Sample records for maintaining social order

  1. Rites vs rights: maintaining social order in China and the West

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ken Baskin

    2009-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine how the generally accepted notion of Chinese “lawlessness” distorts the Chinese behavior by trying to understand it through the Western concept of the “rule of law” and to examine how the concept of “storied space” offers a more contextual understanding of the Chinese style of maintaining social order. Design\\/methodology\\/approach –

  2. Engineering Social Order

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cristiano Castelfranchi

    2000-01-01

    Social Order becomes a major problem in MAS and in computer mediated human interaction. After explaining the notions of Social Order and Social Control, I claim that there are multiple and complementary approaches to Social Order and to its engineering: all of them must be exploited. In computer science one try to solve this problem by rigid formalisation and rules,

  3. SPONTANEOUS SOCIAL ORDERS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MILAN ZELENY

    1985-01-01

    As the results of man-engineered experiments with social design, social “revolution”, socialist “architectures”, and other feats of “social engineering”, are crumbling down, they are causing large-scale human suffering through their failures. There is a renewed awareness that self-organizing and spontaneous properties of complex social systems are much too powerful (and much too vulnerable at the same lime) to respond or

  4. Evaluating the Rank-Ordering Method for Standard Maintaining

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bramley, Tom; Gill, Tim

    2010-01-01

    The rank-ordering method for standard maintaining was designed for the purpose of mapping a known cut-score (e.g. a grade boundary mark) on one test to an equivalent point on the test score scale of another test, using holistic expert judgements about the quality of exemplars of examinees' work (scripts). It is a novel application of an old…

  5. The social order of markets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jens Beckert

    2009-01-01

    In this article I develop a proposal for the theoretical vantage point of the sociology of markets, focusing on the problem\\u000a of the social order of markets. The initial premise is that markets are highly demanding arenas of social interaction, which\\u000a can only operate if three inevitable coordination problems are resolved. I define these coordination problems as the value problem,

  6. SocialWiki: Bring Order to Wiki Systems with Social Context

    E-print Network

    California at Davis, University of

    SocialWiki: Bring Order to Wiki Systems with Social Context Haifeng Zhao, Shaozhi Ye, Prantik,gribble,wu}@cs.ucdavis.edu Abstract. A huge amount of administrative effort is required for large wiki systems to produce and maintain high quality pages with exist- ing naive access control policies. This paper introduces SocialWiki

  7. SocialWiki: Bring Order to Wiki Systems with Social Context

    E-print Network

    California at Davis, University of

    SocialWiki: Bring Order to Wiki Systems with Social Context Haifeng Zhao, Shaozhi Ye, Prantik,sye,pbhattacharyya,rowe,gribble,wu}@ucdavis.edu Abstract. A huge amount of administrative effort is required for large wiki systems to produce and maintain high quality pages with exist- ing naive access control policies. This paper introduces SocialWiki

  8. CAD models are an important step in several engineering projects. In order to maintain

    E-print Network

    Barbosa, Alberto

    Abstract CAD models are an important step in several engineering projects. In order to maintain. Keywords: Virtual Reality, CAD models, Collaborative Virtual Prototyping and Design review. 1. Introduction Nowadays the engineering projects are using CAD (Computer-Aided Design) tools not just to plan

  9. Department of Humanities, Social Sciences and Social Justice Education, OISE, UT Order of Canada Award

    E-print Network

    Sokolowski, Marla

    Department of Humanities, Social Sciences and Social Justice Education, OISE, UT Order of Canada to the Department of Humanities, Social Sciences and Social Justice Education at OISE. Congratulations on this well

  10. The Social Foundations of the Bureaucratic Order

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jannis Kallinikos

    2004-01-01

    This article views the bureaucratic form of organization as both an agent and an expression of key modern social innovations that are most clearly manifested in the non-inclusive terms by which individuals are involved in organizations. Modern human involvement in organiza- tions epitomizes and institutionally embeds the crucial yet often over- looked cultural orientation of modernity whereby humans undertake action

  11. Political Skills That Superintendents Need to Embrace in Order to Maintain a Positive Working Relationship with Their Board Members

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muhammed, Anil Salim

    2012-01-01

    According to the literature, school districts are becoming increasingly political and complex. For superintendents to be successful in this environment they must exhibit great political skills in order to maintain positive working relationships with their boards of education. Thus, this study aimed to identify political skills that superintendents…

  12. Comprehensive treatment to social order: A Chinese approach against crime

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yingyi Situ; Weizheng Liu

    1996-01-01

    This study systematically examines the strategy of comprehensive treatment to social order employed by the Chinese government since the 1980s. This social project is designed to mobilize and coordinate the efforts of the whole society to fight against crime by using political, legal, economic, administrative, and educational measures. Based on secondary sources, the authors analyze the emergence and emphases of

  13. Social Order and Adaptability in Animal and Human Cultures as Analogues for Agent Communities: Toward a Policy-Based Approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul J. Feltovich; Jeffrey M. Bradshaw; Renia Jeffers; Niranjan Suri; Andrzej Uszok

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we discuss some of the ways social order is maintained in animal and human realms, with the goal of enriching our thinking about mechanisms that might be employed in developing similar means of ordering communities of agents. We present examples from our current work in human- agent teamwork, and we speculate about some new directions this kind

  14. Managing Stress and Maintaining Well-Being: Social Support, Problem-Focused Coping, and Avoidant Coping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chao, Ruth Chu-Lien

    2011-01-01

    This study tested a model that links stress, social support, problem-focused coping, and well-being. First, it looks at how high support significantly moderated the association between stress and well-being. Next, the students' problem-focused coping was seen as mediating this moderated association. Finally, a 3-way interaction of stress, social

  15. Effectively Maintained Inequality: Education Transitions, Track Mobility, and Social Background Effects1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Samuel R. Lucas

    2001-01-01

    This article proposes a general explanation for social background- related inequality. Educational attainment research indicates that the later an education transition, the lower the social background effect. While some suggest life course changes in the parent-child relationship or between-family competition explain this pattern, oth- ers contend the result is a statistical artifact, and that the analytic strategy presupposes agents are

  16. Social support and the likelihood of maintaining and improving levels of physical activity: the

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Department of Health Behaviors and Health Education, School of Public Health, University of Michigan, Ann-demographics, self-rated health, long-standing illnesses, physical functioning and common mental disorders. Results support and the likelihood of maintaining and improving levels of physical activity: the Whitehall II

  17. The Role of Multiple Benefits in Maintaining the Social Safety Net: The Case of Food Stamps

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maurice MacDonald

    1985-01-01

    Panel data from the 1979 Income Survey Development Program are used to describe the adequacy of the social welfare safety net and the population it protected prior to the 1981 round of welfare cuts. The analysis centers on food stamp recipients and shows that while some food stamp recipients had incomes exceeding 130 percent of the poverty line, many others

  18. Economic use of tropical moist forests while maintaining biological, physical and social values

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Davidson

    1985-01-01

    Summary  The biological, physical and social values of tropical moist forests (TMFs) can be defined from a subjective human viewpoint.\\u000a The fragility of these forests, i.e. their reaction to outside forces, is determined by their nature and by ecological principles,\\u000a both of which are largely objective. The forest, as a complex living system, acts as an objective entity. If utilization exceeds

  19. [The social status of women. For a new world order].

    PubMed

    Gauffenic, A

    1985-01-01

    Curiosity about the place of women in development and solidarity with women's organizations in different economies prompt consideration of the individual and collective possibilities for women in public life and of the social status of women. Recent histories of Third World countries as reported in UN conferences held in Tunisia, Portugal, and New Delhi in 1982-83 and Western experience are the basis for identification of constraints in the development of women's movements and alternatives for participation of women in a new world order. Women have always contributed to the life and economic development of their countries, often in activities not recognized as economic, but they are excluded from processes of institutionalization and their presence is very rare at the highest levels of the social hierarchy. Women organized themselves and participated in the liberation movements of India, Malaysia, Libya, and Egypt, but were later relegated to their customary low status. Among the structural and ideological factors impeding access of women to political power and a true social status are cultural nationalism and religious ideology. Socialization is 1 of the processes by which members of a society acquire a common fund of knowledge, but norms produced by the dominant ideology, in this case male, pose a problem to dominated groups concerning the nature of their particularity. Such groups can strive for integration at the price of risking loss of identity, or they can contest the rules, situating themselves at the margin of the "laws" or rules. The essential question concerns the possibility of women rethinking the process and contents of socialization. A new system is required of perceptions, evaluations, and actions founded on new human values. In this perspective the women's movement would contribute to the realization of a new world order. Theories of equality, to comprehend reality in its entirety, must include equality while developing the concept of differences. A theory or an ethic of difference developed by feminists would lead individuals to recover their rights. PMID:12340318

  20. Effect of homosexuality upon public health and social order.

    PubMed

    Cameron, P; Cameron, K; Proctor, K

    1989-06-01

    Are homosexuals "not dangers to society" and is homosexuality "compatible with full health"? To answer these questions 4,340 adult respondents drawn via area probability sampling from 5 metropolitan areas of the USA self-administered an extensive sexuality/public order questionnaire of over 500 items. Bisexuals and homosexuals (about 4% of the sample) as compared to heterosexuals: (1) more frequently exposed themselves to biological hazards (e.g., sadomasochism, fisting, bestiality, ingestion of feces); (2) exposed themselves sexually to more different bodies (e.g., more frequently admitted to participating in orgies, reported considerably larger numbers of sexual partners); (3) more frequently reported participating in socially disruptive sex (e.g., deliberate infection of others, cheating in marriage, making obscene phone calls); and (4) more frequently reported engaging in socially disruptive activities (e.g., criminality, shoplifting, tax cheating). From the standpoints of individual health, public health and social order, participating in homosexual activity could be viewed as dangerous to society and incompatible with full health. PMID:2762461

  1. [Social order, stability, and certainty violence and social power in early modern history].

    PubMed

    Pröve, Ralf

    2014-01-01

    This article develops a comprehensive critique of historical research focussing on the mutual relations between social power and violence. According to the methodological initial hypothesis, due to the inadequate distinction between indigenious concept (from sources) and heuristic (from reseach) in the historical sciences, there have been very few valuable insights into these relations to date. In order to expand the research focus which is the objective of this article, the analysis draws on the two actor-centric reference systems of "certainty" and "order". The key idea behind this, operationalizing certainty/uncertainty by means of order/disorder, is a promising way of programmatically combining a vertical and horizontal network of relationships of power, violence, certainty, and order. PMID:25600019

  2. 19th Century Spiritualism: How proponents deploy particular arguments in order to maintain belief despite negative evidence 

    E-print Network

    Rocca, Victoria

    2013-03-13

    In order to extend our understanding of the communicative practices involved in belief maintenance, the current paper examines how proponents of 19th century Spiritualism defended their beliefs despite apparent negative ...

  3. Social media pecking order : analysing Twitter information streams 

    E-print Network

    Ritterman, Joshua

    2013-11-28

    This thesis investigates how authority is distributed in social media and develops a novel method to validate the finding using prediction markets. By modelling prediction markets with a data corpus comprising of both ...

  4. Modeling Morphology of Cascades in Online Social Networks using Multi-Order Markov Chains

    E-print Network

    Radha, Hayder

    Modeling Morphology of Cascades in Online Social Networks using Multi-Order Markov Chains M. Zubair this end, we propose M4, a Multi-order Markov Model for the Morphology of cascades in online social for analyzing and classifying cascades solely based on their morphology. For validation, we apply M4 model

  5. Social learning and human mate preferences: a potential mechanism for generating and maintaining between-population diversity in attraction

    PubMed Central

    Little, Anthony C.; Jones, Benedict C.; DeBruine, Lisa M.; Caldwell, Christine A.

    2011-01-01

    Inspired by studies demonstrating mate-choice copying effects in non-human species, recent studies of attractiveness judgements suggest that social learning also influences human preferences. In the first part of our article, we review evidence for social learning effects on preferences in humans and other animals. In the second part, we present new empirical evidence that social learning not only influences the attractiveness of specific individuals, but can also generalize to judgements of previously unseen individuals possessing similar physical traits. The different conditions represent different populations and, once a preference arises in a population, social learning can lead to the spread of preferences within that population. In the final part of our article, we discuss the theoretical basis for, and possible impact of, biases in social learning whereby individuals may preferentially copy the choices of those with high status or better access to critical information about potential mates. Such biases could mean that the choices of a select few individuals carry the greatest weight, rapidly generating agreement in preferences within a population. Collectively, these issues suggest that social learning mechanisms encourage the spread of preferences for certain traits once they arise within a population and so may explain certain cross-cultural differences. PMID:21199841

  6. Local orders and global chaos in social work

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen A. Webb

    2003-01-01

    We live, supposedly, in a run away global world that is permeated with risk, disaster and uncertainty. Social work, at least at the level of policy and research, has been seen to be responding to the globalization discourse. Its tendency is to try and deepen its own institutional reflexivity with a growing awareness of its own place within the new

  7. Order from noise: Toward a social theory of geographic information

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Poore, B.S.; Chrisman, N.R.

    2006-01-01

    In the so-called Information Age, it is surprising that the concept of information is imprecisely defined and almost taken for granted. Historic and recent geographic information science (GIScience) literature relies on two conflicting metaphors, often espoused by the same author in adjacent paragraphs. The metaphor of invariance, derived from telecommunications engineering, defines information as a thing to be transported without loss through a conduit. Another metaphor, originating in the utopian movements of the 19th century, locates information within a hierarchy of refinement-a stopping place on the path to convert mere data into higher forms of knowledge and perhaps to wisdom. Both metaphors rely on long-forgotten debates outside geography and preclude us from seeing that there are important social and ethical concerns in the relationship between geographic information technologies and society. We examine the conflicts between competing metaphors and propose a social theory of geographic information. ?? 2006 by Association of American Geographers.

  8. Leadership for Social Justice: Preparing 21st Century School Leaders for a New Social Order

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jean-Marie, Gaetane; Normore, Anthony H.; Brooks, Jeffrey S.

    2009-01-01

    At the dawn of the 21st century, there has been an increased focus on social justice and educational leadership (Bogotch, Beachum, Blount, Brooks & English, 2008; Marshall & Oliva, 2006; Shoho, Merchang & Lugg, 2005). This paper explores and extends themes in contemporary educational research on leadership preparation in terms of social justice…

  9. [Stabilizing the social and health status of drug dependent patients with methadone. Long-term maintainance therapy--Vienna results].

    PubMed

    Loimer, N; Werner, E; Hollerer, E; Pfersmann, V; Schmid-Siegel, B; Presslich, O

    1991-01-01

    On September 25th, 1987 methadone was legalized in Austria for therapeutic use in drug addiction treatment in case of: 1. Long-term drug addiction with intravenous application of the drug, and several unsuccessful withdrawal therapies and/or 2. opiate addiction through intravenous application of the drug along with an existing HIV-1 infection. Since than, 291 patients were treated with methadone at the drug-dependency outpatient clinic of the Psychiatric Clinic of the University of Vienna. In 1990, 96 patients treated for more than one year were investigated using a standardized questionnaire. The image in which crime, prostitution, poverty, ill health all merge was broken by this decriminalization. Methadone treatment offers a first step toward social rehabilitation for drug addicts who have been living as criminals on the fringe of society. PMID:1949832

  10. Care Orders as Successful Interventions: The Social Workers' Point of View

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pösö, Tarja; Eronen, Tuija

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the outcomes of care orders from the point of view of social workers. The aim is to cast light on the "black box" of substitute care by analysing the practice-based view on outcome in order to contribute to the complex debate on the relations of care and outcome. The article is based on a study using a survey, focus…

  11. Incorporating social groups' responses in a descriptive model for second- and higher-order impact identification

    SciTech Connect

    Sutheerawatthana, Pitch, E-mail: pitch.venture@gmail.co [Department of International Studies, Graduate School of Frontier Sciences, University of Tokyo, 5-1-5, Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8563 (Japan); Minato, Takayuki, E-mail: minato@k.u-tokyo.ac.j [Department of International Studies, Graduate School of Frontier Sciences, University of Tokyo, 5-1-5, Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8563 (Japan)

    2010-02-15

    The response of a social group is a missing element in the formal impact assessment model. Previous discussion of the involvement of social groups in an intervention has mainly focused on the formation of the intervention. This article discusses the involvement of social groups in a different way. A descriptive model is proposed by incorporating a social group's response into the concept of second- and higher-order effects. The model is developed based on a cause-effect relationship through the observation of phenomena in case studies. The model clarifies the process by which social groups interact with a lower-order effect and then generate a higher-order effect in an iterative manner. This study classifies social groups' responses into three forms-opposing, modifying, and advantage-taking action-and places them in six pathways. The model is expected to be used as an analytical tool for investigating and identifying impacts in the planning stage and as a framework for monitoring social groups' responses during the implementation stage of a policy, plan, program, or project (PPPPs).

  12. SOCIAL SERVICES BENEFITS VERIFICATION FORM You indicated that you or your family members received Social Services benefits in 2012. In order to accurately assess your financial

    E-print Network

    Suzuki, Masatsugu

    SOCIAL SERVICES BENEFITS VERIFICATION FORM You indicated that you or your family members received Social Services benefits in 2012. In order to accurately assess your financial eligibility for the EOP the authority to disclose to Binghamton University the amount of Social Service benefits paid to myself

  13. Crime, policing and social order: on the expressive nature of public confidence in policing.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Jonathan; Bradford, Ben

    2009-09-01

    Public confidence in policing is receiving increasing attention from UK social scientists and policy-makers. The criminal justice system relies on legitimacy and consent to an extent unlike other public services: public support is vital if the police and other criminal justice agencies are to function both effectively and in accordance with democratic norms. Yet we know little about the forms of social perception that stand prior to public confidence and police legitimacy. Drawing on data from the 2003/2004 British Crime Survey and the 2006/2007 London Metropolitan Police Safer Neighbourhoods Survey, this paper suggests that people think about their local police in ways less to do with the risk of victimization (instrumental concerns about personal safety) and more to do with judgments of social cohesion and moral consensus (expressive concerns about neighbourhood stability, cohesion and loss of collective authority). Across England and Wales the police may not primarily be seen as providers of a narrow sense of personal security, held responsible for crime and safety. Instead the police may stand as symbolic 'moral guardians' of social stability and order, held responsible for community values and informal social controls. We also present evidence that public confidence in the London Metropolitan Police Service expresses broader social anxieties about long-term social change. We finish our paper with some thoughts on a sociological analysis of the cultural place of policing: confidence (and perhaps ultimately the legitimacy of the police) might just be wrapped up in broader public concerns about social order and moral consensus. PMID:19703172

  14. "Standing Porter at the Door of Thought": The Social Order of the Christian Science Church.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, Douglas J.

    This examination of the social order of the Church of Christ, Scientist, provides a valuable learning opportunity for leaders of any organizational entity--or for any student of organizational communication/behavior. The study addresses labor, trust, power, and legitimization of activity within the church. It raises the issue of whether Christian…

  15. Adaptation to low body temperature influences pulmonary surfactant composition thereby increasing fluidity while maintaining appropriately ordered membrane structure and surface activity.

    PubMed

    Suri, Lakshmi N M; McCaig, Lynda; Picardi, Maria V; Ospina, Olga L; Veldhuizen, Ruud A W; Staples, James F; Possmayer, Fred; Yao, Li-Juan; Perez-Gil, Jesus; Orgeig, Sandra

    2012-07-01

    The interfacial surface tension of the lung is regulated by phospholipid-rich pulmonary surfactant films. Small changes in temperature affect surfactant structure and function in vitro. We compared the compositional, thermodynamic and functional properties of surfactant from hibernating and summer-active 13-lined ground squirrels (Ictidomys tridecemlineatus) with porcine surfactant to understand structure-function relationships in surfactant membranes and films. Hibernating squirrels had more surfactant large aggregates with more fluid monounsaturated molecular species than summer-active animals. The latter had more unsaturated species than porcine surfactant. Cold-adapted surfactant membranes displayed gel-to-fluid transitions at lower phase transition temperatures with reduced enthalpy. Both hibernating and summer-active squirrel surfactants exhibited lower enthalpy than porcine surfactant. LAURDAN fluorescence and DPH anisotropy revealed that surfactant bilayers from both groups of squirrels possessed similar ordered phase characteristics at low temperatures. While ground squirrel surfactants functioned well during dynamic cycling at 3, 25, and 37 degrees C, porcine surfactant demonstrated poorer activity at 3 degrees C but was superior at 37 degrees C. Consequently the surfactant composition of ground squirrels confers a greater thermal flexibility relative to homeothermic mammals, while retaining tight lipid packing at low body temperatures. This may represent the most critical feature contributing to sustained stability of the respiratory interface at low lung volumes. Thus, while less effective than porcine surfactant at 37 degrees C, summer-active surfactant functions adequately at both 37 degrees C and 3 degrees C allowing these animals to enter hibernation. Here further compositional alterations occur which improve function at low temperatures by maintaining adequate stability at low lung volumes and when temperature increases during arousal from hibernation. PMID:22387458

  16. Moral standards: underpinning or (re)constructing social order? The case of fraud in a French collective transportation service.

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Moral standards: underpinning or (re)constructing social order? The case of fraud in a French: The paper advances a certain view on the relationship between moral standards and social order. Referring (of fraud and more generally of deviance) with a moral insight. The review reveals major similarities

  17. The Relationship between Second-Order False Belief and Display Rules Reasoning: The Integration of Cognitive and Affective Social Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naito, Mika; Seki, Yoshimi

    2009-01-01

    To investigate the relation between cognitive and affective social understanding, Japanese 4- to 8-year-olds received tasks of first- and second-order false beliefs and prosocial and self-presentational display rules. From 6 to 8 years, children comprehended display rules, as well as second-order false belief, using social pressures justifications…

  18. First Order Models of Human Crowds with Behavioral-Social Dynamics

    E-print Network

    Bellomo, Nicola; Gibelli, Livio; Pieri, Alexandre

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a new approach to behavioral-social dynamics of human crowds. First order models are derived based on mass conservation at the macroscopic scale, while methods of the kinetic theory are used to model the decisional process by which walking individuals select their velocity direction. Crowd heterogeneity is modeled by dividing the whole system into subsystems identified by different features. The passage from one subsystem to the other is induced by interactions. It is shown how heterogeneous individual behaviors can modify the collective dynamics, as well as how local unusual behaviors can propagate in the crowd. The paper also proposes a system approach to the modeling of the dynamics in complex venues, where individuals move through areas with different features.

  19. Analysis of Social Variables when an Initial Functional Analysis Indicates Automatic Reinforcement as the Maintaining Variable for Self-Injurious Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuhn, Stephanie A. Contrucci; Triggs, Mandy

    2009-01-01

    Self-injurious behavior (SIB) that occurs at high rates across all conditions of a functional analysis can suggest automatic or multiple functions. In the current study, we conducted a functional analysis for 1 individual with SIB. Results indicated that SIB was, at least in part, maintained by automatic reinforcement. Further analyses using…

  20. The Contributions of Parenting to Social Competencies and Positive Values in Middle School Youth: Positive Family Communication, Maintaining Standards, and Supportive Family Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hillaker, Barbara D.; Brophy-Herb, Holly E.; Villarruel, Francisco A.; Haas, Bruce E.

    2008-01-01

    Three aspects of parenting, positive family communication, facilitation of supportive family relationships, and maintenance of standards in the family, were examined as predictors of positive values and social competencies in sixth- (n = 1,453), seventh- (n = 3,732), and eighth- (n = 4,474) grade youth. Hierarchical regression analyses indicated…

  1. Theoretical foundations for enhancing social connectedness in online learning environments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patricia J. Slagter van Tryon; M. J. Bishop

    2009-01-01

    Group social structure provides a comfortable and predictable context for interaction in learning environments. Students in face?to?face learning environments process social information about others in order to assess traits, predict behaviors, and determine qualifications for assuming particular responsibilities within a group. In online learning environments, however, negotiating social information and maintaining social connectedness can pose challenges for participants. Nonverbal strategies

  2. LSUHSC School of Allied Health Professions Social Media Policy

    E-print Network

    LSUHSC School of Allied Health Professions Social Media Policy SUMMARY STATEMENT OF SOCIAL MEDIA POLICY LSUHSC School of Allied Health Professions maintains a presence on social media in order resources and information that we think will be of use to our audiences on our social media sites. These may

  3. The Difficulty of Maintaining Positive Intervention Effects: A Look at Disruptive Behavior, Deviant Peer Relations, and Social Skills During the Middle School Years

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the effects of the Fast Track preventive intervention on youths’ functioning in three domains: disruptive behavior problems, involvement with deviant peers, and social skills during the middle school years. Eight hundred ninety-one children had been randomly assigned by sets of schools within four sites to intervention (n = 445) or to control (n = 446) conditions. In contrast to prior findings of the effectiveness of the Fast Track intervention during the elementary school years, the current findings indicate that Fast Track had little overall impact on children’s functioning in these domains during this age period. There were positive intervention effects on only 2 of 17 outcomes examined. Although the intervention had positive impact on children’s hyperactive and self-reported delinquent behaviors in seventh grade, there were no intervention effects on other externalizing behavior problems or on social skills, and there was a negative intervention effect on children’s involvement with deviant peers during this age period. PMID:24319308

  4. Does PKM? maintain memory?

    PubMed Central

    Kwapis, Janine L.; Helmstetter, Fred J.

    2013-01-01

    Work on the long-term stability of memory has identified a potentially critical role for protein kinase Mzeta (PKM?) in maintaining established memory. PKM?, an autonomously active isoform of PKC, is hypothesized to sustain those changes that occurred during memory formation in order to preserve the memory engram over time. Initial studies investigating the role of PKM? were largely successful in demonstrating a role for the kinase in memory maintenance; disrupting PKM? activity with ?-inhibitory peptide (ZIP) was successful in disrupting a variety of established associations in a number of key brain regions. More recent work, however, has questioned both the role of PKM? in memory maintenance and the effectiveness of ZIP as a specific inhibitor of PKM? activity. Here, we outline the research both for and against the idea that PKM? is a memory maintenance mechanism and discuss how these two lines of research can be reconciled. We conclude by proposing a number of studies that would help to clarify the role of PKM? in memory and define other mechanisms the brain may use to maintain memory. PMID:24076105

  5. December 2006 MAINTAINING EFFECTIVE

    E-print Network

    December 2006 MAINTAINING EFFECTIVE INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY (IT) SECURITY THROUGH TEST, TRAINING, AND EXERCISE PROGRAMS MAINTAINING EFFECTIVE INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY (IT) SECURITY THROUGH TEST, TRAINING, AND EXERCISE PROGRAMS Shirley Radack, EditorShirley Radack, Editor Computer Security DivisionComputer Security

  6. Maintaining Your Health

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Support Groups Local and International Online Support Communities Social Media Networks Support Group Leader Network PFF Educational Resources ... Support Groups Local and International Online Support Communities Social Media Networks Support Group Leader Network PFF Educational Resources ...

  7. Poverty, Inequality and the Future of Social Policy: Western States in the New World Order.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McFate, Katherine, Ed.; Lawson, Roger, Ed.; Wilson, William Julius, Ed.

    This book analyzes forces fraying the social fabric of many countries, and the reasons why some Western countries have been more successful than others in addressing these trends. Part 1, "Poverty, Income Inequality, and Labor Market Insecurity: A Comparative Perspective," includes (1) "Markets and States: Poverty Trends and Transfer System…

  8. Maintaining an Arthropod Collection

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This article, part of Biodiversity Counts, provides insight into what it takes to maintain an arthropod collection. The article contains advice to students for setting up and maintaining a small-scale collection, including what tools are needed, safe alternatives to chemicals for killing and preserving specimens and some of the techniques the museum uses to protect specimens that students may want to adopt.

  9. Regional Actor Networks Between Social Capital and Regional Governance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dietrich Fürst; Herbert Schubert; Ansgar Rudolph; Holger Spieckermann

    The development of regions depends on the social capital of regional actors. Reliable relations between actors help to move in a personal network. Social capital is a connecting bridge supporting the exchange of resources between actors. According to Coleman there are two basic principles which have to be maintained in order to create sufficiently social capital: \\

  10. Maintaining Plant Genebanks

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Brian R. Shmaefsky (Kingwood College; )

    2003-06-02

    This lesson explores the benefits and problems of maintaining plant genebanks globally. Students can plan a genebank or agricultural cryopreservation business venture, write a biography about a famous botanist, present views at a genebank symposium for developing nations and more!

  11. Maintain Combustion Systems 

    E-print Network

    Fletcher, R. J.

    1979-01-01

    Energy is consumed, and wasted, in liberal amounts in the combustion processes which supply heat energy to boilers and process heaters. Close attention to combustion systems can be extremely beneficial: Optimum air to fuel ratios, i.e., maintaining...

  12. Collective Weibull behavior of social atoms: Application of the rank-ordering statistics to historical extreme events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chien-Chih; Tseng, Chih-Yuan; Telesca, Luciano; Chi, Sung-Ching; Sun, Li-Chung

    2012-02-01

    Analogous to crustal earthquakes in natural fault systems, we here consider the dynasty collapses as extreme events in human society. Duration data of ancient Chinese and Egyptian dynasties provides a good chance of exploring the collective behavior of the so-called social atoms. By means of the rank-ordering statistics, we demonstrate that the duration data of those ancient dynasties could be described with good accuracy by the Weibull distribution. It is thus amazing that the distribution of time to failure of human society, i.e. the disorder of a historical dynasty, follows the widely accepted Weibull process as natural material fails.

  13. A First Order Language to Coevolve Agents in Complex Social Simulations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Telmo Menezes; Ernesto Costa

    Principles from the sciences of complexity may be applied to the problem of generating interesting and surprising high-level behaviours in 3D world simulations. We present a first order language designed to represent agents' internal reasoning rules that is suitable for a coevolutionary environment. An algorithm is described to use a set of rules expressed in this language to produce decisions.

  14. Maintaining Medicinal Plant Germplasm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    For all plant genetic resources collections, including medicinal plant germplasm, maintaining the genetic integrity of material held ex situ is of major importance. This holds true for all intended end uses of the material whether it is as a source for crop improvement, medical research, as voucher...

  15. Software complexity and maintainability

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rajiv D. Banker; Srikant M. Datar; Dani Zweig

    1989-01-01

    This paper examines the relationships between software complexity and software maintainability in commercial software environments. Models are proposed for estimating the economic impacts of software complexity and for identifying the factors which affect a system's complexity. Empirical work currently under way has shown these models to be implementable.

  16. Maintaining DACUM Quality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norton, Robert E.

    This document discusses the importance of maintaining the quality of DACUM (Developing a Curriculum) occupational analyses and presents a 2-page checklist detailing DACUM quality performance criteria. The introduction to the checklist discusses various "infractions" discovered during an analyses of some curriculum/program developers' attempts to…

  17. Investment in higher order central processing regions is not constrained by brain size in social insects

    PubMed Central

    Muscedere, Mario L.; Gronenberg, Wulfila; Moreau, Corrie S.; Traniello, James F. A.

    2014-01-01

    The extent to which size constrains the evolution of brain organization and the genesis of complex behaviour is a central, unanswered question in evolutionary neuroscience. Advanced cognition has long been linked to the expansion of specific brain compartments, such as the neocortex in vertebrates and the mushroom bodies in insects. Scaling constraints that limit the size of these brain regions in small animals may therefore be particularly significant to behavioural evolution. Recent findings from studies of paper wasps suggest miniaturization constrains the size of central sensory processing brain centres (mushroom body calyces) in favour of peripheral, sensory input centres (antennal and optic lobes). We tested the generality of this hypothesis in diverse eusocial hymenopteran species (ants, bees and wasps) exhibiting striking variation in body size and thus brain size. Combining multiple neuroanatomical datasets from these three taxa, we found no universal size constraint on brain organization within or among species. In fact, small-bodied ants with miniscule brains had mushroom body calyces proportionally as large as or larger than those of wasps and bees with brains orders of magnitude larger. Our comparative analyses suggest that brain organization in ants is shaped more by natural selection imposed by visual demands than intrinsic design limitations. PMID:24741016

  18. Nuclear power plant maintainability.

    PubMed

    Seminara, J L; Parsons, S O

    1982-09-01

    In the mid-1970s a general awareness of human factors engineering deficiencies associated with power plant control rooms took shape and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) awarded the Lockheed Corporation a contract to review the human factors aspects of five representative operational control rooms and their associated simulators. This investigation revealed a host of major and minor deficiencies that assumed unforeseen dimensions in the post- Three Mile Island accident period. In the course of examining operational problems (Seminara et al, 1976) and subsequently the methods for overcoming such problems (Seminara et al, 1979, 1980) indications surfaced that power plants were far from ideal in meeting the needs of maintenance personnel. Accordingly, EPRI sponsored an investigation of the human factors aspects of power plant maintainability (Seminara, 1981). This paper provides an overview of the maintainability problems and issues encountered in the course of reviewing five nuclear power plants. PMID:15676441

  19. Maintaining Wellbeing during Unemployment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoare, P. Nancey; Machin, M. Anthony

    2006-01-01

    A survey of 371 unemployed people in South East Queensland explored whether deprivation of the latent benefits of employment was able to predict psychological distress after controlling for other key correlates. A standard multiple regression found that the latent benefits (time structure, social contact, collective purpose, enforced activity, and…

  20. Setting and maintaining

    E-print Network

    Harman, Neal.A.

    the interplay of parent-child relationships 1. Social learning theory 2. Attachment theory 3. Parenting styles ­child relationship #12;Attachment theory ·Concerned primarily with the fundamental issue of safety Senior research and policy officer #12;We are going to think about: 1. `parenting' or `parent-child

  1. Control model of maintainability level

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wieslaw Tarelko

    1995-01-01

    The method of building a control model of maintainability level is presented based on using regression analysis. To carry out the structure of the model, the realization system of maintainability design is taken into account. To specify model inputs, maintainability as a complexity property of technical system is considered. Maintainability attributes are accepted as model outputs which in the synthetic

  2. Reagan: Maintain Antarctic program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    President Ronald Reagan has decided that the United States should maintain an ‘active and influential presence’ in Antarctica to support the nation's interests. Following a review of a study by the Antarctica Policy Group, Reagan issued a memorandum, dated February 5, to the heads of 14 government agencies, including the National Science Foundation (NSF), the Office of Science and Technology Policy, and the Office of Management and Budget.The U.S. presence in Antarctica ‘shall include the conduct of scientific activities in major disciplines; year-round occupation of the South Pole and two coastal stations; and availability of related necessary logistics support,’ wrote the President. In addition, NSF should continue to budget for the entire U.S. program in Antarctica. Short-term programs by other agencies require the recommendation of the Antarctica Policy Group and should be coordinated within the framework of NSF logistics support.

  3. On Maintaining Perspective in the Eucation of Black Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rousseve, Ronald J.

    1974-01-01

    In reference to many Black Studies programs, the author maintains that American educators must guard against the one-demensional presentation of a social perspective that is not seriously scrutinized in juxtaposition with alternative points of view. (Author/HMV)

  4. Temperature maintained battery system

    SciTech Connect

    Newman, W.A.

    1980-10-21

    A chassis contains a battery charger connected to a multi-cell battery. The charger receives direct current from an external direct current power source and has means to automatically selectively charge the battery in accordance with a preselected charging program relating to temperature adjusted state of discharge of the battery. A heater device is positioned within the chassis which includes heater elements and a thermal switch which activates the heater elements to maintain the battery above a certain predetermined temperature in accordance with preselected temperature conditions occurring within the chassis. A cooling device within the chassis includes a cooler regulator, a temperature sensor, and peltier effect cooler elements. The cooler regulator activates and deactivates the peltier cooler elements in accordance with preselected temperature conditions within the chassis sensed by the temperature sensor. Various vehicle function circuitry may also be positioned within the chassis. The contents of the chassis are positioned to form a passage proximate the battery in communication with an inlet and outlet in the chassis to receive air for cooling purposes from an external source.

  5. Social Orders and Interactions among Children in Age-Mixed Classes in Primary Schools--New Perspectives from a Synthesis of Ethnographic Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huf, Christina; Raggl, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    The article synthesises data from two ethnographic projects, which both explore interactions of children in age-mixed groups in primary schools. It illuminates critical perspectives on social orders and children's interactions in age-mixed classes by showing how pupils in age-mixed groups become involved in power relations and how the teacher's…

  6. Participants' perspective on maintaining behaviour change: a qualitative study within the European Diabetes Prevention Study

    PubMed Central

    Penn, Linda; Moffatt, Suzanne M; White, Martin

    2008-01-01

    Background The European Diabetes Prevention Study (EDIPS) is an RCT of diet and exercise interventions in people with impaired glucose tolerance. We undertook a qualitative study, nested within the EDIPS in Newcastle-upon-Tyne, UK, aiming to understand the experience of participants who maintained behaviour change, in order to inform future interventions. Methods Participants were purposively sampled, according to success criteria for diet and physical activity change maintenance, and invited to attend individual semi-structured interviews. Fifteen participants completed an interview and reflected on their experience over three to five years. We used the Framework method to analyse the transcribed data. Results Main themes were identified as factors that help (props) and those that hinder (burdens) behaviour change maintenance at different organisational levels: individual (both physical and psychological), social and environmental. Pre-existing physical conditions (such as arthritis) and social demands (such as caring for an ageing relative) hindered, whereas the benefits of becoming fitter and of having social and professional support helped, participants in maintaining behaviour change. Participants' long term experiences highlighted the salience of the continuous change in their physical, social and environmental conditions over time. Conclusion The construct of props and burdens facilitates a holistic view of participants' behaviour. Efforts to encourage behaviour change maintenance should take account of context and the way this changes over time, and should include strategies to address these issues. The experience of participants who maintain behaviour change highlights the challenges for the wider implementation of diabetes prevention strategies. Trial Registration (ISRCTN 15670600) PMID:18616797

  7. Neural correlates of the empathic perceptual processing of realistic social interaction scenarios displayed from a first-order perspective.

    PubMed

    Fehr, T; Achtziger, A; Roth, G; Strüber, D

    2014-10-01

    The neural processing of impulsive behavior is a central topic in various clinical and non-clinical contexts. To investigate neural and behavioral correlates of the empathic processing of complex social scenarios, especially considering ecological validity of the experimental procedure, we developed and investigated a video stimulus inventory. It includes realistic neutral, social-positive, and reactive-aggressive action scenarios. Short video-clips showing these social scenarios from a first-person perspective triggering different emotional states were presented to a non-clinical sample of 20 young adult male participants during fMRI measurements. Both affective interaction conditions (social-positive and reactive-aggressive) were contrasted against a neutral baseline condition and against each other. Behavioral evaluation data largely confirmed the validity of the emotion-inducing stimulus material. Reactive-aggressive and social-positive interaction scenarios produced widely overlapping fMRI activation patterns in hetero-modal association cortices, but also in subcortical regions, such as the peri-aqueductal gray. Reactive-aggressive compared to social-positive scenarios yielded a more anterior distribution of activations in pre-motor and inferior frontal brain regions associated to motor-preparation and inhibitory control processing as well as in the insula associated to pain- and/or aversion-processing. We argue that there are both principally common neural networks recruited for the processing of reactive-aggressive and social-positive scenarios, but also exclusive network parts in particular involved depending on individual socialization. PMID:24814646

  8. Can social workers and police be partners when dealing with bikie-gang related domestic violence and sexual assault?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lesley Cooper; Julia Anaf; Margaret Bowden

    2008-01-01

    Welfare and criminal justice systems manifest different goals, cultures, values and working methods. In Australia, the welfare sector has a culture of empowerment and concern for victims’ rights, within which social workers focus on social justice and social change. In contrast, the criminal justice sector (police) is patriarchal and para-military in structure, focusing on enforcing and maintaining community order and

  9. Establishing and maintaining long-term human-computer relationships

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Timothy W. Bickmore; Rosalind W. Picard

    2005-01-01

    This research investigates the meaning of “human-computer relationship” and presents techniques for constructing, maintaining, and evaluating such relationships, based on research in social psychology, sociolinguistics, communication and other social sciences. Contexts in which relationships are particularly important are described, together with specific benefits (like trust) and task outcomes (like improved learning) known to be associated with relationship quality. We especially

  10. Classroom Management and the Socially Disadvantaged.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogletree, Earl

    Because of their deficits in academic attainments and different cultural styles, socially disadvantaged children create more potential than other children for classroom management problems. To improve classroom management, teachers should maintain a clean room and train their students to enter that room in an orderly fashion. In dealing with their…

  11. Solving signal instability to maintain the second-order advantage in the resolution and determination of multi-analytes in complex systems by modeling liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry data using alternating trilinear decomposition method assisted with piecewise direct standardization.

