite the presence of second-order free riders. We demonstrate that reward funds can pave the way for a transition from a population of free riders to a population of pool punishers. A key factor in promoting the transition is also to reward those who contribute to pool punishment, yet not abstaining from participation. Reward funds eventually vanish in raising pool punishment, which is sustainable by punishing the second-order free riders. This suggests that considering the interdependence of reward and punishment may help to better understand the origins and transitions of social norms and institutions.

  7. ``Victorian Socialism''

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. G. Wells

    1940-01-01

    IN a very interesting essay entitled ``Victorian Socialism'' which Dean Inge contributed to NATURE of January 13 as if it were a review of my ``New World Order'', he makes certain statements for which I think it is reasonable to demand documentation. He says that the Nationalists (that is, the Franco rebels) took arms ``against those devils in human shape,

  8. Social Media Guidelines Social media is a type of online media that expedites conversation as opposed to traditional

    E-print Network

    Asaithambi, Asai

    Social Media Guidelines Social media is a type of online media that expedites conversation constituents apply online as in the real world. Because social media channels are fairly new to many employees will be maintained by Public Relations and will list all official social media sites maintained by the University

  9. Dream or Nightmare? The Future of Social Work Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kendall, Katherine A.

    1973-01-01

    This paper postulates that social work education must include social action and social change, while always maintaining an identifiable professional behavior that is the product of knowledge, values and skills. (Editor/PG)

  10. Social disorder and diagnostic order: the US Mental Hygiene Movement, the Midtown Manhattan study and the development of psychiatric epidemiology in the 20th century.

    PubMed

    March, Dana; Oppenheimer, Gerald M

    2014-08-01

    Recent scholarship regarding psychiatric epidemiology has focused on shifting notions of mental disorders. In psychiatric epidemiology in the last decades of the 20th century and the first decade of the 21st century, mental disorders have been perceived and treated largely as discrete categories denoting an individual's mental functioning as either pathological or normal. In the USA, this grew partly out of evolving modern epidemiological work responding to the State's commitment to measure the national social and economic burdens of psychiatric disorders and subsequently to determine the need for mental health services and to survey these needs over time. Notably absent in these decades have been environmentally oriented approaches to cultivating normal, healthy mental states, approaches initially present after World War II. We focus here on a set of community studies conducted in the 1950s, particularly the Midtown Manhattan study, which grew out of a holistic conception of mental health that depended on social context and had a strong historical affiliation with: the Mental Hygiene Movement and the philosophy of its founder, Adolf Meyer; the epidemiological formation of field studies and population surveys beginning early in the 20th century, often with a health policy agenda; the recognition of increasing chronic disease in the USA; and the radical change in orientation within psychiatry around World War II. We place the Midtown Manhattan study in historical context--a complex narrative of social institutions, professional formation and scientific norms in psychiatry and epidemiology, and social welfare theory that begins during the Progressive era (1890-1920) in the USA. PMID:25031047

  11. Space Maintainers in Dentistry: Past to Present

    PubMed Central

    Setia, Vikas; Pandit, Inder Kumar; Srivastava, Nikhil; Gugnani, Neeraj; Sekhon, Harveen Kaur

    2013-01-01

    Early orthodontic interventions are often initiated in the developing dentition to promote favourable developmental changes. Interceptive orthodontic can eliminate or reduce the severity of a developing malocclusion, the complexity of orthodontic treatment, overall treatment time and cost. The safest way to prevent future malocclusions from tooth loss is to place a space maintainer that is effective and durable. An appropriate use of space maintainer is advocated to hold the space until the eruption of permanent teeth. This case report describes the various changing trends in use of space maintainers: conventional band and loop, prefabricated band with custom made loop and glass fibre reinforced composite resins as space maintainers. PMID:24298544

  12. Designing for Maintainability and System Availability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lalli, Vincent R.; Packard, Michael H.

    1997-01-01

    The final goal for a delivered system (whether a car, aircraft, avionics box or computer) should be its availability to operate and perform its intended function over its expected design life. Hence, in designing a system, we cannot think in terms of delivering the system and just walking away. The system supplier needs to provide support throughout the operating life of the product. Here, supportability requires an effective combination of reliability, maintainability, logistics and operations engineering (as well as safety engineering) to have a system that is available for its intended use throughout its designated mission lifetime. Maintainability is a key driving element in the effective support and upkeep of the system as well as providing the ability to modify and upgrade the system throughout its lifetime. This paper then, will concentrate on maintainability and its integration into the system engineering and design process. The topics to be covered include elements of maintainability, the total cost of ownership, how system availability, maintenance and logistics costs and spare parts cost effect the overall program costs. System analysis and maintainability will show how maintainability fits into the overall systems approach to project development. Maintainability processes and documents will focus on how maintainability is to be performed and what documents are typically generated for a large scale program. Maintainability analysis shows how trade-offs can be performed for various alternative components. The conclusions summarize the paper and are followed by specific problems for hands-on training.

  13. Space maintainers in dentistry: past to present.

    PubMed

    Setia, Vikas; Pandit, Inder Kumar; Srivastava, Nikhil; Gugnani, Neeraj; Sekhon, Harveen Kaur

    2013-10-01

    Early orthodontic interventions are often initiated in the developing dentition to promote favourable developmental changes. Interceptive orthodontic can eliminate or reduce the severity of a developing malocclusion, the complexity of orthodontic treatment, overall treatment time and cost. The safest way to prevent future malocclusions from tooth loss is to place a space maintainer that is effective and durable. An appropriate use of space maintainer is advocated to hold the space until the eruption of permanent teeth. This case report describes the various changing trends in use of space maintainers: conventional band and loop, prefabricated band with custom made loop and glass fibre reinforced composite resins as space maintainers. PMID:24298544

  14. [Comparison of the effects of exchange forms on social solidarity].

    PubMed

    Inaba, Misato; Takahashi, Nobuyuki

    2012-04-01

    Although social solidarity is an essential component that helps maintaining social order, what produces solidarity and how does it work have not been fully investigated. We conducted an experiment to examine whether experiencing different forms of social exchange produces different levels of solidarity. We compared four forms of social exchange: reciprocal exchange (exchange resources without negotiation), negotiated exchange (with negotiation), pure-generalized exchange (giver can choose who to give) and chain-generalized exchange (giver cannot choose who to give). Two dimensions classify these exchanges: the number of players (two vs. more than two), and involvement of negotiation. Reciprocal and negotiated exchanges occur within dyads, while pure- and chain-generalized exchanges involve three or more players. Only the negotiated exchange involves negotiation process; the other exchanges are purely unilateral giving. Participants played a one-shot social dilemma game (SDG) before and after social exchange session. The more the players cooperated in SDG, the stronger the social solidarity. Results show that the cooperation rate in SDG increased more in the reciprocal, pure- and chain-generalized exchange conditions than that in the negotiated exchange condition, suggesting that social solidarity is facilitated by experiencing social exchange which does not involve negotiation. PMID:22715536

  15. An evaluation of strategies to maintain mands at practical levels.

    PubMed

    Sidener, Tina M; Shabani, Daniel B; Carr, James E; Roland, Jonathan P

    2006-01-01

    In order to teach individuals with developmental disabilities to request stimuli they are motivated to obtain (mand), it is often necessary to initially deliver the item requested immediately and frequently. This may result in an undesirably high rate of mands that is impractical to maintain. The purpose of the current investigation was to extend the findings of previous research on the maintenance of low-rate mands within a communication-training context for children diagnosed with autism by evaluating the efficacy of two procedures: (1) signaled delay-to-reinforcement and (2) multiple schedules. The results of our evaluation of multiple schedules replicated those of previous research; this arrangement was found for all participants to be effective in maintaining mands at low rates under multiple schedules with a 270-s extinction component and 30-s reinforcement component. For all participants, signaled delay-to-reinforcement was ineffective in maintaining mands at the terminal criterion, a 270-s delay. PMID:16298103

  16. PRODUCING SALMON TO MAINTAIN COMMERCIAL AND

    E-print Network

    THIS IS A SALMO HATCH PRODUCING SALMON TO MAINTAIN COMMERCIAL AND SPORT FISHERIES SHKT* illiiniltiiiii SALMON HATCHERY? To maintain the resource, enough of the mature salmon entering and destroyed young salmon. To counteract the effects of these, salmon hatcheries are necessary. Hatchery salmon

  17. Maintaining the Gains in Malaria Control

    E-print Network

    Klein, Ophir

    Maintaining the Gains in Malaria Control Ethiopia | Rwanda | Senegal | Tanzania (Mainland and Zanzibar) COUNTRY BRIEFS September 2011 #12;#12;SEpTEMbER 2011 MainTaining ThE gainS in MalaRia conTRol | ExEcuTivE SuMMaRy | 3 Key messages · aggressive campaigns to scale up malaria control have led

  18. Maintaining Stream Statistics over Sliding Windows

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mayur Datar; Aristides Gionis; Piotr Indyk; Rajeev Motwani

    2002-01-01

    We consider the problem of maintaining aggregates and statistics over data streams, with respect to the last N data elements seen so far. We refer to this model as the sliding window model. We consider the following basic problem: Given a stream of bits, maintain a count of the number of 1's in the last N elements seen from the

  19. Agent Program Planning Information Maintain No Gain

    E-print Network

    , or as an Employee Wellness Program. The Maintain No Gain program can be flexible to meet the needs of the local groups, or for use in an employee wellness program or to start an employee wellness program. Agent Training Agents can be trained to deliver the Maintain No Gain program by participating in and/or viewing

  20. Encapsulation method for maintaining biodecontamination activity

    DOEpatents

    Rogers, Robert D. (Idaho Falls, ID); Hamilton, Melinda A. (Idaho Falls, ID); Nelson, Lee O. (Idaho Falls, ID); Benson, Jennifer (Cockermouth, GB); Green, Martin J. (Wooton, GB); Milner, Timothy N. (Centerville, VA)

    2002-01-01

    A method for maintaining the viability and subsequent activity of microorganisms utilized in a variety of environments to promote biodecontamination of surfaces. One application involves the decontamination of concrete surfaces. Encapsulation of microbial influenced degradation (MID) microorganisms has shown that MID activity is effectively maintained under passive conditions, that is, without manual addition of moisture or nutrients, for an extended period of time.

  1. Encapsulation method for maintaining biodecontamination activity

    DOEpatents

    Rogers, Robert D.; Hamilton, Melinda A.; Nelson, Lee O.; Benson, Jennifer; Green, Martin J.; Milner, Timothy N.

    2006-04-11

    A method for maintaining the viability and subsequent activity of microorganisms utilized in a variety of environments to promote biodecontamination of surfaces. One application involves the decontamination of concrete surfaces. Encapsulation of microbial influenced degradation (MID) microorganisms has shown that MID activity is effectively maintained under passive conditions, that is, without manual addition of moisture or nutrients, for an extended period of time.

  2. SocialAnthropology Social Anthropology

    E-print Network

    Brierley, Andrew

    156 SocialAnthropology Social Anthropology Degree options MA (Single Honours Degree) Social Anthropology MA (Joint Honours Degrees) Social Anthropology and one of: Ancient History Arabic Art History Anthropology Geography with Social Anthropology Social Anthropology with Geography Entrance Requirements (see

  3. Changing social norm compliance with noninvasive brain stimulation.

    PubMed

    Ruff, C C; Ugazio, G; Fehr, E

    2013-10-25

    All known human societies have maintained social order by enforcing compliance with social norms. The biological mechanisms underlying norm compliance are, however, hardly understood. We show that the right lateral prefrontal cortex (rLPFC) is involved in both voluntary and sanction-induced norm compliance. Both types of compliance could be changed by varying the neural excitability of this brain region with transcranial direct current stimulation, but they were affected in opposite ways, suggesting that the stimulated region plays a fundamentally different role in voluntary and sanction-based compliance. Brain stimulation had a particularly strong effect on compliance in the context of socially constituted sanctions, whereas it left beliefs about what the norm prescribes and about subjectively expected sanctions unaffected. Our findings suggest that rLPFC activity is a key biological prerequisite for an evolutionarily and socially important aspect of human behavior. PMID:24091703

  4. Examining self-protection measures guarding Adult Protective Services social workers against compassion fatigue.

    PubMed

    Bourassa, Dara

    2012-06-01

    Little research has focused on the risk factors, effects, and experiences of compassion fatigue among gerontological social workers. This qualitative study explores the experiences and perspectives of nine Adult Protective Services (APS) social workers in relation to compassion fatigue. Results show that the APS social workers combined personal characteristics and professional factors to develop boundary-setting mechanisms that protected them from experiencing the deleterious symptoms and effects of compassion fatigue. Implications center around the elements needed to implement boundaries in order to maintain a separation between the work and home environment. Suggestions for future research are provided. PMID:22203624

  5. An Empirical Analysis of the Impact of Recruitment Patterns on RDS Estimates among a Socially Ordered Population of Female Sex Workers in China

    PubMed Central

    Yamanis, Thespina J.; Merli, M. Giovanna; Neely, William Whipple; Tian, Felicia Feng; Moody, James; Tu, Xiaowen; Gao, Ersheng

    2013-01-01

    Respondent-driven sampling (RDS) is a method for recruiting “hidden” populations through a network-based, chain and peer referral process. RDS recruits hidden populations more effectively than other sampling methods and promises to generate unbiased estimates of their characteristics. RDS’s faithful representation of hidden populations relies on the validity of core assumptions regarding the unobserved referral process. With empirical recruitment data from an RDS study of female sex workers (FSWs) in Shanghai, we assess the RDS assumption that participants recruit nonpreferentially from among their network alters. We also present a bootstrap method for constructing the confidence intervals around RDS estimates. This approach uniquely incorporates real-world features of the population under study (e.g., the sample’s observed branching structure). We then extend this approach to approximate the distribution of RDS estimates under various peer recruitment scenarios consistent with the data as a means to quantify the impact of recruitment bias and of rejection bias on the RDS estimates. We find that the hierarchical social organization of FSWs leads to recruitment biases by constraining RDS recruitment across social classes and introducing bias in the RDS estimates. PMID:24288418

  6. PlanetFlow: maintaining accountability for network services

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark Huang; Andy C. Bavier; Larry L. Peterson

    2006-01-01

    PlanetFlow is a network auditing service that maintains com- prehensive, permanent accountability for all trafc generated by PlanetLab services, in accordance with common Inter- net practice and the terms of the PlanetLab Acceptable Use Policy. PlanetFlow audits the usage of PlanetLab network resources in order to facilitate the resolution of complaints, limit liability, and minimize problematic behavior. The current implementation

  7. School Of Social Work School Of Social Work

    E-print Network

    McConnell, Terry

    School Of Social Work School Of Social Work Carrie Jefferson Smith, Director, 315-443-5562 Sims-443-5562. The undergraduate professional social work program offers a bachelor of science degree. The goals of this program, in order of priority, are as follows: 1. To prepare undergraduate social work students for competent entry

  8. 7 CFR 1430.312 - Maintaining records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS DAIRY PRODUCTS 2004 Dairy Disaster Assistance Payment Program § 1430.312 Maintaining records...Destruction of the records after such date shall be at the risk of the party undertaking the...

  9. 7 CFR 1430.312 - Maintaining records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS DAIRY PRODUCTS 2004 Dairy Disaster Assistance Payment Program § 1430.312 Maintaining records...Destruction of the records after such date shall be at the risk of the party undertaking the...

  10. 7 CFR 1430.312 - Maintaining records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS DAIRY PRODUCTS 2004 Dairy Disaster Assistance Payment Program § 1430.312 Maintaining records...Destruction of the records after such date shall be at the risk of the party undertaking the...

  11. 7 CFR 1430.312 - Maintaining records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS DAIRY PRODUCTS 2004 Dairy Disaster Assistance Payment Program § 1430.312 Maintaining records...Destruction of the records after such date shall be at the risk of the party undertaking the...

  12. Establishing and Maintaining Effective Energy Management Practices

    E-print Network

    Giffin, T. M.

    2008-01-01

    Establishing and Maintaining Effective Energy Management Practices Thomas M. Giffin Science Applications International Corporation thomas.m.giffin@saic.com SAIC has developed, and has delivered over the past 4 years, training and tools...

  13. Maintainable design for Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hopson, George D.; Neale, Wayne L.

    1993-01-01

    Space Station Freedom poses a unique challenge from the standpoint-of-logistical support and maintainability. There is limited on-orbit stowage volume available for supply of replacement parts for critical systems, and crew time required for maintenance and repair of on-board systems is an extremely valuable commodity. These considerations, plus the high cost of ground-to-orbit resupply, give special importance to the consideration of maintainability in system design. Use of common parts and system redundancy have important influences on logistics and maintenance requirements, and the requirements for specialized crew training and tools are directly related to system design for maintainability. This paper describes the approach for maintainable design of Space Station Freedom systems.

  14. Maintaining Financial Stability in a Global Economy

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    1997-01-01

    The Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City has made available the papers presented at the "Maintaining Financial Stability in a Global Economy" symposium. The aim of the symposium is to explore "options for public authorities in adapting policies to keep financial systems safe and efficient, and to discuss response mechanisms to financial crises." The papers presented here look at the causes of financial instability, why policymakers should be concerned about financial instability, lessons from recent financial crises, and policies for maintaining financial stability.

  15. Social Networking and the Social and Emotional Wellbeing of Adolescents in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bourgeois, Amanda; Bower, Julie; Carroll, Annemaree

    2014-01-01

    Technology and social networking tools and sites are changing the way young people build and maintain their social connections with others (Boyd & Ellison, 2008). This study utilised a new measure, The Self in a Social Context, Virtual Connectedness subscale (SSC-VC subscale), to examine the effects of social networking tools and sites on…

  16. Social appearance anxiety, perfectionism, and fear of negative evaluation: Distinct or shared risk factors for social anxiety and eating disorders?

    PubMed Central

    Levinson, Cheri A.; Rodebaugh, Thomas L.; White, Emily K.; Menatti, Andrew; Weeks, Justin W.; Iacovino, Juliette M.; Warren, Cortney S.

    2013-01-01

    Social anxiety and eating disorders are highly comorbid. Social appearance anxiety (i.e., fear of negative evaluation of one's appearance), general fear of negative evaluation, and perfectionism have each been proposed as risk factors for both social anxiety disorder and the eating disorders. However, no research to date has examined all three factors simultaneously. Using structural equation modeling in two diverse samples (N = 236; N = 136) we tested a model in which each of these risk factors were uniquely associated with social anxiety and eating disorder symptoms. We found support for social appearance anxiety as a shared risk factor between social anxiety and eating disorder symptoms, whereas fear of negative evaluation was a risk factor only for social anxiety symptoms. Despite significant zero-order relationships, two facets of perfectionism (high standards and maladaptive perfectionism) did not emerge as a risk factor for either disorder when all constructs were considered. These results were maintained when gender, body mass index, trait negative affect, and depression were included in the model. It is possible that treating negative appearance evaluation fears may reduce both eating disorder and social anxiety symptoms. PMID:23583741

  17. Child and Nonviolent Social Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boulding, Elise

    1974-01-01

    Examines the nature of the child and the impact of socialization experiences on his capacity to act nonviolently in a changing social order. Presents a socialization model that draws on different disciplinary frameworks and research areas (animal and human ethnology, social learning theories, altruism studies, and reviews of protest movements).…

  18. Studies in international social work

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sven Trygged

    2008-01-01

    Studies in international social work is a joint report series between the Department of Social Work and INSWED (International Social Work Education and Development), both of which are at Stockholm University. The series was started in 2002 in order to reflect some of the international work relevant for social work that is being done by or in cooperation with these

  19. An Introduction to Social Policy

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Spicker, Paul.

    Created and maintained by Paul Spicker, a professor of politics specializing in social policy, this Website presents a detailed, yet schematic view of the main themes, concepts, and controversies surrounding issues of the welfare state and social services. The site offers sections on social policy, welfare and society, social need, the welfare state, social services, the politics of welfare, British social policy, social services in the UK, and social policy on the Web (a collection of annotated links). Using a hypertext, bulleted format, the author manages to convey significant amounts of information about complex ideas in a relatively brief span without oversimplifying. An excellent resource for economics and sociology students working on social policy topics.

  20. What's your personal social media strategy?

    PubMed

    Dutta, Soumitra

    2010-11-01

    Social media are changing the way we do business and how leaders are perceived, from the shop floor to the CEO suite. But whereas the best businesses are creating comprehensive strategies in thi area, research suggests that few corporate Leaders have a social media presence--say, a Facebook or Linked in of page--and that those do don't use it strategically. Today's leaders must embrace social media for three reasons, First, they provide a low-cost, highly accessible platform on which to build your personal brand, communicating who you are both within and outside your company. Second, they allow you to engage rapidly and simultaneously with peers, employees, customers, and the broader public--in order to leverage relationships, show commitment to a cause, and demonstrate a capacity for reflection. Third, they give you an opportunity to learn from instant information and unvarnished feedback. To formulate your personal social media strategy, it helps to clarify your goals (personal, professional, or both), desired audience (private or public), and resources (can you justify using your company's?). You must also consider the risks of maintaining a large number of connections and of sharing content online. Active participation in social media can be a powerful tool--the difference between leading effectively and ineffectively, and between advancing and faltering in the pursuit of your goals. PMID:21049685

  1. Transformative Pedagogy for Social Capital

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willis, Peter

    2007-01-01

    This paper explores ways in which pedagogy for an elaborated form of transformative learning can be a useful catalyst for the development of social capital in community and workplace groups and networks. I begin with an example and then explore ideas of learning challenges embedded in building and maintaining social capital. I consider the…

  2. Canadian Social Research Links

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Maintained with almost obsessive thoroughness by an employee at Human Resources Development Canada, this Website is an excellent gateway to Canadian social science resources on the Web. The site offers collections of annotated links from government outlets, academic sources, policy institutions, and NGOs. Visitors can browse sites under regional and thematic categories as well use "quicklinks" to government sources for social science data, including social policy, economic, and employment data. The annotations are very helpful, usually including the date of a document or a Website's last update and a summary or quotation from the resource. Some resources are presented in a pro-and-con format so that researchers can immediately compare reports and arguments from credible sources on political and social issues. Theme lists include hundreds of links in disability, education, human rights, homelessness and hunger, election 2000, social research organizations, unions, UN links, women's social issues, and dozens more. Also, the author provides a free weekly email newsletter that includes the latest updates to the Website. There is much more here, but I think interested parties get the idea: anyone doing social research in or about Canada will definitely want to bookmark this one. The site is the sole property and responsibility of Gilles Seguin who maintains the site on his own time. And yes, the site is also available in French.

  3. Page 1 of 3 Revised 06/11/07 Southeast Regional Best Management Practices for Maintaining

    E-print Network

    Delaplane, Keith S.

    . 9. One European drone source colony should be maintained for every 10 colonies in order to reduce supercedure queens mating with AHB drones. A drone source is defined as a colony specifically maintained with 3 to 5 frames of 90% drone comb. #12;Page 2 of 3 Revised 06/11/07 10. To prevent potential

  4. Minik: A Tool for Maintaining Proper Java Code Jacek Chrzszcz2

    E-print Network

    Chrzaszcz, Jacek

    spreadsheets. Agile approach to software creation process seems much better suited to this kind of software of Science University of Nijmegen Netherlands Abstract Maintaining discipline of code in an evolving software supports hierarchical encapsulation of software components and helps to maintain order in dependencies

  5. How the past weighs on the present: social representations of history and their role in identity politics.

    PubMed

    Liu, James H; Hilton, Denis J

    2005-12-01

    Socially shared representations of history have been important in creating, maintaining and changing a people's identity. Their management and negotiation are central to interethnic and international relations. We present a narrative framework to represent how collectively significant events become (selectively) incorporated in social representations that enable positioning of ethnic, national and supranational identities. This perspective creates diachronic (temporal) links between the functional (e.g. realistic conflict theory), social identity, and cognitive perspectives on intergroup relations. The charters embedded in these representations condition nations with similar interests to adopt different political stances in dealing with current events, and can influence the perceived stability and legitimacy of social orders. They are also instrumental in determining social identity strategies for reacting to negative social comparisons, and can influence the relationships between national and ethnic identities. PMID:16368018

  6. Methadone anonymous: A 12?step program for methadone maintained heroin addicts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen M. Gilman; Marc Galanter; Helen Dermatis

    2001-01-01

    Methadone Anonymous (MA) is a new 12?step fellowship developed for methadone maintained heroin addicts. A total of 53 MA members completed a survey assessing factors related to methadone maintenance treatment program (MMTP) entry, drug use, MA participation, beliefs concerning effectiveness of MMTP and MA, and level of social cohesiveness. Length of time in MA was associated with a decreased use

  7. Effects of Multisensory Environments on Stereotyped Behaviours Assessed as Maintained by Automatic Reinforcement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Lindsay; Trusler, Karen; Furniss, Frederick; Lancioni, Giulio

    2012-01-01

    Background: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of the sensory equipment provided in a multi-sensory environment (MSE) and the level of social contact provided on levels of stereotyped behaviours assessed as being maintained by automatic reinforcement. Method: Stereotyped and engaged behaviours of two young people with severe…

  8. Harassment and Bullying The University is committed to maintaining a working,

    E-print Network

    Paxton, Anthony T.

    Harassment and Bullying The University is committed to maintaining a working, learning and social, students, and visitors to the University #12;University's code of Practice on Harassment including Bullying or comments are viewed as demeaning and unacceptable to the recipient. #12;What is Bullying? Bullying may

  9. 42 lithic Technology. volume 23. no. 1 RELIABLE AND MAINTAINABLE TECHNOLOGIES

    E-print Network

    advances in lithic stud- ies, the analysis of these collections over a broad range ofspatial. SOCial42 lithic Technology. volume 23. no. 1 RELIABLE AND MAINTAINABLE TECHNOLOGIES: ARTIFACT understanding of the Mesolithic in this region. then lithic studies must lead the way. Collecting new stone tool

  10. Sexual Misconduct Vanderbilt University desires to establish and maintain a safe and healthy environment for all

    E-print Network

    Simaan, Nabil

    1 Sexual Misconduct Vanderbilt University desires to establish and maintain a safe and healthy, seeks to eliminate all forms of sexual misconduct. Sexual misconduct is a form of sex discrimination://www.vanderbilt.edu/ead/ea_laws.html#a3). Sexual misconduct of any kind represents socially irresponsible behavior. Sexual misconduct

  11. Furloughs and Faculty Management of Time: Maintaining Quality in an Economic Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Loring; Hohman, Melinda; Mathiesen, Sally; Finnegan, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    An anonymous Web-based survey was used to gather the perceptions and experiences from 114 faculty members teaching in 16 social work programs in the California State University system about the effect of severe budget cuts on their educational activities. Most respondents reported they worked on their furlough days and maintained the same or…

  12. Using a threat of divorce for maintaining family homeostasis within families in extreme distress (FED)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michal Shamai; Shlomo Sharlin; Dvorit Gilad-Smolinski

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes a phenomenon of using a threat to divorce by families in extreme distress (FED) as a way of maintaining family homeostasis; that is, using a threat to divorce but never really implementing it. By relating to processes, such as social exchange and attachment, that often take place in the decision-making of divorce, we try to understand why

  13. 7 CFR 786.112 - Maintaining records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS DAIRY DISASTER ASSISTANCE PAYMENT PROGRAM (DDAP-III) § 786.112 Maintaining...program. Destruction of the records after such date is at the risk of the party required, by this part, to keep the...

