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1

Sympathy and Social Order  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Social order is possible only if individuals forgo the narrow pursuit of self-interest for the greater good. For over a century, social scientists have argued that sympathy mitigates self-interest and recent empirical work supports this claim. Much less is known about why actors experience sympathy in the first place, particularly in fleeting…

Irwin, Kyle; McGrimmon, Tucker; Simpson, Brent

2008-01-01

2

Maintaining order in a generalized linked list  

Microsoft Academic Search

We give a representation for linked lists which allows to efficiently insert and delete objects in the list and to quickly determine the order of two list elements. The basic data structure, called an indexed BB[]-tree, allows to do n insertions and deletions in O(n log n) steps and determine the order in constant time, assuming that the locations of

Athanasios K. Tsakalidis; Fachbereich Io

1983-01-01

3

49 CFR 1104.14 - Protective orders to maintain confidentiality.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-10-01 false Protective orders to maintain confidentiality. 1104.14 Section 1104.14 Transportation ...GENERALLY § 1104.14 Protective orders to maintain confidentiality. (a) Segregation of confidential material....

2012-10-01

4

49 CFR 1104.14 - Protective orders to maintain confidentiality.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-10-01 false Protective orders to maintain confidentiality. 1104.14 Section 1104.14 Transportation ...GENERALLY § 1104.14 Protective orders to maintain confidentiality. (a) Segregation of confidential material....

2011-10-01

5

Social Studies and the Social Order: Transmission or Transformation?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this article, the author brings a historical perspective to the perennial question, "Should social studies teachers work to transmit the status quo or to transform it?" Should they transmit or transform the social order? When one looks at the question of education for social transformation in the context of American history, three prevailing…

Stanley, William B.

2005-01-01

6

Emotional Intelligence Skills for Maintaining Social Networks in Healthcare Organizations  

Microsoft Academic Search

For healthcare organizations to survive in these increasingly challenging times, leadership and management must face mounting interpersonal concerns. The authors present the boundaries of internal and external social networks with respect to leadership and managerial functions: Social networks within the organization are stretched by reductions in available resources and structural ambiguity, whereas external social networks are stressed by interorganizational competitive

Brenda Freshman; Louis Rubino

2004-01-01

7

Maintaining Vegetarian Diets Personal Factors, Social Networks and Environmental Resources.  

PubMed

This study was designed to investigate factors influencing the maintenance of a vegetarian diet. An interpretivist approach and qualitative research methods were used in the study design. Nineteen vegetarians from a metropolitan area in Western New York State were purposefully recruited using snowball sampling to participate in in-depth interviews. Respondents varied in age, gender and type and duration of vegetarian diet, although the sample was predominantly middle-aged, middle-class and female and had ties to community groups. Interview transcripts were analyzed using the constant comparative method of qualitative data analysis. The maintenance of vegetarian diets was supported by personal factors, social networks and environmental resources. Personal factors included: internal beliefs, skills and habits and physical feedback. Social networks included: organized vegetarian groups as well as animal rights, environmental, or health groups supporting vegetarianism and vegetarian friends. Environmental resources, such as the availability of new vegetarian foods in supermarkets and restaurants, facilitated maintenance of vegetarian diets. Respondents perceived that society viewed vegetarianism as increasingly "mainstream," although diet-centred family conflicts were still common. These findings can assist dietitians in developing strategies for working with vegetarian clients by providing better understanding of personal, social and environmental supports for vegetarians' dietary behaviours. PMID:11551357

Jabs, Jennifer; Devine, Carol M.; Sobal, Jeffery

1998-01-01

8

School Libraries and the Social Order  

Microsoft Academic Search

THE VERY NATURE of the social order in this country may be shaped in large measure by the character of the li- braries or by the lack of libraries in schools. The salvation or destruc- tion of our society may hinge on what people do about communica- tions. Never before has society, the good society, required of its indi- viduals

FRANCES HENNE

9

Investigating a Judgemental Rank-Ordering Method for Maintaining Standards in UK Examinations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A new judgemental method of equating raw scores on two tests, based on rank-ordering scripts from both tests, has been developed by Bramley. The rank-ordering method has potential application as a judgemental standard-maintaining mechanism, because given a mark on one test (e.g. the A grade boundary mark), the equivalent mark (i.e. at the same…

Black, Beth; Bramley, Tom

2008-01-01

10

Religious attendance increases survival by improving and maintaining good health behaviors, mental health, and social relationships  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several recent prospective analyses involving community-based populations have demonstrated a protective effect on survival\\u000a for frequent attendance at religious services. How such involvement increases survival are unclear. To test the hypothesis\\u000a that religious attendance might serve to improve and maintain good health behaviors, mental health, and social relationships,\\u000a changes and consistencies in these variables were studied between 1965 and 1994

William J. Strawbridge; Sarah J. Shema; Richard D. Cohen; George A. Kaplan

2001-01-01

11

Energy policy in a changing social order  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, the background of energy management and use relative to public policymaking is reviewed. Many of the more-prominent social cross currents, such as: consumerism, resistance to nuclear power, tax rebellion, etc., are identified and described. Conventional and alternate energy policy options are analyzed. 41 refs.

Schaller, D.A.

1981-01-01

12

Political order, development and social violence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Why are some countries more prone to social violence than others? Despite the fact that annual deaths due to homicides worldwide outnumber those due to organized armed conflict by a factor of roughly 3 to 1, this question has received very little attention from conflict and development specialists in recent years. As a modest first step in addressing this gap

Sean Fox; Kristian Hoelscher

2012-01-01

13

Bechstein's bats maintain individual social links despite a complete reorganisation of their colony structure.  

PubMed

Several social mammals, including elephants and some primates, whales and bats, live in multilevel societies that form temporary subgroups. Despite these fission-fusion dynamics, group members often maintain long-term bonds. However, it is unclear whether such individual links and the resulting stable social subunits continue to exist after a complete reorganisation of a society, e.g. following a population crash. Here, we employed a weighted network analysis on 7,109 individual roosting records collected over 4 years in a wild Bechstein's bat colony. We show that, in response to a strong population decline, the colony's two stable social subunits fused into a non-modular social network. Nevertheless, in the first year after the crash, long-term bonds were still detectable, suggesting that the bats remembered previous individual relationships. Our findings are important for understanding the flexibility of animal societies in the face of dramatic changes and for the conservation of social mammals with declining populations. PMID:23949307

Baigger, A; Perony, N; Reuter, M; Leinert, V; Melber, M; Grünberger, S; Fleischmann, D; Kerth, G

2013-08-16

14

Formalising the informal?: Dynamic social order, bottom-up social control, and spontaneous normative relations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The right framework for studying normative issues in infosociety and MAS is that of deliberate or spontaneous social order, and intended or unintended, centralised or decentralised forms of social control. For effectively supporting human cooperation it is necessary to \\

Cristiano Castelfranchi

2003-01-01

15

Allocating Payroll Tax Revenue to Personal Retirement Accounts to Maintain Social Security Benefits and the Payroll Tax Rate  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an earlier paper we analyzed a method of combining traditional tax financed pay-as-you-go Social Security benefits with annuities financed by Personal Retirement Accounts. We showed that such a combination could maintain the level of retirement income projected in current Social Security law while avoiding a future increase in the payroll tax rate. The current paper extends the earlier analysis

Martin Feldstein; Andrew Samwick

2000-01-01

16

Policing diversity in the digital ageMaintaining order in virtual communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Members of `terrestrial' communities are migrating in ever-increasing numbers to a new `Third Space' that manifests outside traditional geographical physical boundaries. This online space consists of purely social relations where interaction and community are performed at-a-distance. The diversifying populations of these virtual villages, towns and cities now constitute very real communities. Online non-gaming spaces such as Ebay, Active Worlds and

David S. Wall; Matthew Williams

2007-01-01

17

Violence & social order beyond the state: Somalia & Angola  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the activities of non-state actors in war in Somalia and Angola. Arguing that prolonged wars are characterised by the emergence of social orders of violence beyond the state, our analytical focus is on how actors establish and sustain these orders. A core influence is the insight from research on war economies that war is not equal to

Jutta Bakonyi; Kirsti Stuvøy

2005-01-01

18

Bats are able to maintain long-term social relationships despite the high fission-fusion dynamics of their groups  

PubMed Central

Elephants, dolphins, as well as some carnivores and primates maintain social links despite their frequent splitting and merging in groups of variable composition, a phenomenon known as fission–fusion. Information on the dynamics of social links and interactions among individuals is of high importance to the understanding of the evolution of animal sociality, including that of humans. However, detailed long-term data on such dynamics in wild mammals with fully known demography and kin structures are scarce. Applying a weighted network analysis on 20 500 individual roosting observations over 5 years, we show that in two wild Bechstein's bat colonies with high fission–fusion dynamics, individuals of different age, size, reproductive status and relatedness maintain long-term social relationships. In the larger colony, we detected two stable subunits, each comprising bats from several family lineages. Links between these subunits were mainly maintained by older bats and persisted over all years. Moreover, we show that the full details of the social structure become apparent only when large datasets are used. The stable multi-level social structures in Bechstein's bat colonies resemble that of elephants, dolphins and some primates. Our findings thus may shed new light on the link between social complexity and social cognition in mammals.

Kerth, Gerald; Perony, Nicolas; Schweitzer, Frank

2011-01-01

19

Maintaining Law and Order in India: An Exercise in Police Discretion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The police in developed countries face relatively few incidents of organized public defiance, and therefore the exercise of police discretion in handling major law and order problems has not been a focus of study. In contrast, the multicultural and multiethnic society in India, struggling to form a modern nation through a competitive democratic framework, presents situations virtually every day in

Arvind Verma

1997-01-01

20

COOPERATION, CONFLICT AND HIGHER-ORDER STRUCTURES OF SOCIAL NETWORKS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Simplicial complexes represent powerful models of complex networks and complex systems in general. We explore the properties of spectra of combinatorial Laplacian operator of simplicial complexes in the context of connectivity of cliques in the simplicial clique complex associated with social networks. The necessity of higher order spectral analysis is discussed and compared with results for ordinary graph spectra. Methods

SLOBODAN MALETI?; DANIJELA HORAK; MILAN RAJKOVI?

2012-01-01

21

How to Maintain Creativity in Social Studies: Challenges for the Professional Organization.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Social studies educators must marshal all creative resources to meet the global, national, and personal challenges that face them as members of the major social studies professional organization, the National Council for the Social Studies (NCSS). Based on a continuation of current policies and lifestyles, dramatic global changes such as…

Hahn, Carole L.

22

The process of establishing, implementing and maintaining a social support infant feeding programme  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To describe the process of establishing and implementing a social support infant feeding intervention. Design: This paper outlines the initial stages of a randomised controlled trial which assessed the effectiveness of a social support intervention on a range of infant feeding outcomes. Details are presented of the processes involved in recruiting, training and supporting a group of volunteers who

RG Watt; P McGlone; JJ Russell; KI Tull; E Dowler

2006-01-01

23

Managing Stress and Maintaining Well-Being: Social Support, Problem-Focused Coping, and Avoidant Coping  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study tested a model that links stress, social support, problem-focused coping, and well-being. First, it looks at how high support significantly moderated the association between stress and well-being. Next, the students' problem-focused coping was seen as mediating this moderated association. Finally, a 3-way interaction of stress, social

Chao, Ruth Chu-Lien

2011-01-01

24

Social phobia: The role of in-situation safety behaviors in maintaining anxiety and negative beliefs  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the puzzles surrounding social phobia is that patients with this problem are often exposed to phobic situations without showing a marked reduction in their fears. It is possible that individuals with social phobia engage in behaviors in the feared situ- ation that are mtended to avert feared catastrophes but that also prevent disconfirma- tion of their fears. This

Adrian Wells; David M. Clark; Paul Salkovskis; John Ludgate; Ann Hackmann; Michael Gelder

1995-01-01

25

A comparison of responding maintained under second-order schedules of intramuscular cocaine injection or food presentation in squirrel monkeys.  

PubMed Central

Key pressing by squirrel monkeys was maintained under second-order schedules of either intramuscular cocaine injection or food presentation. Under one schedule, each completion of a 10-response fixed-ratio unit produced a brief visual stimulus; the first fixed-ratio unit completed after 30 minutes elapsed produced the stimulus paired with either cocaine injection or food presentation. Generally, short pauses followed by high rates of responding were maintained within the fixed-ratio units, and responding was positively accelerated over the 30-minute interval. Under another schedule, each completion of a 3-minute fixed-interval unit produced the brief stimulus; completion of the 10th fixed-interval unit produced the stimulus paired with either cocaine injection or food presentation. Generally, short pauses followed by high rates of responding were maintained within the fixed-ratio units, and responding was positively accelerated over the 30-minute interval. Under another schedule, each completion of a 3-minute fixed-interval unit produced the brief stimulus; completion of the 10th fixed-interval unit produced the stimulus paired with either cocaine injection or food presentation. Rates of responding increased within the fixed-interval units, and to a greater extent over the entire 10 fixed-interval units. Patterns of responding depended more on the schedule of reinforcement than on whether cocaine or food maintained responding. Omitting the brief stimuli following all but the last fixed-ratio or fixed-interval units decreased average rates and altered the patterns of responding. Substituting a visual stimulus that was never paired with cocaine or food following all but the last fixed-ratio or fixed-interval units decreased response rates to a lesser extent and did not substantially alter patterns of responding. When the duration of the paired stimulus was varied from .3 to 30.0 seconds, the highest response rates occurred at intermediate durations (1.0 to 10.0 seconds). The manner in which the stimulus changes affected performances depended more on the schedule of reinforcement than on whether cocaine injection or food presentation maintained responding.

Katz, J L

1979-01-01

26

Using Videoconferencing to Establish and Maintain a Social Presence in Online Learning Environments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Successful operation of videoconferencing technology for interactive learning demands preparation and scheduling. Well-organized strategies for interaction assist faculty in meeting individual student needs and developing the "social presence" necessary to facilitate quality online learning. Organizations can be proactive by offering this…

Moody, Robert A.; Wieland, Regi L.

2010-01-01

27

Maintaining Long-Distance Friendships: Communication Practices for Seeking and Providing Social Support across Geographic Divides  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|People seek and provide support through their personal social network, especially when they must cope with stress, deal with an emergency, or need help. Coping with a new culture or new environment is a stressful situation that sojourner students must face. Support through friendship plays an important role in facing such new situations. Focusing…

Lobburi, Patipan

2012-01-01

28

Using Videoconferencing to Establish and Maintain a Social Presence in Online Learning Environments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Successful operation of videoconferencing technology for interactive learning demands preparation and scheduling. Well-organized strategies for interaction assist faculty in meeting individual student needs and developing the "social presence" necessary to facilitate quality online learning. Organizations can be proactive by offering this…

Moody, Robert A.; Wieland, Regi L.

2010-01-01

29

Establishing and Maintaining Healthy Environments: Toward a Social Ecology of Health Promotion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Earlier research on health promotion has emphasized behavior change strategies rather than environmentally focused interventions. The advantages of integrating lifestyle modification, injury control, and environmental enhancement strategies of health promotion are substantial. The author offers a social ecological analysis of health promotive environments, emphasizing the transactions between individual or collective behavior and the health resources and constraints that exist in

Daniel Stokols

1992-01-01

30

High relatedness maintains multicellular cooperation in a social amoeba by controlling cheater mutants  

PubMed Central

The control of cheating is important for understanding major transitions in evolution, from the simplest genes to the most complex societies. Cooperative systems can be ruined if cheaters that lower group productivity are able to spread. Kin-selection theory predicts that high genetic relatedness can limit cheating, because separation of cheaters and cooperators limits opportunities to cheat and promotes selection against low-fitness groups of cheaters. Here, we confirm this prediction for the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum; relatedness in natural wild groups is so high that socially destructive cheaters should not spread. We illustrate in the laboratory how high relatedness can control a mutant that would destroy cooperation at low relatedness. Finally, we demonstrate that, as predicted, mutant cheaters do not normally harm cooperation in a natural population. Our findings show how altruism is preserved from the disruptive effects of such mutant cheaters and how exceptionally high relatedness among cells is important in promoting the cooperation that underlies multicellular development.

Gilbert, Owen M.; Foster, Kevin R.; Mehdiabadi, Natasha J.; Strassmann, Joan E.; Queller, David C.

2007-01-01

31

Economic use of tropical moist forests while maintaining biological, physical and social values  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The biological, physical and social values of tropical moist forests (TMFs) can be defined from a subjective human viewpoint.\\u000a The fragility of these forests, i.e. their reaction to outside forces, is determined by their nature and by ecological principles,\\u000a both of which are largely objective. The forest, as a complex living system, acts as an objective entity. If utilization exceeds

J. Davidson

1985-01-01

32

Question-order effects in social network name generators  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social network surveys are an important tool for empirical research in a variety of fields, including the study of social capital and the evaluation of educational and social policy. A growing body of methodological research sheds light on the validity and reliability of social network survey data regarding a single relation, but much less attention has been paid to the

James E. Pustejovsky; James P. Spillane

2009-01-01

33

Dare Public School Administrators Build a New Social Order?: Social Justice and the Possibly Perilous Politics of Educational Leadership  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Purpose: This paper aims to discuss how public school administrators with a social justice perspective have an obligation to permeate society beyond their schools and how they might address the perilous politics associated with advocating social change. Using George Counts' landmark 1932 speech, Dare the School Build a New Social Order? as the…

Lugg, Catherine A.; Shoho, Alan R.

2006-01-01

34

Socialization and the Symbolic Order of the School.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Analyzes two private, secondary school rituals to determine why private schools are more effective than state schools in socializing students into acceptance of and support for the culture of the school. (Author/MW)|

Kapferer, Judith L.

1981-01-01

35

Local orders and global chaos in social work  

Microsoft Academic Search

We live, supposedly, in a run away global world that is permeated with risk, disaster and uncertainty. Social work, at least at the level of policy and research, has been seen to be responding to the globalization discourse. Its tendency is to try and deepen its own institutional reflexivity with a growing awareness of its own place within the new

Stephen A. Webb

2003-01-01

36

Using Social Work Theory and Values to Investigate the Implementation of Community Treatment Orders  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper establishes the value of a social work investigation of good practice with people on Community Treatment Orders in the context of social work's longstanding interest in the ethical challenges of working with involuntary clients. The emancipatory values of social work were used to guide this research, thereby ensuring the participation of consumers and their families or carers. Critical

Lisa Brophy; Fiona McDermott

2012-01-01

37

Third Wave criminologyGuns, crime and social order  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence-based policy-making implies greater clarity in the relationship between science, politics and crime control. This is especially the case with a highly polarizing topic like gun-crime. Specifically, the enrolment of social science by pressure groups, political parties and other political actors raises questions about the possibility and desirability of a scientifically detached appraisal of the problem. One resolution is to

Adam Edwards; James Sheptycki

2009-01-01

38

The emergence of the idea of civil society: The artificial political order and natural social orders  

Microsoft Academic Search

A reformulation of the relationship between the state and civil society as a relation between a willed political order and an unwilled natural order is the core of this account. The development of the idea of civil society from its pre?modern identification with the ‘created political order’ (where no separation between state and civil society was apparent) to its modern

Jack Lively; Andrew Reeve

1997-01-01

39

CTCF binding and higher order chromatin structure of the H19 locus are maintained in mitotic chromatin  

PubMed Central

Most of the transcription factors, RNA polymerases and enhancer binding factors are absent from condensed mitotic chromosomes. In contrast, epigenetic marks of active and inactive genes somehow survive mitosis, since the activity status from one cell generation to the next is maintained. For the zinc-finger protein CTCF, a role in interpreting and propagating epigenetic states and in separating expression domains has been documented. To test whether such a domain structure is preserved during mitosis, we examined whether CTCF is bound to mitotic chromatin. Here we show that in contrast to other zinc-finger proteins, CTCF indeed is bound to mitotic chromosomes. Mitotic binding is mediated by a portion of the zinc-finger DNA binding domain and involves sequence specific binding to target sites. Furthermore, the chromatin loop organized by the CTCF-bound, differentially methylated region at the Igf2/H19 locus can be detected in mitosis. In contrast, the enhancer/promoter loop of the same locus is lost in mitosis. This may provide a novel form of epigenetic memory during cell division.

Burke, Les J; Zhang, Ru; Bartkuhn, Marek; Tiwari, Vijay K; Tavoosidana, Gholamreza; Kurukuti, Sreenivasulu; Weth, Christine; Leers, Joerg; Galjart, Niels; Ohlsson, Rolf; Renkawitz, Rainer

2005-01-01

40

Maintaining social identity in a mixed-gender setting: Minority\\/majority status and cooperative\\/competitive feedback  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study tested the applicability of Tajfel and Turner's (1986) Social Identity Theory (SIT) to cooperative behavior in a mixed-gender setting. SIT suggests that as a “socially subordinate” group in a male-dominated society, women, when their gender is in the numerical minority, will engage in social competition in an attempt to enhance social identity. However, gender-based socialization may encourage men

Raymond T. Garza; Jill E. Borchert

1990-01-01

41

Psychiatry as social ordering: anorexia nervosa, a paradigm.  

PubMed

From a psychiatric perspective, anorexia nervosa (hereafter referred to as 'anorexia') is an enigmatic illness. This paper attempts to explain why this is so, describing anorexia as a western cultural phenomenon whose psychiatric explanations and treatments actually participate in the sociocultural processes that inform this syndrome. Anorexia reveals a form of contemporary control over the female body, and psychiatry, as a western discipline, institutionalizes a mind-over-body (objective) ideology that is part of this project. Various psychiatric theories of anorectic etiology and their corresponding methods of treatment are analyzed in this light, and a general framework for understanding the discipline of psychiatry as a mode of social control is offered. PMID:1496413

Gremillion, H

1992-07-01

42

Dare the School Build a New Social Order?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Asserts that service learning proponents are divided over direct charity versus justice advocacy models, with many claiming a need for justice advocates to moderate their philosophy in order to secure long-term support. Claims that despite justice advocacy's trouble institutionalizing itself (e.g., Settlement House, Students for a Democratic…

Robinson, Tony

2000-01-01

43

New Arab social order: a study of the social impact of oil wealth  

SciTech Connect

The skyrocketing Arab oil revenues of the 1970s have triggered socio-economic forces in the Arab world. Observers have studied the financial and geopolitical aspects of Arab oil, but generally have ignored the human and social repercussions stimulated by the oil wealth. This book challenges the commonly accepted view of the impact of manpower movements across the Arab wealth divide, looking at the new social formations, class structures, value systems, and social cleavages that have been emerging in both rich and poor Arab countries. These developments may add up to a silent social revolution, and are possibly a prelude to more overt tension, conflict, and political turmoil. 136 references, 13 figures, 39 tables.

Ibrahim, S.E.

1982-01-01

44

Indian Council of Social Science Research (ICSSR) Maintained Research Institutes’ Libraries in India: Towards Digitization and Networking  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Indian Council of Social Science Research (ICSSR) was established for development of social science research in India. It provides grants to 27 research institutes and six regional centers in India. These institutes have established close links with scholars in the region through activities such as seminars, workshops, training, and consultancy programs. Some of the institutes are closely associated with

P. K Jain

2003-01-01

45

Gender identity, nationalism, and social action among Jewish and Arab women in Israel: redefining the social order?  

PubMed

In the study this article explores, the meaning of gender identity for religious and secular Jewish and Arab women in Israeli society is examined. The study focuses on how Israeli women, rank gender identity, relative to other identities like being Jewish/Arab, being Israeli/Palestinian, religious or secular, of a certain ethnic group, and political identity. It examines the characteristics of gender identity and the attitudes that are associated with it. The analysis shows that the hierarchies of identities are different for religious and secular Jewish and Arab women, and that this is related to having different sociopolitical attitudes (e.g., Women's social and political involvement, social obedience, social influence). Thus, the hierarchy of identities and the sociopolitical attitudes of religious women indicate a more consensual acceptance of the social order than the hierarchy of identities and the sociopolitical attitudes of secular women, especially among Arab women. PMID:12296213

Moore, D

2000-01-01

46

Market Performance under the Federal Milk Marketing Order Program and the Assessment of Its Social Cost.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A theoretical framework, other than the conventional model, for analyzing the Federal Milk Marketing Order Program is developed. The new model is used to measure the social cost of the Order Program. Milk producers are found most likely to bear more of th...

K. C. Ling

1980-01-01

47

An Investigation of Higher-Order Thinking Skills in Smaller Learning Community Social Studies Classrooms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study investigated the extent to which higher-order thinking skills are promoted in social studies classes in high schools that are implementing smaller learning communities (SLCs). Data collection in this mixed-methods study included classroom observations and in-depth interviews. Findings indicated that higher-order thinking was rarely…

Fischer, Christopher; Bol, Linda; Pribesh, Shana

2011-01-01

48

Conceptual level and instructional structure on secondary students' higher order thinking and attitude toward social studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study sought to determine the effects of high and low conceptual level cognitive styles (D. E. Hunt, 1972) on students' learning and instructional patterns (Suchman's, 1962, Inquiry Training Model and Thelen's, 1981, Group Investigation) on academic achievement defined as higher order thinking measured by the Test of Higher Order Thinking (Newmann, 1990c) and attitude toward social studies content measured

Frances Belton Truncellito

2000-01-01

49

Language, Parents' Involvement, and Social Justice: The Fight for Maintaining Minority Home Language: A Chinese-Language Case Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

English-only policies and the expiration of the "Bilingual Education Act," which is now replaced by "No Child Left Behind," make it clear that English is the official language of schools in the United States with the emphasis moved from the goal of maintaining students' home languages while learning English to a focus of ignoring minority…

Wang, Yuxiang

2009-01-01

50

Maintaining Social Security Benefits and Tax Rates through Personal Retirement Accounts: An Update Based on the 1998 Social Security Trustees Report  

Microsoft Academic Search

A program of Personal Retirement Accounts (PRAs) funded by deposits equal to 2.3 percent of earnings (up to the Social Security maximum) would permit retirees to receive more income in retirement than with the current Social Security program while at the same time making it unnecessary to increase the 12.4 percent payroll tax in response to the aging of the

Martin Feldstein; Andrew Samwick

1999-01-01

51

HOW THE INTERNET IS GIVING BIRTH (TO) A NEW SOCIAL ORDER  

Microsoft Academic Search

The expansion of technological access has led to substantial shifting in opportunities to connect geographically dispersed members of marginalized groups. Digital networks offer less powerful individuals access to challenging the social order. The Internet, believed to be inherently democratic, has produced a new shift in the politics of pregnancy. This study examines the culture of three public Internet forum sites

Jodi H. Cohen; Jennifer M. Raymond

2011-01-01

52

CULTURAL DIVERSITY AND SOCIAL ORDER: RETHINKING THE ROLE OF COMMUNITY POLICING  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the difficulties confronting anyone interested in community policing is understanding just what the term community refers to. For criminologists and police practitioners alike this presents' a danger. Being less than specific about the use of this key term often serves to conceal cultural diversi~' and tame ideological differences between the police and the public's interest in social order.

DAVID A. LVNES

53

"Standing Porter at the Door of Thought": The Social Order of the Christian Science Church.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This examination of the social order of the Church of Christ, Scientist, provides a valuable learning opportunity for leaders of any organizational entity--or for any student of organizational communication/behavior. The study addresses labor, trust, power, and legitimization of activity within the church. It raises the issue of whether Christian…

Swanson, Douglas J.

54

Predicting the Physical Activity Intention–Behavior Profiles of Adopters and Maintainers Using Three Social Cognition Models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Most of the population have positive intentions to engage in physical activity (PA) but fail to act; thus, the need to understand\\u000a successful translation of intention into behavior is warranted in order to focus intervention efforts.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Purpose  The objective of the study is to examine constructs of the transtheoretical model, theory of planned behavior, and protection\\u000a motivation theory as predictors of

Ryan E. Rhodes; Ronald C. Plotnikoff; Kerry S. Courneya

2008-01-01

55

On the continuity of ethical social welfare orders on infinite utility streams  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we study the extent to which ethical social welfare orders on infinite utility streams can be continuous. For\\u000a a class of metrics, we show that ethical preferences can be continuous if and only if the continuity requirement is in terms\\u000a of a metric which satisfies a simplex condition. This condition requires that the distance from the origin

Kuntal Banerjee; Tapan Mitra

2008-01-01

56

Unknown Soldiers and Very Pretty Ladies: Challenges to the Social Order of Sports in Post-War Sweden  

Microsoft Academic Search

When Sweden played host to the Equestrian competitions of the 1956 Olympics, social issues of class and gender were publicly discussed and challenged. Indeed, equestrian sports by their very nature and history drew attention to the changing social order of sports (and society at large) during the 1950s. It will be shown that there were a range of quite ambivalent

Susanna Hedenborg

2009-01-01

57

Love, madness and social order: love melancholy in France and England in the late sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries.  

PubMed

The concept of "illness's social course" can be approached from two stand-points. We can trace both the way the social world shapes the course of an illness and the way an illness' symptoms shape the social world. The purpose of this study is to locate the specific illness of love melancholy in a specific historical and social context, namely that of France and England in the late sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries, in order to explain the intense discussion on the disorder during that period. This attempt is done with respect to the two dimensions of the concept of "illness' social course" and in the light of constructivist commentary on psychological disorders, which regards them as local stress idioms shaped by a specific social and cultural context. PMID:16878735

Altbauer-Rudnik, Michal

2006-01-01

58

More than Mere Numbers: The Impact of Lethal Control on the Social Stability of a Top-Order Predator  

PubMed Central

Population control of socially complex species may have profound ecological implications that remain largely invisible if only their abundance is considered. Here we discuss the effects of control on a socially complex top-order predator, the dingo (Canis lupus dingo). Since European occupation of Australia, dingoes have been controlled over much of the continent. Our aim was to investigate the effects of control on their abundance and social stability. We hypothesized that dingo abundance and social stability are not linearly related, and proposed a theoretical model in which dingo populations may fluctuate between three main states: (A) below carrying capacity and socially fractured, (B) above carrying capacity and socially fractured, or (C) at carrying capacity and socially stable. We predicted that lethal control would drive dingoes into the unstable states A or B, and that relaxation of control would allow recovery towards C. We tested our predictions by surveying relative abundance (track density) and indicators of social stability (scent-marking and howling) at seven sites in the arid zone subject to differing degrees of control. We also monitored changes in dingo abundance and social stability following relaxation and intensification of control. Sites where dingoes had been controlled within the previous two years were characterized by low scent-marking activity, but abundance was similar at sites with and without control. Signs of social stability steadily increased the longer an area was allowed to recover from control, but change in abundance did not follow a consistent path. Comparison of abundance and stability among all sites and years demonstrated that control severely fractures social groups, but that the effect of control on abundance was neither consistent nor predictable. Management decisions involving large social predators must therefore consider social stability to ensure their conservation and ecological functioning.

Wallach, Arian D.; Ritchie, Euan G.; Read, John; O'Neill, Adam J.

2009-01-01

59

Governance through Publicity: Anti-social Behaviour Orders, Young People, and the Problematization of the Right to Anonymity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the early twentieth century, young people under eighteen involved in legal proceedings have been granted a degree of protection from the glare of media publicity. One controversial consequence of recent reforms of the anti-social behaviour order (ASBO), however, is the incremental reduction in the anonymity rights available to those subject to the mechanism, together with calls by the Home

N eil C obb

2007-01-01

60

Social cognition in infancy: A critical review of research on higher order abilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews early precursors to social cognition in infancy, then critically reviews infancy work suggesting goal attribution to human agents in the first year of life and theory of mind (ToM) abilities (assessed through a modified false belief task) in the second year of life. Overall, methodological problems and statistical limitations compound data interpretation, which would be equivocal despite

Sylvain Sirois; Iain Jackson

2007-01-01

61

Poverty, Inequality and the Future of Social Policy: Western States in the New World Order.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This book analyzes forces fraying the social fabric of many countries, and the reasons why some Western countries have been more successful than others in addressing these trends. Part 1, "Poverty, Income Inequality, and Labor Market Insecurity: A Comparative Perspective," includes (1) "Markets and States: Poverty Trends and Transfer System…

McFate, Katherine, Ed.; Lawson, Roger, Ed.; Wilson, William Julius, Ed.

62

Poverty, Inequality and the Future of Social Policy: Western States in the New World Order.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book analyzes forces fraying the social fabric of many countries, and the reasons why some Western countries have been more successful than others in addressing these trends. Part 1, "Poverty, Income Inequality, and Labor Market Insecurity: A Comparative Perspective," includes (1) "Markets and States: Poverty Trends and Transfer System…

McFate, Katherine, Ed.; Lawson, Roger, Ed.; Wilson, William Julius, Ed.