    PubMed

    Gu, Hui-Wen; Wu, Hai-Long; Yin, Xiao-Li; Li, Shan-Shan; Liu, Ya-Juan; Xia, Hui; Xie, Li-Xia; Yu, Ru-Qin; Yang, Peng-Yuan; Lu, Hao-Jie

    2015-08-14

    The application of calibration transfer methods has been successful in combination with near-infrared spectroscopy or other tools for prediction of chemical composition. One of the developed methods that can provide accurate performances is the piecewise direct standardization (PDS) method, which in this paper is firstly applied to transfer from one day to another the second-order calibration model based on alternating trilinear decomposition (ATLD) method built for the interference-free resolution and determination of multi-analytes in complex systems by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) in full scan mode. This is an example of LC-MS analysis in which interferences have been found, making necessary the use of second-order calibration because of its capacity for modeling this phenomenon, which implies analytes of interest can be resolved and quantified even in the presence of overlapped peaks and unknown interferences. Once the second-order calibration model based on ATLD method was built, the calibration transfer was conducted to compensate for the signal instability of LC-MS instrument over time. This allows one to reduce the volume of the heavy works for complete recalibration which is necessary for later accurate determinations. The root-mean-square error of prediction (RMSEP) and average recovery were used to evaluate the performances of the proposed strategy. Results showed that the number of calibration samples used on the real LC-MS data was reduced by using the PDS method from 11 to 3 while producing comparable RMSEP values and recovery values that were statistically the same (F-test, 95% confidence level) to those obtained with 11 calibration samples. This methodology is in accordance with the highly recommended green analytical chemistry principles, since it can reduce the experimental efforts and cost with regard to the use of a new calibration model built in modified conditions. PMID:26141270

  12. Women's work. Maintaining a healthy body weight.

    PubMed

    Welch, Nicky; Hunter, Wendy; Butera, Karina; Willis, Karen; Cleland, Verity; Crawford, David; Ball, Kylie

    2009-08-01

    This study describes women's perceptions of the supports and barriers to maintaining a healthy weight among currently healthy weight women from urban and rural socio-economically disadvantaged areas. Using focus groups and interviews, we asked women about their experiences of maintaining a healthy weight. Overwhelmingly, women described their healthy weight practices in terms of concepts related to work and management. The theme of 'managing health' comprised issues of managing multiple responsibilities, time, and emotions associated with healthy practices. Rural women faced particular difficulties in accessing supports at a practical level (for example, lack of childcare) and due to the gendered roles they enacted in caring for others. Family background (in particular, mothers' attitudes to food and weight) also appeared to influence perceptions about healthy weight maintenance. In the context of global increases in the prevalence of obesity, the value of initiatives aimed at supporting healthy weight women to maintain their weight should not be under-estimated. Such initiatives need to work within the social and personal constraints that women face in maintaining good health. PMID:19446587

  13. Maintaining families' well-being in everyday life.

    PubMed

    Ziegert, Kristina

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to discuss how everyday life changes for the family in the event of chronic illness or disability. It changes physically due to loss of body function and socially due to time and other constraints related to treatment or lack of mobility. Equally important, there is a psychological impact due to the uncertainty of the future. The article will explore how family participation can help to maintain well-being in everyday life. The family should therefore focus on their own needs as much as on the needs of the family members who are ill. In order to maintain well-being in everyday life, it is crucial for the family to create routines and spend time doing things that they enjoy. By doing this, the family will create a rhythm of well-being regardless of the critical family situation. Family members and professional caregivers also need to come together at the beginning and during the illness or disability event to discuss changes that could be made day-to-day for all those involved, thereby making for an easier transition into care giving. PMID:21637350

  14. Publicly Private and Privately Public: Social Networking on YouTube

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patricia G. Lange

    2007-01-01

    YouTube is a public video-sharing website where people can experience varying degrees of engagement with videos, ranging from casual viewing to sharing videos in order to maintain social relationships. Based on a one-year ethnographic project, this article analyzes how YouTube participants developed and maintained social networks by manipulating physical and interpretive access to their videos. The analysis reveals how circulating

  15. 'From Man to Bacteria': W.D. Hamilton, the theory of inclusive fitness, and the post-war social order.

    PubMed

    Swenson, Sarah A

    2015-02-01

    W.D. Hamilton's theory of inclusive fitness aimed to define the evolved limits of altruism with mathematical precision. Although it was meant to apply universally, it has been almost irretrievably entwined with the particular case of social insects that featured in his famous 1964 papers. The assumption that social insects were central to Hamilton's early work contradicts material in his rich personal archive. In fact, careful study of Hamilton's notes, letters, diaries, and early essays indicates the extent to which he had humans in mind when he decided altruism was a topic worthy of biological inquiry. For this reason, this article reconsiders the role of extra-scientific factors in Hamilton's early theorizing. In doing so, it offers an alternative perspective as to why Hamilton saw self-sacrifice to be an important subject. Although the traditional narrative prioritizes his distaste for benefit-of-the-species explanations as a motivating factor behind his foundational work, I argue that greater attention ought to be given to Hamilton's hope that science could be used to address social ills. By reconsidering the meaning Hamilton intended inclusive fitness to have, we see that while he was no political ideologue, the socio-political relevance of his theory was nevertheless integral to its development. PMID:25594921

  16. Maintaining the environmental-racial order in northern New Mexico

    E-print Network

    Wilmsen, Carl

    2007-01-01

    For example, an Anglo leader of one environmental group Iexample, that despite the construction of Indians as preeminent environmentalexample of the connection between Native American ancestry and good environmental

  17. Researching grant?maintained schools

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Halpin; John Fitz

    1990-01-01

    The 1988 Education Reform Act allows schools to ‘opt out’ of LEA control and become ‘grant?maintained’ by central government. This measure has provoked considerable controversy. Its supporters claim that it will increase parental choice and improve standards; its critics say that it will further fragment the education service and reintroduce selection. This paper examines the background to the measure and

  18. Ordering Social Objectives: National Health Service and National Health Insurance as Policy Options in Organizing the Medical Care System

    PubMed Central

    Silver, George A.

    1978-01-01

    For many years, a sharp distinction was made between NHS and NHI on the basis of payment and program focus. First, NHS was defined as a program essentially based on Congressional appropriations (general revenues); while NHI would be based on premiums largely derived from the insured. Second, NHS guaranteed service while NHI guaranteed only payment for services rendered. The distinctions were later extended from these definitions to include differences in response to resource needs, changing task descriptions and personnel assignments, more equitable redistribution of manpower, centralized administration and consumer participation. In general, if the goal were equity, NHS seemed more responsive than NHI. However, in recent years, the approach to NHI has been modified in response to criticism as well as increasing recognition of changed needs, and proposals for NHI like the Kennedy-Corman bill have become more like proposals for a NHS. In short, the difference today is largely one of immediate as against eventual transformation of the medical care system into a social instrument aiming to achieve equity. The major disagreement is whether the present medical care system lends itself to modification so as to achieve that end. PMID:685298

  19. Establishing and Maintaining Intimate Relationships among Nursing Home Residents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crose, Royda

    1990-01-01

    Argues that nursing home mental health counselors should address nursing home residents' need for assistance in conflict resolution, having meaningful social interactions, and in developing and maintaining feelings of self-worth. Describes benefits of group therapy approach using life review format to help build basic trust and feelings of…

  20. Maintaining Family Ties: Inclusive Practice in Foster Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Sally E.

    Loss and uprootedness are core problems of enforced separation, and are especially hard on children. Children in out-of-home care need help in dealing with separation, particularly in maintaining ties with family. This report details a study of how 36 social workers in 2 Canadian child protection agencies have managed separation issues with the…

  1. Polarization-maintaining optical microfiber.

    PubMed

    Jung, Yongmin; Brambilla, Gilberto; Richardson, David J

    2010-06-15

    We have successfully demonstrated a polarization-maintaining (PM) fused silica microfiber by adiabatically tapering a conventional PM fiber. Compared to standard single-mode microfibers, the proposed PM microfibers exhibit robust polarization, preserving characteristics under the presence of external perturbations, such as bending. A polarization-extinction ratio of 16 dB is typically obtained through the device with a corresponding excess loss of 0.2 dB. PMID:20548377

  2. Topic-based social network analysis for virtual communities of interests in the Dark Web

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gaston L'Huillier; Sebastián A. Ríos; Hector Alvarez; Felipe Aguilera

    2010-01-01

    The study of extremist groups and their interaction is a crucial task in order to maintain homeland security and peace. Tools such as social networks analysis and text mining have contributed to the understanding of this kind of groups in order to develop counter-terrorism applications. This work addresses the topic-based community key members extraction problem, for which our method combines

  3. Topic-based social network analysis for virtual communities of interests in the dark web

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gaston L'Huillier; Hector Alvarez; Sebastián A. Ríos; Felipe Aguilera

    2011-01-01

    The study of extremist groups and their interaction is a crucial task in order to maintain homeland security and peace. Tools such as social networks analysis and text mining have contributed to their understanding in order to develop counter-terrorism applications. This work addresses the topic-based community key-members extraction problem, for which our method combines both text mining and social network

  4. 10 CFR 26.71 - Maintaining authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 false Maintaining authorization. 26.71 Section 26.71 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Granting and Maintaining Authorization § 26.71 Maintaining authorization. (a)...

  5. 10 CFR 26.71 - Maintaining authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 false Maintaining authorization. 26.71 Section 26.71 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Granting and Maintaining Authorization § 26.71 Maintaining authorization. (a)...

  6. Social Market: Combining Explicit and Implicit Social Networks

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Social Market: Combining Explicit and Implicit Social Networks Davide Frey, Arnaud Jegou, and Anne lead research and ap- plications to focus more and more on their users. Online social networks such as Facebook provide users with the ability to maintain an unprece- dented number of social connections

  7. ERC Advanced Grants 2008 -SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES The first part of the list shows proposals invited for funding (alphabetic order).

    E-print Network

    De Cindio, Fiorella

    disasters and social resilience in anthropological perspective SH2 Prof. Roman Anton Inderst Johann Wolfgang Culturally Composite Elites, Regime Changes and Social Crises in Multi-Ethnic and Multi-Confessional Eastern

  8. The Affective Regulation of Social Interaction*

    PubMed Central

    Clore, Gerald L.; Pappas, Jesse

    2008-01-01

    The recent publication of David Heise’s Expressive Order (2007) provides an occasion for discussing some of the key ideas in Affect Control Theory. The theory proposes that a few dimensions of affective meaning provide a common basis for interrelating personal identities and social actions. It holds that during interpersonal interactions, social behavior is continually regulated to maintain an affective tone compatible with whatever social roles or identities define the situation. We outline the intellectual history of the proposed dimensions and of the idea that each social action invites an action from the other that has a particular location along these dimensions. We also relate these ideas to the Affect-as-Information hypothesis, an approach that often guides research in psychology on the role of affect in regulating judgment and thought. PMID:18461152

  9. Remotely maintained waste transfer pump

    SciTech Connect

    Eargle, J.C.

    1990-12-31

    Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) operates the Savannah River Site (SRS) for the Department of Energy (DOE). Waste from the processing of irradiated material is stored in large shielded tanks. Treated liquid wastes are to be transferred from these tanks to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) for incorporation in glass suitable for storage in a federal repository. Characteristics of the wastes range from water-like liquid to highly viscous wastes containing suspended solids. Pumping head requirements for various conditions ranged from 10 meters (35 feet) to 168 meters (550 feet). A specially designed, cantilever type, remotely operated and maintained pump was designed and built to transfer the wastes. To demonstrate the design, a prototype pump was built and testing thoroughly with simulated waste. Severe vibration problems were overcome by proper drive shaft selection and careful control of the space between the pump shaft and fixed running clearances (sometimes called seals). Eleven pumps are now installed and six pumps have been successfully run in water service.

  10. Remotely maintained waste transfer pump

    SciTech Connect

    Eargle, J.C.

    1990-01-01

    Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) operates the Savannah River Site (SRS) for the Department of Energy (DOE). Waste from the processing of irradiated material is stored in large shielded tanks. Treated liquid wastes are to be transferred from these tanks to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) for incorporation in glass suitable for storage in a federal repository. Characteristics of the wastes range from water-like liquid to highly viscous wastes containing suspended solids. Pumping head requirements for various conditions ranged from 10 meters (35 feet) to 168 meters (550 feet). A specially designed, cantilever type, remotely operated and maintained pump was designed and built to transfer the wastes. To demonstrate the design, a prototype pump was built and testing thoroughly with simulated waste. Severe vibration problems were overcome by proper drive shaft selection and careful control of the space between the pump shaft and fixed running clearances (sometimes called seals). Eleven pumps are now installed and six pumps have been successfully run in water service.

  11. Key Role of Social Work in Effective Communication and Conflict Resolution Process: Medical Orders for Life-Sustaining Treatment (MOLST) Program in New York and Shared Medical Decision Making at the End of Life

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patricia A. Bomba; Mary Beth Morrissey; David C. Leven

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the authors review the development of the Medical Orders for Life-Sustaining Treatment (MOLST) Program and recent landmark legislation in New York State in the context of advance care planning and shared medical decision making at the end of life. Social workers are central health care professionals in working with patients, families, practitioners, health care agents, and surrogates

  12. Social Work Experience and Development in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sibin, Wang

    2013-01-01

    This article presents the experience and limitations of government-run social work and the nonprofessional nature of social work, and suggests that the rapid development of social work and its professionalization are the inevitable results of the reform in the system. The author maintains that under market socialism, social work requires the…

  13. An Evaluation of Strategies to Maintain Mands at Practical Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sidener, Tina M.; Shabani, Daniel B.; Carr, James E.; Roland, Jonathan P.

    2006-01-01

    In order to teach individuals with developmental disabilities to request stimuli they are motivated to obtain (mand), it is often necessary to initially deliver the item requested immediately and frequently. This may result in an undesirably high rate of mands that is impractical to maintain. The purpose of the current investigation was to extend…

  14. Social Search! Peter Brusilovsky

    E-print Network

    Brusilovsky, Peter

    1! Social Search! Peter Brusilovsky School of Information Sciences University of Pittsburgh, USA What is Social Search? · Social Information Access ­ a stream of research that explores methods), in order to provide better access to information to the future users of the system · Social Search: a set

  15. Semantic Social Network Analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guillaume Erétéo; Fabien L. Gandon; Olivier Corby; Michel Buffa

    2009-01-01

    Social Network Analysis (SNA) tries to understand and exploit the key features of social networks in order to manage their life cycle and predict their evolution. Increasingly popular web 2.0 sites are forming huge social network. Classical methods from social network analysis (SNA) have been applied to such online networks. In this paper, we propose leveraging semantic web technologies to

  16. Addressing Social Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoebel, Susan

    1991-01-01

    Maintains that advertising can help people become more aware of social responsibilities. Describes a successful nationwide newspaper advertising competition for college students in which ads address social issues such as literacy, drugs, teen suicide, and teen pregnancy. Notes how the ads have helped grassroots programs throughout the United…

  17. Explaining Social Constructivism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keaton, Shaughan A.; Bodie, Graham D.

    2011-01-01

    Many versions of social constructivism (SC) maintain that objects exist only after they enter communicative space. At one level an object's existence is determined through an individual's sensory perception; through communicative acts, both intra- and interpersonally, they are defined and eventually embody meaning. The social process of defining…

  18. Designing for Maintainability and System Availability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lalli, Vincent R.; Packard, Michael H.

    1997-01-01

    The final goal for a delivered system (whether a car, aircraft, avionics box or computer) should be its availability to operate and perform its intended function over its expected design life. Hence, in designing a system, we cannot think in terms of delivering the system and just walking away. The system supplier needs to provide support throughout the operating life of the product. Here, supportability requires an effective combination of reliability, maintainability, logistics and operations engineering (as well as safety engineering) to have a system that is available for its intended use throughout its designated mission lifetime. Maintainability is a key driving element in the effective support and upkeep of the system as well as providing the ability to modify and upgrade the system throughout its lifetime. This paper then, will concentrate on maintainability and its integration into the system engineering and design process. The topics to be covered include elements of maintainability, the total cost of ownership, how system availability, maintenance and logistics costs and spare parts cost effect the overall program costs. System analysis and maintainability will show how maintainability fits into the overall systems approach to project development. Maintainability processes and documents will focus on how maintainability is to be performed and what documents are typically generated for a large scale program. Maintainability analysis shows how trade-offs can be performed for various alternative components. The conclusions summarize the paper and are followed by specific problems for hands-on training.

  19. Maintaining the Gains in Malaria Control

    E-print Network

    Klein, Ophir

    Maintaining the Gains in Malaria Control Ethiopia | Rwanda | Senegal | Tanzania (Mainland and Zanzibar) COUNTRY BRIEFS September 2011 #12;#12;SEpTEMbER 2011 MainTaining ThE gainS in MalaRia conTRol | ExEcuTivE SuMMaRy | 3 Key messages · aggressive campaigns to scale up malaria control have led

  20. Encapsulation method for maintaining biodecontamination activity

    DOEpatents

    Rogers, Robert D. (Idaho Falls, ID); Hamilton, Melinda A. (Idaho Falls, ID); Nelson, Lee O. (Idaho Falls, ID); Benson, Jennifer (Cockermouth, GB); Green, Martin J. (Wooton, GB); Milner, Timothy N. (Centerville, VA)

    2002-01-01

    A method for maintaining the viability and subsequent activity of microorganisms utilized in a variety of environments to promote biodecontamination of surfaces. One application involves the decontamination of concrete surfaces. Encapsulation of microbial influenced degradation (MID) microorganisms has shown that MID activity is effectively maintained under passive conditions, that is, without manual addition of moisture or nutrients, for an extended period of time.

  1. Encapsulation method for maintaining biodecontamination activity

    DOEpatents

    Rogers, Robert D.; Hamilton, Melinda A.; Nelson, Lee O.; Benson, Jennifer; Green, Martin J.; Milner, Timothy N.

    2006-04-11

    A method for maintaining the viability and subsequent activity of microorganisms utilized in a variety of environments to promote biodecontamination of surfaces. One application involves the decontamination of concrete surfaces. Encapsulation of microbial influenced degradation (MID) microorganisms has shown that MID activity is effectively maintained under passive conditions, that is, without manual addition of moisture or nutrients, for an extended period of time.

  2. PRODUCING SALMON TO MAINTAIN COMMERCIAL AND

    E-print Network

    THIS IS A SALMO HATCH PRODUCING SALMON TO MAINTAIN COMMERCIAL AND SPORT FISHERIES SHKT* illiiniltiiiii SALMON HATCHERY? To maintain the resource, enough of the mature salmon entering and destroyed young salmon. To counteract the effects of these, salmon hatcheries are necessary. Hatchery salmon

  3. Maintaining Stream Statistics over Sliding Windows

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mayur Datar; Aristides Gionis; Piotr Indyk; Rajeev Motwani

    2002-01-01

    We consider the problem of maintaining aggregates and statistics over data streams, with respect to the last N data elements seen so far. We refer to this model as the sliding window model. We consider the following basic problem: Given a stream of bits, maintain a count of the number of 1's in the last N elements seen from the

  4. Agent Program Planning Information Maintain No Gain

    E-print Network

    Agent Program Planning Information Maintain No Gain Relevance In South Texas (Texas Department is a community and worksite wellness program created by the Cardiovascular Health and Wellness Program A model plan will be available for agents in the TExAS system. Agents wishing to implement the Maintain

  5. Consejo Social Consejo Social

    E-print Network

    Escolano, Francisco

    Consejo Social Consejo Social Edificio Rectorado 1ª planta Apartado de Correos 99 E_03080 Alicante del Consejo Social curso 2011/2012 (Publicada 12/03/2013) Publicación de la Memoria del Consejo Social organizada por el Consejo Social de la Universidad de Alicante el 14 de febrero de 2013. Becas Colaboración

  6. Social Graphs Social Graphs

    E-print Network

    Bar-Noy, Amotz

    Algorithms Social Graphs Algorithms #12;Social Graphs Definition I: A social graph contains all. Two vertices with no edge between them are enemies. Definition II: In a social graph with n vertices itself, then the following is a sub-coloring of the graph: Algorithms 6 #12;Statement V Theorem: A social

  7. We Call It "Our Language": A Children's Swahili Pidgin Transforms Social and Symbolic Order on a Remote Hillside in Up-Country Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilmore, Perry

    2011-01-01

    This study describes a rare Swahili pidgin created by two five-year-old boys, one American and one African. The discussion examines the linguistic and social factors affecting the "origins, maintenance, change and loss" (Hymes 1971) of their language and the place it created for their friendship. This place, constructed by and through language,…

  8. The Lower-Order Expectations of High-Stakes Tests: A Four-State Analysis of Social Studies Standards and Test Alignment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeWitt, Scott W.; Patterson, Nancy; Blankenship, Whitney; Blevins, Brooke; DiCamillo, Lorrei; Gerwin, David; Gradwell, Jill M.; Gunn, John; Maddox, Lamont; Salinas, Cinthia; Saye, John; Stoddard, Jeremy; Sullivan, Caroline C.

    2013-01-01

    This study indicates that the state-mandated high-stakes social studies assessments in four states do not require students to demonstrate that they have met the cognitive demands articulated in the state-mandated learning standards. Further, the assessments do not allow students to demonstrate the critical thinking skills required by the…

  9. Control system maintains compartment at constant temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindberg, J. G.

    1966-01-01

    Gas-filled permeable insulating material maintains an enclosed compartment at a uniform temperature. The material is interposed between the two walls of a double-walled enclosure surrounding the compartment.

  10. Maintaining Financial Stability in a Global Economy

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    1997-01-01

    The Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City has made available the papers presented at the "Maintaining Financial Stability in a Global Economy" symposium. The aim of the symposium is to explore "options for public authorities in adapting policies to keep financial systems safe and efficient, and to discuss response mechanisms to financial crises." The papers presented here look at the causes of financial instability, why policymakers should be concerned about financial instability, lessons from recent financial crises, and policies for maintaining financial stability.

  11. Fixed functional space maintainer: novel aesthetic approach for missing maxillary primary anterior teeth

    PubMed Central

    Khare, Vikram; Nayak, Prathibha Anand; Khandelwal, Vishal; Nayak, Ullal Anand

    2013-01-01

    The first-line treatment of non-restorable traumatically injured or carious deciduous teeth is extraction which may be a curse for the future dentition as well as social activity of a child. Various therapeutic modalities from removable partial dentures to fixed space maintainer can be used for replacement of such lost teeth. Two types of fixed aesthetic space maintainers for replacing premature loss of maxillary deciduous incisors in 4-year-old children are discussed. PMID:23737580

  12. Social disorder and diagnostic order: the US Mental Hygiene Movement, the Midtown Manhattan study and the development of psychiatric epidemiology in the 20th century.

    PubMed

    March, Dana; Oppenheimer, Gerald M

    2014-08-01

    Recent scholarship regarding psychiatric epidemiology has focused on shifting notions of mental disorders. In psychiatric epidemiology in the last decades of the 20th century and the first decade of the 21st century, mental disorders have been perceived and treated largely as discrete categories denoting an individual's mental functioning as either pathological or normal. In the USA, this grew partly out of evolving modern epidemiological work responding to the State's commitment to measure the national social and economic burdens of psychiatric disorders and subsequently to determine the need for mental health services and to survey these needs over time. Notably absent in these decades have been environmentally oriented approaches to cultivating normal, healthy mental states, approaches initially present after World War II. We focus here on a set of community studies conducted in the 1950s, particularly the Midtown Manhattan study, which grew out of a holistic conception of mental health that depended on social context and had a strong historical affiliation with: the Mental Hygiene Movement and the philosophy of its founder, Adolf Meyer; the epidemiological formation of field studies and population surveys beginning early in the 20th century, often with a health policy agenda; the recognition of increasing chronic disease in the USA; and the radical change in orientation within psychiatry around World War II. We place the Midtown Manhattan study in historical context--a complex narrative of social institutions, professional formation and scientific norms in psychiatry and epidemiology, and social welfare theory that begins during the Progressive era (1890-1920) in the USA. PMID:25031047

  13. Response of the elasmobranch utricle to maintained spatial orientation, transitions and jitter

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. Macadar; G. E. Wolfe; D. P. O'Leary; J. P. Segundo

    1975-01-01

    1.The spike discharges of single first order afferents from the utricle were recorded in the isolated head of the guitarfish and tested for responses to maintained spatial orientation, to transitions and to a small positional jitter representing natural perturbations. Sensitivity to maintained orientation is referred to as “tonic,” and to transitions and jitter as “phasic.”2.Most responsive cells were either phasically,

  14. Social Science Hub

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Maintained by Sharyn Clarkson, a BA in sociology and anthropology, this Website provides a directory for those looking for materials in the social sciences. The site features categorized listings of social science Websites, online journals and e-zines, search engines, government Websites, databases and archives, interactive forums, and a what's new section. There is an emphasis, but by no means an exclusive one, on Australian materials. Some entries are annotated, and the site is frequently updated.

  15. Maintaining confidentiality: health care's ongoing dilemma.

    PubMed

    Dowd, S B; Dowd, L P

    1996-09-01

    Confidentiality of patient information is an ethical obligation of health care professionals. The exercise of confidentiality is not a simple process; it is dynamic rather than static and must be upgraded with changes in technology. This article discusses some of the common issues that arise in maintaining confidentiality in the health care environment, including spoken and written breaches of confidentiality, use of the computer, confidentiality as an ethical rather than legal obligation, and the use of programs in health care institutions to maintain confidentiality. PMID:10159637

  16. School Of Social Work School Of Social Work

    E-print Network

    McConnell, Terry

    School Of Social Work School Of Social Work Carrie Jefferson Smith, Director, 315-443-5562 Sims-443-5562. The undergraduate professional social work program offers a bachelor of science degree. The goals of this program, in order of priority, are as follows: 1. To prepare undergraduate social work students for competent entry

  17. Maintaining Clones through Eclipse Refactoring Extensions

    E-print Network

    Gray, Jeffrey G.

    Maintaining Clones through Eclipse Refactoring Extensions Robert Tairas (tairasr@cis.uab.edu) Jeff and Information Sciences University of Alabama at Birmingham · Clone detection tools provide an automated way to discover sections of duplicated code. · Clone analysis helps determine a group of clones to remove

  18. Pedagogical Practices: Nurturing and Maintaining Democratic Habits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubler-Larimore, Lucretia Marie

    2011-01-01

    This case study examined the pedagogical practices of four teachers of one public elementary school whose mission seeks to nurture and maintain democratic habits for participation in a democratic society. Historically, public schools have been charged with the duty of preparing young minds to live within in a democratic society and as such this…

  19. Improving Avionics Fiber Optic Network Reliability & Maintainability

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark W. Beranek; Anthony R. Avak

    2007-01-01

    Work is ongoing at NAVAIR to understand how avionics fiber optic BIT technology can help reduce military aviation platform fiber optic network life cycle and total ownership cost. Operational availability enhancements via comprehensive supportability programs combined with keen attentiveness to reliability and maintainability metrics are driving the avionics fiber optic BIT value proposition. Avionics fiber optic BIT technology is expected

  20. THE COMPUTERIZED COMPREHENSIBILITY SYSTEM MAINTAINER'S GUIDE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David E. Kieras

    Abstract The Computerized Comprehensibility System (CCS) generates a critique of the comprehensibility of a technical document, using techniques and results from AI and cognitive psychology. This report is a guide for the maintainer or developer of CCS. It is not intended as a tutorial on the mechanisms used in CCS, but to allow the qualified programmer to rapidly understand the

  1. Maintaining Interest in Operator Requal Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lapp, H. J., Jr.

    A study reviewed operator training programs at Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station to determine their interface with plant operations and to devise new ways of maintaining interest in requalification (requal) training. The operator training review committee that was formed to implement the review documented over 100 issues and concerns…

  2. Means for maintaining the substitutability of LNG

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. C. Proctor; R. W. Parrish

    1967-01-01

    Substitutability as applied to liquid natural gas (LNG) is a method of reducing vaporization of the more volatile components and thus maintaining the heating value at a desirable level. A continuous process is described for cooling LNG below the boiling point of its most volatile component. A large-scale storage tank is provided with adequate space in the top for a

  3. Maintaining Hope in the Face of Evil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Geri

    2002-01-01

    P. G. Zimbardo (2001) and M. E. P. Seligman (in an interview with S. Carpenter, 2001) discuss evil and hope in response to the September 11, 2001, disaster. The implications for counseling are presented with an emphasis on how counselors can maintain hope for themselves and their clients in the face of evil. (Author)

  4. Halema'uma'u Maintains Basic Geometry

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    The lava lake at Halema'uma'u has maintained the same basic geometry since February of this year. This thermal image was taken during a helicopter overflight, and shows the lava surface deep within the vent cavity. The lava surface is kidney-shaped and approximately 60 x 90 meters in size, and situa...

  5. Maintaining osmotic balance with an aglomerular kidney

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Danielle McDonald; Martin Grosell

    2006-01-01

    The gulf toadfish, Opsanus beta, is a marine teleost fish with an aglomerular kidney that is highly specialized to conserve water. Despite this adaptation, toadfish have the ability to survive when in dilute hypoosmotic seawater environments. The objectives of this study were to determine the joint role of the kidney and intestine in maintaining osmotic and ionic balance and to

  6. WEB Maintainers Meetup Web Branding Committee

    E-print Network

    Florida, University of

    WEB Maintainers Meetup UF/IFAS DEPARTMENT #12; Web Branding Committee Introduction and TERMINALFOUR (T4) recap Preparation Page layouts Questions #12;WEB BRANDING COMMITTEE what we heard #12;Some) is the new UF Web Content Management System (WCMS) chosen for the next five years. T4 allows non

  7. Web Maintainers Forum 29 August 2013

    E-print Network

    Hickman, Mark

    1 Web Maintainers Forum 29 August 2013 Agenda Welcome and introduction Web team Update My Baker, WCMS Project Manager) Questions Web team update Web team site rebranded http://www.canterbury.ac.nz/web/ When was the last time you visited the web team site: August? June or July? 2013? 2012? Never

  8. Storage Temperatures Necessary to Maintain Cheese Safety

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JAY RUSSELL BISHOP; MARIANNE SMUKOWSKI

    SUMMARY Available information on bacterial pathogen growth, stasis, and death in cheeses was reviewed and evaluated to determine storage temperatures necessary to maintain product safety. In view of the variety and large volume of cheeses consumed throughout the world, the incidence of foodborne outbreaks associated with cheeses is extremely low. Research revealed that the inherent characteristics of most cheeses create

  9. Anisotropic polarization maintaining optical fiber ring resonators

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zacharias K. Ioannidis; Raj Kadiwar; Ian P. Giles

    1996-01-01

    Suppression of the polarization drift of optical fiber ring resonators is investigated both theoretically and experimentally by employing anisotropy in a polarization maintaining fiber ring. A general analytic expression for the transmission of the device is derived allowing the fiber modes to exhibit any combination of polarization crosstalk, differential loss or differential coupling. The analysis shows that a moderate level

  10. Maintainability design of ship electronic system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Kras; J. Susanj

    2005-01-01

    Maintainabilify of any ship electronic system is the ease, economy, safety and accuracy with which the necessaly maintenance of the system is undertaken and can be measured either in terms of probability or in terms of the level of resouxes required to maintain the system. It therefore has a direct efect on the ability of the system to satisfjl the

  11. [Challenges in social medicine counseling and expert assessment].

    PubMed

    Baumann, W; Heipertz, W; Schliehe, F; van Essen, J

    2001-03-01

    The services of expert testimony and professional consultation in sociomedicine are considerably challenged. It is not so much the question of maintaining their traditional functions but of developing them in order to maintain at least the status quo. These challenges consist for example of the lack of a scientific basis for the complex function of allocation, piloting and control of medical resources. Some new approaches are offered by the ICIDH, by new instruments of medical assessment and by quality management including "evidence-based medicine". Furthermore the services of expert testimony must bridge the gap between patients and social services in a way which is satisfactory for the population. Nevertheless, these services must maintain strict independence. PMID:11329917

  12. What's your personal social media strategy?

    PubMed

    Dutta, Soumitra

    2010-11-01

    Social media are changing the way we do business and how leaders are perceived, from the shop floor to the CEO suite. But whereas the best businesses are creating comprehensive strategies in thi area, research suggests that few corporate Leaders have a social media presence--say, a Facebook or Linked in of page--and that those do don't use it strategically. Today's leaders must embrace social media for three reasons, First, they provide a low-cost, highly accessible platform on which to build your personal brand, communicating who you are both within and outside your company. Second, they allow you to engage rapidly and simultaneously with peers, employees, customers, and the broader public--in order to leverage relationships, show commitment to a cause, and demonstrate a capacity for reflection. Third, they give you an opportunity to learn from instant information and unvarnished feedback. To formulate your personal social media strategy, it helps to clarify your goals (personal, professional, or both), desired audience (private or public), and resources (can you justify using your company's?). You must also consider the risks of maintaining a large number of connections and of sharing content online. Active participation in social media can be a powerful tool--the difference between leading effectively and ineffectively, and between advancing and faltering in the pursuit of your goals. PMID:21049685

  13. An Introduction to Social Policy

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Spicker, Paul.

    Created and maintained by Paul Spicker, a professor of politics specializing in social policy, this Website presents a detailed, yet schematic view of the main themes, concepts, and controversies surrounding issues of the welfare state and social services. The site offers sections on social policy, welfare and society, social need, the welfare state, social services, the politics of welfare, British social policy, social services in the UK, and social policy on the Web (a collection of annotated links). Using a hypertext, bulleted format, the author manages to convey significant amounts of information about complex ideas in a relatively brief span without oversimplifying. An excellent resource for economics and sociology students working on social policy topics.

  14. Reading Politics: Social Theory and Social Policy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Beilharz

    1987-01-01

    Arguments within social theory have only recently been brought to bear on social policy or policy analysis. This paper sketches some of the principles of structuralism and hermeneutics, and argues that these traditions can help us better to read policy. Several recent examples of Government and alternative policy are then analysed in order to illustrate the critical claims advanced. The

  15. Sexual Misconduct Vanderbilt University desires to establish and maintain a safe and healthy environment for all

    E-print Network

    Simaan, Nabil

    1 Sexual Misconduct Vanderbilt University desires to establish and maintain a safe and healthy, seeks to eliminate all forms of sexual misconduct. Sexual misconduct is a form of sex discrimination://www.vanderbilt.edu/ead/ea_laws.html#a3). Sexual misconduct of any kind represents socially irresponsible behavior. Sexual misconduct

  16. Harassment and Bullying The University is committed to maintaining a working,

    E-print Network

    Paxton, Anthony T.

    Harassment and Bullying The University is committed to maintaining a working, learning and social, students, and visitors to the University #12;University's code of Practice on Harassment including Bullying or comments are viewed as demeaning and unacceptable to the recipient. #12;What is Bullying? Bullying may

  17. Harassment and Bullying The University is committed to maintaining a working,

    E-print Network

    Paxton, Anthony T.

    Harassment and Bullying The University is committed to maintaining a working, learning and social including Bullying The University expects all members of the university community to treat each other is that the actions or comments are viewed as demeaning and unacceptable to the recipient. #12;What is Bullying

  18. Transformative Pedagogy for Social Capital

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willis, Peter

    2007-01-01

    This paper explores ways in which pedagogy for an elaborated form of transformative learning can be a useful catalyst for the development of social capital in community and workplace groups and networks. I begin with an example and then explore ideas of learning challenges embedded in building and maintaining social capital. I consider the…

  19. The Rebirth of Political Socialization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niemi, Richard G.; Hepburn, Mary A.

    1995-01-01

    Maintains that research on political socialization began in the late 1950s and died a premature death in the 1970s. Discusses the field's origins and downfall, and predicts a rebirth in a new and sustainable form. Outlines changes in secondary school political science education and political socialization research in other nations. (CFR)

  20. Social Networks, Social Media, Social Change

    E-print Network

    Sadeh, Norman M.

    CHAPTER XX Social Networks, Social Media, Social Change Jürgen Pfeffer, Kathleen M. Carley Carnegie Mellon University Pittsburgh, USA jpfeffer@cs.cmu.edu, kathleen.carley@cs.cmu.edu ABSTRACT Social Media. In particular, the Arab Spring 2011 has been heralded as a social media based social transformation

  1. Canadian Social Research Links

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Maintained with almost obsessive thoroughness by an employee at Human Resources Development Canada, this Website is an excellent gateway to Canadian social science resources on the Web. The site offers collections of annotated links from government outlets, academic sources, policy institutions, and NGOs. Visitors can browse sites under regional and thematic categories as well use "quicklinks" to government sources for social science data, including social policy, economic, and employment data. The annotations are very helpful, usually including the date of a document or a Website's last update and a summary or quotation from the resource. Some resources are presented in a pro-and-con format so that researchers can immediately compare reports and arguments from credible sources on political and social issues. Theme lists include hundreds of links in disability, education, human rights, homelessness and hunger, election 2000, social research organizations, unions, UN links, women's social issues, and dozens more. Also, the author provides a free weekly email newsletter that includes the latest updates to the Website. There is much more here, but I think interested parties get the idea: anyone doing social research in or about Canada will definitely want to bookmark this one. The site is the sole property and responsibility of Gilles Seguin who maintains the site on his own time. And yes, the site is also available in French.

  2. Device Maintains Water At The Triple Point

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    West, J. W.; Burkett, C. G.

    1988-01-01

    Inexpensive device maintains water at 0.01 degree C for 10 weeks or longer. New device consists of four basic assemblies; small, commercial chest freezer containing insulated water tank; insulated copper cell holder; "ice switch" for cycling freezer compressor and externally-mounted air pump for circulation. Access hole in freezer lid allows triple point measurements without opening lid. Modified freezer used to calibrate standard platinum resistance thermomenters.

  3. Alertness maintaining tasks (AMTs) while driving.

    PubMed

    Oron-Gilad, Tal; Ronen, Adi; Shinar, David

    2008-05-01

    We evaluated the effectiveness of alertness maintaining tasks (AMTs) on driver performance, subjective feelings, and psychophysiological state in monotonous simulated driving in two experiments. In the first experiment, 12 professional truck drivers participated in five sessions of simulated driving: driving only, driving with one of three AMTs (counterbalanced), and driving while listening to music. AMTs were not equally effective in maintaining alertness. The trivia AMT prevented driving performance deterioration, and increased alertness (measured by standardized HRV). The choice reaction time AMT was least demanding but also increased subjective sleepiness and reduced arousal (measured by alpha/beta ratio). The working memory AMT caused a significant decrement in driving speed, increased subjective fatigue, and was regarded by the participants as detrimental to driving. Trivia was preferred by the majority of the drivers over the other two AMTs. Experiment 2 further examined the utility of the trivia AMT. When the drivers engaged in the trivia AMT they maintained better driving performance and perceived the driving duration as shorter than the control condition. The two experiments demonstrated that AMTs can have a positive effect on alertness. The effect is localized in the sense that it does not persist beyond the period of the AMT activation. PMID:18460351

  4. Programme Evaluation: Maintaining Quality in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loots, A.

    2008-01-01

    The evaluation of educational or social programmes is paramount for establishing success or impact in higher education. Evaluation questions about programme goals (e.g. better performance of first-year students) or about the quality of programme strategies (design and implementation) and effectiveness of delivery (coordinator inputs and…

  5. The role of infrasounds in maintaining whale herds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Payne, Roger S.

