Note: This page contains sample records for the topic maintaining social order from Science.gov.
While these samples are representative of the content of Science.gov,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of Science.gov
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.
Last update: August 15, 2014.
1

How to Maintain a Social Reinforcement Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual presents methodology for maintaining a social reinforcement system after supervisors in industrial environments have been trained in behavior modification theory and application. The maintenance manual discusses monitoring, evaluation, and integration of a company's employee performance system with the social reinforcement system…

Arkin, Ronald; And Others

2

Nash social welfare orderings  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper considers the problem of description of social welfare orderings (SWOs) on the entire utility (Euclidean) space Rn satisfying Scale Independence. These orderings and the functions representing them are called the Nash social welfare orderings and the Nash social welfare functions (SWFs), respectively. The more properties of the SWOs into consideration are Strong Pareto and two variants of weakening

Natalia Naumova; Elena Yanovskaya

2001-01-01

3

Maintaining order in a generalized linked list  

Microsoft Academic Search

We give a representation for linked lists which allows to efficiently insert and delete objects in the list and to quickly determine the order of two list elements. The basic data structure, called an indexed BB[]-tree, allows to do n insertions and deletions in O(n log n) steps and determine the order in constant time, assuming that the locations of

Athanasios K. Tsakalidis; Fachbereich Io

1983-01-01

4

Issues in social order and social control  

Microsoft Academic Search

This has been a year in which the foundations of social order and social control have been challenged on a number of fronts around the world and in Canada. The Berlin Wall has fallen and initiated a radical transformation of the European political order. Throughout the communist satellite states the past year has witnessed liberation from political tyranny but not

Thomas O'Reilly-Fleming; Ronald Hinch

1990-01-01

5

The social order of markets  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article I develop a proposal for the theoretical vantage point of the sociology of markets, focusing on the problem\\u000a of the social order of markets. The initial premise is that markets are highly demanding arenas of social interaction, which\\u000a can only operate if three inevitable coordination problems are resolved. I define these coordination problems as the value problem,

Jens Beckert

2009-01-01

6

Capturing order in social interactions [Social Sciences  

Microsoft Academic Search

As humans appear to be literally wired for social interaction, it is not surprising to observe that social aspects of human behavior and psychology attract interest in the computing community as well. The gap between social animal and unsocial machine was tolerable when computers were nothing else than improved versions of old tools (e.g., word processors replacing typewriters), but today

Alessandro Vinciarelli

2009-01-01

7

Using a Social Skills Group to Develop and Maintain Relationships  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research investigated the relationship between social skills groups and the promotion of adolescent friendships in girls. All participants were identified as lacking social skills and having no friends. Each week of group focused on a different social skill and included a skill-basked activity. Each participant rated their social skills and capabilities by completing a survey developed by the researcher

Sharee L Washington

2008-01-01

8

Birth order and social behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent research of Schachter has redirected a longstanding interest in physiological, psychological, and sociological correlates of order of birth to affiliative or withdrawal tendencies as birth-order correlates. The most firmly established and persistent finding relative to birth order shows an overproportion of 1st-born children in college. Substantial evidence also exists showing (1) 1st-born to be more susceptible than later born

Jonathan R. Warren

1966-01-01

9

Emotional intelligence skills for maintaining social networks in healthcare organizations.  

PubMed

For healthcare organizations to survive in these increasingly challenging times, leadership and management must face mounting interpersonal concerns. The authors present the boundaries of internal and external social networks with respect to leadership and managerial functions: Social networks within the organization are stretched by reductions in available resources and structural ambiguity, whereas external social networks are stressed by interorganizational competitive pressures. The authors present the development of emotional intelligence skills in employees as a strategic training objective that can strengthen the internal and external social networks of healthcare organizations. The authors delineate the unique functions of leadership and management with respect to the application of emotional intelligence skills and discuss training and future research implications for emotional intelligence skill sets and social networks. PMID:15754856

Freshman, Brenda; Rubino, Louis

2004-01-01

10

Cognitive Factors that Maintain Social Anxiety Disorder: a Comprehensive Model and its Treatment Implications  

PubMed Central

Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is a common, distressing and persistent mental illness. Recent studies have identified a number of psychological factors that could explain the maintenance of the disorder. These factors are presented here as part of a comprehensive psychological maintenance model of SAD. This model assumes that social apprehension is associated with unrealistic social standards and a deficiency in selecting attainable social goals. When confronted with challenging social situations, individuals with SAD shift their attention toward their anxiety, view themselves negatively as a social object, overestimate the negative consequences of a social encounter, believe that they have little control over their emotional response, and view their social skills as inadequate to effectively cope with the social situation. In order to avoid social mishaps, individuals with SAD revert to maladaptive coping strategies, including avoidance and safety behaviors, followed by post-event rumination, which leads to further social apprehension in the future. Possible disorder-specific intervention strategies are discussed.

Hofmann, Stefan G.

2007-01-01

11

Investigating a Judgemental Rank-Ordering Method for Maintaining Standards in UK Examinations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A new judgemental method of equating raw scores on two tests, based on rank-ordering scripts from both tests, has been developed by Bramley. The rank-ordering method has potential application as a judgemental standard-maintaining mechanism, because given a mark on one test (e.g. the A grade boundary mark), the equivalent mark (i.e. at the same…

Black, Beth; Bramley, Tom

2008-01-01

12

Maintaining Pedagogical Integrity of a Computer Mediated Course Delivery in Social Foundations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Transforming a face to face course to a computer mediated format in social foundations (interdisciplinary field in education), while maintaining pedagogical integrity, involves strategic collaboration between instructional technologists and content area experts. This type of planned partnership requires open dialogue and a mutual respect for prior…

Stewart, Shelley; Cobb-Roberts, Deirdre; Shircliffe, Barbara J.

2013-01-01

13

Energy policy in a changing social order  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, the background of energy management and use relative to public policymaking is reviewed. Many of the more-prominent social cross currents, such as: consumerism, resistance to nuclear power, tax rebellion, etc., are identified and described. Conventional and alternate energy policy options are analyzed. 41 refs.

Schaller, D.A.

1981-01-01

14

Social Studies and the Social Order: Telling Stories of Resistance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The social studies profession has always been at its weakest in dealing with the analysis of racism and class (Ladson-Billings, 2003; Marshall, 2001), and the new technocratic atmosphere and discourse generated by No Child Left Behind (NCLB) will serve to make such analysis completely absent, despite the rhetoric of the National Council of the…

McKnight, Douglas; Chandler, Prentice

2009-01-01

15

Gender and the Social Order in Early Modern England.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The place of the family and the relationship between gender and social order in England between 1560 and 1725 are examined. The fear of disorder so prevalent in England in the late 16th and early 17th centuries was caused by the doubling of the population and extremely poor economic conditions. In the attempt to enforce order, the analogy between…

Amussen, Susan Dwyer

16

Violence & social order beyond the state: Somalia & Angola  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the activities of non-state actors in war in Somalia and Angola. Arguing that prolonged wars are characterised by the emergence of social orders of violence beyond the state, our analytical focus is on how actors establish and sustain these orders. A core influence is the insight from research on war economies that war is not equal to

Jutta Bakonyi; Kirsti Stuvøy

2005-01-01

17

Guidelines for Maintaining a Professional Compass in the Era of Social Networking  

PubMed Central

Objectives The use of social networking (SN) sites such as Facebook and Twitter has skyrocketed over the past 5 years, with over 400 million current users. What was once isolated to high schools or college campuses has become increasingly ubiquitous in everyday life and across a multitude of industries. Medical centers and residency programs are not immune to this invasion. These sites present opportunities for the rapid dissemination of information from status updates to tweets to medical support groups and even clinical communication between patients and providers. While powerful, this technology also opens the door for misuse and policies for use will be necessary. We strive to begin a discourse in the surgical community regarding maintaining professionalism while using SN sites. Results The use of SN sites among surgical housestaff and faculty has not previously been addressed. To that end, we sought to ascertain the use of the SN site Facebook at our residency program. Of 88 residents and 127 faculty, 56 (64%) and 28 (22%) respectively have pages on Facebook. Of these, 50% are publicly accessible. Thirty-one percent of the publicly accessible pages had work –related comments posted, and of these comments, 14% referenced specific patient situations or were related to patient care. Conclusions Given the widespread use of SN sites in our surgical community and in society as a whole, every effort should be made to guard against professional truancy. We offer a set a guidelines consistent with the ACGME and ACS professionalism mandates regarding usage of these sites. By acknowledging this need and following these guidelines, surgeons will continue to define and uphold ethical boundaries and thus demonstrate a commitment to patient privacy and the highest levels of professionalism.

Landman, Matthew P.; Shelton, Julia; Kauffmann, Rondi M.; Dattilo, Jeffery B.

2014-01-01

18

Social Order and Adaptability in Animal and Human Cultures as Analogues for Agent Communities: Toward a Policy-Based Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we discuss some of the ways social order is maintained in animal and human realms, with the goal of enriching our thinking about mechanisms that might be employed in developing similar means of ordering communities of agents. We present examples from our current work in human- agent teamwork, and we speculate about some new directions this kind

Paul J. Feltovich; Jeffrey M. Bradshaw; Renia Jeffers; Niranjan Suri; Andrzej Uszok

2003-01-01

19

Social phobia: The role of in-situation safety behaviors in maintaining anxiety and negative beliefs  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the puzzles surrounding social phobia is that patients with this problem are often exposed to phobic situations without showing a marked reduction in their fears. It is possible that individuals with social phobia engage in behaviors in the feared situ- ation that are mtended to avert feared catastrophes but that also prevent disconfirma- tion of their fears. This

Adrian Wells; David M. Clark; Paul Salkovskis; John Ludgate; Ann Hackmann; Michael Gelder

1995-01-01

20

High-order social interactions in groups of mice.  

PubMed

Social behavior in mammals is often studied in pairs under artificial conditions, yet groups may rely on more complicated social structures. Here, we use a novel system for tracking multiple animals in a rich environment to characterize the nature of group behavior and interactions, and show strongly correlated group behavior in mice. We have found that the minimal models that rely only on individual traits and pairwise correlations between animals are not enough to capture group behavior, but that models that include third-order interactions give a very accurate description of the group. These models allow us to infer social interaction maps for individual groups. Using this approach, we show that environmental complexity during adolescence affects the collective group behavior of adult mice, in particular altering the role of high-order structure. Our results provide new experimental and mathematical frameworks for studying group behavior and social interactions. DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.00759.001. PMID:24015357

Shemesh, Yair; Sztainberg, Yehezkel; Forkosh, Oren; Shlapobersky, Tamar; Chen, Alon; Schneidman, Elad

2013-01-01

21

Anxiety, birth order, and susceptibility to social influence  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of order-of-birth and susceptibility to social influence (suggestibility) was studied. The reactivity of first-born and non-first-born Ss was observed in the autokinetic situation. First born Ss showed themselves to be more suggestible than non-first-born Ss under conditions which entailed the arousal of anxiety or not. Results are related to previous research. From Psyc Abstracts 36:04:4HK16S.

F. R. Staples; R. H. Walters

1961-01-01

22

Maintaining Long-Distance Friendships: Communication Practices for Seeking and Providing Social Support across Geographic Divides  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

People seek and provide support through their personal social network, especially when they must cope with stress, deal with an emergency, or need help. Coping with a new culture or new environment is a stressful situation that sojourner students must face. Support through friendship plays an important role in facing such new situations. Focusing…

Lobburi, Patipan

2012-01-01

23

Maintaining a social-emotional intervention and its benefits for institutionalized children.  

PubMed

This article reports the maintenance of one of the largest interventions conducted in St. Petersburg (Russian Federation) orphanages for children birth to 4 years using regular caregiving staff. One orphanage received training plus structural changes, another training only, and a third business as usual. The intervention produced substantial differences between these institutions on the Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment (HOME) Inventory and on the Battelle Developmental Inventory scores for children. These institutional differences in HOME scores (N = 298) and Battelle scores for children (N = 357) departing the institutions for families in St. Petersburg and the United States were maintained for at least 6 years after the intervention project. This result may be associated with certain features of the intervention and activities conducted during the follow-up interval. PMID:23551051

McCall, Robert B; Groark, Christina J; Fish, Larry; Muhamedrahimov, Rifkat J; Palmov, Oleg I; Nikiforova, Natalia V

2013-01-01

24

Social support and the likelihood of maintaining and improving levels of physical activity: the Whitehall II Study  

PubMed Central

Background: Evidence on the association between social support and leisure time physical activity (LTPA) is scarce and mostly based on cross-sectional data with different types of social support collapsed into a single index. The aim of this study was to investigate whether social support from the closest person was associated with LTPA. Methods: Prospective cohort study of 5395 adults (mean age 55.7 years, 3864 men) participating in the British Whitehall II study. Confiding/emotional support and practical support were assessed at baseline in 1997–99 using the Close Persons Questionnaire. LTPA was assessed at baseline and follow-up in (2002–04). Baseline covariates included socio-demographics, self-rated health, long-standing illnesses, physical functioning and common mental disorders. Results: Among participants who reported recommended levels of LTPA at baseline, those who experienced high confiding/emotional support were more likely to report recommended levels of LTPA at follow-up [odds ratio (OR): 1.39, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.12–1.70 in a model adjusted for baseline covariates]. Among those participants who did not meet the recommended target of LTPA at baseline, high confiding/emotional support was not associated with improvement in activity levels. High practical support was associated with both maintaining (OR: 1.34, 95% CI: 1.10–1.63) and improving (OR: 1.25, 95% CI: 1.02–1.53) LTPA levels. Conclusion: These findings suggest that emotional and practical support from the closest person may help the individual to maintain the recommended level of LTPA. Practical support also predicted a change towards a more active lifestyle.

De Vogli, Roberto; Stafford, Mai; Shipley, Martin J.; Marmot, Michael G.; Cox, Tom; Vahtera, Jussi; Vaananen, Ari; Heponiemi, Tarja; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Kivimaki, Mika

2012-01-01

25

[Humors and odors: body order and social order in nineteenth-century Rio de Janeiro].  

PubMed

Archeological diggings in household garbage deposits from nineteenth-century Rio have uncovered an abundance of equipment used in the elimination of fecal material and phlegm. These findings formed the basis for an analysis and interpretation of the era's attitudes regarding body fluids, as adopted when the mentalities of the new 'bourgeois' segments - then undergoing a process of rise and consolidation - were impregnated by Hippocratic humoralism. The text shows how the introduction of a 'body order' was fundamental in building and keeping the social order in the nineteenth century. It likewise shows how the ideology of hygienization was one of the most important and efficacious strategies for underpinning the bourgeoisie's (victorious) project to achieve hegemony. PMID:16688904

Lima, T A

26

Covenance: Experiments in the Development of Social Order.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An experimental method was formulated for cultivating complex social organizations in a computer-based operant laboratory environment. These organizations were brought to progressively higher levels of performance, and the accompanying development of soci...

B. Rome S. Rome

1969-01-01

27

Ethnic Identity and Political Consciousness in Different Social Orders.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Interviews conducted over a 10-year period assessed the political attitudes of Chicano adolescents and young adults living in 3 U.S. cities. Subjects' attitudes were affected by the social and economic conditions in their city; and by family, school, peer, and media factors. (BC)

Jankowski, Martin Sanchez

1992-01-01

28

Effects of Sex, Social Desirability, and Birth Order on the Defense Mechanisms Inventory.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigated effects of sex difference, social desirability instructions, and birth order of respondents on defense mechanisms inventory (DMI). Sex difference was found in projection only. Social desirability effects were found in turning-against-others, projection, principalization, and reversal. Thus, an interpretive caution is in order

Dudley, Gary E.

1978-01-01

29

Divining the Social Order: Class, Gender, and Magazine Astrology Columns  

Microsoft Academic Search

This content analysis compares the astrological advice offered in magazines targeted at working- and middle-class women. Readers' social class was a far better predictor than readers' zodiac sign of the nature of astrological advice offered. Working-class horoscopes were less likely than middle-class horoscopes to advise readers to travel and spend money. Working-class horoscopes were less likely than middle-class horoscopes to

William Evans

1996-01-01

30

Indian Council of Social Science Research (ICSSR) Maintained Research Institutes’ Libraries in India: Towards Digitization and Networking  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Indian Council of Social Science Research (ICSSR) was established for development of social science research in India. It provides grants to 27 research institutes and six regional centers in India. These institutes have established close links with scholars in the region through activities such as seminars, workshops, training, and consultancy programs. Some of the institutes are closely associated with

P. K Jain

2003-01-01

31

Social learning and human mate preferences: a potential mechanism for generating and maintaining between-population diversity in attraction  

PubMed Central

Inspired by studies demonstrating mate-choice copying effects in non-human species, recent studies of attractiveness judgements suggest that social learning also influences human preferences. In the first part of our article, we review evidence for social learning effects on preferences in humans and other animals. In the second part, we present new empirical evidence that social learning not only influences the attractiveness of specific individuals, but can also generalize to judgements of previously unseen individuals possessing similar physical traits. The different conditions represent different populations and, once a preference arises in a population, social learning can lead to the spread of preferences within that population. In the final part of our article, we discuss the theoretical basis for, and possible impact of, biases in social learning whereby individuals may preferentially copy the choices of those with high status or better access to critical information about potential mates. Such biases could mean that the choices of a select few individuals carry the greatest weight, rapidly generating agreement in preferences within a population. Collectively, these issues suggest that social learning mechanisms encourage the spread of preferences for certain traits once they arise within a population and so may explain certain cross-cultural differences.

Little, Anthony C.; Jones, Benedict C.; DeBruine, Lisa M.; Caldwell, Christine A.

2011-01-01

32

Higher-order social cognition in first-episode major depression.  

PubMed

Patients suffering from major depression experience difficulties in multiple cognitive faculties. A growing body of research has linked affective disorders to abnormalities in social cognition and specifically the processing of discrete emotional stimuli. However, little inquiry has gone into possible impairment in higher-order social cognition including theory of mind, social perception and metacognition. Forty-four medication-naïve patients with first-episode unipolar major depressive disorder and an equal number of matched controls were assessed by the Metacognitive Assessment Scale-Abbreviated (MAS-A), The Frith-Happé animations (FHA) and The Awareness of Social Inference Test (TASIT). Additionally, neurocognition was assessed utilyzing the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB). Depressed patients showed impairment in all domains of higher-order social cognitive ability. Importantly, social cognitive variables retained their inter-group significance after controlling for possible covariates including neurocognition. Results indicate that first-episode depressed patients experience difficulties in all domains of higher-order social cognition including theory of mind, social perception and metacognition. PMID:24524945

Ladegaard, Nicolai; Larsen, Erik Roj; Videbech, Poul; Lysaker, Paul H

2014-04-30

33

An Investigation of Higher-Order Thinking Skills in Smaller Learning Community Social Studies Classrooms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the extent to which higher-order thinking skills are promoted in social studies classes in high schools that are implementing smaller learning communities (SLCs). Data collection in this mixed-methods study included classroom observations and in-depth interviews. Findings indicated that higher-order thinking was rarely…

Fischer, Christopher; Bol, Linda; Pribesh, Shana

2011-01-01

34

Birth order, psychological well-being, and social supports in young adults.  

PubMed

Enduring aspects of childhood family structure that reflect emotional and interpersonal ties throughout development are assumed to affect the psychological well-being and social relatedness of the mature individual. This study examined one facet of family structure--birth order--and its effects on psychological well-being (PWB) and social networks in young adult high school graduates 17 to 23 years old (N = 2886; male = 76%, female = 24%). PWB was measured as an overall score with positive feelings and negative feelings subscores. First-born males scored greater on the negative feelings subscale of PWB, and male later borns had higher total psychological well-being. No differences were found for females. First borns and later borns did not differ in positive feelings or social relatedness. Further study is needed on the relationship of birth order and social relatedness in young adults, particularly females. PMID:2769249

Fullerton, C S; Ursano, R J; Wetzler, H P; Slusarcick, A

1989-09-01

35

Physical and social functional abilities seem to be maintained by a multifaceted randomized controlled nutritional intervention among old (>65 years) Danish nursing home residents.  

PubMed

The purpose was to test the hypothesis that a multifaceted 11 weeks randomized controlled intervention would have a significant influence of functional abilities in old nursing home residents. Participants were 121 old (>65 years) residents in seven Danish nursing homes. The intervention consisted of nutrition (chocolate, homemade oral supplements), group exercise (moderate intensity) and oral care. Measurements taken were weight, body mass index (BMI), energy and protein intake, and functional abilities (activities of daily living=ADL, cognitive performance, and social engagement). The results showed that the nutrition and exercise were well accepted. After 11 weeks the change in % weight (1.3 vs. -0.6%, p=0.005), % BMI (0.4 vs. -0.2%, p=0.003), energy intake (0.7 vs. -0.3 MJ/day, p=0.084) and protein intake (5 vs. -2g/day, p=0.012) was higher in the intervention group than in the control group. Also, after 11 weeks, social and physical function had decreased in the control group but was unchanged in the intervention group. The difference between groups was significant in relation to social engagement (p=0.009). After the end of the intervention both groups had lost weight and physical function. Cognitive performance did not change, at any time. In conclusion, it seems possible to maintain social (and physical) functional abilities in old nursing home residents by means of a multifaceted intervention. PMID:19596459

Beck, Anne Marie; Damkjaer, Karin; Sørbye, Liv W

2010-01-01

36

Dare the NEA Build a New Social Order?: Harold Rugg and the 1934 Annual Meeting  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Far from being the lone voice for a new social order, Harold Rugg was one many educators throughout the United States who believed that education should offer more to the American way of life than graduating students with some form of common knowledge, but with little ability to effect necessary change. And in 1934, few Americans would disagree…

Riley, Karen L.; Brown, Jennifer

2004-01-01

37

"Standing Porter at the Door of Thought": The Social Order of the Christian Science Church.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This examination of the social order of the Church of Christ, Scientist, provides a valuable learning opportunity for leaders of any organizational entity--or for any student of organizational communication/behavior. The study addresses labor, trust, power, and legitimization of activity within the church. It raises the issue of whether Christian…

Swanson, Douglas J.

38

Maintaining One's Self-Image Vis-à-Vis Others: The Role of Self-Affirmation in the Social Evaluation of the Self  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three studies examined how people maintain their self-images when they face threat to interpersonal aspects of the self. In Studies 1 and 2, we found evidence that low self-esteem people lower their estimates of their performance when they expect immediate feedback in order to protect themselves from the interpersonal threat inherent in such feedback, and that self-affirmation reduces this tendency

Steven J. Spencer; Steven Fein; Christine D. Lomore

2001-01-01

39

. . . that the social order prevails: death, ritual and the 'Roman' nurse.  

PubMed

In this article, the importance of ritual as a collective response to death is discussed. A case example, taken from a larger ethnographic study, is used to explore the responses and reactions of a group of Italian nurses to death as it occurs within an intensive care unit in Rome, Italy. The material presented is used to analyse the significance that cultural, religious and social beliefs and quasi-beliefs can have in nursing practice. The issues highlighted in this examination of the place of ritual in death are located and discussed within their highly specific cultural context and suggest that, where emphasis remains on nurses as a collective rather than on the individual nurse, ritual acts to ensure that social and moral order prevails. PMID:16700754

Goopy, Suzanne

2006-06-01

40

Boedecker al. (2009) Cramton nuclear Lamine undifferentiated mesic maintained fluid state fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP). Data level Lamine B1 expression significant change throughout differentiation. implies LaminB1 protein undifferentiated ESC undergoing ordering change  

EPA Pesticide Factsheets

Did you mean: Boedecker al. (2009) Cramton nuclear Lamine undifferentiated mesic maintained fluid state fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP). Data level Lamine B1 expression significant change throughout differentiation. implies LaminB1 protein undifferentiated ESC undergoing ordering change ?

41

Prior Social Setting, Type of Arousal, and Birth Order as Determinants of Affiliative Preference for a Working Situation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An experiment was conducted investigating the effects of prior social setting, type of arousal and birth order on affiliative preference in a working situation. Being with others prior to a fear or anxiety producing manipulation was related to affiliative...

I. N. Wheaton R. Helmreich

1969-01-01

42

More than Mere Numbers: The Impact of Lethal Control on the Social Stability of a Top-Order Predator  

PubMed Central

Population control of socially complex species may have profound ecological implications that remain largely invisible if only their abundance is considered. Here we discuss the effects of control on a socially complex top-order predator, the dingo (Canis lupus dingo). Since European occupation of Australia, dingoes have been controlled over much of the continent. Our aim was to investigate the effects of control on their abundance and social stability. We hypothesized that dingo abundance and social stability are not linearly related, and proposed a theoretical model in which dingo populations may fluctuate between three main states: (A) below carrying capacity and socially fractured, (B) above carrying capacity and socially fractured, or (C) at carrying capacity and socially stable. We predicted that lethal control would drive dingoes into the unstable states A or B, and that relaxation of control would allow recovery towards C. We tested our predictions by surveying relative abundance (track density) and indicators of social stability (scent-marking and howling) at seven sites in the arid zone subject to differing degrees of control. We also monitored changes in dingo abundance and social stability following relaxation and intensification of control. Sites where dingoes had been controlled within the previous two years were characterized by low scent-marking activity, but abundance was similar at sites with and without control. Signs of social stability steadily increased the longer an area was allowed to recover from control, but change in abundance did not follow a consistent path. Comparison of abundance and stability among all sites and years demonstrated that control severely fractures social groups, but that the effect of control on abundance was neither consistent nor predictable. Management decisions involving large social predators must therefore consider social stability to ensure their conservation and ecological functioning.

Wallach, Arian D.; Ritchie, Euan G.; Read, John; O'Neill, Adam J.

2009-01-01

43

From higher order thinking to higher order behavior: exploring the relationship between early cognitive skills and social competence in black boys.  

PubMed

This study examines the relations of higher order (i.e., abstract) thinking (HOT) skills to specific domains of social competence in Black boys (n = 108) attending publicly sponsored prekindergarten (pre-K) programs. Data for the study were collected as part of the National Center for Early Development and Learning (NCEDL) Multi-State Study, a national, longitudinal study examining the quality and outcomes in a representative sample of publicly sponsored pre-K programs in six states (N = 240). Pre-K and kindergarten teachers rated randomly selected children on measures of abstract thinking, self-regulation, and social functioning at the beginning and end of each school year. Applying structural equation modeling, compared with earlier time points, HOT measured in the fall of kindergarten significantly predicted each of the domains of social competence in the spring of kindergarten, with the exception of peer social skills, while controlling for general cognitive ability. Results suggest that early intervention to improve HOT may be an effective and more focused approach to address concerns about Black boys' early social competencies in specific domains and potentially reduce the risk of later social difficulties. PMID:23889011

Scott, Kristin M; Barbarin, Oscar A; Brown, Jeffrey M

2013-01-01

44

Analysis of Social Variables when an Initial Functional Analysis Indicates Automatic Reinforcement as the Maintaining Variable for Self-Injurious Behavior  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Self-injurious behavior (SIB) that occurs at high rates across all conditions of a functional analysis can suggest automatic or multiple functions. In the current study, we conducted a functional analysis for 1 individual with SIB. Results indicated that SIB was, at least in part, maintained by automatic reinforcement. Further analyses using…

Kuhn, Stephanie A. Contrucci; Triggs, Mandy

2009-01-01

45

A comparison of drug-seeking behavior maintained by d-amphetamine, l-deprenyl (selegiline) and d-deprenyl under a second-order schedule in squirrel monkeys  

PubMed Central

Rationale: l-Deprenyl (selegiline) is used in the treatment of Parkinson disease and has been proposed as an aid for cigarette smoking cessation and a treatment for psychostimulant abuse. l-Deprenyl is metabolized in the body to l-methamphetamine and l-amphetamine, suggesting that it may have abuse potential. Objectives: The current study assessed whether drug-seeking behavior for l-deprenyl or its isomer would be maintained on a second-order schedule and whether l-deprenyl would alter drug-seeking behavior maintained by d-amphetamine if given as a pretreatment. Methods: Squirrel monkeys learned to respond on a second-order schedule of reinforcement, where every tenth response was followed by a brief light flash and the first brief light flash after 30 min was paired with intravenous (i.v.) injection of d-amphetamine (0.56 mg/kg), administered over a two-minute period at the end of the session. When responding was stable, saline or different i.v. doses of d-amphetamine (0.3-1.0 mg/kg), l-deprenyl (0.1-10.0 mg/kg) and d-deprenyl (0.1-3.0 mg/kg) were substituted for 10 days each. Subsequently, monkeys were pretreated with 0.3 or 1.0 mg/kg l-deprenyl i.m. 30-min prior to d-amphetamine baseline sessions. Results: Drug-seeking behavior for d-amphetamine was well maintained on the second-order schedule. d-Deprenyl maintained high rates of drug-seeking behavior similar to d-amphetamine. l-Deprenyl maintained lower rates of responding that were not significantly above saline substitution levels. Pretreatment with l-deprenyl failed to alter drug-seeking behavior maintained by d-amphetamine. Conclusions: These results indicate that d-deprenyl, but not l-deprenyl, may have abuse potential. Under conditions where drug-seeking and drug-taking behavior is actively maintained by d-amphetamine, l-deprenyl, at doses that specifically inhibit MAO-B, may not be effective as a treatment.

Yasar, Sevil; Gaal, Jozsef; Panlilio, Leigh V.; Justinova, Zuzana; Molnar, Szecso V.; Redhi, Godfrey H.; Schindler, Charles W.

2005-01-01

46

The Contribution of Distance Education in Providing Education for a Just Social Order.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Concerned with the means by which distance education programs can be used to further social justice in various parts of the world, this paper considers both the generally recognized strengths of and some potential problems in three aspects of such programs--access, curriculum, and a monopolistic tendency. It draws on the experience of the…

Rumble, Greville

47

"[T]o Carve out New Orders in Experience": Imagination in a Social Action Literacy Project  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When students take a stance on authentic social issues in their English classrooms, they have the opportunity to imagine their world as otherwise. Along with attention to other intellectual skills and civic skills, educators should prioritize the development of imagination, as it is "crucial" if students are to "project and embrace a vision for…

Epstein, Shira Eve

2009-01-01

48

Higher Order Thinking in the Teaching of Social Studies: Connections between Theory and Practice.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An attempt is made to synthesize the diverse perspectives on the teaching of thinking, especially in the area of social studies. A conception is developed that incorporates major theoretical orientations as well as the views of teachers. The conception emphasizes interpretation, analysis, and manipulation of information to solve problems that…

Newmann, Fred M.

49

Poverty, Inequality and the Future of Social Policy: Western States in the New World Order.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book analyzes forces fraying the social fabric of many countries, and the reasons why some Western countries have been more successful than others in addressing these trends. Part 1, "Poverty, Income Inequality, and Labor Market Insecurity: A Comparative Perspective," includes (1) "Markets and States: Poverty Trends and Transfer System…

McFate, Katherine, Ed.; Lawson, Roger, Ed.; Wilson, William Julius, Ed.

50

How to learn good cue orders: When social learning benefits simple heuristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Take The Best (TTB) is a simple one-reason decision- making strategy that searches through cues in the order of cue validities. Interestingly, this heuristic performs comparably to, or even better than, more complex information-demanding strategies such as multiple regression. The question of how a cue ordering is learned, however, has been only recently addressed by Dieckmann and Todd (2004). Surprisingly,

Rocio Garcia-Retamero; Masanori Takezawa; G. Gigerenzer

2006-01-01

51

The Birth Order Factor: Ordinal Position, Social Strata, and Educational Achievement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores the relationship between birth order and academic attainment for 817 men and women from a variety of socioeconomic backgrounds. Suggests that birth order produces an impact on total years of education only among members of the middle class. These findings support a resource-dilution hypothesis. (MJP)

Travis, Russell; Kohli, Vandana

1995-01-01

52

Investment in higher order central processing regions is not constrained by brain size in social insects.  

PubMed

The extent to which size constrains the evolution of brain organization and the genesis of complex behaviour is a central, unanswered question in evolutionary neuroscience. Advanced cognition has long been linked to the expansion of specific brain compartments, such as the neocortex in vertebrates and the mushroom bodies in insects. Scaling constraints that limit the size of these brain regions in small animals may therefore be particularly significant to behavioural evolution. Recent findings from studies of paper wasps suggest miniaturization constrains the size of central sensory processing brain centres (mushroom body calyces) in favour of peripheral, sensory input centres (antennal and optic lobes). We tested the generality of this hypothesis in diverse eusocial hymenopteran species (ants, bees and wasps) exhibiting striking variation in body size and thus brain size. Combining multiple neuroanatomical datasets from these three taxa, we found no universal size constraint on brain organization within or among species. In fact, small-bodied ants with miniscule brains had mushroom body calyces proportionally as large as or larger than those of wasps and bees with brains orders of magnitude larger. Our comparative analyses suggest that brain organization in ants is shaped more by natural selection imposed by visual demands than intrinsic design limitations. PMID:24741016

Muscedere, Mario L; Gronenberg, Wulfila; Moreau, Corrie S; Traniello, James F A

2014-06-01

53

Maintaining Plant Genebanks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson explores the benefits and problems of maintaining plant genebanks globally. Students can plan a genebank or agricultural cryopreservation business venture, write a biography about a famous botanist, present views at a genebank symposium for developing nations and more!

Brian R. Shmaefsky (Kingwood College;)

2003-06-02

54

Design for the Maintainer.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report documents a project to study design-for-the- maintainer (DFM) issues relative to the maintenance of Navy aircraft. One task of the project was to identify design features influencing maintenance effectiveness. Toward this end, a new analytical...

F. Fuchs K. Inaba

1981-01-01

55

Maintaining DACUM Quality.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document discusses the importance of maintaining the quality of DACUM (Developing a Curriculum) occupational analyses and presents a 2-page checklist detailing DACUM quality performance criteria. The introduction to the checklist discusses various "infractions" discovered during an analyses of some curriculum/program developers' attempts to…

Norton, Robert E.

56

Reagan: Maintain Antarctic program  

Microsoft Academic Search

President Ronald Reagan has decided that the United States should maintain an `active and influential presence' in Antarctica to support the nation's interests. Following a review of a study by the Antarctica Policy Group, Reagan issued a memorandum, dated February 5, to the heads of 14 government agencies, including the National Science Foundation (NSF), the Office of Science and Technology

Barbara T. Richman

1982-01-01

57

Maintaining the corporate memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

A well known fact is that corporations don’t have memories. This is because the majority of the knowledge is maintained in the employees’ heads and when they leave that knowledge walks out with them. This continues to be the bane of process safety as errors get perpetuated and incidents repeated. A system can be created, though, to form and keep a

Jack Chosnek

2010-01-01

58

Adolescents and headaches: maintaining control.  

PubMed

Migraine headaches, much like a chronic illness, are reported to negatively affect adolescents physically, mentally, and socially, further disturbing this already turbulent time of development. Prior migraine research is limited in adolescents, and no qualitative studies have examined the lived experience of adolescents with migraines. This interpretive phenomenological study explored the experience of living with migraines in six adolescents ranging in age from 12 to 17 years. After coding data and grouping into clusters, three themes emerged: 1) maintaining control by either pressing on and enduring the burden, or by disengaging and isolating self; 2) mind overload; and 3) unsettling manifestations. Adolescents approach migraine episodes by either continuing with their life as "normal," or by removing themselves physically and/or emotionally. By understanding the potentially unique physical and psychological disruptions that adolescents with migraines experience, nurses can offer education, provide nonpharmacologic interventions, and conduct further research that will improve health outcomes. PMID:23540101

Helvig, Ashley W; Minick, Ptlene

2013-01-01

59

Acoustic Levitator Maintains Resonance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Transducer loading characteristics allow resonance tracked at high temperature. Acoustic-levitation chamber length automatically adjusted to maintain resonance at constant acoustic frequency as temperature changes. Developed for containerless processing of materials at high temperatures, system does not rely on microphones as resonance sensors, since microphones are difficult to fabricate for use at temperatures above 500 degrees C. Instead, system uses acoustic transducer itself as sensor.

Barmatz, M. B.; Gaspar, M. S.

1986-01-01

60

Maintaining radiation protection records  

SciTech Connect

This Report is part of a series prepared under the auspices of Scientific Committee 46 on Operational Radiation Safety. It provides guidance on maintaining radiation protection records. Record keeping is an essential element of every radiation protection program. This Report describes the elements that should enter into the design of a program for the maintenance of operational radiation safety records. The problems of the length of time for retention of records for operational, regulatory, epidemiologic and legal uses are discussed in detail.

Not Available

1992-11-30

61

Maintaining proper dental records.  

PubMed

Referred to as Standard of Care, the legal duty of a dentist requires exercising the degree of skill and care that would be exhibited by other prudent dentists faced with the same patient-care situation. Primarily, the goal of keeping good dental records is to maintain continuity of care. Diligent and complete documentation and charting procedures are essential to fulfilling the Standard of Care. Secondly, because dental records are considered legal documents they help protect the interest of the dentist and/or the patient by establishing the details of the services rendered. Patients today are better educated and more assertive than ever before and dentists must be equipped to protect themselves against malpractice claims. Every record component must be handled as if it could be summoned to a court room and scrutinized by an attorney, judge or jury. Complete, accurate, objective and honest entries in a patient record are the only way to defend against any clinical and/or legal problems that might arise. Most medical and dental malpractice claims arise from an unfavorable interaction with the dentist and not from a poor treatment outcome. By implementing the suggestions mentioned in this course, dental health care professionals can minimize the legal risks associated with the delivery of dental care to promote greater understanding for patients of their rights and privileges to their complete record. PMID:24834675

Leeuw, Wilhemina

2014-01-01

62

ADAS Update and Maintainability  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Since 2000, both the National Weather Service Melbourne (NWS MLB) and the Spaceflight Meteorology Group (SMG) have used a local data integration system (LOIS) as part of their forecast and warning operations. The original LOIS was developed by the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) in 1998 (Manobianco and Case 1998) and has undergone subsequent improvements. Each has benefited from three-dimensional (3-D) analyses that are delivered to forecasters every 15 minutes across the peninsula of Florida. The intent is to generate products that enhance short-range weather forecasts issued in support of NWS MLB and SMG operational requirements within East Central Florida. The current LDIS uses the Advanced Regional Prediction System (ARPS) Data Analysis System (AD AS) package as its core, which integrates a wide variety of national, regional, and local observational data sets. It assimilates all available real-time data within its domain and is run at a finer spatial and temporal resolution than current national or regional-scale analysis packages. As such, it provides local forecasters with a more comprehensive understanding of evolving fine-scale weather features. Over the years, the LDIS has become problematic to maintain since it depends on AMU-developed shell scripts that were written for an earlier version of the ADAS software. The goals of this task were to update the NWS MLB/SMG LDIS with the latest version of ADAS, incorporate new sources of observational data, and upgrade and modify the AMU-developed shell scripts written to govern the system. In addition, the previously developed ADAS graphical user interface (GUI) was updated. Operationally, these upgrades will result in more accurate depictions of the current local environment to help with short-range weather forecasting applications, while also offering an improved initialization for local versions of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model used by both groups.

Watson, Leela R.

2010-01-01

63

Maintaining the unmethylated state  

PubMed Central

Background A remarkable correspondence exists between the cytogenetic locations of the known fragile sites and frequently reported sites of hypermethylation. The best-known features of fragile sites are sequence motifs that are prone to the spontaneous formation of a non-B DNA structure. These facts, coupled with the known enzymological specificities of DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1), the ATP-dependent and actin-dependent helicases, and the ten-eleven translocation (TET) dioxygenases, suggest that these enzymes are involved in an epigenetic cycle that maintains the unmethylated state at these sites by resolving non-B structure, preventing both the sequestration of DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) and hypermethylation in normal cells. Presentation of the hypothesis The innate tendency of DNA sequences present at fragile sites to form non-B DNA structures results in de novo methylation of DNA at these sites that is held in check in normal cells by the action of ATP-dependent and actin-dependent helicases coupled with the action of TET dioxygenases. This constitutes a previously unrecognized epigenetic repair cycle in which spontaneously forming non-B DNA structures formed at fragile sites are methylated by DNMTs as they are removed by the action of ATP-dependent and actin-dependent helicases, with the resulting nascent methylation rendered non-transmissible by TET dioxygenases. Testing the hypothesis A strong prediction of the hypothesis is that knockdown of ATP-dependent and actin-dependent helicases will result in enhanced bisulfite sensitivity and hypermethylation at non-B structures in multiple fragile sites coupled with global hypomethylation. Implications of the hypothesis A key implication of the hypothesis is that helicases, like the lymphoid-specific helicase and alpha thalassemia/mental retardation syndrome X-linked helicase, passively promote accurate maintenance of DNA methylation by preventing the sequestration of DNMTs at sites of unrepaired non-B DNA structure. When helicase action is blocked due to mutation or downregulation of the respective genes, DNMTs stall at unrepaired non-B structures in fragile sites after methylating them and are unable to methylate other sites in the genome, resulting in hypermethylation at non-B DNA-forming sites, along with hypomethylation elsewhere.