63

Women catapulted into a different social order: women in East Germany  

Microsoft Academic Search

The collapse of the ‘socialist' system in East Germany in October 1989 was welcomed by women and men of all social strata as desirous of putting an end to a police state and replacing it by a really democratic society. It enabled numerous independent women's groups affiliated to the Independent Women's Federation founded in November 1989 to place women in

Hanna Behrend

1992-01-01

64

ANTISOCIAL BEHAVIOUR ORDERS: UNANTICIPAT ED DIRECTIONS IN SOCIAL NETWORK SITE DEVELO PMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social network technologies, as we know them today have become a popular feature of everyday life for many people. As their name suggests, their underlying premis e is to enable people to connect with each other for a variety of purposes. These purposes however, are generally thought of in a positive fashion. Based on a multi -method study of two

Griffiths Marie

65

The Difficulty of Maintaining Positive Intervention Effects: A Look at Disruptive Behavior, Deviant Peer Relations, and Social Skills during the Middle School Years  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines the effects of the Fast Track preventive intervention on youths' functioning in three domains: disruptive behavior problems, involvement with deviant peers, and social skills during the middle school years. Eight hundred ninety-one children had been randomly assigned by sets of schools within four sites to intervention (n =…

Lochman, John E.; Bierman, Karen L.; Coie, John D.; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Greenberg, Mark T.; McMahon, Robert J.; Pinderhughes, Ellen E.

2010-01-01

66

Maintaining Positive Self-Evaluations: Reducing Attention to Diagnostic but Unfavorable Social Comparison Information When General Self-Regard Is Salient  

Microsoft Academic Search

We predicted that when (1) people are faced with diagnostic but personally challenging social comparison information in a domain, and (2) their self-regard is salient, they will be less likely to use the comparison information when judging their standing in the domain (making the judgment less inductive). Participants in Study 1 estimated their standing on risk factors for two health

William M. P. Klein; Heather K. Blier; Aura M. Janze

2001-01-01

67

Bringing order to your photos: event-driven classification of flickr images based on social knowledge  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the rapidly increasing popularity of Social Media sites, a lot of user generated content has been injected in the Web, thus resulting in a large amount of both multimedia items (music - Last.fm, MySpace.com, pictures - Flickr, Picasa, videos - YouTube) and textual data (tags and other text-based documents). As a consequence, especially for multimedia content it has become

Claudiu S. Firan; Mihai Georgescu; Wolfgang Nejdl; Raluca Paiu

2010-01-01

68

Cognitive behavioral stress management effects on mood, social support, and a marker of antiviral immunity are maintained up to 1 year in HIV-infected gay men  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerous herpesvirus infections are associated with clinically relevant outcomes as well as an accelerated HIV replication\\u000a rate and subsequent disease progression. Stress managementinterventionsmayimprovemarkersofcellularimmunecontroloverlatent\\u000a herpesvirus infections and these changes appear to be mediated by perceptions of increased social support availability. We\\u000a examined the effects ofagroup-based cognitive behavioral stress management (CBSM) intervention on distress, dysphoria, perceived\\u000a socialsupport,andherpesvirus immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody titers

Adam W. Carrico; Michael H. Antoni; Deidre B. Pereira; Mary Ann Fletcher; Nancy Klimas; Suzanne C. Lechner; Neil Schneiderman

2005-01-01

69

Gene socialization: gene order, GC content and gene silencing in Salmonella  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Genes of conserved order in bacterial genomes tend to evolve slower than genes whose order is not conserved. In addition, genes with a GC content lower than the GC content of the resident genome are known to be selectively silenced by the histone-like nucleoid structuring protein (H-NS) in Salmonella. RESULTS: In this study, we use a comparative genomics approach

Nikolas Papanikolaou; Kalliopi Trachana; Theodosios Theodosiou; Vasilis J Promponas; Ioannis Iliopoulos

2009-01-01

70

Sport and Physical Education and the New World Order: Dare We Be Agents of Social Change?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This lecture explores the content and context of the discourse of “a new world order” because this discourse has become part of the public discourse. Meanings about the new world order are part of a “contested terrain,” and as such they are part of a larger component of political, economic, and cultural conflicts, the outcomes of which are not preordained

George H. Sage

1993-01-01

71

Order, chaos and complexity in landscape evolution: insights from systems theory and social network theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Any physical system can exist in one of three possible states: ordered, chaotic or complex. A recently developed hypothesis relates the occurrence of these states to 1) the variability of the external conditions to which the system is subjected; and 2) the internal differentiation within the system to accommodate variations in the external conditions. This paper attempts to apply these

Marco van de Wiel

2010-01-01

72

The Decentralization of Identity: Toward a Revised Concept of Personal and Social Order  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three main ideas are examined. First, a central theme in our culture is its underlying belief that order and coherence are achieved by means of personal control and mastery. Our culture's ideal of personhood reflects this theme in portraying a character designed to be the architect of control and mastery. I describe this ideal as a centralized, equilibrium structure. Second,

Edward E. Sampson

1985-01-01

73

Collective Weibull behavior of social atoms: Application of the rank-ordering statistics to historical extreme events  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Analogous to crustal earthquakes in natural fault systems, we here consider the dynasty collapses as extreme events in human society. Duration data of ancient Chinese and Egyptian dynasties provides a good chance of exploring the collective behavior of the so-called social atoms. By means of the rank-ordering statistics, we demonstrate that the duration data of those ancient dynasties could be described with good accuracy by the Weibull distribution. It is thus amazing that the distribution of time to failure of human society, i.e. the disorder of a historical dynasty, follows the widely accepted Weibull process as natural material fails.

Chen, Chien-Chih; Tseng, Chih-Yuan; Telesca, Luciano; Chi, Sung-Ching; Sun, Li-Chung

2012-02-01

74

Theoretical foundations for enhancing social connectedness in online learning environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Group social structure provides a comfortable and predictable context for interaction in learning environments. Students in face?to?face learning environments process social information about others in order to assess traits, predict behaviors, and determine qualifications for assuming particular responsibilities within a group. In online learning environments, however, negotiating social information and maintaining social connectedness can pose challenges for participants. Nonverbal strategies

Patricia J. Slagter van Tryon; M. J. Bishop

2009-01-01

75

International Aspects of Social Reform in the Interwar Period  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reconstruction of the international order after World War I put great emphasis on social reforms through the International Labor Organization (ILO). Three types of arguments were used to promote social reform. The first asserted that international economic competition meant that social reform had to be coordinated internationally in order to maintain the relative competitiveness of countries. The second proposed

Douglas A. Galbi

2004-01-01

76

Validation of maintainability prediction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Validation of maintainability prediction techniques was performed. The techniques for preliminary and detailed predictions were applied to three (3) representative samples of electronic equipment. The detailed predictions were then compared with demonstrated field performance on equipments that have in excess of one million system hours of combined operation. The time synthesis prediction technique proved to be a distinct improvement in maintainability prediction methodology over existing techniques. In addition, the time synthesis model provides a structured means of assessing the maintainability design in its early and final stages, thereby determining if the system maintainability requirements will be achieved. The standards for removal and replacement actions were analyzed in detail and modifications recommend.

Dublanica, W.; Kubeck, J.; Edwards, E.

1982-09-01

77

Electronic Equipment Maintainability Data.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This is the first of a series of maintainability data publications at the system/equipment level. Other volumes prepared by the Reliability Analysis Center consider reliability of digital microcircuits, discrete semiconductors (including optoelectronic an...

N. B. Fuqua

1980-01-01

78

Socialization practices in FLOSS development teams  

Microsoft Academic Search

Socialization of new members into Free\\/Libre Open Source Software (FLOSS) development teams is an important but little studied process in producing effective teams of this type. This is a dissertation proposal for a virtual ethnographic study that looks at the mechanisms and processes used to socialize new members into the team in order to help maintain a common group identity

Chengetai Masango

79

STRATEGY INSTRUCTION FOR ACADEMICALLY AT?RISK STUDENTS: AN EXPLORATORY STUDY OF TEACHING “HIGHER?ORDER” READING AND WRITING IN THE SOCIAL STUDIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a “cognitive apprenticeship” approach to instruction (Collins, Brown, & Newman, 1989), used with 58 seventh?grade social studies students who were identified as at risk of academic failure. Their three teachers were given 20 hours of training with this approach, which emphasizes explicit instruction of higher?order cognitive strategies within the contexts where they are used through modeling, monitoring,

Devin G. Thornburg

1991-01-01

80

Software Maintainability Index Revisited  

SciTech Connect

For many years now, software practitioners have been collecting metrics from source code in an effort to better understand the software they are developing or changing. Maintainability Index (MI) is a composite metric that incorporates a number of traditional source code metrics into a single number that indicates relative maintainability. As originally proposed by Oman and Hagemeister, the MI is comprised of weighted Halstead metrics (effort or volume), McCabe's Cyclomatic Complexity, lines of code (LOC), and number of comments [1, 2]. Two equations were presented: one that considered comments and one that did not.

Welker, Kurt Dean

2001-08-01

81

Accelerating, maintaining and sanctionanting factors of inflation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to understand inflation or stagflation in present day oligopolistic capitalism, it is necessary to distinguish the accelerating, the maintaining and the sanctionating factors of inflation. Four are the accelerating factors: change in profit margins, change in real wages above (or below) productivity, changes in the real exchange rate and in the costs of imports. The basic maintaining factors

LUIZ CARLOS BRESSER-PEREIRA; YOSHIAKI NAKANO

1984-01-01

82

The Concept of Order in Ancient China: A Curriculum Unit for History and Social Studies, Grades 6-9.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This unit addresses the questions of how and why people create order in a world whose randomness and order are for individuals to interpret. This unit uses the Han Dynasty of China as an example of one country's attempt to create such order and unite China successfully for over 400 years. The activities in this unit examine order in politics, in…

Chan, Adrian; Chu, Richard

83

COOPERATION MAINTAINED BY FITNESS ADJUSTMENT  

PubMed Central

Questions Whether or not cooperation can be enhanced if players with a performance higher than the mean are forced to pay an additional cost in each generation? Mathematical Methods Analysis of replicator dynamics with mutation. The ESS distribution of cooperation level is obtained. Key Assumptions Players engage in cooperative dilemma game, and at the end of each generation, those with higher performance than the mean are forced to pay additional cost. Conclusions Without mutation, the entire population eventually conforms to a single cooperation level determined by the initial composition of the population. With mutation, there is an equilibrium distribution of cooperation level, which has a peak at an intermediate level of cooperation. Whether it is institutionalized such as tax or just a social custom, fitness adjustment based ultimately on people’s emtion of “envy” is able to maintain cooperation.

TAYLOR, CHRISTINE; CHEN, JANET; IWASA, YOH

2008-01-01

84

The Best Learning Order Inference Based on Blue-Red Trees of Rule-Space Model for Social Network -- Case in ITE Course  

Microsoft Academic Search

Network Learning is becoming increasingly popular today. It is getting important to develop adaptive learning by social network that can be applied in intelligent e-learning systems, and provide learners with efficient learning paths and learning orders for learning objects. Therefore, we use the Rule-Space Model to infer reasonable learning effects of Blue-Red trees and their definitions through analyzing all learning

Yung-Hui Chen; Lawrence Y. Deng; Ku-Chen Huang

2011-01-01

85

Maintainability Engineering Design Notebook, Revision II, and Cost of Maintainability.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This chapter contains a detailed description of the tasks required to develop a maintainability demonstration plan, with guidelines and methodology for preparing the plan, test methods that are used in maintainability demonstration tests, procedures for p...

L. R. Greenman

1975-01-01

86

Maintaining cognitive health in an ageing society.  

PubMed

A significant concern associated with growing old is the loss of cognitive function, resulting in dementia. Fortunately, the current research on ageing indicates that cognitive decline is not an inevitable function of the ageing process. Moreover, individuals can take steps to maintain cognitive health throughout life. This paper reviews the research findings and recommendations for maintaining cognitive health that were presented at a meeting sponsored by the Alliance for Health and the Future in November 2003. The meeting, 'Placing Cognitive Health on Europe's Social and Economic Agenda', reviewed the current state of knowledge about cognitive health and discussed its implications for an ageing Europe. Although the brain, for reasons that remain unclear, changes with age, a growing body of research suggests that social engagement, intellectual stimulation, and physical activity play a key role in maintaining cognitive health and preventing cognitive decline. As the number of older people increases and people live longer, developing and implementing strategies for maintaining cognitive health should be a priority for both individuals and societies. PMID:15195451

Butler, Robert N; Forette, Françoise; Greengross, Baroness Sally

2004-05-01

87

Engine Maintainability: Objectives and Methods.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Major considerations used to improve engine maintainability are identified. The basis for maintainability features are a lot of requirements. These requirements are defined by the customer and created using several analyses. Criteria for good maintainabil...

A. Senft

1989-01-01

88

The Influence Of The Labor Market On German Health Care Reforms Despite financial challenges, the German system maintains its priority on social solidarity in health insurance for all Germans  

Microsoft Academic Search

On the surface, the health care systems of Germany and the United States seem to be quite different from each other. However, in both systems, health care financing has close ties to the labor market. Recent changes in Germany's labor market have chal- lenged the traditional employment-based funding of its social health insurance (SHI), to the extent that all political

Stephanie Stock; Marcus Redaelli; Karl Wilhelm Lauterbach

89

Human hand impedance characteristics during maintained posture  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present paper examines human hand impedance characteristics, including inertia and viscosity as well as stiffness, in multi-joint arm movements. While a subject maintains a given hand location, small external disturbances are applied to his hand by a manipulandum. The corresponding force-displacement vectors are measured and sampled over time in order to estimate the hand impedance by means of a

Toshio Tsuji; Pietro G. Morasso; Kazuhiro Goto; Koji Ito

1995-01-01

90

Can social workers and police be partners when dealing with bikie-gang related domestic violence and sexual assault?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Welfare and criminal justice systems manifest different goals, cultures, values and working methods. In Australia, the welfare sector has a culture of empowerment and concern for victims’ rights, within which social workers focus on social justice and social change. In contrast, the criminal justice sector (police) is patriarchal and para-military in structure, focusing on enforcing and maintaining community order and

Lesley Cooper; Julia Anaf; Margaret Bowden

2008-01-01

91

Using Incentives to Improve Maintainability.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of this thesis was to determine if contract incentives were appropriate for use in Dept. of Defense contracts for the purpose of motivating defense contractors to improve the maintainability of weapon systems under design. To accomplish the ...

L. Farnen

1984-01-01

92

Signals in Social Supernets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social network sites (SNSs) provide a new way to organize and navigate an egocentric social network. Are they a fad, briefly popular but ultimately useless? Or are they the harbingers of a new and more powerful social world, where the ability to maintain an immense network - a social \\

Judith Donath

2007-01-01

93

Publicly Private and Privately Public: Social Networking on YouTube  

Microsoft Academic Search

YouTube is a public video-sharing website where people can experience varying degrees of engagement with videos, ranging from casual viewing to sharing videos in order to maintain social relationships. Based on a one-year ethnographic project, this article analyzes how YouTube participants developed and maintained social networks by manipulating physical and interpretive access to their videos. The analysis reveals how circulating

Patricia G. Lange

2007-01-01

94

What Does God Know? Supernatural Agents' Access to Socially Strategic and Non-Strategic Information  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Current evolutionary and cognitive theories of religion posit that supernatural agent concepts emerge from cognitive systems such as theory of mind and social cognition. Some argue that these concepts evolved to maintain social order by minimizing antisocial behavior. If these theories are correct, then people should process information about…

Purzycki, Benjamin G.; Finkel, Daniel N.; Shaver, John; Wales, Nathan; Cohen, Adam B.; Sosis, Richard

2012-01-01

95

Improving plant and machinery maintainability.  

PubMed

The maintenance of plant and equipment is costly and can be arduous and hazardous; and yet very little ergonomics attention has been directed to these jobs and, in particular, to designing machines to be safely and speedily maintained. A new maintainability index has been developed and assessed in the UK mining industry. By applying the index the attention of ergonomists and engineers can be focused on those maintenance tasks and ergonomics factors which score high on safety and performance. Improved designs can then be synthesized using the index and assessed for their impact on machine availability. The index can also be used in product selection. PMID:15676755

Mason, S

1990-03-01

96

Maintaining Sustainability for Green Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The promise of sustainably designed school facilities is that they will operate more efficiently and last longer than buildings constructed in more traditional ways. But that promise comes with a big if. The payoff is delivered only if the facility managers operate and maintain the buildings in ways that adhere to sustainable strategies called…

Kennedy, Mike

2011-01-01

97

Maintaining quality in online education.  

PubMed

Higher education is adapting to new technologies and to the evolving pedagogies that accompany change. Maintaining quality begins with identifying purpose and assessing progress. Using the Sloan Consortium's quality framework, this article provides resources for measuring quality in online environments. PMID:17673781

Moore, Janet C

2007-01-01

98

Tips to Maintain Good Posture  

MedlinePLUS

Tips to Maintain Good Posture We often hear that good posture is essential for good health. We recognize poor posture when we see it formed as a result ... grasp of the importance and necessity of good posture. Why is good posture important? Good posture helps ...

99

Heartwarming memories: Nostalgia maintains physiological comfort.  

PubMed

Nostalgia, a sentimental longing or wistful affection for the past, is a predominantly positive and social emotion. Recent evidence suggests that nostalgia maintains psychological comfort. Here, we propose, and document in five methodologically diverse studies, a broader homeostatic function for nostalgia that also encompasses the maintenance of physiological comfort. We show that nostalgia--an emotion with a strong connotation of warmth--is triggered by coldness. Participants reported stronger nostalgia on colder (vs. warmer) days and in a cold (vs. neutral or warm) room. Nostalgia, in turn, modulates the interoceptive feeling of temperature. Higher levels of music-evoked nostalgia predicted increased physical warmth, and participants who recalled a nostalgic (vs. ordinary autobiographical) event perceived ambient temperature as higher. Finally, and consistent with the close central nervous system integration of temperature and pain sensations, participants who recalled a nostalgic (vs. ordinary autobiographical) event evinced greater tolerance to noxious cold. PMID:22390713

Zhou, Xinyue; Wildschut, Tim; Sedikides, Constantine; Chen, Xiaoxi; Vingerhoets, Ad J J M

2012-03-05

100

Key Role of Social Work in Effective Communication and Conflict Resolution Process: Medical Orders for Life-Sustaining Treatment (MOLST) Program in New York and Shared Medical Decision Making at the End of Life  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, the authors review the development of the Medical Orders for Life-Sustaining Treatment (MOLST) Program and recent landmark legislation in New York State in the context of advance care planning and shared medical decision making at the end of life. Social workers are central health care professionals in working with patients, families, practitioners, health care agents, and surrogates

Patricia A. Bomba; Mary Beth Morrissey; David C. Leven

2011-01-01

101

Maintaining integrity on buried pipelines  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article outlines options available to the pipeline operator for monitoring the external corrosion protection systems applied to pipelines and describes the practices used by the British Pipeline Agency to maintain the integrity of some 2,500 km of pipelines. More than half of the network was constructed in the 1940s and water later replaced during the 1960s and 1970s with

1994-01-01

102

Indonesian drilling maintains steady pace  

SciTech Connect

Offshore drilling activity in Indonesia increased nominally the first quarter of 1985 to an average 29 rigs. Barring any further problems with oil prices and markets, operators are expected to maintain essentially the current general level of appraisal/development work for the rest of this year. There are still a number of prospective regions to be explored in Southeast Asia. Regional developments are described for the South China Sea area, the Java Sea, South Sumatra, Kalimantan, Irian Jaya and the Malacca Strait.

Not Available

1985-05-01

103

Social Skills Interventions  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The term “social skills” encompasses an array of learned behaviors that share the common goal of maintaining or increasing\\u000a reinforcement within a social context. Deficits in social skills can occur at any developmental period and are not likely\\u000a to improve spontaneously because impaired social skills impede interactions with other people. In turn, unsatisfying or disruptive\\u000a interactions exacerbate social skill deficits

Ashley J. Smith; Judith A. Jordan; Mary Fran Flood; David J. Hansen

104

NMG documentation, part 3: maintainer`s guide  

SciTech Connect

This is the third of a three-part report documenting NMG, the Numerical Mathematics Guide. Part I is aimed at the user of the systenL It contains an introduction, with an out- line of the complete report, and Chapter 1, User`s Point of View. Part II is aimed at the programmer and contains Chapter 2, How It Works. Part III is aimed at the maintainer of NMG and contains Chapter 3, Maintenance, and Chapter 4, Validation. Because its contents are so specialized, Part III will receive only limited distribution. Note that each chapter has its own page numbering and table of contents.

Fritsch, F.N.; Dickinson, R.P. Jr.

1996-07-01

105

Maintaining Relationships: Facebook's Affect on Long-Distance Friendships  

Microsoft Academic Search

Technological advancements in media have made it easier to maintain relationships over long distances. Social networking interfaces and websites such as Facebook have changed the way people communicate in geographically separated relationships. However, is this new technology improving or hindering communication and the maintenance of these relationships? In this exploratory study, self reports of FAcebook users and nonusers are analyzed

Steven-Paul Lapid

2011-01-01

106

Aggregating Partially Ordered Preferences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Preferences are not always expressible via complete linear orders: some- times it is more natural to allow for the presence of incomparable outcomes. This may hold both in the agents' preference ordering and in the social order. In this paper we consider this scenario and we study what properties it may have. In par- ticular, we show that, despite the

Maria Silvia Pini; Francesca Rossi; Kristen Brent Venable; Toby Walsh

2009-01-01

107

Capturing, structuring and maintaining knowledge: a social software approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Knowledge capture from experts is important when that knowledge is of value, scarce, and threatened by loss, as is the case with the expected departure of “baby boomers” from the workforce. This paper seeks to provide a theoretically grounded, practical methodology for initial knowledge capture and ongoing maintenance of this knowledge using “Web 2.0” technologies. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The

Paul Jackson

2010-01-01

108

[Population change and social organization].  

PubMed

This paper, published in Taiwan in June, 1986, studies the impact of demographic changes on social organization through stable population theory as applied to the USA. The stable population model indicates a constant age differential between death ratio and birth ratio maintained for a period of time in a given population. Since the 1950's, the population growth rate in the US has been 1.5%; social security tax revenue should increase 50% to maintain equilibrium. According to the US Census Bureau, in 1940, 11 people in 100 were age 65 or over; in 1980, 19 per 100; and 1 estimate places 32 in 100 over 65 in the year 2030. In 90 years the proportion of senior citizens will increase 3 times; social security taxes should consequently also increase 3 times. The stable population model would mean that social security tax should double its current rate to maintain equilibrium. However, based on the actual change in the population's age structure, social security tax should in fact increase at least 3 times. From 1940 to the present, social security tax revenue has already increased 3 times. Turning to education, in 1961, 4.39 million babies were born in the US. By the mid-1970's, births had slowed to an annual average of 3 million. The decrease in number of university students and posts available to Ph.Ds follows the birth rate change of 20 years earlier. Many graduate institutions will be influenced by this decrease in births. From another perspective, the birth rate decrease has also reduced the educational burden on society, and should provide more opportunities and resources. However, in the American educational system, research opportunities are determined by teaching positions which are dependent upon university enrollment figures. The US Census Bureau predicts that enrollment rates must double in order to compensate for the decrease in university age population. PMID:12222424

Tu, J C

1986-06-01

109

10 CFR 26.71 - Maintaining authorization.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Maintaining authorization. 26.71 Section 26.71 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Granting and Maintaining Authorization § 26.71 Maintaining authorization. (a)...

2013-01-01

110

Topic-based social network analysis for virtual communities of interests in the Dark Web  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study of extremist groups and their interaction is a crucial task in order to maintain homeland security and peace. Tools such as social networks analysis and text mining have contributed to the understanding of this kind of groups in order to develop counter-terrorism applications. This work addresses the topic-based community key members extraction problem, for which our method combines

Gaston L'Huillier; Sebastián A. Ríos; Hector Alvarez; Felipe Aguilera

2010-01-01

111

Topic-based social network analysis for virtual communities of interests in the dark web  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study of extremist groups and their interaction is a crucial task in order to maintain homeland security and peace. Tools such as social networks analysis and text mining have contributed to their understanding in order to develop counter-terrorism applications. This work addresses the topic-based community key-members extraction problem, for which our method combines both text mining and social network

Gaston L'Huillier; Hector Alvarez; Sebastián A. Ríos; Felipe Aguilera

2011-01-01

112

When to maintain centrifugal pumps  

SciTech Connect

Centrifugal pumps comprise critical maintenance equipment. The rationale of when to maintain them relates to a spreading tendency to contain costs in the face of tight money. Plant managers are thus entitled to a thorough analysis of whether reduced expenditures truly lower costs or actually hinder maintenance and increase costs. Absence of such an analysis hides the fact that proper and timely maintenance has a double effect: it not only reduces power consumption but also extends equipment life, and thus reduces the frequency of labor and material expenditures for scheduled or crisis maintenance. Centrifugal pump maintenance can demonstrate well the validity of this observation. The paper discusses: restoring internal clearances; real cost of renewing clearances; and monitoring clearances and pump performance.

Karassik, I.J.

1993-04-01

113

Explicit feedback maintains implicit knowledge.  

PubMed

The role of feedback was investigated with respect to conscious and unconscious knowledge acquired during artificial grammar learning (AGL). After incidental learning of training sequences, participants classified further sequences in terms of grammaticality and reported their decision strategy with or without explicit veridical feedback. Sequences that disobeyed the learning structure conformed to an alternative structure. Feedback led to an increase in the amount of reported conscious knowledge of structure (derived rules and recollections) but did not increase its accuracy. Conversely, feedback maintained the accuracy of unconscious knowledge of structure (intuition or familiarity-based responses) which otherwise degraded. Results support a dual-process account of AGL. They suggest that implicit learning of the to-be-rejected structure at test contaminates familiarity-based classifications whereas feedback allows competing familiarity signals to be contextualised, which is incompatible with theories that consider familiarity context-insensitive. PMID:23770696

Mealor, Andy D; Dienes, Zoltan

2013-06-13

114

INFORMAL CAPITALISM : SOCIAL ORDER, AGENCY AND DEVIANCE (Five comments on Europe and India and their implications for anthropological research on the economy)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Material from political economy, economic anthropology and criminology is used to discuss key features of informal economies - small size and non-state, social regulation. Five comments are then made on Europe's and India's informal economies : on informality as a form of capitalist accumulation; residuality; interpenetration; agency and deviance; and liberalisation and clashes of jurisdiction and governance. I : Introduction

Barbara Harriss-White

115

Retrotransposons that maintain chromosome ends  

PubMed Central

Reverse transcriptases have shaped genomes in many ways. A remarkable example of this shaping is found on telomeres of the genus Drosophila, where retrotransposons have a vital role in chromosome structure. Drosophila lacks telomerase; instead, three telomere-specific retrotransposons maintain chromosome ends. Repeated transpositions to chromosome ends produce long head to tail arrays of these elements. In both form and function, these arrays are analogous to the arrays of repeats added by telomerase to chromosomes in other organisms. Distantly related Drosophila exhibit this variant mechanism of telomere maintenance, which was established before the separation of extant Drosophila species. Nevertheless, the telomere-specific elements still have the hallmarks that characterize non-long terminal repeat (non-LTR) retrotransposons; they have also acquired characteristics associated with their roles at telomeres. These telomeric retrotransposons have shaped the Drosophila genome, but they have also been shaped by the genome. Here, we discuss ways in which these three telomere-specific retrotransposons have been modified for their roles in Drosophila chromosomes.

Pardue, Mary-Lou; DeBaryshe, P. G.

2011-01-01

116

Remotely maintained waste transfer pump  

SciTech Connect

Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) operates the Savannah River Site (SRS) for the Department of Energy (DOE). Waste from the processing of irradiated material is stored in large shielded tanks. Treated liquid wastes are to be transferred from these tanks to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) for incorporation in glass suitable for storage in a federal repository. Characteristics of the wastes range from water-like liquid to highly viscous wastes containing suspended solids. Pumping head requirements for various conditions ranged from 10 meters (35 feet) to 168 meters (550 feet). A specially designed, cantilever type, remotely operated and maintained pump was designed and built to transfer the wastes. To demonstrate the design, a prototype pump was built and testing thoroughly with simulated waste. Severe vibration problems were overcome by proper drive shaft selection and careful control of the space between the pump shaft and fixed running clearances (sometimes called seals). Eleven pumps are now installed and six pumps have been successfully run in water service.

Eargle, J.C.

1990-12-31

117

Remotely maintained waste transfer pump  

SciTech Connect

Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) operates the Savannah River Site (SRS) for the Department of Energy (DOE). Waste from the processing of irradiated material is stored in large shielded tanks. Treated liquid wastes are to be transferred from these tanks to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) for incorporation in glass suitable for storage in a federal repository. Characteristics of the wastes range from water-like liquid to highly viscous wastes containing suspended solids. Pumping head requirements for various conditions ranged from 10 meters (35 feet) to 168 meters (550 feet). A specially designed, cantilever type, remotely operated and maintained pump was designed and built to transfer the wastes. To demonstrate the design, a prototype pump was built and testing thoroughly with simulated waste. Severe vibration problems were overcome by proper drive shaft selection and careful control of the space between the pump shaft and fixed running clearances (sometimes called seals). Eleven pumps are now installed and six pumps have been successfully run in water service.

Eargle, J.C.

1990-01-01

118

Utilization of Design for Assembly Guideline to Enhance Product Maintainability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study discussed the relationship between design for assembly and maintainability in order to remain product/system performance and at the same time to extend their life. The maintenance efficiency is measure based on maintainability index, which is derived based on several assembly criteria such as disassembly, assembly direction and tools used. To increase the maintainability, redesign of the potential components based on design for assembly guideline have been made. A case study of drum brake is carried out to clarify the work.

Abdullah, A. B.; Hasim, M. H.; Yusoff, M. S.; Wahab, K. A.; Ripin, Z. M.

119

Maintaining the Telescope Bibliography at Gemini Observatory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The library profession benefits tremendously from ever-changing web technologies. In maintaining a telescope bibliography, web-publishing revolutionized the way librarians track relevant publications. Thanks to the search abilities provided by the NASA Astrophysics Data System, arXiv, publishers, as well as Google Scholar, and other such resources, online searching for Gemini-based publications has replaced the tedious perusing of print journals. However, we should keep in mind that online searching is neither flawless nor simple — different content providers require different search strategies. Sometimes the retrievals are not as complete as one expects. Information providers should be constantly improving their searching abilities in order to make the task of electronic publication tracking more reliable and efficient.

Zhang, X.

2010-10-01

120

Differential deviance and social control mechanisms among two groups of Yup'ik Eskimo.  

PubMed

This article explores the question of whether different social control mechanisms contribute to social disorganization and consequent deviance. Two groups of Yup'ik Eskimo were compared on reported felonies and misdemeanors. One group belongs to a sovereignty movement called the "Yupi'it Nation." Some member villages in this group have abolished their own tribal courts. The other group has maintained relationships with the state of Alaska and relies on Western law enforcement to maintain social order. There are statistically significant differences in amounts of reported felonies and misdemeanors. This may be due to differential deviance, differential reporting, or a combination of both. Because of the political position of the sovereignty villages, however, it seems clear that they are using more traditional methods of dealing with disruptive behavior. Use of traditional social control may contribute to social cohesiveness, thereby reducing deviance. Differential Deviance and Social Control Mechanisms. PMID:8130314

Lee, N

1993-01-01

121

Education and Social Control of the Lower Classes in England in the Second Half of the Eighteenth Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Education for the poor and laboring classes in the latter part of the 18th century was characterized by the goal of maintaining social order and fitting the poor for their duties in the established order of the universe. (Author/DN)

Rosen, Bruce

1974-01-01

122

Space Maintainers for Premature Tooth Loss  

MedlinePLUS

... To make a removable space maintainer, the dentist first makes impressions. They are sent to a lab, which makes the appliance. Caring for Your Space Maintainer The space maintainer may feel unusual at first. But after a few days, your child probably ...

123

Development of maintainability index for mechanical systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A procedure based on a digraph and matrix method is developed for evaluation of maintainability index of mechanical systems. Features which characterize or ease in maintenance of a system are identified and are called the maintainability attributes. Consideration of these attributes and their interrelations are rudiment in evaluating the index. This is modeled in terms of a Maintainability Attributes Digraph

M. F. Wani; O. P. Gandhi

1999-01-01

124

Examining the Effects of Global Data Usage on Software Maintainability  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the useful life expectancy of software continues to increase, the task of maintaining the source code has be- come the dominant phase of the software life-cycle. In order to improve the ability of software to age and successfully evolve over time, it is important to identify system design and programming practices which may result in increasing the difficulty of

Jason W. A. Selby; Fraser P. Ruffell; Mark Giesbrecht; Michael W. Godfrey

2007-01-01

125

Explaining Social Constructivism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Many versions of social constructivism (SC) maintain that objects exist only after they enter communicative space. At one level an object's existence is determined through an individual's sensory perception; through communicative acts, both intra- and interpersonally, they are defined and eventually embody meaning. The social process of defining…

Keaton, Shaughan A.; Bodie, Graham D.