    2001-05-01

    For whales and dolphins a basic social unit is the herd. In several species, herds have been observed to maintain the same speed, direction, and membership overnight, and while swimming in waters of near-zero visibility-evidence that individuals can stay together using nonvisual cues. The most likely such cue is sound. If whale herds are held together with sound, yet we define herds as groups of whales seen moving together, then we are using visual criteria to judge what is an acoustic phenomenon, and our conclusions about a most basic unit of cetacean social structure, the herd, are at least incomplete, and, quite possibly, worthless. By calling herds, heards, we remind ourselves that sound controls herd size. We then consider that some whale infrasound can propagate across deep water at useful intensities (even in today's ship-noise-polluted ocean) for thousands of kilometers. The distance to which blue and fin whale sounds propagate before falling below background noise is given, and the possible advantages these whales obtain from such sounds is explored. The conclusion is that by sharing information on food finds infrasonically, fin and blue whales may have developed a way to divide up the food resources of an entire ocean.

  6. Legal Lexicon, Social Labeling, and Juvenile Justice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Ronald A.

    One of 52 theoretical papers on school crime and its relation to poverty, this chapter maintains that social labeling is a pervasive and necessary social phenomenon. However, inaccurate social labeling plagues contemporary juvenile justice systems. Relevant examples include legal adjudication categories such as status offender, persons in need of…

  7. 50-GHz, ultrastable, polarization-maintaining semiconductor fiber ring laser

    E-print Network

    Vlachos, Kyriakos G.

    50-GHz, ultrastable, polarization-maintaining semiconductor fiber ring laser Antonios stable, all-polarization-maintaining fiber semiconductor ring laser source. It uses a semiconductor: fiber lasers; gain modulation; semiconductor optical amplifier; polarization-maintaining ring laser

  8. 42 CFR 480.115 - Requirements for maintaining confidentiality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...false Requirements for maintaining confidentiality. 480.115 Section 480.115...115 Requirements for maintaining confidentiality. (a) Responsibilities of QIO...their responsibility to maintain the confidentiality of information and of the legal...

  9. 42 CFR 480.115 - Requirements for maintaining confidentiality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...false Requirements for maintaining confidentiality. 480.115 Section 480.115...115 Requirements for maintaining confidentiality. (a) Responsibilities of QIO...their responsibility to maintain the confidentiality of information and of the legal...

  10. 42 CFR 480.115 - Requirements for maintaining confidentiality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...false Requirements for maintaining confidentiality. 480.115 Section 480.115...115 Requirements for maintaining confidentiality. (a) Responsibilities of QIO...their responsibility to maintain the confidentiality of information and of the legal...

  11. 42 CFR 480.115 - Requirements for maintaining confidentiality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...false Requirements for maintaining confidentiality. 480.115 Section 480.115...115 Requirements for maintaining confidentiality. (a) Responsibilities of QIO...their responsibility to maintain the confidentiality of information and of the legal...

  12. 42 CFR 480.115 - Requirements for maintaining confidentiality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...false Requirements for maintaining confidentiality. 480.115 Section 480.115...115 Requirements for maintaining confidentiality. (a) Responsibilities of QIO...their responsibility to maintain the confidentiality of information and of the legal...

  13. Chewing Maintains Hippocampus-Dependent Cognitive Function

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Huayue; Iinuma, Mitsuo; Onozuka, Minoru; Kubo, Kin-Ya

    2015-01-01

    Mastication (chewing) is important not only for food intake, but also for preserving and promoting the general health. Recent studies have showed that mastication helps to maintain cognitive functions in the hippocampus, a central nervous system region vital for spatial memory and learning. The purpose of this paper is to review the recent progress of the association between mastication and the hippocampus-dependent cognitive function. There are multiple neural circuits connecting the masticatory organs and the hippocampus. Both animal and human studies indicated that cognitive functioning is influenced by mastication. Masticatory dysfunction is associated with the hippocampal morphological impairments and the hippocampus-dependent spatial memory deficits, especially in elderly. Mastication is an effective behavior for maintaining the hippocampus-dependent cognitive performance, which deteriorates with aging. Therefore, chewing may represent a useful approach in preserving and promoting the hippocampus-dependent cognitive function in older people. We also discussed several possible mechanisms involved in the interaction between mastication and the hippocampal neurogenesis and the future directions for this unique fascinating research. PMID:26078711

  14. Design guidelines for remotely maintainable equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clarke, Margaret M.; Manouchehri, Davoud

    1988-01-01

    The quantity and complexity of on-orbit assets will increase significantly over the next decade. Maintaining and servicing these costly assets represent a difficult challenge. Three general methods are proposed to maintain equipment while it is still in orbit: an extravehicular activity (EVA) crew can perform the task in an unpressurized maintenance area outside any space vehicle; an intravehicular activity (IVA) crew can perform the maintenance in a shirt sleeve environment, perhaps at a special maintenance work station in a space vehicle; or a telerobotic manipulator can perform the maintenance in an unpressurized maintenance area at a distance from the crew (who may be EVA, IVA, or on the ground). However, crew EVA may not always be possible; the crew may have other demands on their time that take precedence. In addition, the orbit of the tasks themselves may be impossible for crew entry. Also crew IVA may not always be possible as option for equipment maintenance. For example, the equipment may be too large to fit through the vehicle airlock. Therefore, in some circumstances, the third option, telerobotic manipulation, may be the only feasible option. Telerobotic manipulation has, therefore, an important role for on-orbit maintenance. It is not only used for the reasons outlined above, but also used in some cases as backup to the EVA crew in an orbit that they can reach.

  15. Leveraging social context for searching social media

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marc Smith; Vladimir Barash; Lise Getoor; Hady Wirawan LAUW

    2008-01-01

    The ability to utilize and benet from today's explosion of social media sites depends on providing tools that allow users to productively participate. In order to participate, users must be able to nd resources (both people and in- formation) that they nd valuable. Here, we argue that in order to do this eectiv ely, we should make use of a

  16. How homologous recombination maintains telomere integrity.

    PubMed

    Tacconi, Eliana M C; Tarsounas, Madalena

    2015-06-01

    Telomeres protect the ends of linear chromosomes against loss of genetic information and inappropriate processing as damaged DNA and are therefore crucial to the maintenance of chromosome integrity. In addition to providing a pathway for genome-wide DNA repair, homologous recombination (HR) plays a key role in telomere replication and capping. Consistent with this, the genomic instability characteristic of HR-deficient cells and tumours is driven in part by telomere dysfunction. Here, we discuss the mechanisms by which HR modulates the response to intrinsic cellular challenges that arise during telomere replication, as well as its impact on the assembly of telomere protective structures. How normal and tumour cells differ in their ability to maintain telomeres is deeply relevant to the search for treatments that would selectively eliminate cells whose capacity for HR-mediated repair has been compromised. PMID:25430998

  17. Peru struggles to maintain crude production

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-14

    Revival of Peru's moribund oil and gas industry in the 1990s hinges on whether the new administration of President Alberto Fujimori is successful in attracting foreign investment in Peru. Fujimori's success would mean Peru pushing ahead into stepped up exploration and major development projects, such as the huge Camisea gas/condensate field discovered 2 years ago. His failure could mean Peru continuing to fall further behind in its already lagging low oil production. Huge sums of money will be needed. Peru also needs to succeed in its efforts to become creditworthy again for international agencies, foreign governments, and commercial banks. Meanwhile, Petroleos del Peru SA (Petroperu), the state oil company, will have to transfer an increasing share of its operations to private investors. But the company is likely to try to hold onto producing fields, even though it is unable to maintain full output.

  18. Maintaining a Wormhole with a Scalar Field

    E-print Network

    Dan N. Vollick

    1998-06-16

    It is well known that it takes matter that violates the averaged weak energy condition to hold the throat of a wormhole open. The production of such ``exotic'' matter is usually discussed within the context of quantum field theory. In this paper I show that it is possible to produce the exotic matter required to hold a wormhole open classically. This is accomplished by coupling a scalar field to matter that satisfies the weak energy condition. The energy-momentum tensor of the scalar field and the matter separately satisfy the weak energy condition, but there exists an interaction energy-momentum tensor that does not. It is this interaction energy-momentum tensor that allows the wormhole to be maintained.

  19. Maintaining control is team's vital role.

    PubMed

    Haywood, Liz; Frankel, Chris; Johns, Andrew

    2011-02-01

    In an environment where there is an ever-increasing use of reliable electronic control, it is easy to become complacent about the need for in-depth knowledge of how the controls actually work. After all, experts who can diagnose and fix such systems are only a phone call away, and a new unit can easily be fitted. Sometimes this is not the case at Bendigo Health, as we have a number of systems with a "black box" set of controls that can take days, or weeks, to fix, and cannot be fixed locally. To better manage and maintain our infrastructure, the Buildings & Infrastructure Department at Bendigo Health includes a number of employees who concentrate on building management systems (BMS). The BMS group plays a vital role in the complete lifecycle of projects that include control and monitoring of the plant within the hospital setting. A good example of this role was in the design, build, installation and commissioning, of two new negative pressure suites at Bendigo Health. The BMS group's involvement in this particular project included the door interlocking, the air conditioning and exhaust fan control, and a comprehensive alarm panel and overrides, all of which can be monitored centrally via the existing BMS system. The involvement of the BMS group, following the DHS guidelines, resulted in the architect and consulting engineers revisiting their designs and improving them to the benefit of both patient care and staff safety. The advantages of projects such as the negative pressure suites installed by the BMS group include the fact that that the hospital gains facilities that work correctly and according to industry guidelines; and the design, installation, and controls of the plant are understood by the people who will be maintaining the infrastructure. This paper will provide an overview of the work undertaken by the BMS group at Bendigo Health, using the negative pressure suites as an exemplar. PMID:21425710

  20. Maintaining Quality in a Decommissioning Environment

    SciTech Connect

    Attas, Michael [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Whiteshell Laboratories, Pinawa, Manitoba, R0E 1L0 (Canada)

    2008-01-15

    The decommissioning of AECL's Whiteshell Laboratories is Canada's largest nuclear decommissioning project to date. This research laboratory has operated for forty years since it was set up in 1963 in eastern Manitoba as the Whiteshell Nuclear Research Establishment, complete with 60 MW(Th) test reactor, hot cells, particle accelerators, and multiple large-scale research programs. Returning the site to almost complete green state will require several decades of steady work in combination with periods of storage-with-surveillance. In this paper our approach to maintaining quality during the long decommissioning period is explained. In this context, 'quality' includes both regulatory aspects (compliance with required standards) and business aspects (meeting the customers' needs and exceeding their expectations). Both aspects are discussed, including examples and lessons learned. The five years of development and implementation of a quality assurance program for decommissioning the WL site have led to a number of lessons learned. Many of these are also relevant to other decommissioning projects, in Canada and elsewhere: - Early discussions with the regulator can save time and effort later in the process; - An iterative process in developing documentation allows for steady improvements and input throughout the process; - Consistent 2-way communication with staff regarding the benefits of a quality program assists greatly in adoption of the philosophy and procedures; - Top-level management must lead in promoting quality; - Field trials of procedures ('beta testing') ensures they are easy to use as well as useful. Success in decommissioning the Whiteshell Laboratories depends on the successful implementation of a rigorous quality program. This will help to ensure both safety and efficiency of all activities on site, from planning through execution and reporting. The many aspects of maintaining this program will continue to occupy quality practitioners in AECL, reaping steady benefits to AECL and to its customers, the people of Canada.

  1. Maintaining older brain functionality: A targeted review.

    PubMed

    Ballesteros, Soledad; Kraft, Eduard; Santana, Silvina; Tziraki, Chariklia

    2015-08-01

    The unprecedented growth in the number of older adults in our society is accompanied by the exponential increase in the number of elderly people who will suffer cognitive decline and dementia in the next decades. This will create an enormous cost for governments, families and individuals. Brain plasticity and its role in brain adaptation to the process of aging is influenced by other changes as a result of co-morbidities, environmental factors, personality traits (psychosocial variables) and genetic and epigenetic factors. This review summarizes recent findings obtained mostly from interventional studies that aim to prevent and/or delay age-related cognitive decline in healthy adults. There are a multitude of such studies. In this paper, we focused our review on physical activity, computerized cognitive training and social enhancement interventions on improving cognition, physical health, independent living and wellbeing of older adults. The methodological limitations of some of these studies, and the need for new multi-domain synergistic interventions, based on current advances in neuroscience and social-brain theories, are discussed. PMID:26054789

  2. Maintaining good morale in old age.

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, M D

    1997-01-01

    Traditional aging studies have seen life's later years as a time of inevitable biological and social decline. Psychological decline might also be expected, but this is not true for most older people, according to epidemiologic studies. Thus, we must ask: Why is aging not as emotionally threatening as might be expected? Why do some older people do better than others? How should medicine address these issues? It is only possible to understand the successful emotional aging of most elders if the customary diathesis-stress model is supplemented by a developmental perspective. Expectations as well as capacities diminish with aging. This means that subjective health appears more tightly linked with morale than objective health. Some older people experience recurrence of mental disorders (for example, major depression) first present earlier in life. Others experience new disorders such as minor depression in response to biological or social losses. As geriatric medicine comes to increasingly focus on chronic disease, attention to morale is an important strategy for maximizing quality of life. Physicians will need improved skills in the detection and treatment of problems in morale if they are to provide optimum care for their older patients. PMID:9348760

  3. The Importance of Social Connectedness in Building Age-Friendly Communities

    PubMed Central

    Emlet, Charles A.; Moceri, Joane T.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to further elucidate the importance of social relationships and social connectedness with aging in place and in developing elder-friendly communities. The process used in this study was inclusive of younger adults (age 40–65) as well as older adults (65+) in order to further understand how they envision a community that could support their own aging in place. A community forum, using the World Café format, was conducted in order to engage community members, 40 years and older, in conversation about the importance of social connectedness in elder-friendly communities. A second purpose of this forum was to obtain data on what would keep aging boomers in their community as they age. Three major themes emerged from qualitative analysis of the forum: social reciprocity, meaningful interactions, and structural needs/barriers. The results of this study reinforce the importance of social connectedness in creating and maintaining elder-friendly communities for older adults, as well as soon-to-be retired individuals, wishing to maintain life connectedness to their community. The study suggests the possibility of using more nontraditional research techniques (such as the World Café process) for gathering community level data. PMID:22162807

  4. Communicating contentious geoscience issues and maintaining impartiality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nice, S. E.; Mitchell, C.

    2013-12-01

    Shale Gas exploration in the UK has been major and often controversial news in the British media over the last 2 years. The British Geological Survey (BGS) has been an integral part of this story as the UK Governments independent and impartial advisor on geosciences. BGS has been involved in writing policy on fracking and induced earthquakes as well as researching potential quantities of shale gas in the UK and also researching natural methane levels in groundwater before large scale fracking activities begin. Shale Gas in the UK, as in the US and Europe has caused much controversy and as a result has many pro and anti fracking campaigns. The challenge for BGS has been to deliver front line science, whilst maintaining complete impartiality on the subject. The BGS communications team developed a strategy over this period to ensure that our message was clear and strong. This involved working closely with the scientists involved to formulate key messages that could delivered through controlled statements on the BGS webpages, press releases, at press conferences as well as on broadcast and print media. Our scientists were media trained during this time to ensure that they stayed en message and wouldn't be caught by the press or opponents of fracking into making statements that could have been used to either scare up the position or give the antagonist room to cast doubt on our impartiality. This strategy proved highly successful and BGS managed to communicate the facts, remain impartial whilst avoiding attempts to undermine the potential for Shale gas exploitation in the UK. The success of this communication strategy was due to the cooperation of the scientists, a clear strategy from the communications team and the unequivocal support of the senior executive at BGS. This abstract will conclude how the BGS has developed its communication strategy to be more streamlined and open. BGS must allow it's scientists to talk to the media about the science that they do. Much of the research that we do is paid for by the British taxpayer and it's our obligation to make sure we communicate what we're doing and why we're doing it to the public in a transparent and easy to understand way whilst ensuring that we maintain our reputation for being a trusted, independent and impartial source of expert advice.

  5. The critical power to maintain thermally stable molecular junctions.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanlei; Xu, Zhiping

    2014-01-01

    With the rise of atomic-scale devices such as molecular electronics and scanning probe microscopies, energy transport processes through molecular junctions have attracted notable research interest recently. In this work, heat dissipation and transport across diamond/benzene/diamond molecular junctions are explored by performing atomistic simulations. We identify the critical power Pcr to maintain thermal stability of the junction through efficient dissipation of local heat. We also find that the molecule-probe contact features a power-dependent interfacial thermal resistance RK in the order of 10(9)?kW(-1). Moreover, both Pcr and RK display explicit dependence on atomic structures of the junction, force and temperature. For instance, Pcr can be elevated in multiple-molecule junctions, and streching the junction enhances RK by a factor of 2. The applications of these findings in molecular electronics and scanning probing measurements are discussed, providing practical guidelines in their rational design. PMID:25005801

  6. MHSPY: A Children's Health Initiative for Maintaining At-Risk Youth in the Community

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Katherine E. Grimes; Brian Mullin

    2006-01-01

    The Massachusetts Mental Health Services Program for Youth (MHSPY) is a home-based clinical intervention that seeks to maintain\\u000a youth with severe functional impairment in the community via delivery of integrated primary care, mental health, substance\\u000a abuse, and social services. Using blended public agency funding, traditional and nontraditional services are provided within\\u000a a private, not-for-profit, managed care organization. Individualized, comprehensive care

  7. SOCIAL SCIENCE Carrot or stick?

    E-print Network

    Dieckmann, Ulf

    SOCIAL SCIENCE Carrot or stick? Rewards and punishments can cajole people into cooperating for behaviour across many domains of social life. Understanding the consequences of such `carrots and sticks-interest.Sohowdorewardsand punishmentscurbselfishnessandhelptomain- tain social order? A paper by Sasaki et al.9 in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences

  8. Support activities to maintain SUMS flight readiness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, Willie

    1992-01-01

    The Shuttle Upper Atmosphere Mass Spectrometer (SUMS), a component experiment of the NASA Orbital Experiments Program (OEX), was flown aboard the shuttle Columbia (OV102) mounted at the forward end of the nose landing gear well with an atmospheric gas inlet system fitted to the lower fuselage (chin panel) surface. The SUMS was designed to provide atmospheric data in flow regimes inaccessible prior to the development of the Space Transportation System (STS). The experiment mission operation began about one hour prior to shuttle de-orbit entry maneuver and continued until reaching 1.6 torr (about 86 km altitude). The SUMS mass spectrometer consists of the spare unit from the Viking mission to Mars. Bendix Aerospace under contract to NASA LaRC incorporated the Viking mass spectrometer, a microprocessor based logic card, a pressurized instrument case, and the University of Texas at Dallas provided a gas inlet system into a configuration suited to interface with the shuttle Columbia. The SUMS experiment underwent static and dynamic calibration as well as vacuum maintenance before and after STS 40 shuttle flight. The SUMS flew a total of 3 times on the space shuttle Columbia. Between flights the SUMS was maintained in flight ready status. The flight data has been analyzed by the NASA LaRC Aerothermodynamics Branch. Flight data spectrum plots and reports are presented in the Appendices to the Final Technical Report for NAS1-17399.

  9. Maintaining urban gas systems demands special technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Anglero, T.F. (Brooklyn Union Gas Co., NY (United States))

    1994-04-01

    Brooklyn Union Gas Co. has been providing gas to 50% of the population of New York City for the last 100 years. The company has constructed an elaborate gas distribution network that includes a gas main under nearly every city street in a service territory that includes Brooklyn, Staten Island and parts of Queens. Conventional ways of pipeline construction and maintenance are inadequate in today's environment of heightened competition, increased regulations and, most importantly, demanding customer expectations of quality service. As a result, Brooklyn Union Gas must use special construction and maintenance methods in its operations, and in particular trenchless technologies. Over the past 10 years the company has paid close attention to developing a variety of trenchless techniques. Like many gas distribution companies providing service in densely populated urban areas, Brooklyn Union must operate and maintain its gas distribution network in a challenging environment of increasing governmental regulation and escalating field construction costs. Technological innovation is not a luxury, but instead a necessity to achieve corporate growth, regulatory compliance and greater customer satisfaction. Trenchless technologies offset rising pipe installation costs and provide benefits both to the customer and the company. Of special value to Brooklyn Union is the development of systems that renovate old metal pipes by lining. Such techniques are described.

  10. CDC20 maintains tumor initiating cells.

    PubMed

    Xie, Qi; Wu, Qiulian; Mack, Stephen C; Yang, Kailin; Kim, Leo; Hubert, Christopher G; Flavahan, William A; Chu, Chengwei; Bao, Shideng; Rich, Jeremy N

    2015-05-30

    Glioblastoma is the most prevalent and lethal primary intrinsic brain tumor. Glioblastoma displays hierarchical arrangement with a population of self-renewing and tumorigenic glioma tumor initiating cells (TICs), or cancer stem cells. While non-neoplastic neural stem cells are generally quiescent, glioblastoma TICs are often proliferative with mitotic control offering a potential point of fragility. Here, we interrogate the role of cell-division cycle protein 20 (CDC20), an essential activator of anaphase-promoting complex (APC) E3 ubiquitination ligase, in the maintenance of TICs. By chromatin analysis and immunoblotting, CDC20 was preferentially expressed in TICs relative to matched non-TICs. Targeting CDC20 expression by RNA interference attenuated TIC proliferation, self-renewal and in vivo tumor growth. CDC20 disruption mediated its effects through induction of apoptosis and inhibition of cell cycle progression. CDC20 maintains TICs through degradation of p21CIP1/WAF1, a critical negative regulator of TICs. Inhibiting CDC20 stabilized p21CIP1/WAF1, resulting in repression of several genes critical to tumor growth and survival, including CDC25C, c-Myc and Survivin. Transcriptional control of CDC20 is mediated by FOXM1, a central transcription factor in TICs. These results suggest CDC20 is a critical regulator of TIC proliferation and survival, linking two key TIC nodes-FOXM1 and p21CIP1/WAF1-elucidating a potential point for therapeutic intervention. PMID:25938542

  11. Virus Movement Maintains Local Virus Population Diversity

    SciTech Connect

    J. Snyder; B. Wiedenheft; M. Lavin; F. Roberto; J. Spuhler; A. Ortmann; T. Douglas; M. Young

    2007-11-01

    Viruses are the largest reservoir of genetic material on the planet, yet little is known about the population dynamics of any virus within its natural environment. Over a 2-year period, we monitored the diversity of two archaeal viruses found in hot springs within Yellowstone National Park (YNP). Both temporal phylogeny and neutral biodiversity models reveal that virus diversity in these local environments is not being maintained by mutation but rather by high rates of immigration from a globally distributed metacommunity. These results indicate that geographically isolated hot springs are readily able to exchange viruses. The importance of virus movement is supported by the detection of virus particles in air samples collected over YNP hot springs and by their detection in metacommunity sequencing projects conducted in the Sargasso Sea. Rapid rates of virus movement are not expected to be unique to these archaeal viruses but rather a common feature among virus metacommunities. The finding that virus immigration rather than mutation can dominate community structure has significant implications for understanding virus circulation and the role that viruses play in ecology and evolution by providing a reservoir of mobile genetic material.

  12. Arteriolar niches maintain haematopoietic stem cell quiescence

    PubMed Central

    Kunisaki, Yuya; Bruns, Ingmar; Scheiermann, Christoph; Ahmed, Jalal; Pinho, Sandra; Zhang, Dachuan; Mizoguchi, Toshihide; Wei, Qiaozhi; Lucas, Daniel; Ito, Keisuke; Mar, Jessica C.; Bergman, Aviv; Frenette, Paul S.

    2013-01-01

    Cell cycle quiescence is a critical feature contributing to haematopoietic stem cell (HSC) maintenance. Although various candidate stromal cells have been identified as potential HSC niches, the spatial localization of quiescent HSCs in the bone marrow (BM) remains unclear. Here, using a novel approach that combines whole-mount confocal immunofluorescence imaging techniques and computational modelling to analyse significant tridimensional associations among vascular structures, stromal cells and HSCs, we show that quiescent HSCs associate specifically with small arterioles that are preferentially found in endosteal BM. These arterioles are ensheathed exclusively by rare NG2+ pericytes, distinct from sinusoid-associated LepR+ cells. Pharmacological or genetic activation of HSC cell cycle alters the distribution of HSCs from NG2+ peri-arteriolar niches to LepR+ peri-sinusoidal niches. Conditional depletion of NG2+ cells induces HSC cycling and reduces functional long-term repopulating HSCs in BM. These results thus indicate that arteriolar niches are indispensable to maintain HSC quiescence. PMID:24107994

  13. Measuring and assessing maintainability at the end of high level design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Briand, Lionel C.; Morasca, Sandro; Basili, Victor R.

    1993-01-01

    Software architecture appears to be one of the main factors affecting software maintainability. Therefore, in order to be able to predict and assess maintainability early in the development process we need to be able to measure the high-level design characteristics that affect the change process. To this end, we propose a measurement approach, which is based on precise assumptions derived from the change process, which is based on Object-Oriented Design principles and is partially language independent. We define metrics for cohesion, coupling, and visibility in order to capture the difficulty of isolating, understanding, designing and validating changes.

  14. Position statement. Part two: Maintaining immune health.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Neil P; Gleeson, Michael; Pyne, David B; Nieman, David C; Dhabhar, Firdaus S; Shephard, Roy J; Oliver, Samuel J; Bermon, Stéphane; Kajeniene, Alma

    2011-01-01

    The physical training undertaken by athletes is one of a set of lifestyle or behavioural factors that can influence immune function, health and ultimately exercise performance. Others factors including potential exposure to pathogens, health status, lifestyle behaviours, sleep and recovery, nutrition and psychosocial issues, need to be considered alongside the physical demands of an athlete's training programme. The general consensus on managing training to maintain immune health is to start with a programme of low to moderate volume and intensity; employ a gradual and periodised increase in training volumes and loads; add variety to limit training monotony and stress; avoid excessively heavy training loads that could lead to exhaustion, illness or injury; include non-specific cross-training to offset staleness; ensure sufficient rest and recovery; and instigate a testing programme for identifying signs of performance deterioration and manifestations of physical stress. Inter-individual variability in immunocompetence, recovery, exercise capacity, non-training stress factors, and stress tolerance likely explains the different vulnerability of athletes to illness. Most athletes should be able to train with high loads provided their programme includes strategies devised to control the overall strain and stress. Athletes, coaches and medical personnel should be alert to periods of increased risk of illness (e.g. intensive training weeks, the taper period prior to competition, and during competition) and pay particular attention to recovery and nutritional strategies. Although exercising in environmental extremes (heat, cold, altitude) may increase the stress response to acute exercise and elevate the extent of leukocyte trafficking it does not appear to have marked effects on immune function other than a depression of cell-mediated immunity when training at altitude. The available evidence does not support the contention that athletes training and competing in cold (or hot) conditions experience a greater reduction in immune function compared with thermoneutral conditions. Nevertheless, it remains unknown if athletes who regularly train and compete in cold conditions report more frequent, severe or longer-lasting infections. Research should identify whether the airway inflammation associated with breathing large volumes of cold dry air or polluted air impairs airway defences and whether athletes (and their physicians) wrongly interpret the sore throat symptoms that accompany exercising in cold or polluted air as an infection. Elite athletes can benefit from immunonutritional support to bolster immunity during periods of physiological stress. Ensuring adequate energy, carbohydrate and protein intake and avoiding deficiencies of micronutrients are key to maintaining immune health. Evidence is accumulating that some nutritional supplements including flavonoids such as quercetin and Lactobacillus probiotics can augment some aspects of immune function and reduce illness rates in exercise-stressed athletes. Limited data are non-supportive or mixed for use of N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, beta-glucans, bovine colostrums, ginseng, echinacea or megadoses of vitamin C by athletes. Relatively short periods of total sleep deprivation in humans (up to 3 consecutive nights without sleep) do not influence the risk of infection, and the reported increase in natural killer cell activity with this duration of total sleep deprivation would seem to rule out the possibility of an "open-window" for respiratory infections. Very little is known about the effects of more prolonged sleep disruption and repeated sleep disturbances on immune function and infection incidence, although recent studies have highlighted the importance of sleep quantity (total duration of sleep per night) and quality (number of awakenings per night) to protect against the common cold in healthy adults. Short- or long-term exercise can activate different components of a physiological stress response. Prolonged intense exercise may induce negative health conseque

  15. 49 CFR 40.111 - When and how must a laboratory disclose statistical summaries and other information it maintains?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...statistical summaries and other information it maintains? 40.111 Section 40.111...statistical summaries and other information it maintains? (a) As a laboratory...In order to avoid sending data from which it is likely that information about an...

  16. 49 CFR 40.111 - When and how must a laboratory disclose statistical summaries and other information it maintains?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...statistical summaries and other information it maintains? 40.111 Section 40.111...statistical summaries and other information it maintains? (a) As a laboratory...In order to avoid sending data from which it is likely that information about an...

  17. Maintaining Homeostasis by Decision-Making

    PubMed Central

    Korn, Christoph W.; Bach, Dominik R.

    2015-01-01

    Living organisms need to maintain energetic homeostasis. For many species, this implies taking actions with delayed consequences. For example, humans may have to decide between foraging for high-calorie but hard-to-get, and low-calorie but easy-to-get food, under threat of starvation. Homeostatic principles prescribe decisions that maximize the probability of sustaining appropriate energy levels across the entire foraging trajectory. Here, predictions from biological principles contrast with predictions from economic decision-making models based on maximizing the utility of the endpoint outcome of a choice. To empirically arbitrate between the predictions of biological and economic models for individual human decision-making, we devised a virtual foraging task in which players chose repeatedly between two foraging environments, lost energy by the passage of time, and gained energy probabilistically according to the statistics of the environment they chose. Reaching zero energy was framed as starvation. We used the mathematics of random walks to derive endpoint outcome distributions of the choices. This also furnished equivalent lotteries, presented in a purely economic, casino-like frame, in which starvation corresponded to winning nothing. Bayesian model comparison showed that—in both the foraging and the casino frames—participants’ choices depended jointly on the probability of starvation and the expected endpoint value of the outcome, but could not be explained by economic models based on combinations of statistical moments or on rank-dependent utility. This implies that under precisely defined constraints biological principles are better suited to explain human decision-making than economic models based on endpoint utility maximization. PMID:26024504

  18. Maintaining homeostasis by decision-making.

    PubMed

    Korn, Christoph W; Bach, Dominik R

    2015-05-01

    Living organisms need to maintain energetic homeostasis. For many species, this implies taking actions with delayed consequences. For example, humans may have to decide between foraging for high-calorie but hard-to-get, and low-calorie but easy-to-get food, under threat of starvation. Homeostatic principles prescribe decisions that maximize the probability of sustaining appropriate energy levels across the entire foraging trajectory. Here, predictions from biological principles contrast with predictions from economic decision-making models based on maximizing the utility of the endpoint outcome of a choice. To empirically arbitrate between the predictions of biological and economic models for individual human decision-making, we devised a virtual foraging task in which players chose repeatedly between two foraging environments, lost energy by the passage of time, and gained energy probabilistically according to the statistics of the environment they chose. Reaching zero energy was framed as starvation. We used the mathematics of random walks to derive endpoint outcome distributions of the choices. This also furnished equivalent lotteries, presented in a purely economic, casino-like frame, in which starvation corresponded to winning nothing. Bayesian model comparison showed that--in both the foraging and the casino frames--participants' choices depended jointly on the probability of starvation and the expected endpoint value of the outcome, but could not be explained by economic models based on combinations of statistical moments or on rank-dependent utility. This implies that under precisely defined constraints biological principles are better suited to explain human decision-making than economic models based on endpoint utility maximization. PMID:26024504

  19. Maintaining standing balance by handrail grasping.

    PubMed

    Sarraf, Thiago A; Marigold, Daniel S; Robinovitch, Stephen N

    2014-01-01

    Maintaining balance while standing on a moving bus or subway is challenging, and falls among passengers are a significant source of morbidity. Standing passengers often rely on handrail grasping to resist perturbations to balance. We conducted experiments that simulated vehicle starts, to examine how handrail location (overhead or shoulder-height), perturbation direction (forward, backward, left or right), and perturbation magnitude (1 or 2m/s(2)) affected the biomechanical effort (peak centre-of-pressure (COP) excursion and hand force) and muscle activations (onset and integrated EMG activity) involved in balance maintenance. COP excursions, hand forces and muscle activations were altered in a functional manner based on task constraints and perturbation characteristics. Handrail position affected normalized values of peak COP and hand force during forward and backward, but not sideways perturbations. During backward perturbations, COP excursion was greater when grasping overhead than shoulder-height. During forward perturbations, hand force was greater when grasping shoulder-height than overhead. Biceps activations were earlier during shoulder-height than overhead grasping, while tibialis anterior activity was higher during overhead than shoulder-height grasping. Our results indicate that, when facing forward or backward to the direction of vehicle motion, overhead grasping minimizes hand force, while shoulder-height grasping minimizes COP excursion. In contrast, grasping with a sideways stance eliminates the effect of handrail location, and was associated with equal or lower biomechanical effort. This suggests that, at least for vehicle starts, the most reasonable strategy may be to stand sideways to the direction of the vehicle movement, and grasp either at shoulder-height or overhead. PMID:23948334

  20. Maintaining the cold chain for vaccines.

    PubMed

    Petrovi?, Vladimir; Seguljev, Zorica; Gajin, Branka

    2005-01-01

    Cold chain for vaccines a is a system for storing and transporting vaccines at very low temperatures to maintain their effectiveness before use. Because vaccines are sensitive biological substances, their exposition to high temperatures directly affects the quality of vaccines and safety of immunization. The goal of this study was to assess the safety of cold chain for vaccines within the cold chain system in two services of Health Center Novi Sad. Cold Chain Monitors (CCM) and Freeze Watch (FW) indicators were used. A total of 155 (94.5%) Cold Chain Monitors (CCM) and 100 (95.2%) Freeze Watch (FW) indicators were analyzed. Only one CCM showed a breack in cold chain. A total of 3 CCMs indicated risk of vaccine wastage. A total of 9 CCMs were colorized without risk of vaccine wastage. FWs were positive in a high percentage in both services of Health Center Novi Sad. FWs were exposed to low temperatures during transport. Statistically significant differencies in the number of exposed CCMs to high temperatures and the number of exposed FWs to low temperatures were observed in these two services. A statistically significant difference in number of FWs exposed to low temperatures was observed in regard to the period of transport and the period of storage at the vaccination stations. The study shows high level of safety of the cold chain in two services of Health Center Novi Sad Cold Chain Monitor is a reliable indicator of the quality of cold chain for vaccines. Freeze Watch is a reliable indicator of the quality of cold chain during storage of vaccines, but not during their transport. PMID:16296574

  1. Social Phobia (SocialAnxiety

    E-print Network

    Bandettini, Peter A.

    anxiety disorder. national institute of mental Health U.S. Department of HealtH anD HUman ServiceS national institutes of Health #12;Social Phobia (SocialAnxiety Disorder) What is social phobia? Social. People with social phobia are afraid of doing common things in front of other people. For example

  2. 48 CFR 206.202 - Establishing or maintaining alternative sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...Establishing or maintaining alternative sources. 206.202 Section 206...COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Full and Open Competition After Exclusion of Sources 206.202 Establishing or maintaining alternative sources. (a) Agencies may use...

  3. 48 CFR 906.202 - Establishing or maintaining alternative sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...Establishing or maintaining alternative sources. 906.202 Section 906...COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Full and Open Competition After Exclusion of Sources 906.202 Establishing or maintaining alternative sources. (b)(1) Every...

  4. 48 CFR 3006.202 - Establishing or maintaining alternative sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...Establishing or maintaining alternative sources. 3006.202 Section 3006...COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Full and Open Competition After Exclusion of Sources 3006.202 Establishing or maintaining alternative sources. (b)(1) The HCA is...

  5. 48 CFR 1306.202 - Establishing or maintaining alternative sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...Establishing or maintaining alternative sources. 1306.202 Section 1306...COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Full and Open Competition After Exclusion of Sources 1306.202 Establishing or maintaining alternative sources. The authority to...

  6. 48 CFR 2406.202 - Establishing or maintaining alternative sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...Establishing or maintaining alternative sources. 2406.202 Section 2406...COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Full and Open Competition After Exclusion of Sources 2406.202 Establishing or maintaining alternative sources. (b)(1) The HCA...

  7. 48 CFR 606.202 - Establishing or maintaining alternate sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...Establishing or maintaining alternate sources. 606.202 Section 606...COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Full and Open Competition After Exclusion of Sources 606.202 Establishing or maintaining alternate sources. The Procurement...

  8. 48 CFR 6.202 - Establishing or maintaining alternative sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...Establishing or maintaining alternative sources. 6.202 Section 6.202...COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Full and Open Competition After Exclusion of Sources 6.202 Establishing or maintaining alternative sources. (a) Agencies may...

  9. 48 CFR 306.202 - Establishing or maintaining alternative sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...Establishing or maintaining alternative sources. 306.202 Section 306...COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Full and Open Competition After Exclusion of Sources 306.202 Establishing or maintaining alternative sources. (a) The reference to...

  10. 48 CFR 406.202 - Establishing or maintaining alternative sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...Establishing or maintaining alternative sources. 406.202 Section 406...COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Full and Open Competition After Exclusion of Sources 406.202 Establishing or maintaining alternative sources. The Senior Procurement...

  11. 48 CFR 1406.202 - Establishing or maintaining alternative sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...Establishing or maintaining alternative sources. 1406.202 Section 1406...COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Full and Open Competition After Exclusion of Sources 1406.202 Establishing or maintaining alternative sources. HCAs are authorized...

  12. Maintaining Paranormal Belief in the Face of Fraud 

    E-print Network

    Hepburn, Joanna

    2012-06-27

    Past DA studies have investigated how people maintain paranormal belief (e.g. Lamont, 2007b, Wooffitt, 1992) as well as a position of disbelief (Lamont et al, 2009); however no current research has explored how people maintain paranormal belief...

  13. 49 CFR 1310.2 - Requirement to maintain tariffs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 false Requirement to maintain tariffs. 1310.2 Section 1310.2 Transportation... CARRIER RATES AND SERVICE TERMS TARIFF REQUIREMENTS FOR HOUSEHOLD GOODS CARRIERS § 1310.2 Requirement to maintain tariffs. (a) Except when...

  14. 49 CFR 1310.2 - Requirement to maintain tariffs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 false Requirement to maintain tariffs. 1310.2 Section 1310.2 Transportation... CARRIER RATES AND SERVICE TERMS TARIFF REQUIREMENTS FOR HOUSEHOLD GOODS CARRIERS § 1310.2 Requirement to maintain tariffs. (a) Except when...

  15. 49 CFR 1310.2 - Requirement to maintain tariffs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 false Requirement to maintain tariffs. 1310.2 Section 1310.2 Transportation... CARRIER RATES AND SERVICE TERMS TARIFF REQUIREMENTS FOR HOUSEHOLD GOODS CARRIERS § 1310.2 Requirement to maintain tariffs. (a) Except when...