  14. 7 CFR 786.112 - Maintaining records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS DAIRY DISASTER ASSISTANCE PAYMENT PROGRAM (DDAP-III) § 786.112 Maintaining...program. Destruction of the records after such date is at the risk of the party required, by this part, to keep the...

  15. 7 CFR 786.112 - Maintaining records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS DAIRY DISASTER ASSISTANCE PAYMENT PROGRAM (DDAP-III) § 786.112 Maintaining...program. Destruction of the records after such date is at the risk of the party required, by this part, to keep the...

  16. 7 CFR 786.112 - Maintaining records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS DAIRY DISASTER ASSISTANCE PAYMENT PROGRAM (DDAP-III) § 786.112 Maintaining...program. Destruction of the records after such date is at the risk of the party required, by this part, to keep the...

  17. 7 CFR 786.112 - Maintaining records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS DAIRY DISASTER ASSISTANCE PAYMENT PROGRAM (DDAP-III) § 786.112 Maintaining...program. Destruction of the records after such date is at the risk of the party required, by this part, to keep the...

  18. Building and Maintaining Digital Reference Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wasik, Joann M.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses digital reference services that provide subject expertise and information referral over the Internet to their users. Describes the history of digital reference, how digital reference services work, and explains a six-step process for building and maintaining digital reference services, including training, planning, and evaluating. (LRW)

  19. Halema'uma'u Maintains Basic Geometry

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    The lava lake at Halema'uma'u has maintained the same basic geometry since February of this year. This thermal image was taken during a helicopter overflight, and shows the lava surface deep within the vent cavity. The lava surface is kidney-shaped and approximately 60 x 90 meters in size, and situa...

  20. Can punishment maintain sex? Daniel J. Rankin

    E-print Network

    Rankin, Daniel

    as they are able to reproduce twice as fast. Explaining why sexual reproduction is favoured over asexual be one way in which sexual reproduction could be maintained in groups of animals; in light of recent (Maynard Smith 1978). Sexual reproduction represents a paradox, because any allele which reproduces

  1. Web Maintainers Forum 29 August 2013

    E-print Network

    Hickman, Mark

    1 Web Maintainers Forum 29 August 2013 Agenda Welcome and introduction Web team Update My Baker, WCMS Project Manager) Questions Web team update Web team site rebranded http://www.canterbury.ac.nz/web/ When was the last time you visited the web team site: August? June or July? 2013? 2012? Never

  2. Maintaining ideal body weight counseling sessions

    SciTech Connect

    Brammer, S.H.

    1980-10-09

    The purpose of this program is to provide employees with the motivation, knowledge and skills necessary to maintain ideal body weight throughout life. The target audience for this program, which is conducted in an industrial setting, is the employee 40 years of age or younger who is at or near his/her ideal body weight.

  3. WEB Maintainers Meetup Web Branding Committee

    E-print Network

    Florida, University of

    WEB Maintainers Meetup UF/IFAS DEPARTMENT #12; Web Branding Committee Introduction and TERMINALFOUR (T4) recap Preparation Page layouts Questions #12;WEB BRANDING COMMITTEE what we heard #12;Some) is the new UF Web Content Management System (WCMS) chosen for the next five years. T4 allows non

  4. Legal Lexicon, Social Labeling, and Juvenile Justice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Ronald A.

    One of 52 theoretical papers on school crime and its relation to poverty, this chapter maintains that social labeling is a pervasive and necessary social phenomenon. However, inaccurate social labeling plagues contemporary juvenile justice systems. Relevant examples include legal adjudication categories such as status offender, persons in need of…

  5. Teaching and Maintaining Ethical Behavior in a Professional Organization

    PubMed Central

    Brodhead, Matthew T.; Higbee, Thomas S.

    2012-01-01

    In addition to continuing education mandates by the Behavior Analyst Certification Board (BACB), behavior-analytic professional organizations may adopt systems that teach and maintain ethical behavior in its employees. Systems of ethical supervision and management may allow for an organization to customize training that prevents ethical misconduct by employees. These systems may also allow supervisors to identify ethical problems in their infancy, allowing the organization to mitigate concerns before they further develop. Systems of ethical management and supervision also may help to improve services and promote consumer protection. Additional benefits might include both avoiding litigation and loss of consumers and income. These systems may promote the field of Behavior Analysis as a desirable, consumer-friendly approach to solving socially significant behavior problems. PMID:23730470

  6. Social Rank, Stress, Fitness, and Life Expectancy in Wild Rabbits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Holst, Dietrich; Hutzelmeyer, Hans; Kaetzke, Paul; Khaschei, Martin; Schönheiter, Ronald

    Wild rabbits of the two sexes have separate linear rank orders, which are established and maintained by intensive fights. The social rank of individuals strongly influence their fitness: males and females that gain a high social rank, at least at the outset of their second breeding season, have a much higher lifetime fitness than subordinate individuals. This is because of two separate factors: a much higher fecundity and annual reproductive success and a 50% longer reproductive life span. These results are in contrast to the view in evolutionary biology that current reproduction can be increased only at the expense of future survival and/or fecundity. These concepts entail higher physiological costs in high-ranking mammals, which is not supported by our data: In wild rabbits the physiological costs of social positions are caused predominantly by differential psychosocial stress responses that are much lower in high-ranking than in low-ranking individuals.

  7. What is social about social perception research?

    PubMed Central

    Teufel, Christoph; von dem Hagen, Elisabeth; Plaisted-Grant, Kate C.; Edmonds, James J.; Ayorinde, John O.; Fletcher, Paul C.; Davis, Greg

    2012-01-01

    A growing consensus in social cognitive neuroscience holds that large portions of the primate visual brain are dedicated to the processing of social information, i.e., to those aspects of stimuli that are usually encountered in social interactions such as others' facial expressions, actions, and symbols. Yet, studies of social perception have mostly employed simple pictorial representations of conspecifics. These stimuli are social only in the restricted sense that they physically resemble objects with which the observer would typically interact. In an equally important sense, however, these stimuli might be regarded as “non-social”: the observer knows that they are viewing pictures and might therefore not attribute current mental states to the stimuli or might do so in a qualitatively different way than in a real social interaction. Recent studies have demonstrated the importance of such higher-order conceptualization of the stimulus for social perceptual processing. Here, we assess the similarity between the various types of stimuli used in the laboratory and object classes encountered in real social interactions. We distinguish two different levels at which experimental stimuli can match social stimuli as encountered in everyday social settings: (1) the extent to which a stimulus' physical properties resemble those typically encountered in social interactions and (2) the higher-level conceptualization of the stimulus as indicating another person's mental states. We illustrate the significance of this distinction for social perception research and report new empirical evidence further highlighting the importance of mental state attribution for perceptual processing. Finally, we discuss the potential of this approach to inform studies of clinical conditions such as autism. PMID:23355814

  8. Social Structure and Social Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Everett M.

    1971-01-01

    Drawing on examples and evidence from social science research on the diffusion of ideas, social movements, and several other related fields, nine propositions dealing with the interrelationships between social structure and social change are explored. (Author/MB)

  9. Maintaining professional resilience through group restorative supervision.

    PubMed

    Wallbank, Sonya

    2013-08-01

    Restorative clinical supervision has been delivered to over 2,500 professionals and has shown to be highly effective in reducing burnout, stress and increasing compassion satisfaction. Demand for the programme has shown that a sustainable model of implementation is needed for organisations who may not be able to invest in continued individual sessions. Following the initial six sessions, group restorative supervision has been developed and this paper reports on the programme's success in maintaining and continuing to improve compassion satisfaction, stress and burnout through the process of restorative group supervision. This means that organisations can continue to maintain the programme once the initial training has been completed and have confidence within the restorative group supervision to support professionals in managing the emotional demands of their role. The restorative groups have also had inadvertent positive benefits in workplace functioning. The paper outlines how professionals have been able to use this learning to support them in being more effective. PMID:23986988

  10. Deriving Production Rules for Constraint Maintainance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stefano Ceri; Jennifer Widom

    1990-01-01

    Abstract. Traditionally, integrity constraints in database systems,are,maintained,either,by,rolling,back,any,transac- tion,that,produces,an,inconsistent,state,or,by,disallowing or modifying,operations,that,may,produce,an,inconsistent state. An alternative,approach,is to provide,automatic,“re- pair” of inconsistent,states,using,production,rules. For each constraint, a production rule is used to detect constraint violation,and,to initiate,database,operations,that,restore consistency. We describe,an,SQL-based language,for defining,integrity constraints,and,a framewcrk,for translating,these,constraints into constraint-maintaining,production,rules. Some parts of the,translation,are automatic,while,other,parts,require,user intervention.,Based,on the semantics,of our set-oriented,pro- duction rules language and under certain assumptions, we prove,that,at

  11. Maintaining Minimum Spanning Trees in Dynamic Graphs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Monika Rauch Henzinger; Valerie King

    1997-01-01

    . We present the first fully dynamic algorithm for maintaininga minimum spanning tree in time o(pn) per operation. To be precise, thealgorithm uses O(n1=3log n) amortized time per update operation. Thealgorithm is fairly simple and deterministic. An immediate consequenceis the first fully dynamic deterministic algorithm for maintaining connectivityand, bipartiteness in amortized time O(n1=3log n) per update,with O(1) worst case time

  12. The role of infrasounds in maintaining whale herds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Payne, Roger S.

    2001-05-01

    For whales and dolphins a basic social unit is the herd. In several species, herds have been observed to maintain the same speed, direction, and membership overnight, and while swimming in waters of near-zero visibility-evidence that individuals can stay together using nonvisual cues. The most likely such cue is sound. If whale herds are held together with sound, yet we define herds as groups of whales seen moving together, then we are using visual criteria to judge what is an acoustic phenomenon, and our conclusions about a most basic unit of cetacean social structure, the herd, are at least incomplete, and, quite possibly, worthless. By calling herds, heards, we remind ourselves that sound controls herd size. We then consider that some whale infrasound can propagate across deep water at useful intensities (even in today's ship-noise-polluted ocean) for thousands of kilometers. The distance to which blue and fin whale sounds propagate before falling below background noise is given, and the possible advantages these whales obtain from such sounds is explored. The conclusion is that by sharing information on food finds infrasonically, fin and blue whales may have developed a way to divide up the food resources of an entire ocean.

  13. Patient perceptions of the importance of maintaining preoperative NPO status.

    PubMed

    Kramer, F M

    2000-08-01

    Although traditional "NPO (nothing by mouth) after midnight" policies are being liberalized, noncompliance with NPO status remains a threat to patient safety and may result in delays of elective surgical procedures, decrease the efficiency of the ambulatory surgery setting, and waste healthcare dollars. The purpose of the present study was to examine how comprehensive NPO instructions affected group differences in knowledge and perceptions of importance of maintaining preoperative NPO status. In this posttest-only study, 122 ambulatory surgery patients were randomly assigned to the experimental group (n = 66), who received comprehensive NPO instructions, or the control group (n = 56), who received the usual NPO instructions. Outcome measures were taken on the day of surgery via a questionnaire developed by the investigator. Outcome differences were examined, and group means were compared using analyses of variance and covariance. Although findings revealed comparable compliance rates between the groups and no significant differences when knowledge about NPO status was compared, a significant difference was found when perception of importance of maintaining NPO status was compared. Findings from the study suggest that providing patients with the rationale for adhering to preoperative NPO orders can significantly increase the patient's perception of the importance of maintaining preoperative NPO status. PMID:11125604

  14. Interventions to Maintain Mobility: What Works?

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Lesley A.; Schmidt, Erica L.; Ball, Karlene

    2012-01-01

    Mobility, in broad terms, includes everything from the ability to move within your immediate environment (e.g., get out of bed) to the ability to drive across the country. Mobility is essential to maintaining independence and wellbeing, particularly for older adults. This is highlighted by the large number of interventions developed for older adults with the goal of maintaining such mobility. The current paper reviews the state of the science with respect to mobility interventions. Inclusion criteria for the review were: (1) articles must have been peer-reviewed; (2) interventions were evaluated in a randomized controlled trial (RCT); (3) studies included a mobility outcome such as lifespace, driving, or walking ability, (4) studies included a sample of healthy community-dwelling older adults (e.g., not investigations of disease conditions); and (5) studies reported enough empirical data and detail such that results could potentially be replicated. Three main types of interventions were identified: cognitive training, educational interventions, and exercise interventions. A detailed summary and evaluation of each type of intervention, and the current evidence regarding its effectiveness in maintaining mobility, are discussed. Several interventions show clear evidence of effectiveness, and thus are prime areas for translation of results to the older population. Needs and issues for future intervention research are also detailed. PMID:23083492

  15. 50-GHz, ultrastable, polarization-maintaining semiconductor fiber ring laser

    E-print Network

    Vlachos, Kyriakos G.

    50-GHz, ultrastable, polarization-maintaining semiconductor fiber ring laser Antonios stable, all-polarization-maintaining fiber semiconductor ring laser source. It uses a semiconductor: fiber lasers; gain modulation; semiconductor optical amplifier; polarization-maintaining ring laser

  16. 33 CFR 150.555 - How must cranes be maintained?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How must cranes be maintained? 150.555 Section 150.555...Miscellaneous Operations § 150.555 How must cranes be maintained? Cranes must be operated, maintained, and tested in...

  17. Identifying Crucial Parameter Correlations Maintaining Bursting Activity

    PubMed Central

    Doloc-Mihu, Anca; Calabrese, Ronald L.

    2014-01-01

    Recent experimental and computational studies suggest that linearly correlated sets of parameters (intrinsic and synaptic properties of neurons) allow central pattern-generating networks to produce and maintain their rhythmic activity regardless of changing internal and external conditions. To determine the role of correlated conductances in the robust maintenance of functional bursting activity, we used our existing database of half-center oscillator (HCO) model instances of the leech heartbeat CPG. From the database, we identified functional activity groups of burster (isolated neuron) and half-center oscillator model instances and realistic subgroups of each that showed burst characteristics (principally period and spike frequency) similar to the animal. To find linear correlations among the conductance parameters maintaining functional leech bursting activity, we applied Principal Component Analysis (PCA) to each of these four groups. PCA identified a set of three maximal conductances (leak current, Leak; a persistent K current, K2; and of a persistent Na+ current, P) that correlate linearly for the two groups of burster instances but not for the HCO groups. Visualizations of HCO instances in a reduced space suggested that there might be non-linear relationships between these parameters for these instances. Experimental studies have shown that period is a key attribute influenced by modulatory inputs and temperature variations in heart interneurons. Thus, we explored the sensitivity of period to changes in maximal conductances of Leak, K2, and P, and we found that for our realistic bursters the effect of these parameters on period could not be assessed because when varied individually bursting activity was not maintained. PMID:24945358

  18. Mothers in prison: maintaining connections with children.

    PubMed

    Mignon, Sylvia I; Ransford, Paige

    2012-01-01

    The significant increase in the number of incarcerated women ensures that many children must live without their mothers for some period of time. Women in prison were interviewed about their efforts to maintain relationships with their children. Mail and telephone contacts were more frequent than actual visits. Almost one half of mothers had never received a visit from their children. This article identifies challenges to the development and maintenance of contact between incarcerated mothers and their children. Recommendations are made for correctional agencies to enhance opportunities for incarcerated mothers to foster positive connections with their children. PMID:22239379

  19. The Importance of Social Connectedness in Building Age-Friendly Communities

    PubMed Central

    Emlet, Charles A.; Moceri, Joane T.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to further elucidate the importance of social relationships and social connectedness with aging in place and in developing elder-friendly communities. The process used in this study was inclusive of younger adults (age 40–65) as well as older adults (65+) in order to further understand how they envision a community that could support their own aging in place. A community forum, using the World Café format, was conducted in order to engage community members, 40 years and older, in conversation about the importance of social connectedness in elder-friendly communities. A second purpose of this forum was to obtain data on what would keep aging boomers in their community as they age. Three major themes emerged from qualitative analysis of the forum: social reciprocity, meaningful interactions, and structural needs/barriers. The results of this study reinforce the importance of social connectedness in creating and maintaining elder-friendly communities for older adults, as well as soon-to-be retired individuals, wishing to maintain life connectedness to their community. The study suggests the possibility of using more nontraditional research techniques (such as the World Café process) for gathering community level data. PMID:22162807

  20. To Grow, Nurture, and Maintain: Soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, I.; Lam, K.; Hennelly, L. O.; Archie, J. P.

    2012-12-01

    The importance and difficulties encountered in a sustainable urban farm can be witnessed at the Stanford Earth Systems Educational Garden, in the growth, maintenance, and nurturing of the soil. Techniques and chemicals developed in the mid to late 1900's have infiltrated the traditional farming techniques that allowed humans to continuously farm for hundreds of years. The sudden spur of interest in sustainability has lead many, including Stanford Earth Systems, to reincorporate traditional methods in conjunction with modern technology. To override the damage made by chemicals and industrial farming, we had to recognize that healthy crops originated from healthy soil; thus we began investigating how to nourish soil. We began to research the ideal composition and structure of soil and methods to create and maintain fertile soil. Secondly, we prioritized the importance of nurturing plants and fed the plants with a plethora of natural fertilizers. We also created a compost pile so that the soil could rehabilitate and refill with nutrients with help provided by bacteria. Lastly, we had to maintain the soil to keep the soil viable for future crops. To do this, we had to acknowledge the chemical composition of the soil and plant cover crops to ensure that the nutrients are replenished. Our experiences enabled us to understand the time and effort required to manage suitable crops, animals, and structures for an urban farm.

  1. Nutritional ecology beyond the individual: a conceptual framework for integrating nutrition and social interactions

    PubMed Central

    Lihoreau, Mathieu; Buhl, Jerome; Charleston, Michael A; Sword, Gregory A; Raubenheimer, David; Simpson, Stephen J

    2015-01-01

    Over recent years, modelling approaches from nutritional ecology (known as Nutritional Geometry) have been increasingly used to describe how animals and some other organisms select foods and eat them in appropriate amounts in order to maintain a balanced nutritional state maximising fitness. These nutritional strategies profoundly affect the physiology, behaviour and performance of individuals, which in turn impact their social interactions within groups and societies. Here, we present a conceptual framework to study the role of nutrition as a major ecological factor influencing the development and maintenance of social life. We first illustrate some of the mechanisms by which nutritional differences among individuals mediate social interactions in a broad range of species and ecological contexts. We then explain how studying individual- and collective-level nutrition in a common conceptual framework derived from Nutritional Geometry can bring new fundamental insights into the mechanisms and evolution of social interactions, using a combination of simulation models and manipulative experiments. PMID:25586099

  2. Nutritional ecology beyond the individual: a conceptual framework for integrating nutrition and social interactions.

    PubMed

    Lihoreau, Mathieu; Buhl, Jerome; Charleston, Michael A; Sword, Gregory A; Raubenheimer, David; Simpson, Stephen J

    2015-03-01

    Over recent years, modelling approaches from nutritional ecology (known as Nutritional Geometry) have been increasingly used to describe how animals and some other organisms select foods and eat them in appropriate amounts in order to maintain a balanced nutritional state maximising fitness. These nutritional strategies profoundly affect the physiology, behaviour and performance of individuals, which in turn impact their social interactions within groups and societies. Here, we present a conceptual framework to study the role of nutrition as a major ecological factor influencing the development and maintenance of social life. We first illustrate some of the mechanisms by which nutritional differences among individuals mediate social interactions in a broad range of species and ecological contexts. We then explain how studying individual- and collective-level nutrition in a common conceptual framework derived from Nutritional Geometry can bring new fundamental insights into the mechanisms and evolution of social interactions, using a combination of simulation models and manipulative experiments. PMID:25586099

  3. Using Photovoice as a Tool to Engage Social Work Students in Social Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peabody, Carolyn G.

    2013-01-01

    In order to ensure that social workers graduating from social work programs embrace social justice's central role in their professional careers, educators must find creative, theoretically grounded, practice-relevant ways of conveying this value and socializing social work students. This article describes the use of Photovoice as one tool for…

  4. SocialAnthropology Social Anthropology

    E-print Network

    Brierley, Andrew

    146 SocialAnthropology Social Anthropology MA (Single Honours Degree) Social Anthropology MA (Joint Honours Degrees) Social Anthropology and one of: Ancient History Arabic Art History Classical Studies the majority of the course deals with the first-named subject: Economics with Social Anthropology Geography

  5. Social Indicators and Social Forecasting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Denis F.

    The paper identifies major types of social indicators and explains how they can be used in social forecasting. Social indicators are defined as statistical measures relating to major areas of social concern and/or individual well being. Examples of social indicators are projections, forecasts, outlook statements, time-series statistics, and…

  6. Soil Orders

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Developed by the US Department of Agriculture's Soil Survey Division (SSD), here is a high resolution poster with brief descriptions of the soil orders. Photos of soil profiles accompany descriptions of each order. The soil orders include: Alfisols, Andisols, Aridisols, Entisols, Gelisols, Histosols, Inceptisols, Mollisols, Oxisols, Spodusols, Ultisols, and Vertisols.

  7. Order Up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibeault, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Change orders. The words can turn the stomachs of administrators. Horror stories about change orders create fear and distrust among school officials, designers and builders. Can change orders be avoided? If car manufacturers can produce millions of intricately designed vehicles, why can't the same quality control be achieved on a construction…

  8. Maintaining robust connectivity in heterogeneous robotic networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruz, P.; Fierro, R.; Lu, W.; Ferrari, S.

    2013-05-01

    In this paper, we are interested in exploiting the heterogeneity of a robotic network made of ground and aerial agents to sense multiple targets in a cluttered environment. Maintaining wireless communication on this type of networks is fundamentally important specially for cooperative purposes. The proposed heterogeneous network consists of ground sensors, e.g., OctoRoACHes, and aerial routers, e.g., quadrotors. Adaptive potential field methods are used to coordinate the ground mobile sensors. Moreover, a reward function for the aerial mobile wireless routers is formulated to guarantee communication coverage among the ground sensors and a fixed base station. A sub-optimal controller is proposed based on an approximate control policy iteration technique. Simulation results of a case study are presented to illustrate the proposed methodology.

  9. Maintaining human productivity during Mars transit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Statler, Irving C.; Billings, Charles E.

    1989-01-01

    This paper addresses the special nature of the human-machine relationship during a trip to Mars. In particular, the potential for monotony and boredom during a long-duration space voyage and the effect on motivation and productivity can be important considerations to the health and welfare of the crew. For the voyage to Mars, a design may be considered that will purposefully maintain some level of workload for the crew as a preventive measure for the deterioration of productivity that comes with boredom. This paper speculates on these considerations, on the appropriate level of workload for maximum productivity, and on what might be done during the mission to alleviate the problems caused by monotony and boredom.

  10. [Maintaining solidarity: is mutuality the solution?].

    PubMed

    Gevers, J K M; Ploem, M C

    2013-01-01

    Solidarity is essentially the willingness to contribute to the community and its demands, which may even involve contributing more than one is expecting to receive. Another principle is mutuality: this refers to a balance between rights and obligations or between mutual obligations. In its advisory document 'The importance of mutuality......solidarity takes work!', The Dutch Council for Public Health and Health Care underlines the importance of ensuring solidarity within the Dutch health care system, e.g. by encouraging patients to take responsibility for their own health, possibly by introducing elements of mutuality. In our contribution, we comment on the Council's advice. Although we fully agree with the overall conclusion that solidarity should be maintained within the system, we do not see how the introduction of increased mutuality will contribute to this goal. PMID:23945438

  11. Organelles maintain spindle position in plant meiosis.

    PubMed

    Brownfield, Lynette; Yi, Jun; Jiang, Hua; Minina, Elena A; Twell, David; Köhler, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    Accurate positioning of spindles is a critical aspect of cell division as it ensures that each daughter cell contains a single nucleus. In many flowering plants, two meiotic chromosome separations occur without intervening cytokinesis, resulting in two spindles in one cell during the second division. Here we report a detailed examination of two mutants, jason (jas) and parallel spindle1 (ps1), in which disturbed spindle position during male meiosis II results in the incorporation of previously separated chromosome groups into a single cell. Our study reveals that an organelle band provides a physical barrier between the two spindles. The loss of a single protein, JAS, from this organelle band leads to its disruption and a random movement of the spindles. JAS is largely associated with vesicles in the organelle band, revealing a role for vesicles in plant meiosis and that cytoplasmic events maintain spindle position during the chromosome division. PMID:25757555

  12. Work Adjustment of the Methadone-Maintained Corporate Employee

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yankowitz, Robert; Randell, Joan

    1977-01-01

    The work adjustment of 26 methadone-maintained corporate employees was evaluated. Results indicated: (a) relative to their nonmethadone-maintained coworkers, the methadone-maintained employees had comparable job performance and superior punctuality and attendance; and (b) the methadone-maintained skilled laborers were satisfied with their…

  13. Counterbalancing for Serial Order Carryover Effects in Experimental Condition Orders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Joseph L.

    2012-01-01

    Reactions of neural, psychological, and social systems are rarely, if ever, independent of previous inputs and states. The potential for serial order carryover effects from one condition to the next in a sequence of experimental trials makes counterbalancing of condition order an essential part of experimental design. Here, a method is proposed…

  14. The neuroendocrinology of social isolation.

    PubMed

    Cacioppo, John T; Cacioppo, Stephanie; Capitanio, John P; Cole, Steven W

    2015-01-01

    Social isolation has been recognized as a major risk factor for morbidity and mortality in humans for more than a quarter of a century. Although the focus of research has been on objective social roles and health behavior, the brain is the key organ for forming, monitoring, maintaining, repairing, and replacing salutary connections with others. Accordingly, population-based longitudinal research indicates that perceived social isolation (loneliness) is a risk factor for morbidity and mortality independent of objective social isolation and health behavior. Human and animal investigations of neuroendocrine stress mechanisms that may be involved suggest that (a) chronic social isolation increases the activation of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenocortical axis, and (b) these effects are more dependent on the disruption of a social bond between a significant pair than objective isolation per se. The relational factors and neuroendocrine, neurobiological, and genetic mechanisms that may contribute to the association between perceived isolation and mortality are reviewed. PMID:25148851

  15. Anatomizing the Ocean's role in maintaining the pacific decadal variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Jia-Yuh; Chang, Cheng-Wei

    2014-05-01

    The role of ocean dynamics in maintaining the Pacific Decadal Variability (PDV) was investigated based on simulation results from the Parallel Ocean Program (POP) ocean general circulation model developed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). A long-term control simulation of the LANL-POP model forced by a reconstructed coupled wind stress field over the period 1949-2001 showed that the ocean model not only simulates a reasonable climatology, but also produces a climate variability pattern very similar to observed PDV. In the Equatorial Pacific (EP) region, the decadal warming is confined in the thin surface layer. Beneath the surface, a strong compensating cooling, accompanied by a basin-wide-scale overturning circulation in opposition to the mean flow, occurs in the thermocline layer. In the North Pacific (NP) region, the decadal variability nonetheless exhibits a relatively monotonous pattern, characterized by the dominance of anomalous cooling and eastward flows. A term balance analysis of the perturbation heat budget equation was conducted to highlight the ocean's role in maintaining the PDV-like variability over the EP and NP regions. The analyses showed that strong oceanic adjustment must occur in the equatorial thermocline in association with the anomalous overturning circulation in order to maintain the PDV-like variability, including a flattening of the equatorial thermocline slpoe and an enhancement of the upper ocean's stratification (stability), as the climate shifts from a colder regime toward a warmer one. On the other hand, the oceanic response in the extratropical region seems to be confined to the surface layer, without much participation from the subsurface oceanic dynamics.