2013-01-01

64

Can social workers and police be partners when dealing with bikie-gang related domestic violence and sexual assault?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Welfare and criminal justice systems manifest different goals, cultures, values and working methods. In Australia, the welfare sector has a culture of empowerment and concern for victims’ rights, within which social workers focus on social justice and social change. In contrast, the criminal justice sector (police) is patriarchal and para-military in structure, focusing on enforcing and maintaining community order and

Lesley Cooper; Julia Anaf; Margaret Bowden

2008-01-01

65

Cognitive Performance in the 12-Week-Old Infant: The Effects of Birth Order, Birth Spacing, Sex, and Social Class.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines the effects of sex, socioeconomic status, birth order and birth spacing on the cognitive performance of 12-week-old infants. A brief review of research on neonatal cognitive ability is followed by a description of the study itself. The subjects, 189 three-month-old Caucasian infants (61 first borns, 58 second borns, and 49…

Lewis, Michael; Gallas, Howard

66

Participants' perspective on maintaining behaviour change: a qualitative study within the European Diabetes Prevention Study  

PubMed Central

Background The European Diabetes Prevention Study (EDIPS) is an RCT of diet and exercise interventions in people with impaired glucose tolerance. We undertook a qualitative study, nested within the EDIPS in Newcastle-upon-Tyne, UK, aiming to understand the experience of participants who maintained behaviour change, in order to inform future interventions. Methods Participants were purposively sampled, according to success criteria for diet and physical activity change maintenance, and invited to attend individual semi-structured interviews. Fifteen participants completed an interview and reflected on their experience over three to five years. We used the Framework method to analyse the transcribed data. Results Main themes were identified as factors that help (props) and those that hinder (burdens) behaviour change maintenance at different organisational levels: individual (both physical and psychological), social and environmental. Pre-existing physical conditions (such as arthritis) and social demands (such as caring for an ageing relative) hindered, whereas the benefits of becoming fitter and of having social and professional support helped, participants in maintaining behaviour change. Participants' long term experiences highlighted the salience of the continuous change in their physical, social and environmental conditions over time. Conclusion The construct of props and burdens facilitates a holistic view of participants' behaviour. Efforts to encourage behaviour change maintenance should take account of context and the way this changes over time, and should include strategies to address these issues. The experience of participants who maintain behaviour change highlights the challenges for the wider implementation of diabetes prevention strategies. Trial Registration (ISRCTN 15670600)

Penn, Linda; Moffatt, Suzanne M; White, Martin

2008-01-01

67

Engine Maintainability: Objectives and Methods.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Major considerations used to improve engine maintainability are identified. The basis for maintainability features are a lot of requirements. These requirements are defined by the customer and created using several analyses. Criteria for good maintainabil...

A. Senft

1989-01-01

68

"Confinement of the Higher Orders": The Social Role of Private Lunatic Asylums in Ireland, c. 1820-60  

PubMed Central

The period 1820–60 marked an era of transition and diversity in Ireland that rapidly transformed the face of Irish society. Inextricably linked with these processes was the expansion of Ireland's private asylum system. This system diverged from its British counterpart both in the socioeconomic cohort it served and in the role it played within the mental health-care system as a whole. The implementation of the 1842 Private Asylums (Ireland) Act, the first legislative measure geared exclusively toward the system, highlighted the growing importance of private care in Ireland as well as providing for the licensing and regulation of these institutions for the first time. To date, historians of Irish medicine have focused almost exclusively on the pauper insane. This article aims to shift this emphasis toward other categories of the Irish insane through exploration of the Irish private asylum system, its growth throughout the period, and the social profile of private patients. I shall also interrogate the trade in lunacy model through exploration of financial considerations, discharge and recovery rates, and conditions of care and argue that while Irish private institutions were a lucrative business venture, the quality of care upheld was apparently high. Finally, I shall argue that Irish private asylums catered primarily for the upper classes and briefly explore alternative provisional measures for other non-pauper sectors of society.

Mauger, Alice

2012-01-01

69

75 FR 34782 - Exelon Generation Company, LLC, Braidwood Station, Independent Spent Fuel Installation Order...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Spent Fuel Installation Order Modifying License (Effective...pursuant to compliance with orders for access to safeguards...or country-of- birth issued certificate of...individual pursuant to this Order shall establish and maintain...individual's name, date of birth, social security...

2010-06-18

70

Signals in Social Supernets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social network sites (SNSs) provide a new way to organize and navigate an egocentric social network. Are they a fad, briefly popular but ultimately useless? Or are they the harbingers of a new and more powerful social world, where the ability to maintain an immense network - a social \\

Judith Donath

2007-01-01

71

Motives for maintaining personal journal blogs.  

PubMed

Although much has been learned about political and news blogs, there has been a lack of research on personal journal blogs. They deserve further research attention because of the implications blogs have in many bloggers' immediate social networks, as well as the opportunities for scientific inquiry in a rich and evolving communication environment. This study explored bloggers' motives for maintaining personal journal blogs, or blogs that resemble diaries about one's personal life. Stemming from the uses and gratifications perspective, antecedents (age, sex, loneliness, disclosiveness) and blogging motives composed a model for predicting the amount of blog use. Seven motives emerged from online survey data: helping/informing, social connection, pass time, exhibitionism, archiving/organizing, professionalism, and get feedback. Age, sex, loneliness, and disclosiveness predicted different motives, and the total model (age, sex, loneliness, disclosiveness, and motives) was useful for explaining 13% of the variance in the amount of blog use. PMID:21329438

Hollenbaugh, Erin E

2011-01-01

72

Maintaining families' well-being in everyday life.  

PubMed

The aim of this paper is to discuss how everyday life changes for the family in the event of chronic illness or disability. It changes physically due to loss of body function and socially due to time and other constraints related to treatment or lack of mobility. Equally important, there is a psychological impact due to the uncertainty of the future. The article will explore how family participation can help to maintain well-being in everyday life. The family should therefore focus on their own needs as much as on the needs of the family members who are ill. In order to maintain well-being in everyday life, it is crucial for the family to create routines and spend time doing things that they enjoy. By doing this, the family will create a rhythm of well-being regardless of the critical family situation. Family members and professional caregivers also need to come together at the beginning and during the illness or disability event to discuss changes that could be made day-to-day for all those involved, thereby making for an easier transition into care giving. PMID:21637350

Ziegert, Kristina

2011-01-01

73

Social Cognition in Infancy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Maintains that Carpenter, Nagell, and Tomasello's (1998) data reveal little definitive information on cognitive processes involved in infants' social interactive behaviors. Evaluates support for Carpenter et al.'s claims for infant social cognition and discusses the nature of infant cognition. Maintains that what is needed is experimental evidence…

Moore, Chris

1998-01-01

74

Publicly Private and Privately Public: Social Networking on YouTube  

Microsoft Academic Search

YouTube is a public video-sharing website where people can experience varying degrees of engagement with videos, ranging from casual viewing to sharing videos in order to maintain social relationships. Based on a one-year ethnographic project, this article analyzes how YouTube participants developed and maintained social networks by manipulating physical and interpretive access to their videos. The analysis reveals how circulating

Patricia G. Lange

2007-01-01

75

Social Skills Interventions  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The term “social skills” encompasses an array of learned behaviors that share the common goal of maintaining or increasing\\u000a reinforcement within a social context. Deficits in social skills can occur at any developmental period and are not likely\\u000a to improve spontaneously because impaired social skills impede interactions with other people. In turn, unsatisfying or disruptive\\u000a interactions exacerbate social skill deficits

Ashley J. Smith; Judith A. Jordan; Mary Fran Flood; David J. Hansen

76

Tips to Maintain Good Posture  

MedlinePLUS

Tips to Maintain Good Posture We often hear that good posture is essential for good health. We recognize poor posture when we see ... real grasp of the importance and necessity of good posture. Why is good posture important? Good posture ...

77

Verification of Quantitative Maintainability Requirements.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document develops basic concepts for treating Maintainability quantitatively, with particular attention devoted to probabilistic aspects. It focuses on the special characteristics of the Lognormal Distribution as they relate to specifying and demonst...

G. Grippo R. M. DeMilia

1965-01-01

78

Interacting with Emotion and Memory Enabled Virtual Characters and Social Robots  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Personality and emotion modeling is being used recently in order to create variation in the behaviour of virtual characters\\u000a and social robots and to make them socially intelligent for more engaged interaction with people. For these characters to\\u000a be everyday social actors, it is also important that they can remember and maintain their feelings and establish unique emotional\\u000a interpersonal relationships

Zerrin Kasap; Nadia Magnenat-Thalmann

79

Maintaining Sustainability for Green Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The promise of sustainably designed school facilities is that they will operate more efficiently and last longer than buildings constructed in more traditional ways. But that promise comes with a big if. The payoff is delivered only if the facility managers operate and maintain the buildings in ways that adhere to sustainable strategies called for…

Kennedy, Mike

2011-01-01

80

Maintaining Discipline in Classroom Instruction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document focuses on classroom discipline and how the teacher can maintain an environment that will optimize appropriate learning. Part 1 defines classroom discipline. Part 2 discusses classroom misbehavior and describes a number of classroom management techniques. Part 3 offers suggestions for control techniques. Part 4 discusses techniques…

Gnagey, William J.

81

Issues in Purchasing and Maintaining Intrinsic Standards  

SciTech Connect

Intrinsic standards are widely used in the metrology community because they realize the best level uncertainty for many metrology parameters. For some intrinsic standards, recommended practices have been developed to assist metrologists in the selection of equipment and the development of appropriate procedures in order to realize the intrinsic standard. As with the addition of any new standard, the metrology laboratory should consider the pros and cons relative to their needs before purchasing the standard so that the laboratory obtains the maximum benefit from setting up and maintaining these standards. While the specific issues that need to be addressed depend upon the specific intrinsic standard and the level of realization, general issues that should be considered include ensuring that the intrinsic standard is compatible with the laboratory environment, that the standard is compatible with the current and future workload, and whether additional support standards will be required in order to properly maintain the intrinsic standard. When intrinsic standards are used to realize the best level of uncertainty for a specific metrology parameter, they usually require critical and important maintenance activities. These activities can including training of staff in the system operation, as well as safety procedures; performing periodic characterization measurements to ensure proper system operation; carrying out periodic intercomparisons with similar intrinsic standards so that proper operation is demonstrated; and maintaining control or trend charts of system performance. This paper has summarized many of these important issues and therefore should be beneficial to any laboratory that is considering the purchase of an intrinsic standard.

PETTIT,RICHARD B.; JAEGER,KLAUS; EHRLICH,CHARLES D.

2000-09-12

82

Dynamically Maintaining the Visibility Graph  

Microsoft Academic Search

An algorithm is presented to maintain the visibility graph of a set of N line segments in the plane in O(log2N+K log N) time, where K is the total number of arcs of the visibility graph that are destroyed or created upon insertion or deletion of a line segment. The line segments should be disjoint, except possibly at their end-points.

Gert Vegter

1991-01-01

83

Green world maintained by adaptation  

Microsoft Academic Search

An ecological theory (HSS hypothesis) predicts that carnivores maintain the terrestrial ecosystem with abundant plants (green\\u000a world) by regulating herbivore abundance. However, a weak density dependence of herbivores will make the equilibrium unstable\\u000a and results in population oscillations with a large amplitude. Here, we study a possibility that the dynamics can be stabilized\\u000a if defence trait by herbivores and offence

Akihiko Mougi; Yoh Iwasa

2011-01-01

84

NMG documentation, part 3: maintainer`s guide  

SciTech Connect

This is the third of a three-part report documenting NMG, the Numerical Mathematics Guide. Part I is aimed at the user of the systenL It contains an introduction, with an out- line of the complete report, and Chapter 1, User`s Point of View. Part II is aimed at the programmer and contains Chapter 2, How It Works. Part III is aimed at the maintainer of NMG and contains Chapter 3, Maintenance, and Chapter 4, Validation. Because its contents are so specialized, Part III will receive only limited distribution. Note that each chapter has its own page numbering and table of contents.

Fritsch, F.N.; Dickinson, R.P. Jr.

1996-07-01

85

Topic-based social network analysis for virtual communities of interests in the dark web  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study of extremist groups and their interaction is a crucial task in order to maintain homeland security and peace. Tools such as social networks analysis and text mining have contributed to their understanding in order to develop counter-terrorism applications. This work addresses the topic-based community key-members extraction problem, for which our method combines both text mining and social network

Gaston L'Huillier; Hector Alvarez; Sebastián A. Ríos; Felipe Aguilera

2011-01-01

86

Topic-based social network analysis for virtual communities of interests in the Dark Web  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study of extremist groups and their interaction is a crucial task in order to maintain homeland security and peace. Tools such as social networks analysis and text mining have contributed to the understanding of this kind of groups in order to develop counter-terrorism applications. This work addresses the topic-based community key members extraction problem, for which our method combines

Gaston L'Huillier; Sebastián A. Ríos; Hector Alvarez; Felipe Aguilera

2010-01-01

87

PLAID as a maintainability tool  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

PLAID is a computer-aided design tool for human factors engineering which has been used successfully in the Space Shuttle program and for design analysis of Space Station Freedom. PLAID capability includes analysis of visual fields of view, of the ability to reach a specified point, and of spatial conflicts. It enables the creation of animations which depict whole sequences of motions of astronauts and equipment. The PLAID graphics capability is described and its application to man-systems integration is briefly examined. The use of PLAID for maintainability is addressed, and future plans for PLAID are discussed.

Woolford, Barbara J.; Orr, Linda S.; Mount, Frances E.

1989-01-01

88

Maintaining consistency in distributed systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In systems designed as assemblies of independently developed components, concurrent access to data or data structures normally arises within individual programs, and is controlled using mutual exclusion constructs, such as semaphores and monitors. Where data is persistent and/or sets of operation are related to one another, transactions or linearizability may be more appropriate. Systems that incorporate cooperative styles of distributed execution often replicate or distribute data within groups of components. In these cases, group oriented consistency properties must be maintained, and tools based on the virtual synchrony execution model greatly simplify the task confronting an application developer. All three styles of distributed computing are likely to be seen in future systems - often, within the same application. This leads us to propose an integrated approach that permits applications that use virtual synchrony with concurrent objects that respect a linearizability constraint, and vice versa. Transactional subsystems are treated as a special case of linearizability.

Birman, Kenneth P.

1991-01-01

89

The Lower-Order Expectations of High-Stakes Tests: A Four-State Analysis of Social Studies Standards and Test Alignment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study indicates that the state-mandated high-stakes social studies assessments in four states do not require students to demonstrate that they have met the cognitive demands articulated in the state-mandated learning standards. Further, the assessments do not allow students to demonstrate the critical thinking skills required by the…

DeWitt, Scott W.; Patterson, Nancy; Blankenship, Whitney; Blevins, Brooke; DiCamillo, Lorrei; Gerwin, David; Gradwell, Jill M.; Gunn, John; Maddox, Lamont; Salinas, Cinthia; Saye, John; Stoddard, Jeremy; Sullivan, Caroline C.

2013-01-01

90

An Historical Analysis of the Educational Ideas of George S. Counts and the Role of the School in the Modern Social Order.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The ideas of the populist George S. Counts on education's role in fostering democratic economic change are relevant to a consideration of modern problems and the prospects for American socialism (defined here as community and worker control of economic production). Counts, writing in the 1920s and 1930s, felt strongly that capitalism no longer…

Romanish, Bruce A.

91

Conceptualising value creation for social change management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Australian and international governments are increasingly adopting social marketing as a social change management tool to deal with complex social problems. Government decision makers typically need to balance the use of business models and management theories whilst maintaining the integrity of government policy. In taking this approach, decision makers experience management tensions between a social mission to equitably deliver social

Rebekah Russell-Bennett; Josephine Previte; Nadia Zainuddin

2009-01-01

92

Explaining Social Constructivism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many versions of social constructivism (SC) maintain that objects exist only after they enter communicative space. At one level an object's existence is determined through an individual's sensory perception; through communicative acts, both intra- and interpersonally, they are defined and eventually embody meaning. The social process of defining…

Keaton, Shaughan A.; Bodie, Graham D.

2011-01-01

93

Addressing Social Issues.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Maintains that advertising can help people become more aware of social responsibilities. Describes a successful nationwide newspaper advertising competition for college students in which ads address social issues such as literacy, drugs, teen suicide, and teen pregnancy. Notes how the ads have helped grassroots programs throughout the United…

Schoebel, Susan

1991-01-01

94

Bioreactor maintained living skin matrix.  

PubMed

Numerous reconstructive procedures result in wounds that require skin grafting. Often, the amount of tissue available from donor sites is limited. In vivo tissue expanders have been used clinically to generate larger sections of skin, and other methods exist to cover large wounds, but all have significant limitations. We investigated whether these difficulties could be overcome by increasing the surface area of skin in vitro while maintaining tissue viability. Human foreskin was incrementally expanded in a computer-controlled bioreactor system over 6 days to increase its surface dimensions under culture conditions. Morphological, ultrastructural, and mechanical properties of the foreskin were evaluated before and after expansion using histology, scanning electron microscopy, mercury porosimetry, and tensile testing. The surface area of the tissue was 110.7% +/- 12.2% greater, with maintenance of cell viability and proliferative potential. Histomorphological and ultrastructural analyses showed that dermal structural integrity was preserved. The pore diameter of the expanded skin was 64.49% +/- 32.8% greater. The mechanical properties were not adversely affected. These findings show that expansion of living skin matrices can be achieved using a computer-controlled bioreactor system. This technique provides an opportunity to generate large amounts of skin for reconstructive procedures. PMID:18821843

Ladd, Mitchell R; Lee, Sang Jin; Atala, Anthony; Yoo, James J

2009-04-01

95

Remotely maintained waste transfer pump  

SciTech Connect

Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) operates the Savannah River Site (SRS) for the Department of Energy (DOE). Waste from the processing of irradiated material is stored in large shielded tanks. Treated liquid wastes are to be transferred from these tanks to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) for incorporation in glass suitable for storage in a federal repository. Characteristics of the wastes range from water-like liquid to highly viscous wastes containing suspended solids. Pumping head requirements for various conditions ranged from 10 meters (35 feet) to 168 meters (550 feet). A specially designed, cantilever type, remotely operated and maintained pump was designed and built to transfer the wastes. To demonstrate the design, a prototype pump was built and testing thoroughly with simulated waste. Severe vibration problems were overcome by proper drive shaft selection and careful control of the space between the pump shaft and fixed running clearances (sometimes called seals). Eleven pumps are now installed and six pumps have been successfully run in water service.

Eargle, J.C.

1990-01-01

96

Remotely maintained waste transfer pump  

SciTech Connect

Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) operates the Savannah River Site (SRS) for the Department of Energy (DOE). Waste from the processing of irradiated material is stored in large shielded tanks. Treated liquid wastes are to be transferred from these tanks to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) for incorporation in glass suitable for storage in a federal repository. Characteristics of the wastes range from water-like liquid to highly viscous wastes containing suspended solids. Pumping head requirements for various conditions ranged from 10 meters (35 feet) to 168 meters (550 feet). A specially designed, cantilever type, remotely operated and maintained pump was designed and built to transfer the wastes. To demonstrate the design, a prototype pump was built and testing thoroughly with simulated waste. Severe vibration problems were overcome by proper drive shaft selection and careful control of the space between the pump shaft and fixed running clearances (sometimes called seals). Eleven pumps are now installed and six pumps have been successfully run in water service.

Eargle, J.C.

1990-12-31

97

25 CFR 11.447 - Maintaining a public nuisance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAW AND ORDER COURTS OF INDIAN OFFENSES AND LAW AND ORDER CODE Criminal Offenses § 11.447 Maintaining a public nuisance. A person who permits his or her property to fall into such...

2011-04-01

98

Social disorder and diagnostic order: the US Mental Hygiene Movement, the Midtown Manhattan study and the development of psychiatric epidemiology in the 20th century.  

PubMed

Recent scholarship regarding psychiatric epidemiology has focused on shifting notions of mental disorders. In psychiatric epidemiology in the last decades of the 20th century and the first decade of the 21st century, mental disorders have been perceived and treated largely as discrete categories denoting an individual's mental functioning as either pathological or normal. In the USA, this grew partly out of evolving modern epidemiological work responding to the State's commitment to measure the national social and economic burdens of psychiatric disorders and subsequently to determine the need for mental health services and to survey these needs over time. Notably absent in these decades have been environmentally oriented approaches to cultivating normal, healthy mental states, approaches initially present after World War II. We focus here on a set of community studies conducted in the 1950s, particularly the Midtown Manhattan study, which grew out of a holistic conception of mental health that depended on social context and had a strong historical affiliation with: the Mental Hygiene Movement and the philosophy of its founder, Adolf Meyer; the epidemiological formation of field studies and population surveys beginning early in the 20th century, often with a health policy agenda; the recognition of increasing chronic disease in the USA; and the radical change in orientation within psychiatry around World War II. We place the Midtown Manhattan study in historical context-a complex narrative of social institutions, professional formation and scientific norms in psychiatry and epidemiology, and social welfare theory that begins during the Progressive era (1890-1920) in the USA. PMID:25031047

March, Dana; Oppenheimer, Gerald M

2014-08-01

99

Maintaining the Telescope Bibliography at Gemini Observatory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The library profession benefits tremendously from ever-changing web technologies. In maintaining a telescope bibliography, web-publishing revolutionized the way librarians track relevant publications. Thanks to the search abilities provided by the NASA Astrophysics Data System, arXiv, publishers, as well as Google Scholar, and other such resources, online searching for Gemini-based publications has replaced the tedious perusing of print journals. However, we should keep in mind that online searching is neither flawless nor simple — different content providers require different search strategies. Sometimes the retrievals are not as complete as one expects. Information providers should be constantly improving their searching abilities in order to make the task of electronic publication tracking more reliable and efficient.

Zhang, X.

2010-10-01

100

Maintaining quality in blood banking.  

PubMed

Regulation of transfusion or blood banking facilities has followed, rather than preceded the regulation of the pharmaceutical industry and today we find, in Europe and the United States, the basic regulations developed for the pharmaceutical industry being extended to blood transfusion centres (BTC)*. In this article we explore the role of voluntary accreditation or registration to quality systems standards such as ISO 9000 and discuss how these can be used to advantage and how these standards can provide a substantial base for meeting legislative requirements. In the UK there is also a voluntary accreditation procedure available for all clinical laboratories, known as Clinical Pathology Accreditation (CPA). Comparisons between ISO 9000, CPA and other standards are made. We also discuss how voluntary registration, particularly to ISO 9000 can provide an excellent basis for moving into more extensive and progressive Total Quality Management (TQM) programmes which in turn bring a variety of benefits, not least of which is increased staff involvement in your organisation. Experience of the route to quality through voluntary accreditation suggests that external assessment delivers new insights into the organisation that cannot easily be supplanted by internal audit. In Europe legislation relating to pharmaceuticals has steadily increased in scope and in detailed requirements from those set out in the 1965 Directive 65/65/EEC. The legislative framework has steadily increased, bringing plasma and plasma products as well as others such as radiopharmaceuticals, into the product licensing requirements. The progression of legislation seems unlikely to cease and it is debatable how long the Medicines Control Agency (MCA) and its Inspectorate will accept that BTCs can operate at a level which is different from that of the majority of pharmaceutical manufacturers. The change in emphasis in legislation particularly in Europe means that harm that is caused to a patient by a blood component will warrant redress. The degree of fault attributed to the producer will in part depend on whether they have met the best available standards at all stages in the preparation of the product. If a Transfusion Service can show that it's operation has external accreditation, particularly to an internationally recognised standard such as ISO 9000 and they can show that staff have been properly trained, that equipment is properly supplied and maintained and that the facility is appropriate to the work being carried out, then the liability that exists when something goes wrong will be reduced.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:7795421

Harvey, E; Hewison, C; Nevalainen, D E; Lloyd, H L

1995-03-01

101

Exploiting Social Structures and Social Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In recent years there has been much recent interest in the use of “online” social networks for maintaining and building relationships\\u000a with others. In this talk we explore some of the key characteristics of social networks and how they can potentially be exploited\\u000a to provide intelligent content sharing in the pervasive and mobile computing domain.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Wireless and mobile devices such

Roger M. Whitaker

2010-01-01

102

An Empirical Analysis of the Impact of Recruitment Patterns on RDS Estimates among a Socially Ordered Population of Female Sex Workers in China  

PubMed Central

Respondent-driven sampling (RDS) is a method for recruiting “hidden” populations through a network-based, chain and peer referral process. RDS recruits hidden populations more effectively than other sampling methods and promises to generate unbiased estimates of their characteristics. RDS’s faithful representation of hidden populations relies on the validity of core assumptions regarding the unobserved referral process. With empirical recruitment data from an RDS study of female sex workers (FSWs) in Shanghai, we assess the RDS assumption that participants recruit nonpreferentially from among their network alters. We also present a bootstrap method for constructing the confidence intervals around RDS estimates. This approach uniquely incorporates real-world features of the population under study (e.g., the sample’s observed branching structure). We then extend this approach to approximate the distribution of RDS estimates under various peer recruitment scenarios consistent with the data as a means to quantify the impact of recruitment bias and of rejection bias on the RDS estimates. We find that the hierarchical social organization of FSWs leads to recruitment biases by constraining RDS recruitment across social classes and introducing bias in the RDS estimates.

Yamanis, Thespina J.; Merli, M. Giovanna; Neely, William Whipple; Tian, Felicia Feng; Moody, James; Tu, Xiaowen; Gao, Ersheng

2013-01-01

103

Keeping in touch by technology: maintaining friendships after a residential move  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many observers have praised new communication technologies for providing convenient and affordable tools for maintaining relationships at a distance. Yet the precise role of mediated communication in relationship maintenance has been difficult to isolate. In this paper, we treat residential moves as natural experiments that threaten existing social relationships and often force people to rely on mediated communication to maintain

Irina Shklovski; Robert E. Kraut; Jonathon N. Cummings

2008-01-01

104

Socially sensitive lactation: exploring the social context of breastfeeding.  

PubMed

Many women report difficulties with breastfeeding and do not maintain the practice for as long as intended. Although psychologists and other researchers have explored some of the difficulties they experience, fuller exploration of the relational contexts in which breastfeeding takes place is warranted to enable more in-depth analysis of the challenges these pose for breastfeeding women. This article is based on qualitative data collected from 22 first-time breastfeeding mothers through two phases of interviews and audio-diaries which explored how the participants experienced their relationships with significant others and the wider social context of breastfeeding in the first five weeks postpartum. Using a thematic analysis informed by symbolic interactionism, we develop the overarching theme of 'Practising socially sensitive lactation' which captures how participants felt the need to manage tensions between breastfeeding and their perceptions of the needs, expectations and comfort of others. We argue that breastfeeding remains a problematic social act, despite its agreed importance for child health. While acknowledging the limitations of our sample and analytic approach, we suggest ways in which perinatal and public health interventions can take more effective account of the social challenges of breastfeeding in order to facilitate the health and psychological well-being of mothers and their infants. PMID:23126658

Leeming, Dawn; Williamson, Iain; Lyttle, Steven; Johnson, Sally

2013-01-01

105

Space Maintainers for Premature Tooth Loss  

MedlinePLUS

... in the child's mouth. This is called a fixed space maintainer. There are several types of fixed space maintainers. What type is used will depend ... made by a dentist or orthodontist. For a fixed space maintainer, a metal band is placed around ...

106

RELATION BETWEEN SOFTWARE METRICS AND MAINTAINABILITY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary: This paper presents the relation between software metrics and maintainability and the metrics which characterise the ease of the maintenance process when applied to a specific product. The criteria of maintainability and the methods through which these criteria are understood and interpreted by software programmers are analysed. Surveys and examples that show whether software metrics and maintainability are correlated

Dimitris Stavrinoudis

1999-01-01

107

Attention Training for Generalized Social Anxiety Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Attentional bias toward negative social cues is thought to serve an etiological and\\/or maintaining role in social anxiety disorder (SAD). The current study tested whether training patients to disengage from negative social cues may ameliorate social anxiety in patients (N = 36) with a primary diagnosis of generalized SAD. Patients were randomly assigned to either an attention training condition (n

Norman B. Schmidt; J. Anthony Richey; Julia D. Buckner; Kiara R. Timpano

2009-01-01

108

A Reactive Motion Planner to Maintain Visibility of Unpredictable Targets  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with the problem of com- puting the motions of one or more robot observers in order to maintain visibility of one or several moving tar- gets. The targets are assumed to move unpredictably, and the distribution of obstacles in the workspace is assumed to be known in advance. Our algorithm com- putes a motion strategy by maximizing

Rafael Murrieta-cid; Héctor H. González-baños; Benjamín Tovar

2002-01-01

109

[Social pain].  

PubMed

This chapter focuses on what social pain is and how it should be managed. In order to understand social pain in a cancer patient, it is necessary to recognize the change in the patient's daily life after the diagnosis of cancer. Because the degree of suffering and the relationships with family members and the people he or she worked with differ from patient to patient, it is important to note that the context of social pain is different in each patient. Five points shown below are essential in managing social pain. 1. Economical suffering may be alleviated by utilization of the social security system while taking into account each patient's standard of living. 2. Burdens on family members should be lessened, such as by not having them stay at the patient's bedside every day and letting them go home occasionally. 3. The normal patterns of communication, support, and conflict in the family should be identified, and the extent to which they have been disrupted by the illness should be assessed. 4. It is important to understand the ethnic, cultural, and religious background of the patient and the potential impact of their influence on the individual and the illness. 5. Practical or emotional unfinished business that the patient has needs to be identified, and efforts should be made to support fulfillment. PMID:21950034

Shimoyama, Naohito; Shimoyama, Megumi

2011-09-01

110

Space Maintainers in Dentistry: Past to Present  

PubMed Central

Early orthodontic interventions are often initiated in the developing dentition to promote favourable developmental changes. Interceptive orthodontic can eliminate or reduce the severity of a developing malocclusion, the complexity of orthodontic treatment, overall treatment time and cost. The safest way to prevent future malocclusions from tooth loss is to place a space maintainer that is effective and durable. An appropriate use of space maintainer is advocated to hold the space until the eruption of permanent teeth. This case report describes the various changing trends in use of space maintainers: conventional band and loop, prefabricated band with custom made loop and glass fibre reinforced composite resins as space maintainers.

Setia, Vikas; Pandit, Inder Kumar; Srivastava, Nikhil; Gugnani, Neeraj; Sekhon, Harveen Kaur

2013-01-01

111

Designing for Maintainability and System Availability  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The final goal for a delivered system (whether a car, aircraft, avionics box or computer) should be its availability to operate and perform its intended function over its expected design life. Hence, in designing a system, we cannot think in terms of delivering the system and just walking away. The system supplier needs to provide support throughout the operating life of the product. Here, supportability requires an effective combination of reliability, maintainability, logistics and operations engineering (as well as safety engineering) to have a system that is available for its intended use throughout its designated mission lifetime. Maintainability is a key driving element in the effective support and upkeep of the system as well as providing the ability to modify and upgrade the system throughout its lifetime. This paper then, will concentrate on maintainability and its integration into the system engineering and design process. The topics to be covered include elements of maintainability, the total cost of ownership, how system availability, maintenance and logistics costs and spare parts cost effect the overall program costs. System analysis and maintainability will show how maintainability fits into the overall systems approach to project development. Maintainability processes and documents will focus on how maintainability is to be performed and what documents are typically generated for a large scale program. Maintainability analysis shows how trade-offs can be performed for various alternative components. The conclusions summarize the paper and are followed by specific problems for hands-on training.

Lalli, Vincent R.; Packard, Michael H.

1997-01-01

112

Social Phobia (Social Anxiety Disorder)  

MedlinePLUS

What is Social Phobia (Social Anxiety Disorder) Social phobia is a strong fear of being judged by others and of being embarrassed. This ... with social phobia. Share Science News About Social Phobia Bullying Exerts Psychiatric Effects Into Adulthood Brain Imaging ...

113

Social Science Hub  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Maintained by Sharyn Clarkson, a BA in sociology and anthropology, this Website provides a directory for those looking for materials in the social sciences. The site features categorized listings of social science Websites, online journals and e-zines, search engines, government Websites, databases and archives, interactive forums, and a what's new section. There is an emphasis, but by no means an exclusive one, on Australian materials. Some entries are annotated, and the site is frequently updated.

114

Encapsulation method for maintaining biodecontamination activity  

DOEpatents

A method for maintaining the viability and subsequent activity of microorganisms utilized in a variety of environments to promote biodecontamination of surfaces. One application involves the decontamination of concrete surfaces. Encapsulation of microbial influenced degradation (MID) microorganisms has shown that MID activity is effectively maintained under passive conditions, that is, without manual addition of moisture or nutrients, for an extended period of time.

Rogers, Robert D. (Idaho Falls, ID); Hamilton, Melinda A. (Idaho Falls, ID); Nelson, Lee O. (Idaho Falls, ID); Benson, Jennifer (Cockermouth, GB); Green, Martin J. (Wooton, GB); Milner, Timothy N. (Centerville, VA)

2002-01-01

115

Equilateral pentagon polarization maintaining photonic crystal fibre with low nonlinearity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new pentagon polarization maintaining photonic crystal fibre with low nonlinearity is introduced. The full vector finite element method was used to investigate the distribution and the effective area of modal field, the nonlinear properties, the effective indices of two orthogonal polarization modes and the birefringence of the new PM-PCF effectively. It is found that the birefringence of the new polarization maintaining photonic crystal fibre can easily achieve the order of 10-4, and it can obtain higher birefringence, larger effectively mode-field area and lower nonlinearity than traditional hexagonal polarization maintaining photonic crystal fibre with the same hole pitch, same hole diameter, and same ring number. It is important for sensing and communication applications, especially has potential application for fibre optical gyroscope.

Yang, Han-Rui; Li, Xu-You; Hong, Wei; Hao, Jin-Hui

2012-02-01

116

Social Skills, Social Research Skills, Sociological Skills: Teaching Reflexivity?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Asserts that training in social research methods is a central part of sociology education. Maintains that, while social and communication skills are managerially and epistemologically important to successful research, they often are ignored. Argues for the inclusion of these skills in research methods courses. (CFR)

Jenkins, Richard

1995-01-01

117

Social behavior as discriminative stimulus and consequence in social anthropology  

PubMed Central

A behavior analysis is provided for three topics in social anthropology. Food, social relations, and ritual behaviors can enter into contingencies both as functional consequences and as discriminative stimuli for the reinforcement of behaviors through generalized social consequences. Many “symbolic” behaviors, which some social anthropologists believe go beyond an individual material basis, are analyzed as the latter. It is shown how the development of self-regulation to bridge remote consequences can undermine a group's generalized social control. It is also shown that rituals and taboos can be utilized to maintain generalized social compliance, which in turn can maintain both the community's verbal behavior and other group behaviors that bridge indirect and remote consequences.

Guerin, Bernard

1992-01-01

118

Existing computer applications, maintain or redesign: how to decide  

SciTech Connect

Maintenance of large applications programs is an aspect of performance management that has been largely ignored by those studies that attempt to bring structure to the software production environment. Maintenance in this paper means: fixing bugs, modifying current design features, adding enhancements, and porting applications to other computer systems. It is often difficult to decide whether to maintain or redesign. One reason for the difficulty is that good models and methods do not exist for differentiating between those programs that should be maintained and those that should be redesigned. This enigma is illustrated by the description of a large application case study. The application was monitored for maintenance effort, thereby providing some insight into the redesign/maintain decision. Those tools which currently exist for the collection and measurement of performance data are highlighted. Suggestions are then made for yet other categories of data, difficult to collect and measure, yet ultimately necessary for the establishment of accurate predictions about the value of maintaining versus the value of redesigning. Finally, it is concluded that this aspect of performance management deserves increased attention in order to establish better guidelines with which to aid management in making the necessary but difficult decision: maintain or redesign.

Brice, L.

1981-01-01

119

Canadian Social Research Links  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Maintained with almost obsessive thoroughness by an employee at Human Resources Development Canada, this Website is an excellent gateway to Canadian social science resources on the Web. The site offers collections of annotated links from government outlets, academic sources, policy institutions, and NGOs. Visitors can browse sites under regional and thematic categories as well use "quicklinks" to government sources for social science data, including social policy, economic, and employment data. The annotations are very helpful, usually including the date of a document or a Website's last update and a summary or quotation from the resource. Some resources are presented in a pro-and-con format so that researchers can immediately compare reports and arguments from credible sources on political and social issues. Theme lists include hundreds of links in disability, education, human rights, homelessness and hunger, election 2000, social research organizations, unions, UN links, women's social issues, and dozens more. Also, the author provides a free weekly email newsletter that includes the latest updates to the Website. There is much more here, but I think interested parties get the idea: anyone doing social research in or about Canada will definitely want to bookmark this one. The site is the sole property and responsibility of Gilles Seguin who maintains the site on his own time. And yes, the site is also available in French.

1997-01-01

120

Maintainability Prediction and Analysis Study. Revision A.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Existing maintainability prediction techniques are not accurate estimators of current electronic equipment/system characteristics. A new time synthesis prediction technique is developed which directly relates diagnostic/isolation/test subsystem characteri...

F. L. Jew J. E. Angus T. F. Pliska

1978-01-01

121

Research on Computer Aided Design for Maintainability.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of this research was to investigate methods for measuring and predicting equipment maintainability as a consequence of internal structure and the design of the man-machine interface. A computer-based technique has been developed for projecti...

D. M. Towne M. C. Johnson

1987-01-01

122

Handbook for Reliability and Maintainability Monitors.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Each section of this handbook deals with a particular problem area in (Reliability and Maintainability) matters and suggests methods of initiating and operating an R/M program. The material covered ranges from the basic elements of establishing a program ...

G. Grippo G. H. Allen J. E. Horowitz J. R. Barton R. M. DeMilia

1964-01-01

123

Maintaining Financial Stability in a Global Economy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City has made available the papers presented at the "Maintaining Financial Stability in a Global Economy" symposium. The aim of the symposium is to explore "options for public authorities in adapting policies to keep financial systems safe and efficient, and to discuss response mechanisms to financial crises." The papers presented here look at the causes of financial instability, why policymakers should be concerned about financial instability, lessons from recent financial crises, and policies for maintaining financial stability.

1997-01-01

124

Strong Reciprocity and Human Sociality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human groups maintain a high level of sociality despite a low level of relatedness among group members. This paper reviews the evidence for an empirically identifiable form of prosocial behavior in humans, which we call “strong reciprocity”, that may in part explain human sociality. A strong reciprocator is predisposed to cooperate with others and punish non-cooperators, even when this behavior

HERBERT GINTIS

2000-01-01

125

Rx for Social Studies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Maintains that the explosion of information and teaching resources (multimedia, audio-visual, computer networks) represents a mixed blessing. Argues that the proliferation of information access necessitates students learning critical and evaluative skills. Discusses the implications of this for social studies instruction. (MJP)

Wheeler, Ron

1996-01-01

126

Attentional Bias Away from Positive Social Information Mediates the Link between Social Anxiety and Anxiety Vulnerability to a Social Stressor  

PubMed Central

Accumulating evidence suggests that social anxiety is associated with biased processing of positive social information. However, it remains to be determined whether those biases are simply correlates of, or play a role in maintaining social anxiety. The current study examined whether diminished attentional allocation for positive social cues mediates the link between social anxiety and anxiety reactivity to a social-evaluative task. Forty-three undergraduate students ranging in severity of social anxiety symptoms completed a baseline measure of attentional bias for positive social cues (i.e., modified probe detection task) and subsequently delivered an impromptu videotaped speech. Mediation analyses revealed that the tendency to allocate attention away from positive social stimuli mediated the effect of social anxiety on change in state anxiety in response to the stressor. The current findings add to a nascent empirical literature suggesting that aberrant processing of positive social information may contribute to the persistence of excessive social anxiety.

Taylor, Charles T.; Bomyea, Jessica; Amir, Nader

2014-01-01

127

Order, topology and preference  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Some standard order-related and topological notions, facts, and methods are brought to bear on central topics in the theory of preference and the theory of optimization. Consequences of connectivity are considered, especially from the viewpoint of normally preordered spaces. Examples are given showing how the theory of preference, or utility theory, can be applied to social analysis.

Sertel, M. R.

1971-01-01

128

Social order perspective on raising student achievement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite significant and sustained gains recorded on the national secondary school leaving examinations between 1999–2004,\\u000a South Africa’s large-scale secondary school reform has receive little international attention. Defenders of the reforms have\\u000a argued that the ‘success’ in raising student achievement extended beyond gains in the percentage pass rates to include increased\\u000a numbers of students completing secondary schooling, a growth in the

Brahm Fleisch

2008-01-01

129

Education in the Clockwork Social Order.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sebastian de Grazia's image of clockwork collectivism is contrasted with the views of Thomas Green concerning the relationship between leisure and the clock, and supplemented by Edward T. Hall's analysis of what is entailed in coping with clockwork culture. Synchronization learning is proposed as necessary to the effective functioning within the…

Briod, Marc

1978-01-01

130

Alertness maintaining tasks (AMTs) while driving  

Microsoft Academic Search

We evaluated the effectiveness of alertness maintaining tasks (AMTs) on driver performance, subjective feelings, and psychophysiological state in monotonous simulated driving in two experiments. In the first experiment, 12 professional truck drivers participated in five sessions of simulated driving: driving only, driving with one of three AMTs (counterbalanced), and driving while listening to music. AMTs were not equally effective in

Tal Oron-Gilad; Adi Ronen; David Shinar

2008-01-01

131

Maintaining Hope in the Face of Evil.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

P. G. Zimbardo (2001) and M. E. P. Seligman (in an interview with S. Carpenter, 2001) discuss evil and hope in response to the September 11, 2001, disaster. The implications for counseling are presented with an emphasis on how counselors can maintain hope for themselves and their clients in the face of evil. (Author)

Miller, Geri

2002-01-01

132

Maintaining ideal body weight counseling sessions  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this program is to provide employees with the motivation, knowledge and skills necessary to maintain ideal body weight throughout life. The target audience for this program, which is conducted in an industrial setting, is the employee 40 years of age or younger who is at or near his/her ideal body weight.