  16. 49 CFR 1310.2 - Requirement to maintain tariffs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 false Requirement to maintain tariffs. 1310.2 Section 1310.2 Transportation... CARRIER RATES AND SERVICE TERMS TARIFF REQUIREMENTS FOR HOUSEHOLD GOODS CARRIERS § 1310.2 Requirement to maintain tariffs. (a) Except when...

  17. 49 CFR 1310.2 - Requirement to maintain tariffs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 false Requirement to maintain tariffs. 1310.2 Section 1310.2 Transportation... CARRIER RATES AND SERVICE TERMS TARIFF REQUIREMENTS FOR HOUSEHOLD GOODS CARRIERS § 1310.2 Requirement to maintain tariffs. (a) Except when...

  18. 4 CFR 200.11 - Maintaining records of disclosure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 false Maintaining records of disclosure. 200.11 Section 200.11 Accounts RECOVERY ACCOUNTABILITY AND TRANSPARENCY BOARD PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 200.11 Maintaining records of disclosure. (a) The...

  19. Maintaining connectivity in a mobile ad hoc network 

    E-print Network

    Reuben, Ron S.

    1998-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the problem of maintaining graphics. connectivity in a mobile ad hoc network. Mobile ad hoc networks are without a fixed topology and are dynamically changing. This makes the problem of maintaining ...

  20. Social Epidemiology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tarani Chandola; Michael Marmot

    Social epidemiology has been defined as the branch of epidemiology that studies the social distribution and social determinants\\u000a of health (Berkman and Kawachi 2000). As all aspects of human life are inextricably bound within the context of social relations,\\u000a every conceivable epidemiological exposure is related to social factors. In this broad sense, all epidemiology is social epidemiology\\u000a (Kaufman and Cooper

  1. Counterbalancing for Serial Order Carryover Effects in Experimental Condition Orders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Joseph L.

    2012-01-01

    Reactions of neural, psychological, and social systems are rarely, if ever, independent of previous inputs and states. The potential for serial order carryover effects from one condition to the next in a sequence of experimental trials makes counterbalancing of condition order an essential part of experimental design. Here, a method is proposed…

  2. CW-pumped polarization-maintaining Brillouin fiber ring laser

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    CW-pumped polarization-maintaining Brillouin fiber ring laser: I. Self-structuration of Brillouin for a large set of (G, R) parameters, in a polarization-maintaining Brillouin fiber ring laser in the best performed in a polarization- maintaining Brillouin fiber ring laser in good conditions of stability

  3. Order Up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibeault, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Change orders. The words can turn the stomachs of administrators. Horror stories about change orders create fear and distrust among school officials, designers and builders. Can change orders be avoided? If car manufacturers can produce millions of intricately designed vehicles, why can't the same quality control be achieved on a construction…

  4. Soil Orders

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Developed by the US Department of Agriculture's Soil Survey Division (SSD), here is a high resolution poster with brief descriptions of the soil orders. Photos of soil profiles accompany descriptions of each order. The soil orders include: Alfisols, Andisols, Aridisols, Entisols, Gelisols, Histosols, Inceptisols, Mollisols, Oxisols, Spodusols, Ultisols, and Vertisols.

  5. Rhesus Monkeys (Macaca Mulatta) Maintain Learning Set Despite Second-Order Stimulus-Response Spatial Discontiguity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beran, Michael J.; Washburn, David A.; Rumbaugh, Duane M.

    2007-01-01

    In many discrimination-learning tests, spatial separation between stimuli and response loci disrupts performance in rhesus macaques. However, monkeys are unaffected by such stimulus-response spatial discontiguity when responses occur through joystick-based computerized movement of a cursor. To examine this discrepancy, five monkeys were tested on…

  6. Evaluation of the Rate of Problem Behavior Maintained by Different Reinforcers across Preference Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Soyeon; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Fragale, Christina L.; Aguilar, Jeannie M.; Rispoli, Mandy; Lang, Russell

    2011-01-01

    The rates of problem behavior maintained by different reinforcers were evaluated across 3 preference assessment formats (i.e., paired stimulus, multiple-stimulus without replacement, and free operant). The experimenter administered each assessment format 5 times in a random order for 7 children with developmental disabilities whose problem…

  7. Should we maintain baby hatches in our society?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background A baby hatch called the “Stork’s Cradle” has been in place at Jikei Hospital in Kumamoto City, Japan, since May 10, 2007. Babyklappes were first established in Germany in 2000, and there are currently more than 90 locations. Attitudes regarding baby hatches are divided in Japan and neither opinions for nor against baby hatches have thus far been overwhelming. To consider the appropriateness of baby hatches, we present and examine the validity of each major objection to establishing baby hatches. Discussion There are various objections to baby hatches as follows: It violates a child’s right to know the identity of his or her biological parents by allowing anonymous birth; it neglects fulfillment of the biological parents’ basic obligation to raise their child and its very availability induces abandonment of infants; some people abuse it for very selfish reasons; it cannot save babies’ lives; the rights of one parent can be ignored if the other surrenders a child without his or her consent; it puts a baby in medical jeopardy; and it has no clear legal basis. The authors would argue that there are many plausible refutations for each objection mainly based on priority of child’s right to life, pregnant women’s vulnerability and necessity of anonymity, social responsibility to protect and raise children, differences between dropping a child off at a baby hatch and child neglect, limited function of social childcare center, inevitability of abuse by a minority of people, necessary distinction between outcomes that occur only because baby hatches exist and those that occur regardless of their existence, important local direct and upmost measures for women in trouble, and difference between ambiguous legality and illegality. Summary We argue that a certain number of baby hatches should continue to be established as a last resort, in a form that can maintain anonymity if the parent dropping the child off so desires. It should be supported if it is initiated with good intentions; if the maximum possible effort is made at said facility to protect the interests, rights, and safety of the child; and if no clear evidence of harm exists. PMID:23433312

  8. Deployment of DNIDS in Social Networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Meytal Tubi; Rami Puzis; Yuval Elovici

    2007-01-01

    Internet users form social networks as they communicate with each other. Computer worms and viruses exploit these social networks in order to propagate to other users. In this paper we present a new framework aimed at slowing down or even preventing the propagation of computer worms and viruses in social networks. In the first part of the framework a social

  9. Social psychology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Floyd H. Allport

    1920-01-01

    Slowly but surely, social psychology is coming into its own as the study of the social behavior of the individual. Many writers are noting, and some are investigating, social stimulus and response, and the specific effect of a social environment upon individual reaction. In spite of the persistent speculative essays of the old school, the trend is encouragingly toward observation

  10. Followership in Ecology/Environment Social Movements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clavner, Jerry B.; Sumodi, Veronica R.

    The paper analyzes the failure of the ecology/environmental movement to develop into a social movement and to generate a mass following. The movement has had difficulty not only in organizing collective behavior but also in maintaining the necessary momentum to change into a full-fledged social movement. Obvious reasons are that ecologists…

  11. The Sociological Imagination and Social Responsibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hironimus-Wendt, Robert J.; Wallace, Lora Ebert

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we maintain that sociologists should deliberately teach social responsibility as a means of fulfilling the promise that C. Wright Mills envisioned. A key aspect of the sociological imagination includes a sense of social responsibility, but that aspect is best learned through a combination of experience and academic knowledge.…

  12. Boosting Social and Emotional Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beland, Kathy

    2007-01-01

    Beland maintains that high school students will need a high level of skill in the social and emotional arena to be ready for competitive employment in the 21st century. In a 2006 survey, human resource professionals said five skills were most crucial to high school graduates' success: professionalism/work ethic; teamwork; oral communications;…

  13. Political Equilibria with Social Security

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michele Boldrin; Aldo Rustichini

    2000-01-01

    We model pay-as-you-go social security systems as the outcome of majority voting within a overlapping generations model with production. When voting, individuals make two choices, pay the elderly their pensions or default, which amount to promise themselves next period. Under general circumstances, there exist equilibria where pensions are voted into existence and maintained. Our analysis uncovers two reasons for this.

  14. Social economics and social capital

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joe Wallis; Paul Killerby; Brian Dollery

    2004-01-01

    This paper evaluates key developments in the social capital literature over the past decade. It then examines empirical work on the purported the link between social capital and economic performance. Although these results indicate that good governance and social cohesion make a measurable contribution to economic development, the offer little guidance for policy formulation. Early contributors to the social capital

  15. Order Nidovirales

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter, entitled "Order Nidovirales", is for inclusion in the Ninth Report of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV), to be published as both a single volume text and online. The chapter details the taxonomy of members of the Nidovirus order, including family Arteriviridae o...

  16. The evaluation and treatment of aggression maintained by attention and automatic reinforcement.

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, R H; Fisher, W W; Piazza, C C; Kuhn, D E

    1998-01-01

    In the current investigation, we used direct and indirect methods to assess and treat several topographies of aggression that were hypothesized to have separate operant functions in a young boy with severe mental ratardation and pervasive developmental disorder. First, a functional analysis of aggression, using the methods described by Iwata, Dorsey, Slifer, Bauman, and Richman (1982/1994), was conducted and produced inconclusive results. Next, indirect methods were used to develop a second functional analysis, which showed that chin grinding (firmly pressing and grinding his chin against the skin and bones of others) persisted independent of social contingencies and that the other topographies of aggression (e.g., hitting, kicking) were maintained by social positive reinforcement (attention). A treatment designed to decrease aggression maintained by attention--functional communication training with extinction--reduced all forms of aggression except chin grinding. This latter topography of aggression, which we hypothesized was maintained by automatic reinforcement, was reduced when the response--reinforcer relation was interrupted through response blocking and the child was provided with an alternative form of chin stimulation. PMID:9532754

  17. Energy and Order in Biological Systems

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-06-19

    This lesson explains how energy is used to keep the structure of an organism maintained. Otherwise, systems naturally progress from order to disorder according to the second law of thermodynamics. Key terms are hyperlinked to provide more detailed explanations.

  18. Issues and Methods for Assessing COTS Reliability, Maintainability, and Availability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneidewind, Norman F.; Nikora, Allen P.

    1998-01-01

    Many vendors produce products that are not domain specific (e.g., network server) and have limited functionality (e.g., mobile phone). In contrast, many customers of COTS develop systems that am domain specific (e.g., target tracking system) and have great variability in functionality (e.g., corporate information system). This discussion takes the viewpoint of how the customer can ensure the quality of COTS components. In evaluating the benefits and costs of using COTS, we must consider the environment in which COTS will operate. Thus we must distinguish between using a non-mission critical application like a spreadsheet program to produce a budget and a mission critical application like military strategic and tactical operations. Whereas customers will tolerate an occasional bug in the former, zero tolerance is the rule in the latter. We emphasize the latter because this is the arena where there are major unresolved problems in the application of COTS. Furthermore, COTS components may be embedded in the larger customer system. We refer to these as embedded systems. These components must be reliable, maintainable, and available, and must be with the larger system in order for the customer to benefit from the advertised advantages of lower development and maintenance costs. Interestingly, when the claims of COTS advantages are closely examined, one finds that to a great extent these COTS components consist of hardware and office products, not mission critical software [1]. Obviously, COTS components are different from custom components with respect to one or more of the following attributes: source, development paradigm, safety, reliability, maintainability, availability, security, and other attributes. However, the important question is whether they should be treated differently when deciding to deploy them for operational use; we suggest the answer is no. We use reliability as an example to justify our answer. In order to demonstrate its reliability, a COTS component must pass the same reliability evaluations as the custom components, otherwise the COTS components will be the weakest link in the chain of components and will be the determinant of software system reliability. The challenge is that there will be less information available for evaluating COTS components than for custom components but this does not mean we should despair and do nothing. Actually, there is a lot we can do even in the absence of documentation on COTS components because the customer will have information about how COTS components are to be used in the larger system. To illustrate our approach, we will consider the reliability, maintainability, and availability (RMA) of COTS components as used in larger systems. Finally, COTS suppliers might consider increasing visibility into their products to assist customers in determining the components' fitness for use in a particular application. We offer ideas of information that would be useful to customers, and what vendors might do to provide it.

  19. Description of a haptic system for virtual maintainability in aeronautics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Savall; Diego Borro; Jorge J. Gil; L. Matey

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes a haptic system for maintainability simulation in aeronautics, called REVIMA (Virtual Reality for Maintainability). In this project a software-hardware tool is designed and built to realistically simulate assembly-disassembly operations. It also helps to perform accessibility, interference and maintainability analysis by using virtual reality techniques without physical mock-ups. The system gives the user a reliable and realistic response.

  20. Social Care Informatics - The Missing Partner in eHealth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Rigby; Penny Hill; Sabine Koch; Jarmo Kärki

    2009-01-01

    To the individual, social care can be an es sential part of maintaining health, as is reflected by the WHO definition of health as being one of wellbeing. However, health informatics currently narrowly restricts itself to health organizations' activities. Digital records in social care are increasing, raising the need to recognize the area of social care informatics. This new domain

  1. The reorganization of children's social services in England

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carl Purcell; Danny S. L. Chow

    2011-01-01

    Through a case study of a London borough's children's social services department (CSD), this article highlights themes concerning the reorganization of children's social care provision. Reorganizations have been driven in part by tensions between the desire of social work professionals to maintain their autonomous modes of working, versus an increasingly managerialist outlook of more recent government initiatives. The acceptance and

  2. Social Work and Applied Social Studies

    E-print Network

    Burton, Geoffrey R.

    Social Work and Applied Social Studies Undergraduate 1 #12;www.bath.ac.uk/sps Undergraduate Social Work and Applied Social Studies What is Social Work? `The social work profession promotes social change' (International Federation of Social Workers, 2000) Social work is an exceptionally interesting, challenging

  3. Developing resilience: how women maintain their health in northern geographically isolated settings.

    PubMed

    Leipert, Beverly D; Reutter, Linda

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore how women maintain their health in northern geographically isolated settings, using a feminist grounded theory method. Twenty-five women of diverse backgrounds in northern British Columbia, Canada, engaged in qualitative interviews over a 2-year period to express perspectives about how the north affects their health and how they maintain their health in northern settings. Findings reveal that the women experienced vulnerability to physical health and safety risks, psychosocial health risks, and risks of inadequate health care. The women responded to these vulnerabilities by developing resilience through the strategies of becoming hardy, making the best of the north, and supplementing the north. These strategies, which reflect both individual and collective actions, were determined by the needs and interests of the women and their social and personal resources. The findings have implications for women's health research and health practices and policies in geographically isolated settings. PMID:15574715

  4. Knowledge and Social Learning for Sustainable Development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bernd Siebenhüner; Harald Heinrichs

    \\u000a Building on the on-going discussion about topical knowledge, social learning and sustainable development, this article discusses\\u000a the problem horizon of non-sustainable development in order to highlight the necessity of social learning processes and to\\u000a discuss the relevant conceptual approaches to social learning. It is argued that in order to meet the challenges of global\\u000a environmental changes, social learning based on

  5. Seasonal resource oscillations maintain diversity in bacterial microcosms

    E-print Network

    Doebeli, Michael

    Seasonal resource oscillations maintain diversity in bacterial microcosms Christine C. Spencer, 1: Seasonal variation in availability of resources maintains co-existence between different ecological types and then switch to acetate consumption, thus creating a fluctuating environment with two different `seasons'. We

  6. CW-pumped polarization-maintaining Brillouin fiber ring laser

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    CW-pumped polarization-maintaining Brillouin fiber ring laser: II. Active mode-locking by phase polarization- maintaining fiber ring cavity excites spontaneous stable mode-locking. But the shortest pulses a phase modulator inside the ring. The experiment is carried out in the infrared at 1.319 µm

  7. Challenges to situated morality: Maintaining respectability in a sexual rendezvous

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Robert Lilly; Richard A. Ball

    1980-01-01

    A clandestine motel operation is described, concentrating upon the staff and patrons as they attempt to maintain respectability within a context of situated morality that is shifting, challenging previously negotiated realities. The staff members tend toward a refulgent respectability, using vocabularies of denial to maintain respectability. Patrons, categorized as regular customers, special customers, careful people and problem people, may seek

  8. Maintaining Approximate Extent Measures of Moving Points Pankaj K. Agarwaly

    E-print Network

    Agarwal, Pankaj K.

    . As the points move continuously, the extent measure of interest changes continuously as well, though its comMaintaining Approximate Extent Measures of Moving Points Pankaj K. Agarwaly Sariel Har-Peledz Abstract We present approximation algorithms for maintaining various descriptors of the extent of moving

  9. Maintaining Information Flow Security Under Refinement and Transformation

    E-print Network

    Stølen, Ketil

    Maintaining Information Flow Security Under Refinement and Transformation Fredrik Seehusen1 {fse,kst}@sintef.no Abstract. We address the problem of maintaining information flow security un- der refinement and transformation. To this end we define a schema for the specifi- cation of secure information

  10. Maintaining stream statistics over sliding windows: (extended abstract)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mayur Datar; Aristides Gionis; Piotr Indyk; Rajeev Motwani

    2002-01-01

    We consider the problem of maintaining aggregates and statistics over data streams, with respect to the last N data elements seen so far. We refer to this model as the sliding window model. We consider the following basic problem: Given a stream of bits, maintain a count of the number of 1's in the last N elements seen from the

  11. Maintaining variance and k-medians over data stream windows

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brain Babcock; Mayur Datar; Rajeev Motwani; Liadan O'Callaghan

    2003-01-01

    The sliding window model is useful for discounting stale data in data stream applications. In this model, data elements arrive continually and only the most recent N elements are used when answering queries. We present a novel technique for solving two important and related problems in the sliding window model---maintaining variance and maintaining a k--median clustering. Our solution to the

  12. Corrective maintenance maturity model (CM 3 ): maintainer's education and training

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mira Kajko-Mattsson; Stefan Forssander; Ulf H. Olsson

    2001-01-01

    What is the point of improving maintenance processes if the most important asset, people, is not properly utilised? Knowledge of the product(s) maintained, maintenance processes and communications skills is very important for achieving quality software and for improving maintenance and development processes. In this paper, we present CM3: Maintainer's Education and Training — a maturity model for educating and training

  13. A Practical Way To Maintain A Transitive Reduction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael L. Case; Robert K. Brayton; Alan Mishchenko

    Several authors have studied methods to construct the transitive reduction of a directed graph, but little work has been done on how to maintain it. We are motivated by a real-world application which uses a tran- sitively reduced graph at its core and must maintain the transitive reduction over a sequence of graph operations. This paper presents an efficient method

  14. Health and Social Care Is Health and Social Care right for me?

    E-print Network

    Harman, Neal.A.

    Health and Social Care Is Health and Social Care right for me? Are you are interested in caring for a specialised degree in medicine, nursing or social work? If yes, then Health and Social Care could be the subject for you. You will need good time management skills as well as a passion for care in order to get

  15. Maintaining standards for surgery for female urinary incontinence.

    PubMed

    Riss, P; Hinterholzer, S

    2010-01-01

    MAINTAINING STANDARDS IN SURGERY FOR FEMALE URINARY INCONTINENCE: Operations for female stress urinary incontinence (SUI) are among the most common operations performed. In particular, recent advances in surgical technique and materials available for this type of surgery have made these operations more accessible, but even if an operation is characterized as "minimally invasive" surgeons must aim to maintain the highest possible standards in the interest of their patients. STANDARDS IN PATIENT SELECTION: Great care has to be taken to do a thorough workup of a patient about to undergo surgery. A detailed history and a good clinical evaluation including a clinical stress test is a prerequisite. It is highly recommended to do an urodynamic investigation prior to any surgery which affects bladder storage and micturition in order to confirm the presumptive diagnosis and to exclude patients who should not undergo surgery (e.g. with voiding disorders). STANDARDS IN SURGERY: Before taking a patient to theatre the surgeon must be clear in him or her mind about which operation to do. In other words preoperative selection of the appropriate type of operation is of the greatest importance. For this reason every surgeon has to be familiar with a certain range of incontinence procedures from which she can choose in a particular instance. There is no doubt that tension-free mid-urethral slings have become the procedures of choice in most cases of stress urinary incontinence. However, there will be cases where other procedures are called for such as traditional colposuspension or fascial slings. It is the responsibility of every surgeon not to use procedures which are outdated or not recommended. To maintain standards in incontinence surgery every surgeon has to familiarize him or herself with the procedure, to learn the procedure, to practice the procedure with the help of experienced peers, and finally to achieve the highest level of competence him or herself. So-called Industry sponsored "training centres" can be helpful but there are no shortcut to use all possible resources to learn and practice new surgery. Guidelines have become very important in evaluating new procedures and in categorizing the available evidence. They focus on specific recommendations which we can and should use in our daily practice. Again we still have the responsibility to follow the medical literature closely and to adapt our practice as new evidence becomes available-even before it is incorporated into guidelines. STANDARDS IN FOLLOW-UP: Last but not least we have to follow standards when following up on our patients. As far as possible in the context of the health care system where we practice we should aim to see the patient we have operated on at least once 6-12 weeks after surgery. We must also make sure that the patient has access to care in case a problem develops later. And we ourselves must be familiar with the complications and consequences of surgery for stress urinary incontinence and must be able to manage a patient who is not completely satisfied after surgery. PMID:19962838

  16. Safety, reliability, maintainability and quality provisions for the Space Shuttle program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    This publication establishes common safety, reliability, maintainability and quality provisions for the Space Shuttle Program. NASA Centers shall use this publication both as the basis for negotiating safety, reliability, maintainability and quality requirements with Shuttle Program contractors and as the guideline for conduct of program safety, reliability, maintainability and quality activities at the Centers. Centers shall assure that applicable provisions of the publication are imposed in lower tier contracts. Centers shall give due regard to other Space Shuttle Program planning in order to provide an integrated total Space Shuttle Program activity. In the implementation of safety, reliability, maintainability and quality activities, consideration shall be given to hardware complexity, supplier experience, state of hardware development, unit cost, and hardware use. The approach and methods for contractor implementation shall be described in the contractors safety, reliability, maintainability and quality plans. This publication incorporates provisions of NASA documents: NHB 1700.1 'NASA Safety Manual, Vol. 1'; NHB 5300.4(IA), 'Reliability Program Provisions for Aeronautical and Space System Contractors'; and NHB 5300.4(1B), 'Quality Program Provisions for Aeronautical and Space System Contractors'. It has been tailored from the above documents based on experience in other programs. It is intended that this publication be reviewed and revised, as appropriate, to reflect new experience and to assure continuing viability.

  17. Methadone Anonymous: A 12-Step Program for Methadone Maintained Heroin Addicts.

    PubMed

    Gilman, Stephen M.; Galanter, Marc; Dermatis, Helen

    2001-12-01

    Methadone Anonymous (MA) is a new 12-step fellowship developed for methadone maintained heroin addicts. A total of 53 MA members completed a survey assessing factors related to methadone maintenance treatment program (MMTP) entry, drug use, MA participation, beliefs concerning effectiveness of MMTP and MA, and level of social cohesiveness. Length of time in MA was associated with a decreased use of alcohol, cocaine, and marijuana. Clients rated components of MA to be significantly more helpful to recovery than MMTP treatment components. Affiliation to five MA members known best by the respondents was significantly greater than affiliation to non-MA members. Length of time in MA was positively associated with MA affiliation. Social affiliation and endorsement of 12-step principles were positively correlated. These findings suggest that MA participation has benefits not available in professionally driven MMTP, and should be further studied. PMID:12466684

  18. Temporal regulation of kin recognition maintains recognition-cue diversity and suppresses cheating

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Hsing-I; Shaulsky, Gad

    2015-01-01

    Kin recognition, the ability to distinguish kin from non-kin, can facilitate cooperation between relatives. Evolutionary theory predicts that polymorphism in recognition cues, which is essential for effective recognition, would be unstable. Individuals carrying rare recognition cues would benefit less from social interactions than individuals with common cues, leading to loss of the genetic-cue diversity. We test this evolutionary hypothesis in Dictyostelium discoideum, which forms multicellular fruiting bodies by aggregation and utilizes two polymorphic membrane proteins to facilitate preferential cooperation. Surprisingly, we find that rare recognition variants are tolerated and maintain their frequencies among incompatible majority during development. Although the rare variants are initially excluded from the aggregates, they subsequently rejoin the aggregate and produce spores. Social cheating is also refrained in late development, thus limiting the cost of chimerism. Our results suggest a potential mechanism to sustain the evolutionary stability of kin-recognition genes and to suppress cheating. PMID:26018043

  19. Social Learning in Social Networks

    E-print Network

    Lamberson, Peter John

    This paper analyzes a model of social learning in a social network. Agents decide whether or not to adopt a new technology with unknown payoffs based on their prior beliefs and the experiences of their neighbors in the ...

  20. FUNCTIONAL ANALYSIS AND TREATMENT OF ARRANGING AND ORDERING BY INDIVIDUALS WITH AN AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDER

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Nicole M; Thompson, Rachel H; Schlichenmeyer, Kevin; Stocco, Corey S

    2012-01-01

    Of the diagnostic features of autism, relatively little research has been devoted to restricted and repetitive behavior, particularly topographically complex forms of restricted and repetitive behavior such as rigidity in routines or compulsive-like behavior (e.g., arranging objects in patterns or rows). Like vocal or motor stereotypy, topographically complex forms of restricted and repetitive behavior may be associated with negative outcomes such as interference with skill acquisition, negative social consequences, and severe problem behavior associated with interruption of restricted and repetitive behavior. In the present study, we extended functional analysis methodology to the assessment and treatment of arranging and ordering for 3 individuals with an autism spectrum disorder. For all 3 participants, arranging and ordering was found to be maintained by automatic reinforcement, and treatments based on function reduced arranging and ordering. PMID:22403446

  1. Maintaining a Social-Emotional Intervention and Its Benefits for Institutionalized Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCall, Robert B.; Groark, Christina J.; Fish, Larry; Muhamedrahimov, Rifkat J.; Palmov, Oleg I.; Nikiforova, Natalia V.

    2013-01-01

    This article reports the maintenance of one of the largest interventions conducted in St. Petersburg (Russian Federation) orphanages for children birth to 4 years using regular caregiving staff. One orphanage received training plus structural changes, another training only, and a third business as usual. The intervention produced substantial…

  2. 21 CFR 1305.27 - Preservation of electronic orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...supplier must retain each original order filled and the linked records for two years. (c) If electronic order records are maintained on a central server, the records must be readily retrievable at the registered...

  3. 21 CFR 1305.27 - Preservation of electronic orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...supplier must retain each original order filled and the linked records for two years. (c) If electronic order records are maintained on a central server, the records must be readily retrievable at the registered...

  4. Social Ferment and School Finance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hack, Walter G.

    1972-01-01

    Describes the nature of contemporary society in terms of gross or general changes observed during the past twenty years in order to consider possible breakthroughs of school finance as products of social ferment. (Author/AN)

  5. An accurate method for alignment of polarization-maintaining fiber with CCD micro-imaging system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yan-Jie Li; Rui Wang; Chun-Xi Zhang; Yuan-Hong Yang; De-Wei Yang

    2009-01-01

    Polarization-Maintaining(PM) optical fiber connector is widely used in various kinds of optic fiber sensors and communication equipments. The alignment of PM fiber polarization axis with the orientation key axis is one of the most important factors determining the extinction ratio of the connector. In order to ensure high accurate alignment of these two axises, CCD micro-imaging system is employed to

  6. The Art of Designing Socially Intelligent Agents: Science, Fiction, and the Human in the Loop

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kerstin Dautenhahn

    1998-01-01

    In this paper socially intelligent agents (SIA) are understood as agents whichdo not only from an observer point of view behave socially but which are ableto recognize and identify other agents and establish and maintain relationshipsto other agents. The process of building socially intelligent agents is influencedby what the human as the designer considers `social\\

  7. Functional Analysis of Inappropriate Social Interactions in Students with Asperger's Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roantree, Christina F.; Kennedy, Craig H.

    2012-01-01

    We analyzed the inappropriate social interactions of 3 students with Asperger's syndrome whose behavior was maintained by social positive reinforcement. We tested whether inappropriate social behavior was sensitive to social positive reinforcement contingencies and whether such contingencies could be reversed to increase the probability of…

  8. Rearing and Maintaining Midge Cultures (Chironomus tentans) for Laboratory Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hein, John; Mahadeva, Madhu N.

    1992-01-01

    The life history of the Chironomus tentans can be observed in easily established and maintained laboratory cultures. Projects for the classroom include observing hydration of an egg mass; embryonic development, hatching and larval feeding; larval activity; and mating activity. (MDH)

  9. INTRODUCTION Chondrocytes maintain the integrity of the extracellular matrix

    E-print Network

    Buschmann, Michael

    INTRODUCTION Chondrocytes maintain the integrity of the extracellular matrix (ECM) of articular in the extracellular matrix, with the pericellular matrix associated with the most rapid rates of proteoglycan cartilage by mediating the synthesis, secretion, and degradation of matrix proteoglycans (PGs

  10. Ecological selection maintains cytonuclear incompatibilities in hybridizing sunflowers

    E-print Network

    Rieseberg, Loren

    . Keywords Cytoplasm, ecological divergence, ecological speciation, habitat adaptation, hybridiza- tionLETTER Ecological selection maintains cytonuclear incompatibilities in hybridizing sunflowersDrive,Decorah, IA52101, USA. Abstract Despite the recent renaissance in studies of ecological speciation

  11. Maintain a Healthy State of Mind: High School Students

    MedlinePLUS

    ... A - Z Index Maintain a Healthy State of Mind: High School Students Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... died. Having upsetting thoughts or pictures in your mind of what happened. They can pop into your ...

  12. Software Maintainability Improvement: Integrating Standards and Models William C. Chu,

    E-print Network

    Chung, Yeh-Ching

    Software Maintainability Improvement: Integrating Standards and Models William C. Chu, Dpt Science and Engineering, Southeast University, China National Key Laboratory of Software Engineering, Wuhan University, China Abstract Software standards are highly recommended because they promise faster

  13. 7 CFR 3560.103 - Maintaining housing projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...must be maintained and must allow air to windows, vents, and sills. Recreation areas...infiltrate the structure, eaves, gables, and window trim that are free from deterioration...and soffits must be intact. (xii) Windows, doors, and exterior structures....

  14. 7 CFR 3560.103 - Maintaining housing projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...must be maintained and must allow air to windows, vents, and sills. Recreation areas...infiltrate the structure, eaves, gables, and window trim that are free from deterioration...and soffits must be intact. (xii) Windows, doors, and exterior structures....

  15. 7 CFR 3560.103 - Maintaining housing projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...must be maintained and must allow air to windows, vents, and sills. Recreation areas...infiltrate the structure, eaves, gables, and window trim that are free from deterioration...and soffits must be intact. (xii) Windows, doors, and exterior structures....

  16. 7 CFR 3560.103 - Maintaining housing projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...must be maintained and must allow air to windows, vents, and sills. Recreation areas...infiltrate the structure, eaves, gables, and window trim that are free from deterioration...and soffits must be intact. (xii) Windows, doors, and exterior structures....

  17. 7 CFR 3560.103 - Maintaining housing proj-ects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...must be maintained and must allow air to windows, vents, and sills. Recreation areas...infiltrate the structure, eaves, gables, and window trim that are free from deterioration...and soffits must be intact. (xii) Windows, doors, and exterior structures....

  18. Maintain a Healthy State of Mind: Middle School Students

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Response Maintain a Healthy State of Mind: Middle School Students Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir When people watch news reports about natural disasters or terrorist attacks or school shootings, they may ...

  19. 19 CFR 143.6 - Failure to maintain performance standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) SPECIAL ENTRY PROCEDURES Automated Broker Interface § 143.6 Failure to maintain performance standards. ABI participants must adhere to the performance...

  20. 4 CFR 200.14 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...14 Section 200.14 Accounts RECOVERY ACCOUNTABILITY AND TRANSPARENCY BOARD PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 200.14 ...maintained at all times, including maintenance of accountability records showing disposition of input and...

  1. A 0.63 micrometers polarization maintaining optical fiber cable

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, H.; Kikuchi, Y.; Tamaki, Y.

    1986-11-01

    Polarization maintaining single mode optical fiber cable was developed with negligible small loss increase and high crosstalk for optical interferometric measuring system of JT-60 (Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute TOKAMAK-60). Optical interferometric measuring system is required for high precise non-contact measurement of distance or vibration. Polarization maintaining optical fiber enabled to measure them in extremely high electromagnetic field of JT-60. Developed cable is flame-resistant non-metallic type complex 16 fiber cable for 0.6 micron use, that has 8 polarization maintaining optical fibers (stress applying, called PANDA fiber) and 8 single mode optical fibers. This paper shows the experimental result and the possibility of manufacturing polarization maintaining single mode optical fiber cable for 0.63 micron use.

  2. ELECTRIC HOLDING FURNACE IN THE MALLEABLE FOUNDRY MAINTAINS CONSTANT TEMPERATURES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ELECTRIC HOLDING FURNACE IN THE MALLEABLE FOUNDRY MAINTAINS CONSTANT TEMPERATURES FOR IRON PRIOR TO FILLING MOBILE LADLES. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, Malleable Foundry, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  3. Increasing Maintainability of a Wastewater-Recovery Unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dehner, G. F.; Brose, H. F.

    1987-01-01

    Modified system leaks less and easier to disassemble for maintenance. Redesign of wastewater-recovery system separates water from urine: improved operation and system easier to maintain. Details of redesign, chiefly affected hollow-fiber-membrane evaporator, described in report.

  4. Interindividual variability in social insects - proximate causes and ultimate consequences.

    PubMed

    Jeanson, Raphaël; Weidenmüller, Anja

    2014-08-01

    Individuals within social groups often show consistent differences in behaviour across time and context. Such interindividual differences and the evolutionary challenge they present have recently generated considerable interest. Social insects provide some of the most familiar and spectacular examples of social groups with large interindividual differences. Investigating these within-group differences has a long research tradition, and behavioural variability among the workers of a colony is increasingly regarded as fundamental for a key feature of social insects: division of labour. The goal of this review is to illustrate what we know about both the proximate mechanisms underlying behavioural variability among the workers of a colony and its ultimate consequences; and to highlight the many open questions in this research field. We begin by reviewing the literature on mechanisms that potentially introduce, maintain, and adjust the behavioural differentiation among workers. We highlight the fact that so far, most studies have focused on behavioural variability based on genetic variability, provided by e.g. multiple mating of the queen, while other mechanisms that may be responsible for the behavioural differentiation among workers have been largely neglected. These include maturational, nutritional and environmental influences. We further discuss how feedback provided by the social environment and learning and experience of adult workers provides potent and little-explored sources of differentiation. In a second part, we address what is known about the potential benefits and costs of increased behavioural variability within the workers of a colony. We argue that all studies documenting a benefit of variability so far have done so by manipulating genetic variability, and that a direct test of the effect of behavioural variability on colony productivity has yet to be provided. We emphasize that the costs associated with interindividual variability have been largely overlooked, and that a better knowledge of the cost/benefit balance of behavioural variability is crucial for our understanding of the evolution of the mechanisms underlying the social organization of insect societies. We conclude by highlighting what we believe to be promising but little-explored avenues for future research on how within-colony variability has evolved and is maintained. We emphasize the need for comparative studies and point out that, so far, most studies on interindividual variability have focused on variability in individual response thresholds, while the significance of variability in other parameters of individual response, such as probability and intensity of the response, has been largely overlooked. We propose that these parameters have important consequences for the colony response. Much more research is needed to understand if and how interindividual variability is modulated in order to benefit division of labour, homeostasis and ultimately colony fitness in social insects. PMID:24341677

  5. Social isolation.

    PubMed

    Cacioppo, John T; Hawkley, Louise C; Norman, Greg J; Berntson, Gary G

    2011-08-01

    Social species, by definition, form organizations that extend beyond the individual. These structures evolved hand in hand with behavioral, neural, hormonal, cellular, and genetic mechanisms to support them because the consequent social behaviors helped these organisms survive, reproduce, and care for offspring sufficiently long that they too reproduced. Social isolation represents a lens through which to investigate these behavioral, neural, hormonal, cellular, and genetic mechanisms. Evidence from human and nonhuman animal studies indicates that isolation heightens sensitivity to social threats (predator evasion) and motivates the renewal of social connections. The effects of perceived isolation in humans share much in common with the effects of experimental manipulations of isolation in nonhuman social species: increased tonic sympathetic tonus and HPA activation; and decreased inflammatory control, immunity, sleep salubrity, and expression of genes regulating glucocorticoid responses. Together, these effects contribute to higher rates of morbidity and mortality in older adults. PMID:21651565

  6. Fire Order

    E-print Network

    Baird, John S.

    1956-01-01

    lenses and lips** Garth drained his glass and leaned back in the chair. The colonel stood up and circled the table and filled the glass# , "Did anyone tell you why you1 re here?" he asked# Garth shook his head. "Ho#8 he said. "I just got orders... on each side of the river* The bridge itself has three spans and is made of stone with steel reinforcements. This is the local rainy season* There may­ be high water now, from what we can learn from G-2, but I don't think it's flooding." Garth studied...

  7. Roles of extension officers to promote social capital in Japanese agricultural communities.

    PubMed

    Takemura, Kosuke; Uchida, Yukiko; Yoshikawa, Sakiko

    2014-01-01

    Social capital has been found to be correlated with community welfare, but it is not easy to build and maintain it. The purpose of the current study is to investigate the role of professional coordinators of social relationships to create and maintain social capital in a community. We focused on extension officers in Japanese agricultural communities, who help farmers in both technical and social matters. A large nation-wide survey of extension officers as well as two supplementary surveys were conducted. We found that (1) social capital-related activities (e.g., assistance for building organizations among farmers) were particularly effective for solving problems; (2) social capital (trust relationships) among community residents increased their life quality; (3) social capital in local communities was correlated with extension officers' own communication skills and harmonious relationships among their colleagues. In sum, social capital in local communities is maintained by coordinators with professional social skills. PMID:24642575

  8. Classical social theories - nine lectures

    E-print Network

    Macfarlane, Alan

    2005-01-06

    , Book I (chs 1#30;10), Book III. Lecture 4. Alexis de Tocqueville (1805-1859) The impact of the French, American, industrial and urban revolutions on social thought. The break#30;down of the ancien regime and emergence of a new social order... on numerous theoretical topics (e.g. social structure) and individual thinkers (e.g. Montesquieu) in both the first and second edition of Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences, a multi#30;volume work. It is often worth starting with an overview from an article...

  9. The Social Insects Web: Antbase

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Agosti, Donat.

    1969-12-31

    This site (last mentioned in the September 17, 1997 Scout Report for Science & Engineering) is maintained by Donat Agosti, a research scientist at the American Museum of Natural History. Since its last review, much has changed, including an updated Integrated Taxonomic Information System; access to a full-text database of primary systematics publications; and a link to FORMIS 2001, a composite of several ant literature databases. Continually updated, the Social Insect Web (SIWeb) Working Space includes links that have not yet been integrated into the site, but may prove useful to those studying ants and other social insects.