2011-01-01

126

Explaining Social Constructivism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many versions of social constructivism (SC) maintain that objects exist only after they enter communicative space. At one level an object's existence is determined through an individual's sensory perception; through communicative acts, both intra- and interpersonally, they are defined and eventually embody meaning. The social process of defining…

Keaton, Shaughan A.; Bodie, Graham D.

2011-01-01

127

Addressing Social Issues.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Maintains that advertising can help people become more aware of social responsibilities. Describes a successful nationwide newspaper advertising competition for college students in which ads address social issues such as literacy, drugs, teen suicide, and teen pregnancy. Notes how the ads have helped grassroots programs throughout the United…

Schoebel, Susan

1991-01-01

128

Developing and maintaining reflection in clinical journals.  

PubMed

There is a pressing need in today's world for nurses who are willing and able to transform health care. Teaching strategies that foster reflection are in order. The use of dialogue journals has been widely reported in the nursing literature as an effective strategy for assisting students to reflect about learning experiences in the clinical area. Despite the promise that journal writing will enhance students' ability to reflect on their clinical learning experiences, not all students respond positively to journal writing as a learning tool. The paper is a discussion of some of the common difficulties that arise in the use of clinical journals as a reflective strategy in nursing education. Common problems in the use of clinical journals include procrastination; superficial, nonreflective entries; waning enthusiasm about the activity; and unwillingness or inability to reflect. The possible etiologies for these problems will be explored. Specifically, the paper will focus on ways to prevent or minimize these concerns by maintaining and enhancing the factors required for students to reflect in clinical journals. PMID:7616945

Paterson, B L

1995-06-01

129

Registration for Hemoglobin Standards and Maintaining ...  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

... Registration for Hemoglobin Standards and Maintaining Adequate Iron Stores in Blood Donors Public Workshop. Natcher ... More results from www.fda.gov/biologicsbloodvaccines/newsevents/workshopsmeetingsconferences

130

Self-care components of lifestyles: The importance of gender, attitudes and the social situation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Self-care practises of individuals are health related elements of lifestyles. In order to understand the influences that shape and maintain the self-care patterns of behaviour that determine health and functional ability, research frameworks for study of the social situations in which people live and the levels of influence among variables are needed. This paper reports on findings from an investigation

Kathryn Dean

1989-01-01

131

Social discounting.  

PubMed

The amount of money a person was willing to forgo in order to give 75 dollars to another person decreased as a hyperbolic function of the perceived social distance between them. Similar hyperbolic functions have previously been shown to describe both time and probability discounting. PMID:16623683

Jones, Bryan; Rachlin, Howard

2006-04-01

132

Women's work. Maintaining a healthy body weight  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study describes women's perceptions of the supports and barriers to maintaining a healthy weight among currently healthy weight women from urban and rural socio-economically disadvantaged areas. Using focus groups and interviews, we asked women about their experiences of maintaining a healthy weight. Overwhelmingly, women described their healthy weight practices in terms of concepts related to work and management. The

Nicky Welch; Wendy Hunter; Karina Butera; Karen Willis; Verity Cleland; David Crawford; Kylie Ball

2009-01-01

133

Methodology for maintainability-based risk assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

A software product spends more than 65% of its lifecycle in maintenance. Software systems with good maintainability can be easily modified to fix faults or to adapt to changing environment. We define maintainability-based risk as a product of two factors: the probability of performing maintenance tasks and the impact of performing these tasks. In this paper, we present a methodology

Walid M. Abdelmoez; K. Goseva-Popstojanova; H. H. Ammar

2006-01-01

134

An integrated measure of software maintainability  

Microsoft Academic Search

For large software systems, the maintenance phase tends to have comparatively much longer duration than all the previous life-cycle phases taken together, obviously resulting in much more effort. A good measure of software maintainability can help better manage the maintenance phase effort. Software maintainability cannot be adequately measured by only source code or by documents. The readability and understandability of

K. K. Aggarwal; Y. Singh; J. K. Chhabra

2002-01-01

135

Evaluating Software Maintainability Using Fuzzy Entropy Theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the development of information technology, a large number of software products enter the maintenance phase. The maintainability of software products continues to attract people's attention. This paper proposes a new synthetic maintainability evaluation model basing on fuzzy entropy theory. In the model, the weight of different indexes is calculated by combining the entropy weight and expert weight. The entropy

Lizhi Cai; Zhenyu Liu; Juan Zhang; Weiqin Tong; Genxing Yang

2010-01-01

136

Maintaining multiple views in feature modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new feature modeling concept and its implementation are pre- sented. In the multiple-view modeling concept, a set of open fea- ture views of a product is maintained. The implementation does not rely on the existence of certain views, but instead is generic since generic view specifications are used. Views are maintained using feature conversion techniques, in- cluding constraint techniques.

Klaas Jan de Kraker; Maurice Dohmen; Willem F. Bronsvoort

1997-01-01

137

Intentions to Maintain Adherence to Mammography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Recent attention has focused on moving women from having initial mammograms to maintaining adherence to regular mammography schedules. We examined behavioral intentions to maintain mammogra- phy adherence, which include the likelihood of performing a behavior, and implementation intentions, specific action plans to obtain mammograms. Potential predictors were Theory of Planned Behavior constructs, previ- ous barriers, previous mammography maintenance, and

Suzanne C. O'Neill; J. Michael Bowling; Noel T. Brewer; Isaac M. Lipkus; Celette Sugg Skinner; Tara S. Strigo; Barbara K. Rimer

2010-01-01

138

Encapsulation method for maintaining biodecontamination activity  

DOEpatents

A method for maintaining the viability and subsequent activity of microorganisms utilized in a variety of environments to promote biodecontamination of surfaces. One application involves the decontamination of concrete surfaces. Encapsulation of microbial influenced degradation (MID) microorganisms has shown that MID activity is effectively maintained under passive conditions, that is, without manual addition of moisture or nutrients, for an extended period of time.

Rogers, Robert D. (Idaho Falls, ID); Hamilton, Melinda A. (Idaho Falls, ID); Nelson, Lee O. (Idaho Falls, ID); Benson, Jennifer (Cockermouth, GB); Green, Martin J. (Wooton, GB); Milner, Timothy N. (Centerville, VA)

2002-01-01

139

Socially sensitive lactation: exploring the social context of breastfeeding.  

PubMed

Many women report difficulties with breastfeeding and do not maintain the practice for as long as intended. Although psychologists and other researchers have explored some of the difficulties they experience, fuller exploration of the relational contexts in which breastfeeding takes place is warranted to enable more in-depth analysis of the challenges these pose for breastfeeding women. This article is based on qualitative data collected from 22 first-time breastfeeding mothers through two phases of interviews and audio-diaries which explored how the participants experienced their relationships with significant others and the wider social context of breastfeeding in the first five weeks postpartum. Using a thematic analysis informed by symbolic interactionism, we develop the overarching theme of 'Practising socially sensitive lactation' which captures how participants felt the need to manage tensions between breastfeeding and their perceptions of the needs, expectations and comfort of others. We argue that breastfeeding remains a problematic social act, despite its agreed importance for child health. While acknowledging the limitations of our sample and analytic approach, we suggest ways in which perinatal and public health interventions can take more effective account of the social challenges of breastfeeding in order to facilitate the health and psychological well-being of mothers and their infants. PMID:23126658

Leeming, Dawn; Williamson, Iain; Lyttle, Steven; Johnson, Sally

2012-11-06

140

Order Up  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Change orders. The words can turn the stomachs of administrators. Horror stories about change orders create fear and distrust among school officials, designers and builders. Can change orders be avoided? If car manufacturers can produce millions of intricately designed vehicles, why can't the same quality control be achieved on a construction…

Gibeault, Michael

2005-01-01

141

Design for Maintainability. An Intricate Simplicity.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Aircraft maintenance, when analyzed from an operator's point of view, will yield basic maintainability requirements which can be translated into general guidelines for design. The simple picture is greatly complicated when specific conclusions are to be d...

J. Heyligers

1973-01-01

142

Statistical Aspects of Reliability, Maintainability, and Availability.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The research performed under this grant developed theory, concepts, and methods in reliability, availability, and maintainability, applicable or potentially applicable to the programs of the U.S. Air Force in particular and the Department of Defense in ge...

H. Doss F. Proschan M. Hollander

1991-01-01

143

An Introduction to Reliability and Maintainability.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses the need to include studies of reliability and maintainability during the design of any system. Topic areas addressed include availability calculations, complex systems and standby redundancy, availability and malfunction levels, design techniques, fault trees, functional maintenance, and others. (DH)|

Berridge, C. R.

1984-01-01

144

Handbook for Reliability and Maintainability Monitors.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Each section of this handbook deals with a particular problem area in (Reliability and Maintainability) matters and suggests methods of initiating and operating an R/M program. The material covered ranges from the basic elements of establishing a program ...

G. Grippo G. H. Allen J. E. Horowitz J. R. Barton R. M. DeMilia

1964-01-01

145

Maintaining the Ethical Advantage in Counterinsurgency Operations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

To conduct effective operations that link tactical victories with achieving strategic goals, a Joint Task Force (JTF) commander should maintain ethical considerations at the forefront of all leadership, planning, and execution efforts to ensure ultimate s...

G. R. Guenther

2005-01-01

146

Maintainability Prediction and Analysis Study. Revision A.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Existing maintainability prediction techniques are not accurate estimators of current electronic equipment/system characteristics. A new time synthesis prediction technique is developed which directly relates diagnostic/isolation/test subsystem characteri...

F. L. Jew J. E. Angus T. F. Pliska

1978-01-01

147

[Comparison of the effects of exchange forms on social solidarity].  

PubMed

Although social solidarity is an essential component that helps maintaining social order, what produces solidarity and how does it work have not been fully investigated. We conducted an experiment to examine whether experiencing different forms of social exchange produces different levels of solidarity. We compared four forms of social exchange: reciprocal exchange (exchange resources without negotiation), negotiated exchange (with negotiation), pure-generalized exchange (giver can choose who to give) and chain-generalized exchange (giver cannot choose who to give). Two dimensions classify these exchanges: the number of players (two vs. more than two), and involvement of negotiation. Reciprocal and negotiated exchanges occur within dyads, while pure- and chain-generalized exchanges involve three or more players. Only the negotiated exchange involves negotiation process; the other exchanges are purely unilateral giving. Participants played a one-shot social dilemma game (SDG) before and after social exchange session. The more the players cooperated in SDG, the stronger the social solidarity. Results show that the cooperation rate in SDG increased more in the reciprocal, pure- and chain-generalized exchange conditions than that in the negotiated exchange condition, suggesting that social solidarity is facilitated by experiencing social exchange which does not involve negotiation. PMID:22715536

Inaba, Misato; Takahashi, Nobuyuki

2012-04-01

148

HARMONY AND TENSION ON SOCIAL NETWORK SITES  

Microsoft Academic Search

The need to maintain harmony among one's social contacts is proposed in this paper to impose constraints on the interconnectivity between users of social network sites (SNS). A particular focus is on the connectivity between different social spheres. It is hypothesized that the type and number of social spheres and technological features of SNS interact such that increased levels of

Jens F. Binder; Andrew Howes; Daniel Smart

2012-01-01

149

Genetics and social class  

PubMed Central

Design: Using genetic epidemiological principles, five claims on the role of genes in determining social class are examined: (1) traits that run in families are usually inherited; (2) complex traits can be explained by alleles at a single gene locus; (3) complex traits are transmitted intact from one generation to the next; (4) natural selection explains social advantage. (5) Heritability estimates provide a valid estimate of the importance of genes in explaining complex human traits or behaviour. Results: (1) Traits that run in families can result from environmental exposures that differ by social class. (2) The protein encoded by any single gene has too narrow a range of biological activity to explain traits as complex as social status. (3) Because alleles at different gene loci are transmitted independently, genetic inheritance cannot explain why offspring display the same complex traits as their parents. (4) The propagation of mutations that might result in a selective advantage takes much longer than the time for which any social class has achieved or maintained dominance. (5) Heritability measures are accurate only when environment is maintained constant. This is impossible in evaluating human traits. Conclusions: The roots of social class differences do not lie in our genes. Consequently, genetics cannot be used as a justification for maintaining a ruling class, limiting procreation among the poor, or minimising social support programmes.

Holtzman, N

2002-01-01

150

Order Nidovirales  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This chapter, entitled "Order Nidovirales", is for inclusion in the Ninth Report of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV), to be published as both a single volume text and online. The chapter details the taxonomy of members of the Nidovirus order, including family Arteriviridae o...

151

Ordering Game  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive game gives students practice in ordering sets of whole numbers, integers, fractions, decimals, and the sizes of circles. Students re-order a group of numbers or objects in a line from least to greatest by dragging them. The activity is timed and points are awarded.

2011-01-01

152

Changing social norm compliance with noninvasive brain stimulation.  

PubMed

All known human societies have maintained social order by enforcing compliance with social norms. The biological mechanisms underlying norm compliance are, however, hardly understood. We show that the right lateral prefrontal cortex (rLPFC) is involved in both voluntary and sanction-induced norm compliance. Both types of compliance could be changed by varying the neural excitability of this brain region with transcranial direct current stimulation, but they were affected in opposite ways, suggesting that the stimulated region plays a fundamentally different role in voluntary and sanction-based compliance. Brain stimulation had a particularly strong effect on compliance in the context of socially constituted sanctions, whereas it left beliefs about what the norm prescribes and about subjectively expected sanctions unaffected. Our findings suggest that rLPFC activity is a key biological prerequisite for an evolutionarily and socially important aspect of human behavior. PMID:24091703

Ruff, C C; Ugazio, G; Fehr, E

2013-10-03

153

DO HIGH-ST DO HIGH-STA ATUS GROUPS DISCRIMINA TUS GROUPS DISCRIMINATE MORE? TE MORE? DIFFERENTIA DIFFERENTIATING BETWEEN SOCIAL IDENTITY AND TING BETWEEN SOCIAL IDENTITY AND EQUITY CONCERNS EQUITY CONCERNS  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of studies have found that high status groups tend to discriminate more than low status groups. This tendency can be interpreted as reflecting either a desire to maintain a positive social identity or an application of equity. An experiment was conducted in order to examine the roles of these two factors. The independent variables were status (high vs.

OLIVIER KLEIN; ASSAAD AZZI

154

Using Social Media Data Aggregators to Do Social Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article asks if it is possible to use commercial data analysis software and digital by-product data to do critical social science. In response this article introduces social media data aggregator software to a social science audience. The article explores how this particular software can be used to do social research. It uses some specific examples in order to elaborate

David Beer

2012-01-01

155

Ordering Fractions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive Flash applet develops a student's fractional understanding and provides practice with comparing and ordering fractions. The learner is given five fractions in "frames" and must place them on the wall hooks in order from least to greatest. If help is needed, a student can enter the Testing Room and manipulate a pair of pipes to see and/or compare the two fractions side by side.

Bunker, Dan

2011-01-01

156

Child and Nonviolent Social Change  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Examines the nature of the child and the impact of socialization experiences on his capacity to act nonviolently in a changing social order. Presents a socialization model that draws on different disciplinary frameworks and research areas (animal and human ethnology, social learning theories, altruism studies, and reviews of protest movements).…

Boulding, Elise

1974-01-01

157

Social reading and literary engagement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous research has shown that embedding a text in a socially meaningful context can help readers become more engaged with it as a piece of literary discourse. In order to determine whether a device called social reading can also facilitate literary engagement, 68 undergraduates read a short story aloud in either a social or a nonsocial condition. Social readers read

Douglas Vipond; Russell A. Hunt; Lynwood C. Wheeler

1987-01-01

158

Reliability and maintainability seminar: summary of proceedings  

SciTech Connect

The following are described briefly: Overview of the Federal Reliability and Maintainability Program Plan, Summary of Proceedngs, Overview of Southern Solar Energy Center Programs, and Solar Domestic Hot Water Design Guidelines Handbook. Also included are the Seminar Agenda and the list of Seminar Attendees. (MHR)

Beek, C.R.

1981-04-01

159

Improving Avionics Fiber Optic Network Reliability & Maintainability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Work is ongoing at NAVAIR to understand how avionics fiber optic BIT technology can help reduce military aviation platform fiber optic network life cycle and total ownership cost. Operational availability enhancements via comprehensive supportability programs combined with keen attentiveness to reliability and maintainability metrics are driving the avionics fiber optic BIT value proposition. Avionics fiber optic BIT technology is expected

Mark W. Beranek; Anthony R. Avak

2007-01-01

160

Pedagogical Practices: Nurturing and Maintaining Democratic Habits  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This case study examined the pedagogical practices of four teachers of one public elementary school whose mission seeks to nurture and maintain democratic habits for participation in a democratic society. Historically, public schools have been charged with the duty of preparing young minds to live within in a democratic society and as such this…

Hubler-Larimore, Lucretia Marie

2011-01-01

161

STRATEGIES FOR PRODUCING AND MAINTAINING CLEAN CULTURES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Producing and maintaining plant-tissue cultures free of bacteria and fungi is the goal of both research and production laboratories. Success in producing 'clean' cultures is dependent on many factors, especially the initial step of culture initiation. Initiating cultures from cuttings of healthy ...

162

Gum Chewing Maintains Working Memory Acquisition  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the effect of chewing on maintaining memory acquisition during working memory (WM) task using Magnetoencephalography. Eleven young-adult subjects performed continuous two sessions of visual Sternburg tasks, each of which contains sixty trials of WM task. Between the two sessions, subjects were instructed to perform any one of the following tasks of: (1) stay still (STAY), (2) chew a

Yumie Ono; Kanako Dowaki; Atsushi Ishiyama; Minoru Onozuka

163

Maintaining Interest in Operator Requal Training.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study reviewed operator training programs at Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station to determine their interface with plant operations and to devise new ways of maintaining interest in requalification (requal) training. The operator training review committee that was formed to implement the review documented over 100 issues and concerns…

Lapp, H. J., Jr.

164

Human factors review of power plant maintainability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human factors engineering is an interdisciplinary science and technology concerned with shaping the design of machines, facilities, and operational environments to promote safe, efficient, and reliable performance on the part of operators and maintainers of equipment systems. The human factors aspects of five nuclear power plants and four fossil fuel plants were evaluated using such methods as a checklist guided

J. L. Seminara; S. O. Parsons; W. J. Schmidt; W. R. Gonzalez; L. E. Dove

1980-01-01

165

Alertness maintaining tasks (AMTs) while driving  

Microsoft Academic Search

We evaluated the effectiveness of alertness maintaining tasks (AMTs) on driver performance, subjective feelings, and psychophysiological state in monotonous simulated driving in two experiments. In the first experiment, 12 professional truck drivers participated in five sessions of simulated driving: driving only, driving with one of three AMTs (counterbalanced), and driving while listening to music. AMTs were not equally effective in

Tal Oron-Gilad; Adi Ronen; David Shinar

2008-01-01

166

Developing and maintaining harmony in multicultural churches  

Microsoft Academic Search

This particular study will focus in leading multicultural (culturally diverse) congregations to greater harmony. It will deal with promoting and maintaining harmony by resolving differences among members. An interaction with relevant literature and a qualitative research on two churches will be the basis of the findings. The qualitative research will be in the context of case studies. The first case

Nehemiah K. Sia

2001-01-01

167

How Do Positive Views Maintain Life Satisfaction?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study proposes three mediation pathways to explain how the positive views (perceived control, optimism and self-enhancement) proposed by Cummins and Nistico (Journal of Happiness Studies 3:37-69 2002) maintain life satisfaction. The three pathways were enhancing self-esteem, reducing have-want discrepancy and changing importance perceptions.…

Wu, Chia-Huei; Tsai, Ying-Mei; Chen, Lung Hung

2009-01-01

168

Assembly maintainability Study with Motion Planning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Maintainability is an important issue in design where the ac- cessibility of certain parts is determined for routine mainte- nance. In the past its study has been largely manual and labor intensive. Either by using physical mockup or computer animation with CAD models of a design, the task relies on hu- man to provide an access path for the part.

Hsuan Chang; Tsai-yen Li

1995-01-01

169

Maintaining Hope in the Face of Evil.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|P. G. Zimbardo (2001) and M. E. P. Seligman (in an interview with S. Carpenter, 2001) discuss evil and hope in response to the September 11, 2001, disaster. The implications for counseling are presented with an emphasis on how counselors can maintain hope for themselves and their clients in the face of evil. (Author)|

Miller, Geri

2002-01-01

170

Design Rules for Reliability & Maintainability in Electronics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The automation of the design of electronics has advanced greatly since the middle 1970s. The state of this development is such that additional considerations are now being incorporated into the automation process. One of the essential elements of a successful electronics design is reaching the reliability and maintainability (R&M) potential that should be achieved in any design effort. The automation

Thomas A. Musson

1987-01-01

171

Maintaining customer relationships in high credence services  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The growing importance of relationship marketing has increased interest in the role of consumer trust and loyalty in establishing, developing, and maintaining successful relational exchanges. The aim of this study is first, to examine the differential effects of perceived service quality, trust, and loyalty on repurchase intentions, second, to specify loyalty as a key mediating variable in the

Andreas B. Eisingerich; Simon J. Bell

2007-01-01

172

Building and Maintaining Digital Reference Services.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses digital reference services that provide subject expertise and information referral over the Internet to their users. Describes the history of digital reference, how digital reference services work, and explains a six-step process for building and maintaining digital reference services, including training, planning, and evaluating. (LRW)|

Wasik, Joann M.

2000-01-01

173

MAINTAINED ACTIVITY IN THE CAT'S RETINA IN LIGHT AND DARKNESS  

PubMed Central

Nervous activity has been recorded from the unopened eye of decerebrate cats. Recordings were made with metal electrodes or with small micropipettes from ganglion cells or nerve fibers. Continuous maintained discharges were seen in all ganglion cells during steady illumination of their receptive fields, as well as in complete darkness. Possible artefacts, such as electrode pressure, abnormal circulation, anesthetic, and several other factors have been excluded as the source of the maintained discharge. Visual stimuli are therefore transmitted by modulating the ever present background activity. Discharge frequencies were measured following changes of retinal illumination. No consistent patterns of frequency change were found. The maintained discharge frequency may be permanently increased or decreased, or may remain practically unchanged by altering the steady level of illumination. In addition, there were often transient frequency changes during the first 5 to 10 minutes after changing illumination, before a final steady rate was established. A statistical analysis of the impulse intervals of the maintained discharge showed: (a) the intervals were distributed according to the gamma distribution (Pearson's type III), (b) the first serial correlation coefficient of the intervals was between –0.10 and –0.24, with a mean value of –0.17, which is significantly different from zero, (c) the higher order serial correlation coefficients were not significantly different from zero. Thus the firing probability at any time depends on the times of occurrence of the two preceding impulses only, and in such a way as to indicate that each impulse is followed by a transient depression of excitability that outlasts the following impulse. The possible sites at which spontaneous or maintained activity may originate in the retina are discussed.

Kuffler, S. W.; Fitzhugh, R.; Barlow, H. B.

1957-01-01

174

Social appearance anxiety, perfectionism, and fear of negative evaluation: distinct or shared risk factors for social anxiety and eating disorders?  

PubMed

Social anxiety and eating disorders are highly comorbid. Social appearance anxiety (i.e., fear of negative evaluation of one's appearance), general fear of negative evaluation, and perfectionism have each been proposed as risk factors for both social anxiety disorder and the eating disorders. However, no research to date has examined all three factors simultaneously. Using structural equation modeling in two diverse samples (N=236; N=136) we tested a model in which each of these risk factors were uniquely associated with social anxiety and eating disorder symptoms. We found support for social appearance anxiety as a shared risk factor between social anxiety and eating disorder symptoms, whereas fear of negative evaluation was a risk factor only for social anxiety symptoms. Despite significant zero-order relationships, two facets of perfectionism (high standards and maladaptive perfectionism) did not emerge as a risk factor for either disorder when all constructs were considered. These results were maintained when gender, body mass index, trait negative affect, and depression were included in the model. It is possible that treating negative appearance evaluation fears may reduce both eating disorder and social anxiety symptoms. PMID:23583741

Levinson, Cheri A; Rodebaugh, Thomas L; White, Emily K; Menatti, Andrew R; Weeks, Justin W; Iacovino, Juliette M; Warren, Cortney S

2013-04-12

175

The Financial Cost of Maintaining Relationships with Incarcerated African American Men: A Survey of Women Prison Visitors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Women maintaining contact with incarcerated men face emotional, social and financial challenges. In addition to loss of support and income, there are significant financial costs of prison visits, telephone calls and sending packages. We interviewed women leaving a large state prison after visiting. These women reported spending an average of $292\\/month maintaining contact; women in the lowest income category spent

Olga Grinstead; Bonnie Faigeles; Carrie Bancroft; Barry Zack

2001-01-01

176

Ordering Decimals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive Flash applet gives students practice in ordering decimals from lowest to highest in groups of 5 at a time. If help is needed, users can compare two decimals in the Testing Room by viewing them lined up with place names labeled.

Bunker, Dan

2011-01-01

177

A Tale of Two Threats: Social Anxiety and Attention to Social Threat as a Function of Social Exclusion and Non-Exclusion Threats  

Microsoft Academic Search

To attain and maintain social acceptance, people may attend to cues of possible social rejection or exclusion. Attention to\\u000a such cues can be influenced by social anxiety. Two competing theories address social anxiety and attention: hypervigilance\\u000a to versus avoidance of negative social cues. We propose a synthesis of these models such that, in the absence of social exclusion,\\u000a socially anxious

Julia D. Buckner; C. Nathan DeWall; Norman B. Schmidt; Jon K. Maner

2010-01-01

178

Guide for Establishing and Maintaining a Calibration Constancy Intercomparison System for Compliance Survey Instruments.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The document has been prepared in order to assist the microwave oven manufacturers in establishing and maintaining a calibration constancy intercomparison system for compliance survey instruments and replaces guidance previously issued by the Center for D...

1986-01-01

179

Social behavior as discriminative stimulus and consequence in social anthropology  

PubMed Central

A behavior analysis is provided for three topics in social anthropology. Food, social relations, and ritual behaviors can enter into contingencies both as functional consequences and as discriminative stimuli for the reinforcement of behaviors through generalized social consequences. Many “symbolic” behaviors, which some social anthropologists believe go beyond an individual material basis, are analyzed as the latter. It is shown how the development of self-regulation to bridge remote consequences can undermine a group's generalized social control. It is also shown that rituals and taboos can be utilized to maintain generalized social compliance, which in turn can maintain both the community's verbal behavior and other group behaviors that bridge indirect and remote consequences.

Guerin, Bernard

1992-01-01

180

Workplace conversations: building and maintaining collaborative capital.  

PubMed

Heavy, pressured workloads are a feature of health workplaces internationally, presenting challenges to communication and contributing to tension and negative emotions. This paper explores supportive and unsupportive workplace conversations between nurses and midwives and their colleagues. The findings focus on qualitative interviews of ten nurses and midwives that were audio-taped and analysed for perceptions about the role of workplace conversations. Conversations between colleagues were significant for building and maintaining collaborative capital, but unsupportive conversations also threatened it. Findings suggest the need for considering the impact of co-worker conversations on workplace culture. Nurse managers and management may play a pivotal role in establishing and maintaining supportive conversations. Recognising the role and potential of workplace conversations for building capacities for support, conflict resolution, job satisfaction and the personal resilience of nurses and midwives can raise the collaborative capital of the workplace. PMID:21254826

McDonald, Glenda; Vickers, Margaret H; Mohan, Shantala; Wilkes, Lesley; Jackson, Debra

181

Establishing and maintaining a colony of planarians.  

PubMed

INTRODUCTIONTo provide sufficient material for experimentation, a laboratory needs to expand and maintain a colony of planarians. It is crucial to keep a stable, healthy population of animals in a consistent environment to avoid inter-animal variability and modifier effects that can mask true phenotypes from experimental perturbation. In this protocol, we describe basic procedures for establishing and maintaining healthy colonies of Dugesia japonica, Schmidtea mediterranea, and Girardia tigrina (commonly found in the wild and commercially available in the United States). Although the recommendations are based on our optimization of conditions for G. tigrina, many of the procedures (such as food preparation and feeding strategy) can be applied to other species. For best results, the culture water must be carefully monitored and adjusted for each species. PMID:21356691

Oviedo, Néstor J; Nicolas, Cindy L; Adams, Dany S; Levin, Michael

2008-10-01

182

Maintaining professional resilience through group restorative supervision.  

PubMed

Restorative clinical supervision has been delivered to over 2,500 professionals and has shown to be highly effective in reducing burnout, stress and increasing compassion satisfaction. Demand for the programme has shown that a sustainable model of implementation is needed for organisations who may not be able to invest in continued individual sessions. Following the initial six sessions, group restorative supervision has been developed and this paper reports on the programme's success in maintaining and continuing to improve compassion satisfaction, stress and burnout through the process of restorative group supervision. This means that organisations can continue to maintain the programme once the initial training has been completed and have confidence within the restorative group supervision to support professionals in managing the emotional demands of their role. The restorative groups have also had inadvertent positive benefits in workplace functioning. The paper outlines how professionals have been able to use this learning to support them in being more effective. PMID:23986988

Wallbank, Sonya

2013-08-01

183

Social Service Evaluation Demonstration Project.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Department of Social and Health Services (DSHS) of the State of Washington participated in the social service evaluation demonstration project (SSEDP) during fiscal years 1971-1973, in order to test the applicability of an operations research model in...

1973-01-01

184

Group Training to Increase Social Behaviors in Young Multihandicapped Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

The utility of a group social skills intervention for increasing social behaviors in blind, multihandicapped children was examined in a multiple-baseline analysis. Five multihandicapped elementary school-age boys attending a residential school for the blind were trained to initiate social interactions, respond to initiations by others, and maintain social interactions during social skills lessons that were incorporated into the ongoing classroom

Lori A. Sisson; Thomas J. Babeo; Vincent B. Van Hasselt

1988-01-01

185

Maintaining Arc-Consistency within Dynamic Backtracking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most of complete search algorithms over Constraint Satis- faction Problems (csp) are based on Standard Backtracking. Two main enhancements of this basic scheme have been studied: first, to integrate constraint propagation as mac which maintains arc consistency during search; second, intelligent backtrackers which avoid repeatedly falling in the same dead-ends by recording nogoods as Conflict-directed BackJump- ing (cbj) or Dynamic

Narendra Jussien; Romuald Debruyne; Patrice Boizumault

2000-01-01

186

Maintaining a stochastic neuronal cell fate decision.  