Brammer, S.H.

1980-10-09

133

Storage Temperatures Necessary to Maintain Cheese Safety  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Available information on bacterial pathogen growth, stasis, and death in cheeses was reviewed and evaluated to determine storage temperatures necessary to maintain product safety. In view of the variety and large volume of cheeses consumed throughout the world, the incidence of foodborne outbreaks associated with cheeses is extremely low. Research revealed that the inherent characteristics of most cheeses create

JAY RUSSELL BISHOP; MARIANNE SMUKOWSKI

134

ANALYZING SYSTEM MAINTAINABILITY USING ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTURE MODELS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Afast and continuously changing business environment demands ,flexible software systems easy to modify ,and maintain. Due to the ,extent of interconnection between systems and the internal quality of each system many IT decision-makers find it difficult predicting the effort of making ,changes to their systems. To aid IT-decision makers in making better decisions regarding what modifications to make to

Robert Lagerström

135

Improving Avionics Fiber Optic Network Reliability & Maintainability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Work is ongoing at NAVAIR to understand how avionics fiber optic BIT technology can help reduce military aviation platform fiber optic network life cycle and total ownership cost. Operational availability enhancements via comprehensive supportability programs combined with keen attentiveness to reliability and maintainability metrics are driving the avionics fiber optic BIT value proposition. Avionics fiber optic BIT technology is expected

Mark W. Beranek; Anthony R. Avak

2007-01-01

136

Maintaining Interest in Operator Requal Training.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study reviewed operator training programs at Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station to determine their interface with plant operations and to devise new ways of maintaining interest in requalification (requal) training. The operator training review committee that was formed to implement the review documented over 100 issues and concerns…

Lapp, H. J., Jr.

137

Acceptable Practices in Maintaining Personnel Files.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Determining acceptable practices in maintaining personnel files is a pertinent issue for school personnel administrators today. Recognizing this, the Georgia Association of School Personnel Administrators accepted the study of this topic as a committee assignment from the American Association of School Personnel Administrators. A survey instrument…

American Association of School Personnel Administrators, Seven Hills, OH.

138

Methadone anonymous: A 12?step program for methadone maintained heroin addicts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methadone Anonymous (MA) is a new 12?step fellowship developed for methadone maintained heroin addicts. A total of 53 MA members completed a survey assessing factors related to methadone maintenance treatment program (MMTP) entry, drug use, MA participation, beliefs concerning effectiveness of MMTP and MA, and level of social cohesiveness. Length of time in MA was associated with a decreased use

Stephen M. Gilman; Marc Galanter; Helen Dermatis

2001-01-01

139

Methadone Anonymous: A 12Step Program for Methadone Maintained Heroin Addicts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methadone Anonymous (MA) is a new 12-step fellowship developed for methadone maintained heroin addicts. A total of 53 MA members completed a survey assessing factors related to methadone maintenance treatment program (MMTP) entry, drug use, MA participation, beliefs concerning effectiveness of MMTP and MA, and level of social cohesiveness. Length of time in MA was associated with a decreased use

Stephen M. Gilman; Marc Galanter; Helen Dermatis

2001-01-01

140

Study of eliminating fire dampers to maintain process confinement  

SciTech Connect

Fire dampers are required by NFPA 90A to maintain the integrity of fire areas. However, several fire dampers in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Vitrification Building at the Savannah River site are proposed to be eliminated in order to maintain the integrity of the process confinement system. In accordance with NFPA (1989), the closing operation of each fire damper should be tested biannually. Fire damper testing must consider the situation where there is a damper hangup in tripping or resetting taking several minutes or more. A fire will also close these dampers. Bechtel performed a fire damper simulation study of the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) system with a computer model. The study showed that 39 of 103 fire dampers, closed one at a time, causes ventilation system backflow, which upsets the integrity of the process confinement system. Elimination of the fire dampers will prevent a backflow upset.

Davis, P.L. (Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)); Walling, R.C.; Patel, J.B.; Strunk, A.J.

1991-01-01

141

MAINTAINED ACTIVITY IN THE CAT'S RETINA IN LIGHT AND DARKNESS  

PubMed Central

Nervous activity has been recorded from the unopened eye of decerebrate cats. Recordings were made with metal electrodes or with small micropipettes from ganglion cells or nerve fibers. Continuous maintained discharges were seen in all ganglion cells during steady illumination of their receptive fields, as well as in complete darkness. Possible artefacts, such as electrode pressure, abnormal circulation, anesthetic, and several other factors have been excluded as the source of the maintained discharge. Visual stimuli are therefore transmitted by modulating the ever present background activity. Discharge frequencies were measured following changes of retinal illumination. No consistent patterns of frequency change were found. The maintained discharge frequency may be permanently increased or decreased, or may remain practically unchanged by altering the steady level of illumination. In addition, there were often transient frequency changes during the first 5 to 10 minutes after changing illumination, before a final steady rate was established. A statistical analysis of the impulse intervals of the maintained discharge showed: (a) the intervals were distributed according to the gamma distribution (Pearson's type III), (b) the first serial correlation coefficient of the intervals was between –0.10 and –0.24, with a mean value of –0.17, which is significantly different from zero, (c) the higher order serial correlation coefficients were not significantly different from zero. Thus the firing probability at any time depends on the times of occurrence of the two preceding impulses only, and in such a way as to indicate that each impulse is followed by a transient depression of excitability that outlasts the following impulse. The possible sites at which spontaneous or maintained activity may originate in the retina are discussed.

Kuffler, S. W.; Fitzhugh, R.; Barlow, H. B.

1957-01-01

142

Constructivism and Revitalizing Social Studies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The United Arab Emirates (UAE) is developing its Social Studies curriculum and pedagogy for public schools. Practically speaking, teaching Social Studies in the UAE is still based on the traditional way of teaching; route memorization is the means of acquiring knowledge. In order to enhance Social Studies constructivist teaching-learning, there is…

Blaik-Hourani, Rida

2011-01-01

143

Maintaining equipment qualification documents current with configuration  

SciTech Connect

Generic Letter 88-07 is the NRC's effort in establishing a firm policy regarding the application and enforcement of 10 CFR 50.49, Environmental Qualification of Electric Equipment Important to Safety for Nuclear Power Plants. This letter requires the licensee, when a potential deficiency has been identified, to make a prompt determination of its impact on operability, take immediate steps to establish a corrective action plan, and have a documented justification for continued operation. This paper explains the continuing effort required to maintain equipment qualification by assessing and documenting proposed changes to the equipment. These changes may be due to plant modifications, repairs, parts replacement, operability changes, or maintenance. The paper also shows how to maintain the qualification files consistent with the installed equipment configuration.

Spisak, M.J. (Sargent and Lundy, Chicago, IL (USA))

1989-01-01

144

Workplace conversations: building and maintaining collaborative capital.  

PubMed

Heavy, pressured workloads are a feature of health workplaces internationally, presenting challenges to communication and contributing to tension and negative emotions. This paper explores supportive and unsupportive workplace conversations between nurses and midwives and their colleagues. The findings focus on qualitative interviews of ten nurses and midwives that were audio-taped and analysed for perceptions about the role of workplace conversations. Conversations between colleagues were significant for building and maintaining collaborative capital, but unsupportive conversations also threatened it. Findings suggest the need for considering the impact of co-worker conversations on workplace culture. Nurse managers and management may play a pivotal role in establishing and maintaining supportive conversations. Recognising the role and potential of workplace conversations for building capacities for support, conflict resolution, job satisfaction and the personal resilience of nurses and midwives can raise the collaborative capital of the workplace. PMID:21254826

McDonald, Glenda; Vickers, Margaret H; Mohan, Shantala; Wilkes, Lesley; Jackson, Debra

2010-01-01

145

Psychiatric Comorbidity in Methadone Maintained Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diagnosing comorbid psychiatric disorders in metha-done maintained patients may help to identify subgroups with different outcomes and needs for treatment. In this study, 75 methadone maintenance clinic patients in treatment longer than 30 days were assessed with the Addiction Severity Index, Global Assessment Scale and Mini-Mental Status Exam, and were interviewed for DSM-III-R psychiatric diagnosis using the computerized Diagnostic Interview

B. J. Mason; J. H. Kocsis; D. Melia; E. T. Khuri; J. Sweeney; A. Wells; L. Borg; R. B. Millman; M. J. Kreek

1998-01-01

146

Role of training in maintaining equipment qualification  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the last decade, US nuclear utilities have expended over half a billion dollars in establishing equipment qualification (EQ); i.e., demonstrating that all safety-related equipment can perform its function during design basis accidents and earthquakes, even if degraded by years of aging during plant operation. Focus is now on maintaining EQ-preserving the qualified configuration of installed equipment, performing special EQ

G. Sliter; S. Kasturi

1993-01-01

147

Maintainability Applications Using the Matrix FMEA Technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Matrix Method of Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) provides an organized and traceable analysis from the piece-part failure-mode through all indenture levels to system-level failure effects. This paper describes a methodology for reversing the buildup process for maintainability analysis. The output of this reverse process identifies each system-failure effect individually and the related indentured, lower-level composition of contributing

Stephanie A. Herrin

1981-01-01

148

Supplement for maintaining rumen health in ruminants  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

The present invention includes a method of maintaining rumen health in ruminants. The method includes providing to a ruminant a low-moisture block made of molasses and having a buffer. The low-moisture buffer block is specifically designed such that licking rather than chewing consumes the block. The licking action of the cows increases salivation, which acts as a natural buffer for the maintenance of the overall rumen health.

2010-05-18

149

Methods for Maintaining Insect Cell Cultures  

PubMed Central

Insect cell cultures are now commonly used in insect physiology, developmental biology, pathology, and molecular biology. As the field has advanced from methods development to a standard procedure, so has the diversity of scientists using the technique. This paper describes methods that are effective for maintaining various insect cell lines. The procedures are differentiated between loosely or non-attached cell strains, attached cell strains, and strongly adherent cell strains.

Lynn, Dwight E.

2002-01-01

150

Cortical DNA methylation maintains remote memory.  

PubMed

A behavioral memory's lifetime represents multiple molecular lifetimes, suggesting the necessity for a self-perpetuating signal. One candidate is DNA methylation, a transcriptional repression mechanism that maintains cellular memory throughout development. We found that persistent, gene-specific cortical hypermethylation was induced in rats by a single, hippocampus-dependent associative learning experience and pharmacologic inhibition of methylation 1 month after learning disrupted remote memory. We propose that the adult brain utilizes DNA methylation to preserve long-lasting memories. PMID:20495557

Miller, Courtney A; Gavin, Cristin F; White, Jason A; Parrish, R Ryley; Honasoge, Avinash; Yancey, Christopher R; Rivera, Ivonne M; Rubio, María D; Rumbaugh, Gavin; Sweatt, J David

2010-06-01

151

Support for maintaining object-oriented programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors explain how inheritance and dynamic binding make object-oriented programs difficult to maintain, and give a concrete example of the problems that arise. They show that the difficulty lies in the fact that conventional tools are poorly suited for work with object-oriented languages, and argue that semantics-based tools are essential for effective maintenance of object-oriented programs. The authors describe

Moises Lejter; Scott Meyers; Steven P. Reiss

1991-01-01

152

Maintaining Minimum Spanning Trees in Dynamic Graphs  

Microsoft Academic Search

. We present the first fully dynamic algorithm for maintaininga minimum spanning tree in time o(pn) per operation. To be precise, thealgorithm uses O(n1=3log n) amortized time per update operation. Thealgorithm is fairly simple and deterministic. An immediate consequenceis the first fully dynamic deterministic algorithm for maintaining connectivityand, bipartiteness in amortized time O(n1=3log n) per update,with O(1) worst case time

Monika Rauch Henzinger; Valerie King

1997-01-01

153

Soil Orders  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Developed by the US Department of Agriculture's Soil Survey Division (SSD), here is a high resolution poster with brief descriptions of the soil orders. Photos of soil profiles accompany descriptions of each order. The soil orders include: Alfisols, Andisols, Aridisols, Entisols, Gelisols, Histosols, Inceptisols, Mollisols, Oxisols, Spodusols, Ultisols, and Vertisols.

154

Order Up  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Change orders. The words can turn the stomachs of administrators. Horror stories about change orders create fear and distrust among school officials, designers and builders. Can change orders be avoided? If car manufacturers can produce millions of intricately designed vehicles, why can't the same quality control be achieved on a construction…

Gibeault, Michael

2005-01-01

155

Alertness maintaining tasks (AMTs) while driving.  

PubMed

We evaluated the effectiveness of alertness maintaining tasks (AMTs) on driver performance, subjective feelings, and psychophysiological state in monotonous simulated driving in two experiments. In the first experiment, 12 professional truck drivers participated in five sessions of simulated driving: driving only, driving with one of three AMTs (counterbalanced), and driving while listening to music. AMTs were not equally effective in maintaining alertness. The trivia AMT prevented driving performance deterioration, and increased alertness (measured by standardized HRV). The choice reaction time AMT was least demanding but also increased subjective sleepiness and reduced arousal (measured by alpha/beta ratio). The working memory AMT caused a significant decrement in driving speed, increased subjective fatigue, and was regarded by the participants as detrimental to driving. Trivia was preferred by the majority of the drivers over the other two AMTs. Experiment 2 further examined the utility of the trivia AMT. When the drivers engaged in the trivia AMT they maintained better driving performance and perceived the driving duration as shorter than the control condition. The two experiments demonstrated that AMTs can have a positive effect on alertness. The effect is localized in the sense that it does not persist beyond the period of the AMT activation. PMID:18460351

Oron-Gilad, Tal; Ronen, Adi; Shinar, David

2008-05-01

156

The Social Climbing Game  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The structure of societies depends, to some extent, on the incentives of the individuals they are composed of. We study a stylized model of this interplay, that suggests that the more individuals aim at climbing the social hierarchy, the more society's hierarchy gets strong. Such a dependence is sharp, in the sense that a persistent hierarchical order emerges abruptly when the preference for social status gets larger than a threshold. This phase transition has its origin in the fact that the presence of a well defined hierarchy allows agents to climb it, thus reinforcing it, whereas in a "disordered" society it is harder for agents to find out whom they should connect to in order to become more central. Interestingly, a social order emerges when agents strive harder to climb society and it results in a state of reduced social mobility, as a consequence of ergodicity breaking, where climbing is more difficult.

Bardoscia, Marco; De Luca, Giancarlo; Livan, Giacomo; Marsili, Matteo; Tessone, Claudio J.

2013-05-01

157

Social Reconstruction: The Controversy over the Textbooks of Harold Rugg.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper examines the controversy over the use of Harold Rugg's textbooks in the social studies curriculum during the 1930s and 40s. The first section discusses the philosophy of social reconstruction maintaining that teachers and students should be in the forefront of social change. Rugg's major contribution to social reconstruction was a…

Bagenstos, Naida Tushnet

158

Maintaining life and health by natural selection of protein molecules.  

PubMed

A concept for a life and health-preserving principle is presented, with reference to evolutionary, medical, and biochemical observations. Life comprises two basic phenomena: it unfolds over longer periods at the population level, and is sustained for the duration of individual life spans. The evolution of life within populations by means of natural selection of individuals is central to Darwin's theory of evolution. An important component of maintaining individual life is proposed here to be the natural selection of molecular components-the proteins, a process of preferred removal of denatured and old, synonymous with the selection of younger, functional molecules. The proteins of the cell are committed to fulfilling all the tasks programmed by the genome while continuously maintaining all appropriate cellular functions, including protecting the DNA. Physiological and environmental influences accelerate the breakdown of aged protein molecules, driving this renewal process so that the cell can maintain its protein stock at high-performance levels. The principle of selection makes the incredible dynamics of continual protein turnover, and hence not only the preservation of life, but the maintenance of health in individual beings, comprehensible. Arguments are presented to counter the hypothesis that protein breakdown is a stochastic, random process governed by first-order kinetics. PMID:10534437

Pirlet, K; Arthur-Goettig, A

1999-11-01

159

Identifying Crucial Parameter Correlations Maintaining Bursting Activity  

PubMed Central

Recent experimental and computational studies suggest that linearly correlated sets of parameters (intrinsic and synaptic properties of neurons) allow central pattern-generating networks to produce and maintain their rhythmic activity regardless of changing internal and external conditions. To determine the role of correlated conductances in the robust maintenance of functional bursting activity, we used our existing database of half-center oscillator (HCO) model instances of the leech heartbeat CPG. From the database, we identified functional activity groups of burster (isolated neuron) and half-center oscillator model instances and realistic subgroups of each that showed burst characteristics (principally period and spike frequency) similar to the animal. To find linear correlations among the conductance parameters maintaining functional leech bursting activity, we applied Principal Component Analysis (PCA) to each of these four groups. PCA identified a set of three maximal conductances (leak current, Leak; a persistent K current, K2; and of a persistent Na+ current, P) that correlate linearly for the two groups of burster instances but not for the HCO groups. Visualizations of HCO instances in a reduced space suggested that there might be non-linear relationships between these parameters for these instances. Experimental studies have shown that period is a key attribute influenced by modulatory inputs and temperature variations in heart interneurons. Thus, we explored the sensitivity of period to changes in maximal conductances of Leak, K2, and P, and we found that for our realistic bursters the effect of these parameters on period could not be assessed because when varied individually bursting activity was not maintained.

Doloc-Mihu, Anca; Calabrese, Ronald L.

2014-01-01

160

Social ontologies.  

PubMed

There is room for considerable cooperation between archaeology and neuroscience, but in order for this to happen we need to think about the interactions among brain-body-world, in which each of these three terms acts as cause and effect, without attributing a causally determinant position to any one. Consequently, I develop the term social ontology to look at how human capabilities of mind and body are brought about through an interaction with the material world. I look also at the key notion of plasticity to think about not only the malleable nature of human brains, but also the artefactual world. Using an example from the British Iron Age (approx. 750 BC-AD 43), I consider how new materials would put novel demands on the bodies and brains of people making, using and appreciating objects, focusing on an especially beautiful sword. In conclusion, I outline some possible areas of enquiry in which neuroscientists and archaeologists might collaborate. PMID:18292057

Gosden, Chris

2008-06-12

161

Social media and social reality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social Media provide an exciting and novel view into social phenomena. The vast amounts of data that can be gathered from the Internet coupled with massively parallel supercomputers such as the Cray XMT open new vistas for research. Conclusions drawn from such analysis must recognize that social media are distinct from the underlying social reality. Rigorous validation is essential. This

William N. Reynolds; Marta S. Weber; Robert M. Farber; Courtney D. Corley; Andrew J. Cowell; Michelle L. Gregory

2010-01-01

162

To Grow, Nurture, and Maintain: Soil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The importance and difficulties encountered in a sustainable urban farm can be witnessed at the Stanford Earth Systems Educational Garden, in the growth, maintenance, and nurturing of the soil. Techniques and chemicals developed in the mid to late 1900's have infiltrated the traditional farming techniques that allowed humans to continuously farm for hundreds of years. The sudden spur of interest in sustainability has lead many, including Stanford Earth Systems, to reincorporate traditional methods in conjunction with modern technology. To override the damage made by chemicals and industrial farming, we had to recognize that healthy crops originated from healthy soil; thus we began investigating how to nourish soil. We began to research the ideal composition and structure of soil and methods to create and maintain fertile soil. Secondly, we prioritized the importance of nurturing plants and fed the plants with a plethora of natural fertilizers. We also created a compost pile so that the soil could rehabilitate and refill with nutrients with help provided by bacteria. Lastly, we had to maintain the soil to keep the soil viable for future crops. To do this, we had to acknowledge the chemical composition of the soil and plant cover crops to ensure that the nutrients are replenished. Our experiences enabled us to understand the time and effort required to manage suitable crops, animals, and structures for an urban farm.

Joshi, I.; Lam, K.; Hennelly, L. O.; Archie, J. P.

2012-12-01

163

Role of training in maintaining equipment qualification  

SciTech Connect

During the last decade, US nuclear utilities have expended over half a billion dollars in establishing equipment qualification (EQ); i.e., demonstrating that all safety-related equipment can perform its function during design basis accidents and earthquakes, even if degraded by years of aging during plant operation. Focus is now on maintaining EQ-preserving the qualified configuration of installed equipment, performing special EQ maintenance (including replacement of parts, sometimes with dedicated commercial grade items), and preserving an auditable trail of EQ documentation. Because of the high turnover rate in personnel involved in EQ, utilities are examining their EQ staffing and training needs to guard against a possible gradual erosion of expertise in and attention to EQ. This paper gives a brief overview of EQ, establishes the need for comprehensive training on maintaining EQ, and presents the EQ knowledge requirements for four sectors of personnel (maintenance, engineering, QA, and management). Finally, the essential elements of training course materials to meet these needs are identified.

Sliter, G. (Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (United States)); Kasturi, S. (MOS, Melville, NY (United States))

1993-08-01

164

Establishing and maintaining efficient courier services.  

PubMed

Your couriers are your link to your outreach customers. They represent your facility to and carry information (and, of course, specimens) from the communities you service. When establishing your outreach program, who is in the driver's seat and how specimens will be transported are primary concerns. Cost-conscious laboratorians rely on a variety of courier options, from transporting specimens on foot using refrigerated Styrofoam nylon packs to calling taxis to contracting with drivers to having a dedicated arrangement with in-house employees. Often, the expense and bother of maintaining a fleet of cars and drivers, probably most desirable in terms of control and standardizing processes, forces laboratory managers to seek alternatives that may not sound practical or reliable, but that actually do work quite well. Whatever courier route you choose, you should emphasize to your carriers the respect you have for the precious cargo they carry. Of course, there must be no doubt about specimen integrity, carefully and conscientiously maintained from its source to you. But the integrity of your organization is also in the hands of those who accept the responsibility of bringing you all of those potential questions to be answered. Your livelihood depends on it. Just be as certain as possible that your customers want to celebrate--not shoot--your messenger. PMID:11490661

2001-01-01

165

Ordering Game  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive game gives students practice in ordering sets of whole numbers, integers, fractions, decimals, and the sizes of circles. Students re-order a group of numbers or objects in a line from least to greatest by dragging them. The activity is timed and points are awarded.

2011-01-01

166

Maintaining good morale in old age.  

PubMed Central

Traditional aging studies have seen life's later years as a time of inevitable biological and social decline. Psychological decline might also be expected, but this is not true for most older people, according to epidemiologic studies. Thus, we must ask: Why is aging not as emotionally threatening as might be expected? Why do some older people do better than others? How should medicine address these issues? It is only possible to understand the successful emotional aging of most elders if the customary diathesis-stress model is supplemented by a developmental perspective. Expectations as well as capacities diminish with aging. This means that subjective health appears more tightly linked with morale than objective health. Some older people experience recurrence of mental disorders (for example, major depression) first present earlier in life. Others experience new disorders such as minor depression in response to biological or social losses. As geriatric medicine comes to increasingly focus on chronic disease, attention to morale is an important strategy for maximizing quality of life. Physicians will need improved skills in the detection and treatment of problems in morale if they are to provide optimum care for their older patients.

Sullivan, M D

1997-01-01

167

FUNCTIONAL ANALYSIS OF INAPPROPRIATE SOCIAL INTERACTIONS IN STUDENTS WITH ASPERGER'S SYNDROME  

PubMed Central

We analyzed the inappropriate social interactions of 3 students with Asperger's syndrome whose behavior was maintained by social positive reinforcement. We tested whether inappropriate social behavior was sensitive to social positive reinforcement contingencies and whether such contingencies could be reversed to increase the probability of socially appropriate responding. Our results show that social positive reinforcers can be identified for inappropriate social interactions and that appropriate social behaviors can be sensitive to reinforcement contingency reversals.

Roantree, Christina F; Kennedy, Craig H

2012-01-01

168

The Importance of Social Connectedness in Building Age-Friendly Communities  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this paper is to further elucidate the importance of social relationships and social connectedness with aging in place and in developing elder-friendly communities. The process used in this study was inclusive of younger adults (age 40–65) as well as older adults (65+) in order to further understand how they envision a community that could support their own aging in place. A community forum, using the World Café format, was conducted in order to engage community members, 40 years and older, in conversation about the importance of social connectedness in elder-friendly communities. A second purpose of this forum was to obtain data on what would keep aging boomers in their community as they age. Three major themes emerged from qualitative analysis of the forum: social reciprocity, meaningful interactions, and structural needs/barriers. The results of this study reinforce the importance of social connectedness in creating and maintaining elder-friendly communities for older adults, as well as soon-to-be retired individuals, wishing to maintain life connectedness to their community. The study suggests the possibility of using more nontraditional research techniques (such as the World Café process) for gathering community level data.

Emlet, Charles A.; Moceri, Joane T.

2012-01-01

169

Reliability, Availability, and Maintainability Expert System (RAMES)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A RAM modeling, analysis, and decision support system-the Reliability, Availability, and Maintainability (RAM) Expert System (RAMES)-has been developed to assist a weapon system program manager (SPM) in weapon system RAM performance analysis, master planning of RAM performance enhancements, assessment of RAM enhancement payoffs, and evaluation of mission capability, wartime operational rates, fix rates, and stock level support. These capabilities extend to five levels of indenture within the weapon system from shop replaceable units and line replaceable units to assemblies, subsystems, and systems, and to three levels of maintenance (organizational, intermediate, and depot). RAMES uses standard US Air Force maintenance data systems and compensates for certain anomalies in those systems. Wartime or extreme environment conditions can be factored into the models. In addition, RAMES is designed for integration with life cycle cost analysis and weapon system effectiveness evaluation models for a total weapon system performance analysis capability.

Hansen, Willard A.; Edson, Bruce N.; Larter, Patrick C.

170

Ordering numbers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Khan Academy Exercise bank - Ordering numbers Students are able to use the knowledge map and progress tracking tool to record and support their learning goals. Hints are provided and supporting video tutorials are identified and linked.

Khan, Sal

2011-04-01

171

An experimental manipulation of social comparison in social anxiety.  

PubMed

Negative self-appraisal is thought to maintain social anxiety particularly when comparing oneself to others. Work on social comparison suggests that gender may moderate the effects of social comparison in social anxiety. Self-appraisals of the desirability of one's personality may be more important to women, whereas self-appraisal of signs of anxiety may be more important to men. Within each gender, those with high social anxiety are expected to report more negative self-appraisal when comparing themselves to someone else described as high achieving. This study is the first we are aware of that examined gender-based interactive effects after a social comparison manipulation. Participants read a bogus profile of a fellow student's adjustment to college. They were randomly assigned to read a profile suggesting that the fellow student was "high achieving" or more normative in his/her achievements. When comparing to a "high achieving" individual, men with high social anxiety reported the most negative self-appraisals of their signs of anxiety. In addition, greater social anxiety was associated with a poorer self-appraisal of personality only among men. The implications of the findings for conceptualizing the role of social comparison in social anxiety are discussed. PMID:24779421

Mitchell, Melissa A; Schmidt, Norman B

2014-09-01

172

Ordering Fractions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive Flash applet develops a student's fractional understanding and provides practice with comparing and ordering fractions. The learner is given five fractions in "frames" and must place them on the wall hooks in order from least to greatest. If help is needed, a student can enter the Testing Room and manipulate a pair of pipes to see and/or compare the two fractions side by side.

Bunker, Dan

2011-01-01

173

The effect of task order on the maintainability of object-oriented software  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents results from a quasi-experiment that investigates how the sequence in which main- tenance tasks are performed affects the time required to perform them and the functional correctness of the changes made. Specifically, the study compares how time required and correctness are affected by (1) starting with the easiest change task and progressively performing the more difficult tasks

Alf Inge Wang; Erik Arisholm

2009-01-01

174

Rhesus Monkeys (Macaca Mulatta) Maintain Learning Set Despite Second-Order Stimulus-Response Spatial Discontiguity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In many discrimination-learning tests, spatial separation between stimuli and response loci disrupts performance in rhesus macaques. However, monkeys are unaffected by such stimulus-response spatial discontiguity when responses occur through joystick-based computerized movement of a cursor. To examine this discrepancy, five monkeys were tested on…

Beran, Michael J.; Washburn, David A.; Rumbaugh, Duane M.

2007-01-01

175

Pulling a single chromatin fiber reveals the forces that maintain its higher-order structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Single chicken erythrocyte chromatin fibers were stretched and released at room temperature with force-measuring laser tweezers. In low ionic strength, the stretch-release curves reveal a process of continuous deformation with little or no internucleosomal attraction. A persistence length of 30 nm and a stretch modulus of 5 pN is determined for the fibers. At forces of 20 pN and higher,

Yujia Cui; Carlos Bustamante

2000-01-01

176

Social Individualism.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Relationships between individuals and society have often been presented from the perspective of the social institution. Social psychology has addressed the variables that affect the individual in relationships with larger groups. Social individualism is a conceptual framework that explores the relationship of the individual and society from the…

Cornille, Thomas A.; Harrigan, John

177

Communicating contentious geoscience issues and maintaining impartiality  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Shale Gas exploration in the UK has been major and often controversial news in the British media over the last 2 years. The British Geological Survey (BGS) has been an integral part of this story as the UK Governments independent and impartial advisor on geosciences. BGS has been involved in writing policy on fracking and induced earthquakes as well as researching potential quantities of shale gas in the UK and also researching natural methane levels in groundwater before large scale fracking activities begin. Shale Gas in the UK, as in the US and Europe has caused much controversy and as a result has many pro and anti fracking campaigns. The challenge for BGS has been to deliver front line science, whilst maintaining complete impartiality on the subject. The BGS communications team developed a strategy over this period to ensure that our message was clear and strong. This involved working closely with the scientists involved to formulate key messages that could delivered through controlled statements on the BGS webpages, press releases, at press conferences as well as on broadcast and print media. Our scientists were media trained during this time to ensure that they stayed en message and wouldn't be caught by the press or opponents of fracking into making statements that could have been used to either scare up the position or give the antagonist room to cast doubt on our impartiality. This strategy proved highly successful and BGS managed to communicate the facts, remain impartial whilst avoiding attempts to undermine the potential for Shale gas exploitation in the UK. The success of this communication strategy was due to the cooperation of the scientists, a clear strategy from the communications team and the unequivocal support of the senior executive at BGS. This abstract will conclude how the BGS has developed its communication strategy to be more streamlined and open. BGS must allow it's scientists to talk to the media about the science that they do. Much of the research that we do is paid for by the British taxpayer and it's our obligation to make sure we communicate what we're doing and why we're doing it to the public in a transparent and easy to understand way whilst ensuring that we maintain our reputation for being a trusted, independent and impartial source of expert advice.

Nice, S. E.; Mitchell, C.

2013-12-01

178

Developing and maintaining reflection in clinical journals  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a pressing need in today's world for nurses who are willing and able to transform health care. Teaching strategies that foster reflection are in order. The use of dialogue journals has been widely reported in the nursing literature as an effective strategy for assisting students to reflect about learning experiences in the clinical area. Despite the promise that

Barbara L. Paterson

1995-01-01

179

Work Adjustment of the Methadone-Maintained Corporate Employee  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The work adjustment of 26 methadone-maintained corporate employees was evaluated. Results indicated: (a) relative to their nonmethadone-maintained coworkers, the methadone-maintained employees had comparable job performance and superior punctuality and attendance; and (b) the methadone-maintained skilled laborers were satisfied with their…

Yankowitz, Robert; Randell, Joan

1977-01-01

180

Telencephalic progenitors maintain anteroposterior identities cell autonomously.  

PubMed

Grafting experiments have demonstrated that determination of anteroposterior (AP) identity is an early step in neural patterning that precedes dorsoventral (DV) specification [1,2]. These studies used pieces of tissue, however, rather than individual cells to address this question. It thus remains unclear whether the maintenance of AP identity is a cell-autonomous property or a result of signaling between cells within the grafted tissue. Previously, we and others [3-5] have used transplants of dissociated brain cells to show that individual telencephalic precursor cells can adopt host-specific DV identities when they integrate within novel regions of the telencephalon. We have now undertaken a set of transplantations during the same mid-neurogenic period used in the previous studies to assess the ability of telencephalic progenitors to integrate and differentiate into more posterior regions of the neuraxis. We observed that telencephalic progenitors were capable of integrating and migrating within different AP levels of the central nervous system (CNS). Despite this, we found that telencephalic progenitors that integrated within the diencephalon and the mesencephalon continued to express a telencephalic marker until adulthood. We speculate that during neurogenesis individual progenitors are determined in terms of their AP but not their DV identity. Hence, AP identity is maintained cell autonomously within individual progenitors. PMID:9742404

Na, E; McCarthy, M; Neyt, C; Lai, E; Fishell, G

1998-08-27

181

Arteriolar niches maintain haematopoietic stem cell quiescence  

PubMed Central

Cell cycle quiescence is a critical feature contributing to haematopoietic stem cell (HSC) maintenance. Although various candidate stromal cells have been identified as potential HSC niches, the spatial localization of quiescent HSCs in the bone marrow (BM) remains unclear. Here, using a novel approach that combines whole-mount confocal immunofluorescence imaging techniques and computational modelling to analyse significant tridimensional associations among vascular structures, stromal cells and HSCs, we show that quiescent HSCs associate specifically with small arterioles that are preferentially found in endosteal BM. These arterioles are ensheathed exclusively by rare NG2+ pericytes, distinct from sinusoid-associated LepR+ cells. Pharmacological or genetic activation of HSC cell cycle alters the distribution of HSCs from NG2+ peri-arteriolar niches to LepR+ peri-sinusoidal niches. Conditional depletion of NG2+ cells induces HSC cycling and reduces functional long-term repopulating HSCs in BM. These results thus indicate that arteriolar niches are indispensable to maintain HSC quiescence.

Kunisaki, Yuya; Bruns, Ingmar; Scheiermann, Christoph; Ahmed, Jalal; Pinho, Sandra; Zhang, Dachuan; Mizoguchi, Toshihide; Wei, Qiaozhi; Lucas, Daniel; Ito, Keisuke; Mar, Jessica C.; Bergman, Aviv; Frenette, Paul S.

2013-01-01

182

Arteriolar niches maintain haematopoietic stem cell quiescence.  

PubMed

Cell cycle quiescence is a critical feature contributing to haematopoietic stem cell (HSC) maintenance. Although various candidate stromal cells have been identified as potential HSC niches, the spatial localization of quiescent HSCs in the bone marrow remains unclear. Here, using a novel approach that combines whole-mount confocal immunofluorescence imaging techniques and computational modelling to analyse significant three-dimensional associations in the mouse bone marrow among vascular structures, stromal cells and HSCs, we show that quiescent HSCs associate specifically with small arterioles that are preferentially found in endosteal bone marrow. These arterioles are ensheathed exclusively by rare NG2 (also known as CSPG4)(+) pericytes, distinct from sinusoid-associated leptin receptor (LEPR)(+) cells. Pharmacological or genetic activation of the HSC cell cycle alters the distribution of HSCs from NG2(+) periarteriolar niches to LEPR(+) perisinusoidal niches. Conditional depletion of NG2(+) cells induces HSC cycling and reduces functional long-term repopulating HSCs in the bone marrow. These results thus indicate that arteriolar niches are indispensable for maintaining HSC quiescence. PMID:24107994

Kunisaki, Yuya; Bruns, Ingmar; Scheiermann, Christoph; Ahmed, Jalal; Pinho, Sandra; Zhang, Dachuan; Mizoguchi, Toshihide; Wei, Qiaozhi; Lucas, Daniel; Ito, Keisuke; Mar, Jessica C; Bergman, Aviv; Frenette, Paul S

2013-10-31

183

Virus Movement Maintains Local Virus Population Diversity  

SciTech Connect

Viruses are the largest reservoir of genetic material on the planet, yet little is known about the population dynamics of any virus within its natural environment. Over a 2-year period, we monitored the diversity of two archaeal viruses found in hot springs within Yellowstone National Park (YNP). Both temporal phylogeny and neutral biodiversity models reveal that virus diversity in these local environments is not being maintained by mutation but rather by high rates of immigration from a globally distributed metacommunity. These results indicate that geographically isolated hot springs are readily able to exchange viruses. The importance of virus movement is supported by the detection of virus particles in air samples collected over YNP hot springs and by their detection in metacommunity sequencing projects conducted in the Sargasso Sea. Rapid rates of virus movement are not expected to be unique to these archaeal viruses but rather a common feature among virus metacommunities. The finding that virus immigration rather than mutation can dominate community structure has significant implications for understanding virus circulation and the role that viruses play in ecology and evolution by providing a reservoir of mobile genetic material.

J. Snyder; B. Wiedenheft; M. Lavin; F. Roberto; J. Spuhler; A. Ortmann; T. Douglas; M. Young

2007-11-01

184

Virus movement maintains local virus population diversity  

PubMed Central

Viruses are the largest reservoir of genetic material on the planet, yet little is known about the population dynamics of any virus within its natural environment. Over a 2-year period, we monitored the diversity of two archaeal viruses found in hot springs within Yellowstone National Park (YNP). Both temporal phylogeny and neutral biodiversity models reveal that virus diversity in these local environments is not being maintained by mutation but rather by high rates of immigration from a globally distributed metacommunity. These results indicate that geographically isolated hot springs are readily able to exchange viruses. The importance of virus movement is supported by the detection of virus particles in air samples collected over YNP hot springs and by their detection in metacommunity sequencing projects conducted in the Sargasso Sea. Rapid rates of virus movement are not expected to be unique to these archaeal viruses but rather a common feature among virus metacommunities. The finding that virus immigration rather than mutation can dominate community structure has significant implications for understanding virus circulation and the role that viruses play in ecology and evolution by providing a reservoir of mobile genetic material.

Snyder, Jamie C.; Wiedenheft, Blake; Lavin, Matthew; Roberto, Francisco F.; Spuhler, Josh; Ortmann, Alice C.; Douglas, Trevor; Young, Mark

2007-01-01

185

Anatomizing the Ocean's role in maintaining the pacific decadal variability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The role of ocean dynamics in maintaining the Pacific Decadal Variability (PDV) was investigated based on simulation results from the Parallel Ocean Program (POP) ocean general circulation model developed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). A long-term control simulation of the LANL-POP model forced by a reconstructed coupled wind stress field over the period 1949-2001 showed that the ocean model not only simulates a reasonable climatology, but also produces a climate variability pattern very similar to observed PDV. In the Equatorial Pacific (EP) region, the decadal warming is confined in the thin surface layer. Beneath the surface, a strong compensating cooling, accompanied by a basin-wide-scale overturning circulation in opposition to the mean flow, occurs in the thermocline layer. In the North Pacific (NP) region, the decadal variability nonetheless exhibits a relatively monotonous pattern, characterized by the dominance of anomalous cooling and eastward flows. A term balance analysis of the perturbation heat budget equation was conducted to highlight the ocean's role in maintaining the PDV-like variability over the EP and NP regions. The analyses showed that strong oceanic adjustment must occur in the equatorial thermocline in association with the anomalous overturning circulation in order to maintain the PDV-like variability, including a flattening of the equatorial thermocline slpoe and an enhancement of the upper ocean's stratification (stability), as the climate shifts from a colder regime toward a warmer one. On the other hand, the oceanic response in the extratropical region seems to be confined to the surface layer, without much participation from the subsurface oceanic dynamics.

Yu, Jia-Yuh; Chang, Cheng-Wei

2014-05-01

186

Computer Support for Social Awareness in Flexible Work  

Microsoft Academic Search

How do we conceptualize social awareness, and what support is needed to develop and maintain social awareness in flexible\\u000a work settings? The paper begins by arguing the relevance of designing for social awareness in flexible work. It points out\\u000a how social awareness is suspended in the field of tension that exists between the ephemerality and continuity of social encounters,\\u000a exploring

Susanne Bødker; Ellen Christiansen

2006-01-01

187

Linking Social and Vocal Brains: Could Social Segregation Prevent a Proper Development of a Central Auditory Area in a Female Songbird?  

PubMed Central

Direct social contact and social interaction affect speech development in human infants and are required in order to maintain perceptual abilities; however the processes involved are still poorly known. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that social segregation during development would prevent the proper development of a central auditory area, using a “classical” animal model of vocal development, a songbird. Based on our knowledge of European starling, we raised young female starlings with peers and only adult male tutors. This ensured that female would show neither social bond with nor vocal copying from males. Electrophysiological recordings performed when these females were adult revealed perceptual abnormalities: they presented a larger auditory area, a lower proportion of specialized neurons and a larger proportion of generalist sites than wild-caught females, whereas these characteristics were similar to those observed in socially deprived (physically separated) females. These results confirmed and added to earlier results for males, suggesting that the degree of perceptual deficiency reflects the degree of social separation. To our knowledge, this report constitutes the first evidence that social segregation can, as much as physical separation, alter the development of a central auditory area.

