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1

Mining Social Theory to Build Member-Maintained Communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Online communities need regular maintenance activi- ties such as moderation and data input, tasks that typ- ically fall to community owners. Allowing all mem- bers to perform maintenance might make communities more robust and valuable. A key challenge in creating member-maintained communities is that we have little knowledge of how to design interfaces to motivate con- tributors. Social science theories

Dan Cosley

2

Evaluating the Rank-Ordering Method for Standard Maintaining  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The rank-ordering method for standard maintaining was designed for the purpose of mapping a known cut-score (e.g. a grade boundary mark) on one test to an equivalent point on the test score scale of another test, using holistic expert judgements about the quality of exemplars of examinees' work (scripts). It is a novel application of an old…

Bramley, Tom; Gill, Tim

2010-01-01

3

The social order of markets  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article I develop a proposal for the theoretical vantage point of the sociology of markets, focusing on the problem\\u000a of the social order of markets. The initial premise is that markets are highly demanding arenas of social interaction, which\\u000a can only operate if three inevitable coordination problems are resolved. I define these coordination problems as the value problem,

Jens Beckert

2009-01-01

4

SocialWiki: Bring Order to Wiki Systems with Social Context  

E-print Network

SocialWiki: Bring Order to Wiki Systems with Social Context Haifeng Zhao, Shaozhi Ye, Prantik,sye,pbhattacharyya,rowe,gribble,wu}@ucdavis.edu Abstract. A huge amount of administrative effort is required for large wiki systems to produce and maintain high quality pages with exist- ing naive access control policies. This paper introduces SocialWiki

California at Davis, University of

5

SocialWiki: Bring Order to Wiki Systems with Social Context  

E-print Network

SocialWiki: Bring Order to Wiki Systems with Social Context Haifeng Zhao, Shaozhi Ye, Prantik,gribble,wu}@cs.ucdavis.edu Abstract. A huge amount of administrative effort is required for large wiki systems to produce and maintain high quality pages with exist- ing naive access control policies. This paper introduces SocialWiki

California at Davis, University of

6

Maintaining Ties on Social Media Sites: The Competing Effects of Balance, Exchange, and Betweenness  

E-print Network

Maintaining Ties on Social Media Sites: The Competing Effects of Balance, Exchange, and Betweenness with a common methodological problem in studying ties on social media sites: the tremendous volatil- ity of these ties over time makes it hard to compare one's results to simple baselines that assume static or stable

Kleinberg, Jon

7

Social Issues of Law and Order  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper the author extends his account of 'postmodernity and its discontents' to address questions of crime and penal policy in the contemporary period. It is argued that there is a tendency to maintain order by resort to a 'paradigm of exclusion' and this pattern is exemplified by a discussion of the significance of the Pelican Bay 'super-max' prison

Zygmunt Bauman

2000-01-01

8

Maintaining Pedagogical Integrity of a Computer Mediated Course Delivery in Social Foundations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Transforming a face to face course to a computer mediated format in social foundations (interdisciplinary field in education), while maintaining pedagogical integrity, involves strategic collaboration between instructional technologists and content area experts. This type of planned partnership requires open dialogue and a mutual respect for prior…

Stewart, Shelley; Cobb-Roberts, Deirdre; Shircliffe, Barbara J.

2013-01-01

9

Socially Assistive Robotic Music Therapist for Maintaining Attention of Older Adults with Cognitive Impairments  

E-print Network

Socially Assistive Robotic Music Therapist for Maintaining Attention of Older Adults with Cognitive elements of good dementia care. Activities (e.g., music therapy (Carruth 1997, Clair and Ebberts 1997 a preliminary study which compares the benefits of a robotic cat and a plush toy cat as interventions

Mataric, Maja J.

10

Bechstein's bats maintain individual social links despite a complete reorganisation of their colony structure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several social mammals, including elephants and some primates, whales and bats, live in multilevel societies that form temporary subgroups. Despite these fission-fusion dynamics, group members often maintain long-term bonds. However, it is unclear whether such individual links and the resulting stable social subunits continue to exist after a complete reorganisation of a society, e.g. following a population crash. Here, we employed a weighted network analysis on 7,109 individual roosting records collected over 4 years in a wild Bechstein's bat colony. We show that, in response to a strong population decline, the colony's two stable social subunits fused into a non-modular social network. Nevertheless, in the first year after the crash, long-term bonds were still detectable, suggesting that the bats remembered previous individual relationships. Our findings are important for understanding the flexibility of animal societies in the face of dramatic changes and for the conservation of social mammals with declining populations.

Baigger, A.; Perony, N.; Reuter, M.; Leinert, V.; Melber, M.; Grünberger, S.; Fleischmann, D.; Kerth, G.

2013-09-01

11

Modelling Primate Social Order: Ultimate and Proximate Explanations  

E-print Network

Modelling Primate Social Order: Ultimate and Proximate Explanations Hagen Lehmann and Joanna J.Lehmann@bath.ac.uk, J.J.Bryson@bath.ac.uk Abstract. For many species of primates, arguably including humans, social be understanding the bases of our social interaction. For many primate species social be- haviour has been

Bryson, Joanna J.

12

Preserving and maintaining vital Ecosystem Services: the importance of linking knowledge from Geosciences and social-ecological System analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Human kind has always been curios and motivated to understand and quantify environmental processes in order to predict and anticipate the evolution of vital ecosystem services. Even the very first civilizations used empirical correlations to predict outcomes of rains and subsequent harvest efficiencies. Along with the insights into the functioning of ecosystems, humans also became aware that their anthropogenic activities can have positive and negative impact on ecosystem services. In recent years, geosciences have brought forward new sophisticated observations and modeling tools, with the aim to improve predictions of ecological developments. At the same time, the added value of linking ecological factors to the surrounding social structure has received a growing acceptance among scientists. A social-ecological system approach brings in a holistic understanding of how these systems are inevitably interlinked and how their sustainability can be better maintained. We claim that the biggest challenge for geoscience in the coming decades will be to link these two disciplines in order to establish adequate strategies to preserve natural ecosystems and their services, parallel to their utilization. We will present various case studies from more than a decade of research, ranging from water quality in mountain lakes, climate change impacts on water availability and declining fishing yields in freshwaters and discuss how the studies outcomes could be given added value by interpreting them via social-ecological system analysis. For instance, sophisticated field investigations revealed that deep water mixing in lake Issyk-Kul, Kirgizstan, is intensively distributing pollutants in the entire lake. Although fishery is an important sector in the region, the local awareness of the importance of water quality is low. In Switzerland, strict water protection laws led to ologotrophication of alpine lakes, reducing fishing yields. While local fishermen argued that local fishery is more ecological than importing fish, their calls for artificial lake fertilization were rejected and are socially not accepted. Finally, climate change projections of water availability in the Alps reveal that water may become scarce during summer months due to vanishing glaciers. Financially the hydropower sector is the most important water user. However, other stakeholders, like farmers and the tourism sectors will be all competing for the decreasing resources. In all these three cases, a social-ecological system analysis could give an added value to the geoscience results by identifying solutions that are both ecological and socially suitable. We will conclude our talk by giving an outlook how we intend to link the two disciplines to perform integrative assessments, linking geoscience to the relevant social-ecological system analysis in order to come up with strategies to sustainably preserve vital ecosystem services.

Finger, David; Petursdottir, Thorunn

2013-04-01

13

Df31 protein and snoRNAs maintain accessible higher-order structures of chromatin.  

PubMed

Packaging of DNA into nucleosomes and the formation of higher-order chromatin structures determine DNA accessibility and activity of genome domains. We identified an RNA-dependent mechanism maintaining the open chromatin structure within euchromatic regions in Drosophila cells. The mechanism of reversible chromatin opening, reconstituted in vitro, depends on the Drosophila decondensation factor 31 (Df31) that specifically binds to RNA and localizes to euchromatic regions. Df31 is capable to tether a heterogeneous pool of short, single-stranded RNAs to chromatin. This class of chromatin-associated RNA (caRNA) is stably linked to chromatin and is largely composed of snoRNAs, which are preferentially bound by Df31. We suggest that the Df31-mediated linkage of snoRNAs and chromatin, forms a RNA-chromatin network resulting in the establishment of open chromatin domains. Analysis of caRNAs in human cells also reveals a strong enrichment of snoRNAs, implying a conserved role for these molecules in higher-order structures of chromatin. PMID:23022379

Schubert, Thomas; Pusch, Miriam Caroline; Diermeier, Sarah; Benes, Vladimir; Kremmer, Elisabeth; Imhof, Axel; Längst, Gernot

2012-11-01

14

Bats are able to maintain long-term social relationships despite the high fission-fusion dynamics of their groups.  