  16. social media social media

    E-print Network

    Lin, Xiaodong

    networks podcasts internet forums photo/ video Sharing blogs/ vlogs mobile apps social book- marks wikis mobile views daily #12;try this...follow & listen inspire @corybooker @deepakchopra @redcross;innovations #12;innovations #12;mobile innovations #12;innovations #12;innovations #12;innovations #12

  17. How is epigenetic information maintained through DNA replication?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    DNA replication is a highly conserved process that accurately copies the genetic information from one generation to the next. The processes of chromatin disassembly and reassembly during DNA replication also have to be precisely regulated to ensure that the genetic material is compactly packaged to fit into the nucleus while also maintaining the epigenetic information that is carried by the histone proteins bound to the DNA, through cell divisions. Half of the histones that are deposited during replication are from the parental chromatin and carry the parental epigenetic information, while the other half of the histones are newly-synthesized. It has been of growing interest to understand how the parental pattern of epigenetic marks is re-established on the newly-synthesized histones, in a DNA sequence-specific manner, in order to maintain the epigenetic information through cell divisions. In this review we will discuss how histone chaperone proteins precisely coordinate the chromatin assembly process during DNA replication. We also discuss the recent evidence that histone-modifying enzymes, rather than the parental histones, are themselves epigenetic factors that remain associated with the DNA through replication to re-establish the epigenetic information on the newly-assembled chromatin. PMID:24225278

  18. Transposition as a mechanism for maintaining telomere length in Drosophila

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, J.M. [National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Biessmann, H. [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States)

    1993-12-31

    Telomeres are structures at the termini of linear chromosomes that serve to maintain the stability of those ends. Several functions have been attributed to telomeres, at least two of these are vital. The vital functions are (a) to {open_quotes}cap{close_quotes} the natural chromosome ends in order to distinguish them from broken ends and, thus, to protect them from recombination, repair, and degradation, and (b) to maintain chromosome length by periodic elongation and, thus, to counteract the inability of DNA polymerases to replicate linear chromosomes completely. While very little is known about capping, the mechanisms of telomere elongation in a number of organisms are being elucidated. Several models for elongation have been proposed. Recent evidence suggests that two of these may operate in different organisms or under different conditions. In many species elongation is accomplished by the interaction of two telomeric DNA repeats. The repeating unit is generally 6-8 basepairs (bp) long and guanine-rich on one strand. The sequence of the repeating unit is evolutionarily conserved, being very similar in ciliated protozoa, flowering plants and vertebrates. The second component is an enzyme, telomerase, that adds more copies of the repeating unit at the terminus. Telomerase resembles reverse transcriptases in structure and carries an associated RNA that is used as a template for the telomere extension.

  19. Attaining and maintaining data integrity with configuration management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huffman, Dorothy J.; Jeane, Shirley A.

    1993-08-01

    Managers and scientists are concerned about data integrity because they draw conclusions from data that can have far reaching effects. Projects managers use Configuration Management to insure that hardware, software, and project information are controlled. They have not, as yet, applied its rigorously to data. However, there is ample opportunity in the data collection and production process to jeopardize data integrity. Environmental changes, tampering and production problems can all affect data integrity. There are four functions included in the Configuration Management process: configuration identification, control, auditing and status accounting. These functions provide management the means to attain data integrity and the visibility into engineering processes needed to maintain data integrity. When project managers apply Configuration Management processes to data, the data user can trace back through history to validate data integrity. The user knows that the project allowed only orderly changes to the data. He is assured that project personnel followed procedures to maintain data quality. He also has access to status information about the data. The user receives data products with a known integrity level and a means to assess the impact of past events ont he conclusions derived from the data. To obtain these benefits, project managers should apply the Configuration Management discipline to data.

  20. Communicating contentious geoscience issues and maintaining impartiality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nice, S. E.; Mitchell, C.

    2013-12-01

    Shale Gas exploration in the UK has been major and often controversial news in the British media over the last 2 years. The British Geological Survey (BGS) has been an integral part of this story as the UK Governments independent and impartial advisor on geosciences. BGS has been involved in writing policy on fracking and induced earthquakes as well as researching potential quantities of shale gas in the UK and also researching natural methane levels in groundwater before large scale fracking activities begin. Shale Gas in the UK, as in the US and Europe has caused much controversy and as a result has many pro and anti fracking campaigns. The challenge for BGS has been to deliver front line science, whilst maintaining complete impartiality on the subject. The BGS communications team developed a strategy over this period to ensure that our message was clear and strong. This involved working closely with the scientists involved to formulate key messages that could delivered through controlled statements on the BGS webpages, press releases, at press conferences as well as on broadcast and print media. Our scientists were media trained during this time to ensure that they stayed en message and wouldn't be caught by the press or opponents of fracking into making statements that could have been used to either scare up the position or give the antagonist room to cast doubt on our impartiality. This strategy proved highly successful and BGS managed to communicate the facts, remain impartial whilst avoiding attempts to undermine the potential for Shale gas exploitation in the UK. The success of this communication strategy was due to the cooperation of the scientists, a clear strategy from the communications team and the unequivocal support of the senior executive at BGS. This abstract will conclude how the BGS has developed its communication strategy to be more streamlined and open. BGS must allow it's scientists to talk to the media about the science that they do. Much of the research that we do is paid for by the British taxpayer and it's our obligation to make sure we communicate what we're doing and why we're doing it to the public in a transparent and easy to understand way whilst ensuring that we maintain our reputation for being a trusted, independent and impartial source of expert advice.

  1. Maintaining Optimal Oxygen Saturation in Premature Infants

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Yoke Yen; Tay, Yih Yann; Shah, Varsha Atul; Chang, Pisun; Loh, Khuan Tai

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Advances in technology have resulted in increasing survival rates for premature infants. Oxygen therapy is commonly used in neonatal units as part of respiratory support. The number of premature infants in our institution surviving with severe (stage ?3) retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) prompted a review of oxygen therapy as a contributing factor. Prolonged exposure to high concentrations of oxygen may cause irreversible damage to the eyes of very-low-birth-weight preterm infants and is a potential cause of blindness. Objective: We developed strategies to reduce incidence of severe ROP requiring laser surgery in premature infants. Methods: We studied 37 preterm infants who were born at a gestational age of <32 weeks, with a birth weight of <1500 g, receiving supplemental oxygen, and had been admitted to our neonatal intensive care unit. Infants received oxygen via mechanical ventilator, nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP), or intranasal (I/N) and titration of oxygen was based on each infant's measured oxygen saturation (Spo2). For each infant, we monitored the Spo2 trend, Spo2 alarm limit, and the percentage of time that the alarm limit was set incorrectly. We implemented a Spo2 targeting protocol and developed an algorithm for titrating fraction of inspired oxygen (Fio2). Results: After phase 1 of implementation, the percentage of time that Spo2 readings were >95% was reduced to between 20% and 50%. However, our findings raised concern regarding the wide fluctuation of Spo2 readings because of inconsistency in Fio2 titration, which can contribute to deviation from the optimal target range. Accordingly, we developed an algorithm for titrating Fio2 aimed at maintaining each infant's Spo2 within the optimal target range. After phase 2 of implementation, the percentage of Spo2 readings >95% was markedly reduced to between 0% and 15%. The incidence of infants with severe ROP requiring laser surgery decreased from 5 to 1. Conclusions: A change in clinical practice aimed at maintaining oxygen within the target range to avoid a high Spo2 was associated with a significant decrease in the incidence of both severe ROP and the need for laser surgery, thus reducing hospital costs and length of hospital stays for premature infants. PMID:21892344

  2. Hands free data collection for aircraft maintainers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Troy Grissom; Rob Done

    2008-01-01

    Todaypsilas high demand on our military aircraft and the corresponding lean maintenance workforce requires this lean workforce to focus their attention on repairing mission incapable aircraft, leaving little time to document their actions. When performing maintenance, technicians manage many resources, including team coordination requirements, various tools required for the job, technical order (TO) manuals, and various maintenance documentation systems. Many

  3. Maintaining relational continuity with the deceased on Facebook.

    PubMed

    DeGroot, Jocelyn M

    2012-01-01

    Scholars have noted that communication helps maintain relational continuity despite physical absence; yet, the specific role of communication in continuing a relationship with the deceased has not been analyzed. In this study, messages directed to the deceased on Facebook memorial group walls were examined to explore how grieving individuals utilize Facebook memorial groups in order to make sense of the death of a loved one and reconnect with the deceased. Using a grounded theory approach, message topics and apparent grief-related functions served by messages were identified and characterized. Initial observation revealed that grieving individuals wrote to the deceased as if the deceased could read the messages, which is a unique type of communication. The communication written to the deceased individuals appeared to serve two functions for those writing the messages: (1) Sensemaking; and (2) Continuing Bonds, or upholding relational continuity, with the deceased. PMID:23057245

  4. The critical power to maintain thermally stable molecular junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yanlei; Xu, Zhiping

    2014-07-01

    With the rise of atomic-scale devices such as molecular electronics and scanning probe microscopies, energy transport processes through molecular junctions have attracted notable research interest recently. In this work, heat dissipation and transport across diamond/benzene/diamond molecular junctions are explored by performing atomistic simulations. We identify the critical power Pcr to maintain thermal stability of the junction through efficient dissipation of local heat. We also find that the molecule-probe contact features a power-dependent interfacial thermal resistance RK in the order of 109?kW-1. Moreover, both Pcr and RK display explicit dependence on atomic structures of the junction, force and temperature. For instance, Pcr can be elevated in multiple-molecule junctions, and streching the junction enhances RK by a factor of 2. The applications of these findings in molecular electronics and scanning probing measurements are discussed, providing practical guidelines in their rational design.

  5. Alcohol use reduction program in methadone maintained individuals with hepatitis C virus infection.

    PubMed

    Nyamathi, Adeline; de Castro, Viviane; McNeese-Smith, Donna; Nyamathi, Kamala; Shoptaw, Steven; Marfisee, Mary; Khalilifard, Farinaz; Cohen, Allan

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this article was to investigate the personal and social barriers experienced by methadone maintained clients when seeking treatment for alcohol abuse along with strategies for engaging such clients in treatment programs. A qualitative design using semi-structured focus groups was used to obtain the perspectives of 41 methadone-maintained clients in Los Angeles, California. Sessions were recorded, transcribed, and content-analyzed. Attitudes of health care providers were considered critical factors for engaging clients in treatment programs. Other facilitators included incentives and forms of support (emotional, financial, or material aid), whereas barriers consisted of lack of provider knowledge and insensitivity to acquiring needed resources. Clients also discussed the importance of personal attributes in achieving successful behavioral change, such as personal motivation. The findings suggest that healthcare providers' strategies designed to boost motivation, combined with various types of support, may prove successful in alcohol reduction among methadone-maintained clients. PMID:19042588

  6. Background for Community-Level Work on Social Competency in Adolescence: Reviewing the Literature on Contributing Factors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hair, Elizabeth C.; Jager, Justin; Garrett, Sarah

    Because social competency is an important element for adolescents' healthy development, a central question is what can be done to help adolescents achieve and maintain social competency. This report details antecedents of two key aspects of social competency: quality social relationships and good social skills. For each social relationship and…

  7. Virus Movement Maintains Local Virus Population Diversity

    SciTech Connect

    J. Snyder; B. Wiedenheft; M. Lavin; F. Roberto; J. Spuhler; A. Ortmann; T. Douglas; M. Young

    2007-11-01

    Viruses are the largest reservoir of genetic material on the planet, yet little is known about the population dynamics of any virus within its natural environment. Over a 2-year period, we monitored the diversity of two archaeal viruses found in hot springs within Yellowstone National Park (YNP). Both temporal phylogeny and neutral biodiversity models reveal that virus diversity in these local environments is not being maintained by mutation but rather by high rates of immigration from a globally distributed metacommunity. These results indicate that geographically isolated hot springs are readily able to exchange viruses. The importance of virus movement is supported by the detection of virus particles in air samples collected over YNP hot springs and by their detection in metacommunity sequencing projects conducted in the Sargasso Sea. Rapid rates of virus movement are not expected to be unique to these archaeal viruses but rather a common feature among virus metacommunities. The finding that virus immigration rather than mutation can dominate community structure has significant implications for understanding virus circulation and the role that viruses play in ecology and evolution by providing a reservoir of mobile genetic material.

  8. Maintaining dendritic cell viability in culture.

    PubMed

    Vremec, David; Hansen, Jacinta; Strasser, Andreas; Acha-Orbea, Hans; Zhan, Yifan; O'Keeffe, Meredith; Shortman, Ken

    2015-02-01

    When mouse dendritic cells (DCs) are isolated from tissues, purified and placed in a nutritive culture they die more rapidly than would be expected from their normal turnover in vivo. This can distort culture assays of DC function. We therefore tested several approaches to prolonging DC survival in culture. Of several cytokines tested granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor was most effective at preserving the viability of conventional DCs (cDCs) but was ineffective for plasmacytoid DCs (pDCs). Surprisingly, Fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 ligand, crucial for DC development, produced only a marginal improvement in DC survival in culture, and interleukin-3, reported to prevent apoptosis of human pDCs, produced only a minor improvement in survival of mouse DCs. Genetic manipulation of cell death pathways was also tested, to avoid activation effects exerted by cytokine signalling. The isolation of DCs from mice overexpressing Bcl-2 was especially effective in maintaining pDC viability but gave a lesser improvement in cDC viability. DCs isolated from Bim(-/-)Noxa(-/-) mice also showed improved culture survival, but in this case with pDCs showing the least improvement. PMID:25081090

  9. Virus movement maintains local virus population diversity.

    PubMed

    Snyder, Jamie C; Wiedenheft, Blake; Lavin, Matthew; Roberto, Francisco F; Spuhler, Josh; Ortmann, Alice C; Douglas, Trevor; Young, Mark

    2007-11-27

    Viruses are the largest reservoir of genetic material on the planet, yet little is known about the population dynamics of any virus within its natural environment. Over a 2-year period, we monitored the diversity of two archaeal viruses found in hot springs within Yellowstone National Park (YNP). Both temporal phylogeny and neutral biodiversity models reveal that virus diversity in these local environments is not being maintained by mutation but rather by high rates of immigration from a globally distributed metacommunity. These results indicate that geographically isolated hot springs are readily able to exchange viruses. The importance of virus movement is supported by the detection of virus particles in air samples collected over YNP hot springs and by their detection in metacommunity sequencing projects conducted in the Sargasso Sea. Rapid rates of virus movement are not expected to be unique to these archaeal viruses but rather a common feature among virus metacommunities. The finding that virus immigration rather than mutation can dominate community structure has significant implications for understanding virus circulation and the role that viruses play in ecology and evolution by providing a reservoir of mobile genetic material. PMID:18025457

  10. Virus movement maintains local virus population diversity

    PubMed Central

    Snyder, Jamie C.; Wiedenheft, Blake; Lavin, Matthew; Roberto, Francisco F.; Spuhler, Josh; Ortmann, Alice C.; Douglas, Trevor; Young, Mark

    2007-01-01

    Viruses are the largest reservoir of genetic material on the planet, yet little is known about the population dynamics of any virus within its natural environment. Over a 2-year period, we monitored the diversity of two archaeal viruses found in hot springs within Yellowstone National Park (YNP). Both temporal phylogeny and neutral biodiversity models reveal that virus diversity in these local environments is not being maintained by mutation but rather by high rates of immigration from a globally distributed metacommunity. These results indicate that geographically isolated hot springs are readily able to exchange viruses. The importance of virus movement is supported by the detection of virus particles in air samples collected over YNP hot springs and by their detection in metacommunity sequencing projects conducted in the Sargasso Sea. Rapid rates of virus movement are not expected to be unique to these archaeal viruses but rather a common feature among virus metacommunities. The finding that virus immigration rather than mutation can dominate community structure has significant implications for understanding virus circulation and the role that viruses play in ecology and evolution by providing a reservoir of mobile genetic material. PMID:18025457

  11. Arteriolar niches maintain haematopoietic stem cell quiescence

    PubMed Central

    Kunisaki, Yuya; Bruns, Ingmar; Scheiermann, Christoph; Ahmed, Jalal; Pinho, Sandra; Zhang, Dachuan; Mizoguchi, Toshihide; Wei, Qiaozhi; Lucas, Daniel; Ito, Keisuke; Mar, Jessica C.; Bergman, Aviv; Frenette, Paul S.

    2013-01-01

    Cell cycle quiescence is a critical feature contributing to haematopoietic stem cell (HSC) maintenance. Although various candidate stromal cells have been identified as potential HSC niches, the spatial localization of quiescent HSCs in the bone marrow (BM) remains unclear. Here, using a novel approach that combines whole-mount confocal immunofluorescence imaging techniques and computational modelling to analyse significant tridimensional associations among vascular structures, stromal cells and HSCs, we show that quiescent HSCs associate specifically with small arterioles that are preferentially found in endosteal BM. These arterioles are ensheathed exclusively by rare NG2+ pericytes, distinct from sinusoid-associated LepR+ cells. Pharmacological or genetic activation of HSC cell cycle alters the distribution of HSCs from NG2+ peri-arteriolar niches to LepR+ peri-sinusoidal niches. Conditional depletion of NG2+ cells induces HSC cycling and reduces functional long-term repopulating HSCs in BM. These results thus indicate that arteriolar niches are indispensable to maintain HSC quiescence. PMID:24107994

  12. An experimental manipulation of social comparison in social anxiety.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Melissa A; Schmidt, Norman B

    2014-01-01

    Negative self-appraisal is thought to maintain social anxiety particularly when comparing oneself to others. Work on social comparison suggests that gender may moderate the effects of social comparison in social anxiety. Self-appraisals of the desirability of one's personality may be more important to women, whereas self-appraisal of signs of anxiety may be more important to men. Within each gender, those with high social anxiety are expected to report more negative self-appraisal when comparing themselves to someone else described as high achieving. This study is the first we are aware of that examined gender-based interactive effects after a social comparison manipulation. Participants read a bogus profile of a fellow student's adjustment to college. They were randomly assigned to read a profile suggesting that the fellow student was "high achieving" or more normative in his/her achievements. When comparing to a "high achieving" individual, men with high social anxiety reported the most negative self-appraisals of their signs of anxiety. In addition, greater social anxiety was associated with a poorer self-appraisal of personality only among men. The implications of the findings for conceptualizing the role of social comparison in social anxiety are discussed. PMID:24779421

  13. Linking Social and Vocal Brains: Could Social Segregation Prevent a Proper Development of a Central Auditory Area in a Female Songbird?

    PubMed Central

    Cousillas, Hugo; George, Isabelle; Henry, Laurence; Richard, Jean-Pierre; Hausberger, Martine

    2008-01-01

    Direct social contact and social interaction affect speech development in human infants and are required in order to maintain perceptual abilities; however the processes involved are still poorly known. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that social segregation during development would prevent the proper development of a central auditory area, using a “classical” animal model of vocal development, a songbird. Based on our knowledge of European starling, we raised young female starlings with peers and only adult male tutors. This ensured that female would show neither social bond with nor vocal copying from males. Electrophysiological recordings performed when these females were adult revealed perceptual abnormalities: they presented a larger auditory area, a lower proportion of specialized neurons and a larger proportion of generalist sites than wild-caught females, whereas these characteristics were similar to those observed in socially deprived (physically separated) females. These results confirmed and added to earlier results for males, suggesting that the degree of perceptual deficiency reflects the degree of social separation. To our knowledge, this report constitutes the first evidence that social segregation can, as much as physical separation, alter the development of a central auditory area. PMID:18493580

  14. Design and Application of the Exploration Maintainability Analysis Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stromgren, Chel; Terry, Michelle; Crillo, William; Goodliff, Kandyce; Maxwell, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Conducting human exploration missions beyond Low Earth Orbit (LEO) will present unique challenges in the areas of supportability and maintainability. The durations of proposed missions can be relatively long and re-supply of logistics, including maintenance and repair items, will be limited or non-existent. In addition, mass and volume constraints in the transportation system will limit the total amount of logistics that can be flown along with the crew. These constraints will require that new strategies be developed with regards to how spacecraft systems are designed and maintained. NASA is currently developing Design Reference Missions (DRMs) as an initial step in defining future human missions. These DRMs establish destinations and concepts of operation for future missions, and begin to define technology and capability requirements. Because of the unique supportability challenges, historical supportability data and models are not directly applicable for establishing requirements for beyond LEO missions. However, supportability requirements could have a major impact on the development of the DRMs. The mass, volume, and crew resources required to support the mission could all be first order drivers in the design of missions, elements, and operations. Therefore, there is a need for enhanced analysis capabilities to more accurately establish mass, volume, and time requirements for supporting beyond LEO missions. Additionally, as new technologies and operations are proposed to reduce these requirements, it is necessary to have accurate tools to evaluate the efficacy of those approaches. In order to improve the analysis of supportability requirements for beyond LEO missions, the Space Missions Analysis Branch at the NASA Langley Research Center is developing the Exploration Maintainability Analysis Tool (EMAT). This tool is a probabilistic simulator that evaluates the need for repair and maintenance activities during space missions and the logistics and crew requirements to support those activities. Using a Monte Carlo approach, the tool simulates potential failures in defined systems, based on established component reliabilities, and then evaluates the capability of the crew to repair those failures given a defined store of spares and maintenance items. Statistical analysis of Monte Carlo runs provides probabilistic estimates of overall mission safety and reliability. This paper will describe the operation of the EMAT, including historical data sources used to populate the model, simulation processes, and outputs. Analysis results are provided for a candidate exploration system, including baseline estimates of required sparing mass and volume. Sensitivity analysis regarding the effectiveness of proposed strategies to reduce mass and volume requirements and improve mission reliability is included in these results.

  15. Order Nidovirales

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter, entitled "Order Nidovirales", is for inclusion in the Ninth Report of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV), to be published as both a single volume text and online. The chapter details the taxonomy of members of the Nidovirus order, including family Arteriviridae o...

  16. Social media and social reality

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William N. Reynolds; Marta S. Weber; Robert M. Farber; Courtney D. Corley; Andrew J. Cowell; Michelle L. Gregory

    2010-01-01

    Social Media provide an exciting and novel view into social phenomena. The vast amounts of data that can be gathered from the Internet coupled with massively parallel supercomputers such as the Cray XMT open new vistas for research. Conclusions drawn from such analysis must recognize that social media are distinct from the underlying social reality. Rigorous validation is essential. This

  17. Polarization maintaining fiber interferometer based on superimposed Mach-Zehnder and Sagnac interferences and its application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Bo

    2013-03-01

    A novel polarization maintaining fiber interferometer based on superimposed Mach-Zehnder and Sagnac interferences is presented. Higher order cladding modes are effectively excited to construct a Mach-Zehnder interference with the low order linear polarized modes in the Sagnac interferometer when fusing the single mode fiber and polarization maintaining fiber with a peanut structure. We also demonstrate its strain and temperature tunability. The Mach-Zehnder resonance peak is strain insensitive while the Sagnac resonance dip is highly sensitive to strain, and the Mach-Zehnder resonance peak exhibits an opposite thermal response compared to the Sagnac resonance dip. This can be applied for dual parameter measurement with high resolutions.

  18. Measuring and assessing maintainability at the end of high level design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Briand, Lionel C.; Morasca, Sandro; Basili, Victor R.

    1993-01-01

    Software architecture appears to be one of the main factors affecting software maintainability. Therefore, in order to be able to predict and assess maintainability early in the development process we need to be able to measure the high-level design characteristics that affect the change process. To this end, we propose a measurement approach, which is based on precise assumptions derived from the change process, which is based on Object-Oriented Design principles and is partially language independent. We define metrics for cohesion, coupling, and visibility in order to capture the difficulty of isolating, understanding, designing and validating changes.

  19. Rhesus Monkeys (Macaca Mulatta) Maintain Learning Set Despite Second-Order Stimulus-Response Spatial Discontiguity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beran, Michael J.; Washburn, David A.; Rumbaugh, Duane M.

    2007-01-01

    In many discrimination-learning tests, spatial separation between stimuli and response loci disrupts performance in rhesus macaques. However, monkeys are unaffected by such stimulus-response spatial discontiguity when responses occur through joystick-based computerized movement of a cursor. To examine this discrepancy, five monkeys were tested on…

  20. Position statement. Part two: Maintaining immune health.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Neil P; Gleeson, Michael; Pyne, David B; Nieman, David C; Dhabhar, Firdaus S; Shephard, Roy J; Oliver, Samuel J; Bermon, Stéphane; Kajeniene, Alma

    2011-01-01

    The physical training undertaken by athletes is one of a set of lifestyle or behavioural factors that can influence immune function, health and ultimately exercise performance. Others factors including potential exposure to pathogens, health status, lifestyle behaviours, sleep and recovery, nutrition and psychosocial issues, need to be considered alongside the physical demands of an athlete's training programme. The general consensus on managing training to maintain immune health is to start with a programme of low to moderate volume and intensity; employ a gradual and periodised increase in training volumes and loads; add variety to limit training monotony and stress; avoid excessively heavy training loads that could lead to exhaustion, illness or injury; include non-specific cross-training to offset staleness; ensure sufficient rest and recovery; and instigate a testing programme for identifying signs of performance deterioration and manifestations of physical stress. Inter-individual variability in immunocompetence, recovery, exercise capacity, non-training stress factors, and stress tolerance likely explains the different vulnerability of athletes to illness. Most athletes should be able to train with high loads provided their programme includes strategies devised to control the overall strain and stress. Athletes, coaches and medical personnel should be alert to periods of increased risk of illness (e.g. intensive training weeks, the taper period prior to competition, and during competition) and pay particular attention to recovery and nutritional strategies. Although exercising in environmental extremes (heat, cold, altitude) may increase the stress response to acute exercise and elevate the extent of leukocyte trafficking it does not appear to have marked effects on immune function other than a depression of cell-mediated immunity when training at altitude. The available evidence does not support the contention that athletes training and competing in cold (or hot) conditions experience a greater reduction in immune function compared with thermoneutral conditions. Nevertheless, it remains unknown if athletes who regularly train and compete in cold conditions report more frequent, severe or longer-lasting infections. Research should identify whether the airway inflammation associated with breathing large volumes of cold dry air or polluted air impairs airway defences and whether athletes (and their physicians) wrongly interpret the sore throat symptoms that accompany exercising in cold or polluted air as an infection. Elite athletes can benefit from immunonutritional support to bolster immunity during periods of physiological stress. Ensuring adequate energy, carbohydrate and protein intake and avoiding deficiencies of micronutrients are key to maintaining immune health. Evidence is accumulating that some nutritional supplements including flavonoids such as quercetin and Lactobacillus probiotics can augment some aspects of immune function and reduce illness rates in exercise-stressed athletes. Limited data are non-supportive or mixed for use of N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, beta-glucans, bovine colostrums, ginseng, echinacea or megadoses of vitamin C by athletes. Relatively short periods of total sleep deprivation in humans (up to 3 consecutive nights without sleep) do not influence the risk of infection, and the reported increase in natural killer cell activity with this duration of total sleep deprivation would seem to rule out the possibility of an "open-window" for respiratory infections. Very little is known about the effects of more prolonged sleep disruption and repeated sleep disturbances on immune function and infection incidence, although recent studies have highlighted the importance of sleep quantity (total duration of sleep per night) and quality (number of awakenings per night) to protect against the common cold in healthy adults. Short- or long-term exercise can activate different components of a physiological stress response. Prolonged intense exercise may induce negative health conseque

  1. Maintaining standing balance by handrail grasping.

    PubMed

    Sarraf, Thiago A; Marigold, Daniel S; Robinovitch, Stephen N

    2014-01-01

    Maintaining balance while standing on a moving bus or subway is challenging, and falls among passengers are a significant source of morbidity. Standing passengers often rely on handrail grasping to resist perturbations to balance. We conducted experiments that simulated vehicle starts, to examine how handrail location (overhead or shoulder-height), perturbation direction (forward, backward, left or right), and perturbation magnitude (1 or 2m/s(2)) affected the biomechanical effort (peak centre-of-pressure (COP) excursion and hand force) and muscle activations (onset and integrated EMG activity) involved in balance maintenance. COP excursions, hand forces and muscle activations were altered in a functional manner based on task constraints and perturbation characteristics. Handrail position affected normalized values of peak COP and hand force during forward and backward, but not sideways perturbations. During backward perturbations, COP excursion was greater when grasping overhead than shoulder-height. During forward perturbations, hand force was greater when grasping shoulder-height than overhead. Biceps activations were earlier during shoulder-height than overhead grasping, while tibialis anterior activity was higher during overhead than shoulder-height grasping. Our results indicate that, when facing forward or backward to the direction of vehicle motion, overhead grasping minimizes hand force, while shoulder-height grasping minimizes COP excursion. In contrast, grasping with a sideways stance eliminates the effect of handrail location, and was associated with equal or lower biomechanical effort. This suggests that, at least for vehicle starts, the most reasonable strategy may be to stand sideways to the direction of the vehicle movement, and grasp either at shoulder-height or overhead. PMID:23948334

  2. Followership in Ecology/Environment Social Movements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clavner, Jerry B.; Sumodi, Veronica R.