Cousillas, Hugo; George, Isabelle; Henry, Laurence; Richard, Jean-Pierre; Hausberger, Martine

2008-01-01

188

Linking social and vocal brains: could social segregation prevent a proper development of a central auditory area in a female songbird?  

PubMed

Direct social contact and social interaction affect speech development in human infants and are required in order to maintain perceptual abilities; however the processes involved are still poorly known. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that social segregation during development would prevent the proper development of a central auditory area, using a "classical" animal model of vocal development, a songbird. Based on our knowledge of European starling, we raised young female starlings with peers and only adult male tutors. This ensured that female would show neither social bond with nor vocal copying from males. Electrophysiological recordings performed when these females were adult revealed perceptual abnormalities: they presented a larger auditory area, a lower proportion of specialized neurons and a larger proportion of generalist sites than wild-caught females, whereas these characteristics were similar to those observed in socially deprived (physically separated) females. These results confirmed and added to earlier results for males, suggesting that the degree of perceptual deficiency reflects the degree of social separation. To our knowledge, this report constitutes the first evidence that social segregation can, as much as physical separation, alter the development of a central auditory area. PMID:18493580

Cousillas, Hugo; George, Isabelle; Henry, Laurence; Richard, Jean-Pierre; Hausberger, Martine

2008-01-01

189

Followership in Ecology/Environment Social Movements.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper analyzes the failure of the ecology/environmental movement to develop into a social movement and to generate a mass following. The movement has had difficulty not only in organizing collective behavior but also in maintaining the necessary momentum to change into a full-fledged social movement. Obvious reasons are that ecologists…

Clavner, Jerry B.; Sumodi, Veronica R.

190

The Human Brain Maintains Contradictory and Redundant Auditory Sensory Predictions  

PubMed Central

Computational and experimental research has revealed that auditory sensory predictions are derived from regularities of the current environment by using internal generative models. However, so far, what has not been addressed is how the auditory system handles situations giving rise to redundant or even contradictory predictions derived from different sources of information. To this end, we measured error signals in the event-related brain potentials (ERPs) in response to violations of auditory predictions. Sounds could be predicted on the basis of overall probability, i.e., one sound was presented frequently and another sound rarely. Furthermore, each sound was predicted by an informative visual cue. Participants’ task was to use the cue and to discriminate the two sounds as fast as possible. Violations of the probability based prediction (i.e., a rare sound) as well as violations of the visual-auditory prediction (i.e., an incongruent sound) elicited error signals in the ERPs (Mismatch Negativity [MMN] and Incongruency Response [IR]). Particular error signals were observed even in case the overall probability and the visual symbol predicted different sounds. That is, the auditory system concurrently maintains and tests contradictory predictions. Moreover, if the same sound was predicted, we observed an additive error signal (scalp potential and primary current density) equaling the sum of the specific error signals. Thus, the auditory system maintains and tolerates functionally independently represented redundant and contradictory predictions. We argue that the auditory system exploits all currently active regularities in order to optimally prepare for future events.

Pieszek, Marika; Widmann, Andreas; Gruber, Thomas; Schroger, Erich

2013-01-01

191

How is epigenetic information maintained through DNA replication?  

PubMed Central

DNA replication is a highly conserved process that accurately copies the genetic information from one generation to the next. The processes of chromatin disassembly and reassembly during DNA replication also have to be precisely regulated to ensure that the genetic material is compactly packaged to fit into the nucleus while also maintaining the epigenetic information that is carried by the histone proteins bound to the DNA, through cell divisions. Half of the histones that are deposited during replication are from the parental chromatin and carry the parental epigenetic information, while the other half of the histones are newly-synthesized. It has been of growing interest to understand how the parental pattern of epigenetic marks is re-established on the newly-synthesized histones, in a DNA sequence-specific manner, in order to maintain the epigenetic information through cell divisions. In this review we will discuss how histone chaperone proteins precisely coordinate the chromatin assembly process during DNA replication. We also discuss the recent evidence that histone-modifying enzymes, rather than the parental histones, are themselves epigenetic factors that remain associated with the DNA through replication to re-establish the epigenetic information on the newly-assembled chromatin.

2013-01-01

192

Using Social Science Tools in Agroforestry Research.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Recent innovations in agroforestry research indicate the need to elicit farmers' participation in technology adaptations. The paper is intended for non-social scientists who wish to use social science research tools in order to assess the role of multipur...

J. L. Marcucci

1990-01-01

193

Position statement. Part two: Maintaining immune health.  

PubMed

The physical training undertaken by athletes is one of a set of lifestyle or behavioural factors that can influence immune function, health and ultimately exercise performance. Others factors including potential exposure to pathogens, health status, lifestyle behaviours, sleep and recovery, nutrition and psychosocial issues, need to be considered alongside the physical demands of an athlete's training programme. The general consensus on managing training to maintain immune health is to start with a programme of low to moderate volume and intensity; employ a gradual and periodised increase in training volumes and loads; add variety to limit training monotony and stress; avoid excessively heavy training loads that could lead to exhaustion, illness or injury; include non-specific cross-training to offset staleness; ensure sufficient rest and recovery; and instigate a testing programme for identifying signs of performance deterioration and manifestations of physical stress. Inter-individual variability in immunocompetence, recovery, exercise capacity, non-training stress factors, and stress tolerance likely explains the different vulnerability of athletes to illness. Most athletes should be able to train with high loads provided their programme includes strategies devised to control the overall strain and stress. Athletes, coaches and medical personnel should be alert to periods of increased risk of illness (e.g. intensive training weeks, the taper period prior to competition, and during competition) and pay particular attention to recovery and nutritional strategies. Although exercising in environmental extremes (heat, cold, altitude) may increase the stress response to acute exercise and elevate the extent of leukocyte trafficking it does not appear to have marked effects on immune function other than a depression of cell-mediated immunity when training at altitude. The available evidence does not support the contention that athletes training and competing in cold (or hot) conditions experience a greater reduction in immune function compared with thermoneutral conditions. Nevertheless, it remains unknown if athletes who regularly train and compete in cold conditions report more frequent, severe or longer-lasting infections. Research should identify whether the airway inflammation associated with breathing large volumes of cold dry air or polluted air impairs airway defences and whether athletes (and their physicians) wrongly interpret the sore throat symptoms that accompany exercising in cold or polluted air as an infection. Elite athletes can benefit from immunonutritional support to bolster immunity during periods of physiological stress. Ensuring adequate energy, carbohydrate and protein intake and avoiding deficiencies of micronutrients are key to maintaining immune health. Evidence is accumulating that some nutritional supplements including flavonoids such as quercetin and Lactobacillus probiotics can augment some aspects of immune function and reduce illness rates in exercise-stressed athletes. Limited data are non-supportive or mixed for use of N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, beta-glucans, bovine colostrums, ginseng, echinacea or megadoses of vitamin C by athletes. Relatively short periods of total sleep deprivation in humans (up to 3 consecutive nights without sleep) do not influence the risk of infection, and the reported increase in natural killer cell activity with this duration of total sleep deprivation would seem to rule out the possibility of an "open-window" for respiratory infections. Very little is known about the effects of more prolonged sleep disruption and repeated sleep disturbances on immune function and infection incidence, although recent studies have highlighted the importance of sleep quantity (total duration of sleep per night) and quality (number of awakenings per night) to protect against the common cold in healthy adults. Short- or long-term exercise can activate different components of a physiological stress response. Prolonged intense exercise may induce negative health conseque

Walsh, Neil P; Gleeson, Michael; Pyne, David B; Nieman, David C; Dhabhar, Firdaus S; Shephard, Roy J; Oliver, Samuel J; Bermon, Stéphane; Kajeniene, Alma

2011-01-01

194

Social Indicators and Statistical Literacy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Maintaining that people in modern society stand in need of statistical literacy, the article explains why education needs to provide this kind of literacy and evaluates the degree to which education to date has been sucessful in achieving its statistical literacy goals. Offers suggestions on using social indicators to enhance learning in the…

Miller, John E.

1980-01-01

195

Maintaining standing balance by handrail grasping.  

PubMed

Maintaining balance while standing on a moving bus or subway is challenging, and falls among passengers are a significant source of morbidity. Standing passengers often rely on handrail grasping to resist perturbations to balance. We conducted experiments that simulated vehicle starts, to examine how handrail location (overhead or shoulder-height), perturbation direction (forward, backward, left or right), and perturbation magnitude (1 or 2m/s(2)) affected the biomechanical effort (peak centre-of-pressure (COP) excursion and hand force) and muscle activations (onset and integrated EMG activity) involved in balance maintenance. COP excursions, hand forces and muscle activations were altered in a functional manner based on task constraints and perturbation characteristics. Handrail position affected normalized values of peak COP and hand force during forward and backward, but not sideways perturbations. During backward perturbations, COP excursion was greater when grasping overhead than shoulder-height. During forward perturbations, hand force was greater when grasping shoulder-height than overhead. Biceps activations were earlier during shoulder-height than overhead grasping, while tibialis anterior activity was higher during overhead than shoulder-height grasping. Our results indicate that, when facing forward or backward to the direction of vehicle motion, overhead grasping minimizes hand force, while shoulder-height grasping minimizes COP excursion. In contrast, grasping with a sideways stance eliminates the effect of handrail location, and was associated with equal or lower biomechanical effort. This suggests that, at least for vehicle starts, the most reasonable strategy may be to stand sideways to the direction of the vehicle movement, and grasp either at shoulder-height or overhead. PMID:23948334

Sarraf, Thiago A; Marigold, Daniel S; Robinovitch, Stephen N

2014-01-01

196

In Order  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity helps students develop a sense of the relative size of quantities in the categories of temperature, speed, time duration and loudness. Learners rank their estimates of given measures in order from least to greatest and justify their decisions. Students are encouraged to do research and carry out experiments when possible. The Teachers' Notes page includes suggestions for implementation, discussion questions, ideas for extension and support, and links to related activities.

2011-05-01

197

The critical power to maintain thermally stable molecular junctions.  

PubMed

With the rise of atomic-scale devices such as molecular electronics and scanning probe microscopies, energy transport processes through molecular junctions have attracted notable research interest recently. In this work, heat dissipation and transport across diamond/benzene/diamond molecular junctions are explored by performing atomistic simulations. We identify the critical power Pcr to maintain thermal stability of the junction through efficient dissipation of local heat. We also find that the molecule-probe contact features a power-dependent interfacial thermal resistance RK in the order of 10(9)?kW(-1). Moreover, both Pcr and RK display explicit dependence on atomic structures of the junction, force and temperature. For instance, Pcr can be elevated in multiple-molecule junctions, and streching the junction enhances RK by a factor of 2. The applications of these findings in molecular electronics and scanning probing measurements are discussed, providing practical guidelines in their rational design. PMID:25005801

Wang, Yanlei; Xu, Zhiping

2014-01-01

198

Design and Application of the Exploration Maintainability Analysis Tool  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Conducting human exploration missions beyond Low Earth Orbit (LEO) will present unique challenges in the areas of supportability and maintainability. The durations of proposed missions can be relatively long and re-supply of logistics, including maintenance and repair items, will be limited or non-existent. In addition, mass and volume constraints in the transportation system will limit the total amount of logistics that can be flown along with the crew. These constraints will require that new strategies be developed with regards to how spacecraft systems are designed and maintained. NASA is currently developing Design Reference Missions (DRMs) as an initial step in defining future human missions. These DRMs establish destinations and concepts of operation for future missions, and begin to define technology and capability requirements. Because of the unique supportability challenges, historical supportability data and models are not directly applicable for establishing requirements for beyond LEO missions. However, supportability requirements could have a major impact on the development of the DRMs. The mass, volume, and crew resources required to support the mission could all be first order drivers in the design of missions, elements, and operations. Therefore, there is a need for enhanced analysis capabilities to more accurately establish mass, volume, and time requirements for supporting beyond LEO missions. Additionally, as new technologies and operations are proposed to reduce these requirements, it is necessary to have accurate tools to evaluate the efficacy of those approaches. In order to improve the analysis of supportability requirements for beyond LEO missions, the Space Missions Analysis Branch at the NASA Langley Research Center is developing the Exploration Maintainability Analysis Tool (EMAT). This tool is a probabilistic simulator that evaluates the need for repair and maintenance activities during space missions and the logistics and crew requirements to support those activities. Using a Monte Carlo approach, the tool simulates potential failures in defined systems, based on established component reliabilities, and then evaluates the capability of the crew to repair those failures given a defined store of spares and maintenance items. Statistical analysis of Monte Carlo runs provides probabilistic estimates of overall mission safety and reliability. This paper will describe the operation of the EMAT, including historical data sources used to populate the model, simulation processes, and outputs. Analysis results are provided for a candidate exploration system, including baseline estimates of required sparing mass and volume. Sensitivity analysis regarding the effectiveness of proposed strategies to reduce mass and volume requirements and improve mission reliability is included in these results.

Stromgren, Chel; Terry, Michelle; Crillo, William; Goodliff, Kandyce; Maxwell, Andrew

2012-01-01

199

Encouraging Research in Social Work: Narrative as the Thread Integrating Education and Research in Social Work  

Microsoft Academic Search

The call for more research-based practice is universal as all the social science professions look to bring research into the forefront. Social work research must be seamlessly integrated into social work education in order to adequately address trends in evidence-based practice. International trends call for research to be seamlessly integrated with teaching and learning, so that social work practitioners and

Joan Phillips; Denise MacGiollaRi; Sue Callaghan

2012-01-01

200

Toward a Methodology for Conducting Social Impact Assessments Using Quality of Social Life Indicators.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Broadly conceived, social impacts refer to all changes in the structure and functioning of patterned social ordering that occur in conjunction with an environmental, technological, or social innovation or alteration. Departing from the usual cost-benefit analysis approach, a new methodology proposes conducting social impact assessment grounded in…

Olsen, Marvin E.; Merwin, Donna J.

201

Social Smoking  

PubMed Central

Background Social smoking is increasingly prevalent and poses a challenge to traditional cessation practices. Tobacco companies conducted extensive research on social smokers long before health authorities did and marketed products to promote this smoking behavior. Purpose Research is described and mechanisms identified that are used to promote social smoking to help improve cessation strategies in this growing group. Evidence acquisition Searches from 2006 to 2008 of previously secret tobacco industry documents using keywords social smoker, light smoker, casual smoker, youth smoker, and occasional smoker, followed by snowball searching. Data analysis was conducted in 2008. Evidence synthesis Tobacco industry research identified characteristics of social smokers that include: (1) denial of personal nicotine addiction; (2) self-categorization as a nonsmoker; (3) propensity for decreased tobacco use in response to smoke-free laws; (4) variations in age, education, ethnicity, and socioeconomic backgrounds; and (5) a perceived immunity to personal health effects of tobacco but fear of consequences to others. Tobacco companies developed marketing strategies aimed at social smokers, including “non–habit forming” cigarettes. Conclusions Previously considered a transient behavior, social smoking is also a stable consumption pattern. Focused clinical questions to detect social smoking are needed and may include, “Have you smoked any cigarettes or used any tobacco products in the past month?” as opposed to “Are you a smoker?” Clinicians should recognize that social smokers might be motivated to quit after education on the dangers of secondhand smoke rather than on personal health risks or with pharmacotherapy.

Schane, Rebecca E.; Glantz, Stanton A.; Ling, Pamela M.

2009-01-01

202

Restoring (dis)order: Sanctions, resolutions, and \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

This essay explores the restorative implications of anarchist communities through an analysis of processes such as norm formation, sanctioning, conflict resolution, and economic exchange. The study explores ways in which anarchist communities employ various restorative measures to maintain group cohesion and achieve a modicum of social control through the application of natural phenomena such as diffuse power, fluid authority, community

Randall Amster

2003-01-01

203

Sequence in the Social Studies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Quality sequence in the social studies is of utmost importance. Sequence emphasizes "when" selected concepts should be stressed in ongoing lessons and units of study. The social studies teacher needs to observe pupils carefully in teaching and learning situations to ascertain suitable, ordered experiences for pupils. Pupils face frustration if the…

Ediger, Marlow

2010-01-01

204

Road socialism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Road socialists maintain that government is the best manager for the nation's vehicular transportation arteries. Contrary to their views, the present author maintains that the managerial role can best be fulfilled by private entrepreneurs. Under highway privatization, he claims, traffic fatalities and automobile congestion will be sharply reduced.

Walter Block

1996-01-01

205

HOW HYPERMODERN TECHNOLOGY IN SOCIAL WORK EDUCATION BITES BACK  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the effect that use of increasingly sophisticated and costly technology is having on social work education. While much of the literature addresses the positive aspects of technology in the profession, the authors consider the negative implications of technology for productivity, program development, and social relationships, to name a few. The authors provide suggestions for maintaining a social

Larry W. Kreuger; John J. Stretch

2000-01-01

206

Hard Biscuits: Motivation to Learn in Secondary School Social Studies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Maintains that much of the high school curriculum, particularly in social studies, contains innumerable facts that have no use except to pass school tests. Reviews research on effective instruction as applied to social studies. Includes 17 characteristics of highly engaging social studies teaching and learning. (ACM)

Allen, Rodney F.

1995-01-01

207

Knowledge and social laws  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we combine existing work in the area of social laws with a framework for reasoning about knowledge in multi-agent systems. The unifying framework in which this is done is based on Alternating-time Temporal Logic (ATL), to which semantics we add epistemic accessibility relations (to deal with the knowledge), actions (in order to naturally talk about allowed and

Wiebe van der Hoek; Mark Roberts; Michael Wooldridge

2005-01-01

208

19 CFR 163.2 - Persons required to maintain records.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...automobile from a domestic dealer would not be required to maintain records, a transit authority that prepared detailed specifications from which imported subway cars or busses were manufactured would be required to maintain records); or...

2013-04-01

209

Measuring and assessing maintainability at the end of high level design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Software architecture appears to be one of the main factors affecting software maintainability. Therefore, in order to be able to predict and assess maintainability early in the development process we need to be able to measure the high-level design characteristics that affect the change process. To this end, we propose a measurement approach, which is based on precise assumptions derived from the change process, which is based on Object-Oriented Design principles and is partially language independent. We define metrics for cohesion, coupling, and visibility in order to capture the difficulty of isolating, understanding, designing and validating changes.

Briand, Lionel C.; Morasca, Sandro; Basili, Victor R.

1993-01-01

210

[Social cooperatives in Italy].  

PubMed

This paper describes the role of social cooperatives in Italy as a type of economic, non-profit organization and their role in contributing to the economic and social growth of the country. The purpose of this paper is to learn more about the experience of the Italian social cooperatives in promoting the work integration process of disadvantaged workers, especially those suffering from mental disorders, from a theoretical and an empirical point of view. Social enterprise is the most popular and consolidated legal and organizational model for social enterprises in Italy, introduced by Law 381/91. Developed during the early 1980s, and formally recognized by law in the early 1990s, social cooperatives aim at pursuing the general interest of the community to promote the human needs and social inclusion of citizens. They are orientated towards aims that go beyond the interest of the business owners, the primary beneficiary of their activities is the community, or groups of disadvantaged people. In Italy, Law 381/91 distinguishes between two categories of social cooperatives, those producing goods of social utility, such as culture, welfare and educational services (A-type), and those providing economic activities for the integration of disadvantaged people into employment (B-type). The main purpose of B-type social cooperatives is to integrate disadvantaged people into the open labour market. This goal is reached after a period of training and working experience inside the firm, during which the staff works to improve both the social and professional abilities of disadvantaged people. During the years, B-type social co-ops acquired a particular relevance in the care of people with mental disorders by offering them with job opportunities. Having a job is central in the recovery process of people suffering from mental diseases, meaning that B-type social co-ops in Italy play an important rehabilitative and integrative role for this vulnerable population of workers. The recent literature has highlighted that difficulties with employment are a feature of mental disorders, with high unemployment rates and short job tenure. Yet, success in employment for this population can be expected when they are provided with adequate support and opportunities. B-type social cooperatives in Italy are found to be very useful in order to help this disadvantaged category of workers find and keep a job. The work environment is more flexible and allows a better integration with less stigma and better work accommodations compared to the open labour market and/or other public/private organizations. Results from B-type Italian social cooperatives studies show that mentally ill workers value the importance of working, are highly satisfied with their job, are motivated to continue working, are engaged in their job and willing to work in the competitive labour market. Also, studies show that environmental characteristics of the social cooperative, such as the implementation of work accommodations and the possibility to work in an environment that is highly supportive, have an impact on increasing the likelihood of being highly satisfied with the job, which in turn is positively related to job tenure. In sum, this article shed light on the historical background that led to the development of social cooperatives in Italy. Furthermore, the features of B-type co-ops that play a central role in facilitating the work integration of people with mental disorders are described in this paper. In general, Italian B-type social cooperatives are found to provide a meaningful work experience to people with mental disorders, that help them increase not only vocational outcomes, but also psycho-social outcomes, and generally to help them better integrate into society. PMID:24948479

Villotti, P; Zaniboni, S; Fraccaroli, F

2014-06-01

211

The key actors maintaining elders in functional autonomy in Bobo-Dioulasso (Burkina Faso)  

PubMed Central

Background Globally, a significant increase in functional disability among the elderly is expected in the near future. It is therefore vital to begin considering how Sub-Saharan Africa countries can best start building or strengthening the care and support system for that target population. Study objectives are: 1) identify the key actors of the social system who maintain elders in functional autonomy at home in Bobo-Dioulasso (Burkina Faso) and 2) to describe the functional status of older people living at home. Methods We conducted a longitudinal descriptive study among the elderly aged 60 and above (351). Their functional status was evaluated using the Functional Autonomy Measurement System (SMAF). Data analysis was done using the statistical software package STATA (SE11). Results In Bobo-Dioulasso, 68% of seniors have good functional capacity or a slight incapacity and 32% have moderate to severe incapacities. Older people die before (3%) or during (14%) moderate to severe disabilities. This would mean that the quality of medical and/or social care is not good for maintaining functional autonomy of older people with moderate to severe disabilities. Two main groups of people contribute to maintain elders in functional autonomy: the elderly themselves and their family. Community, private or public structures for maintaining elders in functional autonomy are non-existent. The social system for maintaining elders in functional autonomy is incomplete and failing. In case of functional handicap at home, the elders die. But stakeholders are not conscious of this situation; they believe that this system is good for maintaining elders in functional autonomy. Conclusion It is likely that the absence of formal care and support structure likely shortens the lifespan of severely disabled older people. Stakeholders have not yet looked at this possibility. The stakeholders should seriously think about: 1) how to establish the third level of actors who can fulfill the needs to maintain elders in functional autonomy that are not satisfied by others (family members or the older individuals themselves), and 2) how to reinforce the role of each actor and the collaboration between the different groups of people of this system.

2014-01-01

212

Serengeti Birds Maintain Forests by Inhibiting Seed Predators  

Microsoft Academic Search

Of fundamental interest in conservation ecology are the regulatory mechanisms that maintain communities. We document a mechanism that maintains forests in the Serengeti ecosystem, Tanzania, and the destabilization when disturbance opens forest canopy. Forest birds, by consuming seeds, protected them from beetle attack. Consumption increased the germination rate and the density of seedlings and recruits, which was sufficient to maintain

Gregory J. Sharam; A. R. E. Sinclair; Roy Turkington

2009-01-01

213

Maintainability Analysis in Concurrent Engineering of Mechanical Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Maintainability of the mechanical system should be considered from early stages of the design process to reduce its total life-cycle cost A computer-aided engineering environment that supports maintainability analysis of an evolving mechanical system design in a concurrent engineering environment is presented Its communication with the underlying concurrent engineering environment and capabilities to evaluate maintainability of the mechanical system are

Ranko Vujosevic

1995-01-01

214

Social Ferment and School Finance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the nature of contemporary society in terms of gross or general changes observed during the past twenty years in order to consider possible breakthroughs of school finance as products of social ferment. (Author/AN)

Hack, Walter G.

1972-01-01

215

Social Studies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains the following papers on social studies instruction and technology: (1) "Waking the Sleeping Giant: Social Studies Teacher Educators Collaborate To Integrate Technology into Methods' Courses" (Cheryl Mason, Marsha Alibrandi, Michael Berson, Kara Dawson, Rich Diem, Tony Dralle, David Hicks, Tim Keiper, and John Lee); (2)…

White, Cam, Ed.

216

Social Revolution  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

MySpace and Facebook may have been pioneers in the world of social software, but nowadays, colleges and universities across the country are embracing better and more targeted forms of technology, to enable their campus users to interact. Today, the world of social software includes traditional venues and formats: (1) blogs; (2) wikis; and (3)…

Villano, Matt

2007-01-01

217

Behavioural plasticity of social trematodes depends upon social context.  

PubMed

Members of some social insects adjust their behaviours depending upon social context. Such plasticity allows colonies to sustain efficiency of the whole without the cost of additional production of individuals or delayed responses to perturbations. Using the recently discovered social clonal stage of trematode parasites, we investigated whether members of the reproductive caste adjust their defensive behaviour according to the local availability of non-reproductive defensive specialists, and if so whether the plasticity affects the short-term reproductive success of reproductive morphs. In vitro experiments demonstrated plasticity in competitive interactions of the reproductive morphs depending on the number of non-reproductive defensive specialists present nearby, which lead to differences in reproductive output at the individual level. This study provides support for the benefit of maintaining non-reproductive morphs in competitive situations, arising through socially mediated behavioural plasticity. PMID:23234865

Kamiya, T; Poulin, R

2013-02-23

218

Behavioural plasticity of social trematodes depends upon social context  

PubMed Central

Members of some social insects adjust their behaviours depending upon social context. Such plasticity allows colonies to sustain efficiency of the whole without the cost of additional production of individuals or delayed responses to perturbations. Using the recently discovered social clonal stage of trematode parasites, we investigated whether members of the reproductive caste adjust their defensive behaviour according to the local availability of non-reproductive defensive specialists, and if so whether the plasticity affects the short-term reproductive success of reproductive morphs. In vitro experiments demonstrated plasticity in competitive interactions of the reproductive morphs depending on the number of non-reproductive defensive specialists present nearby, which lead to differences in reproductive output at the individual level. This study provides support for the benefit of maintaining non-reproductive morphs in competitive situations, arising through socially mediated behavioural plasticity.

Kamiya, T.; Poulin, R.

2013-01-01

219

[Social phobia].  

PubMed

With a lifetime prevalence of 13% social phobia (social anxiety disorder) is a common and serious condition that should not be played down because of the burden associated with the disorder, an increased suicide rate and the frequent comorbidity with substance abuse disorders. Social phobia is characterized by the excessive and unrealistic fear of being scrutinized or criticized by others. The disorder often begins in adolescence.Symptoms of social phobia can be effectively treated with evidence-based treatment, including cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) and psychopharmacological medications. In the present paper, treatment recommendations are given, which are based on a systematic review of all available randomized trials for the treatment of social phobia. Among psychological therapies, variants of CBT have been proven to be effective in controlled studies. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and the selective serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI) venlafaxine are among the drugs of first choice. PMID:24718882

Bandelow, B; Wedekind, D

2014-05-01

220

Patterns of Social Preference Across Different Social Contexts in Golden Lion Tamarins (Leontopithecus rosalia )  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the role of mutual and circumstantial factors in maintaining exclusive social relationships in a New World primate. Four breeding pairs of golden lion tamarins (Leontopithecus rosalia rosalia) were allowed to interact with their mate or an unfamiliar, opposite-sex adult in each of 4 different social contexts: in view of the mate, out of the mate's view, with only

Betty J. Inglett; Jeffrey A. French; Theresa M. Dethlefs

1990-01-01

221

Assessment of Social Interaction Behaviors  

PubMed Central

Social interactions are a fundamental and adaptive component of the biology of numerous species. Social recognition is critical for the structure and stability of the networks and relationships that define societies. For animals, such as mice, recognition of conspecifics may be important for maintaining social hierarchy and for mate choice 1. A variety of neuropsychiatric disorders are characterized by disruptions in social behavior and social recognition, including depression, autism spectrum disorders, bipolar disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorders, and schizophrenia. Studies of humans as well as animal models (e.g., Drosophila melanogaster, Caenorhabditis elegans, Mus musculus, Rattus norvegicus) have identified genes involved in the regulation of social behavior 2. To assess sociability in animal models, several behavioral tests have been developed (reviewed in 3). Integrative research using animal models and appropriate tests for social behavior may lead to the development of improved treatments for social psychopathologies. The three-chamber paradigm test known as Crawley's sociability and preference for social novelty protocol has been successfully employed to study social affiliation and social memory in several inbred and mutant mouse lines (e.g. 4-7). The main principle of this test is based on the free choice by a subject mouse to spend time in any of three box's compartments during two experimental sessions, including indirect contact with one or two mice with which it is unfamiliar. To quantitate social tendencies of the experimental mouse, the main tasks are to measure a) the time spent with a novel conspecific and b) preference for a novel vs. a familiar conspecific. Thus, the experimental design of this test allows evaluation of two critical but distinguishable aspects of social behavior, such as social affiliation/motivation, as well as social memory and novelty. "Sociability" in this case is defined as propensity to spend time with another mouse, as compared to time spent alone in an identical but empty chamber 7. "Preference for social novelty" is defined as propensity to spend time with a previously unencountered mouse rather than with a familiar mouse 7. This test provides robust results, which then must be carefully analyzed, interpreted and supported/confirmed by alternative sociability tests. In addition to specific applications, Crawley's sociability test can be included as an important component of general behavioral screen of mutant mice.

Kaidanovich-Beilin, Oksana; Lipina, Tatiana; Vukobradovic, Igor; Roder, John; Woodgett, James R.

2011-01-01

222

Variable-Time Reinforcement Schedules in the Treatment of Socially Maintained Problem Behavior.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The efficacy of noncontingent reinforcement with variable-time (VT) schedules was evaluated by comparing the effects of VT and fixed-time (FT) reinforcement schedules with two individuals with moderate to severe mental retardation and severe behavior problems. Both VT and FT schedules were effective in reducing problem behavior. (Contains…

Van Camp, Carole M.; Lerman, Dorothea C.; Kelley, Michael E.; Contrucci, Stephanie A.; Vorndran, Christina M.

2000-01-01

223

Electronic and face-to-face communication in maintaining social relationships  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the spectacular spread of wired and wireless communication technologies\\u000asuch as the Internet and mobile phone have been discussed extensively in the academic\\u000aliterature, knowledge of the interactions among face-to-face (F2F) and electronic\\u000acommunication modes and their implications for travel behavior is rather limited. The\\u000asame is true for knowledge about factors influencing the choice for these types of

T. Tillema; M. J. Dijst; T. Schwanen

2007-01-01

224

Maintaining a Social-Emotional Intervention and Its Benefits for Institutionalized Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports the maintenance of one of the largest interventions conducted in St. Petersburg (Russian Federation) orphanages for children birth to 4 years using regular caregiving staff. One orphanage received training plus structural changes, another training only, and a third business as usual. The intervention produced substantial…

McCall, Robert B.; Groark, Christina J.; Fish, Larry; Muhamedrahimov, Rifkat J.; Palmov, Oleg I.; Nikiforova, Natalia V.

2013-01-01

225

Maintaining Transnational Social Fields: The Role of Visits to Bangladesh for British Bangladeshi Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

The visit is a key experience in the socialisation of British Bangladeshi children. It is an emotional and sensory rollercoaster for children which challenges and confirms their sense of who they are. For, while they enjoy some aspects of the visit, they find others deeply unsettling. Visits to Sylhet in Bangladesh give children a lasting lesson in both Sylheti beliefs

Benjamin Zeitlyn

2012-01-01

226

Cultural Aspects in Social Anxiety and Social Anxiety Disorder  

PubMed Central

To examine cultural aspects in social anxiety and social anxiety disorder (SAD), we reviewed the literature on the prevalence rates, expressions, and treatments of social anxiety/SAD as they relate to culture, race, and ethnicity. We further reviewed factors that contribute to the differences in social anxiety/SAD between different cultures, including individualism/collectivism, perception of social norms, self-construal, gender roles, and gender role identification. Our review suggests that the prevalence and expression of social anxiety/SAD depends on the particular culture. Asian cultures typically show the lowest rates, whereas Russian and US samples show the highest rates, of SAD. Taijin kyofusho is discussed as a possible culture-specific expression of social anxiety, although the empirical evidence concerning the validity of this syndrome has been mixed. It is concluded that the individual's social concerns need to be examined in the context of the person's cultural, racial, and ethnic background in order to adequately assess the degree and expression of social anxiety and social anxiety disorder. This has direct relevance for the upcoming DSM-V.

Hofmann, Stefan G.; Asnaani, Anu; Hinton, Devon E.

2010-01-01

227

Extracting Regular Behaviors from Social Media Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social media network analysis has become very popular in recent years. How do real networks evolve over time? What are the normal evolving behaviors in a social media network? In order to extract behaviors occurring regularly to reveal the microscopic evolving properties in social networks, the evolving process of networks is modeled as stochastic states transition, and the evolving behaviors

Leiming Yan; Jinwei Wang

2011-01-01

228

Social Forecasting.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Foresight becomes a science; What is social forecasting; Forecasting methods; Scientific establishments and their production; Scientific-technical forecasting; Medical-biological forecasting; Socioeconomic forecasting, and Geographical and space...

I. V. Bestuzhev-Lada

1970-01-01

229

Social Pollution  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Social pollution provides the matrix for the pollution of the physical environment. This stems from man's present inability to function synergistically. To find new freedoms in purposeful evolution, we will have to start cleansing our Mind. (Author/SD)

Esser, Aristide Henri

1971-01-01

230

Social Accounting  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This chapter presents an overview of social accounting for nonprofits, which broadens the range of information presented in\\u000a conventional nonprofit accounting to include economic, social, and environmental factors. It also enables the participation\\u000a of a larger group of stakeholders in its formulation. A related issue is that of multiple accountabilities, and several international\\u000a accountability frameworks are highlighted. The chapter then

Laurie Mook

231

Social Science Information Gateway  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Located within the Institute for Learning and Research Technology at the University of Bristol, the Social Science Information Gateway (SOSIG) is an online database of high quality Internet resources that primarily deal with the vast array of social science fields and subfields. Visitors can perform a simple search, or browse through the subject headings offered on the homepage. Each one of these discrete sites has been catalogued and annotated, making it easier to find specific resources quickly. Within each field or subfield, the editors of SOSIG have also listed some of their top choices. One particularly fine feature of the site is the "Grapevine", which offers a place for people in the social sciences to find out (and publicize) information about career opportunities and upcoming events. Visitors can also post their vitas in order to facilitate such opportunities. Finally, it is worth noting that the coverage of events and the like here is particularly strong for the United Kingdom and continental Europe.

2005-11-02

232

Role Sequencing: Does Order Matter for Mental Health?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Role sequencing refers to the ordering of social roles. According to the normative order hypothesis, adults who follow a certain sequencing of their social roles will be better adjusted than their peers who follow other life course patterns. The normative order is defined as first entering the paid labor force, getting married, and later having…

Jackson, Pamela Braboy

2004-01-01

233

Role Sequencing: Does Order Matter for Mental Health??  

Microsoft Academic Search

Role sequencing refers to the ordering of social roles. According to the normative order hypothesis, adults who follow a certain sequencing of their social roles will be better adjusted than their peers who follow other life course patterns. The normative order is defined as first entering the paid labor force, getting married, and later having children. This study tests this

Pamela Braboy Jackson

2004-01-01

234

New ideas of socialism  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses attempts to rethink socialism in the light of recent economic, social and political developments such as the rise of neo-liberalism, post-fordism, the demise of state socialism and globalization. It posits four new revisionist models of socialism - individualist socialism, market socialism, citizenship (or radical democratic) socialism and associational socialism. It examines each critically, arguing against the first

Luke Martell

1992-01-01

235

Assessment of Social Skills in Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social competence deficits are characteristic of students with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD), given that one criterion specified in the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act include the inability to build or maintain satisfactory interpersonal relationships with peers and teachers. Social skills can be defined as specific behaviors that an individual performs competently on a social task, whereas social competence is

Frank M. Gresham

2000-01-01

236

Exploring the Efficacy of Self-Regulatory Training as a Possible Alternative to Social Skills Training.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An alternative model of social skills instruction that does not assume social skill deficits, but rather deficits in self-regulatory behavior, was used with three boys with severe behavior disorders. Self monitoring procedures were used to cue social skills, were effective in altering participant's social behaviors, and created maintained positive…

Gumpel, Thomas P.; David, Shlomit

2000-01-01

237

An Examination of Characteristics Related to the Social Skills of Youths with Visual Impairments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

From an early age, children with visual impairments can be at a disadvantage for developing social skills. Since vision plays a role in the early development of social behaviors and of social cognition, the lack of visual cues could lead to difficulties in initiating and maintaining social interactions. The study presented here investigated…

Zebehazy, Kim T.; Smith, Thomas J.

2011-01-01

238

FUNCTIONAL ANALYSIS AND TREATMENT OF ARRANGING AND ORDERING BY INDIVIDUALS WITH AN AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDER  

PubMed Central

Of the diagnostic features of autism, relatively little research has been devoted to restricted and repetitive behavior, particularly topographically complex forms of restricted and repetitive behavior such as rigidity in routines or compulsive-like behavior (e.g., arranging objects in patterns or rows). Like vocal or motor stereotypy, topographically complex forms of restricted and repetitive behavior may be associated with negative outcomes such as interference with skill acquisition, negative social consequences, and severe problem behavior associated with interruption of restricted and repetitive behavior. In the present study, we extended functional analysis methodology to the assessment and treatment of arranging and ordering for 3 individuals with an autism spectrum disorder. For all 3 participants, arranging and ordering was found to be maintained by automatic reinforcement, and treatments based on function reduced arranging and ordering.

Rodriguez, Nicole M; Thompson, Rachel H; Schlichenmeyer, Kevin; Stocco, Corey S

2012-01-01

239

Cultural aspects in social anxiety and social anxiety disorder.  

PubMed

To examine cultural aspects in social anxiety and social anxiety disorder (SAD), we reviewed the literature on the prevalence rates, expressions, and treatments of social anxiety/SAD as they relate to culture, race, and ethnicity. We further reviewed factors that contribute to the differences in social anxiety/SAD between different cultures, including individualism/collectivism, perception of social norms, self-construal, gender roles, and gender role identification. Our review suggests that the prevalence and expression of social anxiety/SAD depends on the particular culture. Asian cultures typically show the lowest rates, whereas Russian and US samples show the highest rates, of SAD. Taijin kyofusho is discussed as a possible culture-specific expression of social anxiety, although the empirical evidence concerning the validity of this syndrome has been mixed. It is concluded that the individual's social concerns need to be examined in the context of the person's cultural, racial, and ethnic background in order to adequately assess the degree and expression of social anxiety and SAD. This has direct relevance for the upcoming DSM-V. PMID:21132847

Hofmann, Stefan G; Anu Asnaani, M A; Hinton, Devon E

2010-12-01

240

"Maintaining connections but wanting more": the continuity of familial relationships among assisted-living residents.  

PubMed

Social support is a key component of well-being for older adults, particularly for those who have moved from independent living to assisted living involving a transformation of roles, relationships, and responsibilities. Twenty-nine assisted-living facility residents were interviewed to understand the perceived continuity of relationships with family and friends. An inductive approach to thematic analysis revealed 1 main theme and 3 subthemes. The main theme that emerged was: maintaining connections but wanting more. Residents appreciated maintaining connections with family and friends, but often expressed feelings of discontentment with the continuity of former relationships. The subthemes included: appreciating family and friends, waiting for more, and losing control. Implications for research and practice are discussed. PMID:22486400

Tompkins, Catherine J; Ihara, Emily S; Cusick, Alison; Park, Nan Sook

2012-01-01

241

Identifying specific sensory modalities maintaining the stereotypy of students with multiple profound disabilities.  

PubMed

In Experiment 1, analogue functional analyses were conducted to identify the functions of stereotypy for six students with multiple profound disabilities. Results indicated that stereotypy (a) occurred across conditions, (b) occurred primarily when alone, or (c) occurred during all sessions except in the Control condition. Experiment 2 analyzed stereotypy while masking visual, auditory, or tactile sensory consequences. Results showed that stereotypy was maintained by visual stimulation, tactile stimulation, or was undifferentiated across conditions. In Experiment 3, we showed that stereotypy could be reduced by providing competing sensory stimulation. In Experiment 4, stereotypy that was undifferentiated in Experiment 1 was analyzed using a concurrent operants procedure. Results showed that stereotypy was not multiply determined, but occurred to produce visual sensory stimulation. Our findings are discussed in terms of the sensory and social reinforcers that maintain stereotypy, assessment procedures used to identify those reinforcers, and the interpretation of assessment results. PMID:14622894

Tang, Jung-Chang; Patterson, Tina G; Kennedy, Craig H

2003-01-01

242

Social Psychology Network  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

With over 11,000 links contained within its pages, the Social Psychology Network site is arguably the largest social psychology database on the Internet. Maintained by Professor Scout Plous of Wesleyan University, the site has been generously supported by the National Science Foundation. Visitors will appreciate the very clean layout of the siteâÂÂs homepage, as they are presented with a search engine, along with a number of electronic forums, and a listing of related topics. To delve into the siteâÂÂs contents, visitors may wish to select from any one of the areas on the left-hand side of the homepage, which include listings of doctoral programs in social psychology and teaching resources. There are numerous other options for interested parties, and they lead to such offerings as rankings of doctoral programs in the field and distance learning options in the field. Finally, visitors can also view many of the siteâÂÂs documents in a number of languages, including Spanish, French, Italian, and German.