PubMed

Sensory systems generally contain a number of neuronal subtypes that express distinct sensory receptor proteins. This diversity is generated through deterministic and stochastic cell fate choices, while maintaining the subtype often requires a distinct mechanism. In a study published in the February 1, 2009, issue of Genes & Development, Lesch and colleagues (pp. 345-358) describe a new transcription factor, NSY-7, that acts to stabilize a stochastic subtype choice in AWC chemosensory neurons in Caenorhabditis elegans. PMID:19240127

Vasiliauskas, Daniel; Johnston, Robert; Desplan, Claude

2009-02-15

187

Fibromyalgia as a sympathetically maintained pain syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abnormal activity of the sympathetic nervous system may be involved in the pathogenesis of chronic pain syndromes. This article\\u000a reviews the animal studies of sympathetically induced pain behavior, the controversy of sympathetically maintained pain in\\u000a clinical practice, and the dysautonomic nature of fibromyalgia (FM). FM has neuropathic pain features (stimuli-independent\\u000a pain state accompanied by allodynia and paresthesias). The proposal of

Manuel Martinez-Lavin

2004-01-01

188

Maintaining MultiModality through Mixture Tracking  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years particle filters have become a tremen- dously popular tool to perform tracking for non-linear and\\/or non-Gaussian models. This is due to their simplic- ity, generality and success over a wide range of challeng- ing applications. Particle filters, and Monte Carlo methods in general, are however poor at consistently maintaining the multi-modality of the target distributions that may

Jaco Vermaak; Arnaud Doucet; Patrick Pérez

2003-01-01

189

Characterizing maintainability concerns in autonomic element design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Autonomic computing has become more prevalent in recent years for its vision of developing applications with self-adaptive and self-managing behavior. Due to the inherent complexity of such applications and the nature of the built-in closed-loop feedback control, maintainability issues of autonomic systems are emerging as significant concerns in autonomic system designs. This paper identifies and categorizes types of common forms

Qin Zhu; Lei Lin; Holger M. Kienle; Hausi A. Müller

2008-01-01

190

Polarization-maintaining fibers and their applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polarization-maintaining fibers and their applications are reviewed. The classification of high-birefringent fibers and low-birefringent fibers and their fabrication methods and characteristics are discussed in Section II. Analytical methods and numerical methods for fiber design on the birefringence are presented in Section III. Degradation factors of polarization maintenance expressed as crosstalk or mode-coupling parameters caused by internal origins such as structural

J. Noda; K. Okamoto; Y. Sasaki

1986-01-01

191

Maintaining and Updating a Drupal Site  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In this chapter, I show how to lay a basic foundation for maintaining and updating a Drupal site. I start by discussing e-mail\\u000a alerts, server logs, and site reports—everything you need to ensure your Drupal site is updated and haxxor free. I then delve\\u000a into the science of updating your site and how Drupal is becoming extremely easy to update

Robert J. Townsend; Stephanie Pakrul

192

How do Positive Views Maintain Life Satisfaction?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study proposes three mediation pathways to explain how the positive views (perceived control, optimism and self-enhancement)\\u000a proposed by Cummins and Nistico (Journal of Happiness Studies 3:37–69 2002) maintain life satisfaction. The three pathways were enhancing self-esteem, reducing have-want discrepancy and changing importance\\u000a perceptions. Two hundred and seventy-two undergraduates from Central Taiwan University of Science and Technology and Nan Kai

Chia-Huei Wu; Ying-Mei Tsai; Lung Hung Chen

2009-01-01

193

Romanticism, community and social services  

Microsoft Academic Search

A society engages in policy romanticism when it maintains a tenacious attachment to distorted assertions about reality that are institutionalized in both the public and private sectors. The invocation of community to commend a sublime subjectivity that pre-empts questioning is realized in the concept of social capital. Community and social capital are both romantic notions buttressing American public policies that

William M. Epstein

2010-01-01

194

The evolution of social norms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evolutionary game theory provides the tools to analyze which strategies, or patterns of behaviour, emerge over time through a process of adaptation. Social norms can be defined as patterns of behaviour with certain characteristics. Evolutionary game theory thus provides one perspective on how social norms are formed and maintained. Prisoner's dilemma games can be used to study the conditions under

Ivar Kolstad

2003-01-01

195

Alertness maintaining tasks (AMTs) while driving.  

PubMed

We evaluated the effectiveness of alertness maintaining tasks (AMTs) on driver performance, subjective feelings, and psychophysiological state in monotonous simulated driving in two experiments. In the first experiment, 12 professional truck drivers participated in five sessions of simulated driving: driving only, driving with one of three AMTs (counterbalanced), and driving while listening to music. AMTs were not equally effective in maintaining alertness. The trivia AMT prevented driving performance deterioration, and increased alertness (measured by standardized HRV). The choice reaction time AMT was least demanding but also increased subjective sleepiness and reduced arousal (measured by alpha/beta ratio). The working memory AMT caused a significant decrement in driving speed, increased subjective fatigue, and was regarded by the participants as detrimental to driving. Trivia was preferred by the majority of the drivers over the other two AMTs. Experiment 2 further examined the utility of the trivia AMT. When the drivers engaged in the trivia AMT they maintained better driving performance and perceived the driving duration as shorter than the control condition. The two experiments demonstrated that AMTs can have a positive effect on alertness. The effect is localized in the sense that it does not persist beyond the period of the AMT activation. PMID:18460351

Oron-Gilad, Tal; Ronen, Adi; Shinar, David

2007-10-18

196

Effects of Multisensory Environments on Stereotyped Behaviours Assessed as Maintained by Automatic Reinforcement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of the sensory equipment provided in a multi-sensory environment (MSE) and the level of social contact provided on levels of stereotyped behaviours assessed as being maintained by automatic reinforcement. Method: Stereotyped and engaged behaviours of two young people with severe…

Hill, Lindsay; Trusler, Karen; Furniss, Frederick; Lancioni, Giulio

2012-01-01

197

Maintaining the Viability and Safety of the Methadone Maintenance Treatment Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this article is to describe a methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) program and address how such programs can maintain their viability in the community as well as the safety of the clinic environment for patients and staff. The complex nature of the MMT patient is described including social, legal and psychiatric issues. Diversion (selling of methadone) is discussed

Kathy T. Breslin; Sandra Malone

2006-01-01

198

Toward socially inspired social neuroscience  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social neuroscience, often viewed as studying the neural foundations of social cognition, has roots in multiple disciplines. This paper argues that it needs a firmer base in social psychology. First, we outline some major opportunities from social psychology—the power of social context and social motives in shaping human behavior. Second, as the social cognition field moves away from studying only

Alexander Todorov; Lasana T. Harris; Susan T. Fiske

2006-01-01

199

Social Watch  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Taken as a whole, Social Watch as an international network of citizens' groups concerned with the "fulfillment of internationally agreed commitments on poverty eradication and equality." These citizens' groups are also responsible for submitting national reports, promoting dialogue about these development priorities, and developing an inclusive strategy in order to bring other groups into the fold. For persons with an interest in these matters, this site will prove quite indispensable. Along the top of their homepage, visitors can view country reports, learn about development indicators through interactive maps, and also read up on the progress towards these goals. Visitors should also take a look at their annual reports, which provide both an executive summary and detailed regional reports on such matters as gender equity and poverty eradication efforts. The site also contains links to other relevant organizations and conferences, including the World Summit for Social Development and the World Conference on Women.

200

What does God know? Supernatural agents' access to socially strategic and non-strategic information.  

PubMed

Current evolutionary and cognitive theories of religion posit that supernatural agent concepts emerge from cognitive systems such as theory of mind and social cognition. Some argue that these concepts evolved to maintain social order by minimizing antisocial behavior. If these theories are correct, then people should process information about supernatural agents' socially strategic knowledge more quickly than non-strategic knowledge. Furthermore, agents' knowledge of immoral and uncooperative social behaviors should be especially accessible to people. To examine these hypotheses, we measured response-times to questions about the knowledge attributed to four different agents--God, Santa Claus, a fictional surveillance government, and omniscient but non-interfering aliens--that vary in their omniscience, moral concern, ability to punish, and how supernatural they are. As anticipated, participants respond more quickly to questions about agents' socially strategic knowledge than non-strategic knowledge, but only when agents are able to punish. PMID:22462490

Purzycki, Benjamin G; Finkel, Daniel N; Shaver, John; Wales, Nathan; Cohen, Adam B; Sosis, Richard

2012-03-29

201

Leveraging social context for searching social media  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability to utilize and benet from today's explosion of social media sites depends on providing tools that allow users to productively participate. In order to participate, users must be able to nd resources (both people and in- formation) that they nd valuable. Here, we argue that in order to do this eectiv ely, we should make use of a

Marc Smith; Vladimir Barash; Lise Getoor; Hady Wirawan LAUW

2008-01-01

202

Device for maintaining patent paranasal sinus ostia  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A device for maintaining a patent paranasal sinus ostium includes a tubular element having a proximal end, a distal end, and a center region between the proximal end and distal end. The tubular element has an insertion state and a deployment state. The tubular element is locatable in the sinus ostium when in the insertion state and expandable from the insertion state to the deployment state when located in the sinus ostium. In the deployment state, the center region confronts the sinus ostium with an outward radial force.

2012-11-06

203

How a disordered ubiquitin ligase maintains order in nuclear protein homeostasis  

PubMed Central

Cells use protein quality control (PQC) systems to protect themselves from potentially harmful misfolded proteins. Many misfolded proteins are repaired by molecular chaperones, but irreparably damaged proteins must be destroyed. Eukaryotes predominantly destroy these abnormally folded proteins through the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway, which requires compartment-specific ubiquitin ligase complexes that mark substrates with ubiquitin for proteasome degradation. In the yeast nucleus, misfolded proteins are targeted for degradation by the ubiquitin ligase San1, which binds misfolded nuclear proteins directly and does not appear to require chaperones for substrate binding. San1 is also remarkably adaptable, as it is capable of ubiquitinating a structurally diverse assortment of abnormally folded substrates. We attribute this adaptability to San1's high degree of structural disorder, which provides flexibility and allows San1 to conform to differently shaped substrates. Here we review our recent work characterizing San1's distinctive mode of substrate recognition and the associated implications for PQC in the nucleus.

Rosenbaum, Joel C

2011-01-01

204

Maintaining order under the rule of law: occupational templates and the police use of force  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study develops a theoretical argument that research on police use offorce should begin to examine the phenomenon in terms of police occupational templates above and beyond the traditional escalation of force paradigm. Investigating police use of force through the lenses of occupational templates (e.g., the symbolic assailant and the asshole) may provide insight into the goals of police

Robert J. Kane; Shea W. Cronin

2011-01-01

205

Doing what the patient orders: maintaining integrity in the doctor-patient relationship.  

PubMed

No profession has undergone as much scrutiny in the past several decades as that of medicine. Indeed, one might well argue that no profession has ever undergone so much change in so short a time. An essential part of this change has been the growing insistence that competent, adult patients have the right to decide about the course of their own medical treatment. However, the familiar and widely accepted principle of patient self-determination entails a corollary that has received little attention in the growing literature on the ethics of physician-patient relations: if patients are to direct the course of their own medical treatment, then physicians are at least sometimes to be guided in their actions on behalf of patients by values that are not, and may even be incompatible with, their own values. Unless it is supposed that it would be best if physicians were simply to accommodate any and all patient requests, a possibility I consider and reject in this paper, there are bound to be numerous instances of legitimate moral conflict between the preferences of physicians and patients. In this paper, I examine the implications of this sort of moral conflict from the standpoint of the integrity of the physician....I have also considered the common practice of patient referral from the standpoint of physician integrity, and asked whether a physician who refuses to treat a patient as a matter of conscience can consistently refer the patient to another physician for the same treatment.... PMID:11651605

Blustein, Jeffrey

1993-07-01

206

Rhesus Monkeys (Macaca Mulatta) Maintain Learning Set Despite Second-Order Stimulus-Response Spatial Discontiguity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In many discrimination-learning tests, spatial separation between stimuli and response loci disrupts performance in rhesus macaques. However, monkeys are unaffected by such stimulus-response spatial discontiguity when responses occur through joystick-based computerized movement of a cursor. To examine this discrepancy, five monkeys were tested on…

Beran, Michael J.; Washburn, David A.; Rumbaugh, Duane M.

2007-01-01

207

What is social about social perception research?  

PubMed Central

A growing consensus in social cognitive neuroscience holds that large portions of the primate visual brain are dedicated to the processing of social information, i.e., to those aspects of stimuli that are usually encountered in social interactions such as others' facial expressions, actions, and symbols. Yet, studies of social perception have mostly employed simple pictorial representations of conspecifics. These stimuli are social only in the restricted sense that they physically resemble objects with which the observer would typically interact. In an equally important sense, however, these stimuli might be regarded as “non-social”: the observer knows that they are viewing pictures and might therefore not attribute current mental states to the stimuli or might do so in a qualitatively different way than in a real social interaction. Recent studies have demonstrated the importance of such higher-order conceptualization of the stimulus for social perceptual processing. Here, we assess the similarity between the various types of stimuli used in the laboratory and object classes encountered in real social interactions. We distinguish two different levels at which experimental stimuli can match social stimuli as encountered in everyday social settings: (1) the extent to which a stimulus' physical properties resemble those typically encountered in social interactions and (2) the higher-level conceptualization of the stimulus as indicating another person's mental states. We illustrate the significance of this distinction for social perception research and report new empirical evidence further highlighting the importance of mental state attribution for perceptual processing. Finally, we discuss the potential of this approach to inform studies of clinical conditions such as autism.

Teufel, Christoph; von dem Hagen, Elisabeth; Plaisted-Grant, Kate C.; Edmonds, James J.; Ayorinde, John O.; Fletcher, Paul C.; Davis, Greg

2012-01-01

208

Multicultural Social Work Practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The challenges and questions directed at the political order in South Africa affected the educational arena as well. The profession of social work has been questioned as to the knowledge base, content, appropriateness and the relevancy of social work education and practice in the South African context. This paper utilizes the multicultural approach to explore cultural issues essential for an

Mandla Tshabalala

1992-01-01

209

Online maintaining appearance model using particle filter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tracking by foreground matching heavily depends on the appearance model to establish object correspondences among frames and essentially, the appearance model should encode both the difference part between the object and background to guarantee the robustness and the stable part to ensure tracking consistency. This paper provides a solution for online maintaining appearance models by adjusting features in the model. Object appearance is co-modeled by a subset of Haar features selected from the over-complete feature dictionary which encodes the discriminative part of object appearance and the color histogram which describes the stable appearance. During the particle filtering process, feature values both from background patches and object observations are sampled efficiently by the aid of "foreground" and "background" particles respectively. Based on these sampled values, top-ranked discriminative features are added and invalid features are removed out to ensure the object being distinguishable from current background according to the evolving appearance model. The tracker based on this online appearance model maintaining technique has been tested on people and car tracking tasks and promising experimental results are obtained.

Chen, Siying; Lan, Tian; Wang, Jianyu; Ni, Guoqiang

2008-03-01

210

Design guidelines for remotely maintained equipment  

SciTech Connect

The CFRP has pioneered and developed the concept of totally remote operation and maintenance of process equipment in spent fuel reprocessing, using force-reflecting master/slave servomanipulators, coupled with television viewing, to extend human capabilities effectively throughout an uninhabitable environment. This concept enhances safeguard control of nuclear materials, provides for low-exposure of personnel to radiation and reliable recovery from unplanned events, ensures high plant availability, and aids eventual decommissioning of the plant. The results of this experience have been organized in this document to enable designers to consider this technology, not only in spent fuel reprocessing, but among various other situations that may be hazardous to personnel. This document is an expanded and updated version of an earlier design guide that was specific to fuel reprocessing requirements. The guidelines identified in the present document suggest a general approach to the design of effective, reliable, safe, remotely operated and maintained facilities. This document may be used broadly to apply remotely maintained equipment in hostile environments based on proven techniques, equipment, and well-established practices. The concepts are particularly applicable to large plant facilities where economy of scale is important. The theme emphasizes utilization of ordinary commercial tools, equipment, and materials widely available. 5 refs., 51 figs., 10 tabs.

Burgess, T.W.; Evans, J.H.; Peishel, F.L.; Schrock, S.L.; Smith, G.E.; Macdonald, D.

1988-11-01

211

Socialization: Insights from Social Cognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Socialization is the process by which individuals are assisted to become members of their social groups. Findings from social cognition and cross-cultural psychology offer two major insights into the socialization process. First, basic social cognitive principles imply that the immediate environ- ment functions as a socialization agent by activating and inhibiting knowledge structures and thereby shaping cognition and behavior. Second,

Selin Kesebir; David H. Uttal; Wendi Gardner

2010-01-01

212

[Maintaining solidarity: is mutuality the solution?].  

PubMed

Solidarity is essentially the willingness to contribute to the community and its demands, which may even involve contributing more than one is expecting to receive. Another principle is mutuality: this refers to a balance between rights and obligations or between mutual obligations. In its advisory document 'The importance of mutuality......solidarity takes work!', The Dutch Council for Public Health and Health Care underlines the importance of ensuring solidarity within the Dutch health care system, e.g. by encouraging patients to take responsibility for their own health, possibly by introducing elements of mutuality. In our contribution, we comment on the Council's advice. Although we fully agree with the overall conclusion that solidarity should be maintained within the system, we do not see how the introduction of increased mutuality will contribute to this goal. PMID:23945438

Gevers, J K M; Ploem, M C

2013-01-01

213

Maintaining robust connectivity in heterogeneous robotic networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we are interested in exploiting the heterogeneity of a robotic network made of ground and aerial agents to sense multiple targets in a cluttered environment. Maintaining wireless communication on this type of networks is fundamentally important specially for cooperative purposes. The proposed heterogeneous network consists of ground sensors, e.g., OctoRoACHes, and aerial routers, e.g., quadrotors. Adaptive potential field methods are used to coordinate the ground mobile sensors. Moreover, a reward function for the aerial mobile wireless routers is formulated to guarantee communication coverage among the ground sensors and a fixed base station. A sub-optimal controller is proposed based on an approximate control policy iteration technique. Simulation results of a case study are presented to illustrate the proposed methodology.

Cruz, P.; Fierro, R.; Lu, W.; Ferrari, S.

2013-05-01

214

MAINTAINING EPITHELIOPOIETIC POTENCY WHEN CULTURING OLFACTORY PROGENITORS  

PubMed Central

The olfactory epithelium is remarkable for the persistence of multipotent, neurocompetent progenitor and stem cells throughout life that can replace all of the various cell types of the epithelium following injury. The therapeutic exploitation of the neurocompetent stem cells of the adult olfactory epithelium would be facilitated by the development of a culture system that maintains the in vivo potency of the progenitors while they are expanded and/or manipulated. We have used an air-liquid interface culture protocol, in which a feeder cell layer of 3T3 cells is established on the underside of a culture insert and FACS-isolated or unsorted progenitor cells from the methyl bromide-lesioned adult rodent epithelium are seeded on upper side. Under these conditions, epithelial cells other than HBCs are capable of organizing themselves into complex 3-dimensional, epithelium-lined spheres, which can be passaged. The spheres contain cells with the molecular phenotype of globose basal cells, horizontal basal cells, sustentacular cells and neurons. Spheres derived from mice that express the green fluorescent protein constitutively can be dissociated after 6 days in vitro and directly transplanted into the epithelium of wild type, methyl bromide-lesioned mice via nasal infusion. The resulting clones contain the various cell types observed in aggregate when globose basal cells are transplanted acutely. In contrast, the same cells cultured as two dimensional, submerged cultures undergo fibroblastic transition after transplantation and do not integrate into the epithelium. In conclusion, the culture system described here maintains the potency of progenitors, which can then participate in epitheliopoiesis in vivo.

Jang, Woochan; Lambropoulos, James; Woo, Jin Kyung; Peluso, Carolyn E.; Schwob, James E

2008-01-01

215

Reflexionando sobre las relaciones entre política social y estructura social  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents the main debates that have developed in the SAP. S ( Social Po l i c y Analysis Se m i n a r, UAB), in order to build a theoretical framew o rk which should be able to analyse the relations between social policy and social stru c t u re. We start from some criticisms

José Adelantado Gimeno; José Antonio Noguera

1999-01-01

216

Social Work  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unpacking social work's low self-image and even lower social prestige reveals multiple layers of assumptions both within and outside the discipline that coalesce to construct a profession at odds with itself. Social work colludes with social forces which devalue its work while it presents a series of signs that reinforce the negative stereo-types associated with its practices. Social work projects

Gregory D. Gross

2007-01-01

217

Design metrics for web application maintainability measurement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many web applications have evolved from simple HTML pages to complex applications that have a high maintenance cost. This high maintenance cost is due to the heterogeneity of web applications, to fast Internet evolution and the fast- moving market which imposes short development cycles and frequent modifications. In order to control the maintenance cost, quantitative metrics for predicting web applications

Emad Ghosheh; Sue Black; Jihad Qaddour

2008-01-01

218

Developing and maintaining reflection in clinical journals  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a pressing need in today's world for nurses who are willing and able to transform health care. Teaching strategies that foster reflection are in order. The use of dialogue journals has been widely reported in the nursing literature as an effective strategy for assisting students to reflect about learning experiences in the clinical area. Despite the promise that

Barbara L. Paterson

1995-01-01

219

Social Identity: A Multidimensional Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study salience, importance, and multidimensional aspects of spontaneous social identities were examined. A Social Identity Survey was developed and administered to an ethnically diverse sample of American undergraduate students. Freely generated, social identities were rank ordered for importance and rated along four conceptually-derived dimensions: emotion, evaluation, importance, and stability. Results showed pattern differences among three groups of highly

Raymond T. Garza; Lawrence G. Herringer

1987-01-01

220

Hospital Social Work: What Is Needed Are Results.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Social workers must be part of an interdisciplinary approach to hospital services, particularly ambulatory services. Getting results is the only way social work can maintain its place in the health care system. (JAC)

Blake, Richard

1980-01-01

221

The Social Climbing Game  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The structure of societies depends, to some extent, on the incentives of the individuals they are composed of. We study a stylized model of this interplay, that suggests that the more individuals aim at climbing the social hierarchy, the more society's hierarchy gets strong. Such a dependence is sharp, in the sense that a persistent hierarchical order emerges abruptly when the preference for social status gets larger than a threshold. This phase transition has its origin in the fact that the presence of a well defined hierarchy allows agents to climb it, thus reinforcing it, whereas in a "disordered" society it is harder for agents to find out whom they should connect to in order to become more central. Interestingly, a social order emerges when agents strive harder to climb society and it results in a state of reduced social mobility, as a consequence of ergodicity breaking, where climbing is more difficult.

Bardoscia, Marco; De Luca, Giancarlo; Livan, Giacomo; Marsili, Matteo; Tessone, Claudio J.

2013-05-01

222

Exploring how nurse lecturers maintain clinical credibility.  

PubMed

The role of the nurse lecturer is changing. There is growing pressure from the government and professionals alike to recruit nurse teachers who posses both practical and recent experience of nursing [Department of Health, 1999. Making a Difference: Strengthening the Nursing, Midwifery and Health Visiting Contribution to Health and Health Care. DOH, London; UKCC, 2000. Standards for the Preparation of Teachers of Nursing, Midwifery and Health Visiting. UKCC, London]. Whilst much of the literature available suggests a growing concern amongst practitioners, students and nurse educationalists themselves about the importance of being ;clinically credible', what is not clear is how tangible it is to maintain currency and clinical credibility. In addition, the term ;clinical credibility' is in itself ill-defined. An exploratory study was undertaken within one higher education institution which sought to seek the views of nurse lecturers. The principles of ethnography were applied to this research. The sample included six of the most recently appointed nurse lecturers within one academic faculty who taught predominantly on pre-registration programmes. Data from individual and focus group interviews was analysed using a thematic content analysis approach. The findings are discussed which embrace the concepts of: working ;hands on' in the clinical area, clinical currency, transferability of skills, clinical visibility and role development. Recommendations for the development of professional practice are offered. PMID:19038175

Fisher, Melanie T

2005-01-01

223

Virus Movement Maintains Local Virus Population Diversity  

SciTech Connect

Viruses are the largest reservoir of genetic material on the planet, yet little is known about the population dynamics of any virus within its natural environment. Over a 2-year period, we monitored the diversity of two archaeal viruses found in hot springs within Yellowstone National Park (YNP). Both temporal phylogeny and neutral biodiversity models reveal that virus diversity in these local environments is not being maintained by mutation but rather by high rates of immigration from a globally distributed metacommunity. These results indicate that geographically isolated hot springs are readily able to exchange viruses. The importance of virus movement is supported by the detection of virus particles in air samples collected over YNP hot springs and by their detection in metacommunity sequencing projects conducted in the Sargasso Sea. Rapid rates of virus movement are not expected to be unique to these archaeal viruses but rather a common feature among virus metacommunities. The finding that virus immigration rather than mutation can dominate community structure has significant implications for understanding virus circulation and the role that viruses play in ecology and evolution by providing a reservoir of mobile genetic material.

J. Snyder; B. Wiedenheft; M. Lavin; F. Roberto; J. Spuhler; A. Ortmann; T. Douglas; M. Young

2007-11-01

224

Protecting America's secrets while maintaining academic freedom.  

PubMed

The terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, and the subsequent anthrax mail attacks, have had a profound impact on Americans' personal and professional lives and have sparked an active debate regarding the delicate balance between the need for national security and the pursuit of academic freedom. Although academic freedom can be defined in many ways, there are four primary tenets of freedom in an academic environment: freedom to research, freedom to publish, freedom to teach, and freedom to speak. Each of these tenets has come under attack in the wake of September 11, 2001. In this report the author further defines academic freedom and reflects upon recent events that have had a real or perceived impact on this freedom, including (1) attempts to categorize and restrict some research as "sensitive," (2) implementation of export control laws and select agent regulations, (3) limitations on the publication of research findings, (4) prohibition of certain foreign nationals from collaborating with U.S. researchers and receiving education and training in U.S. colleges and universities, and (5) restraint of faculty free speech. The author offers some suggestions as to how academia might achieve a proper balance between protecting our national security while promoting and maintaining academic freedom. PMID:15044166

Keel, Brooks A

2004-04-01

225

The biodiversity we want to maintain and the reasons we want to maintain it  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper seeks to broaden our discussion of biodiversity to consider the more personal, psychological aspects of its protection. Biodiversity is a poorly understood concept, and public and landholder concepts of biodiversity differ significantly from the views of those with ecological expertise. It is not a simple task to identify the 'biodiversity we want to maintain'. Landscape preference research offers

Kathryn Williams

226

Ethical reasoning and online social media.  

PubMed

Undergraduate nursing students are frequent users of social media sites; however, the ethical or professional implications surrounding the use of online social networking sites are ambiguous and understudied. Faculty guidance is needed if students are to gain the necessary skills and values to appropriately use social media while maintaining professional accountability. The authors discuss the outcomes of a study that assessed their students' sensitivity to posting clinical information on social media sites. PMID:23086065

Englund, Heather; Chappy, Sharon; Jambunathan, Jaya; Gohdes, Erick

227

The Human Brain Maintains Contradictory and Redundant Auditory Sensory Predictions  

PubMed Central

Computational and experimental research has revealed that auditory sensory predictions are derived from regularities of the current environment by using internal generative models. However, so far, what has not been addressed is how the auditory system handles situations giving rise to redundant or even contradictory predictions derived from different sources of information. To this end, we measured error signals in the event-related brain potentials (ERPs) in response to violations of auditory predictions. Sounds could be predicted on the basis of overall probability, i.e., one sound was presented frequently and another sound rarely. Furthermore, each sound was predicted by an informative visual cue. Participants’ task was to use the cue and to discriminate the two sounds as fast as possible. Violations of the probability based prediction (i.e., a rare sound) as well as violations of the visual-auditory prediction (i.e., an incongruent sound) elicited error signals in the ERPs (Mismatch Negativity [MMN] and Incongruency Response [IR]). Particular error signals were observed even in case the overall probability and the visual symbol predicted different sounds. That is, the auditory system concurrently maintains and tests contradictory predictions. Moreover, if the same sound was predicted, we observed an additive error signal (scalp potential and primary current density) equaling the sum of the specific error signals. Thus, the auditory system maintains and tolerates functionally independently represented redundant and contradictory predictions. We argue that the auditory system exploits all currently active regularities in order to optimally prepare for future events.

Pieszek, Marika; Widmann, Andreas; Gruber, Thomas; Schroger, Erich

2013-01-01

228

Social Indicators and Social Forecasting.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The paper identifies major types of social indicators and explains how they can be used in social forecasting. Social indicators are defined as statistical measures relating to major areas of social concern and/or individual well being. Examples of social indicators are projections, forecasts, outlook statements, time-series statistics, and…

Johnston, Denis F.

229

Social Epidemiology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social epidemiology has been defined as the branch of epidemiology that studies the social distribution and social determinants\\u000a of health (Berkman and Kawachi 2000). As all aspects of human life are inextricably bound within the context of social relations,\\u000a every conceivable epidemiological exposure is related to social factors. In this broad sense, all epidemiology is social epidemiology\\u000a (Kaufman and Cooper

Tarani Chandola; Michael Marmot

230

Integrating older adults into social networking sites through ambient intelligence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social Networking sites (SNS) use helps teenagers and younger adults to increase their social network and maintain those offline connections made in their daily activities. However older adults are often left aside from SNS, missing interaction opportunities with the members of their social network. The lack of participation and access to these social capital sources might be relevant because several

Raymundo Cornejo

2010-01-01

231

Why Art Education Lacks Social Relevance: A Contextual Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article examines why both the individual-centered and discipline-centered approaches to art education lack social relevance. Maintains that the lack of a social orientation in these two approaches is due to our social context and our capitalistic system. Proposes that democratic principles serve as the basis of a socially relevant,…

Bersson, Robert

1987-01-01

232

Dynamic intimate contact social networks and epidemic interventions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sexually transmitted diseases and infections are, by definition, transferred among intimate social settings. Although the circumstances under which these social settings are established and maintained may vary, the common prerequisite remains an intimate level of social atmosphere. For this reason, the development of sexually transmitted disease mathematical and computational models must utilise dynamic and evolving social network simulation. This paper

Courtney D. Corley; Armin R. Mikler; Diane J. Cook; Karan P. Singh

2008-01-01

233

Social problem solving among popular and unpopular children  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study investigated two issues related to children's social status and problem solving: the content of problem-solving measures and judgments of the quality of responses to social problems. Three types of social problem situations were studied: peer entry\\/initiation, maintaining social interaction, and management of conflict. The quality of children's strategies for solving these problems was rated on two dimensions:

H. Ann Brochin; Barbara H. Wasik

1992-01-01

234

The problem of conflicting social spheres: effects of network structure on experienced tension in social network sites  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose that a fundamental property of human psychology, the need to maintain independent social spheres, imposes constraints on the use of social network sites (SNS). We particularly focus on the consequences of visibility of communications across social spheres, and we hypothesize that technological features of SNS may bring social spheres in conflict, thus leading to increased levels of online

Jens Binder; Andrew Howes; Alistair Sutcliffe

2009-01-01

235

The Importance of Social Connectedness in Building Age-Friendly Communities  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this paper is to further elucidate the importance of social relationships and social connectedness with aging in place and in developing elder-friendly communities. The process used in this study was inclusive of younger adults (age 40–65) as well as older adults (65+) in order to further understand how they envision a community that could support their own aging in place. A community forum, using the World Café format, was conducted in order to engage community members, 40 years and older, in conversation about the importance of social connectedness in elder-friendly communities. A second purpose of this forum was to obtain data on what would keep aging boomers in their community as they age. Three major themes emerged from qualitative analysis of the forum: social reciprocity, meaningful interactions, and structural needs/barriers. The results of this study reinforce the importance of social connectedness in creating and maintaining elder-friendly communities for older adults, as well as soon-to-be retired individuals, wishing to maintain life connectedness to their community. The study suggests the possibility of using more nontraditional research techniques (such as the World Café process) for gathering community level data.

Emlet, Charles A.; Moceri, Joane T.

2012-01-01

236

The importance of social connectedness in building age-friendly communities.  

PubMed

The purpose of this paper is to further elucidate the importance of social relationships and social connectedness with aging in place and in developing elder-friendly communities. The process used in this study was inclusive of younger adults (age 40-65) as well as older adults (65+) in order to further understand how they envision a community that could support their own aging in place. A community forum, using the World Café format, was conducted in order to engage community members, 40 years and older, in conversation about the importance of social connectedness in elder-friendly communities. A second purpose of this forum was to obtain data on what would keep aging boomers in their community as they age. Three major themes emerged from qualitative analysis of the forum: social reciprocity, meaningful interactions, and structural needs/barriers. The results of this study reinforce the importance of social connectedness in creating and maintaining elder-friendly communities for older adults, as well as soon-to-be retired individuals, wishing to maintain life connectedness to their community. The study suggests the possibility of using more nontraditional research techniques (such as the World Café process) for gathering community level data. PMID:22162807

Emlet, Charles A; Moceri, Joane T

2011-11-24

237

12 CFR 1208.73 - Wage garnishment order.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...cancellation of the withholding order, FHFA will send by first class mail a withholding order to the debtor's employer within...withholding order, including the debtor's name, address, and social security number, as well as instructions for withholding...

2012-01-01

238

Social Experiments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Earlier this year, CASE formed a social media task force to explore what educational institutions are trying to achieve with social media presence and learn about social media engagements at member institutions. CASE, in partnership with mStoner and Slover Linett Strategies, in June launched a benchmarking survey on social media in advancement by…

Slover-Linett, Cheryl; Stoner, Michael

2010-01-01

239

Social Experiments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Earlier this year, CASE formed a social media task force to explore what educational institutions are trying to achieve with social media presence and learn about social media engagements at member institutions. CASE, in partnership with mStoner and Slover Linett Strategies, in June launched a benchmarking survey on social media in advancement by…

Slover-Linett, Cheryl; Stoner, Michael

2010-01-01

240

Polarization maintaining fiber interferometer based on superimposed Mach-Zehnder and Sagnac interferences and its application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel polarization maintaining fiber interferometer based on superimposed Mach-Zehnder and Sagnac interferences is presented. Higher order cladding modes are effectively excited to construct a Mach-Zehnder interference with the low order linear polarized modes in the Sagnac interferometer when fusing the single mode fiber and polarization maintaining fiber with a peanut structure. We also demonstrate its strain and temperature tunability. The Mach-Zehnder resonance peak is strain insensitive while the Sagnac resonance dip is highly sensitive to strain, and the Mach-Zehnder resonance peak exhibits an opposite thermal response compared to the Sagnac resonance dip. This can be applied for dual parameter measurement with high resolutions.