PubMed

Elephants, dolphins, as well as some carnivores and primates maintain social links despite their frequent splitting and merging in groups of variable composition, a phenomenon known as fission-fusion. Information on the dynamics of social links and interactions among individuals is of high importance to the understanding of the evolution of animal sociality, including that of humans. However, detailed long-term data on such dynamics in wild mammals with fully known demography and kin structures are scarce. Applying a weighted network analysis on 20,500 individual roosting observations over 5 years, we show that in two wild Bechstein's bat colonies with high fission-fusion dynamics, individuals of different age, size, reproductive status and relatedness maintain long-term social relationships. In the larger colony, we detected two stable subunits, each comprising bats from several family lineages. Links between these subunits were mainly maintained by older bats and persisted over all years. Moreover, we show that the full details of the social structure become apparent only when large datasets are used. The stable multi-level social structures in Bechstein's bat colonies resemble that of elephants, dolphins and some primates. Our findings thus may shed new light on the link between social complexity and social cognition in mammals. PMID:21307051

Kerth, Gerald; Perony, Nicolas; Schweitzer, Frank

2011-09-22

15

Bats are able to maintain long-term social relationships despite the high fission–fusion dynamics of their groups  

PubMed Central

Elephants, dolphins, as well as some carnivores and primates maintain social links despite their frequent splitting and merging in groups of variable composition, a phenomenon known as fission–fusion. Information on the dynamics of social links and interactions among individuals is of high importance to the understanding of the evolution of animal sociality, including that of humans. However, detailed long-term data on such dynamics in wild mammals with fully known demography and kin structures are scarce. Applying a weighted network analysis on 20 500 individual roosting observations over 5 years, we show that in two wild Bechstein's bat colonies with high fission–fusion dynamics, individuals of different age, size, reproductive status and relatedness maintain long-term social relationships. In the larger colony, we detected two stable subunits, each comprising bats from several family lineages. Links between these subunits were mainly maintained by older bats and persisted over all years. Moreover, we show that the full details of the social structure become apparent only when large datasets are used. The stable multi-level social structures in Bechstein's bat colonies resemble that of elephants, dolphins and some primates. Our findings thus may shed new light on the link between social complexity and social cognition in mammals. PMID:21307051

Kerth, Gerald; Perony, Nicolas; Schweitzer, Frank

2011-01-01

16

Generalized Galileons: All scalar models whose curved background extensions maintain second-order field equations and stress tensors  

SciTech Connect

We extend to curved backgrounds all flat-space scalar field models that obey purely second-order equations, while maintaining their second-order dependence on both field and metric. This extension simultaneously restores to second order the, originally higher derivative, stress tensors as well. The process is transparent and uniform for all dimensions.

Deffayet, C.; Deser, S.; Esposito-Farese, G. [AstroParticule and Cosmologie, UMR 7164-CNRS, Universite Denis Diderot-Paris 7, CEA, Observatoire de Paris, 10 rue Alice Domon et Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris Cedex 13 (France); Physics Department, Brandeis University, Waltham, Massachusetts 02454, USA, and Lauritsen Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States); GReCO, Institut d'Astrophysique de Paris, UMR 7095-CNRS, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie-Paris 6, 98bis boulevard Arago, F-75014 Paris (France)

2009-09-15

17

Department of Humanities, Social Sciences and Social Justice Education, OISE, UT Order of Canada Award  

E-print Network

Department of Humanities, Social Sciences and Social Justice Education, OISE, UT Order of Canada of Canada at a ceremony in Ottawa on November 15, 2013. Alison received the award in recognition of her-deserved recognition, Alison! See ceremony at: http://photos.gg.ca/Media/22112013-MEDIA-Order-of-Canada. Please credit

Sokolowski, Marla

18

Gender and the Social Order in Early Modern England.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The place of the family and the relationship between gender and social order in England between 1560 and 1725 are examined. The fear of disorder so prevalent in England in the late 16th and early 17th centuries was caused by the doubling of the population and extremely poor economic conditions. In the attempt to enforce order, the analogy between…

Amussen, Susan Dwyer

19

Using Videoconferencing to Establish and Maintain a Social Presence in Online Learning Environments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Successful operation of videoconferencing technology for interactive learning demands preparation and scheduling. Well-organized strategies for interaction assist faculty in meeting individual student needs and developing the "social presence" necessary to facilitate quality online learning. Organizations can be proactive by offering this…

Moody, Robert A.; Wieland, Regi L.

2010-01-01

20

Socially Assistive Robotic Music Therapist for Maintaining Attention of Older Adults with Cognitive Impairments  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a hypothesis-testing preliminary study that aims to develop affordable customized socially assistive robotics (SAR) tools that can help to provide cognitive care to users suffering from cognitive changes related to aging and\\/or Alzheimer's disease.

Adriana Tapus; Maja J Matari

21

High-order social interactions in groups of mice  

PubMed Central

Social behavior in mammals is often studied in pairs under artificial conditions, yet groups may rely on more complicated social structures. Here, we use a novel system for tracking multiple animals in a rich environment to characterize the nature of group behavior and interactions, and show strongly correlated group behavior in mice. We have found that the minimal models that rely only on individual traits and pairwise correlations between animals are not enough to capture group behavior, but that models that include third-order interactions give a very accurate description of the group. These models allow us to infer social interaction maps for individual groups. Using this approach, we show that environmental complexity during adolescence affects the collective group behavior of adult mice, in particular altering the role of high-order structure. Our results provide new experimental and mathematical frameworks for studying group behavior and social interactions. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.00759.001 PMID:24015357

Shemesh, Yair; Sztainberg, Yehezkel; Forkosh, Oren; Shlapobersky, Tamar; Chen, Alon; Schneidman, Elad

2013-01-01

22

High relatedness maintains multicellular cooperation in a social amoeba by controlling cheater mutants  

PubMed Central

The control of cheating is important for understanding major transitions in evolution, from the simplest genes to the most complex societies. Cooperative systems can be ruined if cheaters that lower group productivity are able to spread. Kin-selection theory predicts that high genetic relatedness can limit cheating, because separation of cheaters and cooperators limits opportunities to cheat and promotes selection against low-fitness groups of cheaters. Here, we confirm this prediction for the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum; relatedness in natural wild groups is so high that socially destructive cheaters should not spread. We illustrate in the laboratory how high relatedness can control a mutant that would destroy cooperation at low relatedness. Finally, we demonstrate that, as predicted, mutant cheaters do not normally harm cooperation in a natural population. Our findings show how altruism is preserved from the disruptive effects of such mutant cheaters and how exceptionally high relatedness among cells is important in promoting the cooperation that underlies multicellular development. PMID:17496139

Gilbert, Owen M.; Foster, Kevin R.; Mehdiabadi, Natasha J.; Strassmann, Joan E.; Queller, David C.

2007-01-01

23

Maintaining a Social-Emotional Intervention and its Benefits for Institutionalized Children  

PubMed Central

This paper reports the maintenance of one of the largest interventions conducted in St. Petersburg (Russian Federation) orphanages for children birth to 4 years using regular caregiving staff. One orphanage received training plus structural changes, another training only, and a third business as usual. The intervention produced substantial differences between these institutions on the HOME Inventory and on the Battelle Developmental Inventory scores for children. These institutional differences in HOME scores (N=298) and Battelle scores for children (N=357) departing the institutions for families in St. Petersburg and the USA were maintained for at least six years after the intervention project, result may be associated with to certain features of the intervention and activities during the follow-up interval. PMID:23551051

McCall, Robert B.; Groark, Christina J.; Fish, Larry; Muhamedrahimov, Rifkat J.; Palmov, Oleg I.; Nikiforova, Natalia V.

2013-01-01

24

Educational Research: Values and Visions of Social Order  

Microsoft Academic Search

Educational research involves social values. It contains lines of reasoning established through discourse within a scientific community and within larger historical and cultural structures. The values affirmed in research have possible political functions. Theories and methods not only describe, but also give direction to the way that social events are to be challenged. The dispositional character of research is often

Thomas S. Popkewitz

1978-01-01

25

Effects of Sex, Social Desirability, and Birth Order on the Defense Mechanisms Inventory.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigated effects of sex difference, social desirability instructions, and birth order of respondents on defense mechanisms inventory (DMI). Sex difference was found in projection only. Social desirability effects were found in turning-against-others, projection, principalization, and reversal. Thus, an interpretive caution is in order

Dudley, Gary E.

1978-01-01

26

Local orders and global chaos in social work  

Microsoft Academic Search

We live, supposedly, in a run away global world that is permeated with risk, disaster and uncertainty. Social work, at least at the level of policy and research, has been seen to be responding to the globalization discourse. Its tendency is to try and deepen its own institutional reflexivity with a growing awareness of its own place within the new

Stephen A. Webb

2003-01-01

27

Divining the Social Order: Class, Gender, and Magazine Astrology Columns  

Microsoft Academic Search

This content analysis compares the astrological advice offered in magazines targeted at working- and middle-class women. Readers' social class was a far better predictor than readers' zodiac sign of the nature of astrological advice offered. Working-class horoscopes were less likely than middle-class horoscopes to advise readers to travel and spend money. Working-class horoscopes were less likely than middle-class horoscopes to

William Evans

1996-01-01

28

Leadership for Social Justice: Preparing 21st Century School Leaders for a New Social Order  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

At the dawn of the 21st century, there has been an increased focus on social justice and educational leadership (Bogotch, Beachum, Blount, Brooks & English, 2008; Marshall & Oliva, 2006; Shoho, Merchang & Lugg, 2005). This paper explores and extends themes in contemporary educational research on leadership preparation in terms of social justice…

Jean-Marie, Gaetane; Normore, Anthony H.; Brooks, Jeffrey S.

2009-01-01

29

More Order without More Law: A Theory of Social Norms and Organizational Cultures  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article applies psychological game theory to study the maintenance of social order. It models the control of corruption in principal-supervisor-agent relationships. The models possess multiple equilibria, which correspond to certain social norms and organizational cultures or their absence. The models demonstrate how expectations concerning the likelihood of corrupt behavior can influence decisions to engage in such behavior via the

Peter H. Huang; Ho-Mou Wu

1994-01-01

30

Incorporating social groups' responses in a descriptive model for second- and higher-order impact identification  

SciTech Connect

The response of a social group is a missing element in the formal impact assessment model. Previous discussion of the involvement of social groups in an intervention has mainly focused on the formation of the intervention. This article discusses the involvement of social groups in a different way. A descriptive model is proposed by incorporating a social group's response into the concept of second- and higher-order effects. The model is developed based on a cause-effect relationship through the observation of phenomena in case studies. The model clarifies the process by which social groups interact with a lower-order effect and then generate a higher-order effect in an iterative manner. This study classifies social groups' responses into three forms-opposing, modifying, and advantage-taking action-and places them in six pathways. The model is expected to be used as an analytical tool for investigating and identifying impacts in the planning stage and as a framework for monitoring social groups' responses during the implementation stage of a policy, plan, program, or project (PPPPs).