Plous, Scott

1996-01-01

243

Methadone Anonymous: A 12-Step Program for Methadone Maintained Heroin Addicts.  

PubMed

Methadone Anonymous (MA) is a new 12-step fellowship developed for methadone maintained heroin addicts. A total of 53 MA members completed a survey assessing factors related to methadone maintenance treatment program (MMTP) entry, drug use, MA participation, beliefs concerning effectiveness of MMTP and MA, and level of social cohesiveness. Length of time in MA was associated with a decreased use of alcohol, cocaine, and marijuana. Clients rated components of MA to be significantly more helpful to recovery than MMTP treatment components. Affiliation to five MA members known best by the respondents was significantly greater than affiliation to non-MA members. Length of time in MA was positively associated with MA affiliation. Social affiliation and endorsement of 12-step principles were positively correlated. These findings suggest that MA participation has benefits not available in professionally driven MMTP, and should be further studied. PMID:12466684

Gilman, Stephen M.; Galanter, Marc; Dermatis, Helen

2001-12-01

244

Relative Efficacy of Human Social Interaction and Food as Reinforcers for Domestic Dogs and Hand-Reared Wolves  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite the intimate relationship dogs share with humans in Western society, we know relatively little about the variables that produce and maintain dog social behavior towards humans. One possibility is that human social interaction is itself a reinforcer for dog behavior. As an initial assessment of the variables that might maintain dog social

Feuerbacher, Erica; Wynne, Clive D. L.

2012-01-01

245

How can social network analysis contribute to social behavior research in applied ethology?  

PubMed Central

Social network analysis is increasingly used by behavioral ecologists and primatologists to describe the patterns and quality of interactions among individuals. We provide an overview of this methodology, with examples illustrating how it can be used to study social behavior in applied contexts. Like most kinds of social interaction analyses, social network analysis provides information about direct relationships (e.g. dominant–subordinate relationships). However, it also generates a more global model of social organization that determines how individual patterns of social interaction relate to individual and group characteristics. A particular strength of this approach is that it provides standardized mathematical methods for calculating metrics of sociality across levels of social organization, from the population and group levels to the individual level. At the group level these metrics can be used to track changes in social network structures over time, evaluate the effect of the environment on social network structure, or compare social structures across groups, populations or species. At the individual level, the metrics allow quantification of the heterogeneity of social experience within groups and identification of individuals who may play especially important roles in maintaining social stability or information flow throughout the network.

Makagon, Maja M.; McCowan, Brenda; Mench, Joy A.

2013-01-01

246

EVALUATION OF THE RATE OF PROBLEM BEHAVIOR MAINTAINED BY DIFFERENT REINFORCERS ACROSS PREFERENCE ASSESSMENTS  

PubMed Central

The rates of problem behavior maintained by different reinforcers were evaluated across 3 preference assessment formats (i.e., paired stimulus, multiple-stimulus without replacement, and free operant). The experimenter administered each assessment format 5 times in a random order for 7 children with developmental disabilities whose problem behavior was maintained by attention, tangible items, or escape. Results demonstrated different effects related to the occurrence of problem behavior, suggesting an interaction between function of problem behavior and assessment format. Implications for practitioners are discussed with respect to assessing preferences of individuals with developmental disabilities who exhibit problem behavior.

Kang, Soyeon; O'Reilly, Mark F; Fragale, Christina L; Aguilar, Jeannie M; Rispoli, Mandy; Lang, Russell

2011-01-01

247

Maintainability measurements on industrial source code maintenance activities  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is clear that the burden of software maintenance increases proportionately with our inventory of software systems. Our inventory is increasing because we now recognize existing code as reusable assets rather than liabilities. With this recognition comes an understanding of the importance of evaluating code quality and maintainability. We show how maintainability metrics can be used to gauge the effect

T. Troy Pearse; Paul W. Oman

1995-01-01

248

Challenges to situated morality: Maintaining respectability in a sexual rendezvous  

Microsoft Academic Search

A clandestine motel operation is described, concentrating upon the staff and patrons as they attempt to maintain respectability within a context of situated morality that is shifting, challenging previously negotiated realities. The staff members tend toward a refulgent respectability, using vocabularies of denial to maintain respectability. Patrons, categorized as regular customers, special customers, careful people and problem people, may seek

J. Robert Lilly; Richard A. Ball

1980-01-01

249

77 FR 44503 - Maintaining Access to Emergency Liquidity  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...CFR Part 741 RIN 3133-AD96 Maintaining Access to Emergency Liquidity AGENCY: National...assets of $100 million or more to have access to a backup federal liquidity source for...Rulemaking for Part 741, Maintaining Access to Emergency Liquidity'' in the...

2012-07-30

250

An Activity-Based Quality Model for Maintainability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Maintainability is a key quality attribute of successful software systems. However, its management in practice is still problematic. Currently, there is no comprehensive ba- sis for assessing and improving the maintainability of soft- ware systems. Quality models have been proposed to solve this problem. Nevertheless, existing approaches do not ex- plicitly take into account the maintenance activities, that largely determine

Florian Deissenboeck; Stefan Wagner; Markus Pizka; Stefan Teuchert; Jean-francois Girard

2007-01-01

251

7 CFR 3560.625 - Maintaining the physical asset.  

... 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Maintaining the physical asset. 3560.625 Section 3560.625 Agriculture ...On-Farm Labor Housing § 3560.625 Maintaining the physical asset. On-farm labor housing must meet state and...

2014-01-01

252

Object Representations Maintain Attentional Control Settings across Space and Time  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Previous research has revealed that we create and maintain mental representations for perceived objects on the basis of their spatiotemporal continuity. An important question is what type of information can be maintained within these so-called object files. We provide evidence that object files retain specific attentional control settings for…

Schreij, Daniel; Olivers, Christian N. L.

2009-01-01

253

Coherent Beam Combination of Two Polarization Maintaining Ytterbium Fibre Amplifiers  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate coherent beam combination of fibre laser beams by phase locking. Phase noise of a polarization maintaining ytterbium fibre amplifier is inspected with a fibre interferometer. In a feed back control loop, two fibre polarization maintaining ytterbium amplifiers are phase locked and coherent combined when the phase noise is properly controlled by a LiNO3 phase modulator.

Jing Hou; Rui Xiao; Zong-Fu Jiang; Xiang-Ai Cheng; Bai-Hong Shu; Jin-Bao Chen; Ze-Jin Liu

2005-01-01

254

Maintaining Institutional Integrity. New Directions for Community Colleges, Number 52.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This collection of articles addresses ways in which community colleges can maintain institutional integrity while at the same time adapting the colleges' mission to a changing environment. The following articles are included: (1) "The Search for Mission and Integrity: A Retrospective View," by Jennings L. Wagoner, Jr.; (2) "Maintaining Open Access…

Puyear, Donald E., Ed.; Vaughan, George B., Ed.

1985-01-01

255

Simulation, animation, and analysis of design disassembly for maintainability analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Designing mechanical systems for efficient disassembly improves their maintainability. Issues related to design disassembly for maintainability analysis of an evolving mechanical system design are discussed. Procedures and methodologies for the identification of disassembly sequence, animation of human technicians in performing the disassembly sequence, tool selection, time and cost analysis, and human factors analysis of the disassembly sequence are presented. Their

Ranko Vujosevic; Ramesh Raskar; Nagarjun V. Yetukuri; M. C. JOTHISHANKAR; Shuw-Hwey Juang

1995-01-01

256

Social anhedonia and work and social functioning in the acute and recovered phases of eating disorders.  

PubMed

Interpersonal difficulties are proposed to maintain eating disorders (EDs). This study explored whether social anhedonia (SA) was an additional social emotional maintenance factor which might also explain work/social problems in EDs. Additionally, the study explored SA and work and social adjustment in recovered participants. Women with anorexia nervosa (AN; n=105), bulimia nervosa (BN; n=46), recovered from AN (RAN; n=30) and non-ED controls (n=136) completed the Work and Social Adjustment Scale (WSAS) and the Revised Social Anhedonia Scale. ED participants reported greater SA and WSAS scores than non-ED controls; the RAN group reported an intermediate profile. AN participants had poorer work/social adjustment than BN participants. SA was associated with longer illness duration. SA, current severity (BMI) and lifetime severity (lowest adult BMI) significantly predicted work/social difficulties. Recovered participants scoring in the clinical range for SA experienced significantly greater work/social difficulties than recovered participants scoring outside the clinical range for SA. EDs are associated with clinical levels of SA and poor work/social functioning which reduce in recovery. SA may maintain the interpersonal functioning difficulties. PMID:24755042

Harrison, Amy; Mountford, Victoria A; Tchanturia, Kate

2014-08-15

257

Enabling Community Through Social Media  

PubMed Central

Background Social network analysis provides a perspective and method for inquiring into the structures that comprise online groups and communities. Traces from interaction via social media provide the opportunity for understanding how a community is formed and maintained online. Objective The paper aims to demonstrate how social network analysis provides a vocabulary and set of techniques for examining interaction patterns via social media. Using the case of the #hcsmca online discussion forum, this paper highlights what has been and can be gained by approaching online community from a social network perspective, as well as providing an inside look at the structure of the #hcsmca community. Methods Social network analysis was used to examine structures in a 1-month sample of Twitter messages with the hashtag #hcsmca (3871 tweets, 486 unique posters), which is the tag associated with the social media–supported group Health Care Social Media Canada. Network connections were considered present if the individual was mentioned, replied to, or had a post retweeted. Results Network analyses revealed patterns of interaction that characterized the community as comprising one component, with a set of core participants prominent in the network due to their connections with others. Analysis showed the social media health content providers were the most influential group based on in-degree centrality. However, there was no preferential attachment among people in the same professional group, indicating that the formation of connections among community members was not constrained by professional status. Conclusions Network analysis and visualizations provide techniques and a vocabulary for understanding online interaction, as well as insights that can help in understanding what, and who, comprises and sustains a network, and whether community emerges from a network of online interactions.

Haythornthwaite, Caroline

2013-01-01

258

[Social cohesion and regional integration: the MERCOSUR social agenda and the integrationist social policy major challenges].  

PubMed

In the consolidation of the Southern Cone Common Market (MERCOSUR), social policies are still in the embryonic stage. However, since the latter half of the 1990s there has been a speedup in the creation of institutions dedicated to such policies with the Common Market's framework. This article focuses on health policy and the broader social policy system in order to identify the reasons for the imbalance, through three movements: reconstitution of the history of the institutional construction of social policies in MERCOSUR; identification and comparison of the successive strategies for the formulation and implementation of the social integration agenda; and reflection on the current dilemmas and challenges faced by the process. According to the study, MERCOSUR operates with strategies that are difficult to mutually reconcile. On the institutional level, it follows a minimalist strategy, while on the conceptual/ discursive level it adopts a maximalist strategy for supranational unification of social policies. The fact is that it operates a minimalist social policy strategy, since it fails to bring to the field of social integration the debate and proposals on economic and social development models that could sustain the effective construction of regional social citizenship. PMID:17625644

Draibe, Sônia Miriam

2007-01-01

259

Maintaining Product-Process Balance in Community Antipoverty Initiatives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Antipoverty initiatives strive to improve distressed communities by producing outputs, such as housing, new businesses, and enhanced social services, and by building the capacity of communities to address their own problems. Although crucial for addressing the social and cultural factors contributing to community problems and for the…

Hannah, Gordon

2006-01-01

260

Social learning in cooperative dilemmas.  

PubMed

Helping is a cornerstone of social organization and commonplace in human societies. A major challenge for the evolutionary sciences is to explain how cooperation is maintained in large populations with high levels of migration, conditions under which cooperators can be exploited by selfish individuals. Cultural group selection models posit that such large-scale cooperation evolves via selection acting on populations among which behavioural variation is maintained by the cultural transmission of cooperative norms. These models assume that individuals acquire cooperative strategies via social learning. This assumption remains empirically untested. Here, I test this by investigating whether individuals employ conformist or payoff-biased learning in public goods games conducted in 14 villages of a forager-horticulturist society, the Pahari Korwa of India. Individuals did not show a clear tendency to conform or to be payoff-biased and are highly variable in their use of social learning. This variation is partly explained by both individual and village characteristics. The tendency to conform decreases and to be payoff-biased increases as the value of the modal contribution increases. These findings suggest that the use of social learning in cooperative dilemmas is contingent on individuals' circumstances and environments, and question the existence of stably transmitted cultural norms of cooperation. PMID:24870041

Lamba, Shakti

2014-07-22

261

A Response to "Leadership for Social Justice:" A Transnational Dialogue  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper makes the case for preparing school leaders for social justice and a new social order. In Kenya, little has been done and documented about school leadership programs for social justice. Scholars have generally appreciated leadership preparation for social justice in terms of professional discourses especially as initiated from the…

Otunga, Ruth N.

2009-01-01

262

Social Engineering hits Social Commerce  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Looking at social commerce, a bunch of bewildering phenomena attracts the attention of social psychologists. The way customers participate today shows attitudes and ethical behavior which cannot be explained from the inherent conditions of Web 2.0 environments alone. Fraud often succeeds, when you do not expect it, and honesty can be found under circumstances that do not support honesty at all. The current situation seems to result from customers assigning experience and ethics from real world business to virtual business environments. But there are indications that this situation may change. Social commerce could suffer as soon as customers would use its inherent weaknesses to their own advantage. The following article outlines first approaches to research into this topic.

Degenhardt, Werner; Wiele, Johannes

263

Schoolhouse Socialism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Public schools are part and parcel of socialism. This system of economics does not function well. Not in the Soviet Union, and not in any industry in the United States, certainly including education. The present paper attempts to show that education is no exception to this general rule. (Contains 6 notes.)

Rome, Gregory; Block, Walter

2006-01-01

264

Socials Studies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Eric Sheninger, the principal at New Milford High School in Bergen County, NJ, is well-known in ed tech circles as an evangelist for the use of web 2.0 tools in K-12 education. New Milford has made collaboration a pillar of its educational platform, and Sheninger believes that social media helps students learn how to collaborate. In fact, he…

Raths, David

2013-01-01

265

Corporate Social Responsibility and Social Entrepreneurship  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACTMilton Friedman argued that the social responsibility of firms is to maximize profits. This paper examines this argument for the economic environment envisioned by Friedman in which citizens can personally give to social causes and can invest in profit-maximizing firms and firms that give a portion of their profits to social causes. Citizens obtain social satisfaction from corporate social giving,

David P. Baron

2007-01-01

266

Comparison of behavior maintained by intravenous cocaine and d-amphetamine in dogs.  

PubMed

The effectiveness of i.v. injections of cocaine and d-amphetamine in maintaining schedule-controlled behavior was compared directly in dogs. Behavior was maintained under either a fixed-ratio (FR) 15, fixed-interval (FI)5-min, FI5 -min ( FR5 :S), FI15 -min, FI15 -min ( FR5 :S) or FI45 -min ( FR10 :S) schedule of reinforcement during daily experimental sessions where the maximum number of injections per session was limited to 2 to 11, depending on the schedule employed. Each drug injection was followed by a 10-min (FR schedule) or 5-min (interval schedules) timeout period to reduce the direct effects of the drugs on responding. Both cocaine and d-amphetamine maintained temporal patterns of responding characteristic of each of the schedules. Similar rates of responding were maintained by cocaine and d-amphetamine under the FR and longer (15- and 45-min) interval schedules, but cocaine maintained higher rates than did d-amphetamine under the shorter (5-min) interval schedules. Brief stimulus presentations intermittently contiguous with drug injections did not always maintain higher response rates under the second-order schedules as compared to rates maintained under the simple FI schedules, but higher rates were observed more often when stimuli were paired with cocaine than when stimuli were paired with d-amphetamine. These results suggest that cocaine and d-amphetamine can function differently as reinforcers and the differences depend, at least in part, on the schedule of reinforcement under which the drugs are presented. PMID:6716267

Shannon, H E; Risner, M E

1984-05-01

267

Safety, reliability, maintainability and quality provisions for the Space Shuttle program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This publication establishes common safety, reliability, maintainability and quality provisions for the Space Shuttle Program. NASA Centers shall use this publication both as the basis for negotiating safety, reliability, maintainability and quality requirements with Shuttle Program contractors and as the guideline for conduct of program safety, reliability, maintainability and quality activities at the Centers. Centers shall assure that applicable provisions of the publication are imposed in lower tier contracts. Centers shall give due regard to other Space Shuttle Program planning in order to provide an integrated total Space Shuttle Program activity. In the implementation of safety, reliability, maintainability and quality activities, consideration shall be given to hardware complexity, supplier experience, state of hardware development, unit cost, and hardware use. The approach and methods for contractor implementation shall be described in the contractors safety, reliability, maintainability and quality plans. This publication incorporates provisions of NASA documents: NHB 1700.1 'NASA Safety Manual, Vol. 1'; NHB 5300.4(IA), 'Reliability Program Provisions for Aeronautical and Space System Contractors'; and NHB 5300.4(1B), 'Quality Program Provisions for Aeronautical and Space System Contractors'. It has been tailored from the above documents based on experience in other programs. It is intended that this publication be reviewed and revised, as appropriate, to reflect new experience and to assure continuing viability.

1990-01-01

268

Rearing and Maintaining Midge Cultures (Chironomus tentans) for Laboratory Studies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The life history of the Chironomus tentans can be observed in easily established and maintained laboratory cultures. Projects for the classroom include observing hydration of an egg mass; embryonic development, hatching and larval feeding; larval activity; and mating activity. (MDH)

Hein, John; Mahadeva, Madhu N.

1992-01-01

269

Maintain a Healthy State of Mind: Middle School Students  

MedlinePLUS

... Index Maintain a Healthy State of Mind: Middle School Students When people watch news reports about natural disasters or terrorist attacks or school shootings, they may feel confused and scared. Maybe ...

270

Maintain a Healthy State of Mind: High School Students  

MedlinePLUS

... A - Z Index Maintain a Healthy State of Mind: High School Students Disasters like hurricanes; tsunamis; the ... died. Having upsetting thoughts or pictures in your mind of what happened. They can pop into your ...

271

Helicopter Reliability and Maintainability Trends during Development and Production.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study updates and extends IDA Study S-451, 'Changes in Helicopter Reliability/Maintainability Characteristics Over Time,' dated March 1975. This study presents more recent data and, based on the combined data of both studies, summarizes the observed ...

N. J. Asher L. L. Douglas R. H. Jakobovits

1981-01-01

272

4 CFR 200.14 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...maintaining adequate technical, physical, and security safeguards to prevent unauthorized...and automated records systems. These security safeguards shall apply to all...are adequately trained to protect the security and privacy of such records....

2011-01-01

273

Increasing Maintainability of a Wastewater-Recovery Unit  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Modified system leaks less and easier to disassemble for maintenance. Redesign of wastewater-recovery system separates water from urine: improved operation and system easier to maintain. Details of redesign, chiefly affected hollow-fiber-membrane evaporator, described in report.

Dehner, G. F.; Brose, H. F.

1987-01-01

274

Contractor Initiatives for Reliability, Maintainability, and Cost Improvement.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper presents a synthesis of major findings and conclusions derived from four years of research in electronics subsystem acquisition. Department of Defense policy statements for achieving improved reliability, maintainability, and cost are reviewed....

C. D. Weimer

1977-01-01

275

Technique for Screening and Maintaining Smaller Genomic Libraries.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A technique for screening and simultaneously maintaining individual clones of the gene library for long-term storage is described. The method is particularly useful for identification and cloning of genes from cosmid-based genomic libraries of prokaryotes...

U. M. X. Sangodkar S. Mavinkurve

1992-01-01

276

Social Goals, Social Behavior, and Social Status in Middle Childhood  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines motivational precursors of social status and the applicability of a dual-component model of social competence to middle childhood. Concurrent and longitudinal relationships between self-reported social goals (social development, demonstration-approach, demonstration-avoid goal orientations), teacher-rated prosocial and…

Rodkin, Philip C.; Ryan, Allison M.; Jamison, Rhonda; Wilson, Travis

2013-01-01

277

Privacy Breach Analysis in Social Networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This chapter addresses various aspects of analyzing privacy breaches in social networks. We first review literature that defines three types of privacy breaches in social networks: interactive, active, and passive. We then survey the various network anonymization schemes that have been constructed to address these privacy breaches. After exploring these breaches and anonymization schemes, we evaluate a measure for determining the level of anonymity inherent in a network graph based on its topological structure. Finally, we close by emphasizing the difficulty of anonymizing social network data while maintaining usability for research purposes and offering areas for future work.

Nagle, Frank

278

Increasing Social Interaction Using Prelinguistic Milieu Teaching with Nonverbal School-Age Children with Autism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Children with autism display marked deficits in initiating and maintaining social interaction. Intervention using play routines can create a framework for developing and maintaining social interaction between these children and their communication partners. Method: Six nonverbal 5- to 8-year-olds with autism were taught to engage in…

Franco, Jessica H.; Davis, Barbara L.; Davis, John L.

2013-01-01

279

Socializing Cognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The traditional way to study thinking in humans is to investigate cognitive processes in single individuals. The positions\\u000a laid out in this chapter, by contrast, regard social interaction as the default context within which cognition occurs. The\\u000a chapter introduces and discusses the theoretical background as well as relevant empirical findings of three approaches that\\u000a aim at exploring how cognition emerges

Anne Böckler; Günther Knoblich; Natalie Sebanz

2010-01-01

280

Analysis of Shuttle Orbiter Reliability and Maintainability Data for Conceptual Studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In order to provide a basis for estimating the expected support required of new systems during their conceptual design phase, Langley Research Center has recently collected Shuttle Orbiter reliability and maintainability data from the various data base sources at Kennedy Space Center. This information was analyzed to provide benchmarks, trends, and distributions to aid in the analysis of new designs. This paper presents a summation of those results and an initial interpretation of the findings.

Morris, W. D.; White, N. H.; Ebeling, C. E.

1996-01-01

281

High outcrossing rates maintain male and hermaphrodite individuals in populations of the flowering plant Datisca glomerata  

Microsoft Academic Search

MODELS for the maintenance of androdioecy (the presence of male and hermaphrodite individuals in a breeding population) in plants predict that males must have a fertility at least double the male fertility of hermaphrodites in order to be maintained by selection1-3. An even greater advantage is required in partially self-fertilizing populations1-3 as the gain in fitness through increased pollen production

Peter Fritsch; Loren H. Rieseberg

1992-01-01

282

Randomised social-skills training and parental training plus standard treatment versus standard treatment of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder - The SOSTRA trial protocol  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are hyperactive and impulsive, cannot maintain attention, and have difficulties with social interactions. Medical treatment may alleviate symptoms of ADHD, but seldom solves difficulties with social interactions. Social-skills training may benefit ADHD children in their social interactions. We want to examine the effects of social-skills training on difficulties related to the children's

Ole Jakob Storebø; Jesper Pedersen; Maria Skoog; Per Hove Thomsen; Per Winkel; Christian Gluud; Erik Simonsen

2011-01-01

283

Ageing in a networked society: social inclusion and mental stimulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research into ageing and cognition has demonstrated the close relationship of sensory functioning and social communication to maintaining cognitive performance and mood in the elderly, yet in modern societies elderly people are increasingly isolated and under-stimulated, both physically and psycho-socially. This situation results in accelerated cognitive decline and the suffering associated with loneliness and confusion. Health services cannot keep up

John A. Waterworth; Soledad Ballesteros; Christian Peter; Gerald Bieber; Andreas Kreiner; Andreas Wiratanaya; Lazaros Polymenakos; Sophia Wanche-politis; Michele Capobianco; Igone Etxeberria; Louise Lundholm

2009-01-01

284

Social hierarchiesSize and growth modification in clownfish  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conflicts of interest are part and parcel of living in a social group, although these can reduce the fitness of individual members. Here I show that clownfish (Amphiprion percula) adjust their size and growth rate according to their position in the group hierarchy, maintaining a well-defined size difference with respect to individuals above them in social rank. This strategy to

Peter Buston

2003-01-01

285

Promoting Social Skills among Students with Nonverbal Learning Disabilities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses the difficulty with which children with social disabilities establish and maintain friendships, as well as the significance of this difficulty within the school setting. Practical classroom strategies are illustrated, as well as interventions that target select social-skills deficits frequently encountered by students with…

Morris, Stephanie

2002-01-01

286

Dead Men Walking: Soviet Elite Cemeteries and Social Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article analyses the Soviet elite cemeteries and their structure and questions the impact of the communist ideology on the Soviet society. Contrary to the Soviet law that proclaimed principles of equality, the Soviet state rigidly maintained social hierarchies. This social stratification remained the rule even beyond the grave. Soviet elite cemeteries, a replica of the society of the living,

Katya Vladimirov

287

Accessing Social Capital through the Academic Mentoring Process  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explores how mentors and mentees create and maintain social capital during the mentoring process. I employ a sociological conceptual framework and rigorous qualitative analytical techniques to examine how students of color and first-generation college students access social capital through mentoring relationships. The findings…

Smith, Buffy

2007-01-01

288

Improving Social Skills in Schools: The Role of Parents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Parents must work actively with teachers to encourage the social integration of disabled children in mainstream classrooms. The ability to initiate and maintain positive peer relationships is necessary for healthy cognitive and social growth in all children, and it helps the disabled helps to overcome destructive cycles of rejection and isolation.…

Siperstein, Gary N.; Bak, John J.

1988-01-01

289

Whatever Happened to the Social Studies? Occasional Paper #8.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This monograph focuses on the issue of the nature and purpose of the social studies curriculum. In the lead article, George Wood maintains that social studies as taught today is irrelevant and strives to produce citizens who are unquestioning supporters of U.S. political and economic institutions. Dr. Wood attributes this state of affairs to the…

Clubok, Arthur, Ed.

290

Experience of Social Support among Working Mothers: A Concept Map  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the study was to identify, categorize, and provide a model for the understanding of social support among Korean working mothers. The participants were interviewed and asked what kind of social support they received that allowed them to maintain work and family life. Using multidimensional scaling and hierarchical clustering analysis…

Phang, A. Young; Lee, Ki-Hak

2009-01-01

291

Social motivation in individuals with isolated cleft lip and palate  

PubMed Central

Social isolation is common among individuals with isolated cleft lip and palate (ICLP), but the available data on why this may be are mixed. We present a novel theory relating to reduced social motivation in ICLP, called the social abulia hypothesis. Based on this hypothesis, we predicted that reduced social motivation would lead to reduced responsiveness to negative social feedback, both in terms of explicit responses and non-controlled, psychophysiological responses. Twenty males with ICLP and 20 normal comparison males (NC group) between 13 and 25 years old participated in the study. Social motivation was examined by measuring participants’ response to negative social feedback (social exclusion). Additionally, psychophysiological reactivity to positive and negative social stimuli was measured. In order to rule out other potential contributors to social isolation, we tested basic social perception, emotion recognition, and social anxiety. In line with the social abulia hypothesis, we show that negative social feedback had less of an effect on males with ICLP relative to healthy male peers, which was evident in explicit responses, and non-controlled, psychophysiological responses to negative social feedback. Our results could not be attributed to problems in social perception, a lack of understanding facial expressions, or increased social anxiety, as groups did not differ on these constructs. This study suggests that current views on social isolation in ICLP may need to be reconsidered to include the possibility that isolation in this population may be the direct result of reduced social motivation.

van der Plas, Ellen; Koscik, Timothy R; Conrad, Amy L; Moser, David; Nopoulos, Peg

2013-01-01

292

Understanding social motor coordination.  

PubMed

Recently there has been much interest in social coordination of motor movements, or as it is referred to by some researchers, joint action. This paper reviews the cognitive perspective's common coding/mirror neuron theory of joint action, describes some of its limitations and then presents the behavioral dynamics perspective as an alternative way of understanding social motor coordination. In particular, behavioral dynamics' ability to explain the temporal coordination of interacting individuals is detailed. Two experiments are then described that demonstrate how dynamical processes of synchronization are apparent in the coordination underlying everyday joint actions such as martial art exercises, hand-clapping games, and conversations. The import of this evidence is that emergent dynamic patterns such as synchronization are the behavioral order that any neural substrate supporting joint action (e.g., mirror systems) would have to sustain. PMID:20817320

Schmidt, R C; Fitzpatrick, Paula; Caron, Robert; Mergeche, Joanna

2011-10-01

293

National PTA Gets Connected with Social Media  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

People are busy, we all know that. Getting their attention is harder and harder all the time. That's especially true for member organizations and advocacy groups. The National PTA is both and has adapted some social media practices to reach out and maintain contact with more than 5 million volunteers in 25,000 local units. James Martinez, senior…

Phillips, Derek

2011-01-01

294

Do Consumers Expect Companies To Be Socially Responsible? The Impact of Corporate Social Responsibility on Buying Behavior.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Interviews with 48 consumers found that they desired moderate to high levels of corporate social responsibility (CSR). Precontemplators (n=16) did not base purchasing on CSR and contemplators (n=11) only moderately. The action group (n=8) had stronger beliefs about CSR but did not always purchase accordingly. Maintainers (n=9) practiced socially

Mohr, Lois A.; Webb, Deborah J.; Harris, Katherine E.

2001-01-01

295

Neural integrity is maintained by dystrophin in C. elegans.  

PubMed

The dystrophin protein complex (DPC), composed of dystrophin and associated proteins, is essential for maintaining muscle membrane integrity. The link between mutations in dystrophin and the devastating muscle failure of Duchenne's muscular dystrophy (DMD) has been well established. Less well appreciated are the accompanying cognitive impairment and neuropsychiatric disorders also presented in many DMD patients, which suggest a wider role for dystrophin in membrane-cytoskeleton function. This study provides genetic evidence of a novel role for DYS-1/dystrophin in maintaining neural organization in Caenorhabditis elegans. This neuronal function is distinct from the established role of DYS-1/dystrophin in maintaining muscle integrity and regulating locomotion. SAX-7, an L1 cell adhesion molecule (CAM) homologue, and STN-2/?-syntrophin also function to maintain neural integrity in C. elegans. This study provides biochemical data that show that SAX-7 associates with DYS-1 in an STN-2/?-syntrophin-dependent manner. These results reveal a recruitment of L1CAMs to the DPC to ensure neural integrity is maintained. PMID:21242290

Zhou, Shan; Chen, Lihsia

2011-01-24

296

Social phobia and interpretation of social events  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been suggested that social phobia may be characterized by two interpretation biases. First, a tendency to interpret ambiguous social events in a negative fashion. Second, a tendency to interpret unambiguous but mildly negative social events in a catastrophic fashion. To assess this possibility, patients with generalized social phobia, equally anxious patients with another anxiety disorder, and non-patient controls

Lusia Stopa; David M Clark

2000-01-01

297

Fiber Optic Repair and Maintainability (FORM) Program Progresses  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Advanced aircraft will employ fiber-optic interconnection components to transmit information from airframe and propulsion sensors to the flight control computers. Although these optical interconnects have been rigorously tested under laboratory conditions to determine their operating and environmental limits, there is concern as to their repairability and maintainability when placed in actual service. The Fiber Optic Repair and Maintainability (FORM) flight test program will provide data to enable designers to improve these fiber-optic interconnection systems for the next generation of aircraft. FORM is identifying critical problems in installing, maintaining, testing, and repairing fiber-optic interconnection systems in an operational avionics environment. This program is a cooperative Government/industry effort to evaluate optical component acceptability and installation techniques for aircraft.

2005-01-01

298

Disclosing Personal Information on Social Networking Sites and Social Support  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the Internet growing faster than ever, online social networking sites (SNS) such as Facebook are becoming more popular. At last count, there were over 845 million active Facebook users who are interacting online. The continued influx of computer technology allows for newer means of communication in order to foster interpersonal relationships and promote self-disclosure (Ledbetter, Mazer, Degroot et al.,

An Mai

2012-01-01

299

Role of the hippocampus and orbitofrontal cortex during the disambiguation of social cues in working memory.  

PubMed

Human social interactions are complex behaviors requiring the concerted effort of multiple neural systems to track and monitor the individuals around us. Cognitively, adjusting our behavior on the basis of changing social cues such as facial expressions relies on working memory and the ability to disambiguate, or separate, the representations of overlapping stimuli resulting from viewing the same individual with different facial expressions. We conducted an fMRI experiment examining the brain regions contributing to the encoding, maintenance, and retrieval of overlapping identity information during working memory using a delayed match-to-sample task. In the overlapping condition, two faces from the same individual with different facial expressions were presented at sample. In the nonoverlapping condition, the two sample faces were from two different individuals with different expressions. fMRI activity was assessed by contrasting the overlapping and nonoverlapping conditions at sample, delay, and test. The lateral orbitofrontal cortex showed increased fMRI signal in the overlapping condition in all three phases of the delayed match-to-sample task and increased functional connectivity with the hippocampus when encoding overlapping stimuli. The hippocampus showed increased fMRI signal at test. These data suggest that lateral orbitofrontal cortex helps encode and maintain representations of overlapping stimuli in working memory, whereas the orbitofrontal cortex and hippocampus contribute to the successful retrieval of overlapping stimuli. We suggest that the lateral orbitofrontal cortex and hippocampus play a role in encoding, maintaining, and retrieving social cues, especially when multiple interactions with an individual need to be disambiguated in a rapidly changing social context in order to make appropriate social responses. PMID:23640112

Ross, Robert S; LoPresti, Matthew L; Schon, Karin; Stern, Chantal E

2013-12-01

300

MAINTAINING SPATIAL DATA IN AN ENTERPRISE LAND MANAGEMENT ENVIRONMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Wisconsin State Board of Commissioners of Public Lands has contracted with GeoAnalytics, Inc. of Madison, Wisconsin, to develop a flexible, user-friendly application that can edit several different spatial layers while maintaining the link to their related business records in the enterprise database. The Board was looking for a low cost Geographic Information System (GIS) to help them manage forestry

Jim Cory

301

Equilateral pentagon polarization maintaining photonic crystal fibre with low nonlinearity  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new pentagon polarization maintaining photonic crystal fibre with low nonlinearity is introduced. The full vector finite element method was used to investigate the distribution and the effective area of modal field, the nonlinear properties, the effective indices of two orthogonal polarization modes and the birefringence of the new PM-PCF effectively. It is found that the birefringence of the new

Yang Han-Rui; Li Xu-You; Hong Wei; Hao Jin-Hui

2012-01-01

302

Maintaining Confidentiality with Minors: Dilemmas of School Counselors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examined the attitudes of 195 school counselors in Israel regarding (a) the decision to maintain or breach confidentiality in a variety of ethical dilemmas, and (b) the reasons given for justifying their decisions. Eighteen ethical dilemmas in three domains were presented to respondents in a questionnaire. School counselors were most…

Lazovsky, Rivka

2008-01-01

303

OLDER WOMEN AND FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT: STRATEGIES FOR MAINTAINING INDEPENDENCE  

Microsoft Academic Search

This pilot study examined the vulnerability of older women with regard to their personal finances. It looked at what resources and coping skills they currentlyuse, and what strategies might be implemented to assist these women in maintaining or improving daily management of their money. Three tools were used to examine the current patterns of daily use of money of a

Frances H. Into

2003-01-01

304

Improving Throughput and Maintaining Fairness using Parallel TCP  

Microsoft Academic Search

Applications that require good network perfor- mance often use parallel TCP streams and TCP modifications to improve the effectiveness of TCP. If the network bottleneck is fully utilized, this approach boosts throughput by unfairly stealing bandwidth from competing TCP streams. Improving the effectiveness of TCP is easy, but improving effectiveness while maintaining fairness is difficult. In this paper, we describe

Thomas J. Hacker; Brian D. Noble; Brian D. Athey

2004-01-01

305

Convenient Method for Maintaining Small Crabs in Isolation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Standard incubators for fish eggs can be used to maintain small crabs in isolation by dividing the egg baskets into separate compartments with plastic strips. This is an inexpensive solution to the problem of cannibalism prevalent among juvenile crustaceans, and it facilitates the collection ofdata on individual research animals.

Patricia J. Arasmith; Christine C. Brodersen; Malin M. Babcock

1989-01-01

306

37. VIEW OF SIX GAP ROTARY RECTIFIER FOR MAINTAINING CORONA ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

37. VIEW OF SIX GAP ROTARY RECTIFIER FOR MAINTAINING CORONA DISCHARGE IN THE COTTRELL ELECTROSTATIC GENERATORS. THE SYSTEM WAS CAPABLE OF PROVIDING 88,000 VOLTS TO THE ELECTRODES WITHIN THE PRECIPITATOR CHAMBER THE UNIT WAS LOCATED TO THE REAR OF BOILER 904 IN AN ENCLOSED ROOM. - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Cos Cob Power Plant, Sound Shore Drive, Greenwich, Fairfield County, CT

307

Test, monitor, and maintain above ground tanks properly  

Microsoft Academic Search

Above ground storage tanks (ASTs) are coming under increasing scrutiny at the federal, state, and local levels, and ongoing federal and state activity could result in more comprehensive regulations for ASTs. This article outlines the equipment and services available to test, monitor, and maintain ASTs. It also provides guidance on the elements of an inspection and maintenance program, such as

M. Rorty; M. E. McLearn

1993-01-01

308

41 CFR 51-4.3 - Maintaining qualification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...licensed to make such an evaluation, or a certification of blindness by a State or local governmental entity. (7) Maintain...the nature and extent of the disability or disabilities that cause such person to qualify as a person with a severe...

2013-07-01

309

Guide to Operating and Maintaining EnergySmart Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The guide allows users to adapt and implement suggested O&M (operating and maintaining) strategies to address specific energy efficiency goals. It recognizes and expands on existing tools and resources that are widely used throughout the high-performance school industry. The guide is organized into the following sections: (1) Chapter 1:…

US Department of Energy, 2010

2010-01-01

310

Authoring and Maintaining of Educational Applications on the Web.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper discusses problems concerning the design of educational applications in general, as well as specific problems connected with educational applications meant to be published on the Web. A new approach to the authoring and maintaining of Web-based educational applications is proposed which is based on the concept of hypermedia composites.…

Helic, Denis; Maurer, Hermann; Scherbakov, Nick

311

Once Attained, Can Quality Child Care Be Maintained?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research Findings: This study was designed to assess whether investments in child care quality were maintained 3 years after public funding for these centers was significantly reduced. An earlier evaluation documented significant improvements in classroom environments, teachers' sensitivity, and teachers' child-centered beliefs following a…

Roach, Mary A.; Kim, YaeBin; Riley, David A.

2006-01-01

312

Make-A Program for Maintaining Computer Programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a programming project, it is easy to lose track of which files need to be reprocessedor recompiled after a change is made in some part of the source. Make providesa simple mechanism for maintaining up-to-date versions of programs that resultfrom many operations on a number of files. It is possible to tell Make the sequence ofcommands that create certain

Stuart I. Feldman

1979-01-01

313

Small mammal herbivory: Feedbacks that help maintain desertified ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

We tested the hypothesis that herbivores contribute to feedbacks maintaining arid ecosystems in a degraded state. We studied small mammal herbivory on a subshrub, broom snakeweed (Gutierrezia sarothrae), and perennial grasses at three sites: (1) ungrazed black grama (Bouteloua eriopoda) grassland; (2) grassland degraded by intense short-duration grazing; and (3) mesquite (Prosopis glandulosa) coppice dunes. Snakeweed was browsed by herbivores

G. A. Roth; W. G. Whitford; Y. Steinberger

2009-01-01

314

Device induces lungs to maintain known constant pressure  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This device requires the use of thoracic muscles to maintain prescribed air pressure in the lungs for brief periods. It consists of a clear plastic hollow cylinder fitted with a mouthpiece, a spring-loaded piston, and a small vent for escaping air when exhalation into the mouthpiece displaces the piston.

Lippitt, M. W.; Reed, J. H.

1964-01-01

315

Maintainability--A Primer in Designing for Profit.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Maintainability and maintenance are of interest not only to the military and aero-space system designer but also to those engaged in the design of industrial and consumer products. Research in support technology which includes the development of design te...

H. S. Dordick

1964-01-01

316

Some Considerations in Maintaining Adaptive Test Item Pools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The construction of parallel editions of conventional tests for purposes of test security while maintaining score comparability has always been a recognized and difficult problem in psychometrics and test construction. The introduction of new modes of test construction, e.g., adaptive testing, changes the nature of the problem, but does not make…

Stocking, Martha L.