  10. The Montana Social Studies Model Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Linda Vrooman; Coopersmith, Nancy

    The Montana Social Studies Model Curriculum Guide specifies social studies core curriculum standards that must be completed by all K-12 students in order to meet Montana graduation requirements. The first of six sections, "A Model Curriculum Framework," provides the essence of the model guide with the K-12 model learners goals for the social

  11. Group Modeling in Social Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stankov, Slavomir; Glavinic, Vlado; Krpan, Divna

    2012-01-01

    Students' collaboration while learning could provide better learning environments. Collaboration assumes social interactions which occur in student groups. Social theories emphasize positive influence of such interactions on learning. In order to create an appropriate learning environment that enables social interactions, it is important to…

  12. Role Sequencing: Does Order Matter for Mental Health?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Pamela Braboy

    2004-01-01

    Role sequencing refers to the ordering of social roles. According to the normative order hypothesis, adults who follow a certain sequencing of their social roles will be better adjusted than their peers who follow other life course patterns. The normative order is defined as first entering the paid labor force, getting married, and later having…

  13. Order and chaos : articulating support, housing transformation

    E-print Network

    Boehm, William Hollister

    1990-01-01

    This thesis presents an exploration on the theme of order and chaos, as a formal and social phenomenon, particularly as it relates to housing. The work stems from an attraction to the messy vitality we find in certain ...

  14. of Social Work and Social Policy

    E-print Network

    O'Mahony, Donal E.

    School of Social Work and Social Policy School M.Sc. in Disability Studies #12;The M and benefit from the input of the different academic centres involved in the M.Sc. including: Social Work Dublin) School of Social Work and Social Policy School of Social Work and Social Policy #12;Two options

  15. Social Work and Applied Social Studies

    E-print Network

    Burton, Geoffrey R.

    Social Work and Applied Social Studies Undergraduate #12;Undergraduate Social and Policy Sciences 2, social policy, international development and social work. Many of our staff are at the forefront Guide 2015, for example, social work at Bath is ranked 1st, sociology 2nd, social policy 3rd. Bath

  16. Cultural Aspects in Social Anxiety and Social Anxiety Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Hofmann, Stefan G.; Asnaani, Anu; Hinton, Devon E.

    2010-01-01

    To examine cultural aspects in social anxiety and social anxiety disorder (SAD), we reviewed the literature on the prevalence rates, expressions, and treatments of social anxiety/SAD as they relate to culture, race, and ethnicity. We further reviewed factors that contribute to the differences in social anxiety/SAD between different cultures, including individualism/collectivism, perception of social norms, self-construal, gender roles, and gender role identification. Our review suggests that the prevalence and expression of social anxiety/SAD depends on the particular culture. Asian cultures typically show the lowest rates, whereas Russian and US samples show the highest rates, of SAD. Taijin kyofusho is discussed as a possible culture-specific expression of social anxiety, although the empirical evidence concerning the validity of this syndrome has been mixed. It is concluded that the individual's social concerns need to be examined in the context of the person's cultural, racial, and ethnic background in order to adequately assess the degree and expression of social anxiety and social anxiety disorder. This has direct relevance for the upcoming DSM-V. PMID:21132847

  17. Social Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Cam, Ed.

    This document contains the following papers on social studies instruction and technology: (1) "Waking the Sleeping Giant: Social Studies Teacher Educators Collaborate To Integrate Technology into Methods' Courses" (Cheryl Mason, Marsha Alibrandi, Michael Berson, Kara Dawson, Rich Diem, Tony Dralle, David Hicks, Tim Keiper, and John Lee); (2)…

  18. Political Socialization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torney-Purta, Judith

    Past research on political socialization has failed to provide clear implications for educational policy or practice. However, reconceptualizing that research using a framework derived from cognitive psychology can reveal relationships between political socialization and education not previously seen. In this reconceptualization, schema or…

  19. Social Revolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villano, Matt

    2007-01-01

    MySpace and Facebook may have been pioneers in the world of social software, but nowadays, colleges and universities across the country are embracing better and more targeted forms of technology, to enable their campus users to interact. Today, the world of social software includes traditional venues and formats: (1) blogs; (2) wikis; and (3)…

  20. Social genetics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. P. Scott

    1977-01-01

    Most behavior is expressed within social systems, and the genetic analysis of its variance therefore presents theoretical and technical problems that have been sidestepped in most previous research. The dog presents obvious advantages for studying behavioral interactions between genotypes. Two sets of data are summarized that indicate that the magnitude of genetic differences is related to the differentiation of social

  1. Social Phobia

    MedlinePLUS

    ... answer in class, reading aloud, or giving a presentation. Someone with social phobia might feel too nervous to ask a question in class or go to a teacher for help. Missing a chance to share their talents and learn new skills. Social phobia might prevent someone from auditioning for ...

  2. Social Indicators

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Bolton, Paul.

    The House of Commons Library Research Papers are published for the benefit of Parliament members, but this one should be of interest to both researchers and general readers wanting to learn more about contemporary British social issues. Social Indicators is the first paper in a new series that will be published three times a year. The 71-page paper includes a wide range of topic pages that present social statistics on a variety of issues, from the prison population to defense expenses to agricultural outputs. Each Social Indicator paper will also offer feature articles that give a closer look at specific subjects (in this instance,, election turnout and adult literacy) and an article on statistical sources for a particular issue (in this paper, social security statistics). The last few pages are devoted to a list of important, recent governmental statistical publications.

  3. A Simple Self-Maintaining Metabolic System: Robustness, Autocatalysis, Bistability

    PubMed Central

    Piedrafita, Gabriel; Montero, Francisco; Morán, Federico; Cárdenas, María Luz; Cornish-Bowden, Athel

    2010-01-01

    A living organism must not only organize itself from within; it must also maintain its organization in the face of changes in its environment and degradation of its components. We show here that a simple (M,R)-system consisting of three interlocking catalytic cycles, with every catalyst produced by the system itself, can both establish a non-trivial steady state and maintain this despite continuous loss of the catalysts by irreversible degradation. As long as at least one catalyst is present at a sufficient concentration in the initial state, the others can be produced and maintained. The system shows bistability, because if the amount of catalyst in the initial state is insufficient to reach the non-trivial steady state the system collapses to a trivial steady state in which all fluxes are zero. It is also robust, because if one catalyst is catastrophically lost when the system is in steady state it can recreate the same state. There are three elementary flux modes, but none of them is an enzyme-maintaining mode, the entire network being necessary to maintain the two catalysts. PMID:20700491

  4. Increasing Social Interaction Using Prelinguistic Milieu Teaching with Nonverbal School-Age Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franco, Jessica H.; Davis, Barbara L.; Davis, John L.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Children with autism display marked deficits in initiating and maintaining social interaction. Intervention using play routines can create a framework for developing and maintaining social interaction between these children and their communication partners. Method: Six nonverbal 5- to 8-year-olds with autism were taught to engage in…

  5. Advanced remotely maintainable force-reflecting servomanipulator concept

    SciTech Connect

    Kuban, D.P.; Martin, H.L.

    1984-01-01

    A remotely maintainable force-reflecting servomanipulator concept is being developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory as part of the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program. This new manipulator addresses requirements of advanced nuclear fuel reprocessing with emphasis on force reflection, remote maintainability, reliability, radiation tolerance, and corrosion resistance. The advanced servomanipulator is uniquely subdivided into remotely replaceable modules which will permit in situ manipulator repair by spare module replacement. Manipulator modularization and increased reliability are accomplished through a force transmission system that uses gears and torque tubes. Digital control algorithms and mechanical precision are used to offset the increased backlash, friction, and inertia resulting from the gear drives. This results in the first remotely maintainable force-reflecting servomanipulator in the world. 10 references, 4 figures, 1 table.

  6. Fiber Optic Repair and Maintainability (FORM) Program Progresses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Advanced aircraft will employ fiber-optic interconnection components to transmit information from airframe and propulsion sensors to the flight control computers. Although these optical interconnects have been rigorously tested under laboratory conditions to determine their operating and environmental limits, there is concern as to their repairability and maintainability when placed in actual service. The Fiber Optic Repair and Maintainability (FORM) flight test program will provide data to enable designers to improve these fiber-optic interconnection systems for the next generation of aircraft. FORM is identifying critical problems in installing, maintaining, testing, and repairing fiber-optic interconnection systems in an operational avionics environment. This program is a cooperative Government/industry effort to evaluate optical component acceptability and installation techniques for aircraft.

  7. Nuclear PTEN tumor-suppressor functions through maintaining heterochromatin structure.

    PubMed

    Gong, Lili; Govan, Jeane M; Evans, Elizabeth B; Dai, Hui; Wang, Edward; Lee, Szu-Wei; Lin, Hui-Kuan; Lazar, Alexander J; Mills, Gordon B; Lin, Shiaw-Yih

    2015-07-18

    The tumor suppressor, PTEN, is one of the most commonly mutated genes in cancer. Recently, PTEN has been shown to localize in the nucleus and is required to maintain genomic stability. Here, we show that nuclear PTEN, independent of its phosphatase activity, is essential for maintaining heterochromatin structure. Depletion of PTEN leads to loss of heterochromatic foci, decreased chromatin compaction, overexpression of heterochromatic genes, and reduced protein stability of heterochromatin protein 1 ?. We found that the C-terminus of PTEN is required to maintain heterochromatin structure. Additionally, cancer-associated PTEN mutants lost their tumor-suppressor function when their heterochromatin structure was compromised. We propose that this novel role of PTEN accounts for its function in guarding genomic stability and suppressing tumor development. PMID:25946202

  8. Social Psychology Network

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Plous, Scott

    With over 11,000 links contained within its pages, the Social Psychology Network site is arguably the largest social psychology database on the Internet. Maintained by Professor Scout Plous of Wesleyan University, the site has been generously supported by the National Science Foundation. Visitors will appreciate the very clean layout of the siteâ??s homepage, as they are presented with a search engine, along with a number of electronic forums, and a listing of related topics. To delve into the siteâ??s contents, visitors may wish to select from any one of the areas on the left-hand side of the homepage, which include listings of doctoral programs in social psychology and teaching resources. There are numerous other options for interested parties, and they lead to such offerings as rankings of doctoral programs in the field and distance learning options in the field. Finally, visitors can also view many of the siteâ??s documents in a number of languages, including Spanish, French, Italian, and German.

  9. How can social network analysis contribute to social behavior research in applied ethology?

    PubMed Central

    Makagon, Maja M.; McCowan, Brenda; Mench, Joy A.

    2013-01-01

    Social network analysis is increasingly used by behavioral ecologists and primatologists to describe the patterns and quality of interactions among individuals. We provide an overview of this methodology, with examples illustrating how it can be used to study social behavior in applied contexts. Like most kinds of social interaction analyses, social network analysis provides information about direct relationships (e.g. dominant–subordinate relationships). However, it also generates a more global model of social organization that determines how individual patterns of social interaction relate to individual and group characteristics. A particular strength of this approach is that it provides standardized mathematical methods for calculating metrics of sociality across levels of social organization, from the population and group levels to the individual level. At the group level these metrics can be used to track changes in social network structures over time, evaluate the effect of the environment on social network structure, or compare social structures across groups, populations or species. At the individual level, the metrics allow quantification of the heterogeneity of social experience within groups and identification of individuals who may play especially important roles in maintaining social stability or information flow throughout the network. PMID:24357888

  10. Social isolation and perceived barriers to establishing social networks among Latina immigrants.

    PubMed

    Hurtado-de-Mendoza, Alejandra; Gonzales, Felisa A; Serrano, Adriana; Kaltman, Stacey

    2014-03-01

    Research has identified numerous mechanisms through which perceived social isolation and lack of social support negatively impact health. Little research attention has been dedicated to factors that influence the development of social networks, which have the potential to decrease perceptions of social isolation and provide social support. There is mixed evidence concerning the availability of supportive social networks for Latinos in the US. This study explores trauma-exposed Latina immigrants' experiences of social isolation in the US and its perceived causes. Twenty-eight Latina immigrant women participated in an interview about traumatic experiences. Informal help seeking and the availability of friendships in the US were also queried. Frequent comparisons between experiences in their home countries and in the US shaped the emerging themes of social isolation and lack of social support. Women reported feeling lonely, isolated, closed-in, and less free in the US due to family separation and various obstacles to developing and maintaining relationships. Socioeconomic, environmental, and psychosocial barriers were offered as explanations for their limited social networks in the US. Understanding experiences of social isolation as well as barriers to forging social networks can help inform the development of social support interventions that can contribute to improved health among Latinos. PMID:24402726

  11. Fall 2014 Saber Ordering Information Current as of Oct 23, 2014

    E-print Network

    Buehrer, R. Michael

    as seniors. [For those that do not order a saber, the Corps maintains. These are maintained in the Corps Tailor Shop.] For those who plan to commission saber, add the appropriate accessories, and ship everything to the cadets #12

  12. Order aggressiveness and order book dynamics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anthony D. Hall; Nikolaus Hautsch

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we study the determinants of order aggressiveness and traders’ order submission strategy in an open limit order book market. Applying an order classification scheme, we model the most aggressive market orders, limit orders as well as cancellations on both sides of the market employing a six-dimensional autoregressive conditional intensity model. Using order book data from the Australian

  13. Enabling Community Through Social Media

    PubMed Central

    Haythornthwaite, Caroline

    2013-01-01

    Background Social network analysis provides a perspective and method for inquiring into the structures that comprise online groups and communities. Traces from interaction via social media provide the opportunity for understanding how a community is formed and maintained online. Objective The paper aims to demonstrate how social network analysis provides a vocabulary and set of techniques for examining interaction patterns via social media. Using the case of the #hcsmca online discussion forum, this paper highlights what has been and can be gained by approaching online community from a social network perspective, as well as providing an inside look at the structure of the #hcsmca community. Methods Social network analysis was used to examine structures in a 1-month sample of Twitter messages with the hashtag #hcsmca (3871 tweets, 486 unique posters), which is the tag associated with the social media–supported group Health Care Social Media Canada. Network connections were considered present if the individual was mentioned, replied to, or had a post retweeted. Results Network analyses revealed patterns of interaction that characterized the community as comprising one component, with a set of core participants prominent in the network due to their connections with others. Analysis showed the social media health content providers were the most influential group based on in-degree centrality. However, there was no preferential attachment among people in the same professional group, indicating that the formation of connections among community members was not constrained by professional status. Conclusions Network analysis and visualizations provide techniques and a vocabulary for understanding online interaction, as well as insights that can help in understanding what, and who, comprises and sustains a network, and whether community emerges from a network of online interactions. PMID:24176835

  14. Social Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esser, Aristide Henri

    1971-01-01

    Social pollution provides the matrix for the pollution of the physical environment. This stems from man's present inability to function synergistically. To find new freedoms in purposeful evolution, we will have to start cleansing our Mind. (Author/SD)

  15. Effective Strategies for Maintaining Research Participation in Clinical Trials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Allen Zweben; Lisa M. Fucito; Stephanie S. OMalley

    2009-01-01

    Achieving high protocol adherence is essential for ensuring the overall success and scientific merit of clinical trials. Strategies for maximizing recruitment and treatment adherence have been previously explored in the literature. There has been less focus, however, on effective methods for maintaining participants in research follow-up. This article examines factors associated with poor follow-up rates as well as strategies for

  16. PULMONARY CELL POPULATIONS IN HAMSTERS MAINTAINED UNDER EGYPTIAN LABORATORY CONDITIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The study was conducted to obtain baseline values for pulmonary cells in golden hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) bred and maintained under the laboratory conditions of Al-Azhar University in Egypt. An improvised technique is presented for measuring pulmonary cells obtained by lung...

  17. Greatwall maintains mitosis through regulation of PP2A

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Greatwall maintains mitosis through regulation of PP2A Suzanne Vigneron, Estelle Brioudes, Andrew dephosphorylation in mitosis Key Words: Greatwall, cyclin B-Cdc2, PP2A, mitosis, Universités Montpellier 2 et 1 but also by the regulation of PP2A by GW. KEYWORDS: Cyclin B-Cdc2/Greatwall/Mitosis/PP2A INTRODUCTION Entry

  18. How unrealistic optimism is maintained in the face of reality

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christoph W Korn; Raymond J Dolan; Tali Sharot

    2011-01-01

    Unrealistic optimism is a pervasive human trait that influences domains ranging from personal relationships to politics and finance. How people maintain unrealistic optimism, despite frequently encountering information that challenges those biased beliefs, is unknown. We examined this question and found a marked asymmetry in belief updating. Participants updated their beliefs more in response to information that was better than expected

  19. Carbon Dioxide Addition to Microbial Fuel Cell Cathodes Maintains

    E-print Network

    Angenent, Lars T.

    Carbon Dioxide Addition to Microbial Fuel Cell Cathodes Maintains Sustainable Catholyte p, which creates a CO2/bicarbonate buffered catholyte system, can diminish microbial fuel cell (MFC) p chemical products (1-6). A BES can be configured as a microbial fuel cell (MFC), or as a microbial

  20. TECHNIQUE FOR SCREENING AND MAINTAINING SMALLER GENOMIC LIBRARIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A technique for screening and simultaneously maintaining individual clones of the gene library for long-term storage is described. his method is particularly useful for identification and cloning of genes from cosmid-based genomic libraries of prokaryotes that constitute a smalle...

  1. 30 CFR 870.22 - Maintaining required production records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01...22 Section 870.22 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF...inspect and copy any of your books or records that are...You must maintain your books and records for 6 years from the end of the...

  2. 30 CFR 870.22 - Maintaining required production records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01...22 Section 870.22 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF...inspect and copy any of your books or records that are...You must maintain your books and records for 6 years from the end of the...

  3. 30 CFR 870.22 - Maintaining required production records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01...22 Section 870.22 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF...inspect and copy any of your books or records that are...You must maintain your books and records for 6 years from the end of the...

  4. 30 CFR 870.22 - Maintaining required production records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01...22 Section 870.22 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF...inspect and copy any of your books or records that are...You must maintain your books and records for 6 years from the end of the...

  5. Maintaining Confidentiality with Minors: Dilemmas of School Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazovsky, Rivka

    2008-01-01

    This article examined the attitudes of 195 school counselors in Israel regarding (a) the decision to maintain or breach confidentiality in a variety of ethical dilemmas, and (b) the reasons given for justifying their decisions. Eighteen ethical dilemmas in three domains were presented to respondents in a questionnaire. School counselors were most…

  6. Maintaining the performance of a learned classifier under concept drift

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michaela M. Black; Ray J. Hickey

    1999-01-01

    On-line learning systems which use incoming batches of training examples to induce rules for a classification task, such as credit card fraud detection, may have to deal with concept drift whereby some of the underlying class definitions change over time. Identifying drift against a background of noise and maintaining accuracy of the learned rules are challenging tasks.We propose a methodology

  7. HOW TO MAINTAIN A LAB RECORD KEEPING AND HIPAA

    E-print Network

    HOW TO MAINTAIN A LAB NOTEBOOK- RECORD KEEPING AND HIPAA FernTsien, PhD Department of Genetics) Brief title of experiment or type of clinic Statement of purpose: extension of the title with some titer Centrifuge speed, model, temperature Incubation times and temperatures Number of cells Agarose

  8. Mitochondrial one-carbon metabolism maintains redox balance during hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Reyes, Inmaculada; Chandel, Navdeep S.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Mitochondria generate high levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) to activate pro-tumorigenic signaling pathways. In parallel, the mitochondria must also increase their antioxidant capacity to lower ROS levels and prevent cancer cell death. In this issue, Ye et al. demonstrate that serine catabolism through one-carbon metabolism within the mitochondrial matrix is necessary to maintain this redox balance. PMID:25477105

  9. Genetic and somatic effects in animals maintained on tritiated water

    SciTech Connect

    Carsten, A.L.; Brooks, A.; Commerford, S.L.; Cronkite, E.P.

    1981-01-01

    The possible genetic (dominant lethal mutations (DLM) and cytogenetic changes in the regenerating liver) and somatic (hematopoietic stem cell changes, growth and nonspecific life time shortening) effects in mice maintained on tritiated water (HTO) over two generations was investigated. Results to date are summarized. (ACR)

  10. Motivational Influences on Performance Maintained by Food Reinforcement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North, Stephen T.; Iwata, Brian A.

    2005-01-01

    In Study 1, we examined the independent effects of reinforcer consumption during sessions and meal consumption prior to sessions on performance maintained by food reinforcement. Nine individuals with developmental disabilities participated. On alternate days, a preferred edible item was delivered during (a) seven sessions conducted before lunch…

  11. A Framework for Maintaining the Coherence of a Running Lisp

    E-print Network

    McDermott, Drew V.

    A Framework for Maintaining the Coherence of a Running Lisp Drew McDermott Yale Computer Science, consistency. Abstract During Lisp software development, it is normal to revise and reload programs and data structures continually. The result is that the state of the Lisp process can become "incoherent

  12. Improving Throughput and Maintaining Fairness using Parallel TCP

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas J. Hacker; Brian D. Noble; Brian D. Athey

    2004-01-01

    Applications that require good network perfor- mance often use parallel TCP streams and TCP modifications to improve the effectiveness of TCP. If the network bottleneck is fully utilized, this approach boosts throughput by unfairly stealing bandwidth from competing TCP streams. Improving the effectiveness of TCP is easy, but improving effectiveness while maintaining fairness is difficult. In this paper, we describe

  13. A Systematic Approach to Creating and Maintaining Software Documentation

    E-print Network

    French, James C.

    UVA A Systematic Approach to Creating and Maintaining Software Documentation Allison L. Powell CODE INTERFACE BROWSING INTERFACE STATUS FUTURE PLANS WHY SOFTWARE DOCUMENTATION AS AN APPLICATION AREA responses to queries. RESOURCE-INTENSIVE, BUT RESULTS ARE OFTEN INADEQUATE OR INAPPROPRIATE · Document

  14. A Systematic Approach to Creating and Maintaining Software Documentation

    E-print Network

    French, James C.

    UVA A Systematic Approach to Creating and Maintaining Software Documentation Allison L. Powell SOURCE CODE INTERFACE BROWSING INTERFACE STATUS FUTURE PLANS WHY SOFTWARE DOCUMENTATION AS AN APPLICATION OR INAPPROPRIATE . Document publishing systems: ­ e.g. FrameMaker, Interleaf ­ Make it easier to deal with large

  15. Metronidazole induces gametocytogenesis in gregarine associations maintained in vitro.

    PubMed

    Trout, Kate; Clopton, Richard E

    2012-06-01

    Gametocytogenesis was induced in mature associations of Protomagalhaensia wolfi and Protomagalhaensia blaberae maintained in vitro by inclusion of metronidazole in the culture medium. The response was neither strictly dosage dependent nor uniform across gregarine species. We hypothesize that metronidazole induces gregarine gametocytogenesis by disrupting PUF2 proteins responsible for the translational control of sexual development and gametocytogenesis in apicomplexans. PMID:22263562

  16. Guidelines for Beginning and Maintaining a Toy Lending Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rettig, Michael A.

    1998-01-01

    Toy-lending libraries provide parents and professionals with opportunities for shared play and the loan of toys. This article reviews the history of toy-lending libraries and the purpose of Lekoteks, the Swedish toy library. Guidelines and suggestions for developing and maintaining a toy-lending library are discussed. (JPB)

  17. A Fully Dynamic Algorithm for Maintaining the Transitive Closure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Valerie King; Garry Sagert

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents an efficient fully dynamic graph algorithm for maintaining the transitive closure of a directed graph. The algorithm updates the adjacency matrix of the transitive closure with each update to the graph; hence, each reachability query of the form “Is there a directed path from i to j?” can be answered in O(1) time. The algorithm is randomized

  18. Maintaining Healthy Behaviors Following Weight Loss: A Grounded Theory Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zunker, Christie; Cox, Tiffany L.; Ard, Jamy D.; Ivankova, Nataliya V.; Rutt, Candace D.; Baskin, Monica L.

    2011-01-01

    This study explored the process of how women maintained their healthy behaviors after a weight management program using a grounded theory approach. We conducted 2 focus groups and 23 interviews with a purposeful sample of African American and Caucasian women aged 30 and older who lost greater than 5% of their body weight during a weight management…

  19. Generation of dynamic Brillouin grating in polarization maintaining fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sengupta, Dipankar; Santagiustina, Marco; Chiarello, Fabrizio; Palmieri, Luca

    2014-09-01

    We report an experimental demonstration and characterization of dynamic Brillouin gratings (DBGs) in a 5m long polarization-maintaining fiber (PMF) using heterodyne detection. The dependence of DBG reflectivity on the Brillouin gain and on the pumps and the probe powers is studied and reported.

  20. Maintaining the closed magneticfieldline topology of a fieldreversed configuration (FRC)

    E-print Network

    1 Maintaining the closed magnetic­field­line topology of a field­reversed configuration (FRC) with the addition of static transverse magnetic fields S.A. Cohen, Princeton University, Plasma Physics Laboratory, WA 98052 Abstract The effects on magnetic­field­line structure of adding various static transverse

  1. Banded vs Bonded Space Maintainers: Finding Better Way Out

    PubMed Central

    Kumar Pandit, Inder; Srivastava, Nikhil; Gugnani, Neeraj; Gupta, Monika

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives: Of this in vivo study was to evaluate various space maintainers in terms of survival rate, gingival health and presence of caries. Design: A total of 60 extraction sites in the age group of 4 to 9 years were divided into four groups and different space maintainers were placed in them viz (conventional band and loop, prefabricated band with custom made loop, Ribbond, Super splint). Results: Prefabricated bands with custom made loop showed maximum success rates (84.6%), while super splint (33.33%) was found to be least successful. In terms of gingival health, prefabricated band with custom made loop reported minimum cases with poor gingival health (27.2%), while maximum cases with poor gingival health (50%) were reported with Super splint. None of the space maintainers developed caries at the end of 9 months. How to cite this article: Setia v, Pandit IK, Srivastava N, Gugnani N, Gupta M. Banded vs Bonded Space Maintainers: Finding Better Way Out. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2014;7(2):97-104. PMID:25356008

  2. Biodiversity and Ecosystem Functioning: Maintaining Natural Life Support Processes

    E-print Network

    Minnesota, University of

    Biodiversity and Ecosystem Functioning: Maintaining Natural Life Support Processes Publishedbythe. ONeill, Harold A. Mooney, Osvaldo E. Sala, Amy J. Symstad, and David Tilman Biodiversity and Ecosystem biodiversity of the earth can therefore alter ecological functions and life support services that are vital

  3. Interaction of historical and nonhistorical disturbances maintains native plant communities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. W. Davies; T. J. Svejcar; J. D. Bates

    2009-01-01

    Historical disturbance regimes are often considered a critical element in maintaining native plant communities. However, the response of plant communities to disturbance may be fundamentally altered as a consequence of invasive plants, climate change, or prior disturbances. The appropriateness of historical disturbance patterns under modern conditions and the interactions among disturbances are issues that ecologists must address to protect and

  4. Maintaining State in a Distributed Information Retrieval System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charles L. Viles

    1994-01-01

    In distributed applications, efficient dissemination and maintenance of globally needed information is often required. The particular methods used must often be tuned to the application of interest. In this paper, we discuss possible mechanisms for maintaining a globally shared object for a particular application: distributed information retrieval using the vector space model. This application is interesting because updates to the

  5. The concept of self-maintained offshore wind turbines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Echavarria; T. Tomiyama; G. J. W. van Bussel

    Summary The objective of on-going research on the concept of self-maintained offshore wind turbines is to develop a design methodology to increase the availability for offshore wind farms, by means of an intelligent maintenance system capable of responding to faults by reconfiguring the system or subsystems, without increasing service visits, economics, or complexity. The design methodology explained in the paper

  6. Impact of Agile Software Development Model on Software Maintainability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gawali, Ajay R.

    2012-01-01

    Software maintenance and support costs account for up to 60% of the overall software life cycle cost and often burdens tightly budgeted information technology (IT) organizations. Agile software development approach delivers business value early, but implications on software maintainability are still unknown. The purpose of this quantitative study…

  7. Automated fusion-splicing of polarization maintaining fibers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wenzin Zheng

    1997-01-01

    An advanced splicing technique for polarization maintaining (PM) fibers has been derived based on the polarization observation by lens-effect-tracing (POL) method. With this technique, azimuthal alignment on common types of PM fibers can be automatically performed in a passive way by an automated fusion splicer. Because the method permits an accurate estimation of the splice's extinction ratio before and after

  8. Social Work 0 -1 Social Work Today

    E-print Network

    Jones, Graeme A.

    School of Social Work #12;Contents 0 - 1 Social Work Today 2 - 3 The World of Social Work 4 - 11 standards that govern their social work practice. Typical service users include: G Children and families people with health and social care needs. Social work is difficult and challenging: it demands maturity

  9. Infant-like Social Interactions between a Robot and a Human Caregiver p.1 Infant-like Social Interactions between a Robot and a

    E-print Network

    Scassellati, Brian

    within a general framework that combines perception, attention, drives, emotions, behavior selection appropriately to both social stimuli (faces) and non-social stimuli (moving toys) while maintaining a suitable through a toy. #12;Infant-like Social Interactions between a Robot and a Human Caregiver p.3 Infant

  10. Job Success for Handicapped Youth: A Social Protocol Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stowitschek, Joseph J.; Salzberg, Charles L.

    The book is intended for use by school- and nonschool-based professionals in teaching social skills and social competence to handicapped persons in order to promote employment success. It provides guidelines, procedures, and instrumentation for: (1) assessing client status on socially validated social skills required in both school- and…

  11. Tools for Monitoring Social Media: A Marketing Research Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veeck, Ann; Hoger, Beth

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge of how to effectively monitor social media is an increasingly valued marketing research skill. This study tests an approach for adding social media content to an undergraduate marketing research class team project. The revised project maintains the expected objectives and parameters of a traditional research project, while integrating…

  12. Developing the Social Skills of Young Adult Special Olympics Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Melissa G. F.; Dummer, Gail M.; Smeltzer, Ashley; Denton, Stephen J.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine if young adult Special Olympics participants could develop, generalize, and maintain target social skills (eye contact, contributing relevant information, and turn taking) as a result of a 14-week Social Skills and Sports (S[superscript 3]) Program that combined classroom instruction with soccer…

  13. The theory of social functions: challenges for computational social science and multi-agent learning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cristiano Castelfranchi

    2001-01-01

    A basic claim of this paper is that the foundational theoretical problem of the social sciences — the possibility of unconscious, unplanned forms of cooperation and intelligence among intentional agents (the very hard issue of the 'invisible hand', of the 'spontaneous social order' but also of 'social functions') — will eventually be clarified thanks to the contribution of AI (and,

  14. Social Composer: A Social-Aware Mashup Creation Environment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Abderrahmane Maaradji; Hakim Hacid; Johann Daigremont; Noel Crespi

    2010-01-01

    In this demo, we present Social Composer (SoCo), a CSCW system for mashup creation based on social-awareness approach. SoCo aims to support end-user when he is specifying mashups to compose existing services in order to create a new ones through the mashup creation environment. SoCo provides services recommendation as auto-completion for user's partial mashup specification. These recommendations are based on

  15. Academic Freedom, Censorship, and the Social Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Jack L.; Ochoa, Anna S.

    1987-01-01

    Reviews the 1974 statement on academic freedom of the National Council for the Social Studies and offers a rationale for maintaining academic freedom. Reviews recent censorship threats, the "climate of restriction" which pervades textbooks and teaching, and teachers' reasons for self-censorship. (JDH)

  16. DANGER AT SEASocial Hierarchy and Social Solidarity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JOHN A. ENCANDELA

    1991-01-01

    This article explores the tension between maintaining and blurring traditional lines of authority among workers on a ship. Through the years, work crews aboard ships have operated under hierarchical arrangements. The author places the experience of one ship's crew in historical and social context and demonstrates ways in which shared living experiences at sea served to foster camaraderie and a

  17. Policy Decisions, Social Science Information, and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, James S.

    1976-01-01

    Examines the nature and accomplishments of social policy research and provides general suggestions for improving information flow to particular areas. The author maintains that the majority of policy research has been carried out in education and has been less successful than it might be due to insufficient feedback systems. (Author/DB)

  18. Unconditional Privacy in Social Choice Felix Brandt

    E-print Network

    Cengarle, María Victoria

    by a so-called social welfare functional (SWF). Maintaining privacy of individuals' preferences is crucial without revealing further information. We prove that there exists no SWF that is non-dictatorial, Paretian and Sandholm, 2003] and of computing the SWF itself [Bartholdi, III et al., 1989b; Hemaspaandra et al., 1997

  19. Publications Order Form Order by Mail

    E-print Network

    Borenstein, Elhanan

    ;Shipping Information US Postage: fee is $6.00 per order + $2.00 per book ordered Federal Express: chargesPublications Order Form Order by Mail Pay by check or money order payable to University-2100 *Note: Orders may take 7 - 10 days for arrival. Title Forest Pruning and Wood Quality of Western North

  20. [Social cohesion and regional integration: the MERCOSUR social agenda and the integrationist social policy major challenges].

    PubMed

    Draibe, Sônia Miriam

    2007-01-01

    In the consolidation of the Southern Cone Common Market (MERCOSUR), social policies are still in the embryonic stage. However, since the latter half of the 1990s there has been a speedup in the creation of institutions dedicated to such policies with the Common Market's framework. This article focuses on health policy and the broader social policy system in order to identify the reasons for the imbalance, through three movements: reconstitution of the history of the institutional construction of social policies in MERCOSUR; identification and comparison of the successive strategies for the formulation and implementation of the social integration agenda; and reflection on the current dilemmas and challenges faced by the process. According to the study, MERCOSUR operates with strategies that are difficult to mutually reconcile. On the institutional level, it follows a minimalist strategy, while on the conceptual/ discursive level it adopts a maximalist strategy for supranational unification of social policies. The fact is that it operates a minimalist social policy strategy, since it fails to bring to the field of social integration the debate and proposals on economic and social development models that could sustain the effective construction of regional social citizenship. PMID:17625644

  1. Review essay \\/ What kind of order?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert Jackall

    2003-01-01

    Bernard E. Harcourt, Illusion of Order: The False Promise of Broken Windows Policing Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2001, x + 294 pp.David Garland, The Culture of Control: Crime and Social Order in Contemporary Society Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2001, xiii + 307 pp.Andrea McArdle and Tanya Erzen (eds.), Zero Tolerance: Quality of Life and the New Police Brutality

  2. The role of moisture in the nest thermoregulation of social wasps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klingner, R.; Richter, K.; Schmolz, E.; Keller, B.

    2005-09-01

    Paper nests of social wasps are intriguing constructions for both, biologists and engineers. We demonstrate that moisture and latent heat significantly influence the thermal performance of the nest construction. Two colonies of the hornet Vespa crabro were investigated in order to clarify the relation of the temperature and the moisture regime inside the nest. Next to fairly stable nest temperatures the hornets maintain a high relative humidity inside the nest. We found that in consequence a partial vapor-pressure gradient between nest and ambient drives a constant vapor flux through the envelope. The vapor flux is limited by the diffusion resistance of the envelope. The driving force of vapor flux is heat, which is consumed through evaporation inside the nest. The colony has to compensate this loss with metabolic heat production in order to maintain a stable nest temperature. However, humidity fluctuations inside the nest induce circadian adsorption and desorption cycles, which stabilize the nest temperature and thus contribute significantly to temperature homeostasis. Our study demonstrates that both mechanisms influence nest thermoregulation and need to be considered to understand the thermodynamic behavior of nests of wasps and social insects in general.

  3. Compact, maintainable 80-KeV neutral beam module

    DOEpatents

    Fink, Joel H. (Livermore, CA); Molvik, Arthur W. (Livermore, CA)

    1980-01-01

    A compact, maintainable 80-keV arc chamber, extractor module for a neutral beam system immersed in a vacuum of <10.sup.-2 Torr, incorporating a nested 60-keV gradient shield located midway between the high voltage ion source and surrounding grounded frame. The shield reduces breakdown or arcing path length without increasing the voltage gradient, tends to keep electric fields normal to conducting surfaces rather than skewed and reduces the peak electric field around irregularities on the 80-keV electrodes. The arc chamber or ion source is mounted separately from the extractor or ion accelerator to reduce misalignment of the accelerator and to permit separate maintenance to be performed on these systems. The separate mounting of the ion source provides for maintaining same without removing the ion accelerator.

  4. Experimental control for initiating and maintaining rotation of parametric pendulum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaziri, V.; Najdecka, A.; Wiercigroch, M.

    2014-04-01

    In this paper, the authors have studied experimentally the control methods of a parametric pendulum excited harmonically to initiate and maintain a period one rotation - the most superior response for energy harvesting. For initiating the period one rotation inherent in the system, first the bang-bang method is applied. Then a new method where velocity is monitored is proposed and applied and finally the time-delayed feedback method with multi-switching is considered. Ultimately the problem of maintaining the rotation of the pendulum is addressed. For first time, robustness and sensitivity of the latter method to change of frequency and amplitude of excitation and added noise are studied. Finally, it has been demonstrated how the delayed feedback method can be applied in a system of two pendula to ensure synchronized rotation.

  5. The importance of regulatory T-cell heterogeneity in maintaining self-tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Xiaomei; Cheng, Guoyan; Malek, Thomas R.

    2014-01-01

    Summary CD4+ Forkhead box protein 3 (Foxp3)+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) are the major cell type that mediates dominant tolerance in the periphery. Over the past decade, extensive study of Tregs has revealed that these cells express substantial heterogeneity to maintain tolerance and regulate immune responses. Tregs possess heterogeneity with respect to their origin and processes for development, functional activity, migratory pattern, and activation status. Some of the same environmental cues and molecular pathways utilized to generate specialized T-effector cells are also integrated by Tregs to co-localize and fine-tune suppressive mechanisms to optimally regulate and restrain distinctive self and antigen-specific T-cell responses. Here, we review our current understanding and significance of Treg heterogeneity in maintaining peripheral immune tolerance. We also highlight recent work from our laboratory that has studied the extent phenotypic distinct Treg subsets are related to each other and expand in an ordered fashion to give rise to highly activated short-lived Klrg1+ suppressor cells to optimize immune regulation and maintain homeostasis of the Treg compartment. PMID:24712462

  6. Reliability and maintainability analysis of electrical system of drum shearers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hadi Hoseinie Seyed; Ataei Mohammad; Khalokakaie Reza; Kumar Uday

    2011-01-01

    The reliability and maintainability of electrical system of drum shearer at Parvade.1 Coal Mine in central Iran was analyzed.\\u000a The maintenance and failure data were collected during 19 months of shearer operation. According to trend and serial correlation\\u000a tests, the data were independent and identically distributed (iid) and therefore the statistical techniques were used for\\u000a modeling. The data analysis show

  7. Institutionalizing reliability and maintainability in the industrial\\/commercial organization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Brall

    2001-01-01

    Landis Gardner is a 103-year-old manufacturer of machine tools; specifically, precision grinding machines sold principally to automotive manufacturers. The author describes how the implementation of a reliability and maintainability (R&M) program at Landis Gardner resulted in R&M becoming “institutionalized” throughout the company. That is, Landis Gardner has implemented an integrated R&M program where most of the employees are aware of

  8. Maintaining plethodontid salamanders in the laboratory for regeneration studies.

    PubMed

    Arenas, Claudia Marcela; Gómez-Molina, Andrea; Delgado, Jean Paul

    2015-01-01

    Limb regeneration studies have been extensively carried out in species of Ambystomatidae and Salamandridae families. So far limited research has been conducted in species belonging to the Plethodontidae family, where some of the species differs from other salamander families due to their direct development, thus absence of a larval life. Here, we describe a protocol to maintain the plethodontid salamanders of genus Bolitoglossa species under laboratory conditions to perform regeneration studies. PMID:25740477

  9. Onsite Wastewater Treatment Systems: Understanding and Maintaining your Septic System

    E-print Network

    Lesikar, Bruce J.; Mechell, Justin; Alexander, Rachel

    2008-10-23

    Understanding and maintaining your septic system L-5491 9-08 Figure 1: Components of an on-site wastewater treatment system. Onsite wastewater treatment systems Well 1. Wastewater source 2. Collection and storage 3. Pretreatment Groundwater 4.... Final treatment and dispersal P roper operation and maintenance of your wastewater treatment system is critical for its performance. Taking proper care of your system also: components; and final treatment and dispersal components. Wastewater source...