    The paper analyzes the failure of the ecology/environmental movement to develop into a social movement and to generate a mass following. The movement has had difficulty not only in organizing collective behavior but also in maintaining the necessary momentum to change into a full-fledged social movement. Obvious reasons are that ecologists…

  3. Political Equilibria with Social Security

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michele Boldrin; Aldo Rustichini

    2000-01-01

    We model pay-as-you-go social security systems as the outcome of majority voting within a overlapping generations model with production. When voting, individuals make two choices, pay the elderly their pensions or default, which amount to promise themselves next period. Under general circumstances, there exist equilibria where pensions are voted into existence and maintained. Our analysis uncovers two reasons for this.

  4. Social Work in Pediatric Oncology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Glenn Shields; Connie Schondel; Leslie Barnhart; Vanessa Fitzpatrick; Nancy Sidell; Peggy Adams; Brenda Fertig; Sheila Gomez

    1995-01-01

    When a child is diagnosed with cancer, the family is confronted with meeting both the physical and psychosocial needs of the child and maintaining normal family functioning. This study assessed the perceived psychosocial needs of 77 families who have a child diagnosed with cancer. Preliminary results suggest practical application for social work interventions in specific areas such as the development

  5. Social Networking: Keeping It Clean

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waters, John K.

    2011-01-01

    The need to maintain an unpolluted learning environment is no easy task for schools and districts that have incorporated social networking sites into their educational life. The staff and teachers at Blaine High School in Minnesota's Anoka-Hennepin District 11 had been considering the pros and cons of establishing a school Facebook page when the…

  6. Music listening for maintaining attention of older adults with cognitive impairments.

    PubMed

    Gregory, Dianne

    2002-01-01

    Twelve older adults with cognitive impairments who were participants in weekly community-based group music therapy sessions, 6 older adults in an Alzheimer's caregivers' group, and 6 college student volunteers listened to a 3.5 minute prepared audiotape of instrumental excerpts of patriotic selections. The tape consisted of 7 excerpts ranging from 18 s to 34 s in duration. Each music excerpt was followed by a 7-9 s period of silence, a "wait" excerpt. Listeners were instructed to move a Continuous Response Digital Interface (CRDI) to the name of the music excerpt depicted on the CRDI overlay when they heard a music excerpt. Likewise, they were instructed to move the dial to the word "WAIT" when there was no music. They were also instructed to maintain the dial position for the duration of each music or silence excerpt. Statistical analysis indicated no significant differences between the caregivers' and the college students' group means for total dial changes, correct and incorrect recognitions, correct and incorrect responses to silence excerpts, and reaction times. The mean scores of these 2 groups were combined and compared with the mean scores of the group of elderly adults with cognitive impairments. The mean total dial changes were significantly lower for the listeners with cognitive impairments, resulting in significant differences in all of the other response categories except incorrect recognitions. In addition, their mean absence of response to silence excerpts was significantly higher than their mean absence of responding to music excerpts. Their mean reaction time was significantly slower than the comparison group's reaction time. To evaluate training effects, 10 of the original 12 music therapy participants repeated the listening task with assistance from the therapist (treatment) immediately following the first listening (baseline). A week later the order was reversed for the 2 listening trials. Statistical and graphic analysis of responses between first and second baseline responses indicate significant improvement in responses to silence and music excerpts over the 2 sessions. Applications of the findings to music listening interventions for maintaining attention, eliciting social interaction between clients or caregivers and their patients, and evaluating this population's affective responses to music are discussed. PMID:12597728

  7. 34 CFR 668.163 - Maintaining and accounting for funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Maintaining and accounting for funds. 668... Maintaining and accounting for funds. ...State or municipal government entity a UCC-1...250. (d) Accounting and internal control systems and financial...

  8. 10 CFR 1304.111 - Maintaining records of disclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Maintaining records of disclosures. 1304.111 Section 1304.111 Energy NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 1304.111 Maintaining records of disclosures....

  9. 10 CFR 1304.111 - Maintaining records of disclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Maintaining records of disclosures. 1304.111 Section 1304.111 Energy NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 1304.111 Maintaining records of disclosures....

  10. 10 CFR 1304.114 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 false Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. 1304.114 Section 1304.114 Energy NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 1304.114 Responsibility for maintaining adequate...

  11. 10 CFR 1304.114 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 false Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. 1304.114 Section 1304.114 Energy NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 1304.114 Responsibility for maintaining adequate...

  12. 10 CFR 1304.111 - Maintaining records of disclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Maintaining records of disclosures. 1304.111 Section 1304.111 Energy NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 1304.111 Maintaining records of disclosures....

  13. 48 CFR 906.202 - Establishing or maintaining alternative sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...Establishing or maintaining alternative sources. 906.202 Section...System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY COMPETITION ACQUISITION...After Exclusion of Sources 906.202 Establishing or maintaining alternative sources....

  14. 48 CFR 906.202 - Establishing or maintaining alternative sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...Establishing or maintaining alternative sources. 906.202 Section...System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY COMPETITION ACQUISITION...After Exclusion of Sources 906.202 Establishing or maintaining alternative sources....

  15. 34 CFR 668.163 - Maintaining and accounting for funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...163 Maintaining and accounting for funds. (a...over $250. (d) Accounting and internal control...institution must maintain accounting and internal control systems...institution must exercise the level of care and...

  16. 44 CFR 321.3 - Maintaining the mobilization base.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... false Maintaining the mobilization base. 321.3 Section 321.3 Emergency...PREPAREDNESS MAINTENANCE OF THE MOBILIZATION BASE (DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE, DEPARTMENT OF...321.3 Maintaining the mobilization base. (a) Facilities selected to...

  17. 44 CFR 321.3 - Maintaining the mobilization base.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 true Maintaining the mobilization base. 321.3 Section 321.3 Emergency...PREPAREDNESS MAINTENANCE OF THE MOBILIZATION BASE (DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE, DEPARTMENT OF...321.3 Maintaining the mobilization base. (a) Facilities selected to...

  18. 44 CFR 321.3 - Maintaining the mobilization base.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... false Maintaining the mobilization base. 321.3 Section 321.3 Emergency...PREPAREDNESS MAINTENANCE OF THE MOBILIZATION BASE (DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE, DEPARTMENT OF...321.3 Maintaining the mobilization base. (a) Facilities selected to...

  19. 44 CFR 321.3 - Maintaining the mobilization base.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... false Maintaining the mobilization base. 321.3 Section 321.3 Emergency...PREPAREDNESS MAINTENANCE OF THE MOBILIZATION BASE (DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE, DEPARTMENT OF...321.3 Maintaining the mobilization base. (a) Facilities selected to...

  20. 44 CFR 321.3 - Maintaining the mobilization base.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... false Maintaining the mobilization base. 321.3 Section 321.3 Emergency...PREPAREDNESS MAINTENANCE OF THE MOBILIZATION BASE (DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE, DEPARTMENT OF...321.3 Maintaining the mobilization base. (a) Facilities selected to...

  1. Biodiversity and Ecosystem Functioning: Maintaining Natural Life Support Processes

    E-print Network

    Minnesota, University of

    Biodiversity and Ecosystem Functioning: Maintaining Natural Life Support Processes Publishedbythe. ONeill, Harold A. Mooney, Osvaldo E. Sala, Amy J. Symstad, and David Tilman Biodiversity and Ecosystem Functioning: Maintaining Natural Life Support Processes Critical processes at the ecosystem level influence

  2. 19 CFR 163.2 - Persons required to maintain records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...dealer would not be required to maintain records, a transit authority that prepared detailed specifications from which imported subway cars or busses were manufactured would be required to maintain records); or (2) Technical data, molds,...

  3. 40 CFR 62.14460 - What records must I maintain?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...POLLUTANTS Federal Plan Requirements for Hospital/Medical/Infectious Waste Incinerators Constructed on or Before June 20, 1996 Reporting and Recordkeeping Requirements § 62.14460 What records must I maintain? You must maintain the...

  4. 40 CFR 62.14460 - What records must I maintain?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...POLLUTANTS Federal Plan Requirements for Hospital/Medical/Infectious Waste Incinerators Constructed on or Before June 20, 1996 Reporting and Recordkeeping Requirements § 62.14460 What records must I maintain? You must maintain the...

  5. Maintaining Paranormal Belief in the Face of Fraud 

    E-print Network

    Hepburn, Joanna

    2012-06-27

    Past DA studies have investigated how people maintain paranormal belief (e.g. Lamont, 2007b, Wooffitt, 1992) as well as a position of disbelief (Lamont et al, 2009); however no current research has explored how people maintain paranormal belief...

  6. The key actors maintaining elders in functional autonomy in Bobo-Dioulasso (Burkina Faso)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Globally, a significant increase in functional disability among the elderly is expected in the near future. It is therefore vital to begin considering how Sub-Saharan Africa countries can best start building or strengthening the care and support system for that target population. Study objectives are: 1) identify the key actors of the social system who maintain elders in functional autonomy at home in Bobo-Dioulasso (Burkina Faso) and 2) to describe the functional status of older people living at home. Methods We conducted a longitudinal descriptive study among the elderly aged 60 and above (351). Their functional status was evaluated using the Functional Autonomy Measurement System (SMAF). Data analysis was done using the statistical software package STATA (SE11). Results In Bobo-Dioulasso, 68% of seniors have good functional capacity or a slight incapacity and 32% have moderate to severe incapacities. Older people die before (3%) or during (14%) moderate to severe disabilities. This would mean that the quality of medical and/or social care is not good for maintaining functional autonomy of older people with moderate to severe disabilities. Two main groups of people contribute to maintain elders in functional autonomy: the elderly themselves and their family. Community, private or public structures for maintaining elders in functional autonomy are non-existent. The social system for maintaining elders in functional autonomy is incomplete and failing. In case of functional handicap at home, the elders die. But stakeholders are not conscious of this situation; they believe that this system is good for maintaining elders in functional autonomy. Conclusion It is likely that the absence of formal care and support structure likely shortens the lifespan of severely disabled older people. Stakeholders have not yet looked at this possibility. The stakeholders should seriously think about: 1) how to establish the third level of actors who can fulfill the needs to maintain elders in functional autonomy that are not satisfied by others (family members or the older individuals themselves), and 2) how to reinforce the role of each actor and the collaboration between the different groups of people of this system. PMID:24997509

  7. CW-pumped polarization-maintaining Brillouin fiber ring laser

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    CW-pumped polarization-maintaining Brillouin fiber ring laser: I. Self-structuration of Brillouin for a large set of (G, R) parameters, in a polarization-maintaining Brillouin fiber ring laser in the best performed in a polarization- maintaining Brillouin fiber ring laser in good conditions of stability

  8. Research on Maintainability Evaluation Model Based on Fuzzy Theory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lu Zhong; Sun Youchao

    2007-01-01

    Maintainability influencing attributes are analyzed, their weight and value calculating methods are given, and the maintainability fuzzy evaluation method is proposed based on the relative closeness. According to the maintenance task simulation operated in virtual environment, the maintainability virtual evaluation model is built by analyzing the maintenance task for each replaceable unit of product. At last, a case study is

  9. Social Work and Applied Social Studies

    E-print Network

    Burton, Geoffrey R.

    Social Work and Applied Social Studies Undergraduate 1 #12;www.bath.ac.uk/sps Undergraduate Social Work and Applied Social Studies What is Social Work? `The social work profession promotes social change' (International Federation of Social Workers, 2000) Social work is an exceptionally interesting, challenging

  10. Maintaining career marketability as a professional nurse.

    PubMed

    O'Halloran, V E

    1996-01-01

    As we rush around attending to the essentials of our lives (family, friends, clients, employers), what is left? Nursing Forum invites readers to engage in thoughts and activities that may awaken an untouched place. We hope these writings will kindle your personal involvement in something that was previously avoided--because of bias, fear, or uneasiness--in order to stretch your mind and spirit. The ability to be competitive in the shifting marketplace of professional nursing practice is dependent upon a nurse attaining the credentials or experiences being sought. Identifying those knowledges and skills and developing a working plan to achieve them is essential. The Career Development Work Plan presented here is the framework to help do that, and the accompanying Professional File Management system provides the mechanism to monitor and document achievements and abilities over time. This career development approach provides the foundation and preparation nurses will need when presenting themselves to the professional job market. PMID:9052190

  11. Social Explorer

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Social Explorer

    Social Explorer provides quick and easy access to current and historical census data and demographic information. The easy-to-use web interface lets users create maps and reports to illustrate, analyze, and understand demography and social change.

  12. Energy and Order in Biological Systems

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-06-19

    This lesson explains how energy is used to keep the structure of an organism maintained. Otherwise, systems naturally progress from order to disorder according to the second law of thermodynamics. Key terms are hyperlinked to provide more detailed explanations.

  13. Knowledge and Social Learning for Sustainable Development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bernd Siebenhüner; Harald Heinrichs

    \\u000a Building on the on-going discussion about topical knowledge, social learning and sustainable development, this article discusses\\u000a the problem horizon of non-sustainable development in order to highlight the necessity of social learning processes and to\\u000a discuss the relevant conceptual approaches to social learning. It is argued that in order to meet the challenges of global\\u000a environmental changes, social learning based on

  14. The neural circuitry of expertise: perceptual learning and social cognition.

    PubMed

    Harré, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Amongst the most significant questions we are confronted with today include the integration of the brain's micro-circuitry, our ability to build the complex social networks that underpin society and how our society impacts on our ecological environment. In trying to unravel these issues one place to begin is at the level of the individual: to consider how we accumulate information about our environment, how this information leads to decisions and how our individual decisions in turn create our social environment. While this is an enormous task, we may already have at hand many of the tools we need. This article is intended to review some of the recent results in neuro-cognitive research and show how they can be extended to two very specific and interrelated types of expertise: perceptual expertise and social cognition. These two cognitive skills span a vast range of our genetic heritage. Perceptual expertise developed very early in our evolutionary history and is a highly developed part of all mammals' cognitive ability. On the other hand social cognition is most highly developed in humans in that we are able to maintain larger and more stable long term social connections with more behaviorally diverse individuals than any other species. To illustrate these ideas I will discuss board games as a toy model of social interactions as they include many of the relevant concepts: perceptual learning, decision-making, long term planning and understanding the mental states of other people. Using techniques that have been developed in mathematical psychology, I show that we can represent some of the key features of expertise using stochastic differential equations (SDEs). Such models demonstrate how an expert's long exposure to a particular context influences the information they accumulate in order to make a decision.These processes are not confined to board games, we are all experts in our daily lives through long exposure to the many regularities of daily tasks and social contexts. PMID:24381550

  15. The neural circuitry of expertise: perceptual learning and social cognition

    PubMed Central

    Harré, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Amongst the most significant questions we are confronted with today include the integration of the brain's micro-circuitry, our ability to build the complex social networks that underpin society and how our society impacts on our ecological environment. In trying to unravel these issues one place to begin is at the level of the individual: to consider how we accumulate information about our environment, how this information leads to decisions and how our individual decisions in turn create our social environment. While this is an enormous task, we may already have at hand many of the tools we need. This article is intended to review some of the recent results in neuro-cognitive research and show how they can be extended to two very specific and interrelated types of expertise: perceptual expertise and social cognition. These two cognitive skills span a vast range of our genetic heritage. Perceptual expertise developed very early in our evolutionary history and is a highly developed part of all mammals' cognitive ability. On the other hand social cognition is most highly developed in humans in that we are able to maintain larger and more stable long term social connections with more behaviorally diverse individuals than any other species. To illustrate these ideas I will discuss board games as a toy model of social interactions as they include many of the relevant concepts: perceptual learning, decision-making, long term planning and understanding the mental states of other people. Using techniques that have been developed in mathematical psychology, I show that we can represent some of the key features of expertise using stochastic differential equations (SDEs). Such models demonstrate how an expert's long exposure to a particular context influences the information they accumulate in order to make a decision.These processes are not confined to board games, we are all experts in our daily lives through long exposure to the many regularities of daily tasks and social contexts. PMID:24381550

  16. Rethinking the boundaries of social marketing: Activism or advertising?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Walter Wymer

    2010-01-01

    In some areas of public health concern, corporate marketing activities may negate social marketing messages targeting individuals. Traditional social marketing campaigns may be ineffective when commercial marketing activities create an environment that encourages and maintains unhealthy behaviors. This article explores the role of social marketing in these instances.

  17. Favors from Facebook Friends: Unpacking Dimensions of Social Capital

    E-print Network

    Michigan, University of

    media tools can support how people build, maintain, and benefit from social relationships. In CHI and related fields, one way these relational benefits have been measured is through the construct of social characteristic of social capital is its ability to be converted into other kinds of benefits such as educational

  18. Social Change

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mikaila Mariel Lemonik Arthur

    2012-01-01

    The study of social change has long been one of the central interests in sociology. Social Change is a brand-new, full-color resource that considers the various ways in which society and social life change over time, including the development of modernity, urbanization, environmental change, demographic change, and the role of new technologies. Special attention is given to the role of

  19. Is the cold chain for vaccines maintained in general practice?

    PubMed Central

    Haworth, E A; Booy, R; Stirzaker, L; Wilkes, S; Battersby, A

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To investigate the cold chain for vaccines and compliance with the local code of practice for storage. DESIGN--In a random sample of general practices orders for live vaccines (oral polio and measles, mumps, and rubella) were accompanied by a cold chain monitor which was activated on leaving the supplying pharmacy. The monitors were read at specified intervals and when all vaccines in the order had been used. Structured interview was used to check compliance with the local code of practice on storage. SETTING--West Berkshire and Aylesbury Vale district health authorities. SUBJECTS--16 (25%) general practices in West Berkshire, and 13 (50%) in Aylesbury Vale. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Compliance with code of practice. Changes in the cold chain monitor. RESULTS--For six key requirements within the code of practice compliance varied from 70% to 0%. Only 16 of 29 practices had a named person responsible for vaccine storage and only four were aware of the local code of practice. Vaccine was stored for longer and more breaks in the cold chain occurred in West Berkshire than in Aylesbury Vale. The potency of some vaccines in 10 of 26 orders became suspect before use. CONCLUSIONS--Knowledge of appropriate management of the cold chain in two districts was poor. Breaks in the chain were more frequent and compromised potency more likely when vaccine had been stored for more than eight weeks. Problems in maintaining the cold chain indicate the need for continuing audit, which should become a prerequisite for payments to general practitioners for immunisation. PMID:8369691

  20. Training Worksheet Job Aid Maintained by Corporate Education, Development & Training (CEDT)

    E-print Network

    Training Worksheet Job Aid Maintained by Corporate Education, Development & Training (CEDT) Purchase Order A. General Awareness Sandia-Specific Training -- Initial and Refresher Training Program (SDR) may need to provide the material for initial training. Training Worksheet Job Aid Last updated: 2

  1. Toward a Methodology for Conducting Social Impact Assessments Using Quality of Social Life Indicators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olsen, Marvin E.; Merwin, Donna J.

    Broadly conceived, social impacts refer to all changes in the structure and functioning of patterned social ordering that occur in conjunction with an environmental, technological, or social innovation or alteration. Departing from the usual cost-benefit analysis approach, a new methodology proposes conducting social impact assessment grounded in…

  2. Stigmatised Choices: Social Class, Social Exclusion and Secondary School Markets in the Inner City

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reay, Diane; Lucey, Helen

    2004-01-01

    The transition to secondary school is rarely conceptualised as an important influence in maintaining and contributing to wider processes of social exclusion in the inner city. This article argues that the seeds of social exclusion are sown in under-resourced, struggling inner-city schooling, and their germination is found in class practices,…

  3. In Order

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This activity helps students develop a sense of the relative size of quantities in the categories of temperature, speed, time duration and loudness. Learners rank their estimates of given measures in order from least to greatest and justify their decisions. Students are encouraged to do research and carry out experiments when possible. The Teachers' Notes page includes suggestions for implementation, discussion questions, ideas for extension and support, and links to related activities.

  4. Issues and Methods for Assessing COTS Reliability, Maintainability, and Availability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneidewind, Norman F.; Nikora, Allen P.

    1998-01-01

    Many vendors produce products that are not domain specific (e.g., network server) and have limited functionality (e.g., mobile phone). In contrast, many customers of COTS develop systems that am domain specific (e.g., target tracking system) and have great variability in functionality (e.g., corporate information system). This discussion takes the viewpoint of how the customer can ensure the quality of COTS components. In evaluating the benefits and costs of using COTS, we must consider the environment in which COTS will operate. Thus we must distinguish between using a non-mission critical application like a spreadsheet program to produce a budget and a mission critical application like military strategic and tactical operations. Whereas customers will tolerate an occasional bug in the former, zero tolerance is the rule in the latter. We emphasize the latter because this is the arena where there are major unresolved problems in the application of COTS. Furthermore, COTS components may be embedded in the larger customer system. We refer to these as embedded systems. These components must be reliable, maintainable, and available, and must be with the larger system in order for the customer to benefit from the advertised advantages of lower development and maintenance costs. Interestingly, when the claims of COTS advantages are closely examined, one finds that to a great extent these COTS components consist of hardware and office products, not mission critical software [1]. Obviously, COTS components are different from custom components with respect to one or more of the following attributes: source, development paradigm, safety, reliability, maintainability, availability, security, and other attributes. However, the important question is whether they should be treated differently when deciding to deploy them for operational use; we suggest the answer is no. We use reliability as an example to justify our answer. In order to demonstrate its reliability, a COTS component must pass the same reliability evaluations as the custom components, otherwise the COTS components will be the weakest link in the chain of components and will be the determinant of software system reliability. The challenge is that there will be less information available for evaluating COTS components than for custom components but this does not mean we should despair and do nothing. Actually, there is a lot we can do even in the absence of documentation on COTS components because the customer will have information about how COTS components are to be used in the larger system. To illustrate our approach, we will consider the reliability, maintainability, and availability (RMA) of COTS components as used in larger systems. Finally, COTS suppliers might consider increasing visibility into their products to assist customers in determining the components' fitness for use in a particular application. We offer ideas of information that would be useful to customers, and what vendors might do to provide it.

  5. Social Ferment and School Finance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hack, Walter G.

    1972-01-01

    Describes the nature of contemporary society in terms of gross or general changes observed during the past twenty years in order to consider possible breakthroughs of school finance as products of social ferment. (Author/AN)

  6. Description of a haptic system for virtual maintainability in aeronautics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Savall; Diego Borro; Jorge J. Gil; L. Matey

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes a haptic system for maintainability simulation in aeronautics, called REVIMA (Virtual Reality for Maintainability). In this project a software-hardware tool is designed and built to realistically simulate assembly-disassembly operations. It also helps to perform accessibility, interference and maintainability analysis by using virtual reality techniques without physical mock-ups. The system gives the user a reliable and realistic response.

  7. Functional analysis and treatment of arranging and ordering by individuals with an autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Nicole M; Thompson, Rachel H; Schlichenmeyer, Kevin; Stocco, Corey S

    2012-01-01

    Of the diagnostic features of autism, relatively little research has been devoted to restricted and repetitive behavior, particularly topographically complex forms of restricted and repetitive behavior such as rigidity in routines or compulsive-like behavior (e.g., arranging objects in patterns or rows). Like vocal or motor stereotypy, topographically complex forms of restricted and repetitive behavior may be associated with negative outcomes such as interference with skill acquisition, negative social consequences, and severe problem behavior associated with interruption of restricted and repetitive behavior. In the present study, we extended functional analysis methodology to the assessment and treatment of arranging and ordering for 3 individuals with an autism spectrum disorder. For all 3 participants, arranging and ordering was found to be maintained by automatic reinforcement, and treatments based on function reduced arranging and ordering. PMID:22403446

  8. Social VPNs: Integrating Overlay and Social Networks for Seamless P2P Networking

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Renato J. Figueiredo; David Wolinsky

    In this paper we introduce Social VPNs, a novel system architecture which leverages existing social net- working infrastructures to enable ad-hoc VPNs which are self-configuring, self-managing, yet maintain secu- rity against untrusted parties. The key principles in our approach are: (1) self-configuring virtual network overlays enable seamless bi-directional IP-layer connec- tivity among parties linked by means of social connec- tions;

  9. Order Phasmatodea

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Moxey, Carl F.

    Carl Moxey of Northeastern University has created this work-in-progress Web site to provide "a comprehensive archive of information on the systematics and morphology of the insects belonging to the Order Phasmatodea." Carefully designed and easy to navigate, this Web site allows users to browse a collapsible classification tree, locate information by genera or species, view descriptions of phasmatid morphology, and more. Even though only a few translations available so far, some links provided for described genera and species lead to a related German Web site. Moxey encourages users to contribute illustrations and literature citations not already included in the site.