317

Factors maintaining plant diversity in degraded areas of northern Kuwait  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arid and semi-arid regions are jeopardized by land degradation with serious consequences for the natural vegetation, plant biodiversity and sustainable use of the natural environment. This paper describes the major causes of land degradation in northern Kuwait and outlines factors that serve to maintain plant biodiversity in those affected areas that would normally be dominated by the perennial dwarf shrub

G. Brown

2003-01-01

318

PULMONARY CELL POPULATIONS IN HAMSTERS MAINTAINED UNDER EGYPTIAN LABORATORY CONDITIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

The study was conducted to obtain baseline values for pulmonary cells in golden hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) bred and maintained under the laboratory conditions of Al-Azhar University in Egypt. An improvised technique is presented for measuring pulmonary cells obtained by lung...

319

Maintaining and Enhancing the Developmental Focus in School Counseling Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses what constitutes the developmental part of a comprehensive, developmental, and collaborative school counseling program. Provides a review of the developmental perspective as well as an overview of recent discussions related to the need for changes in school counseling program focus. Considers the potential for maintaining a developmental…

Paisley, Pamela O.

2001-01-01

320

The concept of self-maintained offshore wind turbines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The objective of on-going research on the concept of self-maintained offshore wind turbines is to develop a design methodology to increase the availability for offshore wind farms, by means of an intelligent maintenance system capable of responding to faults by reconfiguring the system or subsystems, without increasing service visits, economics, or complexity. The design methodology explained in the paper

E. Echavarria; T. Tomiyama; G. J. W. van Bussel

321

Method of maintaining activity of hydrogen-sensing platinum electrode  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Three-electrode hydrogen sensor containing a platinum electrode maintained in a highly catalytic state, operates with a minimal response time and maximal sensitivity to the hydrogen gas being sensed. Electronic control and readout circuitry reactivates the working electrode of the sensor to a state of maximal catalytic activity.

Harman, J. N., III

1968-01-01

322

Should the United States Maintain the Nuclear Triad.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Some past and present members of the military leadership hold a view that supports the nuclear arsenal. Senior leaders have given a number of public speeches and interviews outlining what it will take to maintain and modernize the most advanced and secure...

A. B. Lowther

2010-01-01

323

Photocopy of photograph (digital image maintained in LBNL Photo Lab ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Photocopy of photograph (digital image maintained in LBNL Photo Lab Collection, XBD200503-00117-176). March 2005. CENTRAL COLUMN SUPPORT TO ROOF SHOWING CRANES CENTER SUPPORT TRACK, BEVATRON - University of California Radiation Laboratory, Bevatron, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, Alameda County, CA

324

Customers' motivations for maintaining relationships with service providers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding why customers are receptive to relationships with service providers is a key issue in relationship marketing. This paper suggests that four broad drivers—environmental variables, partner variables, customer variables and interaction variables—affect customers' receptivity to relationship maintenance. Customers may maintain relationships either because of constraints (they “ have to” stay in the relationship) or because of dedication (they “want to”

Leonard L. Berry

1997-01-01

325

Relationships between Social Cognition and Sibling Constellations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

First and second born college students (N=178) responded to measures of four social cognition factors. Multivariate analysis of variance identified relationships of social cognition factors with five sibling constellation components: subject's sex, subject's birth order (first or second), adjacent first or second born sibling's sex, spacing…

Goebel, Barbara L.

1985-01-01

326

Implementation of a Focused Social Networking Crawler  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social networking sites are becoming more and more popular and thus there is increased value in attacking and exploiting them. The amount of users on them is attractive in terms of the information they make available. We implement a focused social networking crawler on the popular site, Facebook, in order to exploit user profile information and identify aspects of computer

Alice Leung; Roven Lin; Jesse Ng; Philip Szeto

327

Social Hopelessness and College Student Suicide Ideation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study examined the relationship between suicide ideation and various predictive psychological factors in order to improve upon existing models of student suicidality. Specific attention was paid to social hopelessness, an interpersonal form of hopelessness, in the prediction of suicidality. A sample of 143 college students completed measures of suicide ideation, daily stress, depression, general hopelessness, and social hopelessness.

Marnin J. Heisel; Gordon L. Flett; Paul L. Hewitt

2003-01-01

328

Towards Social Leverage of Sport Events  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the predominant policy focus on event economic impact, event organisers and host community residents are calling for attention to be paid to the social value of events. Anthropological work on events demonstrates that their celebratory nature engenders a liminoid space that can foster social value, particularly through a sense of communitas. In order to enable and amplify liminality and

Laurence Chalip

2006-01-01

329

Vocational Education: A Social Anarchist Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses the social anarchist tradition of educational thought and practice, in order to throw new light on the philosophical discussion of the liberal-vocational distinction. Focusing on the central anarchist idea of integral education, I argue that the political stance of social anarchism is inseparable from the educational ideas…

Suissa, Judith

2004-01-01

330

Social Skills Training for Unipolar Depression  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study compared four treatments for unipolar (non-psychotic) depression: Amitriptyline, Social Skills Training plus Amitriptyline, Social Skills Training plus Placebo, and Psychotherapy plus Placebo. In addition, 25 normal women were assessed on the behavioral measures in order to evaluate the ecological validity of the dependent measures and the changes produced by treatment. The four treatments, conducted by experienced clinicians, all

Alan S. Bellack; Michel Hersen; Jonathan M. Himmelhoch

1983-01-01

331

[Social marketing and public health].  

PubMed

Social marketing uses the principles and techniques of commercial marketing by applying them to the complex social context in order to promote changes (cognitive; of action; behavioral; of values) among the target population in the public interest. The advent of Internet has radically modified the communication process, and this transformation also involved medical-scientific communication. Medical journals, health organizations, scientific societies and patient groups are increasing the use of the web and of many social networks (Twitter, Facebook, Google, YouTube) as channels to release scientific information to doctors and patients quickly. In recent years, even Healthcare in Italy reported a considerable application of the methods and techniques of social marketing, above all for health prevention and promotion. Recently the association for health promotion "Social marketing and health communication" has been established to promote an active dialogue between professionals of social marketing and public health communication, as well as among professionals in the field of communication of the companies involved in the "health sector". In the field of prevention and health promotion it is necessary to underline the theme of the growing distrust in vaccination practices. Despite the irrefutable evidence of the efficacy and safety of vaccines, the social-cultural transformation together with the overcoming of compulsory vaccination and the use of noninstitutional information sources, have generated confusion among citizens that tend to perceive compulsory vaccinations as needed and safe, whereas recommended vaccinations as less important. Moreover, citizens scarcely perceive the risk of disease related to the effectiveness of vaccines. Implementing communication strategies, argumentative and persuasive, borrowed from social marketing, also for the promotion of vaccines is a priority of the health system. A typical example of the application of social marketing, as mentioned in the manuscript, is the campaign to promote the proper practice of HPV vaccination through the use of effective and cost-saving communication strategies. PMID:23598808

Arcaro, P; Mannocci, A; Saulle, R; Miccoli, S; Marzuillo, C; La Torre, G

2013-01-01

332

Globalisation, Demographic Transition and Reform of Social Safety Nets in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper accepts Rodrik’s premise that globalization and associated changes have increased the urgency of developing social safety nets to: Cushion transition; Help maintain legitimacy of reform, and help avoid backlash against reforms. India’s calibrated globalization thus requires appropriate social safety nets (or Social Security System) But such a system must be affordable and sustainable individually, fiscally and with appropriate

Mukul Asher

2005-01-01

333

The social construction of educational technology through the use of proprietary software  

Microsoft Academic Search

Major strands of science and technology studies (STS) in recent decades have been the 'social shaping of technology' (SST) and 'social construction of technology' (SCOT) movements, whose adherents maintain that technological systems are determined just as much by social forces as by technological ones. Taking this 'co-construction' notion as a starting point, and putting a focus on the user, I

Chris Bissell

334

Digital Stories Targeting Social Skills for Children with Disabilities: Multidimensional Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many children learn easily by watching others, imitating actions, and cuing into subtle social cues. However, some students with disabilities have trouble acquiring these social skills. These children require a more intensive intervention to make gains in the social area. For students who have difficulties initiating and maintaining interactions,…

More, Cori

2008-01-01

335

Theorizing Social Justice Ambiguities in an Era of Neoliberalism: The Case of Postapartheid South Africa  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this essay, Sharon Subreenduth explores how social justice policies have both global-local and historical dynamics and maintains that, as a result, dominant Western models of social justice limit engagement with alternative modes of understanding social justice in non-Western locations. She uses the South African experience as a case study for…

Subreenduth, Sharon

2013-01-01

336

The Social Work Portfolio: Planning, Assessing and Documenting Lifelong Learning in a Dynamic Profession.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book is designed to help social work students prepare a social work portfolio to be used as a learning guide, and following graduation, as a tool to maintain their social work licenses or other pertinent professional credentials. There are independent and collaborative group learning exercises as well as portfolio preparation exercises…

Cournoyer, Barry R.; Stanley, Mary J.

337

Assessing socially skilled behaviour for vocational tenure in adults with developmental disability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Socially skilled behaviour is a critical factor in an individual's ability to secure and maintain employment. Due to the very nature of their handicap, persons with mental retardation often exhibit social skills deficits, thus restricting access to competitive employment and the status of full membership in society that such employment facilitates. Previous attempts to train socially skilled behaviour in persons

Paula M. Daoust

1989-01-01

338

The Social Perceptual Salience Effect  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Affective processes appraise the salience of external stimuli preparing the agent for action. So far, the relationship between stimuli, affect, and action has been mainly studied in highly controlled laboratory conditions. In order to find the generalization of this relationship to social interaction, we assess the influence of the salience of…

Inderbitzin, Martin P.; Betella, Alberto; Lanata, Antonio; Scilingo, Enzo P.; Bernardet, Ulysses; Verschure, Paul F. M. J.

2013-01-01

339

Influencing Policy with Social Psychology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

According to this acceptance speech delivered by the recipient of the 1987 Kurt Lewin Award, social psychological contributions should be placed within an interdisciplinary framework and an institutional structure in order to make it more relevant for public policy. Recommendations for doing this are offered. (BJV)

Pettigrew, Thomas F.

1988-01-01

340

Treatment of Inappropriate Vocalizations Maintained by Automatic Reinforcement in Analogue  

Microsoft Academic Search

Children diagnosed with autism often engage repetitive, nonfunctional behaviors such as vocal stereotypy. Although these behaviors may not result in harm to the individual or others, these behaviors can impede academic instruction and acquisition of adaptive skills and may lead to social isolation and\\/or placement in a more restrictive academic setting. The majority of research on treatments for vocal stereotypy

Joanna Lomas; M. ALICE SHILLINGSBURG; Danielle W. Bradley

341

Defining socially assistive robotics  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper defines the research area of socially assistive robotics, focusing on assisting people through social interaction. While much attention has been paid to robots that provide assistance to people through physical contact (which we call contact assistive robotics), and to robots that entertain through social interaction (social interactive robotics), so far there is no clear definition of socially assistive

David Feil-Seifer; Maja J Mataric

2005-01-01

342

Development and social capital  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines social capital and its relation with economic development. We focus on the role that interpersonal relationships play in social exchange, whether through the market or through the provision of public goods. By facilitating search and trust, social capital can increase the efficiency of social exchange where formal institutions are weak. But the benefits from social capital are

Marcel Fafchamps

2006-01-01

343

Enforceable social laws  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we study the enforcement of social laws in artificial social systems using a control system. We define the enforceable social law problem as an extension of Tennenholtz' stable social law problem. We distinguish the choice of social laws from the choice of control systems, where the latter leads to new computational problems. We consider also properties of

Guido Boella; Leendert W. N. van der Torre

2005-01-01

344

The effect of sertraline and environmental context on treating depression and illicit substance use among methadone maintained opiate dependent patients: a controlled clinical trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Psychiatric comorbidity, particularly depressive disorders, is associated with continued substance use and poor social functioning among methadone maintained patients. Evidence suggests similar neurochemical and environmental pathways may link the two disorders and it is reasonable to hypothesize that pharmacological and environmental factors play important roles in the treating comorbid depression and substance use. The present study tested the efficacy of

Kenneth M Carpenter; Adam C Brooks; Suzanne K Vosburg; Edward V Nunes

2004-01-01

345

Asymmetric dispersal can maintain larval polymorphism: a model motivated by Streblospio benedicti.  

PubMed

Polymorphism in traits affecting dispersal occurs in a diverse variety of taxa. Typically, the maintenance of a dispersal polymorphism is attributed to environmental heterogeneity where parental bet-hedging can be favored. There are, however, examples of dispersal polymorphisms that occur across similar environments. For example, the estuarine polychaete Streblospio benedicti has a highly heritable offspring dimorphism that affects larval dispersal potential. We use analytical models of dispersal to determine the conditions necessary for a stable dispersal polymorphism to exist. We show that in asexual haploids, sexual haploids, and in sexual diploids in the absence of overdominance, asymmetric dispersal is required in order to maintain a dispersal polymorphism when patches do not vary in intrinsic quality. Our study adds an additional factor, dispersal asymmetry, to the short list of mechanisms that can maintain polymorphism in nature. The region of the parameter space in which polymorphism is possible is limited, suggesting why dispersal polymorphisms within species are rare. PMID:22576818

Zakas, Christina; Hall, David W

2012-07-01

346

Spread of social information and dynamics of social transmission within Drosophila groups.  

PubMed

Understanding how behavioral diversity arises and is maintained is central to evolutionary biology. Genetically based inheritance has been a predominant research focus of the last century; however, nongenetic inheritance, such as social transmission, has become a topic of increasing interest [1]. How social information impacts behavior depends on the balance between information gathered directly through personal experience versus that gleaned through social interactions and on the diffusion of this information within groups [2, 3]. We investigate how female Drosophila melanogaster use social information under seminatural conditions and whether this information can spread and be maintained within a group, a prerequisite for establishing behavioral transmission [4]. We show that oviposition site choice is heavily influenced by previous social interactions. Naive observer flies develop a preference for the same egg-laying medium as experienced demonstrator flies conditioned to avoid one of two equally rewarding media. Surprisingly, oviposition site preference was socially transmitted from demonstrators to observers even when they interacted in a cage with only unflavored, pure agar medium, and even when the observer flies had previous personal experience with both rewarding media. Our findings shed light on the diffusion process of social information within groups, on its maintenance, and ultimately, on the roots of behavioral local adaptation. PMID:22264604

Battesti, Marine; Moreno, Celine; Joly, Dominique; Mery, Frederic

2012-02-21

347

Landscape Continuity: Ecology, Power and Social Order in Environmental Planning  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concept of landscape continuity has guided a great deal of contemporary environmental planning. Landscape continuity strategies are often situated as a response either to urban sprawl, or to the need to protect ecological features and functions over vast, connected terrains and multiple jurisdictions. While the concept is rooted in the natural and physical science of landscape ecology, its interpretation

Jennifer Foster

2010-01-01

348

Methodologies for social life cycle assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Goal, Scope and Background  In recent years several different approaches towards Social Life Cycle Assessment (SLCA) have been developed. The purpose\\u000a of this review is to compare these approaches in order to highlight methodological differences and general shortcomings. SLCA\\u000a has several similarities with other social assessment tools, although, in order to limit the expanse of the review, only claims\\u000a to address

Andreas Jørgensen; Agathe Le Bocq; Liudmila Nazarkina; Michael Hauschild

2008-01-01

349

Social competence in children with epilepsy--a review.  

PubMed

This systematic review focuses on definitions of social competence and assessment methods and provides an overview of the main findings in childhood epilepsy. A total of 45 studies drawn from MEDLINE and PsycINFO (1998-2010) and their reference lists met the selection criteria. Social competence was not defined in the studies reviewed. The study samples varied and consisted mostly of school-aged children. The majority of the studies focused on social adjustment and addressed problems in this area. Little is known about other aspects of social competence, namely social skills or social performance. A broader perspective on and definition of the assessment of social competence in children with epilepsy are proposed. More studies of the abilities underlying social competence, such as social and socio-cognitive skills, are needed in order to gain insight into the developmental pathways of social competence and protective factors for later development. PMID:22595143

Rantanen, K; Eriksson, K; Nieminen, P

2012-07-01

350

The nucleus accumbens is involved in both the pursuit of social reward and the avoidance of social punishment.  

PubMed

Human social motivation is characterized by the pursuit of social reward and the avoidance of social punishment. The ventral striatum/nucleus accumbens (VS/Nacc), in particular, has been implicated in the reward component of social motivation, i.e., the 'wanting' of social incentives like approval. However, it is unclear to what extent the VS/Nacc is involved in avoiding social punishment like disapproval, an intrinsically pleasant outcome. Thus, we conducted an event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study using a social incentive delay task with dynamic video stimuli instead of static pictures as social incentives in order to examine participants' motivation for social reward gain and social punishment avoidance. As predicted, the anticipation of avoidable social punishment (i.e., disapproval) recruited the VS/Nacc in a manner that was similar to VS/Nacc activation observed during the anticipation of social reward gain (i.e., approval). Stronger VS/Nacc activity was accompanied by faster reaction times of the participants to obtain those desired outcomes. This data support the assumption that dynamic social incentives elicit robust VS/Nacc activity, which likely reflects motivation to obtain social reward and to avoid social punishment. Clinical implications regarding the involvement of the VS/Nacc in social motivation dysfunction in autism and social phobia are discussed. PMID:23911778

Kohls, Gregor; Perino, Michael T; Taylor, James M; Madva, Elizabeth N; Cayless, Sarah J; Troiani, Vanessa; Price, Elinora; Faja, Susan; Herrington, John D; Schultz, Robert T

2013-09-01

351

Compact, maintainable 80-KeV neutral beam module  

DOEpatents

A compact, maintainable 80-keV arc chamber, extractor module for a neutral beam system immersed in a vacuum of <10.sup.-2 Torr, incorporating a nested 60-keV gradient shield located midway between the high voltage ion source and surrounding grounded frame. The shield reduces breakdown or arcing path length without increasing the voltage gradient, tends to keep electric fields normal to conducting surfaces rather than skewed and reduces the peak electric field around irregularities on the 80-keV electrodes. The arc chamber or ion source is mounted separately from the extractor or ion accelerator to reduce misalignment of the accelerator and to permit separate maintenance to be performed on these systems. The separate mounting of the ion source provides for maintaining same without removing the ion accelerator.

Fink, Joel H. (Livermore, CA); Molvik, Arthur W. (Livermore, CA)

1980-01-01

352

Endogenous endothelial cell signaling systems maintain vascular stability  

PubMed Central

The function of the endothelium is to provide a network to allow delivery of oxygen and nutrients to tissues throughout the body. This network is comprised of adjacent endothelial cells which utilize adherens junction proteins such as vascular endothelial cadherin (VE-cadherin) to maintain the appropriate level of vascular permeability. The disruption of VE-cadherin interactions during pathologic settings can lead to excessive vascular leak with adverse effects. Endogenous cell signaling systems have been defined that help to maintain the proper level of vascular stability. Perhaps the best described system is Angiopoietin-1 (Ang-1). Ang-1 acting through its receptor Tie2 generates a well described set of signaling events ultimately leading to enhanced vascular stability. In this review we will focus on what is known about additional endogenous cell signaling systems that stabilize the vasculature, and using Ang-1/Tie2 as a model, we will address where our understanding of these additional systems is lacking.

London, Nyall R.; Whitehead, Kevin J.; Li, Dean Y.

2009-01-01

353

The use of thermography in sympathetically maintained pain.  

PubMed Central

This paper reviews the symptomatology, pathophysiology, and treatment of reflex sympathetic dystrophy and sympathetically maintained pain. It is the author's experience that there exists a group of patients who present with chronic, unexplained pain following trauma, but lack the physical findings and positive investigative tests to confirm the diagnosis of reflex sympathetic dystrophy. For these patients, thermography serves as a useful and sensitive test to diagnosis sympathetically maintained pain. This paper presents six case reports in which thermography was used to diagnosis sympathetic dysfunction as the cause of chronic pain. Images Fig. 1-A Fig. 1-B Fig. 1-C Fig. 2-A Fig. 2-B Fig. 3-A Fig. 3-B Fig. 4-A Fig. 4-B Fig. 5-A Fig. 5-B Fig. 5-C Fig. 6-A Fig. 6-B

Friedman, M. S.

1994-01-01

354

The yeast oxysterol binding protein Kes1 maintains sphingolipid levels.  

PubMed

The oxysterol binding protein family are amphitropic proteins that bind oxysterols, sterols, and possibly phosphoinositides, in a conserved binding pocket. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae oxysterol binding protein family member Kes1 (also known as Osh4) also binds phosphoinositides on a distinct surface of the protein from the conserved binding pocket. In this study, we determine that the oxysterol binding protein family member Kes1 is required to maintain the ratio of complex sphingolipids and levels of ceramide, sphingosine-phosphate and sphingosine. This inability to maintain normal sphingolipid homeostasis resulted in misdistribution of Pma1, a protein that requires normal sphingolipid synthesis to occur to partition into membrane rafts at the Golgi for its trafficking to the plasma membrane. PMID:23593226

LeBlanc, Marissa A; Fairn, Gregory D; Russo, Sarah B; Czyz, Ola; Zaremberg, Vanina; Cowart, L Ashley; McMaster, Christopher R

2013-01-01

355

The Yeast Oxysterol Binding Protein Kes1 Maintains Sphingolipid Levels  

PubMed Central

The oxysterol binding protein family are amphitropic proteins that bind oxysterols, sterols, and possibly phosphoinositides, in a conserved binding pocket. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae oxysterol binding protein family member Kes1 (also known as Osh4) also binds phosphoinositides on a distinct surface of the protein from the conserved binding pocket. In this study, we determine that the oxysterol binding protein family member Kes1 is required to maintain the ratio of complex sphingolipids and levels of ceramide, sphingosine-phosphate and sphingosine. This inability to maintain normal sphingolipid homeostasis resulted in misdistribution of Pma1, a protein that requires normal sphingolipid synthesis to occur to partition into membrane rafts at the Golgi for its trafficking to the plasma membrane.

LeBlanc, Marissa A.; Fairn, Gregory D.; Russo, Sarah B.; Czyz, Ola; Zaremberg, Vanina; Cowart, L. Ashley; McMaster, Christopher R.

2013-01-01

356

Experimental control for initiating and maintaining rotation of parametric pendulum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, the authors have studied experimentally the control methods of a parametric pendulum excited harmonically to initiate and maintain a period one rotation - the most superior response for energy harvesting. For initiating the period one rotation inherent in the system, first the bang-bang method is applied. Then a new method where velocity is monitored is proposed and applied and finally the time-delayed feedback method with multi-switching is considered. Ultimately the problem of maintaining the rotation of the pendulum is addressed. For first time, robustness and sensitivity of the latter method to change of frequency and amplitude of excitation and added noise are studied. Finally, it has been demonstrated how the delayed feedback method can be applied in a system of two pendula to ensure synchronized rotation.

Vaziri, V.; Najdecka, A.; Wiercigroch, M.

2014-04-01

357

Weblogs and Literary Response: Socially Situated Identities and Hybrid Social Languages in English Class Blogs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students engaged in literary response on weblogs they wrote and maintained for an 11th-grade English class. Three focal students, all members of a "regular" American Literature class in a school that is highly invested in The College Board's Advanced Placement program, forge hybrid social languages from the discourse of formal literary analysis…

West, Kathleen C.

2008-01-01

358

Personal effort in social relationships across adulthood.  

PubMed

We explored age differences in the amount of personal effort that people put forth to maintain relationships across adulthood in diverse family-life contexts. More specifically, we examined how personal effort in social relationships is age-differently related to emotional closeness and perceptions of reciprocity. A total of 658 early-midlife (37 years) and old-age adults (73 years) from three life contexts (biological parents, parents from blended families with at least one stepchild, childless individuals) completed a questionnaire assessing ego-centered social networks, relationship quality, perceived conflict, and personal characteristics. As expected, perceived relationship effort was more pronounced and more strongly associated with emotional closeness in old age than in early midlife. In both age groups, perceived effort was comparably associated with reciprocity and conflict. Such associations were similar across the different life contexts. The findings suggest that perceived personal effort in social relationships contributes to the proactive shaping of social worlds across adulthood. PMID:23586359

Lang, Frieder R; Wagner, Jenny; Wrzus, Cornelia; Neyer, Franz J

2013-06-01

359

PA01.44. Applied aspect of Pranayama in maintaining health  

PubMed Central

Purpose: Pranayama is the science of breathing and essence of being alive. It is the axis around which the entire life cycle resolves. Health is a state of complete physical, mental and social well being and not merely an absence of disease or infirmity. Pranayama is compound word consisting Prana and Ayam, Prana means vital energy, breath, air etc. Prana is the vital life force that acts as a catalyst in all Physiological function and Ayama the expansion or control of this force. Method: Pranayama is a relatively simple, rhythmic, low cost intervention that can be incorporated into people's daily routine and have a positive impact on health. Maharishi Patanjali places Pranayama as the fourth limb of Ashtanga yoga. Prana is the fundamental basis of whatever is, was and will be. It consists three phase Purak, Kumbhak, Rechak. Result: Many researches show that breathing exercisesimprove respiratory physiology by increasing vital capacity and maintain homeostasis in blood. Researches show that pranayama is also helpful in improving the digestive activity by boosting enzymes action and promotes clearance of subtle metabolic wastes from the body. Conclusion: The process of breathing, vertical breathing is the more efficient way to inhale air than horizontal way. The present paper is high light the importance of pranayama in maintaining health, through previous research and contemporary concept.

Singh, Vishvender; Rao, Prasanna N; Shailaja, U; Reena, K

2012-01-01

360

Nurses and social media.  

PubMed

Nurses' use of social media and other electronic communications has increased significantly with growing numbers of social media opportunities, platforms and applications including blogs, social networking sites, video sites and online chat rooms and forums. PMID:24690934

Farrelly, Rory

361

Tunable polarization maintaining fiber Bragg grating based OSNR monitor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A simple optical performance monitoring scheme based on a tunable polarization maintaining fiber Bragg grating is proposed. The proposed technique measures the in-band optical signal-to-noise-ratio through orthogonal polarization detection. The scheme is successfully demonstrated for NRZ-OOK signals at 10 Gb/s with an input dynamic range of around 20 dB. The results show that the performance of the scheme is not sensitive to the effects of chromatic dispersion.

Qureshi, Khurram Karim; Jian, Zhao; Lu, C.; Tam, H. Y.; Wai, P. K. A.

2010-08-01

362

Ballast system for maintaining constant pressure in a glove box  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A ballast system for a glove box including a fixed platform on which is mounted an inflatable bag on top of which resides a cover and a weight. The variable gas volume of the inflatable bag communicates with that of the glove box via a valved tube. The weight and gas volume are selected to maintain a relatively constant pressure in the glove box despite variations in the glove box volume while avoiding the use of complicated valving apparatus.

Shlichta, Paul J. (Inventor)

1990-01-01

363

Ballast system for maintaining constant pressure in a glove box  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A ballast system is disclosed for a glove box including a fixed platform on which is mounted an inflatable bag on top of which resides a cover and a weight. The variable gas volume of the inflatable bag communicates with that of the glove box via a valved tube. The weight and the gas volume are selected to maintain a relatively constant pressure in the glove box despite variations in the glove box volume while avoiding the use of complicated valving apparatus.

Shlichta, Paul J. (inventor)

1989-01-01

364

Strategies for maintaining fitness and performance during Ramadan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Muslim athlete, whether living in a Muslim majority country or in a non-Muslim country, face unique challenges to faithfully follow one of the pillars of their faith – Ramadan – while attempting to maintain their participation in sports training and competition. There are conflicting reports on the effects of Ramadan on fitness and physical performance in general and in football in particular. In

Donald T. Kirkendall; Anis Chaouachi; Abdul Rashid Aziz; Karim Chamari

2012-01-01

365

Bladder smooth muscle organ culture preparation maintains the contractile phenotype  

PubMed Central

Smooth muscle cells, when subjected to culture, modulate from a contractile to a secretory phenotype. This has hampered the use of cell culture for molecular techniques to study the regulation of smooth muscle biology. The goal of this study was to develop a new organ culture model of bladder smooth muscle (BSM) that would maintain the contractile phenotype and aid in the study of BSM biology. Our results showed that strips of BSM subjected to up to 9 days of organ culture maintained their contractile phenotype, including the ability to achieve near-control levels of force with a temporal profile similar to that of noncultured tissues. The technical aspects of our organ culture preparation that were responsible, in part, for the maintenance of the contractile phenotype were a slight longitudinal stretch during culture and subjection of the strips to daily contraction-relaxation. The tissues contained viable cells throughout the cross section of the strips. There was an increase in extracellular collagenous matrix, resulting in a leftward shift in the passive length-tension relationship. There were no significant changes in the content of smooth muscle-specific ?-actin, calponin, h-caldesmon, total myosin heavy chain, protein kinase G, Rho kinase-I, or the ratio of SM1 to SM2 myosin isoforms. Moreover the organ cultured tissues maintained functional voltage-gated calcium channels and large-conductance calcium-activated potassium channels. Therefore, we propose that this novel BSM organ culture model maintains the contractile phenotype and will be a valuable tool for the use in cellular/molecular biology studies of bladder myocytes.

Wang, Tanchun; Kendig, Derek M.; Chang, Shaohua; Trappanese, Danielle M.; Chacko, Samuel

2012-01-01

366

Maintaining Retrieval Knowledge in a Case-Base Reasoning System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract The knowledge stored in a case-base is central to the problem-solving of a Case-Based Reasoning (CBR) system. Therefore, case-base main- tenance is a key component of maintaining a CBR system. However, other knowledge sources, such as indexing and similarity knowledge for im- proved case retrieval, also play an important role in CBR problem-solving. For many,CBR applications the refinement of

Susan Craw; Jacek Jarmulak; Ray Rowe

2001-01-01

367

Striated rootlet and nonfilamentous forms of rootletin maintain ciliary function.  

PubMed

Primary cilia are microtubule-based sensory organelles whose structures and functions must be actively maintained throughout animal lifespan to support signal transduction pathways essential for development and physiological processes such as vision and olfaction [1]. Remarkably, few cellular components aside from the intraflagellar transport (IFT) machinery are implicated in ciliary maintenance [2]. Rootletin, an evolutionarily conserved protein found as prominent striated rootlets or a nonfilamentous form, both of which are associated with cilium-anchoring basal bodies, represents a likely candidate given its well-known role in preventing ciliary photoreceptor degeneration in a mouse model [3, 4]. Whether rootletin is universally required for maintaining ciliary integrity, and if so, by what mechanism, remains unresolved. Here, we demonstrate that the gene disrupted in the previously isolated C. elegans chemosensory mutant che-10 encodes a rootletin ortholog that localizes proximally and distally to basal bodies of cilia harboring or lacking conspicuous rootlets. In vivo analyses reveal that CHE-10/rootletin maintains ciliary integrity partly by modulating the assembly, motility, and flux of IFT particles, which are critical for axoneme length control. Surprisingly, CHE-10/rootletin is also essential for stabilizing ciliary transition zones and basal bodies, roles not ascribed to IFT. Unifying these findings, we provide evidence that the underlying molecular defects in the che-10 mutant stem from disrupted organization/function of the periciliary membrane, affecting the efficient delivery of basal body-associated and ciliary components and resulting in cilium degeneration. Together, our cloning and functional analyses of C. elegans che-10 provide the first mechanistic insights into how filamentous and nonfilamentous forms of rootletin play essential roles in maintaining ciliary function in metazoans. PMID:24094853

Mohan, Swetha; Timbers, Tiffany A; Kennedy, Julie; Blacque, Oliver E; Leroux, Michel R

2013-10-21

368

PKMf Maintains Spatial, Instrumental, and Classically Conditioned Long-Term  

Microsoft Academic Search

How long-term memories are stored is a fundamental question in neuroscience. The first molecular mechanism for long-term memory storage in the brain was recently identified as the persistent action of protein kinase Mzeta (PKMf), an autonomously active atypical protein kinase C (PKC) isoform critical for the maintenance of long-term potentiation (LTP). PKMf maintains aversively conditioned associations, but what general form

Eugenia L. Friedman; Jana Kenney; Stephen M. Taubenfeld; Joshua M. Zimmerman; John Hanna; Cristina Alberini; Ann E. Kelley; Stephen Maren; Jerry W. Rudy; Jerry C. P. Yin; Todd C. Sacktor; Andre A. Fenton

369

The effects of buprenorphine in buprenorphine-maintained volunteers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Buprenorphine is a mu opioid partial agonist currently used as an analgesic, and being developed for the treatment of opioid\\u000a dependence. The purpose of this study was to determine the abuse liability of parenteral buprenorphine in volunteers maintained\\u000a on daily sublingual (SL) buprenorphine (8?mg). In a residential laboratory, eight volunteers underwent pharmacologic challenges\\u000a two times per week. Medication challenges were

Eric C. Strain; Sharon L. Walsh; Kenzie L. Preston; Ira A. Liebson; George E. Bigelow

1997-01-01

370

Intravascular Temperature Control System to Maintain Normothermia in Organ Donors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction  Temperature regulation in humans is controlled by the hypothalamus. After death by neurological criteria, the hypothalamus\\u000a ceases to function and poikilothermia ensues. Preservation of normothermia in those patients destined to become organ donors\\u000a is an important part of maintaining the normal physiology of the organs and organ systems. Typical means of achieving normothermia\\u000a include increasing the temperature of the ambient

Sarice L. Bassin; Thomas P. Bleck; Barnett R. Nathan

2008-01-01

371

Method and apparatus for maintaining thermal control in plasma conditions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An apparatus and method are disclosed for determining the effects of exposure of oxygen plasma on a thin film polymer whose bulk is maintained at a predetermined temperature. The apparatus includes a chamber having a specimen therein. A plasma environment is provided in the chamber. A closure member is provided for sealing the chamber after the specimen is introduced into the chamber. The closure member also serves as a support for the test apparatus which includes a cooling coil. A platform having the test specimen thereon is supported on the cooling coil to be cooled by coolant flowing through the cooling coils. A thermoelectric module is supported on the platform to assist in maintaining a low test temperature for the test samples. The temperature of the sample is monitored by a thermocouple probe which is in contact with the sample. Any change in bulk sample temperature caused by the thermocouple probe is quickly adjusted to maintain the initial bulk temperature by the thermoelectric module.

Whitaker, Ann F. (inventor)

1989-01-01

372

Sarcospan-Deficient Mice Maintain Normal Muscle Function  

PubMed Central

Sarcospan is an integral membrane component of the dystrophin-glycoprotein complex (DGC) found at the sarcolemma of striated and smooth muscle. The DGC plays important roles in muscle function and viability as evidenced by defects in components of the DGC, which cause muscular dystrophy. Sarcospan is unique among the components of the complex in that it contains four transmembrane domains with intracellular N- and C-terminal domains and is a member of the tetraspan superfamily of proteins. Sarcospan is tightly linked to the sarcoglycans, and together these proteins form a subcomplex within the DGC. Stable expression of sarcospan at the sarcolemma is dependent upon expression of the sarcoglycans. Here we describe the generation and analysis of mice carrying a null mutation in the Sspn gene. Surprisingly, the Sspn-deficient muscle maintains expression of other components of the DGC at the sarcolemma, and no gross histological abnormalities of muscle from the mice are observed. The Sspn-deficient muscle maintains sarcolemmal integrity as determined by serum creatine kinase and Evans blue uptake assays, and the Sspn-deficient muscle maintains normal force and power generation capabilities. These data suggest either that sarcospan is not required for normal DGC function or that the Sspn-deficient muscle is compensating for the absence of sarcospan, perhaps by utilizing another protein to carry out its function.

Lebakken, Connie S.; Venzke, David P.; Hrstka, Ronald F.; Consolino, Christina M.; Faulkner, John A.; Williamson, Roger A.; Campbell, Kevin P.

2000-01-01

373

The many modes of Twitter: developing and maintaining a professional identity on Twitter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Describing the potential benefits of using Twitter (or similar social networks such as Google+) is complicated by the fact that it is a tool that can be used in a variety of different ways. Usage of Twitter is a mixture of consumption of links and news from other users and organisations, sharing information (e.g. recently published papers) yourself, and interaction with other users; the precise mixture will vary depending on what a person tweets and who they chose to follow, making every user's experience somewhat unique. In addition to the more commonly cited benefits in the area of scientific outreach, all of these usage modes have potential professional benefits for a scientist, allowing them to keep up to date with the latest developments in their field, and to establish and maintain connections with other scientists. Any or all of these are possible goals for your social media presence and will shape how you use services like Twitter. For a passive real-time news service, you just need to follow the right people and organisations; building an online community requires seeking out like-minded people and regularly interacting with them; true outreach requires building an audience through a long-term commitment to adding value through sharing information and participating in discussions. With respect to your professional identity, the public and relatively informal nature of social networks means that it is important to consider, and set defined limits, on how much of yourself and your opinions you are comfortable sharing. On Twitter, retweets allow something you say to reach many people who do not even follow you, and if you use your real name then your profile may be easily findable on a search engine. On most social networks, it is impossible to totally control your experience as it depends largely on how other users interact with you. Whilst it is useful to consider what you want to get out of your use of social media when you begin, and develop a strategy for doing so, many people find that their usage and even their aims will evolve with time, as they experiment with what works for them and discover unforeseen benefits and opportunities.

Rowan, C. J.

2012-12-01

374

Social memory, social stress, and economic behaviors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social memory plays a pivotal role in social behaviors, from mating behaviors to cooperative behaviors based on reciprocal altruism. More specifically, social\\/person recognition memory is supposed, by behavioral-economic and game-theoretic analysis, to be required for tit-for-tat like cooperative behaviors to evolve under the N-person iterated prisoner's dilemma game condition. Meanwhile, humans are known to show a social stress response during

Taiki Takahashi

2005-01-01

375

Old Order Amish Philosophy of Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Old Order Amish in the societal arena provides a philosophy of education which is unique and worthy of study.They tend to have a minimal of problems when making comparisons with other sub cultures in society. Drug abuse, pregnancy among unwed mothers, crime, alcoholism, thievery, and other forms of anti-social behavior appear to be at a very…

Ediger, Marlow

2005-01-01

376

FOOTBALL BANNING ORDERS, PROPORTIONALITY, AND PUBLIC ORDER  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides a critical analysis of the U.K. legislation on Football Banning Orders. The historical development of this legislation is outlined and concerns are raised about its impact upon civil liberties and human rights. The paper then outlines a body of research on crowd psychology, public order policing and football 'disorder' that questions the determining role of the Banning

CLIFFORD STOTT

377

Extended Identity for Social Networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nowadays we are experiencing the consolidation of social networks (SN). Although there are trends trying to integrate SN platforms. they remain as data silos between each other. Information can't be exchanged between them. In some cases, it would be desirable to connect this scattered information, in order to build a distributed identity. This contribution proposes an architecture for distributed social networking. Based on distributed user-centric identity, our proposal extends it by attaching user information. It also bridges the gap between distributed identity and distributed publishing capabilities.

Tapiador, Antonio; Fumero, Antonio; Salvachúa, Joaquín

378

Social Anxiety Factors: Relation to Introversion and Neuroticism.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In order to place research on social anxiety in proper perspective, the factors actually measured by social anxiety scales must be examined. Five social anxiety scales and four personality questionnaires were administered to college undergraduates (N=78). Factor analyses of the data revealed two distinct factors. The first factor, to which…

Morris, Larry W.; Gilliland, Jack C.

379

Social control in the post-industrial city  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past two decades, municipal governments across the United States have adopted novel social control techniques including off-limits orders, parks exclusion laws, and other applications of trespass law. These new tools are used to exclude the socially marginal from contested public spaces. These new social control techniques fuse criminal and civil legal authority and are touted as 'alternatives' to

KATHERINE BECKETT; STEVE HERBERT

380

Experiences in Decision Making. Elementary Social Studies Handbook.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This handbook is based upon a new social studies curriculum designed to give students guided experience in the responsible use of personal freedom. The new approach seeks to provide actual experience in the making of choices and judgements in order to improve man's relationship to his social and physical environment. Thus, the new social studies…

Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton.

381

Social Indicators, Reports, and Accounts: Toward the Management of Society  

Microsoft Academic Search

To many scholars and public officials, proposals for systems of social indicators and accounts, and for annual presidential social reports, point toward what can be viewed as an ultimate instrument of societal management. This instrument would eventually provide a macroscopic assessment of the current and future state and performance of the social order, along with an indication of control mechanisms

Michael Springer

1970-01-01

382

The Social Construction of the Personal Computer User.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reconstructs the social networks linking early personal computing pioneers in order to identify the social and political representations and images that defined these social networks. Describes the linkage between technical development and cultural representations, particularly those of the user, in the case of personal computers. (SR)

Bardini, Thierry; Horvath, August T.

1995-01-01

383

Aggressive and Prosocial Behaviors: The Social Success of Bistrategic Preadolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the social functioning of bistrategic youths (i.e., those who employ both aggressive and prosocial behavior) in order to further understand their social competence in peer social networks. Within our sample of 318 fifth-grade participants recruited from an urban school district in the northeastern US, bistrategic preadolescents…

Wurster, Tabitha; Xie, Hongling

2014-01-01

384

Measurement issues in research on social support and health  

Microsoft Academic Search

STUDY OBJECTIVE--The aims were: (1) to identify methodological problems that may explain the inconsistencies and contradictions in the research evidence on social support and health, and (2) to validate a frequently used measure of social support in order to determine whether or not it could be used in multivariate analyses of population data in research on social support and health.