Sutheerawatthana, Pitch, E-mail: pitch.venture@gmail.co [Department of International Studies, Graduate School of Frontier Sciences, University of Tokyo, 5-1-5, Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8563 (Japan); Minato, Takayuki, E-mail: minato@k.u-tokyo.ac.j [Department of International Studies, Graduate School of Frontier Sciences, University of Tokyo, 5-1-5, Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8563 (Japan)

2010-02-15

31

Care Orders as Successful Interventions: The Social Workers' Point of View  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines the outcomes of care orders from the point of view of social workers. The aim is to cast light on the "black box" of substitute care by analysing the practice-based view on outcome in order to contribute to the complex debate on the relations of care and outcome. The article is based on a study using a survey, focus…

Pösö, Tarja; Eronen, Tuija

2014-01-01

32

Polarization mode dispersion emulation using polarization maintaining fibers: fixed root-mean-square differential group delay but varying second-order polarization mode dispersion.  

PubMed

We report on a polarization mode dispersion (PMD) emulator with a fixed root-mean-square differential group delay (RMS-DGD) but varying second-order PMD (SO-PMD) using only a combination of polarization maintaining fibers and a polarization controller. The SO-PMD control mechanism is not completely in real time. Besides controlling the mean PMD values of the emulator, simultaneous adjustments in the maximum and minimum values of PMD statistics can be performed. We therefore illustrate irregular fluctuations that occur around the RMS-DGD due to SO-PMD. This novel design can be used to further show the impact of a high first-order PMD segment on the DGD and SO-PMD statistical distributions that might occur in an optical network system. PMID:19485498

Musara, Vitalis; Wu, Lorinda; Pelaelo, Gaoboelwe; Leitch, Andrew W R

2009-05-01

33

"Standing Porter at the Door of Thought": The Social Order of the Christian Science Church.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This examination of the social order of the Church of Christ, Scientist, provides a valuable learning opportunity for leaders of any organizational entity--or for any student of organizational communication/behavior. The study addresses labor, trust, power, and legitimization of activity within the church. It raises the issue of whether Christian…

Swanson, Douglas J.

34

Dare the NEA Build a New Social Order?: Harold Rugg and the 1934 Annual Meeting  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Far from being the lone voice for a new social order, Harold Rugg was one many educators throughout the United States who believed that education should offer more to the American way of life than graduating students with some form of common knowledge, but with little ability to effect necessary change. And in 1934, few Americans would disagree…

Riley, Karen L.; Brown, Jennifer

2004-01-01

35

INTRODUCTION The sinkhole located in Assumption Parish, Louisiana, threatens the stability of Highway 70, a state maintained route. In order to  

E-print Network

by a real-time network (RTN) of continuously operating reference stations (CORS) maintained by C4G of Highway 70 that is potentially vulnerable to the sinkhole. Using GPS enhanced by RTN maintained by C4G, and cellular modems) maintained by C4G and augmented by the C4Gnet RTN. Measurements at OBJECTIVE

Stephens, Jacqueline

36

Challenging social cognition models of adherence: cycles of discourse, historical bodies, and interactional order.  

PubMed

Attempts to model individual beliefs as a means of predicting how people follow clinical advice have dominated adherence research, but with limited success. In this article, we challenge assumptions underlying this individualistic philosophy and propose an alternative formulation of context and its relationship with individual actions related to illness. Borrowing from Scollon and Scollon's three elements of social action-historical body, interaction order, and discourses in place-we construct an alternative set of research methods and demonstrate their application with an example of a person talking about asthma management. We argue that talk- or illness-related behavior, both viewed as forms of social action, manifest themselves as an intersection of cycles of discourse, shifting as individuals move through these cycles across time and space. We conclude by discussing how these dynamics of social action can be studied and how clinicians might use this understanding when negotiating treatment with patients. PMID:25231944

Murdoch, Jamie; Salter, Charlotte; Poland, Fiona; Cross, Jane

2015-02-01

37

The Relationship between Second-Order False Belief and Display Rules Reasoning: The Integration of Cognitive and Affective Social Understanding  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To investigate the relation between cognitive and affective social understanding, Japanese 4- to 8-year-olds received tasks of first- and second-order false beliefs and prosocial and self-presentational display rules. From 6 to 8 years, children comprehended display rules, as well as second-order false belief, using social pressures justifications…

Naito, Mika; Seki, Yoshimi

2009-01-01

38

Adaptation to low body temperature influences pulmonary surfactant composition thereby increasing fluidity while maintaining appropriately ordered membrane structure and surface activity.  

PubMed

The interfacial surface tension of the lung is regulated by phospholipid-rich pulmonary surfactant films. Small changes in temperature affect surfactant structure and function in vitro. We compared the compositional, thermodynamic and functional properties of surfactant from hibernating and summer-active 13-lined ground squirrels (Ictidomys tridecemlineatus) with porcine surfactant to understand structure-function relationships in surfactant membranes and films. Hibernating squirrels had more surfactant large aggregates with more fluid monounsaturated molecular species than summer-active animals. The latter had more unsaturated species than porcine surfactant. Cold-adapted surfactant membranes displayed gel-to-fluid transitions at lower phase transition temperatures with reduced enthalpy. Both hibernating and summer-active squirrel surfactants exhibited lower enthalpy than porcine surfactant. LAURDAN fluorescence and DPH anisotropy revealed that surfactant bilayers from both groups of squirrels possessed similar ordered phase characteristics at low temperatures. While ground squirrel surfactants functioned well during dynamic cycling at 3, 25, and 37 degrees C, porcine surfactant demonstrated poorer activity at 3 degrees C but was superior at 37 degrees C. Consequently the surfactant composition of ground squirrels confers a greater thermal flexibility relative to homeothermic mammals, while retaining tight lipid packing at low body temperatures. This may represent the most critical feature contributing to sustained stability of the respiratory interface at low lung volumes. Thus, while less effective than porcine surfactant at 37 degrees C, summer-active surfactant functions adequately at both 37 degrees C and 3 degrees C allowing these animals to enter hibernation. Here further compositional alterations occur which improve function at low temperatures by maintaining adequate stability at low lung volumes and when temperature increases during arousal from hibernation. PMID:22387458

Suri, Lakshmi N M; McCaig, Lynda; Picardi, Maria V; Ospina, Olga L; Veldhuizen, Ruud A W; Staples, James F; Possmayer, Fred; Yao, Li-Juan; Perez-Gil, Jesus; Orgeig, Sandra

2012-07-01

39

. . . that the social order prevails: death, ritual and the 'Roman' nurse.  

PubMed

In this article, the importance of ritual as a collective response to death is discussed. A case example, taken from a larger ethnographic study, is used to explore the responses and reactions of a group of Italian nurses to death as it occurs within an intensive care unit in Rome, Italy. The material presented is used to analyse the significance that cultural, religious and social beliefs and quasi-beliefs can have in nursing practice. The issues highlighted in this examination of the place of ritual in death are located and discussed within their highly specific cultural context and suggest that, where emphasis remains on nurses as a collective rather than on the individual nurse, ritual acts to ensure that social and moral order prevails. PMID:16700754

Goopy, Suzanne

2006-06-01

40

More than mere numbers: the impact of lethal control on the social stability of a top-order predator.  

PubMed

Population control of socially complex species may have profound ecological implications that remain largely invisible if only their abundance is considered. Here we discuss the effects of control on a socially complex top-order predator, the dingo (Canis lupus dingo). Since European occupation of Australia, dingoes have been controlled over much of the continent. Our aim was to investigate the effects of control on their abundance and social stability. We hypothesized that dingo abundance and social stability are not linearly related, and proposed a theoretical model in which dingo populations may fluctuate between three main states: (A) below carrying capacity and socially fractured, (B) above carrying capacity and socially fractured, or (C) at carrying capacity and socially stable. We predicted that lethal control would drive dingoes into the unstable states A or B, and that relaxation of control would allow recovery towards C. We tested our predictions by surveying relative abundance (track density) and indicators of social stability (scent-marking and howling) at seven sites in the arid zone subject to differing degrees of control. We also monitored changes in dingo abundance and social stability following relaxation and intensification of control. Sites where dingoes had been controlled within the previous two years were characterized by low scent-marking activity, but abundance was similar at sites with and without control. Signs of social stability steadily increased the longer an area was allowed to recover from control, but change in abundance did not follow a consistent path. Comparison of abundance and stability among all sites and years demonstrated that control severely fractures social groups, but that the effect of control on abundance was neither consistent nor predictable. Management decisions involving large social predators must therefore consider social stability to ensure their conservation and ecological functioning. PMID:19724642

Wallach, Arian D; Ritchie, Euan G; Read, John; O'Neill, Adam J

2009-01-01

41

First Order Models of Human Crowds with Behavioral-Social Dynamics  

E-print Network

This paper presents a new approach to behavioral-social dynamics of human crowds. First order models are derived based on mass conservation at the macroscopic scale, while methods of the kinetic theory are used to model the decisional process by which walking individuals select their velocity direction. Crowd heterogeneity is modeled by dividing the whole system into subsystems identified by different features. The passage from one subsystem to the other is induced by interactions. It is shown how heterogeneous individual behaviors can modify the collective dynamics, as well as how local unusual behaviors can propagate in the crowd. The paper also proposes a system approach to the modeling of the dynamics in complex venues, where individuals move through areas with different features.

Bellomo, Nicola; Gibelli, Livio; Pieri, Alexandre

2015-01-01

42

Anterograde c1ql1 signaling is required in order to determine and maintain a single-winner climbing fiber in the mouse cerebellum.  