  10. Ballast system for maintaining constant pressure in a glove box

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shlichta, Paul J. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A ballast system for a glove box including a fixed platform on which is mounted an inflatable bag on top of which resides a cover and a weight. The variable gas volume of the inflatable bag communicates with that of the glove box via a valved tube. The weight and gas volume are selected to maintain a relatively constant pressure in the glove box despite variations in the glove box volume while avoiding the use of complicated valving apparatus.

  11. Ballast system for maintaining constant pressure in a glove box

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shlichta, Paul J. (inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A ballast system is disclosed for a glove box including a fixed platform on which is mounted an inflatable bag on top of which resides a cover and a weight. The variable gas volume of the inflatable bag communicates with that of the glove box via a valved tube. The weight and the gas volume are selected to maintain a relatively constant pressure in the glove box despite variations in the glove box volume while avoiding the use of complicated valving apparatus.

  12. Ballast system for maintaining constant pressure in a glove box

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shlichta, Paul J.

    1989-09-01

    A ballast system is disclosed for a glove box including a fixed platform on which is mounted an inflatable bag on top of which resides a cover and a weight. The variable gas volume of the inflatable bag communicates with that of the glove box via a valved tube. The weight and the gas volume are selected to maintain a relatively constant pressure in the glove box despite variations in the glove box volume while avoiding the use of complicated valving apparatus.

  13. Onsite Wastewater Treatment Systems: Understanding and Maintaining your Septic System 

    E-print Network

    Lesikar, Bruce J.; Mechell, Justin; Alexander, Rachel

    2008-10-23

    conventional wastewater treatment system will not adequately treat the wastewater. This often occurs with sites that have shallow soils located over fractured rock, Karst lime- stone, or gravelly sand. In this case, your wastewater needs additional... considerations Maintain the disinfection com- ? ponent of your system. Add the appropriate chlorine product to chlorinators. Replace the UV lamp, as necessary, in UV disin- fection systems. Do not come into contact with ? the liquid from the onsite waste...

  14. Selecting and maintaining a diverse T-cell repertoire

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ananda W. Goldrath; Michael J. Bevan

    1999-01-01

    To provide a T-cell population that will respond promptly to foreign antigen, the immune system looks inward, using the variety of self-antigens to select and maintain a diverse repertoire of receptors. A protective immune system must include a T-lymphocyte population that is poised to respond to foreign antigenic peptides presented by self-major histocompatibility complex molecules. As the organism cannot predict

  15. Order aggressiveness and order book dynamics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anthony D. Hall; Nikolaus Hautsch

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we study the determinants of order aggressiveness and traders' order submission strategy in an open limit order\\u000a book market. Applying an order classification scheme, we model the most aggressive market orders, limit orders as well as\\u000a cancellations on both sides of the market employing a sixdimensional autoregressive conditional intensity model. Using order\\u000a book data from the Australian

  16. Intracellular ?-ketoglutarate maintains the pluripotency of embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Carey, Bryce W; Finley, Lydia W S; Cross, Justin R; Allis, C David; Thompson, Craig B

    2015-02-19

    The role of cellular metabolism in regulating cell proliferation and differentiation remains poorly understood. For example, most mammalian cells cannot proliferate without exogenous glutamine supplementation even though glutamine is a non-essential amino acid. Here we show that mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells grown under conditions that maintain naive pluripotency are capable of proliferation in the absence of exogenous glutamine. Despite this, ES cells consume high levels of exogenous glutamine when the metabolite is available. In comparison to more differentiated cells, naive ES cells utilize both glucose and glutamine catabolism to maintain a high level of intracellular ?-ketoglutarate (?KG). Consequently, naive ES cells exhibit an elevated ?KG to succinate ratio that promotes histone/DNA demethylation and maintains pluripotency. Direct manipulation of the intracellular ?KG/succinate ratio is sufficient to regulate multiple chromatin modifications, including H3K27me3 and ten-eleven translocation (Tet)-dependent DNA demethylation, which contribute to the regulation of pluripotency-associated gene expression. In vitro, supplementation with cell-permeable ?KG directly supports ES-cell self-renewal while cell-permeable succinate promotes differentiation. This work reveals that intracellular ?KG/succinate levels can contribute to the maintenance of cellular identity and have a mechanistic role in the transcriptional and epigenetic state of stem cells. PMID:25487152

  17. Catecholamine-induced excitation of nociceptors in sympathetically maintained pain.

    PubMed

    Jørum, Ellen; Ørstavik, Kristin; Schmidt, Roland; Namer, Barbara; Carr, Richard W; Kvarstein, Gunnvald; Hilliges, Marita; Handwerker, Hermann; Torebjörk, Erik; Schmelz, Martin

    2007-02-01

    Sympathetically maintained pain could either be mediated by ephaptic interactions between sympathetic efferent and afferent nociceptive fibers or by catecholamine-induced activation of nociceptive nerve endings. We report here single fiber recordings from C nociceptors in a patient with sympathetically maintained pain, in whom sympathetic blockade had repeatedly eliminated the ongoing pain in both legs. We classified eight C-fibers as mechano-responsive and six as mechano-insensitive nociceptors according to their mechanical responsiveness and activity-dependent slowing of conduction velocity (latency increase of 0.5+/-1.1 vs. 7.1+/-2.0 ms for 20 pulses at 0.125 Hz). Two C-fibers were activated with a delay of several seconds following strong endogenous sympathetic bursts; they were also excited for about 3 min following the injection of norepinephrine (10 microl, 0.05%) into their innervation territory. In these two fibers, a prolonged activation by injection of low pH solution (phosphate buffer, pH 6.0, 10 microl) and sensitization of their heat response following prostaglandin E2 injection were recorded, evidencing their afferent nature. Moreover, their activity-dependent slowing was typical for mechano-insensitive nociceptors. We conclude that sensitized mechano-insensitive nociceptors can be activated by endogenously released catecholamines and thereby may contribute to sympathetically maintained pain. No evidence for ephaptic interaction between sympathetic efferent and nociceptive afferent fibers was found. PMID:16997471

  18. Processing power limits social group size: computational evidence for the cognitive costs of sociality.

    PubMed

    Dávid-Barrett, T; Dunbar, R I M

    2013-08-22

    Sociality is primarily a coordination problem. However, the social (or communication) complexity hypothesis suggests that the kinds of information that can be acquired and processed may limit the size and/or complexity of social groups that a species can maintain. We use an agent-based model to test the hypothesis that the complexity of information processed influences the computational demands involved. We show that successive increases in the kinds of information processed allow organisms to break through the glass ceilings that otherwise limit the size of social groups: larger groups can only be achieved at the cost of more sophisticated kinds of information processing that are disadvantageous when optimal group size is small. These results simultaneously support both the social brain and the social complexity hypotheses. PMID:23804623

  19. Social Nets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Csermely, Peter

    This is not only the time to get down to work, as I noted at the end of the last chapter, but also a time to thank you for your patience in coming along with me on this trip to Netland. We have reached an important point. We are just about to rise above ourselves. In the last chapter, we surveyed some of the networks in our body, and in this chapter the same body will be an element of a larger network, the social net. The current chapter will give me a good opportunity to understand my obsession with building social networks.

  20. Correlates of Depressive Symptoms among Alcohol-Using Methadone Maintained Adults

    PubMed Central

    Nyamathi, Adeline; Albarrán, Cynthia R.; Branson, Catherine; Marfisee, Mary; Khalilifard, Farinaz; Leake, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    Background Alcohol-using clients are considered at great risk for hepatitis and ongoing liver damage. This study explores the correlates of depression among a sample of methadone maintained treatment (MMT) adults in the Los Angeles area, and is part of a larger study on hepatitis health promotion among MMT clients who use alcohol. Objectives We sought to determine correlates of depressive symptoms among moderate and heavy alcohol-using adults enrolled in methadone maintenance. Methods A cross-sectional correlation study was conducted of baseline data from a randomized control trial of adults (N = 189) receiving methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) in Los Angeles. Depressive symptoms were measured with the 10-item short-form CES-D. Results Multiple regression analysis revealed that pain and social support were key correlates of depressive symptoms. More pain was associated with higher levels of depressive symptoms (p=.001), while more social support was related to lower depressive symptom severity (p=.001). Having been in sufficiently poor health that a blood transfusion, clotting factors, or an organ transplant was necessary was associated with greater depressive symptomatology, as was having injected drugs in the past month (p=.024). Conclusions The findings from this investigation can aid clinicians in selecting clients to monitor for early signs of depression and encourage early treatment for opioid users with comorbidities. Scientific Significance The use of an interdisciplinary team to care for MMT clients, routinely screen for depressive symptoms, and emphasize adequate pain control is indicated. PMID:23786510

  1. Social Security Reform: Creating Transformative Opportunities for African Americans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pheobe Weaver Williams

    2012-01-01

    The Social Security retirement income program provides important security to nearly all workers in the U.S. Professor Williams reviews aspects of the Social Security system and proposes reforms in order to provide equitable protection.

  2. Order aggressiveness in limit order book markets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Angelo Ranaldo

    2004-01-01

    I examine the information content of a limit order book in a purely order-driven market. I analyze how the state of the limit order book affects a trader's strategy. I develop an econometric technique to study order aggressiveness and provide empirical evidence on the recent theoretical models on limit order book markets. My results show that patient traders become more

  3. Theorizing Social Justice Ambiguities in an Era of Neoliberalism: The Case of Postapartheid South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Subreenduth, Sharon

    2013-01-01

    In this essay, Sharon Subreenduth explores how social justice policies have both global-local and historical dynamics and maintains that, as a result, dominant Western models of social justice limit engagement with alternative modes of understanding social justice in non-Western locations. She uses the South African experience as a case study for…

  4. Functional Analysis and Treatment of Social-Communicative Behavior of Adolescents with Developmental Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Carolyn; Frea, William D.

    1997-01-01

    A study used functional analyses to identify the social variables that maintained the inappropriate social-communicative behaviors of two adolescent students with mental retardation. Results were used to identify appropriate, functionally equivalent behaviors that the students were taught to self-monitor. The use of appropriate social skills was…

  5. Social interaction with robots and agents: Where do we stand, where do we go?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eva Hudlicka; C. Becker-Asano; S. Payr; K. Fischer; R. Ventura; Iolanda Leite; Christian von Scheve

    2009-01-01

    Robots and agents are becoming increasingly prominent in everyday life, taking on a variety of roles, including helpers, coaches, and even social companions. A core requirement for these social agents is the ability to establish and maintain long-term trusting and engaging relationship with their human users. Much research has already been done on the prerequisites for these types of social

  6. College of Social Work SW Social Work

    E-print Network

    MacAdam, Keith

    College of Social Work SW Social Work KEY: # = new course * = course changed = course dropped) Introduction to social welfare concepts and philosophies. Examination of the profession of social work and its will be studied. Required of social work majors and recommended it be taken the first year. SW 222 DEVELOPMENT

  7. The many modes of Twitter: developing and maintaining a professional identity on Twitter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowan, C. J.

    2012-12-01

    Describing the potential benefits of using Twitter (or similar social networks such as Google+) is complicated by the fact that it is a tool that can be used in a variety of different ways. Usage of Twitter is a mixture of consumption of links and news from other users and organisations, sharing information (e.g. recently published papers) yourself, and interaction with other users; the precise mixture will vary depending on what a person tweets and who they chose to follow, making every user's experience somewhat unique. In addition to the more commonly cited benefits in the area of scientific outreach, all of these usage modes have potential professional benefits for a scientist, allowing them to keep up to date with the latest developments in their field, and to establish and maintain connections with other scientists. Any or all of these are possible goals for your social media presence and will shape how you use services like Twitter. For a passive real-time news service, you just need to follow the right people and organisations; building an online community requires seeking out like-minded people and regularly interacting with them; true outreach requires building an audience through a long-term commitment to adding value through sharing information and participating in discussions. With respect to your professional identity, the public and relatively informal nature of social networks means that it is important to consider, and set defined limits, on how much of yourself and your opinions you are comfortable sharing. On Twitter, retweets allow something you say to reach many people who do not even follow you, and if you use your real name then your profile may be easily findable on a search engine. On most social networks, it is impossible to totally control your experience as it depends largely on how other users interact with you. Whilst it is useful to consider what you want to get out of your use of social media when you begin, and develop a strategy for doing so, many people find that their usage and even their aims will evolve with time, as they experiment with what works for them and discover unforeseen benefits and opportunities.

  8. 7 CFR 1744.206 - Effect of subsequent failure to maintain ratios.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...Effect of subsequent failure to maintain ratios. 1744.206 Section 1744.206 ...Effect of subsequent failure to maintain ratios. If an expenditure constitutes...fails to maintain the maximum investment ratio or the minimum total assets...

  9. 31 CFR 358.16 - Are BECCS and CUBES accounts maintained separately from the STRIPS program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Are BECCS and CUBES accounts maintained separately from the...BEARER COUPONS § 358.16 Are BECCS and CUBES accounts maintained separately from the STRIPS program? BECCS and CUBES accounts are maintained separately...

  10. 31 CFR 358.16 - Are BECCS and CUBES accounts maintained separately from the STRIPS program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false Are BECCS and CUBES accounts maintained separately from the...BEARER COUPONS § 358.16 Are BECCS and CUBES accounts maintained separately from the STRIPS program? BECCS and CUBES accounts are maintained separately...

  11. 31 CFR 358.16 - Are BECCS and CUBES accounts maintained separately from the STRIPS program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false Are BECCS and CUBES accounts maintained separately from the...BEARER COUPONS § 358.16 Are BECCS and CUBES accounts maintained separately from the STRIPS program? BECCS and CUBES accounts are maintained separately...

  12. 31 CFR 358.16 - Are BECCS and CUBES accounts maintained separately from the STRIPS program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Are BECCS and CUBES accounts maintained separately from the...BEARER COUPONS § 358.16 Are BECCS and CUBES accounts maintained separately from the STRIPS program? BECCS and CUBES accounts are maintained separately...

  13. 31 CFR 358.16 - Are BECCS and CUBES accounts maintained separately from the STRIPS program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Are BECCS and CUBES accounts maintained separately from the...BEARER COUPONS § 358.16 Are BECCS and CUBES accounts maintained separately from the STRIPS program? BECCS and CUBES accounts are maintained separately...

  14. 13 CFR 107.600 - General requirement for Licensee to maintain and preserve records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...requirement for Licensee to maintain and preserve records. 107.600 Section 107...requirement for Licensee to maintain and preserve records. (a) Maintaining your accounting...preservation period. (1) You must preserve for at least 15 years or, in the...

  15. 13 CFR 107.600 - General requirement for Licensee to maintain and preserve records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...requirement for Licensee to maintain and preserve records. 107.600 Section 107...requirement for Licensee to maintain and preserve records. (a) Maintaining your accounting...preservation period. (1) You must preserve for at least 15 years or, in the...

  16. 13 CFR 107.600 - General requirement for Licensee to maintain and preserve records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...requirement for Licensee to maintain and preserve records. 107.600 Section 107...requirement for Licensee to maintain and preserve records. (a) Maintaining your accounting...preservation period. (1) You must preserve for at least 15 years or, in the...

  17. Social Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cronin, Blaise; Davenport, Elisabeth

    1993-01-01

    Discusses the concept of social intelligence (SI), including its history and contexts in which it may be valid; assesses SI from the perspectives of information management, information policy, and information economics; reviews tools and techniques associated with SI, including networks, hypermedia, and connectionism; and considers education and…

  18. Social Networks\\

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ahmad A. Al-Daraiseh; Afnan S. Al-Joudi; Hanan B. Al-Gahtani; Maha S. Al-Qahtani

    2014-01-01

    Privacy breaches and Identity Theft cases are increasing at an alarming rate. Social Networking Sites (SN’s) are making it worse. Facebook (FB), Twitter and other SN’s offer attackers a wide and easily accessible platform. Privacy in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) is extremely important due to cultural beliefs besides the other typical reasons. In this research we comprehensively cover

  19. Socials Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raths, David

    2013-01-01

    Eric Sheninger, the principal at New Milford High School in Bergen County, NJ, is well-known in ed tech circles as an evangelist for the use of web 2.0 tools in K-12 education. New Milford has made collaboration a pillar of its educational platform, and Sheninger believes that social media helps students learn how to collaborate. In fact, he…

  20. Social Hosting

    MedlinePLUS

    Do you know the social hosting laws in your state? One often hears parents say, "I’d rather have my kid and his friends drinking in my house rather ... about allowing underage drinking? And what does the law say about parents’ legal liability if an underage ...

  1. Social Mechanisms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Hedström; Richard Swedberg

    1996-01-01

    In this article it is argued that the search for 'social mechanisms' is of crucial importance for the development of sociological theory. With this concept - which is occasionally used in the sociological literature but has received little systematic attention - attention is called to an intermediary level of analysis in-between pure description and story- telling, on the one hand,

  2. Attention processes in the maintenance and treatment of social phobia: hypervigilance, avoidance and self-focused attention

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susan M. Bögels; Warren Mansell

    2004-01-01

    Four domains of evidence regarding the relationship between attention and social phobia are reviewed: (1) possible maintaining factor, (2) causal relationship, (3) specific relationship and (4) mediator of change during treatment. Two areas of research are covered and integrated: vigilance-avoidance of social threat stimuli and self-focused attention. There is empirical support for these processes as possible maintaining factors that are

  3. Diets, equipment, and techniques for maintaining crawfish in the laboratory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tarshis, I.B.

    1978-01-01

    One commercial and 4 laboratory prepared extruded, water-stable diets were fed 3 times a week in 1-g portions to juvenile male and female White River crawfish, Procambarus acutus acutus (Girard), for 10 weeks. The. binding material in the laboratory preparation was alginate (Kelgin), whereas that in the commercial preparation was starch. No statistically significant weight differences developed between the groups of crawfish at the end of the 10-week period; all 5 diets were found satisfactory for feeding and maintaining P. acutus acutus in the laboratory, and all test crawfish survived throughout the experimental period. Weight gains were highest in a diet containing 50.5% protein; intermediate in those fed a diet with 46.0% protein; and lowest in those fed diets with 31.7 or 36.3% protein. Crawfish fed the commercial preparation of one of the 46.0% protein diets showed a slightly but not significantly higher weight gain than those fed the laboratory preparation of the diet. In an evaluation of the water stability of 5 commercially prepared animal chow diets and the commercial extruded diet, 2 of the commercial diets disintegrated after one hour exposure in water and the other 3 became bloated after one hour and remained on the surface throughout the 24-hour test. The commercial extruded diet maintained its water stability for the full 24 hours. The commercial preparation of the 46.0% protein diet was successfully used under laboratory conditions for feeding and maintaining the following crawfishes: Cambarellus shufeldtii (Faxon), Cambarus acuminatus Faxon, Orconectes limosus (Rafinesque), O. virilis (Hagen), Procambarus clarkii (Girard), and P. spiculifer (Le conte). In longevity experiments Cambarus diogenes diogenes Girard and Procambarus hinei (Ortmann) now have survived for 8 months on this diet in the laboratory.

  4. Girls, pecking order and smoking.

    PubMed

    Michell, L; Amos, A

    1997-06-01

    Against a background of growing concern about the failure to reduce cigarette smoking amongst young people, particularly girls, this paper attempts to unravel the complex interrelationships between smoking, peer group structure and gender. We were particularly intrigued to explore a recent hypothesis in the literature that suggests that girls who smoke, far from lacking self-esteem, are more self-confident and socially skilled than their non-smoking peers. Sociometric and qualitative analyses revealed that smoking behaviour was indeed shaped by gender, and that the psychosocial processes involved in smoking uptake may be different for boys and than for girls. Peer group structure, consistently described by young people as hierarchical, was closely related to smoking behaviour. Girls at the top of the social pecking order who projected an image of high self-esteem were identified as most likely to smoke, while only a small minority of girls fitted the stereotype of the young female smoker who has poor social skills and low self-esteem. Boys of high social status were less vulnerable, since sport and a desire to be fit to some extent protected them. Our findings raise fundamental questions about the meaning of self-esteem in relation to smoking uptake, arguing instead for an exploration of the term "self-worth". They suggest the need for health education programmes which are sensitive both to gender and to peer group structures. PMID:9194247

  5. Achieving and maintaining compliance with the ketogenic diet.

    PubMed Central

    Amari, A; Grace, N C; Fisher, W W

    1995-01-01

    The ketogenic diet, a treatment for intractable epilepsy, is rarely initiated because it requires strict compliance with a diet that is perceived to be unpalatable. In a case study of a 15-year-old girl with uncontrolled epilepsy, we used a stimulus-choice procedure to assess relative preferences of 33 foods from the diet and to develop two treatments based on Premack's principle. The results of a multielement analysis showed that both treatments increased dietary compliance. Compliance was maintained with generalization of treatment across settings, and was associated with a 40% reduction in seizures. PMID:7592151

  6. Maintaining optimum fluorescent lamp performance under elevated temperature conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Siminovitch, M.J.; Rubinstein, F.M.; Clark, T.A.; Verderber, R.R.

    1986-04-01

    This paper describes a new technique for optimizing fluorescent lamp performance under elevated temperature conditions. This approach uses a thermo-electric Peltier device to produce a localized cold spot temperature of approximately 40/sup 0/C, allowing the lamps to maintain maximum light output and efficacy independent of prevailing ambient temperatures inside a luminaire. Experimental data show that a 20% increase in light output and a 10% increase in efficacy over typical lamp performance in a warm fixture environment can be obtained using this device. Only 0.25 watts must be supplied to the Peltier device to produce these results.

  7. Oscillatory nonhmic current drive for maintaining a plasma current

    DOEpatents

    Fisch, Nathaniel J. (Princeton, NJ)

    1986-01-01

    Apparatus and method of the invention maintain a plasma current with an oscillatory nonohmic current drive. Each cycle of operation has a generation period in which current driving energy is applied to the plasma, and a relaxation period in which current driving energy is removed. Plasma parameters, such as plasma temperature or plasma average ionic charge state, are modified during the generation period so as to oscillate plasma resistivity in synchronism with the application of current driving energy. The invention improves overall current drive efficiencies.

  8. Space Tools for Servicing, Repairing, and Maintaining Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trevino, Robert C.

    2002-01-01

    Just like mechanics and technicians on Earth, astronauts use a variety of manual and portable power tools in space to repair, service, and maintain spacecraft, like the Space Shuttle and the International Space Station (ISS), and other satellites, like the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). Space tools are divided into two main operating categories: Intravehicular Activity (IVA) tools and Extravehicular Activity (EVA) tools. N A tools are used by astronauts inside the pressurized habitable compartments of a spacecraft for routine maintenance, repair, and unexpected tasks. EVA tools are used by space-suited astronauts outside of their pressurized spacecraft in the vacuum of space.

  9. A market-clearing role for inefficiency on a limit order book

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeremy Large

    2009-01-01

    Limit order markets with stationary dynamics attract equal volumes of market orders and uncanceled limit orders, equalizing the supply and demand for liquidity and immediacy. To maintain this balance, market orders must share any benefit obtained by limit order traders from more efficient trading conditions, such as better order queuing policies. Therefore an efficient market places a low price on

  10. Connectibles : tangible social networking

    E-print Network

    Kalanithi, Jeevan James

    2007-01-01

    This thesis presents "Connectibles," an instantiation of a tangible social network, a new type of social network application rooted in physical objects and real world social behavior. This research is inspired by social ...

  11. Abstract Social animals have to take into consideration the behaviour of conspe-cifics when making decisions to go by their daily lives. These decisions affect their

    E-print Network

    Fienberg, Stephen E.

    Abstract Social animals have to take into consideration the behaviour of conspe- cifics when making to maintain mixed-sex schools. Keywords Bottlenose dolphin Æ Unshared consensus Æ Social network Æ Tursiops Æ

  12. Social rebirth and social transformation? Rebuilding social lives after ART in rural Uganda.

    PubMed

    Seeley, Janet; Russel, Steve

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines how HIV diagnosis, illness and anti-retroviral therapy (ART) have an impact on the social dimensions of people's lives in rural Uganda, focusing on identity, relationships and membership of groups. Using concepts drawn from sociological research on experiences of illness and recovery, "getting back to normal", "rebirth" and "turning point", we present findings from qualitative research that explored the social changes brought about by HIV and ART among 70 men and women taking ART since 2003. With a second chance at life, some people's narratives revealed a pursuit of getting "back to normal", restoring and resuming their place in their families and communities. Others sought to change or transform their new lives, what we term a "social rebirth", moving away from old social networks and lifestyles. Regaining health was associated with a desire to make the most of life by joining social groups and civil society organisations, establishing new relationships and advising and supporting others. However, earlier losses of family and friends due to AIDS-related deaths made "social rebirth" hard for many people. Our findings also show that the process of responding to ART is not linear and the pursuit of change following diagnosis and treatment may be difficult to sustain, as the months and years on ART progress and the struggles of getting on with life take their toll. Sustaining social rebirth was challenging and complex due to the nature of HIV infection itself (for example, new intimate relationships pose challenges) and the harsh economic environment. Maintaining changed lives for those living with HIV and ART is important because this will contribute to better disease self-management and so demands an understanding by support organisations of the nature of these changes and challenges. PMID:20229371

  13. Taste function in methadone-maintained opioid-dependent men.

    PubMed

    Bogucka-Bonikowska, Anna; Baran-Furga, Helena; Chmielewska, Karina; Habrat, Boguslaw; Scinska, Anna; Kukwa, Andrzej; Koros, Eliza; Kostowski, Wojciech; Polanowska, Elzbieta; Bienkowski, Przemyslaw

    2002-09-01

    It has been shown repeatedly that opioid dependence is associated with increased consumption of refined sugars. It is possible that this association results from altered taste reactivity in opioid-dependent subjects. Thus, in the present study, we compared taste responses to sweet, bitter, sour and salty solutions in methadone-maintained opioid-dependent men and healthy control subjects. The two groups did not differ in terms of rated intensity or pleasantness of sucrose (1-30%), quinine (0.001-0.005%), citric acid (0.02-0.1%) and sodium chloride (0.18-0.9%) solutions. Proportions of 'sweet-likers', i.e. subjects rating a 30% sucrose (0.88 M) solution as the most pleasant, were also similar in both groups. In line with the previous findings, the methadone-maintained subjects reported adding more table sugar to caffeinated beverages. The results of the present study suggest that changes in taste reactivity may not be responsible for altered dietary choices in opioid addicts. PMID:12167557

  14. Maintain rigid structures in Verlet based Cartesian molecular dynamics simulations

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Peng; Wu, Xiongwu; Brooks, Bernard R.

    2012-01-01

    An algorithm is presented to maintain rigid structures in Verlet based Cartesian molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. After each unconstrained MD step, the coordinates of selected particles are corrected to maintain rigid structures through an iterative procedure of rotation matrix computation. This algorithm, named as SHAPE and implemented in CHARMM program suite, avoids the calculations of Lagrange multipliers, so that the complexity of computation does not increase with the number of particles in a rigid structure. The implementation of this algorithm does not require significant modification of propagation integrator, and can be plugged into any Cartesian based MD integration scheme. A unique feature of the SHAPE method is that it is interchangeable with SHAKE for any object that can be constrained as a rigid structure using multiple SHAKE constraints. Unlike SHAKE, the SHAPE method can be applied to large linear (with three or more centers) and planar (with four or more centers) rigid bodies. Numerical tests with four model systems including two proteins demonstrate that the accuracy and reliability of the SHAPE method are comparable to the SHAKE method, but with much more applicability and efficiency. PMID:23039588

  15. Noncanonical Wnt Signaling Maintains Hematopoietic Stem Cells in the Niche

    PubMed Central

    Sugimura, Ryohichi; He, Xi C.; Venkatraman, Aparna; Arai, Fumio; Box, Andrew; Semerad, Craig; Haug, Jeffrey S.; Peng, Lai; Zhong, Xiao-bo; Suda, Toshio; Li, Linheng

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Wnt signaling is involved in self-renewal and maintenance of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs); however, the particular role of noncanonical Wnt signaling in regulating HSCs in vivo is largely unknown. Here, we show Flamingo (Fmi) and Frizzled (Fz) 8, members of noncanonical Wnt signaling, both express in and functionally maintain quiescent long-term HSCs. Fmi regulates Fz8 distribution at the interface between HSCs and N-cadherin+ osteoblasts (N-cad+OBs that enrich osteoprogenitors) in the niche. We further found that N-cad+OBs predominantly express noncanonical Wnt ligands and inhibitors of canonical Wnt signaling under homeostasis. Under stress, noncanonical Wnt signaling is attenuated and canonical Wnt signaling is enhanced in activation of HSCs. Mechanistically, noncanonical Wnt signaling mediated by Fz8 suppresses the Ca2+-NFAT- IFN? pathway, directly or indirectly through the CDC42-CK1? complex and also antagonizes canonical Wnt signaling in HSCs. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that noncanonical Wnt signaling maintains quiescent long-term HSCs through Fmi and Fz8 interaction in the niche. PMID:22817897

  16. Maintaining Aura's Orbit Requirements Under New Maneuver Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Megan; Petersen, Jeremy D.

    2014-01-01

    The Earth Observing System (EOS) Afternoon Constellation consists of five member missions (GCOM-W1, Aqua, CALIPSO, CloudSat, and Aura), each of which maintain a frozen, sun-synchronous orbit with a 16-day repeating ground track that follows the Worldwide Reference System-2 (WRS-2). Under nominal science operations for Aura, the propulsion system is oriented such that the resultant thrust vector is aligned 13.493 degrees away from the velocity vector along the yaw axis. When performing orbit maintenance maneuvers, the spacecraft performs a yaw slew to align the thrust vector in the appropriate direction. A new Drag Make Up (DMU) maneuver operations scheme has been implemented for Aura alleviating the need for the 13.493 degree yaw slew. The focus of this investigation is to assess the impact that no-slew DMU maneuver operations will have on Auras Mean Local Time (MLT) which drives the required along track separation between Aura and the constellation members, as well as Auras frozen orbit properties, eccentricity and argument of perigee. Seven maneuver strategies were analyzed to determine the best operational approach. A mirror pole strategy, with maneuvers alternating at the North and South poles, was implemented operationally to minimize impact to the MLT. Additional analysis determined that the mirror pole strategy could be further modified to include frozen orbit maneuvers and thus maintain both MLT and the frozen orbit properties under no-slew operations

  17. Bbof1 is required to maintain cilia orientation

    PubMed Central

    Chien, Yuan-Hung; Werner, Michael E.; Stubbs, Jennifer; Joens, Matt S.; Li, Julie; Chien, Shu; Fitzpatrick, James A. J.; Mitchell, Brian J.; Kintner, Chris

    2013-01-01

    Multiciliate cells (MCCs) are highly specialized epithelial cells that employ hundreds of motile cilia to produce a vigorous directed flow in a variety of organ systems. The production of this flow requires the establishment of planar cell polarity (PCP) whereby MCCs align hundreds of beating cilia along a common planar axis. The planar axis of cilia in MCCs is known to be established via the PCP pathway and hydrodynamic cues, but the downstream steps required for cilia orientation remain poorly defined. Here, we describe a new component of cilia orientation, based on the phenotypic analysis of an uncharacterized coiled-coil protein, called bbof1. We show that the expression of bbof1 is induced during the early phases of MCC differentiation by the master regulator foxj1. MCC differentiation and ciliogenesis occurs normally in embryos where bbof1 activity is reduced, but cilia orientation is severely disrupted. We show that cilia in bbof1 mutants can still respond to patterning and hydrodynamic cues, but lack the ability to maintain their precise orientation. Misexpression of bbof1 promotes cilia alignment, even in the absence of flow or in embryos where microtubules and actin filaments are disrupted. Bbof1 appears to mediate cilia alignment by localizing to a polar structure adjacent to the basal body. Together, these results suggest that bbof1 is a basal body component required in MCCs to align and maintain cilia orientation in response to flow. PMID:23900544

  18. Maintaining the point correspondence in the level set framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pons, J.-P.; Hermosillo, G.; Keriven, R.; Faugeras, O.

    2006-12-01

    In this paper, we propose a completely Eulerian approach to maintain a point correspondence during a level set evolution. Our work is in the spirit of some recent methods (D. Adalsteinsson, J. Sethian, Transport and diffusion of material quantities on propagating interfaces via level set methods, Journal of Computational Physics 185(1) (2003) 271-288; J.-J. Xu, H.-K. Zhao, An Eulerian formulation for solving partial differential equations along a moving interface, Journal of Scientific Computing 19 (2003) 573-594) for handling interfacial data on moving level set interfaces. Our approach maintains an explicit backward correspondence from the evolving interface to the initial one, by advecting the initial point coordinates with the same velocity as the level set function. It leads to a system of coupled Eulerian partial differential equations. We describe in detail a robust numerical implementation of our approach, in accordance with the narrow band methodology. We show in a variety of numerical experiments that it can handle both normal and tangential velocities, large deformations, shocks, rarefactions and topological changes. The possible applications of our approach include scientific visualization, computer graphics and image processing.

  19. Acquiring and maintaining a normal oral microbiome: current perspective

    PubMed Central

    Zaura, Egija; Nicu, Elena A.; Krom, Bastiaan P.; Keijser, Bart J. F.

    2014-01-01

    The oral microbiota survives daily physical and chemical perturbations from the intake of food and personal hygiene measures, resulting in a long-term stable microbiome. Biological properties that confer stability in the microbiome are important for the prevention of dysbiosis—a microbial shift toward a disease, e.g., periodontitis or caries. Although processes that underlie oral diseases have been studied extensively, processes involved in maintaining of a normal, healthy microbiome are poorly understood. In this review we present our hypothesis on how a healthy oral microbiome is acquired and maintained. We introduce our view on the prenatal development of tolerance for the normal oral microbiome: we propose that development of fetal tolerance toward the microbiome of the mother during pregnancy is the major factor for a successful acquisition of a normal microbiome. We describe the processes that influence the establishment of such microbiome, followed by our perspective on the process of sustaining a healthy oral microbiome. We divide microbiome-maintenance factors into host-derived and microbe-derived, while focusing on the host. Finally, we highlight the need and directions for future research. PMID:25019064

  20. High plant diversity is needed to maintain ecosystem services.

    PubMed

    Isbell, Forest; Calcagno, Vincent; Hector, Andy; Connolly, John; Harpole, W Stanley; Reich, Peter B; Scherer-Lorenzen, Michael; Schmid, Bernhard; Tilman, David; van Ruijven, Jasper; Weigelt, Alexandra; Wilsey, Brian J; Zavaleta, Erika S; Loreau, Michel

    2011-09-01

    Biodiversity is rapidly declining worldwide, and there is consensus that this can decrease ecosystem functioning and services. It remains unclear, though, whether few or many of the species in an ecosystem are needed to sustain the provisioning of ecosystem services. It has been hypothesized that most species would promote ecosystem services if many times, places, functions and environmental changes were considered; however, no previous study has considered all of these factors together. Here we show that 84% of the 147 grassland plant species studied in 17 biodiversity experiments promoted ecosystem functioning at least once. Different species promoted ecosystem functioning during different years, at different places, for different functions and under different environmental change scenarios. Furthermore, the species needed to provide one function during multiple years were not the same as those needed to provide multiple functions within one year. Our results indicate that even more species will be needed to maintain ecosystem functioning and services than previously suggested by studies that have either (1) considered only the number of species needed to promote one function under one set of environmental conditions, or (2) separately considered the importance of biodiversity for providing ecosystem functioning across multiple years, places, functions or environmental change scenarios. Therefore, although species may appear functionally redundant when one function is considered under one set of environmental conditions, many species are needed to maintain multiple functions at multiple times and places in a changing world. PMID:21832994

  1. MACHINE LEARNING : The Necessity of Order (is order in order ?)

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    - 1 - MACHINE LEARNING : The Necessity of Order (is order in order ?) A. Cornuéjols Laboratoire de to facilitate learning. Yet, when machine learners exhibited sequencing effects, showing that some data sampling is intended to present ideas and directions of research that are currently studied in the machine learning

  2. 17 CFR 270.31a-3 - Records prepared or maintained by other than person required to maintain and preserve them.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...other than person required to maintain and preserve them. 270.31a-3 Section 270...other than person required to maintain and preserve them. (a) If the records required...of the person required to maintain and preserve such records, the person required...

  3. 17 CFR 270.31a-3 - Records prepared or maintained by other than person required to maintain and preserve them.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...other than person required to maintain and preserve them. 270.31a-3 Section 270...other than person required to maintain and preserve them. (a) If the records required...of the person required to maintain and preserve such records, the person required...

  4. 17 CFR 270.31a-3 - Records prepared or maintained by other than person required to maintain and preserve them.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...other than person required to maintain and preserve them. 270.31a-3 Section 270...other than person required to maintain and preserve them. (a) If the records required...of the person required to maintain and preserve such records, the person required...

  5. 17 CFR 270.31a-3 - Records prepared or maintained by other than person required to maintain and preserve them.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...other than person required to maintain and preserve them. 270.31a-3 Section 270...other than person required to maintain and preserve them. (a) If the records required...of the person required to maintain and preserve such records, the person required...

  6. 17 CFR 270.31a-3 - Records prepared or maintained by other than person required to maintain and preserve them.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...other than person required to maintain and preserve them. 270.31a-3 Section 270...other than person required to maintain and preserve them. (a) If the records required...of the person required to maintain and preserve such records, the person required...

  7. Social Geography

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The open-access journal "Social Geography" is primarily concerned with "the interrelation of society, practice and space and its implications for every day-life, social and environmental policy or economic practice." The journal was started in 2005, and visitors with an interest in human geography or sociology will appreciate their offerings. Users can start by reading through the "General Information" section, then looking over their submission guidelines. After that, visitors will want to click on over to the "Online Library SG" area, where they can read final papers and also search all of the submitted papers by title and author. Additionally, visitors can sign up to receive email alerts and RSS feeds.

  8. Social neuroendocrinology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sari M. van Anders; Neil V. Watson

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we provide a critical review of research concerned with social\\/environmental mechanisms that modulate human\\u000a neuroendocrine function. We survey research in four behavioral systems that have been shaped through evolution: competition,\\u000a partnering, sex, and pregnancy\\/parenting. Generally, behavioral neuroendocrine research examines how hormones affect behavior.\\u000a Instead, we focus on approaches that emphasize the effects of behavioral states on hormones

  9. Establishing Social Norms for Privacy in Social Networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ted Kang; Lalana Kagal

    Most social networks have implemented extensive and com- plex privacy controls in order to battle the host of privacy concerns that initially plagued their online communities. These privacy controls have taken the form of access restriction, which allow users to construct barri- ers preventing unwanted users from viewing their personal information. However, this system leaves users unprotected in cases in

  10. The ultra-social animal

    PubMed Central

    Tomasello, Michael

    2014-01-01

    In evolutionary perspective, what is most remarkable about human sociality is its many and diverse forms of cooperation. Here, I provide an overview of some recent research, mostly from our laboratory, comparing human children with their nearest living relatives, the great apes, in various tests of collaboration, prosocial behavior, conformity, and group-mindedness (e.g., following and enforcing social norms). This is done in the context of a hypothetical evolutionary scenario comprising two ordered steps: a first step in which early humans began collaborating with others in unique ways in their everyday foraging and a second step in which modern humans began forming cultural groups. Humans' unique forms of sociality help to explain their unique forms of cognition and morality. © 2014. The Authors. European Journal of Social Psychology published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25641998

  11. Evolutionary Theories in Social Sciences

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    With the stated mission of serving "as the premier information site for scholars interested in evolutionary thought in the social sciences," this site offers materials relating to a broad interdisciplinary field that includes sociobiology, management, evolutionary biology, business history, anthropology, and even mathematics and engineering, among others. The site includes an extensive, discipline-indexed bibliography, book reviews (with authorial replies), abstracts of working papers, a discussion list, conference and symposium news, a listing of researchers with contact information, a listing of links to relevant print and e-journals, and PhD syllabi, including links to course texts from the Kellogg School of Management and the European Doctoral Training Programme on the Economics of Technological and Institutional Change. Note: authors may be contacted through the site for copies of working papers (there is no mention of a fee for these copies). The site is maintained by two social scientists from Northwestern University, Johann Peter Murmann and Joe Fleischhacker.