  10. Social Media and Physicians’ Online Identity Crisis

    PubMed Central

    DeCamp, Matthew; Koenig, Thomas W.; Chisolm, Margaret S.

    2014-01-01

    Physicians are increasingly counted among Face-book’s 1 billion users and Twitter’s 500 million members. Beyond these social media platforms, other innovative social media tools are being used in medical practice, including for online consultation,1 in the conduct of clinical research,2 and in medical school curricula.3 Social media content is brief, characterized as “many-to-many” communication, and able to spread rapidly across the Internet beyond a person’s control. These and other features of social media create new dimensions to traditional ethical issues, particularly around maintaining appropriate boundaries between physicians and patients. PMID:23942675

  11. Spontaneous order: Michael Polanyi and Friedrich Hayek

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Struan Jacobs

    2000-01-01

    This paper compares Hayek and Polanyi on spontaneous social order. Although Hayek is widely believed to have first both coined the name and explicated the idea of ‘spontaneous order’, it is in fact Michael Polanyi who did so. Numerous differences emerge between the two thinkers. The characterisation of spontaneous order in Hayek, for example, involves different types of freedom to

  12. [Social cooperatives in Italy].

    PubMed

    Villotti, P; Zaniboni, S; Fraccaroli, F

    2014-06-01

    This paper describes the role of social cooperatives in Italy as a type of economic, non-profit organization and their role in contributing to the economic and social growth of the country. The purpose of this paper is to learn more about the experience of the Italian social cooperatives in promoting the work integration process of disadvantaged workers, especially those suffering from mental disorders, from a theoretical and an empirical point of view. Social enterprise is the most popular and consolidated legal and organizational model for social enterprises in Italy, introduced by Law 381/91. Developed during the early 1980s, and formally recognized by law in the early 1990s, social cooperatives aim at pursuing the general interest of the community to promote the human needs and social inclusion of citizens. They are orientated towards aims that go beyond the interest of the business owners, the primary beneficiary of their activities is the community, or groups of disadvantaged people. In Italy, Law 381/91 distinguishes between two categories of social cooperatives, those producing goods of social utility, such as culture, welfare and educational services (A-type), and those providing economic activities for the integration of disadvantaged people into employment (B-type). The main purpose of B-type social cooperatives is to integrate disadvantaged people into the open labour market. This goal is reached after a period of training and working experience inside the firm, during which the staff works to improve both the social and professional abilities of disadvantaged people. During the years, B-type social co-ops acquired a particular relevance in the care of people with mental disorders by offering them with job opportunities. Having a job is central in the recovery process of people suffering from mental diseases, meaning that B-type social co-ops in Italy play an important rehabilitative and integrative role for this vulnerable population of workers. The recent literature has highlighted that difficulties with employment are a feature of mental disorders, with high unemployment rates and short job tenure. Yet, success in employment for this population can be expected when they are provided with adequate support and opportunities. B-type social cooperatives in Italy are found to be very useful in order to help this disadvantaged category of workers find and keep a job. The work environment is more flexible and allows a better integration with less stigma and better work accommodations compared to the open labour market and/or other public/private organizations. Results from B-type Italian social cooperatives studies show that mentally ill workers value the importance of working, are highly satisfied with their job, are motivated to continue working, are engaged in their job and willing to work in the competitive labour market. Also, studies show that environmental characteristics of the social cooperative, such as the implementation of work accommodations and the possibility to work in an environment that is highly supportive, have an impact on increasing the likelihood of being highly satisfied with the job, which in turn is positively related to job tenure. In sum, this article shed light on the historical background that led to the development of social cooperatives in Italy. Furthermore, the features of B-type co-ops that play a central role in facilitating the work integration of people with mental disorders are described in this paper. In general, Italian B-type social cooperatives are found to provide a meaningful work experience to people with mental disorders, that help them increase not only vocational outcomes, but also psycho-social outcomes, and generally to help them better integrate into society. PMID:24948479

  13. Relative Efficacy of Human Social Interaction and Food as Reinforcers for Domestic Dogs and Hand-Reared Wolves

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feuerbacher, Erica; Wynne, Clive D. L.

    2012-01-01

    Despite the intimate relationship dogs share with humans in Western society, we know relatively little about the variables that produce and maintain dog social behavior towards humans. One possibility is that human social interaction is itself a reinforcer for dog behavior. As an initial assessment of the variables that might maintain dog social

  14. Better Organizing Your Contacts: An Empirical Study of an Intelligent Social Contact Management System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dingqi Yang; Bin Guo; Daqing Zhang

    2011-01-01

    Human memory is generally poor and often fails in unpredictable ways, sometimes with dire consequences. On social occasions, it usually causes embarrassing situations (e.g., forgetting the name of a friend). Moreover, as the number of contacts increases, people feel difficult to maintain their social contacts with merely memory. Aiming at helping people better manage their social contacts, a powerful social

  15. Dynamic Planning For Agents in Games using Social Norms and Emotions

    E-print Network

    Vilhjálmsson, Hannes Högni

    call social norms. But the agent perform- ing the planning also brings to it a personal emotionalDynamic Planning For Agents in Games using Social Norms and Emotions Palli R Thrainsson, Arnkell. In realistic social game environments, agents need to exhibit a certain level of social awareness to maintain

  16. An Examination of Characteristics Related to the Social Skills of Youths with Visual Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zebehazy, Kim T.; Smith, Thomas J.

    2011-01-01

    From an early age, children with visual impairments can be at a disadvantage for developing social skills. Since vision plays a role in the early development of social behaviors and of social cognition, the lack of visual cues could lead to difficulties in initiating and maintaining social interactions. The study presented here investigated…

  17. The Art of Designing Socially Intelligent Agents: Science, Fiction, and the Human in the Loop

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kerstin Dautenhahn

    1998-01-01

    In this paper socially intelligent agents (SIA) are understood as agents whichdo not only from an observer point of view behave socially but which are ableto recognize and identify other agents and establish and maintain relationshipsto other agents. The process of building socially intelligent agents is influencedby what the human as the designer considers `social\\

  18. Variable-time reinforcement schedules in the treatment of socially maintained problem behavior

    Microsoft Academic Search

    CAROLE M. VAN CAMP; D C Lerman; M ICHAEL E. KELLEY; S A Contrucci; C M Vorndran

    2000-01-01

    Noncontingent reinforcement (NCR) consists of delivering a reinforcer on a time-based schedule, independent of responding. Studies evaluating the effectiveness of NCR as treatment for problem behavior have used fixed-time (FT) schedules of reinforcement. In this study, the efficacy of NCR with variable-time (VT) schedules was evaluated by comparing the effects of VT and FT reinforcement schedules with 2 individuals who

  19. Maintaining a Social-Emotional Intervention and Its Benefits for Institutionalized Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCall, Robert B.; Groark, Christina J.; Fish, Larry; Muhamedrahimov, Rifkat J.; Palmov, Oleg I.; Nikiforova, Natalia V.

    2013-01-01

    This article reports the maintenance of one of the largest interventions conducted in St. Petersburg (Russian Federation) orphanages for children birth to 4 years using regular caregiving staff. One orphanage received training plus structural changes, another training only, and a third business as usual. The intervention produced substantial…

  20. Maintaining Transnational Social Fields: The Role of Visits to Bangladesh for British Bangladeshi Children

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Benjamin Zeitlyn

    2012-01-01

    The visit is a key experience in the socialisation of British Bangladeshi children. It is an emotional and sensory rollercoaster for children which challenges and confirms their sense of who they are. For, while they enjoy some aspects of the visit, they find others deeply unsettling. Visits to Sylhet in Bangladesh give children a lasting lesson in both Sylheti beliefs

  1. Socially Assistive Robotic Music Therapist for Maintaining Attention of Older Adults with Cognitive Impairments

    E-print Network

    Mataric, Maja J.

    abilities and can enhance quality of life. Other cognitive rehabilitation therapies and protocols focus to aging and/or Alzheimer's disease. Introduction Dementia is a progressive brain dysfunction that affects and behavior. Individuals suffering from moderate or severe dementia are restricted in their daily activities

  2. 21 CFR 1305.27 - Preservation of electronic orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...supplier must retain each original order filled and the linked records for two years. (c) If electronic order records are maintained on a central server, the records must be readily retrievable at the registered...

  3. 21 CFR 1305.27 - Preservation of electronic orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...supplier must retain each original order filled and the linked records for two years. (c) If electronic order records are maintained on a central server, the records must be readily retrievable at the registered...

  4. 75 FR 51929 - Milk in the Northeast and Other Marketing Areas; Order Amending the Orders

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-24

    ...This final rule maintains the current fluid milk product definition's compositional...orders when used in products meeting the fluid milk product definition. It provides exemptions...intended to be meal replacements from the fluid milk product definition. A...

  5. Navigation Patterns from and to Social Media

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Gamon; Arnd Christian König

    2009-01-01

    With the rapid rise of social media content, the question how people navigate to and from social media becomes im- portant in order to understand what new tools and approach- es are most beneficial to allow users to discover and interact with this social media data. In this study we analyze session log data to describe navigation patterns involving these

  6. Social Engineering Program to promote civilization process

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Melany M. Ciampi; Claudio da Rocha Brito

    2008-01-01

    COPEC-OPASS educational program design team has designed an engineering program with the objective to form engineers to act in more effective and accurate ways in order to solve social problems and avoid future ones. It is a social engineering program, under graduation, five years duration, full time students, it is based on the humanities and social sciences such as philosophy,

  7. Factors Influencing Maintained Markup of National and Private Apparel Brands

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jane Boyd Thomas; Nancy L. Cassill; David G. Herr

    1999-01-01

    This exploratory research examines Sheth's (1981) constructs of merchandise requirements and supplier accessibility factors and their effect on the maintained markup percentage earned for national and private apparel brands. The effect of merchandise requirements and supplier accessibility factors on the maintained markup percentage of national and private sportswear apparel brands was examined. A national survey of department store buyers indicated

  8. Continuous microbial cultures maintained by electronically-controlled device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eisler, W. J., Jr.; Webb, R. B.

    1967-01-01

    Photocell-controlled instrument maintains microbial culture. It uses commercially available chemostat glassware, provides adequate aeration through bubbling of the culture, maintains the population size and density, continuously records growth rates over small increments of time, and contains a simple, sterilizable nutrient control mechanism.

  9. Object Representations Maintain Attentional Control Settings across Space and Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schreij, Daniel; Olivers, Christian N. L.

    2009-01-01

    Previous research has revealed that we create and maintain mental representations for perceived objects on the basis of their spatiotemporal continuity. An important question is what type of information can be maintained within these so-called object files. We provide evidence that object files retain specific attentional control settings for…

  10. Species interaction mechanisms maintain grassland plant species diversity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Theory has outpaced empirical research in pursuit of identifying mechanisms maintaining species diversity. Here we demonstrate how data from diversity-ecosystem functioning experiments can be used to test maintenance of diversity theory. We predict that grassland plant diversity can be maintained by...

  11. Seasonal resource oscillations maintain diversity in bacterial microcosms

    E-print Network

    Doebeli, Michael

    Seasonal resource oscillations maintain diversity in bacterial microcosms Christine C. Spencer, 1: Seasonal variation in availability of resources maintains co-existence between different ecological types and then switch to acetate consumption, thus creating a fluctuating environment with two different `seasons'. We

  12. Cell Reports Nkx6.1 Is Essential for Maintaining

    E-print Network

    Sander, Maike

    to elevated blood glucose levels (Hosker et al., 1989). This impair- ment in glucose-stimulated insulinCell Reports Article Nkx6.1 Is Essential for Maintaining the Functional State of Pancreatic Beta as essential for maintaining the functional and molecular traits of mature beta cells. Conditional Nkx6

  13. MAINTAIN WELLBEING Having a sense of wellbeing means being

    E-print Network

    Viglas, Anastasios

    LEARN TO MAINTAIN WELLBEING CAPS #12;Having a sense of wellbeing means being able to live life to manage feelings and work through difficult situations with clarity. PLAY CONTENTS 01 The ABC's of Wellbeing 02 3A's to Maintain Wellbeing: Assess, Accept & Act! 07 Bringing It All Together: A Case Study #12

  14. Cantilever springs maintain tension in thermally expanded wires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Terselic, R. A.

    1965-01-01

    Two deflected cantilever springs strung with wire provide force displacement compensation to maintain tension in the wires as they undergo thermal expansion. This method of maintaining tension in thermally expanded wires is used in electric space heaters and residential heat exchangers.

  15. Can the Arts Maintain Integrity in Interdisciplinary Learning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roucher, Nancy; Lovano-Kerr, Jessie

    1995-01-01

    Maintains that educational theorists have long advocated integrated, multidisciplinary curriculum development and instruction. Argues that the arts must maintain their integrity in the curriculum and be taught for their own sake, rather than serving as aids to instruction in other disciplines. (CFR)

  16. Social Work and Applied Social Studies

    E-print Network

    Burton, Geoffrey R.

    Social Work and Applied Social Studies Undergraduate #12;Undergraduate Social and Policy Sciences 2, social policy, international development and social work. Many of our staff are at the forefront Guide 2015, for example, social work at Bath is ranked 1st, sociology 2nd, social policy 3rd. Bath

  17. of Social Work and Social Policy

    E-print Network

    O'Mahony, Donal E.

    School of Social Work and Social Policy School M.Sc. in Disability Studies #12;The M and benefit from the input of the different academic centres involved in the M.Sc. including: Social Work Dublin) School of Social Work and Social Policy School of Social Work and Social Policy #12;Two options

  18. Order and chaos : articulating support, housing transformation

    E-print Network

    Boehm, William Hollister

    1990-01-01

    This thesis presents an exploration on the theme of order and chaos, as a formal and social phenomenon, particularly as it relates to housing. The work stems from an attraction to the messy vitality we find in certain ...

  19. Role Sequencing: Does Order Matter for Mental Health?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Pamela Braboy

    2004-01-01

    Role sequencing refers to the ordering of social roles. According to the normative order hypothesis, adults who follow a certain sequencing of their social roles will be better adjusted than their peers who follow other life course patterns. The normative order is defined as first entering the paid labor force, getting married, and later having…

  20. Whither Socialism?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph E. Stiglitz

    The rapid collapse of socialism has raised new economic policy questions and revived old theoretical issues. In this book, Joseph Stiglitz explains how the neoclassical, or Walrasian model (the formal articulation of Adam Smith's invisible hand), which has dominated economic thought over the past half century, may have wrongly encouraged the belief that market socialism could work. Stiglitz proposes an

  1. Cultural Aspects in Social Anxiety and Social Anxiety Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Hofmann, Stefan G.; Asnaani, Anu; Hinton, Devon E.

    2010-01-01

    To examine cultural aspects in social anxiety and social anxiety disorder (SAD), we reviewed the literature on the prevalence rates, expressions, and treatments of social anxiety/SAD as they relate to culture, race, and ethnicity. We further reviewed factors that contribute to the differences in social anxiety/SAD between different cultures, including individualism/collectivism, perception of social norms, self-construal, gender roles, and gender role identification. Our review suggests that the prevalence and expression of social anxiety/SAD depends on the particular culture. Asian cultures typically show the lowest rates, whereas Russian and US samples show the highest rates, of SAD. Taijin kyofusho is discussed as a possible culture-specific expression of social anxiety, although the empirical evidence concerning the validity of this syndrome has been mixed. It is concluded that the individual's social concerns need to be examined in the context of the person's cultural, racial, and ethnic background in order to adequately assess the degree and expression of social anxiety and social anxiety disorder. This has direct relevance for the upcoming DSM-V. PMID:21132847

  2. Roles of Extension Officers to Promote Social Capital in Japanese Agricultural Communities

    PubMed Central

    Takemura, Kosuke; Uchida, Yukiko; Yoshikawa, Sakiko

    2014-01-01

    Social capital has been found to be correlated with community welfare, but it is not easy to build and maintain it. The purpose of the current study is to investigate the role of professional coordinators of social relationships to create and maintain social capital in a community. We focused on extension officers in Japanese agricultural communities, who help farmers in both technical and social matters. A large nation-wide survey of extension officers as well as two supplementary surveys were conducted. We found that (1) social capital-related activities (e.g., assistance for building organizations among farmers) were particularly effective for solving problems; (2) social capital (trust relationships) among community residents increased their life quality; (3) social capital in local communities was correlated with extension officers' own communication skills and harmonious relationships among their colleagues. In sum, social capital in local communities is maintained by coordinators with professional social skills. PMID:24642575

  3. Roles of extension officers to promote social capital in Japanese agricultural communities.

    PubMed

    Takemura, Kosuke; Uchida, Yukiko; Yoshikawa, Sakiko

    2014-01-01

    Social capital has been found to be correlated with community welfare, but it is not easy to build and maintain it. The purpose of the current study is to investigate the role of professional coordinators of social relationships to create and maintain social capital in a community. We focused on extension officers in Japanese agricultural communities, who help farmers in both technical and social matters. A large nation-wide survey of extension officers as well as two supplementary surveys were conducted. We found that (1) social capital-related activities (e.g., assistance for building organizations among farmers) were particularly effective for solving problems; (2) social capital (trust relationships) among community residents increased their life quality; (3) social capital in local communities was correlated with extension officers' own communication skills and harmonious relationships among their colleagues. In sum, social capital in local communities is maintained by coordinators with professional social skills. PMID:24642575

  4. Social Indicators

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Bolton, Paul.

    The House of Commons Library Research Papers are published for the benefit of Parliament members, but this one should be of interest to both researchers and general readers wanting to learn more about contemporary British social issues. Social Indicators is the first paper in a new series that will be published three times a year. The 71-page paper includes a wide range of topic pages that present social statistics on a variety of issues, from the prison population to defense expenses to agricultural outputs. Each Social Indicator paper will also offer feature articles that give a closer look at specific subjects (in this instance,, election turnout and adult literacy) and an article on statistical sources for a particular issue (in this paper, social security statistics). The last few pages are devoted to a list of important, recent governmental statistical publications.

  5. Post-event processing in social anxiety.

    PubMed

    Rachman, S; Grüter-Andrew, J; Shafran, R

    2000-06-01

    A psychometric study was conducted in order to collect basic information about post-event processing in social anxiety. It was found that such processing occurs commonly after an anxiety-evoking or embarrassing social event and post-event processing scores were significantly correlated (r = 0.40) with social anxiety. The recollections of the social event tended to be recurrent and intrusive, interfering with concentration. Post-event processing was associated with the avoidance of similar social situations. The results are discussed in terms of the Clark and Wells model of social phobia. PMID:10846809

  6. Social collective intelligence is an emerging area at the intersection of collective intelligence and social informatics, where social processes between humans are

    E-print Network

    Nijholt, Anton

    --at least for the time being--as a mix of various methods and technologies, such as social media and social, while we are not yet in a position to develop textbook-like material for the field of Social Collective techniques that both scientists and practitioners can use in order to build purposeful and effective social

  7. SOCIAL NETWORKS, SOCIAL CAPITAL AND

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tjip de Jong

    This paper presents a theoretical framework on the relationship between social networks, social capital and knowledge productivity within organizations. In our knowledge economy, the competitive advantage of organisations relies on the capability to adapt to the changing environment by the continuous generation and application of new knowledge (Harrison & Kessels, 2004 p. 3). This specific capability is described as knowledge

  8. Serengeti birds maintain forests by inhibiting seed predators.

    PubMed

    Sharam, Gregory J; Sinclair, A R E; Turkington, Roy

    2009-07-01

    Of fundamental interest in conservation ecology are the regulatory mechanisms that maintain communities. We document a mechanism that maintains forests in the Serengeti ecosystem, Tanzania, and the destabilization when disturbance opens forest canopy. Forest birds, by consuming seeds, protected them from beetle attack. Consumption increased the germination rate and the density of seedlings and recruits, which was sufficient to maintain the forest. Opening of the canopy resulted in loss of birds, increased beetle attack, and loss of germination. Thus, frugivorous birds are necessary for the maintenance of forests. Their absence could have resulted in the observed forest decline since 1966. PMID:19574381

  9. Social Science Information Gateway

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Located within the Institute for Learning and Research Technology at the University of Bristol, the Social Science Information Gateway (SOSIG) is an online database of high quality Internet resources that primarily deal with the vast array of social science fields and subfields. Visitors can perform a simple search, or browse through the subject headings offered on the homepage. Each one of these discrete sites has been catalogued and annotated, making it easier to find specific resources quickly. Within each field or subfield, the editors of SOSIG have also listed some of their top choices. One particularly fine feature of the site is the "Grapevine", which offers a place for people in the social sciences to find out (and publicize) information about career opportunities and upcoming events. Visitors can also post their vitas in order to facilitate such opportunities. Finally, it is worth noting that the coverage of events and the like here is particularly strong for the United Kingdom and continental Europe.

  10. Understanding and Enabling Online Social Networks to Support Healthy Behaviors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Noshir S. Contractor

    2010-01-01

    \\u000a Recent advances in digital technologies invite consideration of social influence and social support as processes that are\\u000a accomplished by global, flexible, adaptive, and ad hoc networks that can be created, maintained, dissolved, and reconstituted\\u000a with remarkable alacrity. This presentation describes and empirically tests a multi-theoretical multilevel (MTML) model of\\u000a the socio-technical motivations for creating, maintaining, dissolving, and reconstituting knowledge and

  11. Analysis of Shuttle Orbiter Reliability and Maintainability Data for Conceptual Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, W. D.; White, N. H.; Ebeling, C. E.

    1996-01-01

    In order to provide a basis for estimating the expected support required of new systems during their conceptual design phase, Langley Research Center has recently collected Shuttle Orbiter reliability and maintainability data from the various data base sources at Kennedy Space Center. This information was analyzed to provide benchmarks, trends, and distributions to aid in the analysis of new designs. This paper presents a summation of those results and an initial interpretation of the findings.

  12. Social perception and social skill in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Ihnen, G H; Penn, D L; Corrigan, P W; Martin, J

    1998-09-21

    The relationship of social perception to social skill in schizophrenia was investigated. Twenty-six outpatients completed three social perception tasks (i.e. facial affect recognition, social cue recognition, and self-ratings of social skill) and participated in two role-plays. Correlational analyses revealed that the self-ratings of social skill had the most consistent relationship with social skill among the social perception measures, even after controlling for symptomatology and subject demographics. Other measures of social perception (i.e. social cue recognition) had weaker relationships with social skills. Implications for future research and psychosocial interventions are discussed. PMID:9796943

  13. How can social network analysis contribute to social behavior research in applied ethology?

    PubMed Central

    Makagon, Maja M.; McCowan, Brenda; Mench, Joy A.

    2013-01-01

    Social network analysis is increasingly used by behavioral ecologists and primatologists to describe the patterns and quality of interactions among individuals. We provide an overview of this methodology, with examples illustrating how it can be used to study social behavior in applied contexts. Like most kinds of social interaction analyses, social network analysis provides information about direct relationships (e.g. dominant–subordinate relationships). However, it also generates a more global model of social organization that determines how individual patterns of social interaction relate to individual and group characteristics. A particular strength of this approach is that it provides standardized mathematical methods for calculating metrics of sociality across levels of social organization, from the population and group levels to the individual level. At the group level these metrics can be used to track changes in social network structures over time, evaluate the effect of the environment on social network structure, or compare social structures across groups, populations or species. At the individual level, the metrics allow quantification of the heterogeneity of social experience within groups and identification of individuals who may play especially important roles in maintaining social stability or information flow throughout the network. PMID:24357888

  14. Social Psychology Network

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Plous, Scott

    With over 11,000 links contained within its pages, the Social Psychology Network site is arguably the largest social psychology database on the Internet. Maintained by Professor Scout Plous of Wesleyan University, the site has been generously supported by the National Science Foundation. Visitors will appreciate the very clean layout of the siteâ??s homepage, as they are presented with a search engine, along with a number of electronic forums, and a listing of related topics. To delve into the siteâ??s contents, visitors may wish to select from any one of the areas on the left-hand side of the homepage, which include listings of doctoral programs in social psychology and teaching resources. There are numerous other options for interested parties, and they lead to such offerings as rankings of doctoral programs in the field and distance learning options in the field. Finally, visitors can also view many of the siteâ??s documents in a number of languages, including Spanish, French, Italian, and German.

  15. 48 CFR 6.202 - Establishing or maintaining alternative sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...maintain an alternative source or sources for the supplies or services...continuous availability of a reliable source of supplies or services; ...for providing all necessary data to support their recommendation to exclude a particular source. (3) When the...

  16. Allocating SMART Reliability and Maintainability Goals to NASA Ground Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gillespie, Amanda; Monaghan, Mark

    2013-01-01

    This paper will describe the methodology used to allocate Reliability and Maintainability (R&M) goals to Ground Systems Development and Operations (GSDO) subsystems currently being designed or upgraded.

  17. 27 CFR 478.123 - Records maintained by manufacturers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION COMMERCE IN FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION Records § 478.123 Records maintained...licensee and a separate record of armor piercing ammunition dispositions to governmental...

  18. 27 CFR 478.122 - Records maintained by importers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION COMMERCE IN FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION Records § 478.122 Records maintained...licensee and a separate record of armor piercing ammunition dispositions to governmental...

  19. Increasing Maintainability of a Wastewater-Recovery Unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dehner, G. F.; Brose, H. F.

    1987-01-01

    Modified system leaks less and easier to disassemble for maintenance. Redesign of wastewater-recovery system separates water from urine: improved operation and system easier to maintain. Details of redesign, chiefly affected hollow-fiber-membrane evaporator, described in report.

  20. Software Maintainability Improvement: Integrating Standards and Models William C. Chu,

    E-print Network

    Chung, Yeh-Ching

    Software Maintainability Improvement: Integrating Standards and Models William C. Chu, Dpt Science and Engineering, Southeast University, China National Key Laboratory of Software Engineering, Wuhan University, China Abstract Software standards are highly recommended because they promise faster

  1. 41 CFR 51-4.3 - Maintaining qualification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED 4-NONPROFIT AGENCIES § 51-4.3 Maintaining...qualification under the JWOD Act, each nonprofit agency authorized to furnish a commodity...comply with the requirements of a “nonprofit agency for other severely...

  2. 41 CFR 51-4.3 - Maintaining qualification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED 4-NONPROFIT AGENCIES § 51-4.3 Maintaining...qualification under the JWOD Act, each nonprofit agency authorized to furnish a commodity...comply with the requirements of a “nonprofit agency for other severely...

  3. 41 CFR 51-4.3 - Maintaining qualification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED 4-NONPROFIT AGENCIES § 51-4.3 Maintaining...qualification under the JWOD Act, each nonprofit agency authorized to furnish a commodity...comply with the requirements of a “nonprofit agency for other severely...

  4. 41 CFR 51-4.3 - Maintaining qualification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED 4-NONPROFIT AGENCIES § 51-4.3 Maintaining...qualification under the JWOD Act, each nonprofit agency authorized to furnish a commodity...comply with the requirements of a “nonprofit agency for other severely...

  5. 41 CFR 51-4.3 - Maintaining qualification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED 4-NONPROFIT AGENCIES § 51-4.3 Maintaining...qualification under the JWOD Act, each nonprofit agency authorized to furnish a commodity...comply with the requirements of a “nonprofit agency for other severely...