Dong, Bo

2013-03-01

241

Other Minorities: Old Order Amish and Hutterites  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Social studies curricula should include units on the Old Order Amish and the Hutterites. The author outlines the life styles and beliefs of each group, stressing their independence from the national society and their interdependence within their own communities. (AV)|

Ediger, Marlow

1977-01-01

242

FUNCTIONAL ANALYSIS OF INAPPROPRIATE SOCIAL INTERACTIONS IN STUDENTS WITH ASPERGER'S SYNDROME  

PubMed Central

We analyzed the inappropriate social interactions of 3 students with Asperger's syndrome whose behavior was maintained by social positive reinforcement. We tested whether inappropriate social behavior was sensitive to social positive reinforcement contingencies and whether such contingencies could be reversed to increase the probability of socially appropriate responding. Our results show that social positive reinforcers can be identified for inappropriate social interactions and that appropriate social behaviors can be sensitive to reinforcement contingency reversals.

Roantree, Christina F; Kennedy, Craig H

2012-01-01

243

Dynamic Variable Ordering in CSPs  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate the dynamic variable ordering(DVO) technique com- monly used in conjunction with tree-search algorithms for s olving constraint sat- isfaction problems. We first provide an implementation meth odology for adding DVO to an arbitrary tree-search algorithm. Our methodology is applicable to a wide range of algorithms including those that maintain complicated information about the search history, like backmarking. We

Fahiem Bacchus; Paul Van Run

1995-01-01

244

Social Education Teacher as Activist  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The modern public school presents a unique challenge to social education teachers as they are charged with instructing students\\u000a with tools, skills, and knowledge necessary to master challenges of tomorrow. Today’s social education teacher must simultaneously\\u000a carry out the increasingly diverse responsibilities of a citizen and activist, while still maintaining their obligations as\\u000a an educator. These ambiguous issues are further

Tony L. Talbert; James B. Rodgers

245

Perception of Online Social Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This paper examines data derived from an application on Facebook.com that investigates the relations among members of their\\u000a online social network. It confirms that online social networks are more often used to maintain weak connections but that a\\u000a subset of users focus on strong connections, determines that connection intensity to both connected people predicts perceptual\\u000a accuracy, and shows that intra-group

Travis Green; Aaron Quigley

246

Deployment of DNIDS in Social Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Internet users form social networks as they communicate with each other. Computer worms and viruses exploit these social networks in order to propagate to other users. In this paper we present a new framework aimed at slowing down or even preventing the propagation of computer worms and viruses in social networks. In the first part of the framework a social

Meytal Tubi; Rami Puzis; Yuval Elovici

2007-01-01

247

Social Movements and the News Media  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes the paradoxical relationship that exists between social movements and the news media. The concept of framing is explored, particularly the ways in which social movements come to be contextually framed within the news media and the consequent impact on the social movement itself. In order to gain an understanding of the relationship between social movements and the

Katherine Phipps; Katryna Szagala

2007-01-01

248

48 CFR 6.202 - Establishing or maintaining alternative sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Establishing or maintaining alternative sources. 6.202 Section 6.202...COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Full and Open Competition After Exclusion of Sources 6.202 Establishing or maintaining alternative sources. (a) Agencies may...

2009-10-01

249

48 CFR 606.202 - Establishing or maintaining alternate sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Establishing or maintaining alternate sources. 606.202 Section 606...COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Full and Open Competition After Exclusion of Sources 606.202 Establishing or maintaining alternate sources. The Procurement...

2011-10-01

250

48 CFR 206.202 - Establishing or maintaining alternative sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Establishing or maintaining alternative sources. 206.202 Section 206...COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Full and Open Competition After Exclusion of Sources 206.202 Establishing or maintaining alternative sources. (a) Agencies may use...

2012-10-01

251

48 CFR 306.202 - Establishing or maintaining alternative sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Establishing or maintaining alternative sources. 306.202 Section 306...COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Full and Open Competition After Exclusion of Sources 306.202 Establishing or maintaining alternative sources. (a) The reference to...

2012-10-01

252

48 CFR 1306.202 - Establishing or maintaining alternative sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Establishing or maintaining alternative sources. 1306.202 Section 1306...COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Full and Open Competition After Exclusion of Sources 1306.202 Establishing or maintaining alternative sources. The authority to...

2012-10-01

253

48 CFR 1306.202 - Establishing or maintaining alternative sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Establishing or maintaining alternative sources. 1306.202 Section 1306...COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Full and Open Competition After Exclusion of Sources 1306.202 Establishing or maintaining alternative sources. The authority to...

2011-10-01

254

48 CFR 2406.202 - Establishing or maintaining alternative sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Establishing or maintaining alternative sources. 2406.202 Section 2406...COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Full and Open Competition After Exclusion of Sources 2406.202 Establishing or maintaining alternative sources. (b)(1) The HCA...

2012-10-01

255

48 CFR 406.202 - Establishing or maintaining alternative sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Establishing or maintaining alternative sources. 406.202 Section 406...COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Full and Open Competition After Exclusion of Sources 406.202 Establishing or maintaining alternative sources. The Senior Procurement...

2011-10-01

256

48 CFR 3006.202 - Establishing or maintaining alternative sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Establishing or maintaining alternative sources. 3006.202 Section 3006...COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Full and Open Competition After Exclusion of Sources 3006.202 Establishing or maintaining alternative sources. (b)(1) The HCA is...

2012-10-01

257

48 CFR 3006.202 - Establishing or maintaining alternative sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Establishing or maintaining alternative sources. 3006.202 Section 3006...COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Full and Open Competition After Exclusion of Sources 3006.202 Establishing or maintaining alternative sources. (b)(1) The HCA is...

2011-10-01

258

48 CFR 606.202 - Establishing or maintaining alternate sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Establishing or maintaining alternate sources. 606.202 Section 606...COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Full and Open Competition After Exclusion of Sources 606.202 Establishing or maintaining alternate sources. The Procurement...

2012-10-01

259

48 CFR 2406.202 - Establishing or maintaining alternative sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Establishing or maintaining alternative sources. 2406.202 Section 2406...COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Full and Open Competition After Exclusion of Sources 2406.202 Establishing or maintaining alternative sources. (b)(1) The HCA...

2011-10-01

260

10 CFR 1304.111 - Maintaining records of disclosures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Maintaining records of disclosures. 1304.111 Section 1304.111 Energy NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 1304.111 Maintaining records of disclosures....

2013-01-01

261

27 CFR 478.123 - Records maintained by manufacturers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Firearms 3 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Records maintained by manufacturers. 478.123 Section...AMMUNITION COMMERCE IN FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION Records § 478.123 Records maintained by manufacturers. (a) Each...

2011-04-01

262

48 CFR 906.202 - Establishing or maintaining alternative sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Establishing or maintaining alternative sources. 906.202 Section...System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY COMPETITION ACQUISITION...After Exclusion of Sources 906.202 Establishing or maintaining alternative sources....

2009-10-01

263

48 CFR 906.202 - Establishing or maintaining alternative sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Establishing or maintaining alternative sources. 906.202 Section...System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY COMPETITION ACQUISITION...After Exclusion of Sources 906.202 Establishing or maintaining alternative sources....

2012-10-01

264

48 CFR 906.202 - Establishing or maintaining alternative sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Establishing or maintaining alternative sources. 906.202 Section...System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY COMPETITION ACQUISITION...After Exclusion of Sources 906.202 Establishing or maintaining alternative sources....

2010-10-01

265

48 CFR 906.202 - Establishing or maintaining alternative sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Establishing or maintaining alternative sources. 906.202 Section...System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY COMPETITION ACQUISITION...After Exclusion of Sources 906.202 Establishing or maintaining alternative sources....

2011-10-01

266

33 CFR 118.5 - Penalty for failure to maintain.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...5 Section 118.5 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES BRIDGE LIGHTING AND OTHER SIGNALS § 118.5 Penalty for failure to maintain. Any person required to maintain lights and other...

2013-07-01

267

Music listening for maintaining attention of older adults with cognitive impairments.  

PubMed

Twelve older adults with cognitive impairments who were participants in weekly community-based group music therapy sessions, 6 older adults in an Alzheimer's caregivers' group, and 6 college student volunteers listened to a 3.5 minute prepared audiotape of instrumental excerpts of patriotic selections. The tape consisted of 7 excerpts ranging from 18 s to 34 s in duration. Each music excerpt was followed by a 7-9 s period of silence, a "wait" excerpt. Listeners were instructed to move a Continuous Response Digital Interface (CRDI) to the name of the music excerpt depicted on the CRDI overlay when they heard a music excerpt. Likewise, they were instructed to move the dial to the word "WAIT" when there was no music. They were also instructed to maintain the dial position for the duration of each music or silence excerpt. Statistical analysis indicated no significant differences between the caregivers' and the college students' group means for total dial changes, correct and incorrect recognitions, correct and incorrect responses to silence excerpts, and reaction times. The mean scores of these 2 groups were combined and compared with the mean scores of the group of elderly adults with cognitive impairments. The mean total dial changes were significantly lower for the listeners with cognitive impairments, resulting in significant differences in all of the other response categories except incorrect recognitions. In addition, their mean absence of response to silence excerpts was significantly higher than their mean absence of responding to music excerpts. Their mean reaction time was significantly slower than the comparison group's reaction time. To evaluate training effects, 10 of the original 12 music therapy participants repeated the listening task with assistance from the therapist (treatment) immediately following the first listening (baseline). A week later the order was reversed for the 2 listening trials. Statistical and graphic analysis of responses between first and second baseline responses indicate significant improvement in responses to silence and music excerpts over the 2 sessions. Applications of the findings to music listening interventions for maintaining attention, eliciting social interaction between clients or caregivers and their patients, and evaluating this population's affective responses to music are discussed. PMID:12597728

Gregory, Dianne

2002-01-01

268

Social media and social reality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social Media provide an exciting and novel view into social phenomena. The vast amounts of data that can be gathered from the Internet coupled with massively parallel supercomputers such as the Cray XMT open new vistas for research. Conclusions drawn from such analysis must recognize that social media are distinct from the underlying social reality. Rigorous validation is essential. This

William N. Reynolds; Marta S. Weber; Robert M. Farber; Courtney D. Corley; Andrew J. Cowell; Michelle L. Gregory

2010-01-01

269

A General Evaluation Criteria for Web Applications Maintainability Models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many World Wide Web applications incorporate important business assets and offer a convenient way for businesses to promote their services through the Internet. Many of these Web applications evolved from simple HTML pages to complex applications which are difficult to maintain. Several maintainability models have been proposed for measuring the maintainability of Web applications. It is difficult to choose between

Emad Ghosheh; Sue Black; Jihad Qaddour

2008-01-01

270

49 CFR 40.111 - When and how must a laboratory disclose statistical summaries and other information it maintains?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...statistical summaries and other information it maintains? 40.111 Section 40.111...statistical summaries and other information it maintains? (a) As a laboratory...In order to avoid sending data from which it is likely that information about an...

2011-10-01

271

Social network and addiction.  

PubMed

In recent decades, the rapid development of innovative Internet-based communication technologies created a new field of academic study among scholars. Particularly, the attention of researchers is focusing on new ways to form relationship-thought social web. Social Network sites constitute a new form of web communities, where people meet and share interests and activities. Due to exponential growth of these sites, an increasing number of scholars are beginning to study the emergent phenomena in order to identify any psychopathological risk related to use of social web, such as addiction. This article examines the recent literature about this issue. PMID:19592725

La Barbera, Daniele; La Paglia, Filippo; Valsavoia, Rosaria

2009-01-01

272

Role Sequencing: Does Order Matter for Mental Health??  

Microsoft Academic Search

Role sequencing refers to the ordering of social roles. According to the normative order hypothesis, adults who follow a certain sequencing of their social roles will be better adjusted than their peers who follow other life course patterns. The normative order is defined as first entering the paid labor force, getting married, and later having children. This study tests this

Pamela Braboy Jackson

2004-01-01

273

Social influence: compliance and conformity.  

PubMed

This review covers recent developments in the social influence literature, focusing primarily on compliance and conformity research published between 1997 and 2002. The principles and processes underlying a target's susceptibility to outside influences are considered in light of three goals fundamental to rewarding human functioning. Specifically, targets are motivated to form accurate perceptions of reality and react accordingly, to develop and preserve meaningful social relationships, and to maintain a favorable self-concept. Consistent with the current movement in compliance and conformity research, this review emphasizes the ways in which these goals interact with external forces to engender social influence processes that are subtle, indirect, and outside of awareness. PMID:14744228

Cialdini, Robert B; Goldstein, Noah J

2004-01-01

274

Accessibility Testing of Social Websites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is no doubt that social websites have become one of the greatest inventions of the twenty-first century. Maintaining social connections, getting new and new friends, online entertainment: these are the very things we expect a good portal to provide. The concept of the social websites is that upon registration users share a desired amount of personal data with other users and after that they build a so called friend network using their acquaintances as building elements. The more acquaintances are present the more information is accessible during a certain period of time.

Lányi, Cecilia Sik

275

Maintaining the Professionalism of the U.S. Army Officer Corps.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In order to maintain status as a profession, any group of people practicing a specific line of work must ensure they continue to meet the requirements associated with the definition of a profession. In recent years, the U.S. Army has instituted policies a...

C. T. Climer

2010-01-01

276

A Sampling-Based Motion Planning Approach to Maintain Visibility of Unpredictable Targets  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with the surveillance problem of computing the motions of one or more robot observers in order to maintain visibility of one or several moving targets. The targets are assumed to move unpredictably, and the distribution of obstacles in the workspace is assumed to be known in advance. Our algorithm computes a motion strategy by maximizing the shortest

Rafael Murrieta-cid; Benjamín Tovar; Seth Hutchinson

2005-01-01

277

Maintaining Perspective on Who Is The Enemy in the Security Systems Administration of Computer Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human operators in security systems administration of large and complex networks have the difficult task of maintaining the integrity of operations and network service availability while a multitude of organizationa l users accidentally misconfigure, misuse, and break software and hardware. This is also a position where adversaries actively try to avoid detection and circumvent protection in order to maliciously misconfigure,

William Yurcik; James Barlow; Jeff Rosendale

2003-01-01

278

Evaluation of the Rate of Problem Behavior Maintained by Different Reinforcers across Preference Assessments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The rates of problem behavior maintained by different reinforcers were evaluated across 3 preference assessment formats (i.e., paired stimulus, multiple-stimulus without replacement, and free operant). The experimenter administered each assessment format 5 times in a random order for 7 children with developmental disabilities whose problem…

Kang, Soyeon; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Fragale, Christina L.; Aguilar, Jeannie M.; Rispoli, Mandy; Lang, Russell

2011-01-01

279

Social Phobia  

MedlinePLUS

... that it prevents them from speaking up or socializing most of the time, it's probably more than ... A shy child who watches this learns that socializing is uncomfortable, distressing, and something to avoid. Life ...

280

Social Math in the History Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Maintains that during the 1970s educators attempted to integrate mathematics instruction into the social studies curriculum but generally were unsuccessful. Contends that spreadsheets provide new opportunities to make the natural connections between mathematics and the social studies, particularly history. (CFR)|

Hollister, Bernard C.

1995-01-01

281

Finding influential seed successors in social networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a dynamic social network, nodes can be removed from the network for some reasons, and consequently affect the behaviors of the network. In this paper, we tackle the challenge of finding a successor node for each removed seed node to maintain the influence spread in the network. Given a social network and a set of seed nodes for influence

Cheng-Te Li; Hsun-Ping Hsieh; Shou-De Lin; Man-Kwan Shan

2012-01-01

282

Social Studies Within A Global Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Maintains that the extraordinary privileges and responsibilities attached to contemporary and future United States citizenship demands a more global approach to social studies. Proposes four essential elements and three major themes to set the boundary for the scope of the social studies. Provides an illustrative example of appropriate grade…

Kniep, Willard M.

1986-01-01

283

The Sociological Imagination and Social Responsibility  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this paper, we maintain that sociologists should deliberately teach social responsibility as a means of fulfilling the promise that C. Wright Mills envisioned. A key aspect of the sociological imagination includes a sense of social responsibility, but that aspect is best learned through a combination of experience and academic knowledge.…

Hironimus-Wendt, Robert J.; Wallace, Lora Ebert

2009-01-01

284

Problems and prospects for the social support-reactivity hypothesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social support and integration have been linked to health and longevity in many correlational studies. To explain how social\\u000a relationship might enhance health, investigators are examining the effects of social support on physiological processes implicated\\u000a in disease. Much of this research focuses on testing the social support-reactivity hypothesis, which maintains that social\\u000a support enhances health by reducing psychobiologic reactivity to

Stephen J. Lepore

1998-01-01

285

Social Work in Pediatric Oncology  

Microsoft Academic Search

When a child is diagnosed with cancer, the family is confronted with meeting both the physical and psychosocial needs of the child and maintaining normal family functioning. This study assessed the perceived psychosocial needs of 77 families who have a child diagnosed with cancer. Preliminary results suggest practical application for social work interventions in specific areas such as the development

Glenn Shields; Connie Schondel; Leslie Barnhart; Vanessa Fitzpatrick; Nancy Sidell; Peggy Adams; Brenda Fertig; Sheila Gomez

1995-01-01

286

Boosting Social and Emotional Competence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Beland maintains that high school students will need a high level of skill in the social and emotional arena to be ready for competitive employment in the 21st century. In a 2006 survey, human resource professionals said five skills were most crucial to high school graduates' success: professionalism/work ethic; teamwork; oral communications;…

Beland, Kathy

2007-01-01

287

Political Equilibria with Social Security  

Microsoft Academic Search

We model pay-as-you-go social security systems as the outcome of majority voting within a overlapping generations model with production. When voting, individuals make two choices, pay the elderly their pensions or default, which amount to promise themselves next period. Under general circumstances, there exist equilibria where pensions are voted into existence and maintained. Our analysis uncovers two reasons for this.

Michele Boldrin; Aldo Rustichini

2000-01-01

288

Social Networking: Keeping It Clean  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The need to maintain an unpolluted learning environment is no easy task for schools and districts that have incorporated social networking sites into their educational life. The staff and teachers at Blaine High School in Minnesota's Anoka-Hennepin District 11 had been considering the pros and cons of establishing a school Facebook page when the…

Waters, John K.

2011-01-01

289

Predictors of hospital admission for women with learning disabilities and psychiatric disorders compared with women maintained in community settings  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the personal characteristics and social context of two groups of women with learning disabilities and psychiatric disorders who resided in some form of community residential facility. One group of women had been admitted to hospital in the past 12 months (N = 20) and the other had been maintained in the community without any admissions (N =

Laurence Taggart; R McMillan; Annette Lawson

2009-01-01

290

Social Welfare  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although it is commonly agreed that social welfare ideas and philosophies emanate from many faith traditions, the complex\\u000a link between religion and social welfare merits careful examination. Prowelfare values only set the overall social expectations;\\u000a they do not create formal social welfare programs. Helping the needy can range from a one-time help for a known neighbor to\\u000a the establishment of

Ram A. Cnaan; Charlene C. McGrew

291

Social Anxiety Disorder (Social Phobia)  

MedlinePLUS

... phobia, everyday interactions cause irrational anxiety, fear, self-consciousness and embarrassment. Social anxiety disorder is a chronic ... other health conditions can increase feelings of self-consciousness and may trigger social anxiety disorder in some ...

292

Social Mobility and Social Participation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Examines data related to social mobility and social participation of Americans. Topics include educational and occupational mobility; voting; volunteer work; charitable giving; community participation; views on religion; and anomie. For journal availability, see SO 506 144. (Author/DB)|

Sewell, William H.

1978-01-01

293

Review essay \\/ What kind of order?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bernard E. Harcourt, Illusion of Order: The False Promise of Broken Windows Policing Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2001, x + 294 pp.David Garland, The Culture of Control: Crime and Social Order in Contemporary Society Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2001, xiii + 307 pp.Andrea McArdle and Tanya Erzen (eds.), Zero Tolerance: Quality of Life and the New Police Brutality

Robert Jackall

2003-01-01

294

Understanding and Enabling Online Social Networks to Support Healthy Behaviors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent advances in digital technologies invite consideration of social influence and social support as processes that are accomplished by global, flexible, adaptive, and ad hoc networks that can be created, maintained, dissolved, and reconstituted with remarkable alacrity. This presentation describes and empirically tests a multi-theoretical multilevel (MTML) model of the socio-technical motivations for creating, maintaining, dissolving, and reconstituting knowledge and social networks.

Contractor, Noshir

295

Social capital and social economics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The “discovery” of social capital in the early 1990s led to an upsurge of research into the economic impact of social cohesion\\u000a and governmental effectiveness. This paper outlines key developments in the social capital literature over the past 13 years.\\u000a It then examines theory and evidence of the links between social cohesion, quality of governance, economic performance and\\u000a human welfare.

Paul Killerby; Joe Wallis

2002-01-01

296

Encouraging Research in Social Work: Narrative as the Thread Integrating Education and Research in Social Work  

Microsoft Academic Search

The call for more research-based practice is universal as all the social science professions look to bring research into the forefront. Social work research must be seamlessly integrated into social work education in order to adequately address trends in evidence-based practice. International trends call for research to be seamlessly integrated with teaching and learning, so that social work practitioners and

Joan Phillips; Denise MacGiollaRi; Sue Callaghan

2012-01-01

297

Toward a Methodology for Conducting Social Impact Assessments Using Quality of Social Life Indicators.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Broadly conceived, social impacts refer to all changes in the structure and functioning of patterned social ordering that occur in conjunction with an environmental, technological, or social innovation or alteration. Departing from the usual cost-benefit analysis approach, a new methodology proposes conducting social impact assessment grounded in…

Olsen, Marvin E.; Merwin, Donna J.

298

Description of a haptic system for virtual maintainability in aeronautics  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a haptic system for maintainability simulation in aeronautics, called REVIMA (Virtual Reality for Maintainability). In this project a software-hardware tool is designed and built to realistically simulate assembly-disassembly operations. It also helps to perform accessibility, interference and maintainability analysis by using virtual reality techniques without physical mock-ups. The system gives the user a reliable and realistic response.

J. Savall; Diego Borro; Jorge J. Gil; L. Matey

2002-01-01

299

Maintainability design and evaluation of mechanical systems based on tribology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Maintainability of mechanical systems based on tribology is suggested and evaluated in this paper. Tribo-features of mechanical systems, which characterise maintainability are identified and are modelled in terms of tribo-maintainability digraph. The nodes in the digraph represent the tribo-features and edges represent the degree of influence among the features. A matrix, one to one representation of the digraph, is defined

M. F. Wani; O. P. Gandhi

2002-01-01

300

Social facilitation with social robots?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Regarding the future usage of social robots in workplace scenarios, we addressed the question of potential mere robotic presence effects on human performance. Applying the experimental social facilitation paradigm in social robotics, we compared task performance of 106 participants on easy and complex cognitive and motoric tasks across three presence groups (alone vs. human present vs. robot present). Results revealed

Nina Riether; Frank Hegel; Britta Wrede; Gernot Horstmann

2012-01-01

301

Maintaining group memberships: Social identity continuity predicts well-being after stroke  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey study of patients recovering from stroke (N = 53) examined the extent to which belonging to multiple groups prior to stroke and the maintenance of those group memberships (as measured by the Exeter Identity Transitions Scales, EXITS) predicted well-being after stroke. Results of correlation analysis showed that life satisfaction was associated both with multiple group memberships prior to

Catherine Haslam; Abigail Holme; S. Alexander Haslam; Aarti Iyer; Jolanda Jetten; W. Huw Williams

2008-01-01

302

Variable-time reinforcement schedules in the treatment of socially maintained problem behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

Noncontingent reinforcement (NCR) consists of delivering a reinforcer on a time-based schedule, independent of responding. Studies evaluating the effectiveness of NCR as treatment for problem behavior have used fixed-time (FT) schedules of reinforcement. In this study, the efficacy of NCR with variable-time (VT) schedules was evaluated by comparing the effects of VT and FT reinforcement schedules with 2 individuals who

CAROLE M. VAN CAMP; D C Lerman; M ICHAEL E. KELLEY; S A Contrucci; C M Vorndran

2000-01-01

303

Variable-Time Reinforcement Schedules in the Treatment of Socially Maintained Problem Behavior.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The efficacy of noncontingent reinforcement with variable-time (VT) schedules was evaluated by comparing the effects of VT and fixed-time (FT) reinforcement schedules with two individuals with moderate to severe mental retardation and severe behavior problems. Both VT and FT schedules were effective in reducing problem behavior. (Contains…

Van Camp, Carole M.; Lerman, Dorothea C.; Kelley, Michael E.; Contrucci, Stephanie A.; Vorndran, Christina M.

2000-01-01

304

Electronic and face-to-face communication in maintaining social relationships  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the spectacular spread of wired and wireless communication technologies\\u000asuch as the Internet and mobile phone have been discussed extensively in the academic\\u000aliterature, knowledge of the interactions among face-to-face (F2F) and electronic\\u000acommunication modes and their implications for travel behavior is rather limited. The\\u000asame is true for knowledge about factors influencing the choice for these types of

T. Tillema; M. J. Dijst; T. Schwanen

2007-01-01

305

Maintaining Transnational Social Fields: The Role of Visits to Bangladesh for British Bangladeshi Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

The visit is a key experience in the socialisation of British Bangladeshi children. It is an emotional and sensory rollercoaster for children which challenges and confirms their sense of who they are. For, while they enjoy some aspects of the visit, they find others deeply unsettling. Visits to Sylhet in Bangladesh give children a lasting lesson in both Sylheti beliefs

Benjamin Zeitlyn

2012-01-01

306

Interactive Calendar to Help Maintain Social Interactions for Elderly People and People with Mild Cognitive Impairments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Today’s societies are very different from those of the past. The proportion of elderly people is growing steadily and has\\u000a reached highs never reached before. Cases of dementia have also risen as the population gets older. Family members often live\\u000a far apart and it is not unusual for them to be scattered in more than one country or continent. Memory

Céline Descheneaux; Hélène Pigot

2009-01-01

307

Negotiating Social Identity When Contexts Change: Maintaining Identification and Responding to Threat  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of change in context on identity maintenance, the implications of maintenance efforts for group identification, and the effects of perceived threats to identity on self-esteem associated with group membership are examined in a longitudinal study of Hispanic students during their 1st year at predominately Anglo universities. Whereas ethnic identity is initially linked to the strength of the students’

Kathleen A. Ethier; Kay Deaux

1994-01-01

308

Negotiating social identity when contexts change: Maintaining identification and responding to threat  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of change in context on identity maintenance, the implications of maintenance efforts for group identification, and the effects of perceived threats to identity on self-esteem associated with group membership are examined in a longitudinal study of Hispanic students during their 1st year at predominately Anglo universities. Whereas ethnic identity is initially linked to the strength of the students'

Kathleen A. Ethier; Kay Deaux

1994-01-01

309

EVALUATION OF THE RATE OF PROBLEM BEHAVIOR MAINTAINED BY DIFFERENT REINFORCERS ACROSS PREFERENCE ASSESSMENTS  

PubMed Central

The rates of problem behavior maintained by different reinforcers were evaluated across 3 preference assessment formats (i.e., paired stimulus, multiple-stimulus without replacement, and free operant). The experimenter administered each assessment format 5 times in a random order for 7 children with developmental disabilities whose problem behavior was maintained by attention, tangible items, or escape. Results demonstrated different effects related to the occurrence of problem behavior, suggesting an interaction between function of problem behavior and assessment format. Implications for practitioners are discussed with respect to assessing preferences of individuals with developmental disabilities who exhibit problem behavior.

Kang, Soyeon; O'Reilly, Mark F; Fragale, Christina L; Aguilar, Jeannie M; Rispoli, Mandy; Lang, Russell

2011-01-01

310

Anti-Oppressive Research in Social Work: A Preliminary Definition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary In comparison with other helping professions, social work claims to embrace a very dis- tinctive mission: to oppose the roots and effects of social oppression. This article exam- ines social work research from an anti-oppressive social work perspective. It argues that in order to match the liberating mission of the profession, social work research should defy the dominant traditions

Roni Strier

2006-01-01

311

Sequence in the Social Studies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Quality sequence in the social studies is of utmost importance. Sequence emphasizes "when" selected concepts should be stressed in ongoing lessons and units of study. The social studies teacher needs to observe pupils carefully in teaching and learning situations to ascertain suitable, ordered experiences for pupils. Pupils face frustration if the…

Ediger, Marlow

2010-01-01

312

Social networks and vaccination decisions  

Microsoft Academic Search

We combine information on social networks with medical records and survey data in order to examine how friends affect one’s decision to get vaccinated against the flu. The random assignment of undergraduates to residential halls at a large private university allows us to estimate how peer effects influence health beliefs and vaccination choices. Our results indicate that social exposure to

Neel Rao; Markus M. Möbius; Tanya Rosenblat

2007-01-01

313

Perceptions of Human Services Students about Social Change Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Human services educators and scholars maintain that they are teaching social change theory and skills that will allow students to engage in large-scale social change. A review of the literature, from a critical theory perspective, offered little evidence that social change is being taught in human services programs. In this collective case study,…

Herzberg, Judith T.

2010-01-01

314

Dangerous knowledge? The self?subversion of social deviance theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some sociological theories yield self?subverting or ‘dangerous’ knowledge. The functionalist theory of social deviance provides a case in point. The theory, first formulated by Durkheim, maintains that ostensibly anti?social deviants perform a number of socially indispensable functions. But what would happen if everyone knew this? They would cease to regard deviants as malefactors and would indeed come to esteem them

Terence Ball

1980-01-01

315

Social Effectiveness Therapy for Children: Five Years Later  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Social Effectiveness Therapy for Children (SET-C) is a comprehensive behavioral treatment combining social skills training, peer generalization experiences, and individualized in vivo exposure for the treatment of social phobia in youth. SET-C results in positive treatment outcome and its effects are maintained at least 3 years later. In this…

Beidel, Deborah C.; Turner, Samuel M.; Young, Brennan J.

2006-01-01

316

Experimental field studies of Asian ape social systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Asian apes, orangutans and gibbons, possess unusual social systems among anthropoid primates. Social groups of gibbons consist of mated adult pairs and their offspring; mature orangutans are primarily solitary. Recent experimental field research has begun to yield insights into the behavioral mechanisms employed by these animals to maintain their characteristic patterns of social dispersion. While spatial separation between female

John C. Mitani

1990-01-01

317

Neuropeptidergic regulation of affiliative behavior and social bonding in animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social relationships are essential for maintaining human mental health, yet little is known about the brain mechanisms involved in the development and maintenance of social bonds. Animal models are powerful tools for investigating the neurobiological mechanisms regulating the cognitive processes leading to the development of social relationships and for potentially extending our understanding of the human condition. In this review,

Miranda M. Lim; Larry J. Young

2006-01-01

318

Favoritism Under Social Pressure  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is concerned with the effect of nonmonetary incentives on behavior, in particular with the study of social pressure as a determinant of corruption. We offer empirical evidence that shows how professional soccer referees favor home teams in order to satisfy the crowds in the stadium. Referees have discretion over the addition of extra time at the end of

Luis Garicano; Ignacio Palacios-Huerta; Canice Prendergast

2005-01-01

319

Social capital contested  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose in this paper is to specify certain basic ways of conceptualising social capital (SC) in order to bring out the contested character of it. The paper starts by touching on the origins of the concept. This is followed by a critical overview of the views of P. Bourdieu, J.S. Coleman, A. Portes and R. Putnam, and an attempt

Sokratis M. Koniordos

2008-01-01

320

What's social about social learning?  

PubMed

Research on social learning in animals has revealed a rich variety of cases where animals--from caddis fly larvae to chimpanzees--acquire biologically important information by observing the actions of others. A great deal is known about the adaptive functions of social learning, but very little about the cognitive mechanisms that make it possible. Even in the case of imitation, a type of social learning studied in both comparative psychology and cognitive science, there has been minimal contact between the two disciplines. Social learning has been isolated from cognitive science by two longstanding assumptions: that it depends on a set of special-purpose modules--cognitive adaptations for social living; and that these learning mechanisms are largely distinct from the processes mediating human social cognition. Recent research challenges these assumptions by showing that social learning covaries with asocial learning; occurs in solitary animals; and exhibits the same features in diverse species, including humans. Drawing on this evidence, I argue that social and asocial learning depend on the same basic learning mechanisms; these are adapted for the detection of predictive relationships in all natural domains; and they are associative mechanisms--processes that encode information for long-term storage by forging excitatory and inhibitory links between event representations. Thus, human and nonhuman social learning are continuous, and social learning is adaptively specialized--it becomes distinctively "social"--only when input mechanisms (perceptual, attentional, and motivational processes) are phylogenetically or ontogenetically tuned to other agents. PMID:21895355

Heyes, Cecilia

2011-09-05

321

Social Ferment and School Finance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes the nature of contemporary society in terms of gross or general changes observed during the past twenty years in order to consider possible breakthroughs of school finance as products of social ferment. (Author/AN)|

Hack, Walter G.