K Dean; E Holst; S Kreiner; C Schoenborn; R Wilson

1994-01-01

385

Evidence of social niche construction: persistent and repeated social interactions generate stronger personalities in a social spider.  

PubMed

While there are now a number of theoretical models predicting how consistent individual differences in behaviour may be generated and maintained, so far, there are few empirical tests. The social niche specialization hypothesis predicts that repeated social interactions among individuals may generate among-individual differences and reinforce within-individual consistency through positive feedback mechanisms. Here, we test this hypothesis using groups of the social spider Stegodyphus mimosarum that differ in their level of familiarity. In support of the social niche specialization hypothesis, individuals in groups of spiders that were more familiar with each other showed greater repeatable among-individual variation in behaviour. Additionally, individuals that were more familiar with each other exhibited lower within-individual variation in behaviour, providing one of the first examples of how the social environment can influence behavioural consistency. Our study demonstrates the potential for the social environment to generate and reinforce consistent individual differences in behaviour and provides a potentially general mechanism to explain this type of behavioural variation in animals with stable social groups. PMID:24671972

Laskowski, Kate L; Pruitt, Jonathan N

2014-05-22

386

77 FR 56646 - Wayne E. Spencer: Debarment Order  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...is issuing an order under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (the FD&C Act) permanently debarring Wayne E. Spencer...Spencer was required to maintain adequate and accurate case histories on each individual who was administered...

2012-09-13

387

77 FR 56647 - Lisa Jean Sharp: Debarment Order  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...is issuing an order under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (the FD&C Act) permanently debarring Lisa Jean Sharp...Sharp was required to maintain adequate and accurate case histories on each individual who was administered Schering/...

2012-09-13

388

THE RIGHT TO SUTURES: SOCIAL EPIDEMIOLOGY, HUMAN RIGHTS, AND SOCIAL JUSTICE  

PubMed Central

The article examines the convergences and contrasts between social epidemiology, social medicine, and human rights approaches toward advancing global health and health equity. The first section describes the goals and work of the WHO Commission on Social Determinants of Health. The second section discusses the role of human rights in the Commission’s work. The third section evaluates, from the perspective of social epidemiology, two rights-based approaches to advancing health and health equity as compared to a view that focuses more broadly on social justice. The concluding section identifies four areas where social epidemiologists, practitioners of social medicine, and health and human rights advocates can and must work together in order to make progress on health and health equity.

Venkatapuram, Sridhar; Bell, Ruth; Marmot, Michael

2013-01-01

389

Effects of a Social Communication Intervention for Promoting Social Competence through Play in Young Children with Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Early interventions with the goal of altering the trajectory of social skill acquisition are needed in order to establish social competence in young children with developmental disabilities. This study used a unique play-based intervention (the Early Childhood Storybook Intervention) to teach social skills to young children with developmental…

Jamison, Kristen Roorbach

2010-01-01

390

Higher order decompositions of ordered operator exponentials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a decomposition scheme based on Lie-Trotter-Suzuki product formulae to approximate an ordered operator exponential with a product of ordinary operator exponentials. We show, using a counterexample, that Lie-Trotter-Suzuki approximations may be of a lower order than expected when applied to problems that have singularities or discontinuous derivatives of appropriate order. To address this problem, we present a set of criteria that is sufficient for the validity of these approximations, prove convergence and provide upper bounds on the approximation error. This work may shed light on why related product formulae fail to be as accurate as expected when applied to Coulomb potentials.

Wiebe, Nathan; Berry, Dominic; Høyer, Peter; Sanders, Barry C.

2010-01-01

391

Teaching Human Poses Interactively to a Social Robot  

PubMed Central

The main activity of social robots is to interact with people. In order to do that, the robot must be able to understand what the user is saying or doing. Typically, this capability consists of pre-programmed behaviors or is acquired through controlled learning processes, which are executed before the social interaction begins. This paper presents a software architecture that enables a robot to learn poses in a similar way as people do. That is, hearing its teacher's explanations and acquiring new knowledge in real time. The architecture leans on two main components: an RGB-D (Red-, Green-, Blue- Depth) -based visual system, which gathers the user examples, and an Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR) system, which processes the speech describing those examples. The robot is able to naturally learn the poses the teacher is showing to it by maintaining a natural interaction with the teacher. We evaluate our system with 24 users who teach the robot a predetermined set of poses. The experimental results show that, with a few training examples, the system reaches high accuracy and robustness. This method shows how to combine data from the visual and auditory systems for the acquisition of new knowledge in a natural manner. Such a natural way of training enables robots to learn from users, even if they are not experts in robotics.

Gonzalez-Pacheco, Victor; Malfaz, Maria; Fernandez, Fernando; Salichs, Miguel A.

2013-01-01

392

Social psychology and social networks: Individuals and social systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Social psychology,and social network,research are both centrally concerned,with human sociality. Despite some historically significant interactions between the two, these areas of investigationhave,not been usefully deployed together in recent research endeavours. This paper attempts tobring out some points of both theoretical and methodological contentions, to characterize the gap between them, to traverse briefly the trajectories of its historical development, and

Garry Robins; Yoshi Kashima

2008-01-01

393

A closed-loop system for maintaining constant experimental muscle pain in man.  

PubMed

Reliable experimental models are needed to help improve our knowledge of how the central nervous system adapts to function in the presence of muscle pain in man. We developed a microprocessor-based control system for maintaining a constant level of experimental muscle pain. Pain was induced in the relaxed right masseter of healthy young adults by using an infusion pump to inject an algesic 0.15 mL bolus of 5% hypertonic saline over 15 s. Subjects supplied feedback on their present pain intensity (PPI) via a 10 cm long electronic visual-analog scale (VAS) and a 0.07 Hz zero-order hold. The adaptive controller identified the system dynamic response and proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller parameters from the subject's initial response to the bolus (pain rise and fall time constants and peak amplitude) as well as his/her response to a 90 s constant infusion. Finally, using the pain feedback the adaptive PID controller was successfully used to adjust the infusion rate to maintain PPI in five out of seven healthy adults at a mean (SD) 4.8(0.9) PPI level with respect to the 5.0 PPI setpoint for periods up to 15 min (when the experiment was arbitrarily terminated). The infusion rate required to maintain the given level of masseter pain was found to increase by approximately 3 to 5%/minute. PMID:8375871

Zhang, X; Ashton-Miller, J A; Stohler, C S

1993-04-01

394

Oscillatory nonohomic current drive for maintaining a plasma current  

DOEpatents

Apparatus and methods are described for maintaining a plasma current with an oscillatory nonohmic current drive. Each cycle of operation has a generation period in which current driving energy is applied to the plasma, and a relaxation period in which current driving energy is removed. Plasma parameters, such as plasma temperature or plasma average ionic charge state, are modified during the generation period so as to oscillate plasma resistivity in synchronism with the application of current driving energy. The invention improves overall current drive efficiencies.

Fisch, N.J.

1984-01-01

395

Managers' duty to maintain good workplace communications skills.  

PubMed

Communication is a fundamental element of care at every level of nursing practice. It is important, therefore, for nurse managers to create environments that promote and encourage good communication, and help nurses to develop their communication skills formally and informally. This article discusses the effects of communication on the quality of care. It examines nurses' professional duty to maintain good communication skills and how managers can help them do this. It also discusses nurse managers' communication skills in the context of leadership style, conflict resolution and self-awareness. Finally, it considers the notion of shared governance as good practice. PMID:21736171

Timmins, Fiona

2011-06-01

396

Space Tools for Servicing, Repairing, and Maintaining Spacecraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Just like mechanics and technicians on Earth, astronauts use a variety of manual and portable power tools in space to repair, service, and maintain spacecraft, like the Space Shuttle and the International Space Station (ISS), and other satellites, like the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). Space tools are divided into two main operating categories: Intravehicular Activity (IVA) tools and Extravehicular Activity (EVA) tools. N A tools are used by astronauts inside the pressurized habitable compartments of a spacecraft for routine maintenance, repair, and unexpected tasks. EVA tools are used by space-suited astronauts outside of their pressurized spacecraft in the vacuum of space.

Trevino, Robert C.

2002-01-01

397

Time representations in social science  

PubMed Central

Time has long been a major topic of study in social science, as in other sciences or in philosophy. Social scientists have tended to focus on collective representations of time, and on the ways in which these representations shape our everyday experiences. This contribution addresses work from such disciplines as anthropology, sociology and history. It focuses on several of the main theories that have preoccupied specialists in social science, such as the alleged “acceleration” of life and overgrowth of the present in contemporary Western societies, or the distinction between so-called linear and circular conceptions of time. The presentation of these theories is accompanied by some of the critiques they have provoked, in order to enable the reader to form her or his own opinion of them.

Schulz, Yvan

2012-01-01

398

Socialization in communication: pragmatic socialization during dinnertime in Estonian, Finnish and Swedish families  

Microsoft Academic Search

In conversation with children, parents use language in order to convey norms and rules governing linguistic, social and cultural behavior. This study examines the use of one of the linguistic tools of socialization in family discourse, the comment. A comment is an utterance with explicit or implicit aim to influence a conversational partner to behave or speak in a certain

Boel De Geer; Tiia Tulviste; Luule Mizera; Marja-Terttu Tryggvason

2002-01-01

399

"How can I still be me?": Strategies to maintain a sense of self in the context of a neurological condition  

PubMed Central

The Living with a Neurological Condition (LINC) study was part of the National Population Health Study of Neurological Conditions conducted in Canada. This article describes empirical original qualitative data collected in the third and final phase of this study and examines how individuals living with a neurological condition maintain continuity of their sense of self, with a particular focus on their strategies. Fifteen interviews were analysed for this paper. Emerging strategies for maintaining sense of self include: (1) avoidance and denial, (2) cognitive reframing, (3) articulation of the self through imagined positive identity, (4) strategies that reconnect to identity in the past, (5) adjusting and altering goals, (6) spiritual activities, (7) humour, (8) comparison with others: identity as shaped through social constructs, and (9) creating communities: a reciprocal reflection of self.

Roger, Kerstin; Wetzel, Monika; Hutchinson, Susan; Packer, Tanya; Versnel, Joan

2014-01-01

400

Chronic Hospitalized and Household Maintained Consumers; Characteristics and Differences Among Referees to the Iranian Society Supporting Individuals With Schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

Objective: Providing treatment and educational services for consumers and their caregivers is more effective if those services are implemented based on their characteristics and differences. To partly address this objective, the present study aimed to describe and compare characteristics and differences of chronic hospitalized and household maintained consumers and their caregivers who were regular users of educational and rehabilitation programs of the Iranian Society Supporting Individuals with Schizophrenia (ISSIS) in Tehran, Iran. Methods: Two hundred and thirty one consumers were evaluated based on demographics, and clinical and symptom-related characteristics. Their caregivers (n = 231) were independently evaluated based on their knowledge on schizophrenia, family function, burden, and availability of social services and support for them. Data were analyzed by performing independent sample t-test and Mann-Whitney U. Results: The study findings revealed hospitalized consumers were older, had longer length of illness, greater severity of positive and negative symptoms and lower efficacy in basic life skills in comparison with household maintained consumers. The caregivers of the hospitalized consumers had greater objective and subjective burdens and lower knowledge on schizophrenia in comparison with caregivers of household maintained consumers. While household maintained consumers had more access to medical insurance, their caregivers had more access to the supportive organizations, more availability of substitute caregiver and assistant caregiver compared with caregivers of hospitalized consumers. Conclusion: Our findings suggest the need to promote specific interventions and treatment programs for Iranian consumers and their caregivers based on their characteristics and differences due to schizophrenia. Declaration of interest: None.

Mansouri, Nader; Malakouti, Seyed Kazem; Chimeh, Narges; Rezvanifar, Shirin; Mohseni, Mostfa; Mansouri, Elham

2014-01-01

401

Mean residual life ordering  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new partial ordering among life distributions in terms of their mean residual life is introduced. This ordering is weaker\\u000a than the hazard rate ordering but it is stronger than the variability ordering. Characterizations of the DMRL and NBUE distribution\\u000a are given.

Abdulhamid A. Alzaid

1988-01-01

402

Social Cognition in Humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

We review a diversity of studies of human social in- teraction and highlight the importance of social sig- nals. We also discuss recent findings from social cognitive neuroscience that explore the brain basis of the capacity for processing social signals. These signals enable us to learn about the world from others, to learn about other people, and to create a

Chris D. Frith; Uta Frith

2007-01-01

403

Social Work Agonistes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Social work should be founded on a powerful network of diverse practitioners applying the social sciences to advance social welfare today. Instead, social work education operates under the guise of identity politics, reserving its highest appointments for the politically correct and members of under-represented groups, with little concern for…

Stoesz, David

2008-01-01

404

Social Skills Intervention Guide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social skills training procedures that can be used in a group format are described. These procedures are contained in the Social Skills Intervention Guide (Elliott & Gresham, 1991) which is a systematic approach to teaching social skills to children between the ages of 6 and 16 years. A system for classifying social skills deficits based on acquisition performance deficits and

Frank M. Gresham; Stephen N. Elliott

1993-01-01

405

Social Insect Networks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Social insect colonies have many of the properties of adaptive networks. The simple rules governing how local interactions among individuals translate into group behaviors are found across social groups, giving social insects the potential to have a profound impact on our understanding of the interplay between network dynamics and social evolution.

Jennifer Fewell (Arizona State University;School of Life Sciences)

2003-09-26

406

Counseling and Social Justice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author expands on "The Scandal of Social Work Education," a National Association of Scholars study documenting the commitment to left-wing "social justice" in social work programs at ten major public institutions. He presents a critical exploration of social justice ideology in academic and professional mental health training…

Hunsaker, Robert C.

2011-01-01

407

Toward a Social Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report, prepared at the request of President Johnson, represents an attempt by social scientists to look at several important aspects of the quality of American Life, and digest what is known about progress toward generally accepted social goals. It is not in itself a social report, but a step toward the development of a social report and a…

Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Washington, DC.

408

Maintain rigid structures in Verlet based cartesian molecular dynamics simulations.  

PubMed

An algorithm is presented to maintain rigid structures in Verlet based cartesian molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. After each unconstrained MD step, the coordinates of selected particles are corrected to maintain rigid structures through an iterative procedure of rotation matrix computation. This algorithm, named as SHAPE and implemented in CHARMM program suite, avoids the calculations of Lagrange multipliers, so that the complexity of computation does not increase with the number of particles in a rigid structure. The implementation of this algorithm does not require significant modification of propagation integrator, and can be plugged into any cartesian based MD integration scheme. A unique feature of the SHAPE method is that it is interchangeable with SHAKE for any object that can be constrained as a rigid structure using multiple SHAKE constraints. Unlike SHAKE, the SHAPE method can be applied to large linear (with three or more centers) and planar (with four or more centers) rigid bodies. Numerical tests with four model systems including two proteins demonstrate that the accuracy and reliability of the SHAPE method are comparable to the SHAKE method, but with much more applicability and efficiency. PMID:23039588

Tao, Peng; Wu, Xiongwu; Brooks, Bernard R

2012-10-01

409

Maintain rigid structures in Verlet based Cartesian molecular dynamics simulations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An algorithm is presented to maintain rigid structures in Verlet based Cartesian molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. After each unconstrained MD step, the coordinates of selected particles are corrected to maintain rigid structures through an iterative procedure of rotation matrix computation. This algorithm, named as SHAPE and implemented in CHARMM program suite, avoids the calculations of Lagrange multipliers, so that the complexity of computation does not increase with the number of particles in a rigid structure. The implementation of this algorithm does not require significant modification of propagation integrator, and can be plugged into any Cartesian based MD integration scheme. A unique feature of the SHAPE method is that it is interchangeable with SHAKE for any object that can be constrained as a rigid structure using multiple SHAKE constraints. Unlike SHAKE, the SHAPE method can be applied to large linear (with three or more centers) and planar (with four or more centers) rigid bodies. Numerical tests with four model systems including two proteins demonstrate that the accuracy and reliability of the SHAPE method are comparable to the SHAKE method, but with much more applicability and efficiency.

Tao, Peng; Wu, Xiongwu; Brooks, Bernard R.

2012-10-01

410

Promoting longevity by maintaining metabolic and proliferative homeostasis.  

PubMed

Aging is characterized by a widespread loss of homeostasis in biological systems. An important part of this decline is caused by age-related deregulation of regulatory processes that coordinate cellular responses to changing environmental conditions, maintaining cell and tissue function. Studies in genetically accessible model organisms have made significant progress in elucidating the function of such regulatory processes and the consequences of their deregulation for tissue function and longevity. Here, we review such studies, focusing on the characterization of processes that maintain metabolic and proliferative homeostasis in the fruitfly Drosophila melanogaster. The primary regulatory axis addressed in these studies is the interaction between signaling pathways that govern the response to oxidative stress, and signaling pathways that regulate cellular metabolism and growth. The interaction between these pathways has important consequences for animal physiology, and its deregulation in the aging organism is a major cause for increased mortality. Importantly, protocols to tune such interactions genetically to improve homeostasis and extend lifespan have been established by work in flies. This includes modulation of signaling pathway activity in specific tissues, including adipose tissue and insulin-producing tissues, as well as in specific cell types, such as stem cells of the fly intestine. PMID:24353210

Wang, Lifen; Karpac, Jason; Jasper, Heinrich

2014-01-01

411

System for maintaining sediment suspensions during larval fish studies  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A new system was developed for maintaining suspensions of inorganic solids during laboratory studies on early life stages of fish. Microfine bentonite was successfully held in suspension in specially constructed units during a 21-d fishless test, a 28-d experiment with juvenile green sunfish (lepomis cyanellus), and four shorter experiments (5-9 d) with four species of larval fishes, white sucker (catostomus commersoni), northern pike (esox lucius), channel catfish (ictalurus punctatus), and walleye (stizostedion vitreum). Each experiment on larval fish was conducted until the yolk-sac had been absorbed. Concentrations of bentonite ranged from 0 to 728 mg/l. Each unit consisted of a holding chamber set in a stainless steel bowl and two submersible pumps that recirculated the suspension. Turbidity readings remained nearly constant throughout each experiment. Because the turbidity of suspensions was well correlated with bentonite concentration (r2 = 0.989) And easy to measure, turbidity was used as an indicator of concentration. The system is inexpensive, easy to assemble, and does not require a diluter system to maintain constant concentrations of suspended material.

Chilton, E. W., II

1991-01-01

412

Viability of fungal cultures maintained at -70 degrees C.  

PubMed Central

One thousand four hundred forty-seven clinical and environmental isolates of molds, yeasts, aerobic actinomycetes, and algae belonging to 164 genera (382 taxa) maintained on potato dextrose agar at -70 degrees C for periods ranging from 6 months to 13 years were subcultured and then incubated at 25 degrees C to determine their viabilities. Thirty-three isolates, Alternaria alternata (n = 1), Apophysomyces elegans (n = 1), Bipolaris spicifera (n = 1), Blastomyces dermatitidis (n = 4), Cokeromyces recurvatus (n = 1), Coremiella cubispora (n = 1), Cryptococcus ater (n = 1), Curvularia sp. (n = 1), Exserohilum monoceras (n = 1), Exserohilum pedicillatum (n = 1), Exserohilum rostratum (n = 1), Filobasidium floriforme (n = 1), Madurella mycetomatis (n = 1), Oedocephalum spp. (n = 2), Penicillium marneffei (n = 1), Pseudomicrodochium spp. (n = 4), Saksenaea vasiformis (n = 1), Sporothrix sp. (n = 1), and Mycelia Sterilia (n = 8), did not grow after repeated attempts at subculturing. Neither time in storage nor taxonomic classification was associated with a lack of viability. Storage at low temperature for either short or long periods of time is an excellent method for maintaining most medically important fungi.

Pasarell, L; McGinnis, M R

1992-01-01

413

Greatwall maintains mitosis through regulation of PP2A.  

PubMed

Greatwall (GW) is a new kinase that has an important function in the activation and the maintenance of cyclin B-Cdc2 activity. Although the mechanism by which it induces this effect is unknown, it has been suggested that GW could maintain cyclin B-Cdc2 activity by regulating its activation loop. Using Xenopus egg extracts, we show that GW depletion promotes mitotic exit, even in the presence of a high cyclin B-Cdc2 activity by inducing dephosphorylation of mitotic substrates. These results indicate that GW does not maintain the mitotic state by regulating the cyclin B-Cdc2 activation loop but by regulating a phosphatase. This phosphatase is PP2A; we show that (1) PP2A binds GW, (2) the inhibition or the specific depletion of this phosphatase from mitotic extracts rescues the phenotype induced by GW inactivation and (3) the PP2A-dependent dephosphorylation of cyclin B-Cdc2 substrates is increased in GW-depleted Xenopus egg extracts. These results suggest that mitotic entry and maintenance is not only mediated by the activation of cyclin B-Cdc2 but also by the regulation of PP2A by GW. PMID:19680222

Vigneron, Suzanne; Brioudes, Estelle; Burgess, Andrew; Labbé, Jean-Claude; Lorca, Thierry; Castro, Anna

2009-09-16

414

Maintaining the point correspondence in the level set framework  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we propose a completely Eulerian approach to maintain a point correspondence during a level set evolution. Our work is in the spirit of some recent methods (D. Adalsteinsson, J. Sethian, Transport and diffusion of material quantities on propagating interfaces via level set methods, Journal of Computational Physics 185(1) (2003) 271-288; J.-J. Xu, H.-K. Zhao, An Eulerian formulation for solving partial differential equations along a moving interface, Journal of Scientific Computing 19 (2003) 573-594) for handling interfacial data on moving level set interfaces. Our approach maintains an explicit backward correspondence from the evolving interface to the initial one, by advecting the initial point coordinates with the same velocity as the level set function. It leads to a system of coupled Eulerian partial differential equations. We describe in detail a robust numerical implementation of our approach, in accordance with the narrow band methodology. We show in a variety of numerical experiments that it can handle both normal and tangential velocities, large deformations, shocks, rarefactions and topological changes. The possible applications of our approach include scientific visualization, computer graphics and image processing.

Pons, J.-P.; Hermosillo, G.; Keriven, R.; Faugeras, O.

2006-12-01

415

Acquiring and maintaining a normal oral microbiome: current perspective  

PubMed Central

The oral microbiota survives daily physical and chemical perturbations from the intake of food and personal hygiene measures, resulting in a long-term stable microbiome. Biological properties that confer stability in the microbiome are important for the prevention of dysbiosis—a microbial shift toward a disease, e.g., periodontitis or caries. Although processes that underlie oral diseases have been studied extensively, processes involved in maintaining of a normal, healthy microbiome are poorly understood. In this review we present our hypothesis on how a healthy oral microbiome is acquired and maintained. We introduce our view on the prenatal development of tolerance for the normal oral microbiome: we propose that development of fetal tolerance toward the microbiome of the mother during pregnancy is the major factor for a successful acquisition of a normal microbiome. We describe the processes that influence the establishment of such microbiome, followed by our perspective on the process of sustaining a healthy oral microbiome. We divide microbiome-maintenance factors into host-derived and microbe-derived, while focusing on the host. Finally, we highlight the need and directions for future research.

Zaura, Egija; Nicu, Elena A.; Krom, Bastiaan P.; Keijser, Bart J. F.

2014-01-01

416

New chest tube management maintained with negative pressure therapy.  

PubMed

Management of a chest tube, especially when lasting for a long period, becomes difficult. The orifice of thoracostomy where a tube is inserted is maintained sterile usually with water-tight sutures. The longer and tighter the sutures are placed, the more severely skin becomes sore by pressure. Recently not only pressure sores but also other various open wounds were successfully treated by negative pressure therapy. This study presents two cases of intrathoracic abscess which were successfully treated by chest tube maintained with negative pressure therapy. One case was a bed-ridden cerebral palsy patient with empyema thoracis and the other was a premature baby with lung abscess. Both needed a chest tube longer than a month. Negative pressure was applied not only in the abscess cavity but also in the wound of tube insertion, thus simultaneously draining the abscess and accelerating the wound healing of the tube insertion. It was gradually elevated from 20 to 50 H2O (14.7 to 36.7 mmHg), which is below the level of the physiologic forced inspiration, with a 10 cm H2O (7.4 mmHg) increase every other day. Both abscesses disappeared without a complication. PMID:23829503

Sashida, Yasunori

2014-04-01

417

Hierarchically nanotextured surfaces maintaining superhydrophobicity under severely adverse conditions.  

PubMed

Superhydrophobic surfaces are highly desirable for a broad range of technologies and products affecting everyday life. Despite significant progress in recent years in understanding the principles of hydrophobicity, mostly inspired by surface designs found in nature, many man-made surfaces employ readily processable materials, ideal to demonstrate principles, but with little chance of survivability outside a very limited range of well-controlled environments. Here we focus on the rational development of robust, hierarchically nanostructured, environmentally friendly, metal-based (aluminum) superhydrophobic surfaces, which maintain their performance under severely adverse conditions. Based on their functionality, we superpose selected hydrophobic layers (i.e. self-assembled monolayers, thin films, or nanofibrous coatings) on hierarchically textured aluminum surfaces, collectively imparting high level robustness of superhydrophobicity under adverse conditions. These surfaces simultaneously exhibit chemical stability, mechanical durability and droplet impalement resistance. They impressively maintained their superhydrophobicity after exposure to severely adverse chemical environments like strong alkaline (pH ? 9-10), acidic (pH ? 2-3), and ionic solutions (3.5 weight% of sodium chloride), and could simultaneously resist water droplet impalement up to an impact velocity of 3.2 m s(-1) as well as withstand standard mechanical durability tests. PMID:24947006

Maitra, Tanmoy; Antonini, Carlo; Auf der Mauer, Matthias; Stamatopoulos, Christos; Tiwari, Manish K; Poulikakos, Dimos

2014-07-10

418

Maintaining Stimulant Waveforms in Large Volume Microfluidic Cell Chambers  

PubMed Central

Stimulation of cells with temporal waveforms can be used to observe the frequency-dependent nature of cellular responses. The ability to produce and maintain the temporal waveforms in spite of the broadening processes that occur as the wave travels through the microfluidic system is critical for observing dynamic behaviors. Broadening of waves in microfluidic channels has been examined, but the effect that large-volume cell chambers have on the waves has not. In this report, a sinusoidal glucose wave delivered to a 1 mm diameter cell chamber using various microfluidic channel structures was simulated by finite element analysis with the goal of minimizing the broadening of the waveform in the chamber and maximizing the homogeneity of the concentration in the chamber at any given time. Simulation results indicated that increasing the flow rate was the most effective means to achieve these goals, but at a given volumetric flow rate, geometries that deliver the waveform to multiple regions in the chamber while maintaining a high linear velocity produced sufficient results. A 4-inlet geometry with a 220 ?m channel width gave the best result in the simulation and was used to deliver glucose waveforms to a population of pancreatic islets of Langerhans. The result was a stronger and more robust synchronization of the islet population as compared to when a non-optimized chamber was used. This general strategy will be useful in other microfluidic systems examining the frequency-dependence nature of cellular behavior.

Zhang, Xinyu; Dhumpa, Raghuram; Roper, Michael G.

2013-01-01

419

Comparing Social Security reform options.  

PubMed

Social Security is widely recognized as the nation's most effective anti-poverty program for the elderly and widow(er)s. It is so popular that it has often been dubbed the "third rail" of American politics ("touch it and you die"). As a result, changes have come slowly. For instance, in spite of years of warning in advance of the cash flow crisis of 1983, Congress waited until the last minute to act--and when it did, the action it took included a combination of tax increases and benefit reductions. By the mid-1990s, then-President Clinton was talking about the long-term financing issues faced by Social Security, but Congress did not act. President Bush has raised the same issues since 2000, and has now taken to the road to convince the nation that action should be taken now to assure the program's long-term solvency. Because Social Security is a sensitive, complicated, and emotional political topic, many concepts have been discussed but few elected officials have been willing to put forth detailed plans for fear of political backlash. The public, quite naturally, wants to know how they will be affected by "reform." In this introductory section, Figure S-1 seeks to provide a simple response to that question by following the method used in the Trustees' report, where earners maintain a constant percentage of the average wage. Take the year closest to when you were born, the earnings closest to your expected earnings this year (2005), and follow across the columns to see how much your annual benefit would be in today's dollars if you start taking benefits at age 65. For an example of a specific individual: Your 30-year-old child (born in 1975) makes a 2005 salary around $16,500. Under current law, your child's initial annual Social Security retirement benefit would be dollar 11,200 in today's dollars. However, given the projected funding shortfall currently facing the program, this promised benefit is not likely to materialize unless some sort of change is made to the program. This analysis compares "Model 2" from the President's 2001 Commission to Strengthen Social Security (which appears to have the principles for an individual account plan favored by the Bush administration) with three basic options: Current-law benefits with taxes raised to cover the shortfall over the 75-year actuarial period, by removing the existing dollar 90,000 annual wage cap and including all workers. Maintain current benefits until the revenue shortfall occurs, when a "cliff" benefit cut is imposed. A gradual reduction in current-law benefits. PMID:15898449

Copeland, Craig

2005-05-01

420

Narrative, memory and social representations: a conversation between history and social psychology.  

PubMed

This paper explores relations between narrative, memory and social representations by examining how social representations express the ways in which communities deal with the historical past. Drawing on a case study of social representations of the Brazilian public sphere, it shows how a specific narrative of origins re-invents history as a useful mythological resource for defending identity, building inter-group solidarity and maintaining social cohesion. Produced by a time-travelling dialogue between multiple sources, this historical narrative is functional both to transform, to stabilise and give resilience to specific social representations of public life. The Brazilian case shows that historical narratives, which tend to be considered as part of the stable core of representational fields, are neither homogenous nor consensual but open polyphasic platforms for the construction of alternative, often contradictory, representations. These representations do not go away because they are ever changing and situated, recruit multiple ways of thinking and fulfil functions of identity, inter-group solidarity and social cohesion. In the disjunction between historiography and the past as social representation are the challenges and opportunities for the dialogue between historians and social psychologists. PMID:23065375

Jovchelovitch, Sandra

2012-12-01

421

33 CFR 117.41 - Maintaining drawbridges in the fully open position.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Maintaining drawbridges in the fully open position. 117.41 Section 117.41...Maintaining drawbridges in the fully open position. (a) Drawbridges permanently...maintained in the fully open to navigation position may discontinue drawtender...

2013-07-01

422

Accettabilita' sociale di una tecnologia: Il caso Rete 2. (Case of study Rete 2: Social acceptability of technology).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In a society, characterized by sudden innovative processes, studying social controversies of technological order assumes a specific meaning. Within these limits, the present case study - named Rete 2 - is representative in order to compile a first analysi...

S. Ciampi T. D. Valentini

1991-01-01

423

Socialization of Social Anxiety in Adolescent Crowds  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we looked at whether social anxiety is socialized, or influenced by peers’ social anxiety, more in some peer\\u000a crowds than others. Adolescents in crowds with eye-catching appearances such as Goths and Punks (here termed Radical), were compared with three comparison groups. Using data from 796 adolescents (353 girls and 443 boys; M\\u000a \\u000a age\\u000a ?=?13.36) at three timepoints,

Nejra Van Zalk; Maarten Herman Walter Van Zalk; Margaret Kerr

424

Social enhancement can create adaptive, arbitrary and maladaptive cultural traditions  

PubMed Central

Many animals are known to learn socially, i.e. they are able to acquire new behaviours by using information from other individuals. Researchers distinguish between a number of different social-learning mechanisms such as imitation and social enhancement. Social enhancement is a simple form of social learning that is among the most widespread in animals. However, unlike imitation, it is debated whether social enhancement can create cultural traditions. Based on a recent study on capuchin monkeys, we developed an agent-based model to test the hypotheses that (i) social enhancement can create and maintain stable traditions and (ii) social enhancement can create cultural conformity. Our results supported both hypotheses. A key factor that led to the creation of cultural conformity and traditions was the repeated interaction of individual reinforcement and social enhancement learning. This result emphasizes that the emergence of cultural conformity does not necessarily require cognitively complex mechanisms such as ‘copying the majority’ or group norms. In addition, we observed that social enhancement can create learning dynamics similar to a ‘copy when uncertain’ learning strategy. Results from additional analyses also point to situations that should favour the evolution of learning mechanisms more sophisticated than social enhancement.

Franz, Mathias; Matthews, Luke J.

2010-01-01

425

24 CFR 234.17 - Mortgagor and mortgagee requirements for maintaining flood insurance coverage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...mortgagee requirements for maintaining flood insurance coverage. 234.17 Section...mortgagee requirements for maintaining flood insurance coverage. The maintenance of flood insurance coverage on the project...

2013-04-01

426

Birth order and Personality  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It was found that (a) later borns from two-child families were more external than those from larger families; (b) later borns were more external than only children or firstborns; (c) only children and firstborns were more socially responsible than later borns; and (d) firstborns were more rigid than only-child and later-born Ss. (Author)

Macdonald, A. P.

1971-01-01

427

Social cognition on the Internet: testing constraints on social network size  

PubMed Central

The social brain hypothesis (an explanation for the evolution of brain size in primates) predicts that humans typically cannot maintain more than 150 relationships at any one time. The constraint is partly cognitive (ultimately determined by some aspect of brain volume) and partly one of time. Friendships (but not necessarily kin relationships) are maintained by investing time in them, and failure to do so results in an inexorable deterioration in the quality of a relationship. The Internet, and in particular the rise of social networking sites (SNSs), raises the possibility that digital media might allow us to circumvent some or all of these constraints. This allows us to test the importance of these constraints in limiting human sociality. Although the recency of SNSs means that there have been relatively few studies, those that are available suggest that, in general, the ability to broadcast to many individuals at once, and the possibilities this provides in terms of continuously updating our understanding of network members’ behaviour and thoughts, do not allow larger networks to be maintained. This may be because only relatively weak quality relationships can be maintained without face-to-face interaction.

Dunbar, R. I. M.

2012-01-01

428

Culturing and Maintaining Clostridium difficile in an Anaerobic Environment  

PubMed Central

Clostridium difficile is a Gram-positive, anaerobic, sporogenic bacterium that is primarily responsible for antibiotic associated diarrhea (AAD) and is a significant nosocomial pathogen. C. difficile is notoriously difficult to isolate and cultivate and is extremely sensitive to even low levels of oxygen in the environment. Here, methods for isolating C. difficile from fecal samples and subsequently culturing C. difficile for preparation of glycerol stocks for long-term storage are presented. Techniques for preparing and enumerating spore stocks in the laboratory for a variety of downstream applications including microscopy and animal studies are also described. These techniques necessitate an anaerobic chamber, which maintains a consistent anaerobic environment to ensure proper conditions for optimal C. difficile growth. We provide protocols for transferring materials in and out of the chamber without causing significant oxygen contamination along with suggestions for regular maintenance required to sustain the appropriate anaerobic environment for efficient and consistent C. difficile cultivation.

Edwards, Adrianne N.; Suarez, Jose M.; McBride, Shonna M.

2014-01-01

429

Warm Eocene Conditions Maintained by Methanogenesis in Arctic Soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The strikingly large carbon isotope separation (? 13Ccc - ? 13Com = 30.5 ‰ ) between fossilized wood and pedogenic carbonate intertwined in an unusually well-preservedMetasequoia bole of Eocene age from Axel Heiberg Island indicated an Arctic paleoenvironment in which 23% of soil-respired CO2 was enzymatically reduced to methane, prior to the precipitation of pedogenic carbonate. Using conservative estimates of biomass and litter paleoproduction forMetasequoia fossil forests, I calculated an annual methane release of 341 x 1012 gCH4/yr for the forested Arctic during the Eocene. This value is ~3x total modern natural methane emissions from soils, and would have drastically interfered with re-radiation of heat from the Earth's surface, and maintained the relatively mild Arctic temperatures evidenced by the fauna and flora of the Eocene.

Jahren, H.

2002-05-01

430

How unrealistic optimism is maintained in the face of reality.  

PubMed

Unrealistic optimism is a pervasive human trait that influences domains ranging from personal relationships to politics and finance. How people maintain unrealistic optimism, despite frequently encountering information that challenges those biased beliefs, is unknown. We examined this question and found a marked asymmetry in belief updating. Participants updated their beliefs more in response to information that was better than expected than to information that was worse. This selectivity was mediated by a relative failure to code for errors that should reduce optimism. Distinct regions of the prefrontal cortex tracked estimation errors when those called for positive update, both in individuals who scored high and low on trait optimism. However, highly optimistic individuals exhibited reduced tracking of estimation errors that called for negative update in right inferior prefrontal gyrus. These findings indicate that optimism is tied to a selective update failure and diminished neural coding of undesirable information regarding the future. PMID:21983684

Sharot, Tali; Korn, Christoph W; Dolan, Raymond J

2011-11-01

431

Complexin maintains vesicles in the primed state in C. elegans  

PubMed Central

Summary Background Complexin binds the SNARE complex at synapses and regulates exocytosis, but genetic studies indicate contradictory roles: in flies it predominantly inhibits synaptic vesicle fusion, whereas in mice it promotes evoked responses. Results Here we characterize the complexin mutant in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans and reveal bipolar functions in neurotransmission: complexin inhibits spontaneous fusion of synaptic vesicles but is also essential for evoked responses. Complexin mutants exhibit a doubling of vesicle fusion in the absence of extracellular calcium. Even more profoundly, mutants exhibit an almost complete loss of evoked responses, current amplitudes are reduced by 94%. One possible interpretation is that spontaneous fusion leads to a severe depletion of primed vesicles and thereby eliminates the readily releasable pool. Consistent with this hypothesis, docked synaptic vesicles are reduced by 70% in complexin-1 mutants. Conclusion These data suggest that the main function of complexin is to maintain the docked state both by inhibiting fusion as well as by promoting priming.

Hobson, Robert J.; Liu, Qiang; Watanabe, Shigeki; Jorgensen, Erik M.

2011-01-01

432

Reliability and Maintainability Issues for the Next Linear Collider  

SciTech Connect

Large accelerators for high energy physics research traditionally have been designed using informal best design, engineering, and management practices to achieve acceptable levels of operational availability. However, the Next Linear Collider(NLC) project presents a particular challenge for operational availability due to the unprecedented size and complexity of the accelerator systems required to achieve the physics goals of high center-of-mass energy and high luminosity. Formal reliability and maintainability analysis, design, and implementation will be required to achieve acceptable operational availability for the high energy physics research program. This paper introduces some of the basic concepts of reliability analysis and applies them to the 2.6-cm microwave power system of the two 10-km-long, 250-GeV linacs that are currently proposed for the NLC design.

Wilson, Zane J.; Gold, Saul L.; Koontz, Ron F.; Lavine, Ted L.; /SLAC

2011-08-26

433

Assessment of Sterility in Fluid Bags Maintained for Chronic Use  

PubMed Central

Fluid therapy is an integral component of standard supportive care in veterinary medicine and is often given subcutaneously for ease of administration. Multiple animals may be treated by using the same bag. These bags often are used repeatedly until they are empty or until a time specified by an IACUC or similar advisory group. This practice introduces the risk of contamination. Here we assessed the sterility of multiple-use fluid bags in the laboratory setting for a maximum of 60 d. Bags were manipulated to mimic infrequent and frequent use. Bacterial cultures of fluid and bag wall and assays for endotoxin and ATP activity were negative at all time points through 30 d. Two fluid samples yielded bacterial growth at 60 d, although all other tests were negative. These results suggest that fluid bags used chronically can be maintained in a sterile condition for a maximum of 30 d.

Matthews, Kristin A; Taylor, Douglas K

2011-01-01

434

Neural correlates of establishing, maintaining, and switching brain states  

PubMed Central

Although the study of brain states is an old one in neuroscience, there has been growing interest in brain state specification owing to MRI studies tracing brain connectivity at rest. In this review, we summarize recent research on three relatively well-described brain states: the resting, alert, and meditation states. We explore the neural correlates of maintaining a state or switching between states, and argue that the anterior cingulate cortex and striatum play a critical role in state maintenance, whereas the insula has a major role in switching between states. Brain state may serve as a predictor of performance in a variety of perceptual, memory, and problem solving tasks. Thus, understanding brain states is critical for understanding human performance.

Tang, Yi-Yuan; Rothbart, Mary K.; Posner, Michael I.

2012-01-01

435

A control system for maintaining high stability in gas pressure  

SciTech Connect

A pressure control system has been implemented on an experiment designed to detect the presence of fractional charges in bulk matter. The experiment utilizes a liquid-droplet generation technique requiring high-stability gas-pressure delivery to ensure accurate data collection. The pressure control system consists of a pressurized mercury reservoir containing a low-vapor-pressure, diffusion-pump oil. A commercially available differential pressure transducer, servo-driven valve, and controller sense the pressure fluctuations with respect to a static reference pressure. The system can maintain constant pressure to better than one part in 10,000 at working pressures in the range of 100 to 300 psi. 3 refs., 7 figs.

Wuest, C.R.; Hendricks, C.D.