  6. ELECTRIC HOLDING FURNACE IN THE MALLEABLE FOUNDRY MAINTAINS CONSTANT TEMPERATURES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ELECTRIC HOLDING FURNACE IN THE MALLEABLE FOUNDRY MAINTAINS CONSTANT TEMPERATURES FOR IRON PRIOR TO FILLING MOBILE LADLES. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, Malleable Foundry, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  7. Social Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esser, Aristide Henri

    1971-01-01

    Social pollution provides the matrix for the pollution of the physical environment. This stems from man's present inability to function synergistically. To find new freedoms in purposeful evolution, we will have to start cleansing our Mind. (Author/SD)

  8. Uncovering Social Spammers: Social Honeypots + Machine Learning

    E-print Network

    Caverlee, James

    and behavioral sciences General Terms: Design, Experimentation, Security Keywords: social media, social honeypots social features ­ from Web-based social net- works (e.g., Facebook, MySpace) to online social media sites). These social systems have attracted a tremendous amount of media and research interest [1, 10, 18]. Permission

  9. Social Capital in Online Social Networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Przemyslaw Kazienko; Katarzyna Musial

    2006-01-01

    The problem of social capital in context of the online social networks is presented in the paper. Not only the specific elements, which characterize the single person and influence the individual's social capital like static social capi- tal, activity component, and social position, but also the ways of stimulation of the social capital are described.

  10. Social Work 0 -1 Social Work Today

    E-print Network

    Jones, Graeme A.

    School of Social Work #12;Contents 0 - 1 Social Work Today 2 - 3 The World of Social Work 4 - 11 standards that govern their social work practice. Typical service users include: G Children and families people with health and social care needs. Social work is difficult and challenging: it demands maturity

  11. Maintaining Space Temperature and Humidity in the Digital Switch Environment

    E-print Network

    Saman, N. F.; Johnson, H.

    16TH ANNUAL INDUSTRIAL ENERGY TECHNOLOGY CONFERENCE 1994 ESL-PA-94/04-05 REPRINTED WITH PERMISSION MAINTAINING SPACE TEMPERATURE AND HUMIDITY IN THE DIGITAL SWITCH ENVIRONMENT Namir F. Saman, Ph.D., P.E. Visiting Assistant Professor Energy Systems... laboratory College Station, Texas ABSTRACT A methodology for a psychrometric analysis of the problem of maintaining space temperature and humidity in the digital switch environment is presented. Such spaces produce minimum or no humidity generation. Several...

  12. Increasing Social Interaction Using Prelinguistic Milieu Teaching with Nonverbal School-Age Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franco, Jessica H.; Davis, Barbara L.; Davis, John L.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Children with autism display marked deficits in initiating and maintaining social interaction. Intervention using play routines can create a framework for developing and maintaining social interaction between these children and their communication partners. Method: Six nonverbal 5- to 8-year-olds with autism were taught to engage in…

  13. "Thousands Waiting at Our Gates": Moral Character, Legitimacy and Social Justice in Irish Elite Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Courtois, Aline

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines how Irish elite schools negotiate change and maintain their legitimacy in times of economic turmoil and rising social inequality. The paper argues that they have not bowed before the demands of democratisation or economic globalisation. Instead they continue to maintain a high level of social closure and control diversity…

  14. Enabling Community Through Social Media

    PubMed Central

    Haythornthwaite, Caroline

    2013-01-01

    Background Social network analysis provides a perspective and method for inquiring into the structures that comprise online groups and communities. Traces from interaction via social media provide the opportunity for understanding how a community is formed and maintained online. Objective The paper aims to demonstrate how social network analysis provides a vocabulary and set of techniques for examining interaction patterns via social media. Using the case of the #hcsmca online discussion forum, this paper highlights what has been and can be gained by approaching online community from a social network perspective, as well as providing an inside look at the structure of the #hcsmca community. Methods Social network analysis was used to examine structures in a 1-month sample of Twitter messages with the hashtag #hcsmca (3871 tweets, 486 unique posters), which is the tag associated with the social media–supported group Health Care Social Media Canada. Network connections were considered present if the individual was mentioned, replied to, or had a post retweeted. Results Network analyses revealed patterns of interaction that characterized the community as comprising one component, with a set of core participants prominent in the network due to their connections with others. Analysis showed the social media health content providers were the most influential group based on in-degree centrality. However, there was no preferential attachment among people in the same professional group, indicating that the formation of connections among community members was not constrained by professional status. Conclusions Network analysis and visualizations provide techniques and a vocabulary for understanding online interaction, as well as insights that can help in understanding what, and who, comprises and sustains a network, and whether community emerges from a network of online interactions. PMID:24176835

  15. Social learning in cooperative dilemmas.

    PubMed

    Lamba, Shakti

    2014-07-22

    Helping is a cornerstone of social organization and commonplace in human societies. A major challenge for the evolutionary sciences is to explain how cooperation is maintained in large populations with high levels of migration, conditions under which cooperators can be exploited by selfish individuals. Cultural group selection models posit that such large-scale cooperation evolves via selection acting on populations among which behavioural variation is maintained by the cultural transmission of cooperative norms. These models assume that individuals acquire cooperative strategies via social learning. This assumption remains empirically untested. Here, I test this by investigating whether individuals employ conformist or payoff-biased learning in public goods games conducted in 14 villages of a forager-horticulturist society, the Pahari Korwa of India. Individuals did not show a clear tendency to conform or to be payoff-biased and are highly variable in their use of social learning. This variation is partly explained by both individual and village characteristics. The tendency to conform decreases and to be payoff-biased increases as the value of the modal contribution increases. These findings suggest that the use of social learning in cooperative dilemmas is contingent on individuals' circumstances and environments, and question the existence of stably transmitted cultural norms of cooperation. PMID:24870041

  16. NAME OR SOCIAL SECURITY NUMBER CHANGE Georgia Institute of Technology

    E-print Network

    Weber, Rodney

    NAME OR SOCIAL SECURITY NUMBER CHANGE Georgia Institute of Technology Registrar's Office, Atlanta: SOCIAL SECURITY CARD BIRTH CERTIFICATE DIVORCE DECREE MARRIAGE LICENSE COURT ORDERED NAME CHANGE DOCUMENT SOCIAL SECURITY NUMBERS WILL BE CHANGED ONLY BY SUBMITTING: ORIGINAL SOCIAL SECURITY CARD IN THE EVENT

  17. Teachers' Views on Teaching Current Events in Social Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deveci, Handan

    2007-01-01

    In order to achieve its goals, the Social Studies course should convey social events, which took place within or out of the school context, into the classroom environment. Current events can be very beneficial so as to transfer the social events into classroom environment in the Social Studies courses. In this study, semi structured interview…

  18. Texting: a window into representing our learners' social worlds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ANDREA MILLIGAN

    Appealing to texting and wider sociological literature, this paper illuminates the hitherto unexamined social theory implicit in current New Zealand social studies curricula. A restrictive view of the social world is revealed; society is represented as static, ordered and predictable. This social theory contrasts starkly with the society of our learners' experience, one that is rapidly changing, and marked by

  19. Affinity driven social networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruyú, B.; Kuperman, M. N.

    2007-04-01

    In this work we present a model for evolving networks, where the driven force is related to the social affinity between individuals of a population. In the model, a set of individuals initially arranged on a regular ordered network and thus linked with their closest neighbors are allowed to rearrange their connections according to a dynamics closely related to that of the stable marriage problem. We show that the behavior of some topological properties of the resulting networks follows a non trivial pattern.

  20. The theory of social functions: challenges for computational social science and multi-agent learning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cristiano Castelfranchi

    2001-01-01

    A basic claim of this paper is that the foundational theoretical problem of the social sciences — the possibility of unconscious, unplanned forms of cooperation and intelligence among intentional agents (the very hard issue of the 'invisible hand', of the 'spontaneous social order' but also of 'social functions') — will eventually be clarified thanks to the contribution of AI (and,

  1. The Effects of Presentation Order in Multitrial Free Recall.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maitland, Anthony J.

    The experiment tested the effects of presentation word orders in a multitrial free-recall task. Three types of presentation were used: (1) randomized; (2) constant order; and (3) maintained order (maintenance of subjects order of recall on the subsequent presentation). In addition, the effects of number of recalls per presentation (1 or 3) were…

  2. Review essay \\/ What kind of order?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert Jackall

    2003-01-01

    Bernard E. Harcourt, Illusion of Order: The False Promise of Broken Windows Policing Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2001, x + 294 pp.David Garland, The Culture of Control: Crime and Social Order in Contemporary Society Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2001, xiii + 307 pp.Andrea McArdle and Tanya Erzen (eds.), Zero Tolerance: Quality of Life and the New Police Brutality

  3. Social Structure and Family Homicides

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chelsea Diem; Jesenia M. Pizarro

    2010-01-01

    To date, few studies have analyzed the relationship that economic deprivation and social disorganization have with disaggregated\\u000a family homicide types. This study utilized data from the FBI’s Supplementary Homicide Reports from years 2000–2007 in order\\u000a to explore the effect social structural variables have on rates of family homicides—specifically, intimate partner, filicide,\\u000a parricide, and siblicide. Cities with more than 100,000 residents

  4. 40 CFR 60.2908 - How do I maintain my operator qualification?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...false How do I maintain my operator qualification? 60.2908...FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Operator Training and Qualification...2908 How do I maintain my operator qualification? To maintain...e) Discussion of operating problems encountered by...

  5. 40 CFR 60.2650 - How do I maintain my operator qualification?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...false How do I maintain my operator qualification? 60.2650...November 30, 1999 Model Rule-Operator Training and Qualification...2650 How do I maintain my operator qualification? To maintain...e) Discussion of operating problems encountered by...

  6. 40 CFR 60.3017 - How do I maintain my operator qualification?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...false How do I maintain my operator qualification? 60.3017...December 9, 2004 Model Rule-Operator Training and Qualification...3017 How do I maintain my operator qualification? To maintain...e) Discussion of operating problems encountered by...

  7. 40 CFR 62.14610 - How do I maintain my operator qualification?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...false How do I maintain my operator qualification? 62.14610...Before November 30, 1999 Operator Training and Qualification...14610 How do I maintain my operator qualification? To maintain...e) Discussion of operating problems encountered by...

  8. Social Work with Adolescents: Five Teaching Modules. A Course Syllabus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deprez, Luisa; And Others

    This document presents an introductory course syllabus for use with undergraduate social work students. Course material presented is generic in nature and will be useful to social workers employed in a wide variety of settings. The syllabus maintains a focus on practice and is divided into two major parts. The first part includes a brief overview…

  9. Developing the Social Skills of Young Adult Special Olympics Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Melissa G. F.; Dummer, Gail M.; Smeltzer, Ashley; Denton, Stephen J.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine if young adult Special Olympics participants could develop, generalize, and maintain target social skills (eye contact, contributing relevant information, and turn taking) as a result of a 14-week Social Skills and Sports (S[superscript 3]) Program that combined classroom instruction with soccer…

  10. Nature of Proximate Mechanisms Underlying Primate Social Systems: Simplicity and

    E-print Network

    Reeder, DeeAnn M.

    Nature of Proximate Mechanisms Underlying Primate Social Systems: Simplicity and Redundancy SALLY P. MENDOZA, DEEANN M. REEDER, AND WILLIAM A. MASON Given the complexity of primate so- cial systems of social groups that primates form and maintain are characteristic of a given species.1 It is also clear

  11. Tools for Monitoring Social Media: A Marketing Research Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veeck, Ann; Hoger, Beth

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge of how to effectively monitor social media is an increasingly valued marketing research skill. This study tests an approach for adding social media content to an undergraduate marketing research class team project. The revised project maintains the expected objectives and parameters of a traditional research project, while integrating…

  12. TRANSCENDING SOCIAL SKILLS ORIENTED INSTRUCTION WITHIN INTEGRATED CLASSROOMS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carmen J. Iannaccone Ed. D

    1998-01-01

    Evidence supporting the need for renewed and reconfigured emphases for social skills and\\/or competence across the USA and within the curricular and instructional programs of integrated schools and classrooms worldwide is convincing. Teacher perceptions of how best to maintain academic performance standards while addressing social skills\\/competence as an integral focus in the educational program calls for creative curriculum and teaching

  13. National PTA Gets Connected with Social Media

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Derek

    2011-01-01

    People are busy, we all know that. Getting their attention is harder and harder all the time. That's especially true for member organizations and advocacy groups. The National PTA is both and has adapted some social media practices to reach out and maintain contact with more than 5 million volunteers in 25,000 local units. James Martinez, senior…

  14. Advanced remotely maintainable force-reflecting servomanipulator concept

    SciTech Connect

    Kuban, D.P.; Martin, H.L.

    1984-01-01

    A remotely maintainable force-reflecting servomanipulator concept is being developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory as part of the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program. This new manipulator addresses requirements of advanced nuclear fuel reprocessing with emphasis on force reflection, remote maintainability, reliability, radiation tolerance, and corrosion resistance. The advanced servomanipulator is uniquely subdivided into remotely replaceable modules which will permit in situ manipulator repair by spare module replacement. Manipulator modularization and increased reliability are accomplished through a force transmission system that uses gears and torque tubes. Digital control algorithms and mechanical precision are used to offset the increased backlash, friction, and inertia resulting from the gear drives. This results in the first remotely maintainable force-reflecting servomanipulator in the world. 10 references, 4 figures, 1 table.

  15. Innovative scheduling to maintain clinical pharmacy services despite budget retrenchment.

    PubMed

    Siegel, J; Schneider, P J; Moore, T D

    1984-02-01

    A process is described in which staff scheduling was adjusted to maintain pharmaceutical services while achieving a 7% cutback in personnel costs. The pharmacy department in a 1000-bed university hospital was unable to achieve the necessary cost savings through reductions in sick leave and overtime hours. The pharmacy administration developed a plan that required pharmacists to work four 10-hour shifts per week and resulted in reduced hours of service. The pharmacists objected and proposed an alternative plan in which clinical service was maintained for 16 hours on weekdays and 12 hours on weekends. Pharmacist teams worked one flexible shift per week. Pharmacists developed an innovative staffing plan that allowed them to maintain a high level of practice and acceptable working hours. PMID:6702833

  16. Epithelial bridges maintain tissue integrity during collective cell migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vedula, Sri Ram Krishna; Hirata, Hiroaki; Nai, Mui Hoon; Brugués, Agustí; Toyama, Yusuke; Trepat, Xavier; Lim, Chwee Teck; Ladoux, Benoit

    2014-01-01

    The ability of skin to act as a barrier is primarily determined by the efficiency of skin cells to maintain and restore its continuity and integrity. In fact, during wound healing keratinocytes migrate collectively to maintain their cohesion despite heterogeneities in the extracellular matrix. Here, we show that monolayers of human keratinocytes migrating along functionalized micropatterned surfaces comprising alternating strips of extracellular matrix (fibronectin) and non-adherent polymer form suspended multicellular bridges over the non-adherent areas. The bridges are held together by intercellular adhesion and are subjected to considerable tension, as indicated by the presence of prominent actin bundles. We also show that a model based on force propagation through an elastic material reproduces the main features of bridge maintenance and tension distribution. Our findings suggest that multicellular bridges maintain tissue integrity during wound healing when cell-substrate interactions are weak and may prove helpful in the design of artificial scaffolds for skin regeneration.

  17. Do Consumers Expect Companies To Be Socially Responsible? The Impact of Corporate Social Responsibility on Buying Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohr, Lois A.; Webb, Deborah J.; Harris, Katherine E.

    2001-01-01

    Interviews with 48 consumers found that they desired moderate to high levels of corporate social responsibility (CSR). Precontemplators (n=16) did not base purchasing on CSR and contemplators (n=11) only moderately. The action group (n=8) had stronger beliefs about CSR but did not always purchase accordingly. Maintainers (n=9) practiced socially

  18. Maintainability design criteria for packaging of spacecraft replaceable electronic equipment.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kappler, J. R.; Folsom, A. B.

    1972-01-01

    Maintainability must be designed into long-duration spacecraft and equipment to provide the required high probability of mission success with the least cost and weight. The ability to perform repairs quickly and easily in a space environment can be achieved by imposing specific maintainability design criteria on spacecraft equipment design and installation. A study was funded to investigate and define design criteria for electronic equipment that would permit rapid removal and replacement in a space environment. The results of the study are discussed together with subsequent simulated zero-g demonstration tests of a mockup with new concepts for packaging.

  19. Charged Probes, Bourdon Tubes Maintain Cryogenic Liquid Level

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krejsa, Mylo J.

    1966-01-01

    The problem: To design a system that automatically maintains the fluid level in a liquid nitrogen cold trap. It is frequently necessary to operate a vacuum system using one or more cold traps for a prolonged period with the cold trap liquid level maintained between set limits. Electronic devices have been subject to failure due to the effect on components of cryogenic temperatures. The solution: An automatic liquid nitrogen dispensing system that uses gas filled probes, driving Bourdon tube gauges equipped with microswitches that, through a relay, control a solenoid valve in the liquid nitrogen storage line.

  20. A Tale of Two Threats: Social Anxiety and Attention to Social Threat as a Function of Social Exclusion and Non-Exclusion Threats

    PubMed Central

    Buckner, Julia D.; DeWall, C. Nathan; Schmidt, Norman B.; Maner, Jon K.

    2009-01-01

    To attain and maintain social acceptance, people may attend to cues of possible social rejection or exclusion. Attention to such cues can be influenced by social anxiety. Two competing theories address social anxiety and attention: hypervigilance to versus avoidance of negative social cues. We propose a synthesis of these models such that, in the absence of social exclusion, socially anxious people may be hypervigilant to negative social cues. However, after experiencing social exclusion, they may avoid negative cues in favor of cues signaling social acceptance. Eyetracking was used to examine attention to negative, happy, and neutral faces after social exclusion threat or a non-exclusion threat (N = 27, 69.2% female). Fear of negative evaluation, a core component of social anxiety, was assessed using the Brief Fear of Negative Evaluation (BFNE) scale (Leary 1983). Among individuals with high BFNE, non-exclusion threat elicited greater attention toward negative faces than did social exclusion threat. However, social exclusion threat relative to non-exclusion threat was related to greater attention to positive faces among those with high BFNE. These effects were not observed among those with low BFNE. Thus, data provide preliminary support for a synthesized model. PMID:20877581

  1. College of Social Work SW Social Work

    E-print Network

    MacAdam, Keith

    College of Social Work SW Social Work KEY: # = new course * = course changed = course dropped) Introduction to social welfare concepts and philosophies. Examination of the profession of social work and its will be studied. Required of social work majors and recommended it be taken the first year. SW 222 DEVELOPMENT

  2. Economic Analysis of Social Common Capital

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uzawa, Hirofumi

    2005-06-01

    Social common capital provides members of society with those services and institutional arrangements that are crucial in maintaining human and cultural life. The term æsocial common capital' is comprised of three categories: natural capital, social infrastructure, and institutional capital. Natural capital consists of all natural environment and natural resources including the earth's atmosphere. Social infrastructure consists of roads, bridges, public transportation systems, electricity, and other public utilities. Institutional capital includes hospitals, educational institutions, judicial and police systems, public administrative services, financial and monetary institutions, and cultural capital. This book attempts to modify and extend the theoretical premises of orthodox economic theory to make them broad enough to analyze the economic implications of social common capital. It further aims to find the institutional arrangements and policy measures that will bring about the optimal state of affairs.

  3. Role of the hippocampus and orbitofrontal cortex during the disambiguation of social cues in working memory

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Robert S.; LoPresti, Matthew L.; Schon, Karin; Stern, Chantal E.

    2013-01-01

    Human social interactions are complex behaviors requiring the concerted effort of multiple neural systems to track and monitor the individuals around us. Cognitively, adjusting our behavior based on changing social cues such as facial expressions relies on working memory and the ability to disambiguate, or separate, representations of overlapping stimuli resulting from viewing the same individual with different facial expressions. We conducted an fMRI experiment examining brain regions contributing to the encoding, maintenance and retrieval of overlapping identity information during working memory using a delayed match-to-sample (DMS) task. In the overlapping condition, two faces from the same individual with different facial expressions were presented at sample. In the non-overlapping condition, the two sample faces were from two different individuals with different expressions. fMRI activity was assessed by contrasting the overlapping and non-overlapping condition at sample, delay, and test. The lateral orbitofrontal cortex showed increased fMRI signal in the overlapping condition in all three phases of the DMS task and increased functional connectivity with the hippocampus when encoding overlapping stimuli. The hippocampus showed increased fMRI signal at test. These data suggest lateral orbitofrontal cortex helps encode and maintain representations of overlapping stimuli in working memory while the orbitofrontal cortex and hippocampus contribute to the successful retrieval of overlapping stimuli. We suggest the lateral orbitofrontal cortex and hippocampus play a role in encoding, maintaining, and retrieving social cues, especially when multiple interactions with an individual need to be disambiguated in a rapidly changing social context in order to make appropriate social responses. PMID:23640112

  4. Socials Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raths, David

    2013-01-01

    Eric Sheninger, the principal at New Milford High School in Bergen County, NJ, is well-known in ed tech circles as an evangelist for the use of web 2.0 tools in K-12 education. New Milford has made collaboration a pillar of its educational platform, and Sheninger believes that social media helps students learn how to collaborate. In fact, he…

  5. Social Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bieber, Edward

    The product of a Special Studies Institute, this teacher developed resource guide for the emotionally handicapped (K-6) presents social study concepts and activities relative to education in the urban out-of-doors. Focus is on the study of man (past, present, and future) interacting with his environment. Listed below are activity examples: (1)…

  6. Social Hosting

    MedlinePLUS

    Do you know the social hosting laws in your state? One often hears parents say, "I’d rather have my kid and his friends drinking in my house rather ... about allowing underage drinking? And what does the law say about parents’ legal liability if an underage ...

  7. Social medicine and social policy.

    PubMed Central

    Silver, G. A.

    1984-01-01

    Social medicine as a term has achieved acceptance in medical education and medical practice, although there is still some question as to its acceptance in reality. The term had its origin in the vigorous nineteenth-century efforts at both medical and social reform, combining the two in a recognition of the intimate connection between social factors and the causation of disease. Henry Ernest Sigerist, a Swiss physician and noted scholar of medical history, formulated the broadest concept in the 1930s, attracting students and a latent American reform movement toward the idea of restructuring medical education as one part of social reform, and indicating ways of restructuring medical practice as another element in improving medical care at the same time. In addition to promulgating the doctrine, he established the policy of examining and describing systems of medical education and medical care in other parts of the world, not only to assist in improving medical care in countries with well-organized systems, but to assist countries with poor resources and lesser organizational capability in meeting the goals of social medicine. Doubt as to the durability of the concept has been expressed, insofar as the recommended improvements have lagged behind the expression, and because so many changes have taken place in the nature of medical practice, medical discoveries, and advances in technology. A closer examination of Sigerist's writings on the subject and evaluation of the circumstances around present-day problems would seem to indicate that the flaw is not in the doctrine, but in the lack of social application. PMID:6537694

  8. The military operator's experience of reliability and maintainability characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, R. Mcc.

    An account is given of the British Army's approach to the achievement of high reliability and maintainability in rotorcraft during the procurement process. Attention is given to experience accumulated to date with the Gazelle, Scout, Agusta A109A, and Lynx helicopters; these offer lessons with respect to the Gem engine, fuel filtering, vibration, and an aircraft flight control system.

  9. SWEEPING SOUND FREQUENCIES ESTABLISHING AND MAINTAINING WATER QUALITY

    Microsoft Academic Search

    HELEN STRATTON; DAVID TELFER

    SUMMARY Maintaining high standards of public health requires the provision of safe water in terms of chemical and biological contamination. Many different methods for improving the hygienic and aesthetic quality of water are already established. These include filtration techniques, biological treatment, chemical such as chlorine and ozone and treatment with UV radiation. Public (and to some extent, professional) confidence in

  10. GENETIC ENGINEERING PRODUCER FACT SHEET 2 Methods to Maintain Genetic

    E-print Network

    Bradford, Kent

    GENETIC ENGINEERING PRODUCER FACT SHEET 2 Methods to Maintain Genetic Purity of Seed Stocks KENT J yield. Seeds carry the genetic traits incorporated by years of breeding and selection to create quality. The genetic purity of seeds (i.e., the percentage of contamination by seeds or genetic material

  11. Phosphate feeding to permit growth while maintaining secondary product synthesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gregory F. Payne; Henry Y. Wang

    1988-01-01

    Maintaining high metabolic activities for extended periods by feeding small amounts of the growth limiting nutrient was examined for the production of cycloheximide by Streptomyces griseus. Batch studies indicated that increased initial phosphate levels led to increased cell concentrations, stimulated glucose utilization, and over a limited range (2PO4) did not adversely affect cycloheximide production rates. Semi-continuous phosphate feeding was observed

  12. ECOLOGICAL RESTORATION OF FIRE-MAINTAINED OAK WOODLANDS IN MASSACHUSETTS

    E-print Network

    Schweik, Charles M.

    ECOLOGICAL RESTORATION OF FIRE-MAINTAINED OAK WOODLANDS IN MASSACHUSETTS A Thesis Presented by BRIAN HOLT HAWTHORNE Submitted to the Graduate School of the University of Massachusetts Amherst WOODLANDS IN MASSACHUSETTS A Thesis Presented by BRIAN HOLT HAWTHORNE Approved as to style and content by

  13. Maintaining Confidentiality with Minors: Dilemmas of School Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazovsky, Rivka

    2008-01-01

    This article examined the attitudes of 195 school counselors in Israel regarding (a) the decision to maintain or breach confidentiality in a variety of ethical dilemmas, and (b) the reasons given for justifying their decisions. Eighteen ethical dilemmas in three domains were presented to respondents in a questionnaire. School counselors were most…

  14. Maintaining the Fertility of Rice Soils : A Chemical Study.

    E-print Network

    Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach)

    1906-01-01

    TEXAS AGRICULTURAL BAPERIMENT STATIONS. 8 BULLETIN NO. 82. Chemical Xection,-January, 1906. * MAINTAINING THE FERTILITY OF RICE SOILS; A CHEMICAL . STUDY. BY (3. S. FRAPS, PH. D., Acting Chemi,st. POSTOFFICE .-' COLLEGE STATION, BRAZOS... ...................................................... Total loss or gain by'rice soils 17 ........................... ............... Composition of the irrigation waters .% 18 ......................... ...................... Chemical composition of rice soils ..! i.?. 19...

  15. Optimal meter placement for maintaining observability during single branch outages

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ali Abur; Fernando H. Magnago

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents a method for designing measurement systems, that will not only make the systems observable, but also will maintain observability against loss of network branches. A linear programming based solution is proposed for choosing a measurement configuration that will make the system fully observable. Subsequently, a systematic method of appending a minimum number of additional measurements to ensure

  16. Maintaining Information Awareness with Irwin D. Scott McCrickard

    E-print Network

    McCrickard, Scott

    required to download a weather report from the Web, complete with colorful icons and advertisements awareness, and it describes a field study that examines how four academicians used Irwin to maintain and update the visualization tool when important changes occur. The information resources monitored by Irwin

  17. Mitochondrial one-carbon metabolism maintains redox balance during hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Reyes, Inmaculada; Chandel, Navdeep S

    2014-12-01

    Mitochondria generate high levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) to activate protumorigenic signaling pathways. In parallel, the mitochondria must also increase their antioxidant capacity to lower ROS levels and prevent cancer cell death. In this issue of Cancer Discovery, Ye and colleagues demonstrate that serine catabolism through one-carbon metabolism within the mitochondrial matrix is necessary to maintain this redox balance. PMID:25477105

  18. Accounting is the tracking, auditing and maintaining of financial records.

    E-print Network

    Maxwell, Bruce D.