1972-01-01

322

Social Ferment and School Finance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the nature of contemporary society in terms of gross or general changes observed during the past twenty years in order to consider possible breakthroughs of school finance as products of social ferment. (Author/AN)

Hack, Walter G.

1972-01-01

323

Road socialism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Road socialists maintain that government is the best manager for the nation's vehicular transportation arteries. Contrary to their views, the present author maintains that the managerial role can best be fulfilled by private entrepreneurs. Under highway privatization, he claims, traffic fatalities and automobile congestion will be sharply reduced.

Walter Block

1996-01-01

324

Social Administration, Social Policy and Socialism  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper develops from the marxist critique of social policy under capitalism a speculative picture of socialist social policy. It draws its ideas from:(a) socialist theory of the state, human nature, family life, and the relationship between need and resources(b) 'socialist' countries such as Russia and Cuba(c) struggles about welfare policies under capitalism.It attempts to answer a number of questions

Bob Deacon

1981-01-01

325

First Order Paths in Ordered Trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

We give two sucient conditions on XPath like languages for having first order expressivity, meaning that every first order defin- able set of paths in an ordered node-labeled tree is definable in that XPath language. They are phrased in terms of expansions of naviga- tional (sometimes called \\

Maarten Marx

2005-01-01

326

Maintaining safe electrical work practices in a competitive environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Worldwide competitive pressures have forced engineering and construction organizations to face increased workloads using fewer experienced personnel. Significant organizational and individual effort is required to maintain high standards of electrical safety in this climate. In addition, there is recent increased recognition of hazards from electrical high-energy sources. The efforts of one corporation to maintain electrical safety performance are described. Basic

Richard L. Doughty; Richard A. Epperly; Ray A. Jones

1992-01-01

327

Challenges to situated morality: Maintaining respectability in a sexual rendezvous  

Microsoft Academic Search

A clandestine motel operation is described, concentrating upon the staff and patrons as they attempt to maintain respectability within a context of situated morality that is shifting, challenging previously negotiated realities. The staff members tend toward a refulgent respectability, using vocabularies of denial to maintain respectability. Patrons, categorized as regular customers, special customers, careful people and problem people, may seek

J. Robert Lilly; Richard A. Ball

1980-01-01

328

Use of genetic algorithm for software maintainability metrics' conditioning  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cost of software maintenance phase has always been a crucial issue for software project managers. With increasing complexity of modern software, there is an increased demand of measurement tools for software maintainability, so that it can be estimated in early phases of the project development and corrective measures can be initiated to make it more manageable and maintainable. The

Surender Singh Dahiya; Jitender Kumar Chhabra; Shakti Kumar

2007-01-01

329

Facilitating and maintaining research access into ethnic minority firms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to address the cultural challenges of gaining and maintaining qualitative research access into ethnic small firms. In particular, it evaluates the influence of cultural affinity – between researchers and business owners – on gaining and maintaining access into ethnic minority owned firms. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – This paper reflects on the experiences of facilitating

Levent Altinay; Catherine L. Wang

2009-01-01

330

Species interaction mechanisms maintain grassland plant species diversity  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Theory has outpaced empirical research in pursuit of identifying mechanisms maintaining species diversity. Here we demonstrate how data from diversity-ecosystem functioning experiments can be used to test maintenance of diversity theory. We predict that grassland plant diversity can be maintained by...

331

Object Representations Maintain Attentional Control Settings across Space and Time  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Previous research has revealed that we create and maintain mental representations for perceived objects on the basis of their spatiotemporal continuity. An important question is what type of information can be maintained within these so-called object files. We provide evidence that object files retain specific attentional control settings for…

Schreij, Daniel; Olivers, Christian N. L.

2009-01-01

332

Intentioned Network Convergence: How Social Media is Redefining, Reorganizing, and Revitalizing Social Movements in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

This analysis seeks to understand the power of social media to create sustainable social movements. The 1999 World Trade Organization protests in Seattle were one of the first internet-supported acts of protest and illustrate the power of the Internet and social media to bring together diverse coalitions of actors and maintain decentralized power structures. Next, the analysis studies the non-profit

Jesse Janice Klekamp

2012-01-01

333

Social isolation  

PubMed Central

Social species, by definition, form organizations that extend beyond the individual. These structures evolved hand in hand with behavioral, neural, hormonal, cellular, and genetic mechanisms to support them because the consequent social behaviors helped these organisms survive, reproduce, and care for offspring sufficiently long that they too reproduced. Social isolation represents a lens through which to investigate these behavioral, neural, hormonal, cellular, and genetic mechanisms. Evidence from human and nonhuman animal studies indicates that isolation heightens sensitivity to social threats (predator evasion) and motivates the renewal of social connections. The effects of perceived isolation in humans share much in common with the effects of experimental manipulations of isolation in nonhuman social species: increased tonic sympathetic tonus and HPA activation, and decreased inflammatory control, immunity, sleep salubrity, and expression of genes regulating glucocorticoid responses. Together, these effects contribute to higher rates of morbidity and mortality in older adults.

Cacioppo, John T.; Hawkley, Louise C.; Norman, Greg J.; Berntson, Gary G.

2011-01-01

334

Effects of presession attention on the frequency of attention-maintained behavior.  

PubMed Central

The effect of prior attention was systematically manipulated to study its influence on rates of yelling and head hitting, both maintained by positive reinforcement in the form of attention. Higher levels of head hitting occurred in analogue attention conditions when the person was deprived of attention (no social interactions for 1 hr) prior to the analysis in comparison to when the person received high levels of attention (attention delivered on a fixed-time 30-s schedule for 1 hr) prior to the analysis.

O'Reilly, M F

1999-01-01

335

A comparative analysis of the effects of social skill training and teacher-directed contingencies on social behavior of preschool children with disabilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the effects of an analog social skill training program and a teacher-directed contingency strategy on promoting social responding among four preschool children with mild disabilities and their peers. The social skill training program consisted of five lessons targeting the skill areas: Initiating, responding, and maintaining social interactions. The teacher directed contingency consisted of prompting target children when

Timothy J. Lewis

1994-01-01

336

Social Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

A society is characterized by the common attitudes and behavior of its members. Such behavior reflects purposive decision making by individuals, given the environment they live in. Thus, as technology changes, so might social norms. There were big changes in social norms during the 20th century, especially in sexual mores. In 1900 only six percent of unwed females engaged in

Jeremy Greenwood; Nezih Guner

2008-01-01

337

Social Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Society is characterized by the common attitudes and behaviour of its members. Such behaviour reflects purposive decision making by individuals, given the environment they live in. Thus, as technology changes, so might social norms. There were big changes in social norms during the 20th Century, especially in sexual mores. In 1900 only six percent of unwed females engaged in premarital

Jeremy Greenwoodyand Nezih Gunerz; Nezih Guner

1964-01-01

338

Social Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Society is characterized by the common attitudes and behaviour of its members. Such behaviour reflects purposive decision making by individuals, given the environment they live in. Thus, as technology changes, so might social norms. There were big changes in social norms during the 20th Century, especially in sexual mores. In 1900 only six percent of unwed females engaged in premarital

Jeremy Greenwood; Nezih Guner

2007-01-01

339

Social Revolution  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

MySpace and Facebook may have been pioneers in the world of social software, but nowadays, colleges and universities across the country are embracing better and more targeted forms of technology, to enable their campus users to interact. Today, the world of social software includes traditional venues and formats: (1) blogs; (2) wikis; and (3)…

Villano, Matt

2007-01-01

340

Extracting Regular Behaviors from Social Media Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social media network analysis has become very popular in recent years. How do real networks evolve over time? What are the normal evolving behaviors in a social media network? In order to extract behaviors occurring regularly to reveal the microscopic evolving properties in social networks, the evolving process of networks is modeled as stochastic states transition, and the evolving behaviors

Leiming Yan; Jinwei Wang

2011-01-01

341

Ethnic sensitivity: A challenge for social work  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethnicity is becoming a recognizable constituent of social work which is shown also in its growing integration in the education programme in social work, as in Slovenia. In order to break the historical silence and the neutral or passive attitude to ethnic differences it is necessary to fight for institutional changes in social work and the transcendence of institutional, cultural

Špela Urh

2011-01-01

342

Social Engineering Program to promote civilization process  

Microsoft Academic Search

COPEC-OPASS educational program design team has designed an engineering program with the objective to form engineers to act in more effective and accurate ways in order to solve social problems and avoid future ones. It is a social engineering program, under graduation, five years duration, full time students, it is based on the humanities and social sciences such as philosophy,

Melany M. Ciampi; Claudio da Rocha Brito

2008-01-01

343

Group Modeling in Social Learning Environments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students' collaboration while learning could provide better learning environments. Collaboration assumes social interactions which occur in student groups. Social theories emphasize positive influence of such interactions on learning. In order to create an appropriate learning environment that enables social interactions, it is important to…

Stankov, Slavomir; Glavinic, Vlado; Krpan, Divna

2012-01-01

344

Navigation Patterns from and to Social Media  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the rapid rise of social media content, the question how people navigate to and from social media becomes im- portant in order to understand what new tools and approach- es are most beneficial to allow users to discover and interact with this social media data. In this study we analyze session log data to describe navigation patterns involving these

Michael Gamon; Arnd Christian König

2009-01-01

345

Group Modeling in Social Learning Environments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Students' collaboration while learning could provide better learning environments. Collaboration assumes social interactions which occur in student groups. Social theories emphasize positive influence of such interactions on learning. In order to create an appropriate learning environment that enables social interactions, it is important to…

Stankov, Slavomir; Glavinic, Vlado; Krpan, Divna

2012-01-01

346

Spreading the honey: a system for maintaining an online community  

Microsoft Academic Search

As online communities, such as social network sites, mature, they face challenges in sustaining user engagement. To address this, we designed and deployed a rating system to encourage a broad set of users to promote a diverse set of content on a social network site. By evaluating the impact of the promotions on the site's content and users over time,

Rosta Farzan; Joan Morris Dimicco; Beth Brownholtz

2009-01-01

347

Optical properties of near-elliptical core polarization-maintaining photonic crystal fiber  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The optical properties of near elliptical core polarization maintaining photonic crystal fiber are analyzed by using a full vector model. We classify guided modes in the near elliptical core photonic crystal fibers (PCFs) according to the minimum waveguide sectors and its appropriate boundary conditions. Because the field patterns of the near elliptical core PCF is similar to that of rectangular waveguide, the guided modes are labeled in this PCF in the same way as in rectangular waveguide. The numerical results exhibit that the modal birefringence of elliptical core PCF is at least one order of magnitude higher than the conventional elliptical polarization-maintaining fibers (PMF). Zero walkoff point occur at the longer wavelength than that of convention elliptical PMF. This can restrain the first order polarization mode dispersion. This fiber has a number of potential applications in polarization control and management.

Lou, Shuqin; Ren, Guobin; Yan, Fengping; Jian, Shuisheng

2005-01-01

348

Social mix policies in Paris: discourses, policies and social effects.  

PubMed

Since the 1980s, the issue of social mix has become a public policy category in France. Enshrined in legislation, yet remaining controversial, it represents a major premise on which housing policies have been reconfigured. The concept of social mix is essentially based on who lives where, but it is also evoked in the context of urban renewal schemes for social housing estates, as well as in relation to new-build developments. A study of the bases of social mix policies conducted in Paris since 2001 in the context of the embourgeoisement of the capital shows the fundamental role of social housing stock. The City Council has become involved in policy decisions about both the location and the allocation of social housing. Particular attention has been paid to the middle classes in the name of the principle of ‘balancing the population’. In order to measure the effects of the policy, this article relies on an analysis of two City of Paris schemes that have the stated intent of creating social mix. One of these schemes consists of redeveloping a working-class neighbourhood, Goutte d'Or, while the other involves the new acquisition of social housing in various more affluent neighbourhoods in the capital. This comparative study of the population shows that, whether in a neighbourhood poised for gentrification or in a more affluent neighbourhood, this policy has major effects on forms of local social cohesion, setting in motion individual trajectories and reshaping social and/or ethnic identities. PMID:21542203

Bacqué, Marie-Hélène; Fijalkow, Yankel; Launay, Lydie; Vermeersch, Stéphanie

2011-01-01

349

Assessment of Social Interaction Behaviors  

PubMed Central

Social interactions are a fundamental and adaptive component of the biology of numerous species. Social recognition is critical for the structure and stability of the networks and relationships that define societies. For animals, such as mice, recognition of conspecifics may be important for maintaining social hierarchy and for mate choice 1. A variety of neuropsychiatric disorders are characterized by disruptions in social behavior and social recognition, including depression, autism spectrum disorders, bipolar disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorders, and schizophrenia. Studies of humans as well as animal models (e.g., Drosophila melanogaster, Caenorhabditis elegans, Mus musculus, Rattus norvegicus) have identified genes involved in the regulation of social behavior 2. To assess sociability in animal models, several behavioral tests have been developed (reviewed in 3). Integrative research using animal models and appropriate tests for social behavior may lead to the development of improved treatments for social psychopathologies. The three-chamber paradigm test known as Crawley's sociability and preference for social novelty protocol has been successfully employed to study social affiliation and social memory in several inbred and mutant mouse lines (e.g. 4-7). The main principle of this test is based on the free choice by a subject mouse to spend time in any of three box's compartments during two experimental sessions, including indirect contact with one or two mice with which it is unfamiliar. To quantitate social tendencies of the experimental mouse, the main tasks are to measure a) the time spent with a novel conspecific and b) preference for a novel vs. a familiar conspecific. Thus, the experimental design of this test allows evaluation of two critical but distinguishable aspects of social behavior, such as social affiliation/motivation, as well as social memory and novelty. "Sociability" in this case is defined as propensity to spend time with another mouse, as compared to time spent alone in an identical but empty chamber 7. "Preference for social novelty" is defined as propensity to spend time with a previously unencountered mouse rather than with a familiar mouse 7. This test provides robust results, which then must be carefully analyzed, interpreted and supported/confirmed by alternative sociability tests. In addition to specific applications, Crawley's sociability test can be included as an important component of general behavioral screen of mutant mice.

Kaidanovich-Beilin, Oksana; Lipina, Tatiana; Vukobradovic, Igor; Roder, John; Woodgett, James R.

2011-01-01

350

Assessment of social interaction behaviors.  

PubMed

Social interactions are a fundamental and adaptive component of the biology of numerous species. Social recognition is critical for the structure and stability of the networks and relationships that define societies. For animals, such as mice, recognition of conspecifics may be important for maintaining social hierarchy and for mate choice. A variety of neuropsychiatric disorders are characterized by disruptions in social behavior and social recognition, including depression, autism spectrum disorders, bipolar disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorders, and schizophrenia. Studies of humans as well as animal models (e.g., Drosophila melanogaster, Caenorhabditis elegans, Mus musculus, Rattus norvegicus) have identified genes involved in the regulation of social behavior. To assess sociability in animal models, several behavioral tests have been developed (reviewed in (3)). Integrative research using animal models and appropriate tests for social behavior may lead to the development of improved treatments for social psychopathologies. The three-chamber paradigm test known as Crawley's sociability and preference for social novelty protocol has been successfully employed to study social affiliation and social memory in several inbred and mutant mouse lines (e.g. (4-7)). The main principle of this test is based on the free choice by a subject mouse to spend time in any of three box's compartments during two experimental sessions, including indirect contact with one or two mice with which it is unfamiliar. To quantitate social tendencies of the experimental mouse, the main tasks are to measure a) the time spent with a novel conspecific and b) preference for a novel vs. a familiar conspecific. Thus, the experimental design of this test allows evaluation of two critical but distinguishable aspects of social behavior, such as social affiliation/motivation, as well as social memory and novelty. "Sociability" in this case is defined as propensity to spend time with another mouse, as compared to time spent alone in an identical but empty chamber. "Preference for social novelty" is defined as propensity to spend time with a previously unencountered mouse rather than with a familiar mouse. This test provides robust results, which then must be carefully analyzed, interpreted and supported/confirmed by alternative sociability tests. In addition to specific applications, Crawley's sociability test can be included as an important component of general behavioral screen of mutant mice. PMID:21403628

Kaidanovich-Beilin, Oksana; Lipina, Tatiana; Vukobradovic, Igor; Roder, John; Woodgett, James R

2011-02-25

351

Circular to Rectangular Waveguide Transition Maintaining a Constant Cutoff Wavelength.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A circular to rectangular waveguide transition is describe. The transition maintains a constant cutoff wavelength equal to that of the fundamental wave (TE11) in circular waveguide. The parameters of the variable cross-section throughout the transition ar...

J. R. Pyle

2008-01-01

352

The Metabolic Cost of Maintaining Five Fixed Body Positions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The metabolic cost of maintaining five fixed body positions was studied by the methods of open calorimetry in healthy female subjects aged 20 to 29 years. Parameters obtained were oxygen uptake, heart rate, minute ventilation, vital capacity, and respirat...

R. T. McCarthy

1968-01-01

353

Maintaining Genome Stability: The Role of Helicases and Deaminases.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Both helicases and deaminases are enzymes that play an important role in maintaining genomic stability and immune responses. Errors in duplicating DNA can result in genomic instability, leading to various human diseases, such as cancer, immune system diso...

X. Chen

2008-01-01

354

27 CFR 555.125 - Records maintained by permittees.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...day following the date of disposition of surplus explosive materials to another permittee...maintain separate records of disposition of surplus stocks of explosive materials to nonlicensees...day following the date of disposition of surplus explosive materials to another...

2011-04-01

355

48 CFR 6.202 - Establishing or maintaining alternative sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...the supplies or services in case of a national emergency or industrial mobilization; (3) Be in the interest of national defense in establishing or maintaining an essential engineering, research, or development capability to be provided...

2011-10-01

356

OI Issues: Maintaining Health during the Adult Years  

MedlinePLUS

... Size | S S M M L L Bone Basics Osteoporosis Osteogenesis Imperfecta Paget?s Disease of Bone Related Topics News Glossary ... or is not supported by your browser. Home Osteogenesis Imperfecta Osteogenesis Imperfecta Basics OI Issues: Maintaining Health During ...

357

42 CFR 480.115 - Requirements for maintaining confidentiality.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...must provide reasonable physical security measures to prevent...responsibility for maintaining the system for assuring the confidentiality...within the QIO review system. That individual must...participants of the QIO review system in the proper...

2012-10-01

358

34 CFR 668.163 - Maintaining and accounting for funds.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION STUDENT ASSISTANCE GENERAL PROVISIONS Cash Management § 668.163 Maintaining...demonstrates by its cash management practices that it will not...Secretary under the just-in-time payment method....

2013-07-01

359

Social Psychology (Program Description)  

NSF Publications Database

... and Cognitive Sciences Social Psychology Description The Social Psychology Program at NSF ... emotion, social comparison and social influence, and the psychophysiological and neurophysiological ...

360

Social indicators.  

PubMed

The notions of social indicators and social accounting, expressed by analogy with the national economic accounts, generated excitement in the 1960's, and the interest continues to grow if we may judge from governmental activity and the publication of programmatic and research papers. But the concepts which focused much of the early enthusiasm gave exaggerated promise of policy applications and provided an unproductive basis for research. The essential theoretical prerequisites for developing a system of social accounts-defining the variables and the interrelationships among them-are missing. It is now realized that evaluation research, particularly experimentation, must be relied on for evaluation of government programs. Through the development and analysis of descriptive time series and the modeling of social processes, we will be able to describe the state of the society and its dynamics and thus improve immensely our ability to state problems in a productive fashion, obtain clues as to promising lines of endeavor, and ask good questions. But these activities cannot measure program effectiveness. Finally, we must be skeptical about definitions of the social indicators enterprise which confine it to social engineering efforts. The issue is not whether social indicators are useful for policy but, rather, how this usefulness comes about. The interest in social indicators has stimulated a revival of interest in quantitative, comparative, social analysis (60), in the analysis of social change, in conceptual and measurement work on such topics as prejudice, crime, and learning, and in the development of models of social processes. The fruit of these efforts will be more directly a contribution to the policy-maker's cognition than to his decisions. Decision emerges from a mosaic of inputs, including valuational and political, as well as technical components. The work we have described deals with only one type of input; it is a contribution to the intellectual mapping process which is essential if decisionmakers are to know what it is that has changed, and how the change has come about. The character of the scientific contribution will, of course, vary with the subject. Models of a few social processes, such as those pertaining to social mobility and population dynamics, are in varying degrees of development and application. But for many other areas, the appropriate question is not "How does it work?" but "How has it changed?" And for still others, the question is "What is it?" The work of the Berkeley sociologists on the measurement of prejudice illustrates very well the interaction between measurement and conceptual development that is required to answer the question "What is it?" In the present state of work on this topic, the appropriate hypotheses are not so much concerned with the relationships of the phenomenon to others in a causal system, as they are with the nature of the phenomenon itself. What is being tested is a set of propositions that certain ways of thinking about social reality are productive, that a phenomenon as conceptualized is "there" in the reality being measured, and that the investigators have found a set of measures which tell us something we need to know about changes in the society. It is apparent that many different types of work go on under the rubric of social indicators. What is important is that the field be seen as an arena for long-term development, as an effort of social scientists to push forward developments in concepts and in methodology that promise payoffs to both science and public policy.Such a view is reflected in the funding commitments of the National Science Foundation, which supports many of the research projects reported above. What we may expect of this work was aptly stated by Duncan (61): The value of improved measures of social change ... is not that they necessarily resolve theoretical issues concerning social dynamics or settle pragmatic issues,of social policy, but that they may permit those issues to be argued more produ

Sheldon, E B; Parke, R

1975-05-16

361

Abide with me: religious group identification among older adults promotes health and well-being by maintaining multiple group memberships.  

PubMed

Objectives: Aging is associated with deterioration in health and well-being, but previous research suggests that this can be attenuated by maintaining group memberships and the valued social identities associated with them. In this regard, religious identification may be especially beneficial in helping individuals withstand the challenges of aging, partly because religious identity serves as a basis for a wider social network of other group memberships. This paper aims to examine relationships between religion (identification and group membership) and well-being among older adults. The contribution of having and maintaining multiple group memberships in mediating these relationships is assessed, and also compared to patterns associated with other group memberships (social and exercise). Method: Study 1 (N = 42) surveyed older adults living in residential care homes in Canada, who completed measures of religious identity, other group memberships, and depression. Study 2 (N = 7021) longitudinally assessed older adults in the UK on similar measures, but with the addition of perceived physical health. Results: In Study 1, religious identification was associated with fewer depressive symptoms, and membership in multiple groups mediated that relationship. However, no relationships between social or exercise groups and mental health were evident. Study 2 replicated these patterns, but additionally, maintaining multiple group memberships over time partially mediated the relationship between religious group membership and physical health. Conclusion: Together these findings suggest that religious social networks are an especially valuable source of social capital among older adults, supporting well-being directly and by promoting additional group memberships (including those that are non-religious). PMID:23711247

Ysseldyk, Renate; Haslam, S Alexander; Haslam, Catherine

2013-05-28

362

High outcrossing rates maintain male and hermaphrodite individuals in populations of the flowering plant Datisca glomerata  

Microsoft Academic Search

MODELS for the maintenance of androdioecy (the presence of male and hermaphrodite individuals in a breeding population) in plants predict that males must have a fertility at least double the male fertility of hermaphrodites in order to be maintained by selection1-3. An even greater advantage is required in partially self-fertilizing populations1-3 as the gain in fitness through increased pollen production

Peter Fritsch; Loren H. Rieseberg

1992-01-01

363

Maintaining dental records: Are we ready for forensic needs?  

PubMed Central

Context: Dental remains are usually the last to get destroyed among body parts after death. They may be useful for personal identification in cases of mass disasters and decomposed unidentified bodies. Dental records may help in the identification of suspects in criminal investigations and in medicolegal cases. Maintenance of dental records is legally mandatory in most of the European and American countries. Unfortunately, the law is not very clear in India, and the awareness is very poor. Aims: To assess the awareness regarding the dental record maintenance among dentists in Rajasthan, to deduce the quality of average dental records kept by them and to evaluate the potential use of their maintained records, in any of forensic or medicolegal cases. Settings and Design: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 100 dental practitioners of different cities in Rajasthan, India. Materials and Methods: Data were collected through a structured questionnaire, which was responded by the study population in the course of a telephonic interview. The questionnaire addressed on the mode of maintaining dental records in their regular practice. Statistical Analysis Used: The data so gathered were subjected for descriptive analysis. Results: As for knowledge or awareness about maintaining dental records, surprisingly a very low percentile (about 38%) of surveyed dentists maintained records. Sixty-two percent of the dentists were maintaining no records at all. Conclusion: Nonmaintenance or poor quality of records maintained indicates that the dentists in Rajasthan are not prepared for any kind of forensic and medicolegal need if it arises.

Astekar, Madhusudan; Saawarn, Swati; Ramesh, Gayathri; Saawarn, Nisheeth

2011-01-01

364

From 'Order' to 'Economy': Education and Order in Eighteenth-Century America.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Some of the premises and problems basic to an assessment of the role that education played in the creation of social order in eighteenth century America are outlined. The author describes the educational process by which a labor force was created and shaped in Colonial America. The transition from the conceptions of order geared to seventeenth…

Kuritz, Hyman

365

The AWARE architecture: supporting context-mediated social awareness in mobile cooperation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Maintaining social awareness of the working context of fellow co-workers is crucial to successful cooperation. For mobile, non co-located workers, however, this social awareness is hard to maintain. In this paper we present the concept of Context-Mediated Social Awareness to denote how context-aware computing can be used to facilitate social awareness. We illustrate the concept in a case study of

Jakob E. Bardram; Thomas Riisgaard Hansen

2004-01-01

366

The Social Insects Web: Antbase  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site (last mentioned in the September 17, 1997 Scout Report for Science & Engineering) is maintained by Donat Agosti, a research scientist at the American Museum of Natural History. Since its last review, much has changed, including an updated Integrated Taxonomic Information System; access to a full-text database of primary systematics publications; and a link to FORMIS 2001, a composite of several ant literature databases. Continually updated, the Social Insect Web (SIWeb) Working Space includes links that have not yet been integrated into the site, but may prove useful to those studying ants and other social insects.

Agosti, Donat.

1969-12-31

367

Authorize Compound Orders  

Cancer.gov

Home What's New Discovery Development Pathways Grants/Contracts Site Search Data Search NCI View Status / Authorize Orders Authorized representatives: Authorize Compound Orders If you ordered compounds from the DTP and wish to view the status of your

368

Social Partnership or a ‘Complete Sellout’? Russian Trade Unions’ Responses to Conflict  

Microsoft Academic Search

AbstractIn 1990 the former communist trade unions in Russia adopted a programme of social partnership, the aim of which was to defend their members’ interests during transition while also maintaining social peace. But critics of social partnership within the union movement argue that it amounts to little more than an excuse for inaction. To examine whether social partnership represents a

Sarah Ashwin

2004-01-01

369

An Examination of Characteristics Related to the Social Skills of Youths with Visual Impairments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

From an early age, children with visual impairments can be at a disadvantage for developing social skills. Since vision plays a role in the early development of social behaviors and of social cognition, the lack of visual cues could lead to difficulties in initiating and maintaining social interactions. The study presented here investigated…

Zebehazy, Kim T.; Smith, Thomas J.

2011-01-01

370

The Ties That Bond: Re-Examining the Relationship between Facebook Use and Bonding Social Capital  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research has established a positive relationship between measures of Facebook use and perceptions of social capital. Like other social network sites, Facebook is especially well-positioned to enhance users’ bridging social capital because it lowers coordination costs associated with maintaining a large, potentially diverse network of Friends. The relationship between Facebook use and perceived bonding social capital, however, is not as

Jessica Vitak; Nicole B. Ellison; Charles Steinfield

2011-01-01

371

Organizational Social Computing and Employee Job Performance: The Knowledge Access Route  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an empirical study investigating the impact of organizational social computing on employees’ innovative and in-role job performance. Specifically, we suggest that two key uses of social computing, representing the use of social computing tools for maintaining social relations and for generating and sharing content, are positively related to employees’ access to knowledge. Access to knowledge, in the

Hossam Ali-Hassan; Dorit Nevo; Henry M. Kim; Stephen Perelgut

2011-01-01

372

Functional Analysis of Inappropriate Social Interactions in Students with Asperger's Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|We analyzed the inappropriate social interactions of 3 students with Asperger's syndrome whose behavior was maintained by social positive reinforcement. We tested whether inappropriate social behavior was sensitive to social positive reinforcement contingencies and whether such contingencies could be reversed to increase the probability of…

Roantree, Christina F.; Kennedy, Craig H.

2012-01-01

373

Social Science Information Gateway  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Located within the Institute for Learning and Research Technology at the University of Bristol, the Social Science Information Gateway (SOSIG) is an online database of high quality Internet resources that primarily deal with the vast array of social science fields and subfields. Visitors can perform a simple search, or browse through the subject headings offered on the homepage. Each one of these discrete sites has been catalogued and annotated, making it easier to find specific resources quickly. Within each field or subfield, the editors of SOSIG have also listed some of their top choices. One particularly fine feature of the site is the "Grapevine", which offers a place for people in the social sciences to find out (and publicize) information about career opportunities and upcoming events. Visitors can also post their vitas in order to facilitate such opportunities. Finally, it is worth noting that the coverage of events and the like here is particularly strong for the United Kingdom and continental Europe.

2005-11-02

374

Relative Efficacy of Human Social Interaction and Food as Reinforcers for Domestic Dogs and Hand-Reared Wolves  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Despite the intimate relationship dogs share with humans in Western society, we know relatively little about the variables that produce and maintain dog social behavior towards humans. One possibility is that human social interaction is itself a reinforcer for dog behavior. As an initial assessment of the variables that might maintain dog social

Feuerbacher, Erica; Wynne, Clive D. L.

2012-01-01

375

Using the ACO algorithm for path searches in social networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the most important types of applications currently being used to share knowledge across the Internet are social networks.\\u000a In addition to their use in social, professional and organizational spheres, social networks are also frequently utilized\\u000a by researchers in the social sciences, particularly in anthropology and social psychology. In order to obtain information\\u000a related to a particular social network,

Jessica Rivero; Dolores Cuadra; Javier Calle; Pedro Isasi

376

26 CFR 1.1402(e)-2A - Ministers, members of religious orders and Christian Science practitioners; application for...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...system established by the Social Security Act). Thus...orders, and Christian Science practitioners requesting exemption from social security coverage...member, or Christian Science practitioner in his...115(b)(2) of the Social Security...

2009-04-01

377

26 CFR 1.1402(e)-2A - Ministers, members of religious orders and Christian Science practitioners; application for...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...system established by the Social Security Act). Thus...orders, and Christian Science practitioners requesting exemption from social security coverage...member, or Christian Science practitioner in his...115(b)(2) of the Social Security...

2010-04-01

378

21 CFR 1.352 - What information must transporters establish and maintain?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false What information must transporters establish and maintain? 1...of Records Requirements for Transporters to Establish and Maintain Records...352 What information must transporters establish and maintain?...

2009-04-01

379

21 CFR 1.352 - What information must transporters establish and maintain?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false What information must transporters establish and maintain? 1...of Records Requirements for Transporters to Establish and Maintain Records...352 What information must transporters establish and maintain?...

2010-04-01

380

Mean residual life ordering  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new partial ordering among life distributions in terms of their mean residual life is introduced. This ordering is weaker\\u000a than the hazard rate ordering but it is stronger than the variability ordering. Characterizations of the DMRL and NBUE distribution\\u000a are given.

Abdulhamid A. Alzaid

1988-01-01

381

[Social psychiatry as a social science].  

PubMed

Social Psychiatry mostly is perceived as social epidemiology. But other branches of sociology and social psychology have influenced its history as well, e.g. family sociology and the sociology of institutions. Recently, research in family milieu and social environment has gained some importance. It is demonstrated how research in social psychiatry follows developments in other social sciences. PMID:2447640

Finzen, A

1987-01-01

382

Social capital and household solid waste management policies: a case study in Mytilene, Greece  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four main components of social capital are identified: social trust, institutional trust, social networks and compliance with social norms. A theoretical analysis explores the links between these components and environmental behaviour and policy in order to lay the ground for an investigation of the influence of social capital on the implementation of environmental policy. The influence of social capital on

Nikoleta Jones; Constantinos P. Halvadakis; Costas M. Sophoulis

2011-01-01

383

Advanced remotely maintainable force-reflecting servomanipulator concept  

SciTech Connect

A remotely maintainable force-reflecting servomanipulator concept is being developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory as part of the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program. This new manipulator addresses requirements of advanced nuclear fuel reprocessing with emphasis on force reflection, remote maintainability, reliability, radiation tolerance, and corrosion resistance. The advanced servomanipulator is uniquely subdivided into remotely replaceable modules which will permit in situ manipulator repair by spare module replacement. Manipulator modularization and increased reliability are accomplished through a force transmission system that uses gears and torque tubes. Digital control algorithms and mechanical precision are used to offset the increased backlash, friction, and inertia resulting from the gear drives. This results in the first remotely maintainable force-reflecting servomanipulator in the world. 10 references, 4 figures, 1 table.