  12. Promoting social networks among Computer Science students

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kathrin Figl; Sonja Kabicher; Katharina Toifl

    2008-01-01

    The main scientific aim of this study was to investigate how Computer Science students regarded their social networks among study colleagues. The study was conducted at the Research Lab for Educational Technologies (University of Vienna) in order to find connecting factors for improving students' networks by means of curricular design as well as in single courses. Social Networks drawings and

  13. The Affective Regulation of Social Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clore, Gerald L.; Pappas, Jesse

    2007-01-01

    The recent publication of David Heise's "Expressive Order" (2007) provides an occasion for discussing some of the key ideas in Affect Control Theory. The theory proposes that a few dimensions of affective meaning provide a common basis for interrelating personal identities and social actions. It holds that during interpersonal interactions, social

  14. UNUSUAL ADAPTATIONS FOR P NUTRITION, IN ORDER TO MAINTAIN N2 FIXATION IN TWO CAPE FLORISTIC REGION (CFR)

    E-print Network

    -lived post fire colonizers in the fynbos ecosystem due to a temporary flush of nutrient availability deficiency. Plants resupplied with P resembled those supplied with optimal P levels in terms of growth

  15. IDM A Configuration Management Tool for Maintaining Consistency

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Robert Stephen

    by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, ARPA Orders 6082 and 9151., and by the National Computer, of Computational Logic, Inc., the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, the National Computer Security Center

  16. IDM --A Configuration Management Tool for Maintaining Consistency

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Robert Stephen

    by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, ARPA Orders 6082 and 9151., and by the National Computer, of Computational Logic, Inc., the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, the National Computer Security Center

  17. Media, Economics, and the Social Studies Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meszaros, Bonnie

    1979-01-01

    Describes economic media materials for use in social studies classes in elementary and secondary schools. Entries include films, educational games, filmstrips with cassettes, duplicating masters, and simulation exercises. Ordering information is presented for each entry. (DB)

  18. Social Identities and Psychosocial Stress

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter J. Burke

    In order to understand the role of identities in the stress process, I begin with a short discus- sion of the nature of social identities as understood in the context of identity theory. Following that, I briefly review an interruption theory of stress based on the work of Mandler (1982) and show how the underlying mechanisms which produce the stress

  19. Scelta criminale e deterrenza sociale

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Giuseppe Clerico

    2003-01-01

    Scelta criminale e deterrenza sociale (di Giuseppe Clerico) - ABSTRACT: According to the methodologic individualism approach, individual choices depend on the economic assessment of costs and benefits. Rational individuals choose to commit a crime when the expected net benefit is positive. Rational individuals respond to the incentive mechanism. Therefore, in order to fight crime it is necessary to modify the

  20. Teaching Human Poses Interactively to a Social Robot

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Pacheco, Victor; Malfaz, Maria; Fernandez, Fernando; Salichs, Miguel A.

    2013-01-01

    The main activity of social robots is to interact with people. In order to do that, the robot must be able to understand what the user is saying or doing. Typically, this capability consists of pre-programmed behaviors or is acquired through controlled learning processes, which are executed before the social interaction begins. This paper presents a software architecture that enables a robot to learn poses in a similar way as people do. That is, hearing its teacher's explanations and acquiring new knowledge in real time. The architecture leans on two main components: an RGB-D (Red-, Green-, Blue- Depth) -based visual system, which gathers the user examples, and an Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR) system, which processes the speech describing those examples. The robot is able to naturally learn the poses the teacher is showing to it by maintaining a natural interaction with the teacher. We evaluate our system with 24 users who teach the robot a predetermined set of poses. The experimental results show that, with a few training examples, the system reaches high accuracy and robustness. This method shows how to combine data from the visual and auditory systems for the acquisition of new knowledge in a natural manner. Such a natural way of training enables robots to learn from users, even if they are not experts in robotics. PMID:24048336

  1. Teaching human poses interactively to a social robot.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Pacheco, Victor; Malfaz, Maria; Fernandez, Fernando; Salichs, Miguel A

    2013-01-01

    The main activity of social robots is to interact with people. In order to do that, the robot must be able to understand what the user is saying or doing. Typically, this capability consists of pre-programmed behaviors or is acquired through controlled learning processes, which are executed before the social interaction begins. This paper presents a software architecture that enables a robot to learn poses in a similar way as people do. That is, hearing its teacher's explanations and acquiring new knowledge in real time. The architecture leans on two main components: an RGB-D (Red-, Green-, Blue- Depth) -based visual system, which gathers the user examples, and an Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR) system, which processes the speech describing those examples. The robot is able to naturally learn the poses the teacher is showing to it by maintaining a natural interaction with the teacher. We evaluate our system with 24 users who teach the robot a predetermined set of poses. The experimental results show that, with a few training examples, the system reaches high accuracy and robustness. This method shows how to combine data from the visual and auditory systems for the acquisition of new knowledge in a natural manner. Such a natural way of training enables robots to learn from users, even if they are not experts in robotics. PMID:24048336

  2. Warm Eocene Conditions Maintained by Methanogenesis in Arctic Soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jahren, H.

    2002-05-01

    The strikingly large carbon isotope separation (? 13Ccc - ? 13Com = 30.5 ‰ ) between fossilized wood and pedogenic carbonate intertwined in an unusually well-preservedMetasequoia bole of Eocene age from Axel Heiberg Island indicated an Arctic paleoenvironment in which 23% of soil-respired CO2 was enzymatically reduced to methane, prior to the precipitation of pedogenic carbonate. Using conservative estimates of biomass and litter paleoproduction forMetasequoia fossil forests, I calculated an annual methane release of 341 x 1012 gCH4/yr for the forested Arctic during the Eocene. This value is ~3x total modern natural methane emissions from soils, and would have drastically interfered with re-radiation of heat from the Earth's surface, and maintained the relatively mild Arctic temperatures evidenced by the fauna and flora of the Eocene.

  3. Maintaining Atmospheric Mass and Water Balance Within Reanalysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takacs, Lawrence L.; Suarez, Max; Todling, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    This report describes the modifications implemented into the Goddard Earth Observing System Version-5 (GEOS-5) Atmospheric Data Assimilation System (ADAS) to maintain global conservation of dry atmospheric mass as well as to preserve the model balance of globally integrated precipitation and surface evaporation during reanalysis. Section 1 begins with a review of these global quantities from four current reanalysis efforts. Section 2 introduces the modifications necessary to preserve these constraints within the atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM), the Gridpoint Statistical Interpolation (GSI) analysis procedure, and the Incremental Analysis Update (IAU) algorithm. Section 3 presents experiments quantifying the impact of the new procedure. Section 4 shows preliminary results from its use within the GMAO MERRA-2 Reanalysis project. Section 5 concludes with a summary.

  4. Can Canister Containment Be Maintained After Accidental Drop Events?

    SciTech Connect

    D. K. Morton; S. D. Snow; T. E. Rahl; R. K. Blandford; T. J. Hill

    2006-05-01

    The National Spent Nuclear Fuel Program (NSNFP) has pursued a number of structural testing projects that are intended to provide data that can be used to substantiate the position that U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) spent nuclear fuel (SNF) canisters, made from austenitic stainless steels, can maintain containment after an accidental drop event and that plastic finite element methods can be used to accurately predict the structural response of canister configurations not specifically tested. In particular, drop tests of full-scale canisters and material impact testing at varying strain rates reflecting accidental drop conditions have been completed or are in progress. This paper provides insights to conclusions achieved to date and what efforts are planned to fully address the pertinent issues necessary to demonstrate the safety of DOE SNF canisters subjected to accidental drop events.

  5. Maintaining A User Community For The Montage Image Mosaic Toolkit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berriman, G. B.

    2014-01-01

    The development of the Montage image mosaic toolkit was funded by NASA between 2002 and 2005. Even though the code has been unfunded for eight years, the user community of astronomers and computer scientists has continued to grow, primarily because the code is portable across Unix platforms, highly scalable, and easy to incorporate into user environments and pipelines. The code is publicly available through a clickwrap license at Caltech, but the license does not permit the user to modify and redistribute the software. This presentation outlines successful strategies for maintaining and upgrading Montage in the face of the licensing restrictions and absence of continuing funding, and outlines cases where the restrictions have limited further development.

  6. Rfx6 maintains the functional identity of adult pancreatic ? cells.

    PubMed

    Piccand, Julie; Strasser, Perrine; Hodson, David J; Meunier, Aline; Ye, Tao; Keime, Céline; Birling, Marie-Christine; Rutter, Guy A; Gradwohl, Gérard

    2014-12-24

    Increasing evidence suggests that loss of ? cell characteristics may cause insulin secretory deficiency in diabetes, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we show that Rfx6, whose mutation leads to neonatal diabetes in humans, is essential to maintain key features of functionally mature ? cells in mice. Rfx6 loss in adult ? cells leads to glucose intolerance, impaired ? cell glucose sensing, and defective insulin secretion. This is associated with reduced expression of core components of the insulin secretion pathway, including glucokinase, the Abcc8/SUR1 subunit of KATP channels and voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels, which are direct targets of Rfx6. Moreover, Rfx6 contributes to the silencing of the vast majority of "disallowed" genes, a group usually specifically repressed in adult ? cells, and thus to the maintenance of ? cell maturity. These findings raise the possibility that changes in Rfx6 expression or activity may contribute to ? cell failure in humans. PMID:25497096

  7. Remote Sensing and Control for Establishing and Maintaining Digital Irrigation

    E-print Network

    cellatoglu, Akin

    2012-01-01

    The remotely sensed data from an unknown location is transmitted in real time through internet and gathered in a PC. The data is collected for a considerable period of time and analyzed in PC as to assess the suitability and fertility of the land for establishing an electronic plantation in that area. The analysis also helps deciding the plantation of appropriate plants in the location identified. The system performing this task with appropriate transducers installed in remote area, the methodologies involved in transmission and data gathering are reported.. The second part of the project deals with data gathering from remote site and issuing control signals to remote appliances in the site; all performed through internet. Therefore, this control scheme is a duplex system monitoring the irrigation activities by collecting data in one direction and issuing commands on the opposite direction. This scheme maintains the digital irrigation systems effectively and efficiently as to utilize the resources optimally f...

  8. Study on eliminating fire dampers to maintain process confinement

    SciTech Connect

    Walling, R.C.; Patel, J.B.; Strunk, A.J.

    1991-01-01

    The DOE General Design Criteria for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Westinghouse Savannah River Site (WSRS) requires the NFPA National Fire Codes to be incorporated into the design and simultaneously maintain process confinement integrity to prevent the release of radioactivity. Although the NFPA Standard for the Installation of Air Conditioning and Ventilation Systems, NFPA 90, requires fire dampers (FD) in HVAC duct penetrations of two hour rated fire barriers, closure of fire dampers at DWPF may compromise the integrity of the process confinement system. This leads to the need for an overall risk assessment to determine the value of 39 fire dampers that are identified later in the study as capable of a confinement system upset.

  9. Study on eliminating fire dampers to maintain process confinement

    SciTech Connect

    Walling, R.C.; Patel, J.B.; Strunk, A.J.

    1991-12-31

    The DOE General Design Criteria for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Westinghouse Savannah River Site (WSRS) requires the NFPA National Fire Codes to be incorporated into the design and simultaneously maintain process confinement integrity to prevent the release of radioactivity. Although the NFPA Standard for the Installation of Air Conditioning and Ventilation Systems, NFPA 90, requires fire dampers (FD) in HVAC duct penetrations of two hour rated fire barriers, closure of fire dampers at DWPF may compromise the integrity of the process confinement system. This leads to the need for an overall risk assessment to determine the value of 39 fire dampers that are identified later in the study as capable of a confinement system upset.

  10. Assessment of Sterility in Fluid Bags Maintained for Chronic Use

    PubMed Central

    Matthews, Kristin A; Taylor, Douglas K

    2011-01-01

    Fluid therapy is an integral component of standard supportive care in veterinary medicine and is often given subcutaneously for ease of administration. Multiple animals may be treated by using the same bag. These bags often are used repeatedly until they are empty or until a time specified by an IACUC or similar advisory group. This practice introduces the risk of contamination. Here we assessed the sterility of multiple-use fluid bags in the laboratory setting for a maximum of 60 d. Bags were manipulated to mimic infrequent and frequent use. Bacterial cultures of fluid and bag wall and assays for endotoxin and ATP activity were negative at all time points through 30 d. Two fluid samples yielded bacterial growth at 60 d, although all other tests were negative. These results suggest that fluid bags used chronically can be maintained in a sterile condition for a maximum of 30 d. PMID:22330719

  11. Maintaining the reproductive potential of cancer patients during cancer treatment.

    PubMed

    Harp, Djana; Chowdhury, Indrajit; Garcia-Barrio, Minerva; Welch, Crystal; Matthews, Roland; Thompson, Winston

    2014-01-01

    Cancer therapies are known to alter the reproductive potential in cancer patients. Due to improved survival rates in cancer patients of reproductive age, considerations of the long-term effects of cancer therapy have become more significant. Oncofertility is a new discipline in medicine that deals with maintaining the reproductive potential of cancer patients while they are receiving gonadotoxic cancer treatment. The purpose of this review is to explore how cancer treatment impairs reproductive functioning and present the current options for preservation of fertility in women. All patients with reproductive potential should be made aware of the possible treatment-related infertility and be offered appropriate fertility preservation options before cancer treatment is instituted. The hope is that, in the future, mechanism(s) can be developed to preserve immature germ cells in the ovary, so that they can be used for fertilization in vivo or in vitro. PMID:24389259

  12. Maintaining and improving the oral health of young children.

    PubMed

    2014-12-01

    Oral health is an integral part of the overall health of children. Dental caries is a common and chronic disease process with significant short- and long-term consequences. The prevalence of dental caries for the youngest of children has not decreased over the past decade, despite improvements for older children. As health care professionals responsible for the overall health of children, pediatricians frequently confront morbidity associated with dental caries. Because the youngest children visit the pediatrician more often than they visit the dentist, it is important that pediatricians be knowledgeable about the disease process of dental caries, prevention of the disease, and interventions available to the pediatrician and the family to maintain and restore health. PMID:25422016

  13. How unrealistic optimism is maintained in the face of reality.

    PubMed

    Sharot, Tali; Korn, Christoph W; Dolan, Raymond J

    2011-11-01

    Unrealistic optimism is a pervasive human trait that influences domains ranging from personal relationships to politics and finance. How people maintain unrealistic optimism, despite frequently encountering information that challenges those biased beliefs, is unknown. We examined this question and found a marked asymmetry in belief updating. Participants updated their beliefs more in response to information that was better than expected than to information that was worse. This selectivity was mediated by a relative failure to code for errors that should reduce optimism. Distinct regions of the prefrontal cortex tracked estimation errors when those called for positive update, both in individuals who scored high and low on trait optimism. However, highly optimistic individuals exhibited reduced tracking of estimation errors that called for negative update in right inferior prefrontal gyrus. These findings indicate that optimism is tied to a selective update failure and diminished neural coding of undesirable information regarding the future. PMID:21983684

  14. Hierarchically nanotextured surfaces maintaining superhydrophobicity under severely adverse conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maitra, Tanmoy; Antonini, Carlo; Auf der Mauer, Matthias; Stamatopoulos, Christos; Tiwari, Manish K.; Poulikakos, Dimos

    2014-07-01

    Superhydrophobic surfaces are highly desirable for a broad range of technologies and products affecting everyday life. Despite significant progress in recent years in understanding the principles of hydrophobicity, mostly inspired by surface designs found in nature, many man-made surfaces employ readily processable materials, ideal to demonstrate principles, but with little chance of survivability outside a very limited range of well-controlled environments. Here we focus on the rational development of robust, hierarchically nanostructured, environmentally friendly, metal-based (aluminum) superhydrophobic surfaces, which maintain their performance under severely adverse conditions. Based on their functionality, we superpose selected hydrophobic layers (i.e. self-assembled monolayers, thin films, or nanofibrous coatings) on hierarchically textured aluminum surfaces, collectively imparting high level robustness of superhydrophobicity under adverse conditions. These surfaces simultaneously exhibit chemical stability, mechanical durability and droplet impalement resistance. They impressively maintained their superhydrophobicity after exposure to severely adverse chemical environments like strong alkaline (pH ~ 9-10), acidic (pH ~ 2-3), and ionic solutions (3.5 weight% of sodium chloride), and could simultaneously resist water droplet impalement up to an impact velocity of 3.2 m s-1 as well as withstand standard mechanical durability tests.Superhydrophobic surfaces are highly desirable for a broad range of technologies and products affecting everyday life. Despite significant progress in recent years in understanding the principles of hydrophobicity, mostly inspired by surface designs found in nature, many man-made surfaces employ readily processable materials, ideal to demonstrate principles, but with little chance of survivability outside a very limited range of well-controlled environments. Here we focus on the rational development of robust, hierarchically nanostructured, environmentally friendly, metal-based (aluminum) superhydrophobic surfaces, which maintain their performance under severely adverse conditions. Based on their functionality, we superpose selected hydrophobic layers (i.e. self-assembled monolayers, thin films, or nanofibrous coatings) on hierarchically textured aluminum surfaces, collectively imparting high level robustness of superhydrophobicity under adverse conditions. These surfaces simultaneously exhibit chemical stability, mechanical durability and droplet impalement resistance. They impressively maintained their superhydrophobicity after exposure to severely adverse chemical environments like strong alkaline (pH ~ 9-10), acidic (pH ~ 2-3), and ionic solutions (3.5 weight% of sodium chloride), and could simultaneously resist water droplet impalement up to an impact velocity of 3.2 m s-1 as well as withstand standard mechanical durability tests. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Contact angles on intermediate surfaces; changes in PDMS film thickness with n-hexane immersion; the chemical stability of surfaces with (C3) and without PDMS film (C2) and the impalement pressure balance. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr01368a

  15. Elimination of Unfit Cells Maintains Tissue Health and Prolongs Lifespan

    PubMed Central

    Merino, Marisa M.; Rhiner, Christa; Lopez-Gay, Jesus M.; Buechel, David; Hauert, Barbara; Moreno, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    Summary Viable yet damaged cells can accumulate during development and aging. Although eliminating those cells may benefit organ function, identification of this less fit cell population remains challenging. Previously, we identified a molecular mechanism, based on “fitness fingerprints” displayed on cell membranes, which allows direct fitness comparison among cells in Drosophila. Here, we study the physiological consequences of efficient cell selection for the whole organism. We find that fitness-based cell culling is naturally used to maintain tissue health, delay aging, and extend lifespan in Drosophila. We identify a gene, azot, which ensures the elimination of less fit cells. Lack of azot increases morphological malformations and susceptibility to random mutations and accelerates tissue degeneration. On the contrary, improving the efficiency of cell selection is beneficial for tissue health and extends lifespan. PMID:25601460

  16. Pyrolysis of wood to biochar: increasing yield while maintaining microporosity.

    PubMed

    Veksha, Andrei; McLaughlin, Hugh; Layzell, David B; Hill, Josephine M

    2014-02-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if biochar yield could be increased by the deposition of volatile pyrolysis species within the bed during production, without negatively influencing the microporosity and adsorption properties. Aspen (Populus tremuloides) wood chips were loaded into three vertically stacked zones within a reactor and heated in nitrogen to temperatures between 420 and 650°C (i.e., pyrolyzed). The yield did increase from the zone at the reactor inlet to the subsequent zones as volatile species deposited and carbonized, and importantly, the carbonized deposits had a similar microporous structure and organic vapor uptake (1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane) to that of the primary biochar. Based on these results, bio-oil from previous runs at 600°C was recycled to the bed, which further increased the yield while maintaining the desirable adsorption properties of the biochar. PMID:24365739

  17. Solving the viscous hydrodynamics order by order

    E-print Network

    Gao, Jian-Hua

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a method of solving the viscous hydrodynamics order by order in a derivative expansion. In such method, the zero order solution is just the one of the ideal hydrodynamics. All the other higher order corrections satisfy the same first-order partial differential equations but with different inhomogeneous terms. We therefore argue that our method could be easily extended to any orders. The problem of causality and stability will be released if the gradient expansion is guaranteed. This method might be of great help to both theoretical and numerical calculations of relativistic hydrodynamics.

  18. Structured self-management education maintained over two years in insufficiently controlled type 2 diabetes patients: the ERMIES randomised trial in Reunion Island

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Self-management education programs can reduce the complications and mortality in type 2 diabetes. The need to structure these programs for outpatient and community care with a vision for long-term maintenance has been recognised. In Reunion Island, an area affected by epidemiological and nutritional transition, diabetes affects 18% of the adult population over 30 years, with major social disparities, poor glycaemic control and frequent cardiovascular complications. Methods/Design ERMIES is a randomised controlled trial designed to test the efficacy of a long-term (2 years) structured group self management educational intervention in improving blood glucose in non-recent, insufficiently controlled diabetes. After an initial structured educational cycle carried out blind for the intervention arm, patients will be randomised in two parallel group arms of 120 subjects: structured on-going group with educational intervention maintained over two years, versus only initial education. Education sessions are organised through a regional diabetes management network, and performed by trained registered nurses at close quarters. The educational approach is theoretically based (socio-constructivism, social contextualisation, empowerment, action planning) and reproducible, thanks to curricula and handouts for educators and learners. The subjects will be recruited from five hospital outpatient settings all over Reunion Island. The main eligibility criteria include: age ?18 years, type 2 diabetes treated for more than one year, HbA1c???7.5% for ?3 months, without any severe evolving complication (ischaemic or proliferative retinopathy, severe renal insufficiency, coronaropathy or evolving foot lesion), and absence of any major physical or cognitive handicap. The primary outcome measure is HbA1c evolution between inclusion and 2 years. The secondary outcome measures include anthropometric indicators, blood pressure, lipids, antidiabetic medications, level of physical activity, food ingestion, quality of life, social support, anxiety, depression levels and self-efficacy. An associated nested qualitative study will be conducted with 30 to 40 subjects in order to analyse the learning and adaptation processes during the education cycles, and throughout the study. Conclusions This research will help to address the necessary but difficult issue of structuring therapeutic education in type 2 diabetes based on: efficacy and potential interest of organising on-going empowerment group–sessions, at close quarters, over the long term, in a heterogeneous socioeconomic environment. Trial registration ID_RCB number: 2011-A00046-35 Clinicaltrials.gov number: NCT01425866 PMID:22856504

  19. Maintaining skin integrity in the aged: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Kottner, J; Lichterfeld, A; Blume-Peytavi, U

    2013-09-01

    Ageing is associated with structural and functional changes of the skin that result in increased vulnerability. The aim of this systematic review is to synthesize empirical evidence about the efficacy and effectiveness of basic skin care interventions for maintaining skin integrity in the aged. The databases Medline, EMBASE, CINAHL (1990-2012), Scopus, SCI (February 2013) and reference lists were searched. Inclusion criteria were primary intervention studies using skin care products in physiologically aged skin (lower age limit 50 years). Study and sample characteristics, interventions and outcomes were extracted. The methodological quality was assessed and a level of evidence was assigned. From 1535 screened articles 188 were read in full text. From these, 33 articles were included reporting results on treating dry skin conditions, and preventing incontinence-associated dermatitis and superficial ulcerations. Most studies had lower levels of evidence of 3 or 4. Skin-cleansing products containing syndets or amphoteric surfactants compared with standard soap and water washing improved skin dryness and demonstrated skin-protecting effects. Moisturizers containing humectants consistently showed statistically significant improvements in skin dryness. Skin barrier products containing occlusives reduced the occurrence of skin injuries compared with standard or no treatment. Owing to methodological limitations the current evidence base for basic skin care in the aged is weak. Using low-irritating cleansing products and humectant- or occlusive-containing moisturizers seems to be the best strategy for maintaining the skin barrier function and integrity. We know little about the effects of cleansing regimens and about the benefits of moisturizers when compared with each other. PMID:23773110

  20. Social Science Department BA SOCIAL SCIENCE

    E-print Network

    Su, Xiao

    Social Science Department BA SOCIAL SCIENCE SINGLE SUBJECT MATTER PREPARATION States HIST 187 U.S. Social History California History HIST 189A/B California Since 1900 6 Geography GEOG Theory and Practice in the Social Sciences 3 Total Units 51 02/2010 #12;

  1. Social Awareness Concepts to Support Social Computing

    E-print Network

    Loke, Seng W. - Loke, Seng W.

    Social Awareness Concepts to Support Social Computing Andry Rakotonirainy Centre for Accident:p.obst@qut.edu.au Abstract--Our social life is characterised by norms that man- ifest as attitudinal and behavioural uniformities among people. With greater awareness about our social context, we can interact more efficiently

  2. bilan social = 2011 2 bilan social = 2011

    E-print Network

    bilan social = 2011 #12;2 bilan social = 2011 1 = LES EMPLOIS SUR BUDGET ETAT 4 1 = 1 Ens = 2 Les modalités de service et taux d'activité 27/28 SOMMAIRE #12;3bilan social = 2011 3 = 2 lEs a Commissions Paritaire d'Etablissement 54 SOMMAIRE #12;4 bilan social = 2011 LESEMPLOISSURBUDGETETAT 1 1= 1 Ens

  3. Social Security and Social Welfare Indicators

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ida C. Merriam

    1978-01-01

    The proportion of its total resources that a society devotes to social welfare is a useful general measure related to social policy. In fiscal 1976, the United States spent 21 percent of Gross National Product (GNP) for public social welfare programs, including health and education as well as social insurance (the largest segment) and assistance. Program developments, inflation, population growth,

  4. Social Networks and Social Influences in Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cotterell, John

    Young people are concerned with making and keeping friends, and they invest a great deal of energy in group social life to do so. This book charts the interactions of young people both in and out of school and the role of peers and friends in strengthening social attachments and in establishing social identities. It describes how social identities…

  5. What is ‘social’ about social science?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Urry; Robert Dingwall; Ian Gough; Paul Ormerod; Doreen Massey; John Scott; Nigel Thrift

    2007-01-01

    This is a report on an Academy of Social Sciences debate held on 15 March 2006. The debate concerned the nature, character and development of the social sciences. Four leading social scientists were asked to reflect upon the nature of the social sciences in the light of various transformations in both intellectual thought and in those processes that seem to

  6. Social work BA (Hons) in Social Work

    E-print Network

    Sussex, University of

    Social work Essentials Course BA (Hons) in Social Work (3 years full time. Part-time route, in which we would expect explicit reference to social work You are invited to contact the admissions tutor their basic IT competence and their personal suitability to enter the social work profession in line

  7. Social Work Social work engages with individuals,

    E-print Network

    Social Work Social work engages with individuals, families, communities and societies to improve and professional development. www.uwindsor.ca/socialwork A Bachelor of Social Work degree can lead to careers and advocacy associations. A Rigorous, Enriching Program The mission of the School of Social Work is to promote

  8. Social conformity despite individual preferences for distinctiveness

    PubMed Central

    Smaldino, Paul E.; Epstein, Joshua M.

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate that individual behaviours directed at the attainment of distinctiveness can in fact produce complete social conformity. We thus offer an unexpected generative mechanism for this central social phenomenon. Specifically, we establish that agents who have fixed needs to be distinct and adapt their positions to achieve distinctiveness goals, can nevertheless self-organize to a limiting state of absolute conformity. This seemingly paradoxical result is deduced formally from a small number of natural assumptions and is then explored at length computationally. Interesting departures from this conformity equilibrium are also possible, including divergence in positions. The effect of extremist minorities on these dynamics is discussed. A simple extension is then introduced, which allows the model to generate and maintain social diversity, including multimodal distinctiveness distributions. The paper contributes formal definitions, analytical deductions and counterintuitive findings to the literature on individual distinctiveness and social conformity.

  9. Maintained contractions of rat uterine smooth muscle incubated in a Ca2+-free solution.

    PubMed

    Mironneau, C; Mironneau, J; Savineau, J P

    1984-07-01

    The effects of acetylcholine (10(-4) M), prostaglandin E2 (10(-6) M), vanadate (5 X 10(-4) M) and fluoride (10(-2) M) have been studied on the mechanical and electrical activities of rat myometrial strips perfused in Ca2+-free EGTA-containing solutions. All four substances produced maintained contractions which could be initiated repeatedly after exposure to Ca2+-free solution for more than 1 h, without a significant decrease. The largest contractions were obtained with vanadate and the smallest ones with acetylcholine. The tension was usually 7-30% of the control contraction triggered by an action potential in Ca2+ containing solution. Maintained contractions induced by fluoride were unaffected by isoprenaline while those induced by acetylcholine, prostaglandin E2 and vanadate were completely relaxed. Prostaglandin E2- and vanadate-induced contractions were slightly reduced by Na+ removal or by adding Ca2+ antagonists. In contrast, contractions induced by acetylcholine were suppressed in Na+-free solution and largely inhibited in the presence of Ca2+ antagonists. The depolarization induced by acetylcholine in Ca2+-free solution was strongly dependent on the external Na+ concentration. The relationship between the size of the acetylcholine-induced depolarization and the membrane potential (shifted by constant currents) was linear, giving an apparent reversal potential for acetylcholine close to zero potential. In Ca-free solutions and in the presence of atropine, Na+ action potentials of long duration can be evoked which produced contractions of the same order of magnitude as those initiated by acetylcholine-induced depolarizations. 7 These results are consistent with the hypothesis that the maintained contractions in Ca2+-free solutions induced by several stimulants could be related to Ca2+-independent mechanisms (fluoride) or Ca2+ release from an intracellular store. This latter mechanism would include both pharmacomechanical (prostaglandin E2, vanadate) and electromechanical (acetylcholine) coupling. PMID:6589025

  10. A Cost-Effective Solution to Increase System Reliability and Maintain Global Performance under Unreliable Silicon in MPSoC

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicolas Hébert; Gabriel Marchesan Almeida; Pascal Benoit; Gilles Sassatelli; Lionel Torres

    2010-01-01

    The increasing failure rates observed in very deep sub micron silicon technologies pose a major problem to the design of future high-density SoCs. Emerging new architecture based on Multiprocessor SoC (MPSoC) gives the opportunity to exploit the natural redundancy with replicated spare processor in order to maintain the system performance in presence of failures. Based on the assumption that a

  11. [Social marketing and public health].

    PubMed

    Arcaro, P; Mannocci, A; Saulle, R; Miccoli, S; Marzuillo, C; La Torre, G

    2013-01-01

    Social marketing uses the principles and techniques of commercial marketing by applying them to the complex social context in order to promote changes (cognitive; of action; behavioral; of values) among the target population in the public interest. The advent of Internet has radically modified the communication process, and this transformation also involved medical-scientific communication. Medical journals, health organizations, scientific societies and patient groups are increasing the use of the web and of many social networks (Twitter, Facebook, Google, YouTube) as channels to release scientific information to doctors and patients quickly. In recent years, even Healthcare in Italy reported a considerable application of the methods and techniques of social marketing, above all for health prevention and promotion. Recently the association for health promotion "Social marketing and health communication" has been established to promote an active dialogue between professionals of social marketing and public health communication, as well as among professionals in the field of communication of the companies involved in the "health sector". In the field of prevention and health promotion it is necessary to underline the theme of the growing distrust in vaccination practices. Despite the irrefutable evidence of the efficacy and safety of vaccines, the social-cultural transformation together with the overcoming of compulsory vaccination and the use of noninstitutional information sources, have generated confusion among citizens that tend to perceive compulsory vaccinations as needed and safe, whereas recommended vaccinations as less important. Moreover, citizens scarcely perceive the risk of disease related to the effectiveness of vaccines. Implementing communication strategies, argumentative and persuasive, borrowed from social marketing, also for the promotion of vaccines is a priority of the health system. A typical example of the application of social marketing, as mentioned in the manuscript, is the campaign to promote the proper practice of HPV vaccination through the use of effective and cost-saving communication strategies. PMID:23598808

  12. Social emergencies in the elderly.

    PubMed

    McDonald, A J; Abrahams, S T

    1990-05-01

    An examination of the social concerns of the elderly reinforces the importance of a thorough social assessment and the availability of skilled staff in an Emergency Department to make appropriate community referrals. The resolution of disposition problems brought about through caregiver exhaustion, patients no longer able to care for themselves in the community, and abandonment by individuals and institutions require a complex array of skills. The serious problem of drug and alcohol abuse among the elderly must be recognized by Emergency Department staff. Physical problems often disguise the existence of a problem of substance abuse. Clinicians in the Emergency Department should evaluate elderly patients using social and family history information in addition to a thorough physical assessment. Elder abuse manifests as physical abuse, psychological abuse, material abuse, and active and passive neglect. The problem is growing, and there is a need for skilled observation and detection of elderly patients presenting for emergency care. As the proportion of the elderly population in this country increases, social policies and program development must reflect these changes. Experts in fields such as gerontology, geriatric medicine, psychiatry, nursing, and social work must make recommendations for changes in the medical and social service delivery systems. The availability of coordinated, comprehensive services for the elderly will expand as the movement toward geriatric treatment centers grows. These centers will provide medical, psychiatric, social, and residential care through the concept of a continuum of care. They will employ a multidisciplinary team of geriatric specialists and include outreach as well as treatment services. Communities with a geriatric treatment center provide a valuable resource for patients identified through Emergency Department visits. The Emergency Department must play an active role in assisting hospitals, area agencies on aging, and other concerned members of the community plan programs for elderly patients with physical and social concerns. While these changes are implemented, the Emergency Department will continue to remain responsive to the social concerns of the elderly through deliberate organizational efforts designed to maintain a high quality of care for elderly patients. PMID:2187693

  13. Primary afferent input critical for maintaining spontaneous pain in peripheral neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Haroutounian, Simon; Nikolajsen, Lone; Bendtsen, Thomas F; Finnerup, Nanna B; Kristensen, Anders D; Hasselstrøm, Jørgen B; Jensen, Troels S

    2014-07-01

    Central sensitization after peripheral nerve injury may result in ectopic neuronal activity in the spinal cord dorsal horn, implying a potential autonomous pain-generating mechanism. This study used peripheral nerve blockade and systemic lidocaine administration, with detailed somatosensory assessment, to determine the contribution of primary afferent input in maintaining peripheral neuropathic pain. Fourteen patients with neuropathic pain (7 with unilateral foot pain due to peripheral nerve injury and 7 with bilateral pain in the feet due to distal polyneuropathy) underwent comprehensive characterization of somatosensory function by quantitative sensory testing. Patients were then administered an ultrasound-guided peripheral nerve block with lidocaine and intravenous lidocaine infusion in randomized order. The effect of these interventions on spontaneous pain intensity and on evoked cold, warm, pinprick, and brush responses was assessed at each session. All patients had sensory disturbances at baseline. The peripheral nerve block resulted in a complete abolition of ipsilateral pain within 10 min (median) in all patients, with lidocaine plasma concentrations being too low to account for a systemic effect of the drug. Intravenous lidocaine infusion reduced the spontaneous pain by 45.5% (±31.7%), and it reduced mechanical and thermal hypersensitivity in most patients who displayed such signs. However, the improvement in evoked hypersensitivity was not related to the effect of the drug on spontaneous pain intensity. This study demonstrated that regardless of the individual somatosensory phenotype and signs of central sensitization, primary afferent input is critical for maintaining neuropathic pain in peripheral nerve injury and distal polyneuropathy. PMID:24704366

  14. Acousto-opto-mechanical theory for polarization maintaining optical fibers in Brillouin based sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaoling; Ansari, Farhad; Meng, Dewei; Bao, Tengfei

    2015-01-01

    Change in phase or wavelength for interferometric and fiber Bragg Gratings (FBG) based sensors can be described by strain-optic effects. In Brillouin sensors, strain sensitivity need to be expressed in terms of acousto-opto-mechanical properties of fibers. It is then possible to formulate theoretical relationships that lead to the evaluation of strain sensitivities and establishment of gauge factors for Brillouin based sensors. This article reports on the derivation of generalized relationships describing the strain sensitivity in terms of acousto-optic effects in optical fibers. In particular, the formulations correspond to polarization maintaining fibers at various polarization angles with respect to the slow axis of the fiber. The scope of research encompassed theoretical and experimental studies involving both single mode as well as polarization maintaining optical fibers subjected to strain under isothermal conditions. A high resolution BOTDA was employed in the experiments in order to verify the validity of theoretical relationships between strain and Brillouin frequency shifts for different polarization angles.

  15. Autophagy influences glomerular disease susceptibility and maintains podocyte homeostasis in aging mice

    PubMed Central

    Hartleben, Björn; Gödel, Markus; Meyer-Schwesinger, Catherine; Liu, Shuya; Ulrich, Theresa; Köbler, Sven; Wiech, Thorsten; Grahammer, Florian; Arnold, Sebastian J.; Lindenmeyer, Maja T.; Cohen, Clemens D.; Pavenstädt, Hermann; Kerjaschki, Dontscho; Mizushima, Noboru; Shaw, Andrey S.; Walz, Gerd; Huber, Tobias B.

    2010-01-01

    Injury and loss of podocytes are leading factors of glomerular disease and renal failure. The postmitotic podocyte is the primary glomerular target for toxic, immune, metabolic, and oxidant stress, but little is known about how this cell type copes with stress. Recently, autophagy has been identified as a major pathway that delivers damaged proteins and organelles to lysosomes in order to maintain cellular homeostasis. Here we report that podocytes exhibit an unusually high level of constitutive autophagy. Podocyte-specific deletion of autophagy-related 5 (Atg5) led to a glomerulopathy in aging mice that was accompanied by an accumulation of oxidized and ubiquitinated proteins, ER stress, and proteinuria. These changes resulted ultimately in podocyte loss and late-onset glomerulosclerosis. Analysis of pathophysiological conditions indicated that autophagy was substantially increased in glomeruli from mice with induced proteinuria and in glomeruli from patients with acquired proteinuric diseases. Further, mice lacking Atg5 in podocytes exhibited strongly increased susceptibility to models of glomerular disease. These findings highlight the importance of induced autophagy as a key homeostatic mechanism to maintain podocyte integrity. We postulate that constitutive and induced autophagy is a major protective mechanism against podocyte aging and glomerular injury, representing a putative target to ameliorate human glomerular disease and aging-related loss of renal function. PMID:20200449

  16. Recommended techniques for effective maintainability. A continuous improvement initiative of the NASA Reliability and Maintainability Steering Committee

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This manual presents a series of recommended techniques that can increase overall operational effectiveness of both flight and ground based NASA systems. It provides a set of tools that minimizes risk associated with: (1) restoring failed functions (both ground and flight based); (2) conducting complex and highly visible maintenance operations; and (3) sustaining a technical capability to support the NASA mission using aging equipment or facilities. It considers (1) program management - key elements of an effective maintainability effort; (2) design and development - techniques that have benefited previous programs; (3) analysis and test - quantitative and qualitative analysis processes and testing techniques; and (4) operations and operational design techniques that address NASA field experience. This document is a valuable resource for continuous improvement ideas in executing the systems development process in accordance with the NASA 'better, faster, smaller, and cheaper' goal without compromising safety.