    Systems Cost/Management Accounting Financial Accounting Financial Statement Analysis Government & NotACCOUNTING Accounting is the tracking, auditing and maintaining of financial records. OPTION Many graduates choose to take the CPA exam to pursue a career as a professional accountant, but there are career

  19. Identifying Transformer Incipient Events for Maintaining Distribution System Reliability

    E-print Network

    Identifying Transformer Incipient Events for Maintaining Distribution System Reliability Karen L events in single-phase distribution transformers. This analysis will aid in the development of an automatic detection method for internal incipient faults in the transformers. The detection method can

  20. Banded vs Bonded Space Maintainers: Finding Better Way Out

    PubMed Central

    Kumar Pandit, Inder; Srivastava, Nikhil; Gugnani, Neeraj; Gupta, Monika

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives: Of this in vivo study was to evaluate various space maintainers in terms of survival rate, gingival health and presence of caries. Design: A total of 60 extraction sites in the age group of 4 to 9 years were divided into four groups and different space maintainers were placed in them viz (conventional band and loop, prefabricated band with custom made loop, Ribbond, Super splint). Results: Prefabricated bands with custom made loop showed maximum success rates (84.6%), while super splint (33.33%) was found to be least successful. In terms of gingival health, prefabricated band with custom made loop reported minimum cases with poor gingival health (27.2%), while maximum cases with poor gingival health (50%) were reported with Super splint. None of the space maintainers developed caries at the end of 9 months. How to cite this article: Setia v, Pandit IK, Srivastava N, Gugnani N, Gupta M. Banded vs Bonded Space Maintainers: Finding Better Way Out. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2014;7(2):97-104. PMID:25356008

  1. Impact of Agile Software Development Model on Software Maintainability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gawali, Ajay R.

    2012-01-01

    Software maintenance and support costs account for up to 60% of the overall software life cycle cost and often burdens tightly budgeted information technology (IT) organizations. Agile software development approach delivers business value early, but implications on software maintainability are still unknown. The purpose of this quantitative study…

  2. IEEE Communications Magazine, Nov. 2002, c Maintaining Telephone Switching Software

    E-print Network

    Bredereke, Jan - Fachbereich 3

    IEEE Communications Magazine, Nov. 2002, c IEEE 1 Maintaining Telephone Switching Software to revise and enhance software systems, main- taining (or improving) their conceptual integrity and keeping of wireless mobility, and the probable advent of mass Internet telephony. Competition forces the providers

  3. Aim for a Healthy Weight Maintaining a Healthy

    E-print Network

    Bandettini, Peter A.

    fat, trans fat, cholesterol, sodium (salt), and added sugar. It contains enough calories for good on average. If you are watching your weight, it's hard to always know what calories, fats, and nutrients and maintaining a healthy weight is good for your overall health. It also may help reduce your risk for developing

  4. ORIGINAL PAPER Maintaining the genetic health of putative Barbary lions

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ORIGINAL PAPER Maintaining the genetic health of putative Barbary lions in captivity: an analysis of Moroccan Royal Lions Simon Black & Nobuyuki Yamaguchi & Adrian Harland & Jim Groombridge Received: 4 March-Verlag 2009 Abstract The last representatives of the Barbary lion (Panthera leo leo), once numerous in North

  5. Using brief assessments to evaluate aberrant behavior maintained by attention

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MARK F. O'REILLY; GIULIO E. LANCIONI; LISA KING; G RAINNE LALLY; ORLA NIC DHOMHNAILL

    2000-01-01

    We examined the use of brief functional assessments to identify idiosyncratic variables associated with aberrant behavior maintained by positive reinforcement in the form of attention. Two participants with severe developmental disabilities and their parents were involved in the assessment and treatment evaluation process. A modified attention con- dition was introduced, which involved both parents interacting with a third person. Results

  6. Maintaining Scoring Standards over a Rubric Transition Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg, Gail Lynn; Walker-Bartnick, Leslie

    A scoring rubric transition study is described. It was designed to evaluate possible drift in scoring the Maryland Writing Test from year to year (when using a modified holistic scoring method), to evaluate strategies for revising swing rubrics from narrative and explanatory writing while maintaining original scoring standards, and to establish…

  7. Guide to Operating and Maintaining EnergySmart Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Energy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The guide allows users to adapt and implement suggested O&M (operating and maintaining) strategies to address specific energy efficiency goals. It recognizes and expands on existing tools and resources that are widely used throughout the high-performance school industry. The guide is organized into the following sections: (1) Chapter 1:…

  8. Maintaining and Restoring Riparian Areas in Grazed Ecosystems

    E-print Network

    Tate, Kenneth

    5/4/2011 1 Maintaining and Restoring Riparian Areas in Grazed Ecosystems Ken Tate ­ UC Davis coastal to Sierra riparian systems ­ there is significant effort to restore riparian areas in grazed watersheds I can be good! We can prescribe grazing to support riparian restoration objectives I Promise

  9. The Computerized Comprehensibility System. Maintainer's Guide. Technical Report No. 33.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kieras, David E.

    This report is a guide for the maintainer or developer of the computerized comprehensibility system (CCS), a system that uses techniques and results from artificial intelligence and cognitive psychology to critique the comprehensibility of a technical document. The purpose of this report is to allow the qualified programmer to rapidly understand…

  10. Greatwall maintains mitosis through regulation of PP2A

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Greatwall maintains mitosis through regulation of PP2A Suzanne Vigneron, Estelle Brioudes, Andrew Burgess, Jean-Claude Labbé, Thierry Lorca*1 and Anna Castro*1 Running Title: Greatwall prevents dephosphorylation in mitosis Key Words: Greatwall, cyclin B-Cdc2, PP2A, mitosis, Universités Montpellier 2 et 1

  11. Small mammal herbivory: Feedbacks that help maintain desertified ecosystems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. A. Roth; W. G. Whitford; Y. Steinberger

    2009-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that herbivores contribute to feedbacks maintaining arid ecosystems in a degraded state. We studied small mammal herbivory on a subshrub, broom snakeweed (Gutierrezia sarothrae), and perennial grasses at three sites: (1) ungrazed black grama (Bouteloua eriopoda) grassland; (2) grassland degraded by intense short-duration grazing; and (3) mesquite (Prosopis glandulosa) coppice dunes. Snakeweed was browsed by herbivores

  12. Small mammal herbivory: Feedbacks that help maintain desertified ecosystems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We tested the hypothesis that herbivores contribute to feedbacks maintaining arid ecosystems in a degraded state. We studied small mammal herbivory on a subshrub, broom snakeweed (Gutierrezia sarothrae), and perennial grasses at three sites: (1) ungrazed black grama (Bouteloua eriopoda) grassland; (...

  13. Building and Maintaining Overlay Networks for Bandwidth-Demanding Applications

    E-print Network

    Kim, Min Sik

    bandwidth as tree edges. In my thesis, I present an overlay multicast protocol that builds a tree in whichBuilding and Maintaining Overlay Networks for Bandwidth-Demanding Applications Min Sik Kim Advisor of the algorithm. The scalability of the shared congestion detection technique is improved using an indexed

  14. Mechanical Properties of Irradiated Polarization-Maintaining Optical Fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moeti, L.; Moghazy, S.; Ally, A.; Barnes, S.; Watkins, L.; Cuddihy, E.

    1996-01-01

    Polarization-maintaining optical fibers, referred to as PANDA fibers, were subjected to Cobalt 60 radiation (300,000 Rad). The mechanical properties of the PANDA fibers were measured after exposure to gamma radiation and compared to non-irradiated PANDA fibers.

  15. Maintaining Healthy Behaviors Following Weight Loss: A Grounded Theory Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zunker, Christie; Cox, Tiffany L.; Ard, Jamy D.; Ivankova, Nataliya V.; Rutt, Candace D.; Baskin, Monica L.

    2011-01-01

    This study explored the process of how women maintained their healthy behaviors after a weight management program using a grounded theory approach. We conducted 2 focus groups and 23 interviews with a purposeful sample of African American and Caucasian women aged 30 and older who lost greater than 5% of their body weight during a weight management…

  16. Improving Throughput and Maintaining Fairness using Parallel TCP

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas J. Hacker; Brian D. Noble; Brian D. Athey

    2004-01-01

    Applications that require good network perfor- mance often use parallel TCP streams and TCP modifications to improve the effectiveness of TCP. If the network bottleneck is fully utilized, this approach boosts throughput by unfairly stealing bandwidth from competing TCP streams. Improving the effectiveness of TCP is easy, but improving effectiveness while maintaining fairness is difficult. In this paper, we describe

  17. Development of an underwater manipulator for maintaining nuclear power reactor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sung-Uk Lee; Young-Soo Choi; Kyung-Min Jeong; Seungho Jung

    2007-01-01

    The safety and reliability of nuclear power plants has become more important recently. Inspection and maintenance of nuclear power plants should be continuously implemented. However, the limitation of a radiation exposure makes it difficult to work in nuclear power plants. So a robot is very useful to inspect and maintain the components of nuclear power plants because of reducing radiation

  18. Keeping Ourselves Well: Strategies for Promoting and Maintaining Counselor Wellness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cummins, Paige N.; Massey, Linda; Jones, Anita

    2007-01-01

    This article describes challenges to wellness that counselors face when working with clients. Autobiographical reflections are used to illustrate the personal nature of some of these challenges and how this affects counselor effectiveness and wellness. Additionally, assessment measures and theoretical models for promoting and maintaining wellness…

  19. Nuclear policy impacts at the national laboratories: maintaining the deterrence

    SciTech Connect

    Beck, James Bradley [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-08-24

    In this presentation, the author will discuss recent nuclear policy impacts, including the 2010 Nuclear Posture Review, and the impacts they have on maintaining the nuclear deterrent. Specifically, he will highlight some of the remaining questions and challenges that remain to the nation and to the national laboratories. (auth)

  20. PULMONARY CELL POPULATIONS IN HAMSTERS MAINTAINED UNDER EGYPTIAN LABORATORY CONDITIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The study was conducted to obtain baseline values for pulmonary cells in golden hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) bred and maintained under the laboratory conditions of Al-Azhar University in Egypt. An improvised technique is presented for measuring pulmonary cells obtained by lung...

  1. Interaction of historical and nonhistorical disturbances maintains native plant communities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. W. Davies; T. J. Svejcar; J. D. Bates

    2009-01-01

    Historical disturbance regimes are often considered a critical element in maintaining native plant communities. However, the response of plant communities to disturbance may be fundamentally altered as a consequence of invasive plants, climate change, or prior disturbances. The appropriateness of historical disturbance patterns under modern conditions and the interactions among disturbances are issues that ecologists must address to protect and

  2. Maintaining user satisfaction with performance of an online system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Martin Sellers

    1984-01-01

    This paper discusses the experience of OCLC, Online Computer Library Center, Inc., with maintaining user satisfaction with performance of its online system. OCLC is an innovator in the field of automated library services. Because it is a service organization, user satisfaction with its online services of cataloging, interlibrary loan, serials control, and acquisitions is a major concern. An important component

  3. Photocopy of photograph (digital image maintained in LBNL Photo Lab ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of photograph (digital image maintained in LBNL Photo Lab Collection, XBD200503-00117-176). March 2005. CENTRAL COLUMN SUPPORT TO ROOF SHOWING CRANES CENTER SUPPORT TRACK, BEVATRON - University of California Radiation Laboratory, Bevatron, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, Alameda County, CA

  4. Reusability and maintainability metrics for object-oriented software

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Young Lee; Kai H. Chang

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, a quality model for object-oriented software and an automated metric tool, Reconfigurable Automated Metrics for Object-Oriented Software (RAMOOS) are proposed. The quality model is targeted at the maintainability and reusability aspects of software which can be effectively predicted from the source code. RAMOOS assists users in applying customized quality model during the development of software. In the

  5. Neuropsychologia 46 (2008) 665678 Maintaining structured information: An investigation into

    E-print Network

    Bunge, Silvia

    2008-01-01

    between dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and superior parietal cortex, especially when organization of maintained information ­ has been long associated with lateral prefrontal cortex (PFC). More recently into functions of parietal and lateral prefrontal cortices Carter Wendelkena,, Silvia A. Bungea,b, Cameron S

  6. Hedgehog signaling maintains chemoresistance in myeloid leukemic cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. C. S. Queiroz; R. R. Ruela-de-Sousa; G. M. Fuhler; H. L. Aberson; C. V. Ferreira; M. P. Peppelenbosch; C. A. Spek; KCS Queiroz

    2010-01-01

    The development of resistance against chemotherapy remains one of the major challenges in the clinical management of leukemia. There is still limited insight into the molecular mechanisms that maintain the chemotherapy-resistant phenotype, despite the obvious clinical relevance that such knowledge would have. In this study, we show that the chemotherapy-resistant phenotype of myeloid leukemia cells correlates with activation of the

  7. Make-A Program for Maintaining Computer Programs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stuart I. Feldman

    1979-01-01

    In a programming project, it is easy to lose track of which files need to be reprocessedor recompiled after a change is made in some part of the source. Make providesa simple mechanism for maintaining up-to-date versions of programs that resultfrom many operations on a number of files. It is possible to tell Make the sequence ofcommands that create certain

  8. Genetic and somatic effects in animals maintained on tritiated water

    SciTech Connect

    Carsten, A.L.; Brooks, A.; Commerford, S.L.; Cronkite, E.P.

    1981-01-01

    The possible genetic (dominant lethal mutations (DLM) and cytogenetic changes in the regenerating liver) and somatic (hematopoietic stem cell changes, growth and nonspecific life time shortening) effects in mice maintained on tritiated water (HTO) over two generations was investigated. Results to date are summarized. (ACR)

  9. TECHNIQUE FOR SCREENING AND MAINTAINING SMALLER GENOMIC LIBRARIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A technique for screening and simultaneously maintaining individual clones of the gene library for long-term storage is described. his method is particularly useful for identification and cloning of genes from cosmid-based genomic libraries of prokaryotes that constitute a smalle...

  10. 17 CFR 201.141 - Orders and decisions: Service of orders instituting proceedings and other orders and decisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...maintain a record of service on parties (in hard copy or computerized format), identifying...decisions issued by the Commission or by a hearing officer shall be served promptly on...Service of orders or decisions issued by a hearing officer shall be made by the Secretary or the hearing officer. [60 FR 32796, June...

  11. The Social Work Portfolio: Planning, Assessing and Documenting Lifelong Learning in a Dynamic Profession.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cournoyer, Barry R.; Stanley, Mary J.

    This book is designed to help social work students prepare a social work portfolio to be used as a learning guide, and following graduation, as a tool to maintain their social work licenses or other pertinent professional credentials. There are independent and collaborative group learning exercises as well as portfolio preparation exercises…

  12. Rescripting Early Memories Linked to Negative Images in Social Phobia: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wild, Jennifer; Hackmann, Ann; Clark, David M.

    2008-01-01

    Negative self-images are a maintaining factor in social phobia. A retrospective study (Hackmann, A., Clark, D.M., McManus, F. (2000). Recurrent images and early memories in social phobia. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 38, 601-610) suggested that the images may be linked to early memories of unpleasant social experiences. This preliminary study…

  13. Social Goals, Social Behavior, and Social Status in Middle Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodkin, Philip C.; Ryan, Allison M.; Jamison, Rhonda; Wilson, Travis

    2013-01-01

    This study examines motivational precursors of social status and the applicability of a dual-component model of social competence to middle childhood. Concurrent and longitudinal relationships between self-reported social goals (social development, demonstration-approach, demonstration-avoid goal orientations), teacher-rated prosocial and…

  14. Connectibles : tangible social networking

    E-print Network

    Kalanithi, Jeevan James

    2007-01-01

    This thesis presents "Connectibles," an instantiation of a tangible social network, a new type of social network application rooted in physical objects and real world social behavior. This research is inspired by social ...

  15. Social Watch

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Founded in 1995, Social Watch was first established to provide a global platform for non-governmental organizations to monitor and promote the effective implementation of the commitments made by national governments during the United Nations World Summit on Social Development. Since that time, the group's work has continued in the areas of monitoring poverty eradication and gender equality and users with interests in these areas will appreciate both the organization's annual report (available from the homepage) and its country-by-country reports. One very well-developed interactive graphic feature is the development indicator section of the site. Here, visitors can view representations of such indicators as female adult literacy, deforestation, and fertility across the globe, along with discrete data from each country. Additionally, many of the materials offered here are available in Spanish as well.

  16. Social Geography

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The open-access journal "Social Geography" is primarily concerned with "the interrelation of society, practice and space and its implications for every day-life, social and environmental policy or economic practice." The journal was started in 2005, and visitors with an interest in human geography or sociology will appreciate their offerings. Users can start by reading through the "General Information" section, then looking over their submission guidelines. After that, visitors will want to click on over to the "Online Library SG" area, where they can read final papers and also search all of the submitted papers by title and author. Additionally, visitors can sign up to receive email alerts and RSS feeds.

  17. Beyond the barricades: social movements as participatory practice in health promotion.

    PubMed

    Stephens, Christine

    2014-01-01

    Community-based health promotion has focussed on empowering disadvantaged groups, but there is growing awareness of the need to address everyday practices used to maintain power and privilege across social divisions. Participatory Action Research projects have proved subject to problems of resistance from dominant social groups. Social movements seeking to reshape power relations, give voice to excluded people and promote a social environment in which their problems are understood have been suggested as an alternative approach. A model of social movements based on theories and observations of social movement dynamics offers a practical framework for initiating such social change. PMID:23988685

  18. 21 CFR 1305.24 - Central processing of orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Central processing of orders. 1305.24 ...SUBSTANCES Electronic Orders § 1305.24 Central processing of orders. (a) A supplier...more registered locations and maintains a central processing computer system in...

  19. Treatment of Inappropriate Vocalizations Maintained by Automatic Reinforcement in Analogue

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joanna Lomas; M. ALICE SHILLINGSBURG; Danielle W. Bradley

    Children diagnosed with autism often engage repetitive, nonfunctional behaviors such as vocal stereotypy. Although these behaviors may not result in harm to the individual or others, these behaviors can impede academic instruction and acquisition of adaptive skills and may lead to social isolation and\\/or placement in a more restrictive academic setting. The majority of research on treatments for vocal stereotypy

  20. Facebook: Maintaining Ethical Practice in the Cyberspace Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birky, Ian; Collins, Wanda

    2011-01-01

    Current technology provides counseling center clinicians regular and immediate access to the students they work with via social networking. Focusing on Facebook in particular, this article discusses the opportunities and challenges this access creates and specifically explores how utilization of ethical, clinical, and cultural lenses might affect…

  1. Parthenogenesis maintains male sterility in a gynodioecious orchid.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shuang-Quan; Lu, Yang; Chen, Ying-Zhuo; Luo, Yi-Bo; Delph, Lynda F

    2009-10-01

    The invasion of male-sterile (female) individuals into hermaphroditic populations, leading to gynodioecy, is common in flowering plants. Both theoretical and empirical studies have shown that as the frequency of females increases in a population, pollen limitation reduces seed production more in females than in hermaphrodites, leading to higher fitness for hermaphrodites and a consequent decrease in female frequency. Here we show that contrary to this expectation, females of the gynodioecious orchid Satyrium ciliatum are maintained only in populations that experience high pollen limitation caused by low pollinator service and high pollen herbivory. This species avoids the typical problem of pollen limitation for seed production and can therefore maintain high frequencies of females in pollen-limited populations because females produce more seeds than hermaphrodites via facultative parthenogenesis in the absence of pollinia. Our results therefore demonstrate that parthenogenesis is a novel mechanism favoring the maintenance of gynodioecy. PMID:19689212

  2. Compact, maintainable 80-KeV neutral beam module

    DOEpatents

    Fink, Joel H. (Livermore, CA); Molvik, Arthur W. (Livermore, CA)

    1980-01-01

    A compact, maintainable 80-keV arc chamber, extractor module for a neutral beam system immersed in a vacuum of <10.sup.-2 Torr, incorporating a nested 60-keV gradient shield located midway between the high voltage ion source and surrounding grounded frame. The shield reduces breakdown or arcing path length without increasing the voltage gradient, tends to keep electric fields normal to conducting surfaces rather than skewed and reduces the peak electric field around irregularities on the 80-keV electrodes. The arc chamber or ion source is mounted separately from the extractor or ion accelerator to reduce misalignment of the accelerator and to permit separate maintenance to be performed on these systems. The separate mounting of the ion source provides for maintaining same without removing the ion accelerator.

  3. Maintaining network security: how macromolecular structures cross the peptidoglycan layer.

    PubMed

    Scheurwater, Edie M; Burrows, Lori L

    2011-05-01

    Peptidoglycan plays a vital role in bacterial physiology, maintaining cell shape and resisting cellular lysis from high internal turgor pressures. Its integrity is carefully maintained by controlled remodeling during growth and division by the coordinated activities of penicillin-binding proteins, lytic transglycosylases, and N-acetylmuramyl-l-alanine amidases. However, its small pore size (?2 nm) and covalently closed structure make it a formidable barrier to the assembly of large macromolecular cell-envelope-spanning complexes involved in motility and secretion. Here, we review the strategies used by Gram-negative bacteria to assemble such macromolecular complexes across the peptidoglycan layer, while preserving its essential structural role. In addition, we discuss evidence that suggests that peptidoglycan can be integrated into cell-envelope-spanning complexes as a structural and functional extension of their architecture. PMID:21276045

  4. The ultra-social animal

    PubMed Central

    Tomasello, Michael

    2014-01-01

    In evolutionary perspective, what is most remarkable about human sociality is its many and diverse forms of cooperation. Here, I provide an overview of some recent research, mostly from our laboratory, comparing human children with their nearest living relatives, the great apes, in various tests of collaboration, prosocial behavior, conformity, and group-mindedness (e.g., following and enforcing social norms). This is done in the context of a hypothetical evolutionary scenario comprising two ordered steps: a first step in which early humans began collaborating with others in unique ways in their everyday foraging and a second step in which modern humans began forming cultural groups. Humans' unique forms of sociality help to explain their unique forms of cognition and morality. © 2014. The Authors. European Journal of Social Psychology published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25641998

  5. Emotional intelligence, personality, social networks, and social perception 

    E-print Network

    DeBusk, Kendra Portia Adrienne Howard

    to the emotions of others. In order to test this, a social perception inspection time task was carried out in which participants were required to identify if a face was happy, sad, or angry. The faces used were both Caucasian and Far-East Asian, the hypothesis...

  6. Ballast system for maintaining constant pressure in a glove box

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shlichta, Paul J. (inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A ballast system is disclosed for a glove box including a fixed platform on which is mounted an inflatable bag on top of which resides a cover and a weight. The variable gas volume of the inflatable bag communicates with that of the glove box via a valved tube. The weight and the gas volume are selected to maintain a relatively constant pressure in the glove box despite variations in the glove box volume while avoiding the use of complicated valving apparatus.

  7. Strategies for maintaining fitness and performance during Ramadan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Donald T. Kirkendall; Anis Chaouachi; Abdul Rashid Aziz; Karim Chamari

    2012-01-01

    The Muslim athlete, whether living in a Muslim majority country or in a non-Muslim country, face unique challenges to faithfully follow one of the pillars of their faith – Ramadan – while attempting to maintain their participation in sports training and competition. There are conflicting reports on the effects of Ramadan on fitness and physical performance in general and in football in particular. In

  8. Maintaining Engagement in Long-term Interventions with Relational Agents

    PubMed Central

    Bickmore, Timothy; Schulman, Daniel; Yin, Langxuan

    2011-01-01

    We discuss issues in designing virtual humans for applications which require long-term voluntary use, and the problem of maintaining engagement with users over time. Concepts and theories related to engagement from a variety of disciplines are reviewed. We describe a platform for conducting studies into long-term interactions between humans and virtual agents, and present the results of two longitudinal randomized controlled experiments in which the effect of manipulations of agent behavior on user engagement was assessed. PMID:21318052

  9. Correlates of Depressive Symptoms among Alcohol-Using Methadone Maintained Adults

    PubMed Central

    Nyamathi, Adeline; Albarrán, Cynthia R.; Branson, Catherine; Marfisee, Mary; Khalilifard, Farinaz; Leake, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    Background Alcohol-using clients are considered at great risk for hepatitis and ongoing liver damage. This study explores the correlates of depression among a sample of methadone maintained treatment (MMT) adults in the Los Angeles area, and is part of a larger study on hepatitis health promotion among MMT clients who use alcohol. Objectives We sought to determine correlates of depressive symptoms among moderate and heavy alcohol-using adults enrolled in methadone maintenance. Methods A cross-sectional correlation study was conducted of baseline data from a randomized control trial of adults (N = 189) receiving methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) in Los Angeles. Depressive symptoms were measured with the 10-item short-form CES-D. Results Multiple regression analysis revealed that pain and social support were key correlates of depressive symptoms. More pain was associated with higher levels of depressive symptoms (p=.001), while more social support was related to lower depressive symptom severity (p=.001). Having been in sufficiently poor health that a blood transfusion, clotting factors, or an organ transplant was necessary was associated with greater depressive symptomatology, as was having injected drugs in the past month (p=.024). Conclusions The findings from this investigation can aid clinicians in selecting clients to monitor for early signs of depression and encourage early treatment for opioid users with comorbidities. Scientific Significance The use of an interdisciplinary team to care for MMT clients, routinely screen for depressive symptoms, and emphasize adequate pain control is indicated. PMID:23786510

  10. Method and apparatus for maintaining thermal control in plasma conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitaker, Ann F. (inventor)

    1989-01-01

    An apparatus and method are disclosed for determining the effects of exposure of oxygen plasma on a thin film polymer whose bulk is maintained at a predetermined temperature. The apparatus includes a chamber having a specimen therein. A plasma environment is provided in the chamber. A closure member is provided for sealing the chamber after the specimen is introduced into the chamber. The closure member also serves as a support for the test apparatus which includes a cooling coil. A platform having the test specimen thereon is supported on the cooling coil to be cooled by coolant flowing through the cooling coils. A thermoelectric module is supported on the platform to assist in maintaining a low test temperature for the test samples. The temperature of the sample is monitored by a thermocouple probe which is in contact with the sample. Any change in bulk sample temperature caused by the thermocouple probe is quickly adjusted to maintain the initial bulk temperature by the thermoelectric module.