1987-09-01

436

T-cell Receptor Specificity Maintained by Altered Thermodynamics*  

PubMed Central

The T-cell receptor (TCR) recognizes peptides bound to major histocompatibility molecules (MHC) and allows T-cells to interrogate the cellular proteome for internal anomalies from the cell surface. The TCR contacts both MHC and peptide in an interaction characterized by weak affinity (KD = 100 nm to 270 ?m). We used phage-display to produce a melanoma-specific TCR (?24?17) with a 30,000-fold enhanced binding affinity (KD = 0.6 nm) to aid our exploration of the molecular mechanisms utilized to maintain peptide specificity. Remarkably, although the enhanced affinity was mediated primarily through new TCR-MHC contacts, ?24?17 remained acutely sensitive to modifications at every position along the peptide backbone, mimicking the specificity of the wild type TCR. Thermodynamic analyses revealed an important role for solvation in directing peptide specificity. These findings advance our understanding of the molecular mechanisms that can govern the exquisite peptide specificity characteristic of TCR recognition.

Madura, Florian; Rizkallah, Pierre J.; Miles, Kim M.; Holland, Christopher J.; Bulek, Anna M.; Fuller, Anna; Schauenburg, Andrea J. A.; Miles, John J.; Liddy, Nathaniel; Sami, Malkit; Li, Yi; Hossain, Moushumi; Baker, Brian M.; Jakobsen, Bent K.; Sewell, Andrew K.; Cole, David K.

2013-01-01

437

Complex problems require complex solutions: the utility of social quality theory for addressing the Social Determinants of Health  

PubMed Central

Background In order to improve the health of the most vulnerable groups in society, the WHO Commission on Social Determinants of Health (CSDH) called for multi-sectoral action, which requires research and policy on the multiple and inter-linking factors shaping health outcomes. Most conceptual tools available to researchers tend to focus on singular and specific social determinants of health (SDH) (e.g. social capital, empowerment, social inclusion). However, a new and innovative conceptual framework, known as social quality theory, facilitates a more complex and complete understanding of the SDH, with its focus on four domains: social cohesion, social inclusion, social empowerment and socioeconomic security, all within the same conceptual framework. This paper provides both an overview of social quality theory in addition to findings from a national survey of social quality in Australia, as a means of demonstrating the operationalisation of the theory. Methods Data were collected using a national random postal survey of 1044 respondents in September, 2009. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was conducted. Results Statistical analysis revealed that people on lower incomes (less than $45000) experience worse social quality across all of the four domains: lower socio-economic security, lower levels of membership of organisations (lower social cohesion), higher levels of discrimination and less political action (lower social inclusion) and lower social empowerment. The findings were mixed in terms of age, with people over 65 years experiencing lower socio-economic security, but having higher levels of social cohesion, experiencing lower levels of discrimination (higher social inclusion) and engaging in more political action (higher social empowerment). In terms of gender, women had higher social cohesion than men, although also experienced more discrimination (lower social inclusion). Conclusions Applying social quality theory allows researchers and policy makers to measure and respond to the multiple sources of oppression and advantage experienced by certain population groups, and to monitor the effectiveness of interventions over time.

2011-01-01

438

Maintaining skin integrity in the aged: a systematic review.  

PubMed

Ageing is associated with structural and functional changes of the skin that result in increased vulnerability. The aim of this systematic review is to synthesize empirical evidence about the efficacy and effectiveness of basic skin care interventions for maintaining skin integrity in the aged. The databases Medline, EMBASE, CINAHL (1990-2012), Scopus, SCI (February 2013) and reference lists were searched. Inclusion criteria were primary intervention studies using skin care products in physiologically aged skin (lower age limit 50 years). Study and sample characteristics, interventions and outcomes were extracted. The methodological quality was assessed and a level of evidence was assigned. From 1535 screened articles 188 were read in full text. From these, 33 articles were included reporting results on treating dry skin conditions, and preventing incontinence-associated dermatitis and superficial ulcerations. Most studies had lower levels of evidence of 3 or 4. Skin-cleansing products containing syndets or amphoteric surfactants compared with standard soap and water washing improved skin dryness and demonstrated skin-protecting effects. Moisturizers containing humectants consistently showed statistically significant improvements in skin dryness. Skin barrier products containing occlusives reduced the occurrence of skin injuries compared with standard or no treatment. Owing to methodological limitations the current evidence base for basic skin care in the aged is weak. Using low-irritating cleansing products and humectant- or occlusive-containing moisturizers seems to be the best strategy for maintaining the skin barrier function and integrity. We know little about the effects of cleansing regimens and about the benefits of moisturizers when compared with each other. PMID:23773110

Kottner, J; Lichterfeld, A; Blume-Peytavi, U

2013-09-01

439

Patterns of social preference across different social contexts in golden lion tamarins (Leontopithecus rosalia).  

PubMed

We investigated the role of mutual and circumstantial factors in maintaining exclusive social relationships in a New World primate. Four breeding pairs of golden lion tamarins (Leontopithecus rosalia rosalia) were allowed to interact with their mate or an unfamiliar, opposite-sex adult in each of 4 different social contexts: in view of the mate, out of the mate's view, with only the mate present, and with only the unfamiliar animal present. Males and females were in proximity to, approached, and sniffed their mates significantly more often than they did unfamiliar tamarins. These behaviors suggest a preference for the familiar mate. However, when mates were absent, tamarins demonstrated significantly higher levels of approach and sniffs toward unfamiliar animals. These patterns of behavior indicate that circumstantial factors, such as social context, may regulate social interactions between paired tamarins and unfamiliar, opposite-sex conspecifics. PMID:2114250

Inglett, B J; French, J A; Dethlefs, T M

1990-06-01

440

Gender Differences in Social Support for Socially Anxious Individuals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Given that social anxiety disorder is a common, chronic, debilitating disorder and socially anxious women appear to have different experiences related to social development and social support than men, it is essential that the gender differences in social anxiety and social support be understood. The present study examined perceived social support quantity and satisfaction in 23 women and 28 men

Lindsay Ham; Sarah A. Hayes; Debra A. Hope

2005-01-01

441

Balance training to maintain mobility and prevent disability.  

PubMed

Balance is important for the safe performance of many activities that allow older people to remain independent in their community. Housework, cooking, shopping, and travel generally require the ability to stand, reach, turn, and bend down and pick up objects from the floor. Multiple interacting factors are implicated in the deterioration of balance. Several strategies have been tested to improve balance and reduce falls. Home-based individualized training that attempted to improve identified deficits reduced falls and improved physical performance and stabilized or reduced disability. Home-based exercise programs that included low-intensity strength and balance training have improved balance and reduced fall rates by about 40% compared to controls. Class-based exercise programs in senior centers or exercise centers have improved balance and physical performance, and some have reduced falls. Programs such as tai chi and social dance look promising and should be further investigated. PMID:14552939

Judge, James Oat

2003-10-01

442

Structured self-management education maintained over two years in insufficiently controlled type 2 diabetes patients: the ERMIES randomised trial in Reunion Island  

PubMed Central

Background Self-management education programs can reduce the complications and mortality in type 2 diabetes. The need to structure these programs for outpatient and community care with a vision for long-term maintenance has been recognised. In Reunion Island, an area affected by epidemiological and nutritional transition, diabetes affects 18% of the adult population over 30 years, with major social disparities, poor glycaemic control and frequent cardiovascular complications. Methods/Design ERMIES is a randomised controlled trial designed to test the efficacy of a long-term (2 years) structured group self management educational intervention in improving blood glucose in non-recent, insufficiently controlled diabetes. After an initial structured educational cycle carried out blind for the intervention arm, patients will be randomised in two parallel group arms of 120 subjects: structured on-going group with educational intervention maintained over two years, versus only initial education. Education sessions are organised through a regional diabetes management network, and performed by trained registered nurses at close quarters. The educational approach is theoretically based (socio-constructivism, social contextualisation, empowerment, action planning) and reproducible, thanks to curricula and handouts for educators and learners. The subjects will be recruited from five hospital outpatient settings all over Reunion Island. The main eligibility criteria include: age ?18 years, type 2 diabetes treated for more than one year, HbA1c???7.5% for ?3 months, without any severe evolving complication (ischaemic or proliferative retinopathy, severe renal insufficiency, coronaropathy or evolving foot lesion), and absence of any major physical or cognitive handicap. The primary outcome measure is HbA1c evolution between inclusion and 2 years. The secondary outcome measures include anthropometric indicators, blood pressure, lipids, antidiabetic medications, level of physical activity, food ingestion, quality of life, social support, anxiety, depression levels and self-efficacy. An associated nested qualitative study will be conducted with 30 to 40 subjects in order to analyse the learning and adaptation processes during the education cycles, and throughout the study. Conclusions This research will help to address the necessary but difficult issue of structuring therapeutic education in type 2 diabetes based on: efficacy and potential interest of organising on-going empowerment group–sessions, at close quarters, over the long term, in a heterogeneous socioeconomic environment. Trial registration ID_RCB number: 2011-A00046-35 Clinicaltrials.gov number: NCT01425866

2012-01-01

443

Parental Socialization of Emotion  

PubMed Central

Recently, there has been a resurgence of research on emotion, including the socialization of emotion. In this article, a heuristic model of factors contributing to the socialization of emotion is presented. Then literature relevant to the socialization of children’s emotion and emotion-related behavior by parents is reviewed, including (a) parental reactions to children’s emotions, (b) socializers’ discussion of emotion, and (c) socializers’ expression of emotion. The relevant literature is not conclusive and most of the research is correlational. However, the existing body of data provides initial support for the view that parental socialization practices have effects on children’s emotional and social competence and that the socialization process is bidirectional. In particular, parental negative emotionality and negative reactions to children’s expression of emotion are associated with children’s negative emotionality and low social competence. In addition, possible moderators of effects such as level of emotional arousal are discussed.

Cumberland, Amanda; Spinrad, Tracy L.

2006-01-01

444

Order Statistic Experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource consists of a Java applet and expository text. The applet simulates the order statistics of a random sample from a given distribution. The sample size, order, and sampling distribution can be specified.

Siegrist, Kyle

445

Order of Operations Quiz  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity allows the user to practice order of operations with addition/subtraction, multiplication/division, exponents, and parentheses. Order of Operations Quiz is one of the Interactivate assessment quizzes.

446

Ordered Simple Plot  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Plot ordered pairs on the graph, and they will be connected in the order that they are input. This enables you to decide how the pairs should be connected, rather than having the computer connect them from left to right.

447

First-order inflation  

SciTech Connect

In the original proposal, inflation occurred in the process of a strongly first-order phase transition. This model was soon demonstrated to be fatally flawed. Subsequent models for inflation involved phase transitions that were second-order, or perhaps weakly first-order; some even involved no phase transition at all. Recently the possibility of inflation during a strongly first-order phase transition has been revived. In this talk I will discuss some models for first-order inflation, and emphasize unique signatures that result in inflation is realized in a first-order transition. Before discussing first-order inflation, I will briefly review some of the history of inflation to demonstrate how first-order inflation differs from other models. 58 refs., 3 figs.

Kolb, E.W. (Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (USA) Chicago Univ., IL (USA). Enrico Fermi Inst.)

1990-09-01

448

First-order inflation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the original proposal, inflation occurred in the process of a strongly first-order phase transition. This model was soon demonstrated to be fatally flawed. Subsequent models for inflation involved phase transitions that were second-order, or perhaps weakly first-order; some even involved no phase transition at all. Recently the possibility of inflation during a strongly first-order phase transition has been revived. In this talk I will discuss some models for first-order inflation, and emphasize unique signatures that result if inflation is realized in a first-order transition. Before discussing first-order inflation, I will briefly review some of the history of inflation to demonstrate how first-order inflation differs from other models.

Kolb, Edward W.

1991-01-01

449

Order of Operations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will learn order of operations. PEMDAS will become a helpful acronym for successfully mastering order of operations. Students will learn the importance of solving problems using order of operations. An acronym will be introduced that will help them remember the order of operations. Interactive guidance and practice will be available for students to access. This tutorial will include the following learning modules: 1) motivation and ...

Nieman, Mrs.

2008-10-05

450

Ordered transport and identification of particles  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus are provided for application of electrical field gradients to induce particle velocities to enable particle sequence and identification information to be obtained. Particle sequence is maintained by providing electroosmotic flow for an electrolytic solution in a particle transport tube. The transport tube and electrolytic solution are selected to provide an electroosmotic radius of >100 so that a plug flow profile is obtained for the electrolytic solution in the transport tube. Thus, particles are maintained in the same order in which they are introduced in the transport tube. When the particles also have known electrophoretic velocities, the field gradients introduce an electrophoretic velocity component onto the electroosmotic velocity. The time that the particles pass selected locations along the transport tube may then be detected and the electrophoretic velocity component calculated for particle identification. One particular application is the ordered transport and identification of labeled nucleotides sequentially cleaved from a strand of DNA.

Shera, E. Brooks (Los Alamos, NM) [Los Alamos, NM

1993-01-01

451

Ordered transport and identification of particles  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus are provided for application of electrical field gradients to induce particle velocities to enable particle sequence and identification information to be obtained. Particle sequence is maintained by providing electroosmotic flow for an electrolytic solution in a particle transport tube. The transport tube and electrolytic solution are selected to provide an electroosmotic radius of >100 so that a plug flow profile is obtained for the electrolytic solution in the transport tube. Thus, particles are maintained in the same order in which they are introduced in the transport tube. When the particles also have known electrophoretic velocities, the field gradients introduce an electrophoretic velocity component onto the electroosmotic velocity. The time that the particles pass selected locations along the transport tube may then be detected and the electrophoretic velocity component calculated for particle identification. One particular application is the ordered transport and identification of labeled nucleotides sequentially cleaved from a strand of DNA.

Shera, E.B.

1993-05-11

452

Orderly Career Opportunities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The hierarchy of positions in an educational organization makes it possible to have an orderly career, which is traced out through a series of related positions. A differentiated salary schedule provides the incentive to pursue an orderly career. Barriers to an orderly career are of five types: assessment, education, seniority, experience, and…

Carlson, Richard O.

453

The Importance of Order  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children's places need ordered time and space that furthers the program goals while making the program a pleasant place to live and work for all those (large and small) who inhabit the program. The order provides a comforting framework that does not harshly interrupt the activities of children, instead the order allows for more experiences and for…

Greenman, Jim

2006-01-01

454

Social Behaviour of Captive Belugas, Delphinapterus Leucas.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Focal-animal sampling techniques developed for investigating social behaviour of terrestrial animals were adapted for studying captive belugas, providing quantitative descriptions of social relationships among individuals. Five groups of captive belugas were observed, allowing a cross -sectional view of sociality in groups of diverse sizes and compositions. Inter-individual distances were used to quantify patterns of spatial association. A set of social behaviours for which actor and recipient could be identified was defined to characterize dyadic interactions. The mother-calf pair spent more time together, and interacted more often than adults. The calf maintained proximity with his mother; larger adults generally maintained proximity with smaller adults. Among adults, larger groups performed more kinds of behaviours and interacted at higher rates than smaller groups. Within dyads, the larger whale performed more aggressive behaviours and the smaller whale more submissive behaviours. Clear dominance relations existed in three groups, with larger whales dominant to smaller whales. Vocalizations of three groups were classified subjectively, based on aural impressions and visual inspection of spectrograms, but most signals appeared graded. Statistical analyses of measured acoustic features confirmed subjective impressions that vocalizations could not be classified into discrete and homogeneous categories. (Copies available exclusively from MIT Libraries, Rm. 14-0551, Cambridge, MA 02139-4307. Ph. 617-553-5668; Fax 617-253-1690.).

Recchia, Cheri Anne

1994-01-01

455

Oxytocin facilitates social approach behavior in women  

PubMed Central

In challenging environments including both numerous threats and scarce resources, the survival of an organism depends on its ability to quickly escape from dangers and to seize opportunities to gain rewards. The phylogenetically ancient neurohormonal oxytocin (OXT) system has been shown to influence both approach and avoidance (AA) behavior in men, but evidence for comparable effects in women is still lacking. We thus conducted a series of pharmacological behavioral experiments in a randomized double-blind study involving 76 healthy heterosexual women treated with either OXT (24 IU) or placebo intranasally. In Experiment 1, we tested how OXT influenced the social distance subjects maintained between themselves and either a female or male experimenter. In Experiment 2, we applied a reaction time based AA task. In Experiment 3 we investigated effects on peri-personal space by measuring the lateral attentional bias in a line bisection task. We found that OXT specifically decreased the distance maintained between subjects and the male but not the female experimenter and also accelerated approach toward pleasant social stimuli in the AA task. However, OXT did not influence the size of peri-personal space, suggesting that it does not alter perception of personal space per se, but rather that a social element is necessary for OXT's effects on AA behavior to become evident. Taken together, our results point to an evolutionarily adaptive mechanism by which OXT in women selectively promotes approach behavior in positive social contexts.

Preckel, Katrin; Scheele, Dirk; Kendrick, Keith M.; Maier, Wolfgang; Hurlemann, Rene

2014-01-01

456

Social Security: Cato Institute  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Social Security Privatization is a web site developed by the Cato Institute that argues for privatizing Social Security to prevent future insolvency. The Social Security system currently collects more in taxes than benefits paid out, with the excess held in the Trust Fund. But this is expected to change in 2014 when the baby boomers and increased longevity of retirees is likely to result in benefits exceeding taxes collected. By 2031, the Trust Fund is expected to be exhausted. Suggestions for reforming Social Security include minor changes to the eligibility requirement or tax rates, allowing part of Social Security contributions to be invested freely, and totally privatizing Social Security.

457

Game Theory, Conditional Preferences, and Social Influence  

PubMed Central

Neoclassical noncooperative game theory is based on a simple, yet powerful synthesis of mathematical and logical concepts: unconditional and immutable preference orderings and individual rationality. Although this structure has proven useful for characterizing competitive multi-player behavior, its applicability to scenarios involving complex social relationships is problematic. In this paper we directly address this limitation by the introduction of a conditional preference structure that permits players to modulate their preference orderings as functions of the preferences of other players. Embedding this expanded preference structure in a formal and graphical framework provides a systematic approach for characterizing a complex society. The result is an influence network that allows conditional preferences to propagate through the community, resulting in an emergent social model which characterizes all of the social relationships that exist and which leads to solution concepts that account for both group and individual interests. The Ultimatum game is presented as an example of how social influence can be modeled with conditional preferences.

Stirling, Wynn C.; Felin, Teppo

2013-01-01

458

Coordinate transformation approach to social interactions  

PubMed Central

A coordinate transformation framework for understanding how neurons compute sensorimotor behaviors has generated significant advances toward our understanding of basic brain function. This influential scaffold focuses on neuronal encoding of spatial information represented in different coordinate systems (e.g., eye-centered, hand-centered) and how multiple brain regions partake in transforming these signals in order to ultimately generate a motor output. A powerful analogy can be drawn from the coordinate transformation framework to better elucidate how the nervous system computes cognitive variables for social behavior. Of particular relevance is how the brain represents information with respect to oneself and other individuals, such as in reward outcome assignment during social exchanges, in order to influence social decisions. In this article, I outline how the coordinate transformation framework can help guide our understanding of neural computations resulting in social interactions. Implications for numerous psychiatric disorders with impaired representations of self and others are also discussed.

Chang, Steve W. C.

2013-01-01

459

Social Change & Marriage Norms-Values in the Middle East. A Case-Study of Kuwait.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The term "social change" refers to variations over time in the ecological ordering of populations and communities, in patterns of roles and social interactions, and in the cultures of societies. Some facets of social change in one middle eastern country are presented in this paper. The study looks at the influence of social changes on marriage…

Al Naser, Fahad

460

Recommended techniques for effective maintainability. A continuous improvement initiative of the NASA Reliability and Maintainability Steering Committee  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This manual presents a series of recommended techniques that can increase overall operational effectiveness of both flight and ground based NASA systems. It provides a set of tools that minimizes risk associated with: (1) restoring failed functions (both ground and flight based); (2) conducting complex and highly visible maintenance operations; and (3) sustaining a technical capability to support the NASA mission using aging equipment or facilities. It considers (1) program management - key elements of an effective maintainability effort; (2) design and development - techniques that have benefited previous programs; (3) analysis and test - quantitative and qualitative analysis processes and testing techniques; and (4) operations and operational design techniques that address NASA field experience. This document is a valuable resource for continuous improvement ideas in executing the systems development process in accordance with the NASA 'better, faster, smaller, and cheaper' goal without compromising safety.

1994-01-01

461

Privacy, Social Network Sites, and Social Relations  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the growth of the Internet comes a growth in a ubiquitous networked society. Common Web 2.0 applications include a rapidly growing trend for social network sites. Social network sites typically converged different relationship types into one group of “friends.” However, with such vast interconnectivity, convergence of relationships, and information sharing by individual users comes an increased risk of privacy

David J. Houghton; Adam N. Joinson

2010-01-01

462

Social Mediating Technologies: Social Affordances and Functionalities  

Microsoft Academic Search

A framework for analysing Computer Mediated Communication (CMC) is presented, based on Clark's Theory of Common Ground. Four technologies are reviewed: Facebook, Wikipedia, Blacksburg Electronic Village, and World of Warcraft, to assess their ‘social affordances’, i.e. how communication is supported and how the technologies provide facilities to promote social relationships, groups and communities. The technology affordances are related to motivations

A. G. Sutcliffe; V. Gonzalez; J. Binder; G. Nevarez

2011-01-01

463

Using social media for social activism  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper uses qualitative research methods to analyze how members of the Seattle chapter of a social activist group, Asha for Education, use social media, such as Yahoo! Groups, Microsoft distribution lists, and Facebook to coordinate their organizational activities, fundraise, and build and strengthen community.

Pausali Sen; Irini Spyridakis; Silvia Amtmann; Charlotte P. Lee

2010-01-01

464

Measuring attitude toward social health insurance  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to understand the health care system a country chooses to adopt or the health care reform a country decides to undertake,\\u000a one must first be able to measure a country’s attitude toward social health insurance. Our primary goal was to develop a construct\\u000a that allows us to measure this “attitude toward social health insurance”. Using a sample of

Chung-Ping A. Loh; Katrin Nihalani; Oliver Schnusenberg

465

24 CFR 570.506 - Records to be maintained.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...confirming that other financial resources to alleviate the need were...community development and other resources to remedy or ameliorate any...entities are women's business enterprises as defined in Executive Order...business and women's business enterprises have an equal...

2013-04-01

466

Social Work with Children when Parents Have Mental Health Difficulties: Acknowledging Vulnerability and Maintaining the "Rights of the Child"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The 40 substantive rights contained within the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (UNCRC) 1989, have applied, without discrimination, to all children in the United Kingdom since 1992. However, recurrent tragedies starkly highlight the potential vulnerability of some children when their parents experience mental health…

Monds-Watson, Aisling; Manktelow, Roger; McColgan, Mary

2010-01-01

467

Lifelong Bilingualism Maintains Neural Efficiency for Cognitive Control in Aging  

PubMed Central

Recent behavioral data have shown that lifelong bilingualism can maintain youthful cognitive control abilities in aging. Here, we provide the first direct evidence of a neural basis for the bilingual cognitive control boost in aging. Two experiments were conducted, using a perceptual task switching paradigm, and including a total of 110 participants. In Experiment 1, older adult bilinguals showed better perceptual switching performance than their monolingual peers. In Experiment 2, younger and older adult monolinguals and bilinguals completed the same perceptual task switching experiment while fMRI was performed. Typical age-related performance reductions and fMRI activation increases were observed. However, like younger adults, bilingual older adults outperformed their monolingual peers while displaying decreased activation in left lateral frontal cortex and cingulate cortex. Critically, this attenuation of age-related over-recruitment associated with bilingualism was directly correlated with better task switching performance. In addition, the lower BOLD response in frontal regions accounted for 82% of the variance in the bilingual task switching reaction time advantage. These results suggest that lifelong bilingualism offsets age-related declines in the neural efficiency for cognitive control processes.

Gold, Brian T.; Kim, Chobok; Johnson, Nathan F.; Kryscio, Richard J.; Smith, Charles D.

2013-01-01

468

The Lkb1 metabolic sensor maintains haematopoietic stem cell survival  

PubMed Central

Haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) can convert between growth states that have marked differences in bioenergetic needs. Although often quiescent in adults, these cells become proliferative upon physiological demand. Balancing HSC energetics in response to nutrient availability and growth state is poorly understood, yet essential for the dynamism of the haematopoietic system. Here we show that the Lkb1 tumour suppressor is critical for the maintenance of energy homeostasis in haematopoietic cells. Lkb1 inactivation in adult mice causes loss of HSC quiescence followed by rapid depletion of all haematopoietic subpopulations. Lkb1-deficient bone marrow cells exhibit mitochondrial defects, alterations in lipid and nucleotide metabolism, and depletion of cellular ATP. The haematopoietic effects are largely independent of Lkb1 regulation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signalling. Instead, these data define a central role for Lkb1 in restricting HSC entry into cell cycle and in broadly maintaining energy homeostasis in haematopoietic cells through a novel metabolic checkpoint.

Gurumurthy, Sushma; Xie, Stephanie Z.; Alagesan, Brinda; Kim, Judith; Yusuf, Rushdia Z.; Saez, Borja; Tzatsos, Alexandros; Ozsolak, Fatih; Milos, Patrice; Ferrari, Francesco; Park, Peter J.; Shirihai, Orian S.; Scadden, David T.; Bardeesy, Nabeel

2011-01-01

469

Web-Based Environment for Maintaining Legacy Software  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Advanced Tool Integration Environment (ATIE) is the name of both a software system and a Web-based environment created by the system for maintaining an archive of legacy software and expertise involved in developing the legacy software. ATIE can also be used in modifying legacy software and developing new software. The information that can be encapsulated in ATIE includes experts documentation, input and output data of tests cases, source code, and compilation scripts. All of this information is available within a common environment and retained in a database for ease of access and recovery by use of powerful search engines. ATIE also accommodates the embedment of supporting software that users require for their work, and even enables access to supporting commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) software within the flow of the experts work. The flow of work can be captured by saving the sequence of computer programs that the expert uses. A user gains access to ATIE via a Web browser. A modern Web-based graphical user interface promotes efficiency in the retrieval, execution, and modification of legacy code. Thus, ATIE saves time and money in the support of new and pre-existing programs.

Tigges, Michael; Thompson, Nelson; Orr, Mark; Fox, Richard

2007-01-01

470

Face-selective neurons maintain consistent visual responses across months.  

PubMed

Face perception in both humans and monkeys is thought to depend on neurons clustered in discrete, specialized brain regions. Because primates are frequently called upon to recognize and remember new individuals, the neuronal representation of faces in the brain might be expected to change over time. The functional properties of neurons in behaving animals are typically assessed over time periods ranging from minutes to hours, which amounts to a snapshot compared to a lifespan of a neuron. It therefore remains unclear how neuronal properties observed on a given day predict that same neuron's activity months or years later. Here we show that the macaque inferotemporal cortex contains face-selective cells that show virtually no change in their patterns of visual responses over time periods as long as one year. Using chronically implanted microwire electrodes guided by functional MRI targeting, we obtained distinct profiles of selectivity for face and nonface stimuli that served as fingerprints for individual neurons in the anterior fundus (AF) face patch within the superior temporal sulcus. Longitudinal tracking over a series of daily recording sessions revealed that face-selective neurons maintain consistent visual response profiles across months-long time spans despite the influence of ongoing daily experience. We propose that neurons in the AF face patch are specialized for aspects of face perception that demand stability as opposed to plasticity. PMID:24799679

McMahon, David B T; Jones, Adam P; Bondar, Igor V; Leopold, David A

2014-06-01

471

A Cdc2 dependent checkpoint maintains diploidy in Drosophila.  

PubMed

DNA replication in G2 does not normally occur due to the checkpoint control. To elucidate its mechanism, the functions of the escargot and Dmcdc2 genes of Drosophila were studied. When escargot function was eliminated, diploid imaginal cells that were arrested in G2 lost Cyclin A, a regulatory subunit of G2/M cdk, and entered an endocycle. escargot genetically interacted with Dmcdc2 which encodes a catalytic subunit of G2/M cdk. The mutant phenotypes of Dmcdc2 itself was similar to those of escargot: many diploid cells in imaginal discs, salivary glands and the central nervous system entered an endocycle and sometimes formed polytene chromosomes. Since mitotically quiescent abdominal histoblasts still required Dmcdc2 to remain diploid, the inhibitory activity of G2/M cdk on DNA replication appeared to be separable from its activity as the mitosis promoting factor. These results suggest that in G2, escargot is required to maintain a high level of G2/M cdk that actively inhibits the entry into S phase. PMID:8620832

Hayashi, S

1996-04-01

472

GABA-independent GABAA Receptor Openings Maintain Tonic Currents  

PubMed Central

Activation of GABAA receptors (GABAARs) produces two forms of inhibition: ‘phasic’ inhibition generated by the rapid, transient activation of synaptic GABAARs by presynaptic GABA release, and tonic inhibition generated by the persistent activation of peri- or extrasynaptic GABAARs which can detect extracellular GABA. Such tonic GABAAR-mediated currents are particularly evident in dentate granule cells in which they play a major role in regulating cell excitability. Here we show that in rat dentate granule cells in ex-vivo hippocampal slices, tonic currents are predominantly generated by GABA-independent GABAA receptor openings. This tonic GABAAR conductance is resistant to the competitive GABAAR antagonist SR95531, which at high concentrations acts as a partial agonist, but can be blocked by an open channel blocker picrotoxin. When slices are perfused with 200 nM GABA, a concentration that is comparable to cerebrospinal fluid concentrations but is twice that measured by us in the hippocampus in vivo using zero-net-flux microdialysis, negligible GABA is detected by dentate granule cells. Spontaneously opening GABAARs, therefore, maintain dentate granule cell tonic currents in the face of low extracellular GABA concentrations.

Wlodarczyk, Agnieszka I.; Sylantyev, Sergiy; Herd, Murray B.; Kersante, Flavie; Lambert, Jeremy J.; Rusakov, Dmitri A.; Linthorst, Astrid C.E.; Semyanov, Alexey; Belelli, Delia; Pavlov, Ivan; Walker, Matthew C.

2013-01-01

473

World tanker industry maintains momentum from Persian Gulf war  

SciTech Connect

The world tanker industry has managed to maintain the momentum generated during the Persian Gulf War. Freight rates for large vessels have regained the high levels seen during the first 2 months of this year, while the expected postwar decline in use of tankers has not materialized. The health of the tanker industry is linked closely with the volume of long haul crude oil from the Middle East, a spot charter from the gulf to Europe, an owner would only break even on the cost of building and operating a new tanker to the highest environmental standards. Owners currently can expect spot rates of about $40,000/day, excellent by the standards of the late 1980s and early 1990s but still below the level needed to justify new buildings. And there are many in the industry who think $40,000/day will be just a happy memory later in the year. Owners are facing pressure for major changes in the industry. Governments and the public want better operating standards and new environmentally sound tankers to reduce the risk of oil spills. At the same time, the industry has to learn to live with repercussion in the 1990 Oil Pollution Act in the U.S., which has opened the way for unlimited liability against tanker owners involved in spills off the U.S. The search also is on for improved profits to make investments required by the changing world of seaborne oil transportation.

Not Available

1991-06-10

474

Reproductive tissues maintain insulin sensitivity in diet-induced obesity.  

PubMed

Reproductive dysfunction is associated with obesity. We previously showed that female mice with diet-induced obesity (DIO) exhibit infertility and thus serve as a model of human polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). We postulated that differential insulin signaling of tissues leads to reproductive dysfunction; therefore, a comparison of insulin signaling in reproductive tissues and energy storage tissues was performed. Pituitary-specific insulin receptor knockout mice were used as controls. High-fat diet-induced stress, which leads to insulin resistance, was also investigated by assaying macrophage infiltration and phosphorylated Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase (pJNK) signaling. In lean mice, reproductive tissues exhibited reduced sensitivity to insulin compared with peripheral metabolic tissues. However, in obese mice, where metabolic tissues exhibited insulin resistance, the pituitary and ovary maintained insulin sensitivity. Pituitaries responded to insulin through insulin receptor substrate (IRS)2 but not IRS1, whereas in the ovary, both IRS1 and IRS2 were activated by insulin. Macrophage infiltration and pJNK signaling were not increased in the pituitary or ovary of lean mice relative to DIO mice. The lack of inflammation and cytokine signaling in the pituitary and ovary in DIO mice compared with lean mice may be one of the reasons that these tissues remained insulin sensitive. Retained sensitivity of the pituitary and ovary to insulin may contribute to the pathophysiology of PCOS. PMID:22076926

Wu, Sheng; Divall, Sara; Wondisford, Fredric; Wolfe, Andrew

2012-01-01

475

Cook Inlet maintaining oil flow in spite of budget reductions  

SciTech Connect

Operators in Alaska's Cook Inlet area are shifting focus from exploration to maintaining production in the face of budget cuts. That follows last year's flurry of exploration that came on the heels of what at first appeared to be a world class discovery, sunfish, in an area that is the cradle of alaska's commercial oil industry. Disappointing follow-up results dampened Cook Inlet exploration excitement, matching industry's recent experience on the North Slope. In Cook Inlet, overall production in the first quarter largely held its own. Seven fields--McArthur River, Middle Ground Shoal, Granite Point, Swanson River, Trading Bay, West McArthur River, and Beaver Creek--produced an average 39,640 b/d, down only 0.2% from last year's 39,700 b/d. That compares with a high of about 72,000 b/d in 1983 but is down only slightly from 41,575 b/d in 1992. Although slowed by budget cuts, Unocal Corp. continues as the major player in the inlet with its Chakachatna project. The project involves development of what Unocal has described as significant bypassed reserves from Platforms Bruce and Anna in the northern portion of Granite Point field and Platforms Baker and Dillon in Middle Ground Shoal field. Trends are discussed.

Not Available

1994-06-20

476

Arsenite maintains germinative state in cultured human epidermal cells  

SciTech Connect

Arsenic is a well-known carcinogen for human skin, but its mechanism of action and proximal macromolecular targets remain to be elucidated. In the present study, low micromolar concentrations of sodium arsenite maintained the proliferative potential of epidermal keratinocytes, decreasing their exit from the germinative compartment under conditions that promote differentiation of untreated cells. This effect was observed in suspension and in post-confluent surface cultures as measured by colony-forming ability and by proportion of rapidly adhering colony-forming cells. Arsenite-treated cultures exhibited elevated levels of {beta}1-integrin and {beta}-catenin, two proteins enriched in cells with high proliferative potential. Levels of phosphorylated (inactive) glycogen synthase kinase 3{beta} were higher in the treated cultures, likely accounting for the increased levels of transcriptionally available {beta}-catenin. These findings suggest that arsenic could have co-carcinogenic and tumor co-promoting activities in the epidermis as a result of increasing the population and persistence of germinative cells targeted by tumor initiators and promoters. These findings also identify a critical signal transduction pathway meriting further exploration in pursuit of this phenomenon.

Patterson, Timothy J. [Department of Environmental Toxicology, University of California, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616-8588 (United States); Reznikova, Tatiana V. [Department of Environmental Toxicology, University of California, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616-8588 (United States); Phillips, Marjorie A. [Department of Environmental Toxicology, University of California, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616-8588 (United States); Rice, Robert H. [Department of Environmental Toxicology, University of California, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616-8588 (United States)]. E-mail: rhrice@ucdavis.edu

2005-08-22

477

Research to Operations: Maintaining US Space Weather Capability after DMSP  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The first Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) spacecraft was launched in 1972; the last is scheduled to fly in 2012. Presently, there is no replacement for the space weather monitoring instruments that fly on DMSP. These sensors have provided extensive, long-term data sets that constitute a critical component of the US space weather capabilities. The US Air Force is currently considering options for new space weather missions. Evolving operational needs and recent research accomplishments justify continued collection of space environmental data. Examples include measurements to: (1) monitor in real time the Dst index that will drive next-generation satellite drag models; (2) calibrate electromagnetic energy flux from the magnetosphere into the ionosphere and thermosphere that heats neutrals and drives winds that degrade precise orbit determinations (3) determine strengths of electric fields at high and low latitudes during the main phase of magnetic storms that lead to severe blackouts and spacecraft anomalies (4) characterize plasma density irregularities, equatorial plasma bubbles, and Appleton anomaly variability to improve reliability of transionospheric communication and surveillance links; (5) characterize particle flux responsible for auroral clutter and radar degradation; (6) map regions of L-Band scintillation for robust GPS applications; and (7) update the World Magnetic Field Model to maintain superiority in guidance systems. These examples illustrate the need for continued space environment awareness. Comprehensive assessments of both operational requirements and research advances are needed to inform selections of sensors and spacecraft that will define future operational capabilities.

Gentile, L. C.; Burke, W. J.; de La Beaujardiere, O.; Huang, C. Y.; Wilson, G. R.; Rich, F. J.

2008-12-01

478

Activated Ras requires autophagy to maintain oxidative metabolism and tumorigenesis  

PubMed Central

Autophagy is a catabolic pathway used by cells to support metabolism in response to starvation and to clear damaged proteins and organelles in response to stress. We report here that expression of a H-rasV12 or K-rasV12 oncogene up-regulates basal autophagy, which is required for tumor cell survival in starvation and in tumorigenesis. In Ras-expressing cells, defective autophagosome formation or cargo delivery causes accumulation of abnormal mitochondria and reduced oxygen consumption. Autophagy defects also lead to tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle metabolite and energy depletion in starvation. As mitochondria sustain viability of Ras-expressing cells in starvation, autophagy is required to maintain the pool of functional mitochondria necessary to support growth of Ras-driven tumors. Human cancer cell lines bearing activating mutations in Ras commonly have high levels of basal autophagy, and, in a subset of these, down-regulating the expression of essential autophagy proteins impaired cell growth. As cancers with Ras mutations have a poor prognosis, this “autophagy addiction” suggests that targeting autophagy and mitochondrial metabolism are valuable new approaches to treat these aggressive cancers.

Guo, Jessie Yanxiang; Chen, Hsin-Yi; Mathew, Robin; Fan, Jing; Strohecker, Anne M.; Karsli-Uzunbas, Gizem; Kamphorst, Jurre J.; Chen, Guanghua; Lemons, Johanna M.S.; Karantza, Vassiliki; Coller, Hilary A.; DiPaola, Robert S.; Gelinas, Celine; Rabinowitz, Joshua D.; White, Eileen

2011-01-01

479

Diminishing self-disclosure to maintain security in partners' care.  

PubMed

Six studies demonstrate that perceivers' desire to bond with targets motivates perceivers to misconstrue their own self-disclosure in ways that maintain perceivers' security in targets' care and commitment. Perceivers who strongly valued relationships with targets reported high levels of global self-disclosure, consistent with many findings suggesting salutary effects of disclosure. However, these same perceivers reported low self-disclosure of needs and desires in hypothetical (Study 1) and actual (Study 2) situations characterized by targets' unresponsive behavior. Similarly, in daily report (Study 3) and behavioral observation (Study 4) studies, perceivers who valued relationships with targets perceived high levels of self-disclosure when targets were responsive, but they perceived low self-disclosure when targets were unresponsive, and these perceptions seemed partly illusory. In turn, these perceptions of low self-disclosure in situations characterized by partners' unresponsive behavior predicted decreased perceptions of diagnosticity of targets' behavior (Studies 1-3) and buffered the negative affective and interpersonal effects of unresponsive behavior (Study 4). Experimental manipulations (Studies 5 and 6) demonstrated the motivational nature of perceived self-disclosure. Collectively, the results suggest that a desire to bond with targets motivates perceivers to downplay the diagnosticity of targets' unresponsive behavior through diminishing their self-disclosure, in turn preserving perceivers' trust in targets' care and commitment. PMID:23937643

Lemay, Edward P; Melville, Michael C

2014-01-01

480

Living on the edge: how philopatry maintains adaptive potential.  

PubMed

Without genetic variation, species cannot cope with changing environments, and evolution does not proceed. In endangered species, adaptive potential may be eroded by decreased population sizes and processes that further reduce gene flow such as philopatry and local adaptations. Here, we focused on the philopatric and endangered loggerhead sea turtle (Caretta caretta) nesting in Cape Verde as a model system to investigate the link between adaptive potential and philopatry. We produced a dataset of three complementary genomic regions to investigate female philopatric behaviour (mitochondrial DNA), male-mediated gene flow (microsatellites) and adaptive potential (major histocompatibility complex, MHC). Results revealed genetically distinct nesting colonies, indicating remarkably small-scale philopatric behaviour of females. Furthermore, these colonies also harboured local pools of MHC alleles, especially at the margins of the population's distribution, which are therefore important reserves of additional diversity for the population. Meanwhile, directional male-mediated gene flow from the margins of distribution sustains the adaptive potential for the entire rookery. We therefore present the first evidence for a positive association between philopatry and locally adapted genomic regions. Contrary to expectation, we propose that philopatry conserves a high adaptive potential at the margins of a distribution, while asymmetric gene flow maintains genetic connectivity with the rest of the population. PMID:23720544

Stiebens, Victor A; Merino, Sonia E; Roder, Christian; Chain, Frédéric J J; Lee, Patricia L M; Eizaguirre, Christophe

2013-07-22