  17. A global perspective of the richness and evenness of traditional crop-variety diversity maintained by farming communities

    PubMed Central

    Jarvis, Devra I.; Brown, Anthony H. D.; Cuong, Pham Hung; Collado-Panduro, Luis; Latournerie-Moreno, Luis; Gyawali, Sanjaya; Tanto, Tesema; Sawadogo, Mahamadou; Mar, Istvan; Sadiki, Mohammed; Hue, Nguyen Thi-Ngoc; Arias-Reyes, Luis; Balma, Didier; Bajracharya, Jwala; Castillo, Fernando; Rijal, Deepak; Belqadi, Loubna; Rana, Ram; Saidi, Seddik; Ouedraogo, Jeremy; Zangre, Roger; Rhrib, Keltoum; Chavez, Jose Luis; Schoen, Daniel; Sthapit, Bhuwon; De Santis, Paola; Fadda, Carlo; Hodgkin, Toby

    2008-01-01

    Varietal data from 27 crop species from five continents were drawn together to determine overall trends in crop varietal diversity on farm. Measurements of richness, evenness, and divergence showed that considerable crop genetic diversity continues to be maintained on farm, in the form of traditional crop varieties. Major staples had higher richness and evenness than nonstaples. Variety richness for clonal species was much higher than that of other breeding systems. A close linear relationship between traditional variety richness and evenness (both transformed), empirically derived from data spanning a wide range of crops and countries, was found both at household and community levels. Fitting a neutral “function” to traditional variety diversity relationships, comparable to a species abundance distribution of “neutral ecology,” provided a benchmark to assess the standing diversity on farm. In some cases, high dominance occurred, with much of the variety richness held at low frequencies. This suggested that diversity may be maintained as an insurance to meet future environmental changes or social and economic needs. In other cases, a more even frequency distribution of varieties was found, possibly implying that farmers are selecting varieties to service a diversity of current needs and purposes. Divergence estimates, measured as the proportion of community evenness displayed among farmers, underscore the importance of a large number of small farms adopting distinctly diverse varietal strategies as a major force that maintains crop genetic diversity on farm. PMID:18362337

  18. The nucleus accumbens is involved in both the pursuit of social reward and the avoidance of social punishment

    PubMed Central

    Kohls, Gregor; Perino, Michael T.; Taylor, James M.; Madva, Elizabeth N.; Cayless, Sarah J.; Troiani, Vanessa; Price, Elinora; Faja, Susan; Herrington, John D.; Schultz, Robert T.

    2013-01-01

    Human social motivation is characterized by the pursuit of social reward and the avoidance of social punishment. The ventral striatum/nucleus accumbens (VS/Nacc), in particular, has been implicated in the reward component of social motivation, i.e., the ‘wanting’ of social incentives like approval. However, it is unclear to what extent the VS/Nacc is involved in avoiding social punishment like disapproval, an intrinsically pleasant outcome. Thus, we conducted an event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study using a social incentive delay task with dynamic video stimuli instead of static pictures as social incentives in order to examine participants' motivation for social reward gain and social punishment avoidance. As predicted, the anticipation of avoidable social punishment (i.e., disapproval) recruited the VS/Nacc in a manner that was similar to VS/Nacc activation observed during the anticipation of social reward gain (i.e., approval). Stronger VS/Nacc activity was accompanied by faster reaction times of the participants to obtain those desired outcomes. This data support the assumption that dynamic social incentives elicit robust VS/Nacc activity, which likely reflects motivation to obtain social reward and to avoid social punishment. Clinical implications regarding the involvement of the VS/Nacc in social motivation dysfunction in autism and social phobia are discussed. PMID:23911778

  19. Continuous-wave parametric oscillation in polarisation-maintaining optical fibre

    SciTech Connect

    Zlobina, E A; Kablukov, S I; Babin, Sergei A [Institute of Automation and Electrometry, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    2011-09-30

    Continuous-wave parametric oscillation in a polarisation-maintaining optical fibre has been achieved for the first time using polarisation phase matching. Up-conversion with a frequency shift of {approx}8.6 THz has been demonstrated experimentally. The single-pass optical power generated at 1017 nm in a 85-m-long Nufern PM980-XP fibre exceeded 40 mW. The conversion efficiency was 3.3%, which is an order of magnitude higher than that reported previously for cw parametric up-conversion in the 1-{mu}m spectral region. We compare theoretical predictions with experimental data and analyse factors that may influence output power saturation with increasing signal and pump powers.

  20. An accurate method for alignment of polarization-maintaining fiber with CCD micro-imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yan-jie; Wang, Rui; Zhang, Chun-xi; Yang, Yuan-hong; Yang, De-wei

    2009-07-01

    Polarization-Maintaining(PM) optical fiber connector is widely used in various kinds of optic fiber sensors and communication equipments. The alignment of PM fiber polarization axis with the orientation key axis is one of the most important factors determining the extinction ratio of the connector. In order to ensure high accurate alignment of these two axises, CCD micro-imaging system is employed to take the cross-section image of Panda PM fiber, the edge points of stress rods are extracted by sub-pixel edge detection algorithm based on Hessian matrix. Consequently, the automatic detection of the polarization axis and the accurate calculation of the angle ? between the two axises are realized. Experiment results indicate that the method, combining CCD micro-imaging system and an accurate calculation of the angle ?, is effective to improve the alignment precision, which can reach +/-0.5°. The work lays the foundation for realizing the auto-manufacture of PM optical fiber connector.

  1. Energy usage while maintaining thermal comfort: A case study of a UNT dormitory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gambrell, Dusten

    Campus dormitories for the University of North Texas house over 5500 students per year; each one of them requires certain comfortable living conditions while they live there. There is an inherit amount of money required in order to achieve minimal comfort levels; the cost is mostly natural gas for water and room heating and electricity for cooling, lighting and peripherals. The US Department of Energy has developed several programs to aid in performing energy simulations to help those interested design more cost effective building designs. Energy-10 is such a program that allows users to conduct whole house evaluations by reviewing and altering a few parameters such as building materials, solar heating, energy efficient windows etc. The idea of this project was to recreate a campus dormitory and try to emulate existent energy consumption then try to find ways of lowering that usage while maintaining a high level of personal comfort.

  2. A Quantitative Reliability, Maintainability and Supportability Approach for NASA's Second Generation Reusable Launch Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Safie, Fayssal M.; Daniel, Charles; Kalia, Prince; Smith, Charles A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The United States National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is in the midst of a 10-year Second Generation Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) program to improve its space transportation capabilities for both cargo and crewed missions. The objectives of the program are to: significantly increase safety and reliability, reduce the cost of accessing low-earth orbit, attempt to leverage commercial launch capabilities, and provide a growth path for manned space exploration. The safety, reliability and life cycle cost of the next generation vehicles are major concerns, and NASA aims to achieve orders of magnitude improvement in these areas. To get these significant improvements, requires a rigorous process that addresses Reliability, Maintainability and Supportability (RMS) and safety through all the phases of the life cycle of the program. This paper discusses the RMS process being implemented for the Second Generation RLV program.

  3. Review of concepts useful for maintaining quality of male reproductive field samples for laboratory study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jenkins, Jill A.

    2011-01-01

    Investigations into cellular and molecular characteristics of male gametes obtained from fish in natural ecosystems require careful sample handling and shipping in order to minimize artifacts. Maintaining sample integrity engenders confident assessments of ecosystem health, whereby animal condition is often reflected by gamete biomarkers - indicators that respond in measurable ways to changes. A number of our investigations have addressed the hypothesis that biomarkers from fish along a pollution gradient are reflective of site location. Species biology and the selected biological endpoints direct choice of parameters such as: temperature, buffer osmolality, time in transit, fixation, cryoprotectants, protease inhibition, and antibiotic inclusion in extender. This paper will highlight case studies, and outline parameters and thoughts on approaches for use by field and laboratory researchers.

  4. Aggressive and Prosocial Behaviors: The Social Success of Bistrategic Preadolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wurster, Tabitha; Xie, Hongling

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the social functioning of bistrategic youths (i.e., those who employ both aggressive and prosocial behavior) in order to further understand their social competence in peer social networks. Within our sample of 318 fifth-grade participants recruited from an urban school district in the northeastern US, bistrategic preadolescents…

  5. The State-Conspiracy Model of Political Socialization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Homan, Roger

    1980-01-01

    This essay reviews the political socialization literature and the assumptions underlying the theory that political socialization, formal and informal, is sponsored by the state to reinforce its stability and social order. The author argues that family influence and enlightened self-interest are strong, independent factors in personal political…

  6. Incorporating social media for personalization of ISSUU content

    E-print Network

    Incorporating social media for personalization of ISSUU content Dimitar Lesov s101557 Kogens Lyngby started to incorporate integrations with social media sites like Facebook and Twitter. Due to the early of the Social Media integration and hasn't benefited from that in order to improve its services. The importance

  7. Categorizing Social Norms in a Simulated Resource Gathering Society

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel Villatoro; Jordi Sabater-mir

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Our main interest research is focused on reaching a decentral- ized form of social order through the usage of social norms in virtual communities. In this paper, we analyze the effects of different sets of social norms within a society. The simulation scenario used for the experiments is a metaphor,of a resource- gatherer prehistoric society. Finally, we obtain a

  8. 20 CFR 404.1024 - Election of coverage by religious orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...1024 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION ...and Self-Employment Income Work Excluded from Employment ...religious order, may elect to have social security coverage extended to the work performed by its members...

  9. 20 CFR 404.1024 - Election of coverage by religious orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...1024 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION ...and Self-Employment Income Work Excluded from Employment ...religious order, may elect to have social security coverage extended to the work performed by its members...

  10. 20 CFR 404.1024 - Election of coverage by religious orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...1024 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION ...and Self-Employment Income Work Excluded from Employment ...religious order, may elect to have social security coverage extended to the work performed by its members...

  11. 20 CFR 404.1024 - Election of coverage by religious orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...1024 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION ...and Self-Employment Income Work Excluded from Employment ...religious order, may elect to have social security coverage extended to the work performed by its members...

  12. Timing and Radius Considerations for Maintaining Connectivity QoS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard Tynan; Gregory M. P. O'Hare; Michael J. O'Grady; Conor Muldoon

    2010-01-01

    Given the potential scale on which a Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) can be deployed, multi-hop communication will be a pivotal component of the system. When redundant nodes are deployed, which are hibernated opportunistically to conserve energy, it is crucial that sub-graphs of the network are not disconnected by the hibernation of a node. In order to ensure connectivity is preserved

  13. Is the cold chain for vaccines maintained in general practice?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E A Haworth; R Booy; L Stirzaker; S Wilkes; A Battersby

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To investigate the cold chain for vaccines and compliance with the local code of practice for storage. DESIGN--In a random sample of general practices orders for live vaccines (oral polio and measles, mumps, and rubella) were accompanied by a cold chain monitor which was activated on leaving the supplying pharmacy. The monitors were read at specified intervals and when all

  14. Maintaining Eastern newts (Notophthalmus viridescens) for regeneration research.

    PubMed

    Simon, Hans-Georg; Odelberg, Shannon

    2015-01-01

    The adult Eastern newt, Notophthalmus viridescens, has long served as a model for appendage as well as heart muscle regeneration studies. Newt tissues include all major cell types known in other vertebrates and mammals, including bone, cartilage, tendon, muscle, nerves, dermis, and epidermis. Therefore, these aquatic salamanders make an excellent model for studying the regeneration of complex tissues. Regeneration of adult tissues requires the integration of new tissues with preexisting tissues to form a functioning unit through a process that is not yet well understood. Scale is also an issue, because the regenerating tissues or structures are magnitudes larger than their embryonic counterparts during development, and therefore, it is likely that different physics and mechanics apply. Regardless, regeneration recapitulates to some degree developmental processes. In this chapter, we will describe basic methods for maintaining adult Eastern newts in the laboratory for the study of regeneration. To determine similarities and differences between development and regeneration at the cellular and molecular level, there is also a need for embryonic newt tissue. We therefore also outline a relatively simple way to produce and raise newt embryos in the laboratory. PMID:25740474

  15. Maintaining human health at the border of Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Hsiao-Hsuan; Hsieh, Jui-Wei; Wu, Yi-Chun; Chou, Jih-Haw; Chang, Feng-Yee

    2014-01-01

    Because international travel is now more frequent and convenient, communicable diseases that occur in one region can be transmitted to another area within a few hours. For this reason, many efforts have been undertaken in Taiwan to establish a comprehensive border quarantine system to protect against imported diseases that may threaten the health of the population. According to the International Health Regulations (2005), decades of development strategies for border quarantine have covered not only routine practices and specific measures for handling a pandemic but also have drawn attention to the development of core capacities at designated points of entry. However, as a result of the rapidly increasing number of points of entry, changes in transportation patterns, and the emergence of diseases, current border quarantine practice is being challenged to maintain human resources and the efficacy of entry screening. It is therefore critical to reexamine border quarantine strategies that will fit future needs and national conditions. This article reviews the current border health practices in Taiwan and discusses 5 key challenges to be further considered and improved. The findings can serve as a guide for further policy reform in Taiwan and other countries. PMID:25396287

  16. Lifelong bilingualism maintains neural efficiency for cognitive control in aging.

    PubMed

    Gold, Brian T; Kim, Chobok; Johnson, Nathan F; Kryscio, Richard J; Smith, Charles D

    2013-01-01

    Recent behavioral data have shown that lifelong bilingualism can maintain youthful cognitive control abilities in aging. Here, we provide the first direct evidence of a neural basis for the bilingual cognitive control boost in aging. Two experiments were conducted, using a perceptual task-switching paradigm, including a total of 110 participants. In Experiment 1, older adult bilinguals showed better perceptual switching performance than their monolingual peers. In Experiment 2, younger and older adult monolinguals and bilinguals completed the same perceptual task-switching experiment while functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was performed. Typical age-related performance reductions and fMRI activation increases were observed. However, like younger adults, bilingual older adults outperformed their monolingual peers while displaying decreased activation in left lateral frontal cortex and cingulate cortex. Critically, this attenuation of age-related over-recruitment associated with bilingualism was directly correlated with better task-switching performance. In addition, the lower blood oxygenation level-dependent response in frontal regions accounted for 82% of the variance in the bilingual task-switching reaction time advantage. These results suggest that lifelong bilingualism offsets age-related declines in the neural efficiency for cognitive control processes. PMID:23303919

  17. Dangerous animals capture and maintain attention in humans.

    PubMed

    Yorzinski, Jessica L; Penkunas, Michael J; Platt, Michael L; Coss, Richard G

    2014-01-01

    Predation is a major source of natural selection on primates and may have shaped attentional processes that allow primates to rapidly detect dangerous animals. Because ancestral humans were subjected to predation, a process that continues at very low frequencies, we examined the visual processes by which men and women detect dangerous animals (snakes and lions). We recorded the eye movements of participants as they detected images of a dangerous animal (target) among arrays of nondangerous animals (distractors) as well as detected images of a nondangerous animal (target) among arrays of dangerous animals (distractors). We found that participants were quicker to locate targets when the targets were dangerous animals compared with nondangerous animals, even when spatial frequency and luminance were controlled. The participants were slower to locate nondangerous targets because they spent more time looking at dangerous distractors, a process known as delayed disengagement, and looked at a larger number of dangerous distractors. These results indicate that dangerous animals capture and maintain attention in humans, suggesting that historical predation has shaped some facets of visual orienting and its underlying neural architecture in modern humans. PMID:25299991

  18. Descending Facilitation Maintains Long-term Spontaneous Neuropathic Pain

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ruizhong; King, Tamara; De Felice, Milena; Guo, Wenhong; Ossipov, Michael H.; Porreca, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Neuropathic pain is frequently characterized by spontaneous pain (i.e. pain at rest) and in some cases, cold and touch-induced allodynia. Mechanisms underlying the chronicity of neuropathic pain are not well understood. Rats received spinal nerve ligation (SNL) and were monitored for tactile and thermal thresholds. While heat hypersensitivity returned to baseline levels within approximately 35-40 days tactile hypersensitivity was still present at 580 days after SNL. Tactile hypersensitivity at post-SNL day 60 (D60) was reversed by microinjection of (a) lidocaine or (b) a CCK2 receptor antagonist into the rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM) or (c) dorsolateral funiculus (DLF) lesion. RVM lidocaine at D60 or spinal ondansetron, a 5HT3 antagonist, at post-SNL day 42 produced conditioned place preference (CPP) selectively in SNL treated rats, suggesting long-lasting spontaneous pain. Touch-induced FOS was increased in the spinal dorsal horn of SNL rats at D60 and prevented by prior DLF lesion suggesting that long-lasting tactile hypersensitivity depends upon spinal sensitization, which is mediated in part, by descending facilitation, in spite of resolution of heat hypersensitivity. Perspective These data suggest that spontaneous pain is present for an extended period of time and, consistent with likely actions of clinically effective drugs, is maintained by descending facilitation. PMID:23602267

  19. Living on the edge: how philopatry maintains adaptive potential

    PubMed Central

    Stiebens, Victor A.; Merino, Sonia E.; Roder, Christian; Chain, Frédéric J. J.; Lee, Patricia L. M.; Eizaguirre, Christophe

    2013-01-01

    Without genetic variation, species cannot cope with changing environments, and evolution does not proceed. In endangered species, adaptive potential may be eroded by decreased population sizes and processes that further reduce gene flow such as philopatry and local adaptations. Here, we focused on the philopatric and endangered loggerhead sea turtle (Caretta caretta) nesting in Cape Verde as a model system to investigate the link between adaptive potential and philopatry. We produced a dataset of three complementary genomic regions to investigate female philopatric behaviour (mitochondrial DNA), male-mediated gene flow (microsatellites) and adaptive potential (major histocompatibility complex, MHC). Results revealed genetically distinct nesting colonies, indicating remarkably small-scale philopatric behaviour of females. Furthermore, these colonies also harboured local pools of MHC alleles, especially at the margins of the population's distribution, which are therefore important reserves of additional diversity for the population. Meanwhile, directional male-mediated gene flow from the margins of distribution sustains the adaptive potential for the entire rookery. We therefore present the first evidence for a positive association between philopatry and locally adapted genomic regions. Contrary to expectation, we propose that philopatry conserves a high adaptive potential at the margins of a distribution, while asymmetric gene flow maintains genetic connectivity with the rest of the population. PMID:23720544

  20. Strategies for maintaining fitness and performance during Ramadan.

    PubMed

    Kirkendall, Donald T; Chaouachi, Anis; Aziz, Abdul Rashid; Chamari, Karim

    2012-01-01

    The Muslim athlete, whether living in a Muslim majority country or in a non-Muslim country, face unique challenges to faithfully follow one of the pillars of their faith - Ramadan - while attempting to maintain their participation in sports training and competition. There are conflicting reports on the effects of Ramadan on fitness and physical performance in general and in football in particular. In general, the impact of a brief daytime fast has minor effects on health or factors of physical fitness. Add physical training and now a new set of barriers to both performance and the observance of Ramadan begin to interact. Practising athletes have worked out strategies to cope with the rigors of Ramadan; strategies that have both physical (training modifications, dietary habits, rest and recovery) and emotional (patience, emotional preparations) domains. Carefully blending strategies like these can help the football player be true to their faith and follow the tenants of Ramadan hopefully, with a minimum of impact on their physical performance. In this context, science can help coaches improve their training plans and educate players with respect to the challenges presented by Ramadan to all levels of sports participation. PMID:22606971

  1. Nutritional support to maintain proper immune status during intense training.

    PubMed

    Gleeson, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Prolonged exercise and heavy training are associated with depressed immune function which can increase the risk of picking up minor infections. To maintain robust immunity, athletes should eat a well-balanced diet sufficient to meet their energy, carbohydrate, protein, and micronutrient requirements. Dietary deficiencies of protein and specific micronutrients have long been associated with immune dysfunction and an adequate intake of iron, zinc, and vitamins A, D, E, B6 and B12 is particularly important in the maintenance of immune function. Consuming carbohydrate during prolonged strenuous exercise attenuates rises in stress hormones and appears to limit the degree of exercise-induced immune depression. Similar effects can be seen with daily ingestion of high-dose antioxidant vitamin supplements, though concerns have been expressed that excessive antioxidant intake may impair exercise training adaptations. It is safe to say with reasonable confidence that individual amino acids, colostrum, Echinacea, and zinc are unlikely to boost immunity or reduce infection risk in athletes. The ingestion of carbohydrate during exercise and daily consumption of probiotic and plant polyphenol (e.g. quercetin)-containing supplements or foodstuffs (e.g. non-alcoholic beer) currently offer the best chance of success. This approach is likely to be most effective for individuals who are particularly prone to illness. PMID:23765353

  2. Splicing regulator SLU7 is essential for maintaining liver homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Elizalde, María; Urtasun, Raquel; Azkona, María; Latasa, María U.; Goñi, Saioa; García-Irigoyen, Oihane; Uriarte, Iker; Segura, Victor; Collantes, María; Di Scala, Mariana; Lujambio, Amaia; Prieto, Jesús; Ávila, Matías A.; Berasain, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    A precise equilibrium between cellular differentiation and proliferation is fundamental for tissue homeostasis. Maintaining this balance is particularly important for the liver, a highly differentiated organ with systemic metabolic functions that is endowed with unparalleled regenerative potential. Carcinogenesis in the liver develops as the result of hepatocellular de-differentiation and uncontrolled proliferation. Here, we identified SLU7, which encodes a pre-mRNA splicing regulator that is inhibited in hepatocarcinoma, as a pivotal gene for hepatocellular homeostasis. SLU7 knockdown in human liver cells and mouse liver resulted in profound changes in pre-mRNA splicing and gene expression, leading to impaired glucose and lipid metabolism, refractoriness to key metabolic hormones, and reversion to a fetal-like gene expression pattern. Additionally, loss of SLU7 also increased hepatocellular proliferation and induced a switch to a tumor-like glycolytic phenotype. Slu7 governed the splicing and/or expression of multiple genes essential for hepatocellular differentiation, including serine/arginine-rich splicing factor 3 (Srsf3) and hepatocyte nuclear factor 4? (Hnf4?), and was critical for cAMP-regulated gene transcription. Together, out data indicate that SLU7 is central regulator of hepatocyte identity and quiescence. PMID:24865429

  3. Maintaining the presynaptic glutamate supply for excitatory neurotransmission.

    PubMed

    Marx, Mari-Carmen; Billups, Daniela; Billups, Brian

    2015-07-01

    Glutamate released from synapses during excitatory neurotransmission must be rapidly recycled to maintain neuronal communication. This review evaluates data from physiological experiments at hippocampal CA3 to CA1 synapses and the calyx of Held synapse in the brainstem to analyze quantitatively the rates of release and resupply of glutamate required to sustain neurotransmission. We calculate that, without efficient recycling, the presynaptic glutamate supply will be exhausted within about a minute of normal synaptic activity. We also discuss replenishment of the presynaptic pool by diffusion from the soma, direct uptake of glutamate back into the presynaptic terminal, and uptake of glutamate precursor molecules. Diffusion of glutamate from the soma is calculated to be fast enough to resupply presynaptic glutamate in the hippocampus but not at the calyx of Held. However, because the somatic cytoplasm will also quickly run out of glutamate and synapses can function continually even if the presynaptic axon is severed, mechanisms other than diffusion must be present to resupply glutamate for release. Direct presynaptic uptake of glutamate is not present at the calyx of Held but may play a role in glutamate recycling in the hippocampus. Alternatively, glutamine or tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates released from glia can serve as a precursor for glutamate in synaptic terminals, and we calculate that the magnitude of presynaptic glutamine uptake is sufficient to supply enough glutamate to sustain neurotransmission. The nature of these mechanisms, their relative abundance, and the co-ordination between them remain areas of intensive investigation. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25648608

  4. Significant role of estrogen in maintaining cardiac mitochondrial functions.

    PubMed

    Rattanasopa, Chutima; Phungphong, Sukanya; Wattanapermpool, Jonggonnee; Bupha-Intr, Tepmanas

    2015-03-01

    Increased susceptibility to stress-induced myocardial damage is a significant concern in addition to decreased cardiac performance in postmenopausal females. To determine the potential mechanisms underlying myocardial vulnerability after deprivation of female sex hormones, cardiac mitochondrial function is determined in 10-week ovariectomized rats (OVX). Significant mitochondrial swelling in the heart of OVX rats is observed. This structural alteration can be prevented with either estrogen or progesterone supplementation. Using an isolated mitochondrial preparation, a decrease in ATP synthesis by complex I activation in an OVX rat is completely restored by estrogen, but not progesterone. At basal activation, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production from the mitochondria is not affected by the ovariectomy. However, after incubated in the presence of either high Ca(2+) or antimycin-A, there is a significantly higher mitochondrial ROS production in the OVX sample compared to the control. This increased stress-induced ROS production is not observed in the preparation isolated from the hearts of OVX rats with estrogen or progesterone supplementation. However, deprivation of female sex hormones has no effect on the protein expression of electron transport chain complexes, mitofusin 2, or superoxide dismutase 2. Taken together, these findings suggest that female sex hormones, estrogen and progesterone, play significant regulatory roles in maintaining normal mitochondrial properties by stabilizing the structural assembly of mitochondria as well as attenuating mitochondrial ROS production. Estrogen, but not progesterone, also plays an important role in modulating mitochondrial ATP synthesis. PMID:25448746

  5. World tanker industry maintains momentum from Persian Gulf war

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-06-10

    The world tanker industry has managed to maintain the momentum generated during the Persian Gulf War. Freight rates for large vessels have regained the high levels seen during the first 2 months of this year, while the expected postwar decline in use of tankers has not materialized. The health of the tanker industry is linked closely with the volume of long haul crude oil from the Middle East, a spot charter from the gulf to Europe, an owner would only break even on the cost of building and operating a new tanker to the highest environmental standards. Owners currently can expect spot rates of about $40,000/day, excellent by the standards of the late 1980s and early 1990s but still below the level needed to justify new buildings. And there are many in the industry who think $40,000/day will be just a happy memory later in the year. Owners are facing pressure for major changes in the industry. Governments and the public want better operating standards and new environmentally sound tankers to reduce the risk of oil spills. At the same time, the industry has to learn to live with repercussion in the 1990 Oil Pollution Act in the U.S., which has opened the way for unlimited liability against tanker owners involved in spills off the U.S. The search also is on for improved profits to make investments required by the changing world of seaborne oil transportation.

  6. Web-Based Environment for Maintaining Legacy Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tigges, Michael; Thompson, Nelson; Orr, Mark; Fox, Richard

    2007-01-01

    Advanced Tool Integration Environment (ATIE) is the name of both a software system and a Web-based environment created by the system for maintaining an archive of legacy software and expertise involved in developing the legacy software. ATIE can also be used in modifying legacy software and developing new software. The information that can be encapsulated in ATIE includes experts documentation, input and output data of tests cases, source code, and compilation scripts. All of this information is available within a common environment and retained in a database for ease of access and recovery by use of powerful search engines. ATIE also accommodates the embedment of supporting software that users require for their work, and even enables access to supporting commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) software within the flow of the experts work. The flow of work can be captured by saving the sequence of computer programs that the expert uses. A user gains access to ATIE via a Web browser. A modern Web-based graphical user interface promotes efficiency in the retrieval, execution, and modification of legacy code. Thus, ATIE saves time and money in the support of new and pre-existing programs.

  7. Effectiveness of Protected Areas in Maintaining Plant Production

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Zhiyao; Fang, Jingyun; Sun, Jinyu; Gaston, Kevin J.

    2011-01-01

    Given the central importance of protected area systems in local, regional and global conservation strategies, it is vital that there is a good understanding of their effectiveness in maintaining ecological functioning. Here, we provide, to our knowledge, the first such global analysis, focusing on plant production, a “supporting” ecosystem function necessary for multiple other ecosystem services. We use data on the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) as a measure of variation in plant production in the core, boundary and surroundings of more than 1000 large protected areas over a 25 year period. Forested protected areas were higher (or similar), and those non-forested were lower (or similar), in NDVI than their surrounding areas, and these differences have been sustained. The differences from surrounding areas have increased for evergreen broadleaf forests and barren grounds, decreased for grasslands, and remained similar for deciduous forests, woodlands, and shrublands, reflecting different pressures on those surroundings. These results are consistent with protected areas being effective both in the representation and maintenance of plant production. However, widespread overall increases in NDVI during the study period suggest that plant production within the core of non-forested protected areas has become higher than it was in the surroundings of those areas in 1982, highlighting that whilst the distinctiveness of protected areas from their surroundings has persisted the nature of that difference has changed. PMID:21552560

  8. Face-selective neurons maintain consistent visual responses across months

    PubMed Central

    McMahon, David B. T.; Jones, Adam P.; Bondar, Igor V.; Leopold, David A.

    2014-01-01

    Face perception in both humans and monkeys is thought to depend on neurons clustered in discrete, specialized brain regions. Because primates are frequently called upon to recognize and remember new individuals, the neuronal representation of faces in the brain might be expected to change over time. The functional properties of neurons in behaving animals are typically assessed over time periods ranging from minutes to hours, which amounts to a snapshot compared to a lifespan of a neuron. It therefore remains unclear how neuronal properties observed on a given day predict that same neuron's activity months or years later. Here we show that the macaque inferotemporal cortex contains face-selective cells that show virtually no change in their patterns of visual responses over time periods as long as one year. Using chronically implanted microwire electrodes guided by functional MRI targeting, we obtained distinct profiles of selectivity for face and nonface stimuli that served as fingerprints for individual neurons in the anterior fundus (AF) face patch within the superior temporal sulcus. Longitudinal tracking over a series of daily recording sessions revealed that face-selective neurons maintain consistent visual response profiles across months-long time spans despite the influence of ongoing daily experience. We propose that neurons in the AF face patch are specialized for aspects of face perception that demand stability as opposed to plasticity. PMID:24799679

  9. Maintaining Moore's law: enabling cost-friendly dimensional scaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallik, Arindam; Ryckaert, Julien; Mercha, Abdelkarim; Verkest, Diederik; Ronse, Kurt; Thean, Aaron

    2015-03-01

    Moore's Law (Moore's Observation) has been driving the progress in semiconductor technology for the past 50 years. The semiconductor industry is at a juncture where significant increase in manufacturing cost is foreseen to sustain the past trend of dimensional scaling. At N10 and N7 technology nodes, the industry is struggling to find a cost-friendly solution. At a device level, technologists have come up with novel devices (finFET, Gate-All-Around), material innovations (SiGe, Ge) to boost performance and reduce power consumption. On the other hand, from the patterning side, the relative slow ramp-up of alternative lithography technologies like EUVL and DSA pushes the industry to adopt a severely multi-patterning-based solution. Both of these technological transformations have a big impact on die yield and eventually die cost. This paper is aimed to analyze the impact on manufacturing cost to keep the Moore's law alive. We have proposed and analyzed various patterning schemes that can enable cost-friendly scaling. We evaluated the impact of EUVL introduction on tackling the high cost of manufacturing. The primary objective of this paper is to maintain Moore's scaling from a patterning perspective and analyzing EUV lithography introduction at a die level.

  10. Maintaining a healthy SPANC balance through regulatory and mutational adaptation.

    PubMed

    Ferenci, Thomas

    2005-07-01

    Stress protection is an important but costly contributor to bacterial survival. Two distinct forms of environmental protection share a common cost and a significant species-wide variability. Porin-mediated outer membrane permeability and the RpoS-controlled general stress response both involve a trade-off between self-preservation and nutritional competence, called the SPANC balance. Interestingly, different Escherichia coli strains exhibit distinct settings of the SPANC balance. It is tilted towards high stress resistance and a restricted diet in some isolates whereas others have broader nutritional capability and better nutrient affinity but lower levels of resistance. Growth- or stress-related selective pressures working in opposite directions (antagonistic pleiotropy) result in polymorphisms affecting porins and RpoS. Consequently, these important cellular components are present at distinct concentrations in different isolates. A generalized hypothesis to explain bacterial adaptation, based on the SPANC investigations, is offered. A holistic approach to bacterial adaptation, involving a gamut of regulation and mutation, is likely to be the norm in broadening the capabilities of a species. Indeed, there is unlikely to be a standard regulatory setting typical for all members of a species. Gene regulation provides a limited fine control for maintaining the right level of adaptation in a particular niche but mutational changes provide the coarse control for adaptation between the species-wide environments of free-living bacteria. PMID:15948944

  11. Anarchism and the Problem of Order

    E-print Network

    Hartung, Beth

    1983-04-01

    rules of ele­ mentary social behavior are those upon which order is based. of the five formal propositions offered by Homans, the first four come directly from operant pyschology (Hingers and Willer, 1979; Miley, 1981 ).1 The final proposition has to do...

  12. SOCIAL WORK Strategic Plan

    E-print Network

    COLLEGE OF SOCIAL WORK Strategic Plan College of Social Work The Ohio State University 2012............................................................................................ 16 #12;i Dear Friends of the College of Social Work: It is a pleasure to share with you the 2012 College of Social Work strategic plan. Our plan builds upon the long tradition of exceptional social work

  13. Social Withdrawal in Childhood

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kenneth H. Rubin; Robert J. Coplan; Julie C. Bowker

    2009-01-01

    Socially withdrawn children frequently refrain from social activities in the presence of peers. The lack of social interaction in childhood may result from a variety of causes, including social fear and anxiety or a preference for solitude. From early childhood through to adolescence, socially withdrawn children are concurrently and predictively at risk for a wide range of negative adjustment outcomes,

  14. Religious Education and Socialization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vermeer, Paul

    2010-01-01

    This article considers Religious Education (RE) from the perspective of socialization theory. After clarifying the concept of socialization, an understanding of socialization processes, requiring the simultaneous development of both a personal and a social identity, is linked with RE. The development of both a personal and a social identity calls…

  15. Targeting Question-Asking Initiations through Video-Feedback to Improve Social Conversation in College Students with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Detar, Whitney James

    2013-01-01

    Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) display a marked impairment in social interaction and often exhibit difficulty in maintaining social conversations with peers. These deficiencies can manifest in low levels of question-asking initiations and pragmatics in social conversation that persist throughout the developmental lifespan. Most of…

  16. Responding to inequities: gorillas try to maintain their competitive advantage during play fights

    PubMed Central

    Van Leeuwen, Edwin J. C.; Zimmermann, Elke; Ross, Marina Davila

    2011-01-01

    Humans respond to unfair situations in various ways. Experimental research has revealed that non-human species also respond to unequal situations in the form of inequity aversions when they have the disadvantage. The current study focused on play fights in gorillas to explore for the first time, to our knowledge, if/how non-human species respond to inequities in natural social settings. Hitting causes a naturally occurring inequity among individuals and here it was specifically assessed how the hitters and their partners engaged in play chases that followed the hitting. The results of this work showed that the hitters significantly more often moved first to run away immediately after the encounter than their partners. These findings provide evidence that non-human species respond to inequities by trying to maintain their competitive advantages. We conclude that non-human primates, like humans, may show different responses to inequities and that they may modify them depending on if they have the advantage or the disadvantage. PMID:20630892

  17. Social theory and social class.

    PubMed

    Susser, I

    1997-01-01

    Concepts of class developed with the emergence of industrial society in the nineteenth century. For an understanding of current divisions, theories must reflect the advances of capitalism and the global economy that characterize the late twentieth century. In industrialized societies, reductions in the industrial workforce and the growth of finance, investment and real-estate industries worldwide have produced a new, largely female, service workforce. Large sectors of industry have departed in search of cheaper labour in poorer countries, which also have a rising number of women workers. In those areas, as a result, a new industrial workforce has emerged. Concomitantly, accumulation of land in less developed agricultural regions for production for the world market has led to an increase in mobile agricultural labour and a shift of landless labourers to the cities of less developed countries. In addition, both upward and downward mobility have occurred for individuals and groups in specific populations, as well as for particular diseases in developed and less developed countries. All these processes have precipitated fundamental changes in class, gender and family relationships and transformed the living conditions of populations in both developed and less developed societies. These changes have major implications for the patterns of health and disease in the world today. Objective measures of social change may be difficult to construct and use in epidemiological cancer research. Since questions of class and shifting social relations are directly implicated in the patterns of disease, they must be assessed in future research as accurately as possible. PMID:9353662

  18. Homosexual signification: a moral construct in social contexts.

    PubMed

    Green, Beatrice C

    2005-01-01

    Contemporary attempts to define homophobia argue that it is a composite prejudice reflecting attitudes toward masculinity, sexual license, and social norms. Influenced by studies of other forms of prejudice, researchers have focused on trying to identify characteristics of a "homophobic personality". Strategies to reduce homophobia emphasize education and tolerance. There has yet to be an engaged, respectful discussion of the validity of the fears which constitute the phobia in homophobia. This paper suggests a taxonomy of moral themes which recur in arguments against homosexuality. Judeo-Christian writers quote the scriptural proscription of male anal intercourse and the particularly Christian notion of homosexuality as sin (although it is but one particular in a general denunciation of all non-reproductive sexual acts). Secular concern with masculinity, sex and gender role conformity is also a source of homophobic angst. The contention that homosexual acts are against nature is premised on the biological imperative toward reproduction of the species. It does not address the possibility that human sexuality may have other ends and it certainly is not against an individual nature. Clerical and civic authority exist to maintain social order and to restrain individual license and that to justify the establishment of a normative sexuality. Among marginalized groups, the practice of exclusive homosexuality may provoke fears of ethnic extinction. Lastly, homosexuality has a history associated with social evils, debauchery, prostitution, criminality and pathology. That heritage still affects the desirability or fear of identification as a homosexual or association with homosexuals. It is my intent that this paper will contribute to understanding the etiology of antagonistic attitudes toward homosexuality and promote an overdue acceptance. PMID:16048897

  19. Dialogical communication and empowering social work practice.

    PubMed

    Natland, Sidsel

    2015-01-01

    How to succeed in facilitating for empowering processes within social work practice is a central topic in both theoretical discussions and regarding its principles in practice. With a particular focus on how dialogical communication can play a part in order to practice empowering social work, through this text the author frames HUSK as a project facilitating the underpinning humanistic approaches in social work. Dialogical communication and its philosophical base is presented and recognized as a means to achieve empowering social work as well as highlighting the importance of the humanistic approach. The author also underscores how HUSK projects in themselves were enabled because of the required collaboration between service users, professionals, and researchers that signified HUSK. This is pinpointed as having potential for a future research agenda as well as pointing at how the outcomes of the projects may impact future social work practice when the goal is to conduct empowering social work. PMID:25662084

  20. Colony social structure in native and invasive populations of the social wasp Vespula pensylvanica

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hanna, Cause; Cook, Erin D.; Thompson, Ariel R.; Dare, Lyndzey E.; Palaski, Amanda L.; Foote, David; Goodisman, Michael A. D.

    2014-01-01

    Social insects rank among the most invasive of terrestrial species. The success of invasive social insects stems, in part, from the flexibility derived from their social behaviors. We used genetic markers to investigate if the social system of the invasive wasp, Vespula pensylvanica, differed in its introduced and native habitats in order to better understand variation in social phenotype in invasive social species. We found that (1) nestmate workers showed lower levels of relatedness in introduced populations than native populations, (2) introduced colonies contained workers produced by multiple queens whereas native colonies contained workers produced by only a single queen, (3) queen mate number did not differ significantly between introduced and native colonies, and (4) workers from introduced colonies were frequently produced by queens that originated from foreign nests. Thus, overall, native and introduced colonies differed substantially in social phenotype because introduced colonies more frequently contained workers produced by multiple, foreign queens. In addition, the similarity in levels of genetic variation in introduced and native habitats, as well as observed variation in colony social phenotype in native populations, suggest that colony structure in invasive populations may be partially associated with social plasticity. Overall, the differences in social structure observed in invasive V. pensylvanica parallel those in other, distantly related invasive social insects, suggesting that insect societies often develop similar social phenotypes upon introduction into new habitats.