Kuban, D.P.; Martin, H.L.

1984-01-01

384

Old Order Amish Philosophy of Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Old Order Amish in the societal arena provides a philosophy of education which is unique and worthy of study.They tend to have a minimal of problems when making comparisons with other sub cultures in society. Drug abuse, pregnancy among unwed mothers, crime, alcoholism, thievery, and other forms of anti-social behavior appear to be at a very…

Ediger, Marlow

2005-01-01

385

Modelling Tabular Data with an Ordered Outcome  

Microsoft Academic Search

A large amount of data that is considered within sociological studies consists of categorical variables that lend themselves to tabular analysis. In the sociological analysis of data regarding social class and educational attainment, for example, the variables of interest can often plausibly be considered as having a substantively interesting order. Standard log-linear models do not take ordinality into account, thereby

Vernon Gayle

1996-01-01

386

Old Order Amish Philosophy of Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Old Order Amish in the societal arena provides a philosophy of education which is unique and worthy of study.They tend to have a minimal of problems when making comparisons with other sub cultures in society. Drug abuse, pregnancy among unwed mothers, crime, alcoholism, thievery, and other forms of anti-social behavior appear to be at a very…

Ediger, Marlow

2005-01-01

387

Maintaining the reversibility of foldings: Making the ethics (politics) of information technology visible  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper will address the question of the morality of technology. I believe this is an important question for our contemporary\\u000a society in which technology, especially information technology, is increasingly becoming the default mode of social ordering.\\u000a I want to suggest that the conventional manner of conceptualising the morality of technology is inadequate – even dangerous.\\u000a The conventional view of

Lucas D. Introna

2007-01-01

388

Conflict over Male Parentage in Social Insects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mutual policing is an important mechanism that maintains social harmony in group-living organisms by suppressing the selfish behavior of individuals. In social insects, workers police one another (worker-policing) by preventing individual workers from laying eggs that would otherwise develop into males. Within the framework of Hamilton's rule there are two explanations for worker-policing behavior. First, if worker reproduction is cost-free,

Robert L. Hammond; Laurent Keller

2004-01-01

389

Social identity threat and consumer preferences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although marketers often link brands with an aspect of consumer social identity, the current research demonstrates that such brand-identity linkages may sometimes have negative consequences. Consumers motivated to protect and maintain feelings of individual self-worth alter their product evaluations and choices to avoid a threatened aspect of their own social identity. Whereas those low in collective self-esteem (CSE) tend to

Katherine White; Jennifer J. Argo

2009-01-01

390

The theory of social functions: challenges for computational social science and multi-agent learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

A basic claim of this paper is that the foundational theoretical problem of the social sciences — the possibility of unconscious, unplanned forms of cooperation and intelligence among intentional agents (the very hard issue of the 'invisible hand', of the 'spontaneous social order' but also of 'social functions') — will eventually be clarified thanks to the contribution of AI (and,

Cristiano Castelfranchi

2001-01-01

391

Evaluating the 'Social Responsibility' of Islamic Finance: Learning From the Experiences of Socially Responsible Investment Funds  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to fulfil the Shari(ah objective of promoting the welfare of society, Islamic financial institutions (IFIs) are expected to consciously align their decisions and actions so that these are 'socially responsible'. An integral policy approach towards corporate social responsibility (CSR) would constitute assigning explicit social objectives to IFIs over and above their economic, legal, Shari(ah, and ethical responsibilities. Alternatively,

Salma Sairally

392

Neural Activity During Social Exclusion: An Exploratory Examination  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social exclusion has been brought to the forefront of media attention in recent years due to the recent tragedies like campus shootings and cyberbullying on social networking websites. In order to gain a deeper understanding of social exclusion, this study examined the relation between social exclusion and event-related brain potential (ERP) activity. ERPs were collected while participants completed three blocks

Stephanie Khatcherian

2011-01-01

393

Differentiating specialists and generalists within college students' social support networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to examine the relationships among social network structure, types of social support, and determinants of support satisfaction, an alternative method was used to score the Social Support Questionnaire (SSQ). Factor analysis procedures suggested that college students' (N=198) social networks consisted of four groups: nuclear family, other family, friends, and others. Satisfaction with support was positively related to the

G. Anne Bogat; Robert A. Caldwell; Fred A. Rogosch; Julie Ann Kriegler

1985-01-01

394

Job Success for Handicapped Youth: A Social Protocol Curriculum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The book is intended for use by school- and nonschool-based professionals in teaching social skills and social competence to handicapped persons in order to promote employment success. It provides guidelines, procedures, and instrumentation for: (1) assessing client status on socially validated social skills required in both school- and…

Stowitschek, Joseph J.; Salzberg, Charles L.

395

The social and economic context and determinants of schistosomiasis japonica.  

PubMed

A variety of biological and social factors govern schistosomiasis japonica in China. Social factors include those at a national and regional level, such as policies and patterns of development, which impact on local economic activities, and affect community, household and personal risk factors of infection. Drawing on research conducted in China, we illustrate how social structural and related factors influence individual risk and prevalence of infection. At a macro-level, political changes have occurred resulting in the shift from collective to family-based production, leading to clustering of infection in families. Industrialization and urbanization, and associated increased population mobility, have also influenced patterns of transmission and infection. Types of activities and local production patterns determine the exposure of individuals to schistosome-infested water sources. Fishermen have the most frequent water contact, aquatic workers the second and farmers the third; the relative risk of Schistosoma japonicum infection follows the same order. Among farmers, human infection is significantly related to agricultural production in rice fields infested with the intermediate host snail, and to rates of the infection in livestock. Risk of S. japonicum infection is also influenced by the domestic environment, including both the location of the house in relation to snail-colonized water sources, access to safe water, and improved sanitation. Household wealth and income determine family ability to provide and maintain safe water and sanitation, while determining or interacting with other variables. At an individual level, sex, age, educational level and ethnicity are all associated with different patterns of water use and water contact behaviour thereby affecting infection rates. Schistosomiasis impairs the growth and nutrition of children and the physical work capacity of adults, and so affects economic development. Given this, we note the importance of further research and social and contextual aspects of schistosomiasis infection in order to develop and sustain sound control strategies. PMID:16202596

Huang, Yi-Xin; Manderson, Lenore

2005-10-03

396

Maintaining Healthy Population Diversity Using Adaptive Crossover, Mutation, and Selection  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents ACROMUSE, a novel genetic algorithm (GA) which adapts crossover, mutation, and selection parameters. ACROMUSEs objective is to create and maintain a diverse population of highly-fit (healthy) individuals, capable of adapting quickly to fitness landscape change and well-suited to the efficient optimization of multimodal fitness landscapes. A new methodology is introduced for determining standard population diversity (SPD) and

Brian Mc Ginley; John Maher; Colm O'Riordan; Fearghal Morgan

2011-01-01

397

Maintaining safe electrical work practices in a competitive environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The efforts of one corporation to maintain electrical safety performance are described. Basic electrical hazards are reviewed and a flow chart method of categorizing hazardous electrical tasks is presented. A matrix is provided to select appropriate personal protective equipment and identify procedural requirements

R. L. Doughty; R. A. Epperly; R. A. Jones

1990-01-01

398

Maintaining traceability links during object-oriented software evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY This paper presents a method to build and maintain traceability links and properties of a set of object- oriented software releases. The method recovers an 'as is' design from C++ software releases, compares recovered designs at the class interface level, and helps the user to deal with inconsistencies by pointing out regions of code where differences are concentrated. The

Giuliano Antoniol; Gerardo Canfora; Gerardo Casazza; Andrea De Lucia

2001-01-01

399

Analysis of fixed-ratio behavior maintained by drug reinforcers.  

PubMed Central

Behavior maintained by intravenously delivered alfentanil, cocaine, or ketamine was assessed using a fixed-ratio schedule of reinforcement. As the dose of each drug was increased, rate of responding also increased up to a maximum. Further increases in dose resulted in decreased response rates (inverted U-shaped curve). An analysis of postreinforcement-pause-time and run-time measures for the ascending limb of the inverted U-shaped functions revealed that behavior was characterized by systematic decreases in both pause time and run time as dose and rate increased. An examination of the descending limb of the dose-response functions revealed that lowered response rates for cocaine and ketamine were correlated with increases in run time and small and inconsistent effects on postreinforcement pause time. Behavior maintained by rate-reducing doses of alfentanil was characterized by lengthened postreinforcement pauses with small increases in run time. These data suggest that at larger doses, drug reinforcers may have unconditioned or direct effects on the behavior that the drug is maintaining, and more important, that the nature of these unconditioned effects depends on the drug that is maintaining behavior.

Skjoldager, P; Winger, G; Woods, J H

1991-01-01

400

Maintaining Long-Term Therapeutic Programmes: A Qualitative Case Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Maintaining therapeutic programmes for people with learning disabilities over long periods of time presents a major challenge to care systems as the limited and slow pace of client behavioural change is often insufficient to sustain staff behaviour. In this study, a 17-year-old young man with profound learning difficulties was successfully…

Brown, J. F.

2006-01-01

401

Establishing and Maintaining Boundaries in Teacher-Student Relationships  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Because schools rarely provide guidelines for teachers that outline how they should conduct personal relationships with students, teachers must wrestle individually with how to establish, communicate, and maintain clear boundaries in their interactions. As schools work to become more personal environments, school administrators will need to help…

Bernstein-Yamashiro, Beth; Noam, Gil G.

2013-01-01

402

Maintaining Healthy Behaviors Following Weight Loss: A Grounded Theory Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study explored the process of how women maintained their healthy behaviors after a weight management program using a grounded theory approach. We conducted 2 focus groups and 23 interviews with a purposeful sample of African American and Caucasian women aged 30 and older who lost greater than 5% of their body weight during a weight…

Zunker, Christie; Cox, Tiffany L.; Ard, Jamy D.; Ivankova, Nataliya V.; Rutt, Candace D.; Baskin, Monica L.

2011-01-01

403

Maintaining Strong Cache Consistency for the Domain Name System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effective caching in the Domain Name System (DNS) is critical to its performance and scalability. Existing DNS only supports weak cache consistency by using the Time-to-Live (TTL) mechanism, which functions reasonably well in normal situations. However, maintaining strong cache consistency in DNS as an indispensable exceptional handling mechanism has become more and more demanding for three important objectives: 1) to

Xin Chen; Haining Wang; Shansi Ren; Xiaodong Zhang

2007-01-01

404

Software Architecture Evaluation Methods for Performance, Maintainability, Testability, and Portability  

Microsoft Academic Search

The software architecture has been identified as an important part of a software system. Further, the software architecture impacts the quality attributes of a system, e.g., performance and maintainability. Therefore, methods for evaluating the quality attributes of software architectures are important. In this paper, we present a survey of soft- ware architecture evaluation methods. We focus on meth- ods for

Michael Mattsson; Håkan Grahn; Frans Mårtensson

405

Maintaining postharvest quality of fresh produce with volatile compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The postharvest quality of strawberry (Fragaria ananassa Duch.) and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) fruit was evaluated after treatment with eucalyptus (Ec: Eucalyptus globulus L.) and cinnamon (Cn: Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Blume) volatile oil compounds and storage at 13 °C during or following vapour exposure. Fruit decay decreased in fruit treated with oil vapours and transfer to ‘ambient air’ (AA). Cn-treated tomato maintained

Nikos G. Tzortzakis

2007-01-01

406

Scientific Integrity: Maintaining the Legitimacy of the Research Enterprise  

Microsoft Academic Search

Worldwide, most scientific research is conducted in higher education institutions. Funding for science is dependent on the ability of these institutions to support and maintain the legitimacy of the scientific enterprise. As long as the public sees scientific research as beneficial to the common good, support will be forthcoming from government and other sources. In other words, the financial underpinnings

Melissa S. Anderson

407

The Physician's Role in Maintaining Hope and Spirituality  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines several areas that health care providers may find difficult in the care of patients near the end of their lives. It looks at society's denial of death and at ways physicians and their patients use ongoing active treatments to maintain that denial. It suggests that as active treatment fails to be effective and hope fades, physicians must

Thomas Warr

408

Maintaining enrollments in physics with declining university enrollments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The general education program in the Department of Physics at Southern Illinois University (Edwardsville) is described in considerable detail. Enrollments in courses and student credit hour production have been maintained in spite of an overall decline in university enrollments. The paper concludes by discussing the implications of general education courses for staffing in physics departments.

Thomas O. Baldwin

1977-01-01

409

Maintaining State in a Distributed Information Retrieval System  

Microsoft Academic Search

In distributed applications, efficient dissemination and maintenance of globally needed information is often required. The particular methods used must often be tuned to the application of interest. In this paper, we discuss possible mechanisms for maintaining a globally shared object for a particular application: distributed information retrieval using the vector space model. This application is interesting because updates to the

Charles L. Viles

1994-01-01

410

Small mammal herbivory: Feedbacks that help maintain desertified ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

We tested the hypothesis that herbivores contribute to feedbacks maintaining arid ecosystems in a degraded state. We studied small mammal herbivory on a subshrub, broom snakeweed (Gutierrezia sarothrae), and perennial grasses at three sites: (1) ungrazed black grama (Bouteloua eriopoda) grassland; (2) grassland degraded by intense short-duration grazing; and (3) mesquite (Prosopis glandulosa) coppice dunes. Snakeweed was browsed by herbivores

G. A. Roth; W. G. Whitford; Y. Steinberger

2009-01-01

411

Better strategic procurement for maintaining schools: An Australian context  

Microsoft Academic Search

At the end of 2005 a school buildings maintenance audit in the state of Victoria. This audit provided details of the condition of all building elements, many sub-elements, external works and services for all government schools, together with an assessment of any immediate future works that may have been required to maintain the facilities in a serviceable condition to allow

Jim Smith; Brian Wood

2008-01-01

412

37. VIEW OF SIX GAP ROTARY RECTIFIER FOR MAINTAINING CORONA ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

37. VIEW OF SIX GAP ROTARY RECTIFIER FOR MAINTAINING CORONA DISCHARGE IN THE COTTRELL ELECTROSTATIC GENERATORS. THE SYSTEM WAS CAPABLE OF PROVIDING 88,000 VOLTS TO THE ELECTRODES WITHIN THE PRECIPITATOR CHAMBER THE UNIT WAS LOCATED TO THE REAR OF BOILER 904 IN AN ENCLOSED ROOM. - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Cos Cob Power Plant, Sound Shore Drive, Greenwich, Fairfield County, CT

413

PULMONARY CELL POPULATIONS IN HAMSTERS MAINTAINED UNDER EGYPTIAN LABORATORY CONDITIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

The study was conducted to obtain baseline values for pulmonary cells in golden hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) bred and maintained under the laboratory conditions of Al-Azhar University in Egypt. An improvised technique is presented for measuring pulmonary cells obtained by lung...

414

Maintaining reading-disabled students' attention during reading instruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides a brief review of the professional literature as it is related to reading-disabled students and their inability to maintain attention during reading instruction. Factors that can cause or contri bute to reading-disabled pupils' inability to attend during reading are delineated General strategies which reading teachers and specialists can use to increase their disabled readers' attention are described

Jimmy D. Lindsey; Earl H. Cheek; Diane Kritsonis

1989-01-01

415

Human factors review of power plant maintainability. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human factors engineering is an interdisciplinary science and technology concerned with shaping the design of machines, facilities, and operational environments to promote safe, efficient, and reliable performance on the part of operators and maintainers of equipment systems. The human factors aspects of five nuclear power plants and four fossil fuel plants were evaluated using such methods as a check list

J. L. Seminara; S. O. Parsons

1981-01-01

416

Photocopy of photograph (digital image maintained in LBNL Photo Lab ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Photocopy of photograph (digital image maintained in LBNL Photo Lab Collection, XBD200503-00117-176). March 2005. CENTRAL COLUMN SUPPORT TO ROOF SHOWING CRANES CENTER SUPPORT TRACK, BEVATRON - University of California Radiation Laboratory, Bevatron, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, Alameda County, CA

417

Maintaining Confidentiality with Minors: Dilemmas of School Counselors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article examined the attitudes of 195 school counselors in Israel regarding (a) the decision to maintain or breach confidentiality in a variety of ethical dilemmas, and (b) the reasons given for justifying their decisions. Eighteen ethical dilemmas in three domains were presented to respondents in a questionnaire. School counselors were most…

Lazovsky, Rivka

2008-01-01

418

Maintaining Confidentiality with Minors: Dilemmas of School Counselors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examined the attitudes of 195 school counselors in Israel regarding (a) the decision to maintain or breach confidentiality in a variety of ethical dilemmas, and (b) the reasons given for justifying their decisions. Eighteen ethical dilemmas in three domains were presented to respondents in a questionnaire. School counselors were most…

Lazovsky, Rivka

2008-01-01

419

Guidelines for Beginning and Maintaining a Toy Lending Library.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Toy-lending libraries provide parents and professionals with opportunities for shared play and the loan of toys. This article reviews the history of toy-lending libraries and the purpose of Lekoteks, the Swedish toy library. Guidelines and suggestions for developing and maintaining a toy-lending library are discussed. (JPB)|

Rettig, Michael A.

1998-01-01

420

[Maintaining autonomy, an issue in the care of elderly prisoners].  

PubMed

Maintaining autonomy, an issue in the care of elderly prisoners. The ageing of the prison population means healthcare workers in prisons are having to care for inmates who are losing their autonomy. To guarantee the right to dignity, caregivers must adapt their practices and their organisation. PMID:21526542

Sannier, Oluvier; Danjour, David; Talamon, Yannick

421

Assessment and Treatment of Elopement Maintained by Access to Stereotypy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|We evaluated a treatment for elopement maintained by access to stereotypic door play. First, we conducted a functional analysis of elopement that produced undifferentiated results. Next, we conducted an assessment in which we evaluated the relation between elopement and door play. Results suggested a functional relation between the 2 behaviors…

Falcomata, Terry S.; Roane, Henry S.; Feeney, Brian J.; Stephenson, Kasey M.

2010-01-01

422

Preferential adhesion maintains separation of ommatidia in the Drosophila eye  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the Drosophila eye, neighboring ommatidia are separated by inter-ommatidial cells (IOCs). How this ommatidial spacing emerges during eye development is not clear. Here we demonstrate that four adhesion molecules of the Irre cell recognition module (IRM) family play a redundant role in maintaining separation of ommatidia. The four IRM proteins are divided into two groups: Kirre and Rst are

Sujin Bao; Karl-Friedrich Fischbach; Victoria Corbin; Ross L. Cagan

2010-01-01

423

Building and Maintaining the Common Ground in Web Based Interaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the main purpose is to explore how participants establish and maintain the common ground in the computer-based conferences. Previous studies assume that before the participants can reach the deeper level interaction and learning, they have to gain an adequate level of common ground (Dillenbourg, 1999; Baker et al., 1999; Veerman, 2000). Subjects were 68 pre-service teachers and

Kati Mäkitalo; Päivi Häkkinen; Piritta Salo; Sanna Järvelä

424

How unrealistic optimism is maintained in the face of reality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unrealistic optimism is a pervasive human trait that influences domains ranging from personal relationships to politics and finance. How people maintain unrealistic optimism, despite frequently encountering information that challenges those biased beliefs, is unknown. We examined this question and found a marked asymmetry in belief updating. Participants updated their beliefs more in response to information that was better than expected

Christoph W Korn; Raymond J Dolan; Tali Sharot

2011-01-01

425

Teme recurente in istoria filosofiei sociale si politice - Recurring Themes in the History of Social and Political Philosophy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Philosophy, from its origins in ancient Greece was concerned about social order and statutory rules of social coexistence. Although autonomous in contemporary sciences, legal and social policy are still deeply linked to the major philosophical ideas, which continued certain impact. Change of paradigms in the sphere of knowledge, is usually followed by a new model of social action. Not all

2010-01-01

426

Social Structure and Family Homicides  

Microsoft Academic Search

To date, few studies have analyzed the relationship that economic deprivation and social disorganization have with disaggregated\\u000a family homicide types. This study utilized data from the FBI’s Supplementary Homicide Reports from years 2000–2007 in order\\u000a to explore the effect social structural variables have on rates of family homicides—specifically, intimate partner, filicide,\\u000a parricide, and siblicide. Cities with more than 100,000 residents

Chelsea Diem; Jesenia M. Pizarro

2010-01-01

427

Social Explorer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

While the name "Social Explorer" may conjure up images for some of a new and powerful social networking site, this site is actually a splendid way to learn more about your friends and neighbors. Created by a team of demographers and GIS experts at Queens College in New York, the Social Explorer website offers access to dozens of different interactive data maps including time series maps that chart the ethnic transitions that have occurred throughout New York and Los Angeles over the past decades. Before delving into the maps any further, first-time visitors may want to go to the "Getting Started" section, where they can read a brief introductory essay about these data maps and their basic objectives. Finally, visitors can also use the site to generate their own specialized maps and reports.

428

Higher order phantom maps  

Microsoft Academic Search

For each ordinal number , we dene phantom maps of order . We construct universal phantom maps out ofX with order, and show that under easily veriable condi- tions, every one of these universal phantom maps is essential.

JEFFREY STROM

2003-01-01

429

Capacity: Compare and Order  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students are given four containers and asked to order them from the container that holds the least to the container that holds the most, first by predicting the order, and then by measuring to test their predictions.

Cornwell, Susan

2010-07-23

430

Pharmakon Laboratory Order  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

Text Version... proposed orders.5 The Court has now had an opportunity to review the parties' proposed injunctive orders and their responses ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/drugs/guidancecomplianceregulatoryinformation

431

Reliability and Maintainability Constrains for the Design, Production and Operation of Astronomical Equipment for the Antarctica  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The installation and operation of an ELT and the associated astronomical instruments requires considering the reliability aspects (the ability to work satisfactorily for a specified time under given environmental conditions) and the maintenance/maintainability aspects from the beginning of an ELT/instrument project. In particular, for equipment working in the extreme antarctic environment the reliability and maintainability characteristics are the main factors influencing, i)the availability of the equipment for the scientific research activities, and ii) the annual and the long term operation costs (Life Cycle Costs, LCC). These characteristics have to be designed and built into the equipment. The presentation describes the general strategy to be followed, the main activities to be done, and the decisions to be taken during the individual project phases from the identification of the user needs to the installation, commissioning and operation in order to guarantee high equipment availability and optimized maintenance effort and costs.

Ansorge, W.

432

Asymmetric dispersal can maintain larval polymorphism: a model motivated by Streblospio benedicti.  

PubMed

Polymorphism in traits affecting dispersal occurs in a diverse variety of taxa. Typically, the maintenance of a dispersal polymorphism is attributed to environmental heterogeneity where parental bet-hedging can be favored. There are, however, examples of dispersal polymorphisms that occur across similar environments. For example, the estuarine polychaete Streblospio benedicti has a highly heritable offspring dimorphism that affects larval dispersal potential. We use analytical models of dispersal to determine the conditions necessary for a stable dispersal polymorphism to exist. We show that in asexual haploids, sexual haploids, and in sexual diploids in the absence of overdominance, asymmetric dispersal is required in order to maintain a dispersal polymorphism when patches do not vary in intrinsic quality. Our study adds an additional factor, dispersal asymmetry, to the short list of mechanisms that can maintain polymorphism in nature. The region of the parameter space in which polymorphism is possible is limited, suggesting why dispersal polymorphisms within species are rare. PMID:22576818

Zakas, Christina; Hall, David W

2012-05-10

433

Ordered Semantic Hyper Tableaux  

Microsoft Academic Search

A family of tableau methods, called ordered semantic hyper (OSH) tableau methods for first-order theories with function symbols, is presented. These methods permit semantic information to guide the search for a proof. They also may make use of orderings on literals, clauses, and interpretations to guide the search. In a typical tableau, the branches represent conjunctions of literals, and the

Adnan Yahya; David A. Plaisted

2002-01-01

434

The social perceptual salience effect.  

PubMed

Affective processes appraise the salience of external stimuli preparing the agent for action. So far, the relationship between stimuli, affect, and action has been mainly studied in highly controlled laboratory conditions. In order to find the generalization of this relationship to social interaction, we assess the influence of the salience of social stimuli on human interaction. We constructed reality ball game in a mixed reality space where pairs of people collaborated in order to compete with an opposing team. We coupled the players with team members with varying social salience by using both physical and virtual representations of remote players (i.e., avatars). We observe that, irrespective of the team composition, winners and losers display significantly different inter- and intrateam spatial behaviors. We show that subjects regulate their interpersonal distance to both virtual and physical team members in similar ways, but in proportion to the vividness of the stimulus. As an independent validation of this social salience effect, we show that this behavioral effect is also displayed in physiological correlates of arousal. In addition, we found a strong correlation between performance, physiology, and the subjective reports of the subjects. Our results show that proxemics is consistent with affective responses, confirming the existence of a social salience effect. This provides further support for the so-called law of apparent reality, and it generalizes it to the social realm, where it can be used to design more efficient social artifacts. PMID:22612058

Inderbitzin, Martin P; Betella, Alberto; Lanatá, Antonio; Scilingo, Enzo P; Bernardet, Ulysses; Verschure, Paul F M J

2012-05-21

435

Psychiatry as social ordering: Anorexia nervosa, a paradigm  

Microsoft Academic Search

From a psychiatric perspective, anorexia nervosa (hereafter referred to as 'anorexia') is an enigmatic illness. This paper attempts to explain why this is so, describing anorexia as a western cultural phenomenon whose psychiatric explanations and treatments actually participate in the sociocultural processes that inform this syndrome. Anorexia reveals a form of contemporary control over the female body, and psychiatry, as

Helen Gremillion

1992-01-01

436

A British perspective on guns, crime and social order  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent years have witnessed an escalation in the number of young men involved in lethal gun-related violence in the UK. Within the last two years these have resulted in over 80 deaths. Lacking any overarching explanation some have attributed such violence to a burgeoning 'gun culture', others to the (alleged) arrival of American style gangs onto the streets of the

SIMON HALLSWORTH; DANIEL SILVERSTONE

437

Order from Noise: Toward a Social Theory of Geographic Information  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the so-called Information Age, it is surprising that the concept of information is imprecisely defined and almost taken for granted. Historic and recent geographic information science (GIScience) literature relies on two conflicting metaphors, often espoused by the same author in adjacent paragraphs. The metaphor of invariance, derived from telecommunications engineering, defines information as a thing to be transported without

Barbara S. Poore; Nicholas R. Chrisman

2006-01-01

438

GOLD DINAR: THE IMPACTS ON THE ECONOMIC SOCIAL ORDER1  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the 1997 currency crisis, Malaysia had opted to peg its currency against US Dollar, (an action that was claimed by many as an uninterestingly orthodox) which proved to pay off. On the other hand, contemporary scholars from vast fields have started to revisit the possible usefulness of the gold Dinar as a medium of exchange, payment of zakat and

Ridzwan Shah; Mohd Dali; Norhayati Mat Husin

439

Understanding Invitational Travel Orders  

MedlinePLUS

... No Fear Act Download a PDF reader FOIA Privacy Policy and Security OUR WEBSITES MilitaryINSTALLATIONS Military Youth on the Move MSEP Career Portal Plan My Deployment Plan My Move eSponsorship Training Resource Request Form USA4 Military Families STAY CONNECTED Social Media Hub

440

Social Engineering hits Social Commerce  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Looking at social commerce, a bunch of bewildering phenomena attracts the attention of social psychologists. The way customers participate today shows attitudes and ethical behavior which cannot be explained from the inherent conditions of Web 2.0 environments alone. Fraud often succeeds, when you do not expect it, and honesty can be found under circumstances that do not support honesty at all. The current situation seems to result from customers assigning experience and ethics from real world business to virtual business environments. But there are indications that this situation may change. Social commerce could suffer as soon as customers would use its inherent weaknesses to their own advantage. The following article outlines first approaches to research into this topic.

Degenhardt, Werner; Wiele, Johannes

441

Social Intelligence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses the concept of social intelligence (SI), including its history and contexts in which it may be valid; assesses SI from the perspectives of information management, information policy, and information economics; reviews tools and techniques associated with SI, including networks, hypermedia, and connectionism; and considers education and…

Cronin, Blaise; Davenport, Elisabeth

1993-01-01

442

Socials Studies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Eric Sheninger, the principal at New Milford High School in Bergen County, NJ, is well-known in ed tech circles as an evangelist for the use of web 2.0 tools in K-12 education. New Milford has made collaboration a pillar of its educational platform, and Sheninger believes that social media helps students learn how to collaborate. In fact, he…

Raths, David

2013-01-01

443

Social lending  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prosper, the largest online social lending marketplace with nearly a million members and $178 million in funded loans, uses an auction amongst lenders to finance each loan. In each auction, the borrower specifies D, the amount he wants to borrow, and a maximum acceptable interest rate R. Lenders specify the amounts ai they want to lend, and bid on the

Ning Chen; Arpita Ghosh; Nicolas S. Lambert

2009-01-01

444

Social Studies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The product of a Special Studies Institute, this teacher developed resource guide for the emotionally handicapped (K-6) presents social study concepts and activities relative to education in the urban out-of-doors. Focus is on the study of man (past, present, and future) interacting with his environment. Listed below are activity examples: (1)…

Bieber, Edward

445

Social Cities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Humans are social animals: relationships are critical to our wellbeing. Indeed, a lack of face-to-face contact can put our health at risk. This report looks at ways to make cities better places to live by increasing our opportunities to connect with other people. It examines how the design and functioning of a city – from transport networks to the availability

Jane-Frances Kelly; Peter Breadon; Caitrin Davis; Amelie Hunter; Peter Mares; Daniel Mullerworth; Tom Quinn; Ben Weidmann

2012-01-01

446

HABILIDADES SOCIALES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Últimamente se han puesto de moda trabajos, tratados y estudios sobre el concepto de “habilidad social” pero, ¿ cómo podemos definir este concepto? La verdad es que definiciones sobre el término hay muchas, pero todas ellas tienen un denominador común: son un conjunto de comportamientos eficaces para\\/en las relaciones interpersonales”

Carmen Grimaldi Herrera

2009-01-01

447

On the Social Study of Social Studies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

School research should be more social in nature, i.e., contextualized, interactive/dynamic, and sensitive to participant conceptions. To explore the possibilities and limitations of the social study of social studies, a conception of social research is delineated, using recent social studies classroom research as illustration. Research utilization…

Cornbleth, Catherine

1982-01-01

448

Modeling Socialness in Dynamic Social Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Socialness refers to the ability to elicit social in- teraction and social links among people. It is a concept often associated with individuals. Although there are tangible benefits in socialness, there is little research in its modeling. In this paper, we study socialness as a property that can be associated with items, beyond its traditional association with people. We aim

Tuan-Anh Hoang; Ee-Peng Lim; Palakorn Achananuparp; Jing Jiang; Loo-Nin Teow

2011-01-01

449

Habilidades sociales y apoyo social en esquizofrenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social Skill and Social Support in Schizophrenia. Although both constructs of Social Skill and Social Support are known for their significance in the field of schizophrenia, the relationship between the two has hardly been explored. The available research is generally limited to the structural dimension of Social Support and it tends to be based on small, heterogenous samples. This study

Rosa Jiménez García-Bóveda; Antonio J. Vázquez Morejón; Raquel Vázquez Morejón Jiménez

2007-01-01

450

Social capital: its constructs and survey development.  