PubMed

Neuronal networks are dynamically modified by selective synapse pruning during development and adulthood. However, how certain connections win the competition with others and are subsequently maintained is not fully understood. Here, we show that C1ql1, a member of the C1q family of proteins, is provided by climbing fibers (CFs) and serves as a crucial anterograde signal to determine and maintain the single-winner CF in the mouse cerebellum throughout development and adulthood. C1ql1 specifically binds to the brain-specific angiogenesis inhibitor 3 (Bai3), which is a member of the cell-adhesion G-protein-coupled receptor family and expressed on postsynaptic Purkinje cells. C1ql1-Bai3 signaling is required for motor learning but not for gross motor performance or coordination. Because related family members of C1ql1 and Bai3 are expressed in various brain regions, the mechanism described here likely applies to synapse formation, maintenance, and function in multiple neuronal circuits essential for important brain functions. PMID:25611509

Kakegawa, Wataru; Mitakidis, Nikolaos; Miura, Eriko; Abe, Manabu; Matsuda, Keiko; Takeo, Yukari H; Kohda, Kazuhisa; Motohashi, Junko; Takahashi, Akiyo; Nagao, Soichi; Muramatsu, Shin-Ichi; Watanabe, Masahiko; Sakimura, Kenji; Aricescu, A Radu; Yuzaki, Michisuke

2015-01-21

43

A peer-to-peer normative system to achieve social order  

E-print Network

. Social control is obtained by providing a non-intrusive control infrastructure that helps the agents communities are dynamically formed and how bad agents are socially excluded. Introduction In multi-agent of other agents if they are norm compliant. Social Control mainly refers to the fact that each agent

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

44

The Difficulty of Maintaining Positive Intervention Effects: A Look at Disruptive Behavior, Deviant Peer Relations, and Social Skills during the Middle School Years  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines the effects of the Fast Track preventive intervention on youths' functioning in three domains: disruptive behavior problems, involvement with deviant peers, and social skills during the middle school years. Eight hundred ninety-one children had been randomly assigned by sets of schools within four sites to intervention (n =…

Lochman, John E.; Bierman, Karen L.; Coie, John D.; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Greenberg, Mark T.; McMahon, Robert J.; Pinderhughes, Ellen E.

2010-01-01

45

Cognitive behavioral stress management effects on mood, social support, and a marker of antiviral immunity are maintained up to 1 year in HIV-infected gay men  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerous herpesvirus infections are associated with clinically relevant outcomes as well as an accelerated HIV replication\\u000a rate and subsequent disease progression. Stress managementinterventionsmayimprovemarkersofcellularimmunecontroloverlatent\\u000a herpesvirus infections and these changes appear to be mediated by perceptions of increased social support availability. We\\u000a examined the effects ofagroup-based cognitive behavioral stress management (CBSM) intervention on distress, dysphoria, perceived\\u000a socialsupport,andherpesvirus immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody titers

Adam W. Carrico; Michael H. Antoni; Deidre B. Pereira; Mary Ann Fletcher; Nancy Klimas; Suzanne C. Lechner; Neil Schneiderman

2005-01-01

46

Barriers to the Promotion of Higher Order Thinking in Social Studies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Based on interviews with teachers, department chairs, principals, and staff developers, observations of hundreds of lessons, and a perusal of the social studies research literature and the broader school change literature, dominant barriers to the promotion of thinking were identified. Six barriers emerged: instruction as knowledge transmission, a…

Onosko, Joseph J.

47

Poverty, Inequality and the Future of Social Policy: Western States in the New World Order.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book analyzes forces fraying the social fabric of many countries, and the reasons why some Western countries have been more successful than others in addressing these trends. Part 1, "Poverty, Income Inequality, and Labor Market Insecurity: A Comparative Perspective," includes (1) "Markets and States: Poverty Trends and Transfer System…

McFate, Katherine, Ed.; Lawson, Roger, Ed.; Wilson, William Julius, Ed.

48

Maintaining a Healthy Weight  

MedlinePLUS

... and drink Other ways to maintian a healthy weight? Limit portion size to control calorie intake. Add ... Go4Life Maintaining a Healthy Weight Maintaining a healthy weight is important for overall health and well-being. ...

49

Maintaining legitimacy using external communication strategies: An analysis of police-media relations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Police organizations must strategically control their external environment in order to maintain organizational legitimacy. Exploiting their relationship with the news media is one way to accomplish this goal effectively. Despite the documented importance of crime, justice, and social control as a news topic, there is a limited understanding of the variables driving how police and media evaluate this relationship. This

Steven Chermak; Alexander Weiss

2005-01-01

50

Sport and Physical Education and the New World Order: Dare We Be Agents of Social Change?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This lecture explores the content and context of the discourse of “a new world order” because this discourse has become part of the public discourse. Meanings about the new world order are part of a “contested terrain,” and as such they are part of a larger component of political, economic, and cultural conflicts, the outcomes of which are not preordained

George H. Sage

1993-01-01

51

A First Order Language to Coevolve Agents in Complex Social Simulations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Principles from the sciences of complexity may be applied to the problem of generating interesting and surprising high-level behaviours in 3D world simulations. We present a first order language designed to represent agents' internal reasoning rules that is suitable for a coevolutionary environment. An algorithm is described to use a set of rules expressed in this language to produce decisions.

Telmo Menezes; Ernesto Costa

52

Maintaining Plant Genebanks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson explores the benefits and problems of maintaining plant genebanks globally. Students can plan a genebank or agricultural cryopreservation business venture, write a biography about a famous botanist, present views at a genebank symposium for developing nations and more!

Brian R. Shmaefsky (Kingwood College;)

2003-06-02

53

Software Maintainability Index Revisited  

SciTech Connect

For many years now, software practitioners have been collecting metrics from source code in an effort to better understand the software they are developing or changing. Maintainability Index (MI) is a composite metric that incorporates a number of traditional source code metrics into a single number that indicates relative maintainability. As originally proposed by Oman and Hagemeister, the MI is comprised of weighted Halstead metrics (effort or volume), McCabe's Cyclomatic Complexity, lines of code (LOC), and number of comments [1, 2]. Two equations were presented: one that considered comments and one that did not.

Welker, Kurt Dean

2001-08-01

54

How oversight improves member-maintained communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Online communities need regular maintenance activities such as moderation and data input, tasks that typically fall to community owners. Communities that allow all members to participate in maintenance tasks have the potential to be more robust and valuable. A key challenge in creating member-maintained communities is building interfaces, algorithms, and social structures that encourage people to provide high-quality contributions. We

Dan Cosley; Dan Frankowski; Sara B. Kiesler; Loren G. Terveen; John Riedl

2005-01-01

55

Diversity & Community: Maintaining Allegiances.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The quest for diversity must overcome the resistance of traditional White, male faculty to redefining the mission and curriculum of the liberal arts college. Change will be difficult, but it must occur if liberal arts colleges are to survive and maintain a central and relevant place in multicultural America. (MSE)

Pena, Devon G.

1990-01-01

56

Maintaining DACUM Quality.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document discusses the importance of maintaining the quality of DACUM (Developing a Curriculum) occupational analyses and presents a 2-page checklist detailing DACUM quality performance criteria. The introduction to the checklist discusses various "infractions" discovered during an analyses of some curriculum/program developers' attempts to…

Norton, Robert E.

57

Integration: Maintaining the Momentum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This address asserts that the profession of school administrator cannot reach full maturity unless it recognizes, one and for all, that separate schools are as unsound educationally as they are legally and morally; unless it decreases the deliberation and increases the speed which it brings leadership to America's major unresolved social,…

Carle, Wayne M.

58

Setting and maintaining  

E-print Network

relationships `Parenting' ­ `this implies the notion that the effects of parents on their children are a `top of the parent-child relationship appear important in children of almost any age, notably warmth the interplay of parent-child relationships 1. Social learning theory 2. Attachment theory 3. Parenting styles

Harman, Neal.A.

59

Quantified maintainability requirements  

E-print Network

Yiateriel Command Organization Chart Commodity Command Organizational Chart 4. Availability Distributions for Lognormal Repair and Meibull Failures Si;andard Curves of Availability Reference for the Lognormal Distribution 30 35 CHAPTER INTRDDJCTIDH... requirements and their use by the Department of the Army. A method of converting the primary maintainability requirement, availability, into more meaningful design related requirements, such as mean time to repair and mean time before failure i" required...

Morris, Ronald Scott

1968-01-01

60

Answering to God, or to Senator Grassley?: How Leading Christian Health and Wealth Ministries' Website Content Portrayed Social Order and Financial Accountability Following a Federal Investigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research deals with six renewalist evangelical Christian ministries that were subject to a three-year U.S. Senate inquiry for alleged failure to account for donations and spending. This research was conducted within the framework of social order theory. Using a content analysis of ministry Web sites, it illustrates how targeted ministries portrayed their relationships with believers and addressed financial accountability

Douglas J. Swanson

2012-01-01

61

Exploring the Construction of Social Class in Educational Discourse: The Rational Order of the Nation State versus Global Uncertainties  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article aims to create intellectual space in which issues of social inequality and education can be analyzed and discussed in relation to the multifaceted and multi-levelled complexities of the modern world. It is divided into three sections. Section One locates the concept of social class in the context of the modern nation state during the…

Rassool, Naz

2004-01-01

62

A review of "Law, Crime and English Society, 1660-1830" by Norma Landau and "Crime, Gender and Social Order in Early Modern England" by Garthine Walker  

E-print Network

postmodern philosophy and historical analysis energizes Law, Crime and English Society, 1660-1830, edited by Norma Landau, and Crime, Gender and Social Order in Early Modern England by Garthine Walker. While only the latter acknowledges its reviews 17... of postmodern thought: the rendering of all cultural production as ?texts? and ?discourses? that make equal claims to interpretive authority. In distinction to most post- modern work undertaken in literary studies, however, the two books anchor themselves...