  11. Preschoolers' Social Skills Steer Life Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willis, Clarissa A.; Schiller, Pam

    2011-01-01

    Children begin forming social and emotional intelligence at birth. They need the support of a caring adult at first, and then later interactions with peers, in order to encounter the experiences that will guide their brain development in the social and emotional domains. With the help and input of others, children begin to understand, express, and…

  12. Homeownership and Social Capital in New Zealand

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matthew Roskruge; Arthur Grimes; Philip McCann; Jacques Poot

    2011-01-01

    Does homeownership affect individual social capital and thereby influence local outcomes? Following DiPasquale and Glaeser, a body of literature suggests that homeownership is positively related to social capital formation. Homeowners have an incentive to engage in the local community in order to preserve or enhance the value of their housing asset. Moreover, homeownership creates barriers to geographic mobility, which increases

  13. Essential Academic Learning Requirements (1997): Social Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington Office of the State Superintendent of Public Instruction, Olympia.

    Stating that social studies can help students find order in their lives by illustrating patterns and connections of human existence, this guide addresses essential learning requirements for social studies in the state of Washington. The guide notes that these requirements seek to give students the knowledge and skills they need to participate as…

  14. Towards Social Leverage of Sport Events

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laurence Chalip

    2006-01-01

    Despite the predominant policy focus on event economic impact, event organisers and host community residents are calling for attention to be paid to the social value of events. Anthropological work on events demonstrates that their celebratory nature engenders a liminoid space that can foster social value, particularly through a sense of communitas. In order to enable and amplify liminality and

  15. Social Capital: Its Constructs and Survey Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enfield, Richard P.; Nathaniel, Keith C.

    2013-01-01

    This article reports on experiences and methods of adapting a valid adult social capital assessment to youth audiences in order to measure social capital and sense of place. The authors outline the process of adapting, revising, prepiloting, piloting, and administering a youth survey exploring young people's sense of community, involvement in…

  16. Maintainability virtual evaluation method based on fuzzy multiple attribute decision making theory for civil aircraft system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhong Lu; You-chao Sun

    2009-01-01

    Maintainability evaluation is the main method to assess the maintainability level of product. Maintainability design attributes of civil aircraft are determined by analysis of maintainability influencing factors; and the calculation method of each attribute is proposed by the means of maintenance task virtual simulation, rapid upper limb assessment and maintainability checklist. In terms of multiple attribute decision-making theory, the pretreatment

  17. The many modes of Twitter: developing and maintaining a professional identity on Twitter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowan, C. J.

    2012-12-01

    Describing the potential benefits of using Twitter (or similar social networks such as Google+) is complicated by the fact that it is a tool that can be used in a variety of different ways. Usage of Twitter is a mixture of consumption of links and news from other users and organisations, sharing information (e.g. recently published papers) yourself, and interaction with other users; the precise mixture will vary depending on what a person tweets and who they chose to follow, making every user's experience somewhat unique. In addition to the more commonly cited benefits in the area of scientific outreach, all of these usage modes have potential professional benefits for a scientist, allowing them to keep up to date with the latest developments in their field, and to establish and maintain connections with other scientists. Any or all of these are possible goals for your social media presence and will shape how you use services like Twitter. For a passive real-time news service, you just need to follow the right people and organisations; building an online community requires seeking out like-minded people and regularly interacting with them; true outreach requires building an audience through a long-term commitment to adding value through sharing information and participating in discussions. With respect to your professional identity, the public and relatively informal nature of social networks means that it is important to consider, and set defined limits, on how much of yourself and your opinions you are comfortable sharing. On Twitter, retweets allow something you say to reach many people who do not even follow you, and if you use your real name then your profile may be easily findable on a search engine. On most social networks, it is impossible to totally control your experience as it depends largely on how other users interact with you. Whilst it is useful to consider what you want to get out of your use of social media when you begin, and develop a strategy for doing so, many people find that their usage and even their aims will evolve with time, as they experiment with what works for them and discover unforeseen benefits and opportunities.

  18. 9Social Endocrinology Hormones and Social Motivation

    E-print Network

    Josephs, Robert

    understanding of human social functioning. In his 1967 book titled The Biological Basis of Personality behavior, such as paren- tal care, social bonding, and monogamy (Bartz & Hollander, 2006). It has also been and social behavior in humans. The past five years in particular have shown incredible growth in social

  19. Social Work Social work engages with individuals,

    E-print Network

    Social Work Social work engages with individuals, families, communities and societies to improve and professional development. www.uwindsor.ca/socialwork A Bachelor of Social Work degree can lead to careers and advocacy associations. A Rigorous, Enriching Program The mission of the School of Social Work is to promote

  20. Social work BA (Hons) in Social Work

    E-print Network

    Sussex, University of

    Social work Essentials Course BA (Hons) in Social Work (3 years full time. Part-time route, in which we would expect explicit reference to social work You are invited to contact the admissions tutor their basic IT competence and their personal suitability to enter the social work profession in line

  1. Social Awareness Concepts to Support Social Computing

    E-print Network

    Loke, Seng W. - Loke, Seng W.

    to lack a critical element. This paper identifies social concepts that need to be supported by future with the view to support and enhance social interactions. The social concepts identified in this paper could or enhance social interactions. They also could be used in virtual communities modeling where the awareness

  2. Research Report Toward socially inspired social neuroscience

    E-print Network

    Todorov, Alex

    to develop a neural model of social cognition was largely divorced from research in social psychology of social cognition processes using brain imaging were inspired by developmental psychology and not social developmental findings was that children become able to represent the states of other minds at about age of 4

  3. Evolutionary Theories in Social Sciences

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    With the stated mission of serving "as the premier information site for scholars interested in evolutionary thought in the social sciences," this site offers materials relating to a broad interdisciplinary field that includes sociobiology, management, evolutionary biology, business history, anthropology, and even mathematics and engineering, among others. The site includes an extensive, discipline-indexed bibliography, book reviews (with authorial replies), abstracts of working papers, a discussion list, conference and symposium news, a listing of researchers with contact information, a listing of links to relevant print and e-journals, and PhD syllabi, including links to course texts from the Kellogg School of Management and the European Doctoral Training Programme on the Economics of Technological and Institutional Change. Note: authors may be contacted through the site for copies of working papers (there is no mention of a fee for these copies). The site is maintained by two social scientists from Northwestern University, Johann Peter Murmann and Joe Fleischhacker.

  4. Teachers, Social Class and Underachievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunne, Mairead; Gazeley, Louise

    2008-01-01

    Addressing the "the social class attainment gap" in education has become a government priority in England. Despite multiple initiatives, however, little has effectively addressed the underachievement of working-class pupils within the classroom. In order to develop clearer understandings of working-class underachievement at this level, this small…

  5. The Social Perceptual Salience Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inderbitzin, Martin P.; Betella, Alberto; Lanata, Antonio; Scilingo, Enzo P.; Bernardet, Ulysses; Verschure, Paul F. M. J.

    2013-01-01

    Affective processes appraise the salience of external stimuli preparing the agent for action. So far, the relationship between stimuli, affect, and action has been mainly studied in highly controlled laboratory conditions. In order to find the generalization of this relationship to social interaction, we assess the influence of the salience of…

  6. [Social marketing and public health].

    PubMed

    Arcaro, P; Mannocci, A; Saulle, R; Miccoli, S; Marzuillo, C; La Torre, G

    2013-01-01

    Social marketing uses the principles and techniques of commercial marketing by applying them to the complex social context in order to promote changes (cognitive; of action; behavioral; of values) among the target population in the public interest. The advent of Internet has radically modified the communication process, and this transformation also involved medical-scientific communication. Medical journals, health organizations, scientific societies and patient groups are increasing the use of the web and of many social networks (Twitter, Facebook, Google, YouTube) as channels to release scientific information to doctors and patients quickly. In recent years, even Healthcare in Italy reported a considerable application of the methods and techniques of social marketing, above all for health prevention and promotion. Recently the association for health promotion "Social marketing and health communication" has been established to promote an active dialogue between professionals of social marketing and public health communication, as well as among professionals in the field of communication of the companies involved in the "health sector". In the field of prevention and health promotion it is necessary to underline the theme of the growing distrust in vaccination practices. Despite the irrefutable evidence of the efficacy and safety of vaccines, the social-cultural transformation together with the overcoming of compulsory vaccination and the use of noninstitutional information sources, have generated confusion among citizens that tend to perceive compulsory vaccinations as needed and safe, whereas recommended vaccinations as less important. Moreover, citizens scarcely perceive the risk of disease related to the effectiveness of vaccines. Implementing communication strategies, argumentative and persuasive, borrowed from social marketing, also for the promotion of vaccines is a priority of the health system. A typical example of the application of social marketing, as mentioned in the manuscript, is the campaign to promote the proper practice of HPV vaccination through the use of effective and cost-saving communication strategies. PMID:23598808

  7. “How can I still be me?”: Strategies to maintain a sense of self in the context of a neurological condition

    PubMed Central

    Roger, Kerstin; Wetzel, Monika; Hutchinson, Susan; Packer, Tanya; Versnel, Joan

    2014-01-01

    The Living with a Neurological Condition (LINC) study was part of the National Population Health Study of Neurological Conditions conducted in Canada. This article describes empirical original qualitative data collected in the third and final phase of this study and examines how individuals living with a neurological condition maintain continuity of their sense of self, with a particular focus on their strategies. Fifteen interviews were analysed for this paper. Emerging strategies for maintaining sense of self include: (1) avoidance and denial, (2) cognitive reframing, (3) articulation of the self through imagined positive identity, (4) strategies that reconnect to identity in the past, (5) adjusting and altering goals, (6) spiritual activities, (7) humour, (8) comparison with others: identity as shaped through social constructs, and (9) creating communities: a reciprocal reflection of self. PMID:24731615

  8. Variable Order and Distributed Order Fractional Operators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lorenzo, Carl F.; Hartley, Tom T.

    2002-01-01

    Many physical processes appear to exhibit fractional order behavior that may vary with time or space. The continuum of order in the fractional calculus allows the order of the fractional operator to be considered as a variable. This paper develops the concept of variable and distributed order fractional operators. Definitions based on the Riemann-Liouville definitions are introduced and behavior of the operators is studied. Several time domain definitions that assign different arguments to the order q in the Riemann-Liouville definition are introduced. For each of these definitions various characteristics are determined. These include: time invariance of the operator, operator initialization, physical realization, linearity, operational transforms. and memory characteristics of the defining kernels. A measure (m2) for memory retentiveness of the order history is introduced. A generalized linear argument for the order q allows the concept of "tailored" variable order fractional operators whose a, memory may be chosen for a particular application. Memory retentiveness (m2) and order dynamic behavior are investigated and applications are shown. The concept of distributed order operators where the order of the time based operator depends on an additional independent (spatial) variable is also forwarded. Several definitions and their Laplace transforms are developed, analysis methods with these operators are demonstrated, and examples shown. Finally operators of multivariable and distributed order are defined in their various applications are outlined.

  9. Impression formation and revision in social anxiety disorder.

    PubMed

    Haker, Ayala; Aderka, Idan M; Marom, Sofi; Hermesh, Haggai; Gilboa-Schechtman, Eva

    2014-03-01

    Interpersonal relations are markedly impaired in social anxiety. Yet, little is known about the ways social anxiety affects social cognition. We examined impression formation and impression revision among individuals with social anxiety disorder (SAD, n = 26) and non-anxious individuals (n = 29). Participants read initial descriptions of protagonists depicted as dominant, neutral or submissive and rated them on social rank and affiliation dimensions. Next, participants were presented with behavioral acts that were either congruent, incongruent or irrelevant to the initial descriptions, and re-rated the protagonists. Individuals with SAD (a) rated others as more extreme on social rank dimension, (b) rated others as lower on the affiliation dimension, and (c) revised their impressions of others to a greater extent than did the non-anxious individuals. Understanding the ways social anxiety affects the formation and revision of perceptions of others can improve our understanding of maintaining processes in SAD. PMID:23774009

  10. 43 CFR 3275.16 - What standards apply to installing and maintaining meters?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...standards apply to installing and maintaining meters? 3275.16 Section 3275.16 Public...standards apply to installing and maintaining meters? (a) You must install and maintain all meters that we require, either according to...

  11. 43 CFR 3275.16 - What standards apply to installing and maintaining meters?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...standards apply to installing and maintaining meters? 3275.16 Section 3275.16 Public...standards apply to installing and maintaining meters? (a) You must install and maintain all meters that we require, either according to...

  12. 43 CFR 3275.16 - What standards apply to installing and maintaining meters?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...standards apply to installing and maintaining meters? 3275.16 Section 3275.16 Public...standards apply to installing and maintaining meters? (a) You must install and maintain all meters that we require, either according to...

  13. 43 CFR 3275.16 - What standards apply to installing and maintaining meters?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...standards apply to installing and maintaining meters? 3275.16 Section 3275.16 Public...standards apply to installing and maintaining meters? (a) You must install and maintain all meters that we require, either according to...

  14. 36 CFR 1236.26 - What actions must agencies take to maintain electronic information systems?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...take to maintain electronic information systems? 1236.26 Section 1236...take to maintain electronic information systems? (a) Agencies must maintain inventories of electronic information systems and review the...

  15. 36 CFR 1236.26 - What actions must agencies take to maintain electronic information systems?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...take to maintain electronic information systems? 1236.26 Section 1236...take to maintain electronic information systems? (a) Agencies must maintain inventories of electronic information systems and review the...

  16. 36 CFR 1236.26 - What actions must agencies take to maintain electronic information systems?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...take to maintain electronic information systems? 1236.26 Section 1236...take to maintain electronic information systems? (a) Agencies must maintain inventories of electronic information systems and review the...

  17. 76 FR 51041 - Hemoglobin Standards and Maintaining Adequate Iron Stores in Blood Donors; Public Workshop

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-17

    ...Hemoglobin Standards and Maintaining Adequate Iron Stores in Blood Donors; Public Workshop...Hemoglobin Standards and Maintaining Adequate Iron Stores in Blood Donors.'' The purpose...potential measures to maintain adequate iron stores in blood donors. The public...

  18. 31 CFR 358.16 - Are BECCS and CUBES accounts maintained separately from the STRIPS program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Are BECCS and CUBES accounts maintained separately from the...BEARER COUPONS § 358.16 Are BECCS and CUBES accounts maintained separately from the STRIPS program? BECCS and CUBES accounts are maintained separately...

  19. 31 CFR 358.16 - Are BECCS and CUBES accounts maintained separately from the STRIPS program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false Are BECCS and CUBES accounts maintained separately from the...BEARER COUPONS § 358.16 Are BECCS and CUBES accounts maintained separately from the STRIPS program? BECCS and CUBES accounts are maintained separately...

  20. 31 CFR 358.16 - Are BECCS and CUBES accounts maintained separately from the STRIPS program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false Are BECCS and CUBES accounts maintained separately from the...BEARER COUPONS § 358.16 Are BECCS and CUBES accounts maintained separately from the STRIPS program? BECCS and CUBES accounts are maintained separately...

  1. 31 CFR 358.16 - Are BECCS and CUBES accounts maintained separately from the STRIPS program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Are BECCS and CUBES accounts maintained separately from the...BEARER COUPONS § 358.16 Are BECCS and CUBES accounts maintained separately from the STRIPS program? BECCS and CUBES accounts are maintained separately...

  2. 31 CFR 358.16 - Are BECCS and CUBES accounts maintained separately from the STRIPS program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Are BECCS and CUBES accounts maintained separately from the...BEARER COUPONS § 358.16 Are BECCS and CUBES accounts maintained separately from the STRIPS program? BECCS and CUBES accounts are maintained separately...

  3. 25 CFR 900.53 - What kind of records shall the property management system maintain?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...false What kind of records shall the property management system maintain? ...53 What kind of records shall the property management system maintain? The property management system shall maintain records that accurately...

  4. Can Computers be Social?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ekdahl, Bertil

    2002-09-01

    Of main concern in agent based computing is the conception that software agents can attain socially responsible behavior. This idea has its origin in the need for agents to interact with one another in a cooperating manner. Such interplay between several agents can be seen as a combinatorial play where the rules are fixed and the actors are supposed to closely analyze the play in order to behave rational. This kind of rationality has successfully being mathematically described. When the social behavior is extended beyond rational behavior, mere mathematical analysis falls short. For such behavior language is decisive for transferring concepts and language is a holistic entity that cannot be analyzed and defined mathematically. Accordingly, computers cannot be furnished with a language in the sense that meaning can be conveyed and consequently they lack all the necessary properties to be made social. The attempts to postulate mental properties to computer programs are a misconception that is blamed the lack of true understanding of language and especially the relation between formal system and its semantics.

  5. [Social anxieties in a clinical sample].

    PubMed

    Dally, Andreas; Falck, Ole; Ferrari, Thomas; Leichsenring, Falk; Rabung, Sven; Streeck, Ulrich

    2005-01-01

    Under the label of social phobia a complex of ailments was introduced into the syndromal diagnostic classification system of ICD-10 and DSM-IV, which is characterized by fear of embarrassing and humiliating experiences in relation to other persons. According to our experiences, however, social phobias and other problems in interpersonal relations are not yet paid the clinical attention that these problems deserve, when the severity of impairments subjects affected by social phobias suffer from is taken into account. There is a considerable lack of research of the psychodynamic aspects of social phobia as well. For this reason, we studied the frequency and extent of social anxieties in a sample of patients requiring psychiatric-psychotherapeutic inpatient treatment suffering from social anxieties (N = 930). This sample was compared to another sample of patients without social anxieties. We applied standardized diagnostic and psychometric instruments in order to collect information about anamnestic and social data as well as data about symptom severity, interpersonal impairments and comorbid disorders. The results do not only show the high frequency of social anxieties (45 %), but also the severe impairments in various domains of personal functioning of patients suffering from social anxieties compared to the patients without severe social anxieties. According to our clinical experiences and to the results presented here, the construct of social phobia as it is currently used in the psychiatric classification systems is an syndromal additive description that falls short of a form of suffering that is characterized by the facts that it is interwoven with the complete social existence of an affected person. For this reason, the term social phobia should be replaced by the more appropriate term of social anxiety. PMID:15800810

  6. Teaching Human Poses Interactively to a Social Robot

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Pacheco, Victor; Malfaz, Maria; Fernandez, Fernando; Salichs, Miguel A.

    2013-01-01

    The main activity of social robots is to interact with people. In order to do that, the robot must be able to understand what the user is saying or doing. Typically, this capability consists of pre-programmed behaviors or is acquired through controlled learning processes, which are executed before the social interaction begins. This paper presents a software architecture that enables a robot to learn poses in a similar way as people do. That is, hearing its teacher's explanations and acquiring new knowledge in real time. The architecture leans on two main components: an RGB-D (Red-, Green-, Blue- Depth) -based visual system, which gathers the user examples, and an Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR) system, which processes the speech describing those examples. The robot is able to naturally learn the poses the teacher is showing to it by maintaining a natural interaction with the teacher. We evaluate our system with 24 users who teach the robot a predetermined set of poses. The experimental results show that, with a few training examples, the system reaches high accuracy and robustness. This method shows how to combine data from the visual and auditory systems for the acquisition of new knowledge in a natural manner. Such a natural way of training enables robots to learn from users, even if they are not experts in robotics. PMID:24048336

  7. Oscillatory nonohomic current drive for maintaining a plasma current

    DOEpatents

    Fisch, N.J.

    1984-01-01

    Apparatus and methods are described for maintaining a plasma current with an oscillatory nonohmic current drive. Each cycle of operation has a generation period in which current driving energy is applied to the plasma, and a relaxation period in which current driving energy is removed. Plasma parameters, such as plasma temperature or plasma average ionic charge state, are modified during the generation period so as to oscillate plasma resistivity in synchronism with the application of current driving energy. The invention improves overall current drive efficiencies.

  8. Managers' duty to maintain good workplace communications skills.

    PubMed

    Timmins, Fiona

    2011-06-01

    Communication is a fundamental element of care at every level of nursing practice. It is important, therefore, for nurse managers to create environments that promote and encourage good communication, and help nurses to develop their communication skills formally and informally. This article discusses the effects of communication on the quality of care. It examines nurses' professional duty to maintain good communication skills and how managers can help them do this. It also discusses nurse managers' communication skills in the context of leadership style, conflict resolution and self-awareness. Finally, it considers the notion of shared governance as good practice. PMID:21736171

  9. Reliability, availability, and maintainability considerations for fiber optical sensor applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brönnimann, Rolf; Held, Marcel; Nellen, Philipp M.

    2006-03-01

    The paper gives an overview of reliability, availability, and maintainability of fiber optical sensors, three key factors on which standards and validation should be based and which are required for successful industrialization. The examples given are based on two long term applications with fiber optical Bragg gratings - the surveillance of two bridges (civil engineering). However, similar reflections are required for any type of application and any optical fiber sensors. Recommendations are given to improve the confidence and acceptance of possible users in fiber optical sensing systems. It is shown that with proper installation lifetimes of 50 years are possible.

  10. [Sympathetically maintained pain syndrome--a case report].

    PubMed

    Zyluk, A; Walaszek, I

    2001-01-01

    Sympathetically maintained pain syndrome (SMPS) is considered to be a clinical form of reflex sympathic dystrophy. It develops usually after trauma, and consists of continuous, burning pain with sympathetic component. We present a case of this syndrome affecting both hands, that developed in a patient 3 months after severe burn injury. Intravenous fentolamine test was used to recognise sympathetic transmission of the pain. The management included regional intravenous fentolamine blocks and orally administrated phenoxybenzamine. The former gave only temporary relief; after latter improvement lasted 2 months, but patient eventually failed to recover. Diagnostic and therapeutic considerations concerning this syndrome were underlined. PMID:11875887

  11. The nucleus accumbens is involved in both the pursuit of social reward and the avoidance of social punishment

    PubMed Central

    Kohls, Gregor; Perino, Michael T.; Taylor, James M.; Madva, Elizabeth N.; Cayless, Sarah J.; Troiani, Vanessa; Price, Elinora; Faja, Susan; Herrington, John D.; Schultz, Robert T.

    2013-01-01

    Human social motivation is characterized by the pursuit of social reward and the avoidance of social punishment. The ventral striatum/nucleus accumbens (VS/Nacc), in particular, has been implicated in the reward component of social motivation, i.e., the ‘wanting’ of social incentives like approval. However, it is unclear to what extent the VS/Nacc is involved in avoiding social punishment like disapproval, an intrinsically pleasant outcome. Thus, we conducted an event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study using a social incentive delay task with dynamic video stimuli instead of static pictures as social incentives in order to examine participants' motivation for social reward gain and social punishment avoidance. As predicted, the anticipation of avoidable social punishment (i.e., disapproval) recruited the VS/Nacc in a manner that was similar to VS/Nacc activation observed during the anticipation of social reward gain (i.e., approval). Stronger VS/Nacc activity was accompanied by faster reaction times of the participants to obtain those desired outcomes. This data support the assumption that dynamic social incentives elicit robust VS/Nacc activity, which likely reflects motivation to obtain social reward and to avoid social punishment. Clinical implications regarding the involvement of the VS/Nacc in social motivation dysfunction in autism and social phobia are discussed. PMID:23911778

  12. The nucleus accumbens is involved in both the pursuit of social reward and the avoidance of social punishment.

    PubMed

    Kohls, Gregor; Perino, Michael T; Taylor, James M; Madva, Elizabeth N; Cayless, Sarah J; Troiani, Vanessa; Price, Elinora; Faja, Susan; Herrington, John D; Schultz, Robert T

    2013-09-01

    Human social motivation is characterized by the pursuit of social reward and the avoidance of social punishment. The ventral striatum/nucleus accumbens (VS/Nacc), in particular, has been implicated in the reward component of social motivation, i.e., the 'wanting' of social incentives like approval. However, it is unclear to what extent the VS/Nacc is involved in avoiding social punishment like disapproval, an intrinsically pleasant outcome. Thus, we conducted an event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study using a social incentive delay task with dynamic video stimuli instead of static pictures as social incentives in order to examine participants' motivation for social reward gain and social punishment avoidance. As predicted, the anticipation of avoidable social punishment (i.e., disapproval) recruited the VS/Nacc in a manner that was similar to VS/Nacc activation observed during the anticipation of social reward gain (i.e., approval). Stronger VS/Nacc activity was accompanied by faster reaction times of the participants to obtain those desired outcomes. This data support the assumption that dynamic social incentives elicit robust VS/Nacc activity, which likely reflects motivation to obtain social reward and to avoid social punishment. Clinical implications regarding the involvement of the VS/Nacc in social motivation dysfunction in autism and social phobia are discussed. PMID:23911778

  13. In order to maintain functional motor outputs across a wide range of speeds, the relative timing (phase) of the individual

    E-print Network

    DiCaprio, Ralph

    recordings from ventilatory neurons indicate that there is very little change in the membrane potential), crayfish swimmeret beating (Davis, 1969), insect ventilation (Miller, 1966) and rhythmic uropod movements interneurons in the ventilatory central pattern generator reveal that the rate of change of the membrane

  14. EXC-5 Controls Intracellular Trafficking in Order to Maintain the Apical Structure of the C. elegans Excretory Canal

    E-print Network

    Mattingly, Brendan Christopher

    2011-04-26

    tractable, and transparent nematode with a unicellular excretory canal system. The C. elegans excretory canal cell is a long "H"-shaped tubular structure that serves as the osmoregulatory organ for the animal. EXC-5 is a guanine nucleotide exchange factor...

  15. In order to maintain floodwater capacity, manag-ers must de-silt the channels, which can be very

    E-print Network

    be very expensive and require difficult-to-obtain permits. In addition, removing the sediment from scale to better understand sediment in managed flood control channels. The data from this study could plain areas, through a 19 km long large earthen trapezoidal flood control channel (Figure 2). San

  16. 20 CFR 404.1024 - Election of coverage by religious orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...1024 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION ...and Self-Employment Income Work Excluded from Employment ...religious order, may elect to have social security coverage extended to the work performed by its members...

  17. Social Networking: Boundaries and Limits Part 1: Ethics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aragon, Antonette; AlDoubi, Suzan; Kaminski, Karen; Anderson, Sharon K.; Isaacs, Nelda

    2014-01-01

    The number of educators, administrators, and institutions that utilize social networking has increased dramatically. Many have adopted social networking in order to be up-to-date and connected with their students' learning beyond the boundaries of the classroom. However, this increase in the use of social networking in academia presents many…

  18. Incorporating social media for personalization of ISSUU content

    E-print Network

    Incorporating social media for personalization of ISSUU content Dimitar Lesov s101557 Kogens Lyngby started to incorporate integrations with social media sites like Facebook and Twitter. Due to the early of the Social Media integration and hasn't benefited from that in order to improve its services. The importance

  19. Problems Facing Social Scientists Participating in Environmental Impact Research

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patrick C. Jobes

    1977-01-01

    The National Environmental Protection Act (NEPA) has formalized the need to provide assessment of projects which have potential impacts. Many social scientists suddenly have become involved with performing social research in order to assess impacts upon human behavior. This paper describes some of the problems facing social scientists in this endeavor. Practical advice regarding their solutions is provided.

  20. Aggressive and Prosocial Behaviors: The Social Success of Bistrategic Preadolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wurster, Tabitha; Xie, Hongling

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the social functioning of bistrategic youths (i.e., those who employ both aggressive and prosocial behavior) in order to further understand their social competence in peer social networks. Within our sample of 318 fifth-grade participants recruited from an urban school district in the northeastern US, bistrategic preadolescents…