PubMed

This article reports on experiences and methods of adapting a valid adult social capital assessment to youth audiences in order to measure social capital and sense of place. The authors outline the process of adapting, revising, prepiloting, piloting, and administering a youth survey exploring young people's sense of community, involvement in the community, and the development of social capital. They then discuss the trade-offs of defining the often amorphous concepts included in social capital as they select measurement scales. The constructs used in the survey are agency, belonging, engagement, and trust for bonding, bridging, and linking forms of social capital. PMID:23878083

Enfield, Richard P; Nathaniel, Keith C

2013-06-01

451

Facebook: Maintaining Ethical Practice in the Cyberspace Age  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current technology provides counseling center clinicians regular and immediate access to the students they work with via social networking. Focusing on Facebook in particular, this article discusses the opportunities and challenges this access creates and specifically explores how utilization of ethical, clinical, and cultural lenses might affect decisions about Facebook use, with particular emphasis on consideration of appropriate ethical principles

Ian Birky; Wanda Collins

2011-01-01

452

Facebook: Maintaining Ethical Practice in the Cyberspace Age  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Current technology provides counseling center clinicians regular and immediate access to the students they work with via social networking. Focusing on Facebook in particular, this article discusses the opportunities and challenges this access creates and specifically explores how utilization of ethical, clinical, and cultural lenses might affect…

Birky, Ian; Collins, Wanda

2011-01-01

453

How to Maintain and Grow Military-Industrial Potential  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problems of optimizing the size and structure of the defense complex, identifying the priority directions of its activity, and developing measures to cut military spending are obviously not unique to Russia. What is unique [to Russia] is that these problems are exceptionally urgent and acute. On the one hand, geopolitical, social, ethnic-religious, and other contradictions in the near and

K. Bagrinovskii; E. Khrustalev

1997-01-01

454

Facebook: Maintaining Ethical Practice in the Cyberspace Age  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Current technology provides counseling center clinicians regular and immediate access to the students they work with via social networking. Focusing on Facebook in particular, this article discusses the opportunities and challenges this access creates and specifically explores how utilization of ethical, clinical, and cultural lenses might affect…

Birky, Ian; Collins, Wanda

2011-01-01

455

What maintains parental support for vaccination when challenged by anti-vaccination messages? A qualitative study.  

PubMed

This study sought to explore how parents respond to competing media messages about vaccine safety. Six focus groups with mothers of infants were shown television vignettes of typical pro- and anti-vaccination claims. Thematic analysis of transcripts was undertaken. Mothers expressed surprise and concern about alleged vaccine risks but quickly reinstated their support for vaccination by deference to authority figures; type-casting immunisation opponents; and notions of anticipatory regret, good parenting and social responsibility. We conclude that personal experiences, value systems and level of trust in health professionals are fundamental to parental decision making about vaccination. Vaccination advocacy should increase the focus on matters of process such as maintaining trust and public confidence, particularly in health professionals. Stories about people affected by vaccine-preventable diseases need to re-enter the public discourse. PMID:17052810

Leask, Julie; Chapman, Simon; Hawe, Penelope; Burgess, Margaret

2006-05-23

456

Social medicine and social policy.  

PubMed Central

Social medicine as a term has achieved acceptance in medical education and medical practice, although there is still some question as to its acceptance in reality. The term had its origin in the vigorous nineteenth-century efforts at both medical and social reform, combining the two in a recognition of the intimate connection between social factors and the causation of disease. Henry Ernest Sigerist, a Swiss physician and noted scholar of medical history, formulated the broadest concept in the 1930s, attracting students and a latent American reform movement toward the idea of restructuring medical education as one part of social reform, and indicating ways of restructuring medical practice as another element in improving medical care at the same time. In addition to promulgating the doctrine, he established the policy of examining and describing systems of medical education and medical care in other parts of the world, not only to assist in improving medical care in countries with well-organized systems, but to assist countries with poor resources and lesser organizational capability in meeting the goals of social medicine. Doubt as to the durability of the concept has been expressed, insofar as the recommended improvements have lagged behind the expression, and because so many changes have taken place in the nature of medical practice, medical discoveries, and advances in technology. A closer examination of Sigerist's writings on the subject and evaluation of the circumstances around present-day problems would seem to indicate that the flaw is not in the doctrine, but in the lack of social application.

Silver, G. A.

1984-01-01

457

20 CFR 404.1024 - Election of coverage by religious orders.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...1024 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION ...and Self-Employment Income Work Excluded from Employment ...religious order, may elect to have social security coverage extended to the work performed by its members...

2013-04-01

458

77 FR 28388 - Myspace, LLC; Analysis of Proposed Consent Order To Aid Public Comment  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...any sensitive personal information, like anyone's Social Security number, date of birth, driver's license...the agreement's proposed order. Myspace operates a social networking Web site, www.myspace.com, that, among...

2012-05-14

459

Endogenous endothelial cell signaling systems maintain vascular stability  

PubMed Central

The function of the endothelium is to provide a network to allow delivery of oxygen and nutrients to tissues throughout the body. This network is comprised of adjacent endothelial cells which utilize adherens junction proteins such as vascular endothelial cadherin (VE-cadherin) to maintain the appropriate level of vascular permeability. The disruption of VE-cadherin interactions during pathologic settings can lead to excessive vascular leak with adverse effects. Endogenous cell signaling systems have been defined that help to maintain the proper level of vascular stability. Perhaps the best described system is Angiopoietin-1 (Ang-1). Ang-1 acting through its receptor Tie2 generates a well described set of signaling events ultimately leading to enhanced vascular stability. In this review we will focus on what is known about additional endogenous cell signaling systems that stabilize the vasculature, and using Ang-1/Tie2 as a model, we will address where our understanding of these additional systems is lacking.

London, Nyall R.; Whitehead, Kevin J.; Li, Dean Y.

2009-01-01

460

Adaptation maintains population homeostasis in primary visual cortex.  

PubMed

Sensory systems exhibit mechanisms of neural adaptation, which adjust neuronal activity on the basis of recent stimulus history. In primary visual cortex (V1) in particular, adaptation controls the responsiveness of individual neurons and shifts their visual selectivity. What benefits does adaptation confer on a neuronal population? We measured adaptation in the responses of populations of cat V1 neurons to stimulus ensembles with markedly different statistics of stimulus orientation. We found that adaptation served two homeostatic goals. First, it maintained equality in the time-averaged responses across the population. Second, it maintained independence in selectivity across the population. Adaptation scaled and distorted population activity according to a simple multiplicative rule that depended on neuronal orientation preference and on stimulus orientation. We conclude that adaptation in V1 acts as a mechanism of homeostasis, enforcing a tendency toward equality and independence in neural activity across the population. PMID:23603708

Benucci, Andrea; Saleem, Aman B; Carandini, Matteo

2013-04-21

461

The use of thermography in sympathetically maintained pain.  

PubMed Central

This paper reviews the symptomatology, pathophysiology, and treatment of reflex sympathetic dystrophy and sympathetically maintained pain. It is the author's experience that there exists a group of patients who present with chronic, unexplained pain following trauma, but lack the physical findings and positive investigative tests to confirm the diagnosis of reflex sympathetic dystrophy. For these patients, thermography serves as a useful and sensitive test to diagnosis sympathetically maintained pain. This paper presents six case reports in which thermography was used to diagnosis sympathetic dysfunction as the cause of chronic pain. Images Fig. 1-A Fig. 1-B Fig. 1-C Fig. 2-A Fig. 2-B Fig. 3-A Fig. 3-B Fig. 4-A Fig. 4-B Fig. 5-A Fig. 5-B Fig. 5-C Fig. 6-A Fig. 6-B

Friedman, M. S.

1994-01-01

462

The yeast oxysterol binding protein Kes1 maintains sphingolipid levels.  

PubMed

The oxysterol binding protein family are amphitropic proteins that bind oxysterols, sterols, and possibly phosphoinositides, in a conserved binding pocket. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae oxysterol binding protein family member Kes1 (also known as Osh4) also binds phosphoinositides on a distinct surface of the protein from the conserved binding pocket. In this study, we determine that the oxysterol binding protein family member Kes1 is required to maintain the ratio of complex sphingolipids and levels of ceramide, sphingosine-phosphate and sphingosine. This inability to maintain normal sphingolipid homeostasis resulted in misdistribution of Pma1, a protein that requires normal sphingolipid synthesis to occur to partition into membrane rafts at the Golgi for its trafficking to the plasma membrane. PMID:23593226

LeBlanc, Marissa A; Fairn, Gregory D; Russo, Sarah B; Czyz, Ola; Zaremberg, Vanina; Cowart, L Ashley; McMaster, Christopher R

2013-04-04

463

The Yeast Oxysterol Binding Protein Kes1 Maintains Sphingolipid Levels  

PubMed Central

The oxysterol binding protein family are amphitropic proteins that bind oxysterols, sterols, and possibly phosphoinositides, in a conserved binding pocket. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae oxysterol binding protein family member Kes1 (also known as Osh4) also binds phosphoinositides on a distinct surface of the protein from the conserved binding pocket. In this study, we determine that the oxysterol binding protein family member Kes1 is required to maintain the ratio of complex sphingolipids and levels of ceramide, sphingosine-phosphate and sphingosine. This inability to maintain normal sphingolipid homeostasis resulted in misdistribution of Pma1, a protein that requires normal sphingolipid synthesis to occur to partition into membrane rafts at the Golgi for its trafficking to the plasma membrane.

LeBlanc, Marissa A.; Fairn, Gregory D.; Russo, Sarah B.; Czyz, Ola; Zaremberg, Vanina; Cowart, L. Ashley; McMaster, Christopher R.

2013-01-01

464

Adaptation maintains population homeostasis in primary visual cortex  

PubMed Central

Sensory systems exhibit mechanisms of neural adaptation, which adjust neuronal activity based on recent stimulus history. In primary visual cortex (V1), in particular, adaptation controls the responsiveness of individual neurons and shifts their visual selectivity. What benefits does adaptation confer to a neuronal population? We measured adaptation in the responses of populations of cat V1 neurons to stimulus ensembles with markedly different statistics of stimulus orientation. We found that adaptation serves two homeostatic goals. First, it maintains equality in the time-averaged responses across the population. Second, it maintains independence in selectivity across the population. Adaptation scales and distorts population activity according to a simple multiplicative rule that depends on neuronal orientation preference and on stimulus orientation. We conclude that adaptation in V1 acts as a mechanism of homeostasis, enforcing a tendency towards equality and independence in neural activity across the population.

Benucci, Andrea; Saleem, Aman B.; Carandini, Matteo

2013-01-01

465

Correlates of motivation to quit smoking in methadone-maintained smokers enrolled in a smoking cessation trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cigarette smoking is a clear problem among methadone-maintained persons, yet little is known about factors that may be associated with their motivation to quit smoking. A sample of 255 smokers, enrolled in a smoking cessation research protocol, completed measures of their smoking motivation, smoking habit, quitting history, and intent to quit in the future. Both zero-order correlational and multivariate linear

William G. Shadel; Michael D. Stein; Bradley J. Anderson; Debra S. Herman; Shaugna Bishop; Joanna A. Lassor; Marjorie Weinstock; Jennifer L. Anthony; Raymond Niaura

2005-01-01

466

Randomised social-skills training and parental training plus standard treatment versus standard treatment of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder - The SOSTRA trial protocol  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are hyperactive and impulsive, cannot maintain attention, and have difficulties with social interactions. Medical treatment may alleviate symptoms of ADHD, but seldom solves difficulties with social interactions. Social-skills training may benefit ADHD children in their social interactions. We want to examine the effects of social-skills training on difficulties related to the children's

Ole Jakob Storebø; Jesper Pedersen; Maria Skoog; Per Hove Thomsen; Per Winkel; Christian Gluud; Erik Simonsen

2011-01-01

467

A smoking cessation intervention for the methadone-maintained  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim To test, in combination with the nicotine patch, the incremental efficacy of a maximal, tailored behavioral treat- ment over a minimal treatment for smoking cessation. Design Randomized clinical trial with 6-month follow-up. Setting Five methadone maintenance treatment centers in Rhode Island. Participants Three hundred and eighty- three methadone-maintained smokers. Intervention Participants were assigned randomly to nicotine patch (8- 12

Michael D. Stein; Marjorie C. Weinstock; Debra S. Herman; Bradley J. Anderson; Jennifer L. Anthony; Raymond Niaura

2006-01-01

468

Bladder smooth muscle organ culture preparation maintains the contractile phenotype  

PubMed Central

Smooth muscle cells, when subjected to culture, modulate from a contractile to a secretory phenotype. This has hampered the use of cell culture for molecular techniques to study the regulation of smooth muscle biology. The goal of this study was to develop a new organ culture model of bladder smooth muscle (BSM) that would maintain the contractile phenotype and aid in the study of BSM biology. Our results showed that strips of BSM subjected to up to 9 days of organ culture maintained their contractile phenotype, including the ability to achieve near-control levels of force with a temporal profile similar to that of noncultured tissues. The technical aspects of our organ culture preparation that were responsible, in part, for the maintenance of the contractile phenotype were a slight longitudinal stretch during culture and subjection of the strips to daily contraction-relaxation. The tissues contained viable cells throughout the cross section of the strips. There was an increase in extracellular collagenous matrix, resulting in a leftward shift in the passive length-tension relationship. There were no significant changes in the content of smooth muscle-specific ?-actin, calponin, h-caldesmon, total myosin heavy chain, protein kinase G, Rho kinase-I, or the ratio of SM1 to SM2 myosin isoforms. Moreover the organ cultured tissues maintained functional voltage-gated calcium channels and large-conductance calcium-activated potassium channels. Therefore, we propose that this novel BSM organ culture model maintains the contractile phenotype and will be a valuable tool for the use in cellular/molecular biology studies of bladder myocytes.

Wang, Tanchun; Kendig, Derek M.; Chang, Shaohua; Trappanese, Danielle M.; Chacko, Samuel

2012-01-01

469

Intravascular Temperature Control System to Maintain Normothermia in Organ Donors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction  Temperature regulation in humans is controlled by the hypothalamus. After death by neurological criteria, the hypothalamus\\u000a ceases to function and poikilothermia ensues. Preservation of normothermia in those patients destined to become organ donors\\u000a is an important part of maintaining the normal physiology of the organs and organ systems. Typical means of achieving normothermia\\u000a include increasing the temperature of the ambient

Sarice L. Bassin; Thomas P. Bleck; Barnett R. Nathan

2008-01-01

470

Strategies for maintaining fitness and performance during Ramadan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Muslim athlete, whether living in a Muslim majority country or in a non-Muslim country, face unique challenges to faithfully follow one of the pillars of their faith – Ramadan – while attempting to maintain their participation in sports training and competition. There are conflicting reports on the effects of Ramadan on fitness and physical performance in general and in football in particular. In

Donald T. Kirkendall; Anis Chaouachi; Abdul Rashid Aziz; Karim Chamari

2012-01-01

471

Performance of multiversion concurrency control algorithms in maintaining temporal consistency  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors present a model of typical hard real-time applications and the concepts of age and dispersion of data accessed by the real-time transactions. These are used to evaluate the performance of a class of multiversion lock-based concurrency control algorithms in maintaining temporal consistency of data in a real-time shared-data environment. It is shown that it is easier for such

Xiaohui Song; J. W. S. Liu

1990-01-01

472

Selecting and maintaining a diverse T-cell repertoire  

Microsoft Academic Search

To provide a T-cell population that will respond promptly to foreign antigen, the immune system looks inward, using the variety of self-antigens to select and maintain a diverse repertoire of receptors. A protective immune system must include a T-lymphocyte population that is poised to respond to foreign antigenic peptides presented by self-major histocompatibility complex molecules. As the organism cannot predict

Ananda W. Goldrath; Michael J. Bevan

1999-01-01

473

Striated rootlet and nonfilamentous forms of rootletin maintain ciliary function.  

PubMed

Primary cilia are microtubule-based sensory organelles whose structures and functions must be actively maintained throughout animal lifespan to support signal transduction pathways essential for development and physiological processes such as vision and olfaction [1]. Remarkably, few cellular components aside from the intraflagellar transport (IFT) machinery are implicated in ciliary maintenance [2]. Rootletin, an evolutionarily conserved protein found as prominent striated rootlets or a nonfilamentous form, both of which are associated with cilium-anchoring basal bodies, represents a likely candidate given its well-known role in preventing ciliary photoreceptor degeneration in a mouse model [3, 4]. Whether rootletin is universally required for maintaining ciliary integrity, and if so, by what mechanism, remains unresolved. Here, we demonstrate that the gene disrupted in the previously isolated C. elegans chemosensory mutant che-10 encodes a rootletin ortholog that localizes proximally and distally to basal bodies of cilia harboring or lacking conspicuous rootlets. In vivo analyses reveal that CHE-10/rootletin maintains ciliary integrity partly by modulating the assembly, motility, and flux of IFT particles, which are critical for axoneme length control. Surprisingly, CHE-10/rootletin is also essential for stabilizing ciliary transition zones and basal bodies, roles not ascribed to IFT. Unifying these findings, we provide evidence that the underlying molecular defects in the che-10 mutant stem from disrupted organization/function of the periciliary membrane, affecting the efficient delivery of basal body-associated and ciliary components and resulting in cilium degeneration. Together, our cloning and functional analyses of C. elegans che-10 provide the first mechanistic insights into how filamentous and nonfilamentous forms of rootletin play essential roles in maintaining ciliary function in metazoans. PMID:24094853

Mohan, Swetha; Timbers, Tiffany A; Kennedy, Julie; Blacque, Oliver E; Leroux, Michel R

2013-10-03

474

Taste function in methadone-maintained opioid-dependent men  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been shown repeatedly that opioid dependence is associated with increased consumption of refined sugars. It is possible that this association results from altered taste reactivity in opioid-dependent subjects. Thus, in the present study, we compared taste responses to sweet, bitter, sour and salty solutions in methadone-maintained opioid-dependent men and healthy control subjects. The two groups did not differ

Anna Bogucka-Bonikowska; Helena Baran-Furga; Karina Chmielewska; Boguslaw Habrat; Anna Scinska; Andrzej Kukwa; Eliza Koros; Wojciech Kostowski; Elzbieta Polanowska; Przemyslaw Bienkowski

2002-01-01

475

Maintaining cholesterol homeostasis: Sterol regulatory element-binding proteins  

Microsoft Academic Search

The molecular mechanism of how hepatocytes maintain cholesterol homeostasis has become much more transparent with the discovery of sterol regulatory element binding proteins (SREBPs) in recent years. These membrane proteins are members of the basic helix-loop-helix-leucine zipper (bHLH- Zip) family of transcription factors. They activate the expression of at least 30 genes involved in the synthesis of cholesterol and lipids.

Lutz W. Weber; Meinrad Boll; Andreas Stampfl

2004-01-01

476

Bladder smooth muscle organ culture preparation maintains the contractile phenotype.  

PubMed

Smooth muscle cells, when subjected to culture, modulate from a contractile to a secretory phenotype. This has hampered the use of cell culture for molecular techniques to study the regulation of smooth muscle biology. The goal of this study was to develop a new organ culture model of bladder smooth muscle (BSM) that would maintain the contractile phenotype and aid in the study of BSM biology. Our results showed that strips of BSM subjected to up to 9 days of organ culture maintained their contractile phenotype, including the ability to achieve near-control levels of force with a temporal profile similar to that of noncultured tissues. The technical aspects of our organ culture preparation that were responsible, in part, for the maintenance of the contractile phenotype were a slight longitudinal stretch during culture and subjection of the strips to daily contraction-relaxation. The tissues contained viable cells throughout the cross section of the strips. There was an increase in extracellular collagenous matrix, resulting in a leftward shift in the passive length-tension relationship. There were no significant changes in the content of smooth muscle-specific ?-actin, calponin, h-caldesmon, total myosin heavy chain, protein kinase G, Rho kinase-I, or the ratio of SM1 to SM2 myosin isoforms. Moreover the organ cultured tissues maintained functional voltage-gated calcium channels and large-conductance calcium-activated potassium channels. Therefore, we propose that this novel BSM organ culture model maintains the contractile phenotype and will be a valuable tool for the use in cellular/molecular biology studies of bladder myocytes. PMID:22896042

Wang, Tanchun; Kendig, Derek M; Chang, Shaohua; Trappanese, Danielle M; Chacko, Samuel; Moreland, Robert S

2012-08-15

477

The puzzle of responding maintained by response-contingent shock.  

PubMed Central

Four squirrel monkeys were first exposed to a sequence of procedures that reliably generate responding maintained by brief response-contingent electric shocks arranged according to a fixed-interval schedule. After responding had become stable on the fixed-interval schedule, additional contingencies were added in tandem, whereby after completion of the interval, the spacing of responses affected shock delivery. In one procedure, responses had to be spaced more widely than their previous median value if shock were to be delivered. In the other procedure, responses had to be spaced more closely to produce shock. On the first of these procedures, decreased but stable responses rates would indicate that shock functioned as a positive reinforcer; on the second, increased response rates would indicate the positively reinforcing function. Instead, response rates accelerated on the procedure that targeted more widely spaced responses for shock delivery, and decelerated or ceased on the procedure that arranged for shocks to be produced by more closely spaced responses. Consistent with other recent findings, these results question the interpretation of performances maintained by response-contingent shock as engendered by positive reinforcement and are consistent with aversive-control interpretations. The details of that aversive control are not entirely clear, however, and these same procedures would be informative if applied to shock-maintained behavior that is generated in other ways.

Laurence, M T; Hineline, P N; Bersh, P J

1994-01-01

478

Reliability, availability, and maintainability: a key issue for ELTs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hundreds of mirror segment, thousands of high precision actuators, highly complex mechanical, hydraulic, electrical and other technology subsystems, and extremely sophisticated control systems: an ELT system consists of millions of individual parts and components each of them may fail and lead to a partial or complete system breakdown. Component and system reliability does not only influence the acquisition costs of a product, it also defines the necessary maintenance work and the required logistic support. Taking the long operational life time of an ELT into account, reliability and maintainability are some of the main contributors to the system life cycle costs. Reliability and maintainability are key characteristics of any product and have to be designed into it from the early beginning; they can neither be tested into a product nor introduced by numerous maintenance activities. This presentation explains the interconnections between Reliability, Availability, Maintainability and Safety (RAMS) and outlines the necessary RAMS and Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM) processes and activities during the entire life cycle of an ELT and an ELT instrument from the initial planning to the eventual disposal phase.

Ansorge, Wolfgang R.

2006-07-01

479

Helium Pot System for Maintaining Sample Temperature after Cryocooler Deactivation  

SciTech Connect

A system for maintaining a sample at a constant temperature below 10K after deactivating the cooling source is demonstrated. In this system, the cooling source is a GM cryocooler that is joined with the sample through an adaptor that consists of a helium pot and a resistive medium. Upon deactivating the cryocooler, the power applied to a heater located on the sample side of the resistive medium is decreased gradually to maintain an appropriate temperature rise across the resistive medium as the helium pot warms. The temperature is held constant in this manner without the use of solid or liquid cryogens and without mechanically disconnecting the sample from the cooler. Shutting off the cryocooler significantly reduces sample motion that results from vibration and expansion/contraction of the cold head housing. The reduction in motion permits certain processes that are very sensitive to sample position stability, but are not performed throughout the duration that the sample is at low-temperature. An apparatus was constructed to demonstrate this technique using a 4K GM cryocooler. Experimental and theoretical predictions indicate that when the helium pot is pressurized to the working pressure of the cryocooler's helium supply, a sample with continuous heat dissipation of several-hundred milliwatts can be maintained at 7K for several minutes when using an extension that increases the cold head length by less than 50%.

Haid, B J

2005-01-26

480

Lactobacillus GG in inducing and maintaining remission of Crohn's disease  

PubMed Central

Background Experimental studies have shown that luminal antigens are involved in chronic intestinal inflammatory disorders such as Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. Alteration of the intestinal microflora by antibiotic or probiotic therapy may induce and maintain remission. The aim of this randomized, placebo-controlled trial was to determine the effect of oral Lactobacillus GG (L. GG) to induce or maintain medically induced remission. Methods Eleven patients with moderate to active Crohn's disease were enrolled in this trial to receive either L. GG (2 × 109 CFU/day) or placebo for six months. All patients were started on a tapering steroid regime and received antibiotics for the week before the probiotic/placebo medication was initiated. The primary end point was sustained remission, defined as freedom from relapse at the 6 months follow-up visit. Relapse was defined as an increase in CDAI of >100 points. Results 5/11 patients finished the study, with 2 patients in each group in sustained remission. The median time to relapse was 16 ± 4 weeks in the L. GG group and 12 ± 4.3 weeks in the placebo group (p = 0.5). Conclusion In this study we could not demonstrate a benefit of L. GG in inducing or maintaining medically induced remission in CD.

Schultz, Michael; Timmer, Antje; Herfarth, Hans H; Sartor, R Balfour; Vanderhoof, Jon A; Rath, Heiko C

2004-01-01

481

Helium POT System for Maintaining Sample Temperature after Cryocooler Deactivation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A system for maintaining a sample at a constant temperature below 10 K after deactivating the cooling source is demonstrated. In this system, the cooling source is a 4 K GM cryocooler that is joined with the sample through an extension that consists of a helium pot and a thermal resistance. Upon stopping the cryocooler, the power applied to a heater located on the sample side of the thermal resistance is decreased gradually to maintain an appropriate temperature rise across the thermal resistance as the helium pot warms. The sample temperature is held constant in this manner without the use of solid or liquid cryogens and without mechanically disconnecting the sample from the cooler. Shutting off the cryocooler significantly reduces sample motion that results from vibration and expansion/contraction of the cold-head housing. The reduction in motion permits certain procedures that are very sensitive to sample position stability, but are performed with limited duration. A proof-of-concept system was built and operated with the helium pot pressurized to the cryocooler's charge pressure. A sample with 200 mW of continuous heat dissipation was maintained at 7 K while the cryocooler operated intermittently with a duty cycle of 9.5 minutes off and 20 minutes on.

Haid, B. J.

2006-04-01

482

Hip, Hype, Hope: Social Studies Reform for the 1990's.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Maintains that current efforts to reform education and social studies are cycles of media hyperbole and political hope. Contends that issues underlying various programs are really about power and control. Argues that social studies has a role in making schools and students models of democratic thought and action. (CFR)|

Nelson, Murry R.

1993-01-01

483

Socially sustainable work organizations : a chaordic systems approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper outlines both theoretical and practical approaches to socially sustainable work organizations. Socially sustainable work organizations have a dynamic ability to function both by repeating accustomed and by devising innovative solutions, and they maintain this operational viability by promoting the functioning capabilities of their stakeholders. The organizational and stakeholder functioning capabilities are founded on complexity stemming from the simultaneous

Mari Kira; Frans M. van Eijnatten

2008-01-01

484

Improving the Privacy Settings Interface of Online Social Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Maintaining a sense of privacy while participating in online social networking can be very challenging. Social network sites like Facebook enable users to create and manage their own profile, while openly sharing large amounts of personal information among friends and strangers, leaving them subject to a range of risks. We propose a new prototype that presents a visual-based privacy settings

Charisse Cotton

485

The Virtual Knowledge Studio for the Humanities and Social Sciences  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the goals and theoretical underpinning of a new national programme in e-social science in the Netherlands. Recent transformations in communication and information exchange have created new opportunities for researchers in the humanities and social sciences. It is not self-evident, however, in what ways scholars can best use these possibilities while maintaining and further developing their specific roles

Paul Wouters

2005-01-01

486

Social competence: An untapped dimension in evaluating head start's success  

Microsoft Academic Search

From its inception, Head Start has maintained children's social and emotional adjustment as a primary goal of intervention, but researchers have yet to settle on a consensus definition of social competence that can be used in developmental research and program evaluation. To address this gap in our knowledge base, we offer a comprehensive review of the extant research on children's

Edward F. Zigler

1997-01-01

487

Developing the Social Skills of Young Adult Special Olympics Athletes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the study was to determine if young adult Special Olympics participants could develop, generalize, and maintain target social skills (eye contact, contributing relevant information, and turn taking) as a result of a 14-week Social Skills and Sports (S[superscript 3]) Program that combined classroom instruction with soccer…

Alexander, Melissa G. F.; Dummer, Gail M.; Smeltzer, Ashley; Denton, Stephen J.

2011-01-01

488

The evolution of social norms: With managerial implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evolutionary game theory provides the tools to analyze which strategies, or patterns of behaviour, emerge over time through a process of adaptation. Social norms can be defined as patterns of behaviour with certain characteristics. Evolutionary game theory thus provides one perspective on how social norms are formed and maintained. In particular, evolutionary models demonstrate how the emergence and stability of

Ivar Kolstad

2007-01-01

489

Social Darwinism, Scientific Racism, and the Metaphysics of Race.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Maintains that science is often used as a justification to propose, project, and enact racist social policies. The philosophy of Social Darwinism is reviewed, and its assumptions about race and human abilities is discussed. The consequences of scientific racism for dominant groups are analyzed. (GR)

Dennis, Rutledge M.

1995-01-01

490

Whatever Happened to the Social Studies? Occasional Paper #8.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This monograph focuses on the issue of the nature and purpose of the social studies curriculum. In the lead article, George Wood maintains that social studies as taught today is irrelevant and strives to produce citizens who are unquestioning supporters of U.S. political and economic institutions. Dr. Wood attributes this state of affairs to the…

Clubok, Arthur, Ed.

491

Higher Order Entropies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Higher order entropies are kinetic entropy estimators for fluid models. These quantities are quadratic in the velocity and temperature derivatives and have temperature dependent coefficients. We investigate governing equations for higher order entropies and related a priori estimates in the natural situation where viscosity and thermal conductivity depend on temperature. We establish positivity of higher order derivative source terms in these governing equations provided that || log T||_{BMO}+||v/sqrt{T}||Linfty is small enough. The temperature factors renormalizing temperature and velocity derivatives then yield majorization of lower order convective terms only when the temperature dependence of transport coefficients is taken into account according to the kinetic theory. In this situation, we obtain entropic principles for higher order entropies of arbitrary order. As an application, we investigate a priori estimates and global existence of solutions when the initial values log( T 0/ T ?) and v_0/sqrt{T}0 are small enough in appropriate spaces.

Giovangigli, Vincent

2008-02-01

492

Characterizing limit order prices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A computational model of a limit order book is used to study the effect of different limit order distribution offsets. Reference prices such as same side/contra side best market prices and last traded price are considered in combination with different price offset distributions. We show that when characterizing limit order prices, varying the offset distribution only produces different behavior when the reference price is the contra side best price. Irrespective of the underlying mechanisms used in computing the limit order prices, the shape of the price graph and the behavior of the average order book profile distribution are strikingly similar in all the considered reference prices/offset distributions. This implies that existing averaging methods can cancel variabilities in limit order book shape/attributes and may be misleading.

Withanawasam, R. M.; Whigham, P. A.; Crack, Timothy Falcon

2013-11-01

493

Loneliness, social interaction, and sex roles  

Microsoft Academic Search

43 male and 53 female undergraduates maintained the Rochester Interaction Record for 2 wks, providing information about social interactions of 10 min or more. Ss then completed the revised UCLA Loneliness Scale and the Personal Attributes Questionnaire. For both sexes, loneliness was negatively related to the amount of time spent with females and to the meaningfulness of interaction with males

Ladd Wheeler; Harry Reis; John B. Nezlek

1983-01-01

494

Digital ghosts, global capitalism and social change  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article traces the importance of colonial legacies for theorizing speculative capitalism by thinking from the use of digital media by indigenous social movements in the Andes. Indeed, rather than marginal to global capitalism, I maintain that indigenous peoples and media activists are at the forefront of experimenting with political and economic alternatives to capitalism. I argue that the racialized

Freya Schiwy

2009-01-01

495

Negotiating Implicit Curricula in Social Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines implicit curricula which consist of the messages imparted by the classroom and school environment. Among the outcomes that have been attributed to implicit curricula are individual and societal effects that foster conformity to national ideals and social conventions while maintaining socioeconomic and cultural inequalities.…

Cornbleth, Catherine

496

Sustaining Employment: Social Skills at Work.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual is intended for use by persons with psychiatric disabilities who are employed in the community but need to improve their social skills to maintain their employment. It is designed to be taught to mental health consumers by mental health consumers. Each session outline includes objectives; a list of materials needed; and exercises that…

Jonikas, Jessica A.; And Others

497

Hooking Primary Children on Social Studies!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Asserts that teaching social studies in the primary grades can be an exhilarating experience for teachers and encourages long-term interest in investigating the world among students. Maintains that cooperative learning, student research activities, integration of children's literature, writing and the arts, and the use of educational technology…

Hutchens, Dorothy

1993-01-01

498

National PTA Gets Connected with Social Media  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|People are busy, we all know that. Getting their attention is harder and harder all the time. That's especially true for member organizations and advocacy groups. The National PTA is both and has adapted some social media practices to reach out and maintain contact with more than 5 million volunteers in 25,000 local units. James Martinez, senior…

Phillips, Derek

2011-01-01

499

Social Studies Losing out to Reading, Math  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Johnny" may be learning more about reading and mathematics, but he may have little time to study the discoveries of Columbus, the tenets of the U.S. Constitution, or the social and political causes of the Civil War. Those time-honored topics--as well as lesser-known events and figures throughout history--are fighting to maintain their place in…

Manzo, Kathleen Kennedy

2005-01-01

500

Academic Freedom and Social Studies Preservice Teachers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses the challenges of censorship in the social studies curriculum that new teachers will have to face in controlled school environments. Maintains that new teachers must be trained and prepared to effectively deal with these challenges in school systems that are not supportive of certain academic freedoms. (MJP)|

Daly, James

1998-01-01