Sherman, Donovan

2010-01-01

63

Maintaining the unmethylated state  

PubMed Central

Background A remarkable correspondence exists between the cytogenetic locations of the known fragile sites and frequently reported sites of hypermethylation. The best-known features of fragile sites are sequence motifs that are prone to the spontaneous formation of a non-B DNA structure. These facts, coupled with the known enzymological specificities of DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1), the ATP-dependent and actin-dependent helicases, and the ten-eleven translocation (TET) dioxygenases, suggest that these enzymes are involved in an epigenetic cycle that maintains the unmethylated state at these sites by resolving non-B structure, preventing both the sequestration of DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) and hypermethylation in normal cells. Presentation of the hypothesis The innate tendency of DNA sequences present at fragile sites to form non-B DNA structures results in de novo methylation of DNA at these sites that is held in check in normal cells by the action of ATP-dependent and actin-dependent helicases coupled with the action of TET dioxygenases. This constitutes a previously unrecognized epigenetic repair cycle in which spontaneously forming non-B DNA structures formed at fragile sites are methylated by DNMTs as they are removed by the action of ATP-dependent and actin-dependent helicases, with the resulting nascent methylation rendered non-transmissible by TET dioxygenases. Testing the hypothesis A strong prediction of the hypothesis is that knockdown of ATP-dependent and actin-dependent helicases will result in enhanced bisulfite sensitivity and hypermethylation at non-B structures in multiple fragile sites coupled with global hypomethylation. Implications of the hypothesis A key implication of the hypothesis is that helicases, like the lymphoid-specific helicase and alpha thalassemia/mental retardation syndrome X-linked helicase, passively promote accurate maintenance of DNA methylation by preventing the sequestration of DNMTs at sites of unrepaired non-B DNA structure. When helicase action is blocked due to mutation or downregulation of the respective genes, DNMTs stall at unrepaired non-B structures in fragile sites after methylating them and are unable to methylate other sites in the genome, resulting in hypermethylation at non-B DNA-forming sites, along with hypomethylation elsewhere. PMID:24079333

2013-01-01

64

'From Man to Bacteria': W.D. Hamilton, the theory of inclusive fitness, and the post-war social order.  

PubMed

W.D. Hamilton's theory of inclusive fitness aimed to define the evolved limits of altruism with mathematical precision. Although it was meant to apply universally, it has been almost irretrievably entwined with the particular case of social insects that featured in his famous 1964 papers. The assumption that social insects were central to Hamilton's early work contradicts material in his rich personal archive. In fact, careful study of Hamilton's notes, letters, diaries, and early essays indicates the extent to which he had humans in mind when he decided altruism was a topic worthy of biological inquiry. For this reason, this article reconsiders the role of extra-scientific factors in Hamilton's early theorizing. In doing so, it offers an alternative perspective as to why Hamilton saw self-sacrifice to be an important subject. Although the traditional narrative prioritizes his distaste for benefit-of-the-species explanations as a motivating factor behind his foundational work, I argue that greater attention ought to be given to Hamilton's hope that science could be used to address social ills. By reconsidering the meaning Hamilton intended inclusive fitness to have, we see that while he was no political ideologue, the socio-political relevance of his theory was nevertheless integral to its development. PMID:25594921

Swenson, Sarah A

2015-02-01

65

Publicly Private and Privately Public: Social Networking on YouTube  

Microsoft Academic Search

YouTube is a public video-sharing website where people can experience varying degrees of engagement with videos, ranging from casual viewing to sharing videos in order to maintain social relationships. Based on a one-year ethnographic project, this article analyzes how YouTube participants developed and maintained social networks by manipulating physical and interpretive access to their videos. The analysis reveals how circulating

Patricia G. Lange

2007-01-01

66

Social Skills Development: A Unit in Career Education for the Council Bluffs Community Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The social skills development unit is designed to supplement career education programs; the program objective is that students will learn social skills in order to find and maintain employment. A sequence of 22 activities or projects exposes students to: resumes, want ads, employment applications, listening and speaking skills, interview conduct,…

Haberman, Donald J.; And Others

67

Social Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created and maintained by Gene Shackman, who holds a PhD in sociology from SUNY Albany, this Website serves as a directory of annotated links for scholarship and resources in the area of social change. Included here are links to theory, research, data sources, social history sites, national profiles, bibliographies and syllabi, gateways, and pertinent organizations. The author has also posted an essay offering a summary of theories of social change. The links are credible and frequently updated; the annotations, clear and concise.

68

Social Skills Interventions  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The term “social skills” encompasses an array of learned behaviors that share the common goal of maintaining or increasing\\u000a reinforcement within a social context. Deficits in social skills can occur at any developmental period and are not likely\\u000a to improve spontaneously because impaired social skills impede interactions with other people. In turn, unsatisfying or disruptive\\u000a interactions exacerbate social skill deficits

Ashley J. Smith; Judith A. Jordan; Mary Fran Flood; David J. Hansen

69

“Confinement of the Higher Orders”: The Social Role of Private Lunatic Asylums in Ireland, c. 1820–60  

PubMed Central

The period 1820–60 marked an era of transition and diversity in Ireland that rapidly transformed the face of Irish society. Inextricably linked with these processes was the expansion of Ireland's private asylum system. This system diverged from its British counterpart both in the socioeconomic cohort it served and in the role it played within the mental health-care system as a whole. The implementation of the 1842 Private Asylums (Ireland) Act, the first legislative measure geared exclusively toward the system, highlighted the growing importance of private care in Ireland as well as providing for the licensing and regulation of these institutions for the first time. To date, historians of Irish medicine have focused almost exclusively on the pauper insane. This article aims to shift this emphasis toward other categories of the Irish insane through exploration of the Irish private asylum system, its growth throughout the period, and the social profile of private patients. I shall also interrogate the trade in lunacy model through exploration of financial considerations, discharge and recovery rates, and conditions of care and argue that while Irish private institutions were a lucrative business venture, the quality of care upheld was apparently high. Finally, I shall argue that Irish private asylums catered primarily for the upper classes and briefly explore alternative provisional measures for other non-pauper sectors of society. PMID:21355010

Mauger, Alice

2012-01-01

70

ORIGINAL PAPER Maintaining the genetic health of putative Barbary lions  

E-print Network

exchanges are recommended between institutions in order to improve genetic diversity and maintain the genetic health of the population and a studbook for European zoo animals has been developed to supportORIGINAL PAPER Maintaining the genetic health of putative Barbary lions in captivity: an analysis

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

71

Topic-based social network analysis for virtual communities of interests in the dark web  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study of extremist groups and their interaction is a crucial task in order to maintain homeland security and peace. Tools such as social networks analysis and text mining have contributed to their understanding in order to develop counter-terrorism applications. This work addresses the topic-based community key-members extraction problem, for which our method combines both text mining and social network

Gaston L'Huillier; Hector Alvarez; Sebastián A. Ríos; Felipe Aguilera

2011-01-01

72

Topic-based social network analysis for virtual communities of interests in the Dark Web  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study of extremist groups and their interaction is a crucial task in order to maintain homeland security and peace. Tools such as social networks analysis and text mining have contributed to the understanding of this kind of groups in order to develop counter-terrorism applications. This work addresses the topic-based community key members extraction problem, for which our method combines

Gaston L'Huillier; Sebastián A. Ríos; Hector Alvarez; Felipe Aguilera

2010-01-01

73

Heartwarming memories: Nostalgia maintains physiological comfort.  

PubMed

Nostalgia, a sentimental longing or wistful affection for the past, is a predominantly positive and social emotion. Recent evidence suggests that nostalgia maintains psychological comfort. Here, we propose, and document in five methodologically diverse studies, a broader homeostatic function for nostalgia that also encompasses the maintenance of physiological comfort. We show that nostalgia--an emotion with a strong connotation of warmth--is triggered by coldness. Participants reported stronger nostalgia on colder (vs. warmer) days and in a cold (vs. neutral or warm) room. Nostalgia, in turn, modulates the interoceptive feeling of temperature. Higher levels of music-evoked nostalgia predicted increased physical warmth, and participants who recalled a nostalgic (vs. ordinary autobiographical) event perceived ambient temperature as higher. Finally, and consistent with the close central nervous system integration of temperature and pain sensations, participants who recalled a nostalgic (vs. ordinary autobiographical) event evinced greater tolerance to noxious cold. PMID:22390713

Zhou, Xinyue; Wildschut, Tim; Sedikides, Constantine; Chen, Xiaoxi; Vingerhoets, Ad J J M

2012-08-01

74

NMG documentation, part 3: maintainer`s guide  

SciTech Connect

This is the third of a three-part report documenting NMG, the Numerical Mathematics Guide. Part I is aimed at the user of the systenL It contains an introduction, with an out- line of the complete report, and Chapter 1, User`s Point of View. Part II is aimed at the programmer and contains Chapter 2, How It Works. Part III is aimed at the maintainer of NMG and contains Chapter 3, Maintenance, and Chapter 4, Validation. Because its contents are so specialized, Part III will receive only limited distribution. Note that each chapter has its own page numbering and table of contents.

Fritsch, F.N.; Dickinson, R.P. Jr.

1996-07-01

75

Friction-Maintained Dynamic Stability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mechanical systems relying on Coulomb friction to maintain dynamic stability may suffer a dynamic instability if exposed to an initial displacement exceeding a system-specific threshold. In fluid systems, even small values of negative damping are sufficient to drive the dynamic instability with sufficiently large initial displacement. The Tainter gate failures at the Folsom dam in 1995 and at the Wachi dam in 1967 are two well-known failures. To aid in preventing a recurrence, the authors engaged in a decade long research program that provided evidence that both gates failed due to an essential dynamic instability mechanism that all Tainter-gates may possess. This paper presents measurements suggesting "friction-maintained dynamic stability" of a full-scale 50-ton Tainter gate. Accompanying gate model studies showed that the gate can fail when exposed to an initial displacement exceeding a threshold value. The present study should serve to alert gate designers, owners and operators that many Tainter gates which have not yet failed may, nonetheless, have a high susceptibility to failure if and when they are exposed to a sudden input of energy resulting in an initial displacement exceeding the gate-specific threshold displacement.

Anami, Keiko; Ishii, Noriaki; Knisely, Charles W.; Tsuji, Takuma; Oku, Tatsuya; Sato, Shigeki

76

[Organization and character of measures to realize and conduct medical examinations of workers in Krasnoyarsk area according to Russian Health and Social Development Ministry Order No. 302n (12/04/2011)].  

PubMed

The article presents organizational, informational, educational and methodic measures accomplished in Krasnoyarsk area, aimed to timely and high-quality fulfil the Russian Health and Social Development Ministry Order No 302n (12/04/2011) in its part concerning procedure of mandatory preliminary and periodic medical examinations of workers. PMID:23785802

Tereshchenko, Iu A; Zakharinskaia, O N; Demko, I V; Fedoreev, R V; Za?tsev, N G

2013-01-01

77

Explicit feedback maintains implicit knowledge.  

PubMed

The role of feedback was investigated with respect to conscious and unconscious knowledge acquired during artificial grammar learning (AGL). After incidental learning of training sequences, participants classified further sequences in terms of grammaticality and reported their decision strategy with or without explicit veridical feedback. Sequences that disobeyed the learning structure conformed to an alternative structure. Feedback led to an increase in the amount of reported conscious knowledge of structure (derived rules and recollections) but did not increase its accuracy. Conversely, feedback maintained the accuracy of unconscious knowledge of structure (intuition or familiarity-based responses) which otherwise degraded. Results support a dual-process account of AGL. They suggest that implicit learning of the to-be-rejected structure at test contaminates familiarity-based classifications whereas feedback allows competing familiarity signals to be contextualised, which is incompatible with theories that consider familiarity context-insensitive. PMID:23770696

Mealor, Andy D; Dienes, Zoltan

2013-09-01

78

Maintaining consistency in distributed systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In systems designed as assemblies of independently developed components, concurrent access to data or data structures normally arises within individual programs, and is controlled using mutual exclusion constructs, such as semaphores and monitors. Where data is persistent and/or sets of operation are related to one another, transactions or linearizability may be more appropriate. Systems that incorporate cooperative styles of distributed execution often replicate or distribute data within groups of components. In these cases, group oriented consistency properties must be maintained, and tools based on the virtual synchrony execution model greatly simplify the task confronting an application developer. All three styles of distributed computing are likely to be seen in future systems - often, within the same application. This leads us to propose an integrated approach that permits applications that use virtual synchrony with concurrent objects that respect a linearizability constraint, and vice versa. Transactional subsystems are treated as a special case of linearizability.

Birman, Kenneth P.

1991-01-01

79

Explaining Social Constructivism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many versions of social constructivism (SC) maintain that objects exist only after they enter communicative space. At one level an object's existence is determined through an individual's sensory perception; through communicative acts, both intra- and interpersonally, they are defined and eventually embody meaning. The social process of defining…

Keaton, Shaughan A.; Bodie, Graham D.

2011-01-01

80

Data Integration using Self-Maintainable Views  

Microsoft Academic Search

.In this paper we de#ne the concept of self-maintainable views# these are views that can be maintained using only the contents ofthe view and the database modi#cations, without accessing any of theunderlying databases. We derive tight conditions under which severaltypes of select-project-join are self-maintainable upon insertions, deletionsand updates. Self-Maintainability is a desirable property for e#-ciently maintaining large views in applications

Ashish Gupta; H. V. Jagadish; Inderpal Singh Mumick

1996-01-01

81

Economics in the Social Studies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Asserts that social studies education is again going through a period of reform and restructuring. Maintains that any discussion of economics in the curriculum must take place within these reform efforts. Discusses the relationship between the social sciences and social studies and the significance of this relationship to economics education. (CFR)

Dalgaard, Bruce R.

1994-01-01

82

Health Enhancing Behavior Maintaining a Healthy Diet  

E-print Network

Health Enhancing Behavior Maintaining a Healthy Diet Weight Control #12;Maintaining a Healthy Diet at risk for Coronary artery disease, hypertension Diabetes Cancer #12;Why Maintain a Healthy Diet? Dietary cholesterol level, sudden death, salt and HTN Estimates of degree to which diet contributes to cancer exceed

Meagher, Mary

83

Human hand impedance characteristics during maintained posture.  

PubMed

The present paper examines human hand impedance characteristics, including inertia and viscosity as well as stiffness, in multi-joint arm movements. While a subject maintains a given hand location, small external disturbances are applied to his hand by a manipulandum. The corresponding force-displacement vectors are measured and sampled over time in order to estimate the hand impedance by means of a second-order linear model. The experimental results in different subjects and hand locations are summarized as follows: (1) the estimated inertia matrices of the human hand well agrees with computed values using a two-joint arm model, (2) spatial variations of the stiffness ellipses are consistent with the experimental results of Mussa-Ivaldi et al. (1985), (3) hand stiffness and viscosity increase with the grip force of the subject, and (4) viscosity and stiffness ellipses tend to have similar orientation. The accuracy of the impedance estimation method is validated with a mechanical spring-mass system with known parameters. PMID:7612720

Tsuji, T; Morasso, P G; Goto, K; Ito, K

1995-01-01

84

We Call It "Our Language": A Children's Swahili Pidgin Transforms Social and Symbolic Order on a Remote Hillside in Up-Country Kenya  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study describes a rare Swahili pidgin created by two five-year-old boys, one American and one African. The discussion examines the linguistic and social factors affecting the "origins, maintenance, change and loss" (Hymes 1971) of their language and the place it created for their friendship. This place, constructed by and through language,…

Gilmore, Perry

2011-01-01

85

Attention Training for Generalized Social Anxiety Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Attentional bias toward negative social cues is thought to serve an etiological and\\/or maintaining role in social anxiety disorder (SAD). The current study tested whether training patients to disengage from negative social cues may ameliorate social anxiety in patients (N = 36) with a primary diagnosis of generalized SAD. Patients were randomly assigned to either an attention training condition (n

Norman B. Schmidt; J. Anthony Richey; Julia D. Buckner; Kiara R. Timpano

2009-01-01

86

[Comparison of the effects of exchange forms on social solidarity].  

PubMed

Although social solidarity is an essential component that helps maintaining social order, what produces solidarity and how does it work have not been fully investigated. We conducted an experiment to examine whether experiencing different forms of social exchange produces different levels of solidarity. We compared four forms of social exchange: reciprocal exchange (exchange resources without negotiation), negotiated exchange (with negotiation), pure-generalized exchange (giver can choose who to give) and chain-generalized exchange (giver cannot choose who to give). Two dimensions classify these exchanges: the number of players (two vs. more than two), and involvement of negotiation. Reciprocal and negotiated exchanges occur within dyads, while pure- and chain-generalized exchanges involve three or more players. Only the negotiated exchange involves negotiation process; the other exchanges are purely unilateral giving. Participants played a one-shot social dilemma game (SDG) before and after social exchange session. The more the players cooperated in SDG, the stronger the social solidarity. Results show that the cooperation rate in SDG increased more in the reciprocal, pure- and chain-generalized exchange conditions than that in the negotiated exchange condition, suggesting that social solidarity is facilitated by experiencing social exchange which does not involve negotiation. PMID:22715536

Inaba, Misato; Takahashi, Nobuyuki

2012-04-01

87

Social science information & documentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chapter gives an overview of information and documentation resources and activities in the social sciences. It describes some of the characteristics of social science information and reports on some findings from research into the needs and behaviour of social scientists in information matters, in order to identify some of the inadequacies of traditional services. A selection of representative information

Hans-Christoph Hobohm

88

Key role of social work in effective communication and conflict resolution process: Medical Orders for Life-Sustaining Treatment (MOLST) Program in New York and shared medical decision making at the end of life.  

PubMed

In this article, the authors review the development of the Medical Orders for Life-Sustaining Treatment (MOLST) Program and recent landmark legislation in New York State in the context of advance care planning and shared medical decision making at the end of life. Social workers are central health care professionals in working with patients, families, practitioners, health care agents, and surrogates in the health systems and in the communication and conflict resolution process that is integral to health care decision making. The critical importance of ethics and end-of-life training and education for social workers is also addressed. Data from a pilot study evaluating interdisciplinary ethics training on legal and ethical content in communication and conflict resolution skills in health care decision making are reported. Recommendations are made for research on education and training of social workers, and investigation of the role and influence of systems in shaping social work involvement in end-of-life and palliative care. PMID:21391078

Bomba, Patricia A; Morrissey, Mary Beth; Leven, David C

2011-01-01

89

Space maintainers in dentistry: past to present.  

PubMed

Early orthodontic interventions are often initiated in the developing dentition to promote favourable developmental changes. Interceptive orthodontic can eliminate or reduce the severity of a developing malocclusion, the complexity of orthodontic treatment, overall treatment time and cost. The safest way to prevent future malocclusions from tooth loss is to place a space maintainer that is effective and durable. An appropriate use of space maintainer is advocated to hold the space until the eruption of permanent teeth. This case report describes the various changing trends in use of space maintainers: conventional band and loop, prefabricated band with custom made loop and glass fibre reinforced composite resins as space maintainers. PMID:24298544

Setia, Vikas; Pandit, Inder Kumar; Srivastava, Nikhil; Gugnani, Neeraj; Sekhon, Harveen Kaur

2013-10-01

90

Designing for Maintainability and System Availability  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The final goal for a delivered system (whether a car, aircraft, avionics box or computer) should be its availability to operate and perform its intended function over its expected design life. Hence, in designing a system, we cannot think in terms of delivering the system and just walking away. The system supplier needs to provide support throughout the operating life of the product. Here, supportability requires an effective combination of reliability, maintainability, logistics and operations engineering (as well as safety engineering) to have a system that is available for its intended use throughout its designated mission lifetime. Maintainability is a key driving element in the effective support and upkeep of the system as well as providing the ability to modify and upgrade the system throughout its lifetime. This paper then, will concentrate on maintainability and its integration into the system engineering and design process. The topics to be covered include elements of maintainability, the total cost of ownership, how system availability, maintenance and logistics costs and spare parts cost effect the overall program costs. System analysis and maintainability will show how maintainability fits into the overall systems approach to project development. Maintainability processes and documents will focus on how maintainability is to be performed and what documents are typically generated for a large scale program. Maintainability analysis shows how trade-offs can be performed for various alternative components. The conclusions summarize the paper and are followed by specific problems for hands-on training.

Lalli, Vincent R.; Packard, Michael H.

1997-01-01

91

Changing social norm compliance with noninvasive brain stimulation.  

PubMed

All known human societies have maintained social order by enforcing compliance with social norms. The biological mechanisms underlying norm compliance are, however, hardly understood. We show that the right lateral prefrontal cortex (rLPFC) is involved in both voluntary and sanction-induced norm compliance. Both types of compliance could be changed by varying the neural excitability of this brain region with transcranial direct current stimulation, but they were affected in opposite ways, suggesting that the stimulated region plays a fundamentally different role in voluntary and sanction-based compliance. Brain stimulation had a particularly strong effect on compliance in the context of socially constituted sanctions, whereas it left beliefs about what the norm prescribes and about subjectively expected sanctions unaffected. Our findings suggest that rLPFC activity is a key biological prerequisite for an evolutionarily and socially important aspect of human behavior. PMID:24091703

Ruff, C C; Ugazio, G; Fehr, E

2013-10-25

92

Social Science Hub  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Maintained by Sharyn Clarkson, a BA in sociology and anthropology, this Website provides a directory for those looking for materials in the social sciences. The site features categorized listings of social science Websites, online journals and e-zines, search engines, government Websites, databases and archives, interactive forums, and a what's new section. There is an emphasis, but by no means an exclusive one, on Australian materials. Some entries are annotated, and the site is frequently updated.

93

Metrics for assessing a software system's maintainability  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is noted that the factors of software that determine or influence maintainability can be organized into a hierarchical structure of measurable attributes. For each of these attributes the authors show a metric definition consistent with the published definitions of the software characteristic being measured. The result is a tree structure of maintainability metrics which can be used for purposes

Paul Oman; Jack Hagemeister

1992-01-01

94

Constructing and testing software maintainability assessment models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Software metrics are used to quantitatively characterize the essential features of software. The paper investigates the use of metrics in assessing software maintainability by presenting and comparing seven software maintainability assessment models. Eight software systems were used for initial construction and calibrating the automated assessment models, and an additional six software systems were used for testing the results. A comparison

Fang Zhuo; Bruce Lowther; Paul Oman; Jack Hagemeister

1993-01-01

95

Cell Reports AKAP-Anchored PKA Maintains  

E-print Network

Cell Reports Article AKAP-Anchored PKA Maintains Neuronal L-type Calcium Channel Activity and NFAT to the channel by A-kinase anchoring protein 79/150 (AKAP79/150). AKAP79/150 anchoring of CaN also promotes LTCC report here that the basal activity of AKAP79/150-anchored PKA maintains neuronal LTCC coupling to Ca

Scott, John D.

96

Determining system maintainability as a probability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Maintainability has often been defined in principle as the probability that a system or component can be repaired in a specific time given that it is in a failed state, but presented in practice in terms of mean-time-to-repair. In this paper, formulas are developed for maintainability as a probability, analogous to those for reliability and availability. This formulation is expressed

R. E. Wright; C. L. Atwood

1988-01-01

97

School Of Social Work School Of Social Work  

E-print Network

School Of Social Work School Of Social Work Carrie Jefferson Smith, Director, 315-443-5562 Sims-443-5562. The undergraduate professional social work program offers a bachelor of science degree. The goals of this program, in order of priority, are as follows: 1. To prepare undergraduate social work students for competent entry

McConnell, Terry

98

An Empirical Analysis of the Impact of Recruitment Patterns on RDS Estimates among a Socially Ordered Population of Female Sex Workers in China  

PubMed Central

Respondent-driven sampling (RDS) is a method for recruiting “hidden” populations through a network-based, chain and peer referral process. RDS recruits hidden populations more effectively than other sampling methods and promises to generate unbiased estimates of their characteristics. RDS’s faithful representation of hidden populations relies on the validity of core assumptions regarding the unobserved referral process. With empirical recruitment data from an RDS study of female sex workers (FSWs) in Shanghai, we assess the RDS assumption that participants recruit nonpreferentially from among their network alters. We also present a bootstrap method for constructing the confidence intervals around RDS estimates. This approach uniquely incorporates real-world features of the population under study (e.g., the sample’s observed branching structure). We then extend this approach to approximate the distribution of RDS estimates under various peer recruitment scenarios consistent with the data as a means to quantify the impact of recruitment bias and of rejection bias on the RDS estimates. We find that the hierarchical social organization of FSWs leads to recruitment biases by constraining RDS recruitment across social classes and introducing bias in the RDS estimates. PMID:24288418

Yamanis, Thespina J.; Merli, M. Giovanna; Neely, William Whipple; Tian, Felicia Feng; Moody, James; Tu, Xiaowen; Gao, Ersheng

2013-01-01

99

An Introduction to Social Policy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created and maintained by Paul Spicker, a professor of politics specializing in social policy, this Website presents a detailed, yet schematic view of the main themes, concepts, and controversies surrounding issues of the welfare state and social services. The site offers sections on social policy, welfare and society, social need, the welfare state, social services, the politics of welfare, British social policy, social services in the UK, and social policy on the Web (a collection of annotated links). Using a hypertext, bulleted format, the author manages to convey significant amounts of information about complex ideas in a relatively brief span without oversimplifying. An excellent resource for economics and sociology students working on social policy topics.

Spicker, Paul.

100

An agent model of social network and travel behavior interdependence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Travel is a prerequisite for activities which maintain social and business connections, building the vital social networks which conduct the flow of values, services, and opportunity. This paper presents a multi-agent simulation to study linked geographical and social spaces. The model simultaneously generates a social network and travel behavior by defining social-networking visits as travel activities. Information about space and

Jeremy Hackney; Kay W. Axhausen

101

Social behavior as discriminative stimulus and consequence in social anthropology  

PubMed Central

A behavior analysis is provided for three topics in social anthropology. Food, social relations, and ritual behaviors can enter into contingencies both as functional consequences and as discriminative stimuli for the reinforcement of behaviors through generalized social consequences. Many “symbolic” behaviors, which some social anthropologists believe go beyond an individual material basis, are analyzed as the latter. It is shown how the development of self-regulation to bridge remote consequences can undermine a group's generalized social control. It is also shown that rituals and taboos can be utilized to maintain generalized social compliance, which in turn can maintain both the community's verbal behavior and other group behaviors that bridge indirect and remote consequences. PMID:22478112

Guerin, Bernard

1992-01-01

102

Order-defects-order  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The manifestation of the universal laws of organization of systems (in particular, the law of small integers) and the formation of a crystal from a point is shown by the example of order-disorder-order relations and comparison of the quantitative connectivity relations of vertices in borate radicals and organic polycycles.

Smirnova, N. L.

2008-12-01

103

What's your personal social media strategy?  

PubMed

Social media are changing the way we do business and how leaders are perceived, from the shop floor to the CEO suite. But whereas the best businesses are creating comprehensive strategies in thi area, research suggests that few corporate Leaders have a social media presence--say, a Facebook or Linked in of page--and that those do don't use it strategically. Today's leaders must embrace social media for three reasons, First, they provide a low-cost, highly accessible platform on which to build your personal brand, communicating who you are both within and outside your company. Second, they allow you to engage rapidly and simultaneously with peers, employees, customers, and the broader public--in order to leverage relationships, show commitment to a cause, and demonstrate a capacity for reflection. Third, they give you an opportunity to learn from instant information and unvarnished feedback. To formulate your personal social media strategy, it helps to clarify your goals (personal, professional, or both), desired audience (private or public), and resources (can you justify using your company's?). You must also consider the risks of maintaining a large number of connections and of sharing content online. Active participation in social media can be a powerful tool--the difference between leading effectively and ineffectively, and between advancing and faltering in the pursuit of your goals. PMID:21049685

Dutta, Soumitra

2010-11-01

104

Canadian Social Research Links  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Maintained with almost obsessive thoroughness by an employee at Human Resources Development Canada, this Website is an excellent gateway to Canadian social science resources on the Web. The site offers collections of annotated links from government outlets, academic sources, policy institutions, and NGOs. Visitors can browse sites under regional and thematic categories as well use "quicklinks" to government sources for social science data, including social policy, economic, and employment data. The annotations are very helpful, usually including the date of a document or a Website's last update and a summary or quotation from the resource. Some resources are presented in a pro-and-con format so that researchers can immediately compare reports and arguments from credible sources on political and social issues. Theme lists include hundreds of links in disability, education, human rights, homelessness and hunger, election 2000, social research organizations, unions, UN links, women's social issues, and dozens more. Also, the author provides a free weekly email newsletter that includes the latest updates to the Website. There is much more here, but I think interested parties get the idea: anyone doing social research in or about Canada will definitely want to bookmark this one. The site is the sole property and responsibility of Gilles Seguin who maintains the site on his own time. And yes, the site is also available in French.

105

Maintaining Financial Stability in a Global Economy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City has made available the papers presented at the "Maintaining Financial Stability in a Global Economy" symposium. The aim of the symposium is to explore "options for public authorities in adapting policies to keep financial systems safe and efficient, and to discuss response mechanisms to financial crises." The papers presented here look at the causes of financial instability, why policymakers should be concerned about financial instability, lessons from recent financial crises, and policies for maintaining financial stability.

1997-01-01

106

Maintaining competency for float nursing staff.  

PubMed

Orienting staff to multiple areas is challenging, as is maintaining multiple competencies, which might be used infrequently. Creating a strategy to regularly assess needed competencies to maintain a highly skilled pool of nurses, prepared to float to multiple areas, is critical to supporting flexible staffing. A plan for how to achieve this complex analysis is described and can be translated to other complex environments. PMID:25036084

Overman, Kimberly; Hauver, Jeni; McKay, Jennifer; Aucoin, Julia

2014-01-01

107

Social and ecological resilience: are they related?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article defines social resilience as the ability of groups or communities to cope with external stresses and disturbances as a result of social, political and environmental change. This definition highlights social resilience in relation to the concept of ecological resilience which is a characteristic of ecosystems to maintain themselves in the face of disturbance. There is a clear link

W. Neil Adger

2000-01-01

108

What is social about social perception research?  

PubMed

A growing consensus in social cognitive neuroscience holds that large portions of the primate visual brain are dedicated to the processing of social information, i.e., to those aspects of stimuli that are usually encountered in social interactions such as others' facial expressions, actions, and symbols. Yet, studies of social perception have mostly employed simple pictorial representations of conspecifics. These stimuli are social only in the restricted sense that they physically resemble objects with which the observer would typically interact. In an equally important sense, however, these stimuli might be regarded as "non-social": the observer knows that they are viewing pictures and might therefore not attribute current mental states to the stimuli or might do so in a qualitatively different way than in a real social interaction. Recent studies have demonstrated the importance of such higher-order conceptualization of the stimulus for social perceptual processing. Here, we assess the similarity between the various types of stimuli used in the laboratory and object classes encountered in real social interactions. We distinguish two different levels at which experimental stimuli can match social stimuli as encountered in everyday social settings: (1) the extent to which a stimulus' physical properties resemble those typically encountered in social interactions and (2) the higher-level conceptualization of the stimulus as indicating another person's mental states. We illustrate the significance of this distinction for social perception research and report new empirical evidence further highlighting the importance of mental state attribution for perceptual processing. Finally, we discuss the potential of this approach to inform studies of clinical conditions such as autism. PMID:23355814

Teufel, Christoph; von dem Hagen, Elisabeth; Plaisted-Grant, Kate C; Edmonds, James J; Ayorinde, John O; Fletcher, Paul C; Davis, Greg

2012-01-01

109

Stoichiometric analysis of self-maintaining metabolisms.  

PubMed

This paper presents an extension of stoichiometric analysis in systems where the catalytic compounds (enzymes) are also intermediates of the metabolic network (dual property), so they are produced and degraded by the reaction network itself. To take this property into account, we introduce the definition of enzyme-maintaining mode, a set of reactions that produces its own catalyst and can operate at stationary state. Moreover, an enzyme-maintaining mode is defined as elementary with respect to a given reaction if the removal of any of the remaining reactions causes the cessation of any steady state flux through this reference reaction. These concepts are applied to determine the network structure of a simple self-maintaining system. PMID:18222485

Montero, Francisco; Nuño, Juan Carlos; Meléndez-Hevia, Enrique; Olasagasti, Felix; Vázquez, Sara; Morán, Federico

2008-06-01

110

Automated Methods to Maintain Aircraft Separation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The air traffic control system in the United States has a great track-record for safety. As more aircraft enter the system at a given time, the situation becomes more complex though. Researchers at NASA are attempting to leverage advances in many fields including optimization, data mining, and numerical modeling of systems to improve the air-transportation system maintaining safety while increasing throughput and reducing delays. This talk will give a brief overview of the research at NASA towards modernizing the air-transportation system. It will then focus on the specific area of automation tools for maintaining physical separation between aircraft known as Separation Assurance.

Lauderdale, Todd

2011-01-01

111

Effects of Multisensory Environments on Stereotyped Behaviours Assessed as Maintained by Automatic Reinforcement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of the sensory equipment provided in a multi-sensory environment (MSE) and the level of social contact provided on levels of stereotyped behaviours assessed as being maintained by automatic reinforcement. Method: Stereotyped and engaged behaviours of two young people with severe…

Hill, Lindsay; Trusler, Karen; Furniss, Frederick; Lancioni, Giulio

2012-01-01

112

The Performance of Grant Maintained Schools in England: An Experiment in Autonomy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines recruitment and examination performance of 327 British grant-maintained schools from 1991 to 1996, compared to 108 local education authority schools. The GM schools' apparently higher performance may be attributed to having fewer socially disadvantaged students and reducing this proportion over time. Implications are discussed. Contains…

Levacic, Rosalind; Hardman, Jason

1999-01-01

113

Methadone anonymous: A 12?step program for methadone maintained heroin addicts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methadone Anonymous (MA) is a new 12?step fellowship developed for methadone maintained heroin addicts. A total of 53 MA members completed a survey assessing factors related to methadone maintenance treatment program (MMTP) entry, drug use, MA participation, beliefs concerning effectiveness of MMTP and MA, and level of social cohesiveness. Length of time in MA was associated with a decreased use

Stephen M. Gilman; Marc Galanter; Helen Dermatis

2001-01-01

114

Alertness maintaining tasks (AMTs) while driving  

Microsoft Academic Search

We evaluated the effectiveness of alertness maintaining tasks (AMTs) on driver performance, subjective feelings, and psychophysiological state in monotonous simulated driving in two experiments. In the first experiment, 12 professional truck drivers participated in five sessions of simulated driving: driving only, driving with one of three AMTs (counterbalanced), and driving while listening to music. AMTs were not equally effective in

Tal Oron-Gilad; Adi Ronen; David Shinar

2008-01-01

115

Web Maintainers Forum 29 August 2013  

E-print Network

1 Web Maintainers Forum 29 August 2013 Agenda Welcome and introduction Web team Update My Baker, WCMS Project Manager) Questions Web team update Web team site rebranded http://www.canterbury.ac.nz/web/ When was the last time you visited the web team site: August? June or July? 2013? 2012? Never

Hickman, Mark

116

Maintaining Academic Integrity in Online Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

Online education has come under a great deal of scrutiny over the issue of academic integrity. It is assumed that cheating and plagiarism are a greater problem online than in a traditional class. In reality, maintaining academic integrity is equally a challenge in both delivery modes. However, by the very nature of online education, a case can be made that

Michael Heberling

117

Original article Preconditioning treatment maintains taste characteristic  

E-print Network

fruits immediately after harvest and prior to cold storage at 20 °C for 24­48 h in special chambers aimed fruit during this 40-day cold- storage period. Preconditioned and control fruit were also segregated maintained their sensory characteristics longer than control fruit during this 40-day cold-storage period

Crisosto, Carlos H.

118

Synaptic AMPA receptor exchange maintains bidirectional plasticity.  

PubMed

Activity-dependent synaptic delivery of GluR1-, GluR2L-, and GluR4-containing AMPA receptors (-Rs) and removal of GluR2-containing AMPA-Rs mediate synaptic potentiation and depression, respectively. The obvious puzzle is how synapses maintain the capacity for bidirectional plasticity if different AMPA-Rs are utilized for potentiation and depression. Here, we show that synaptic AMPA-R exchange is essential for maintaining the capacity for bidirectional plasticity. The exchange process consists of activity-independent synaptic removal of GluR1-, GluR2L-, or GluR4-containing AMPA-Rs and refilling with GluR2-containing AMPA-Rs at hippocampal and cortical synapses in vitro and in intact brains. In GluR1 and GluR2 knockout mice, initiation or completion of synaptic AMPA-R exchange is compromised, respectively. The complementary AMPA-R removal and refilling events in the exchange process ultimately maintain synaptic strength unchanged, but their long rate time constants ( approximately 15-18 hr) render transmission temporarily depressed in the middle of the exchange. These results suggest that the previously hypothesized "slot" proteins, rather than AMPA-Rs, code and maintain transmission efficacy at central synapses. PMID:16600857

McCormack, Stefanie G; Stornetta, Ruth L; Zhu, J Julius

2006-04-01

119

Obtaining, Maintaining, and Advancing Your Fitness Certification  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Public awareness of health, fitness, and exercise has increased and the fitness industry has expanded in recent years. Yet, ironically, the health of our nation continues to deteriorate. Now more than ever there is the need for qualified fitness professionals to help individuals to improve or maintain health and fitness. Since fitness…

Pierce, Patricia; Herman, Susan

2004-01-01

120

Maintaining Biconnected Components of Dynamic Planar Graphs  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present algorithms for maintaining the biconnected components of a planar graph undergoing repeated dynamic modifications, such as insertions and deletions of edges and vertices. We show how to test at any time whether two vertices belong to the same biconnected component, and how to insert and delete an edge in O(n 2=3 ) time in the worst case, where

Zvi Galil; Giuseppe F. Italiano

1991-01-01

121

WEB Maintainers Meetup Web Branding Committee  

E-print Network

WEB Maintainers Meetup UF/IFAS DEPARTMENT #12; Web Branding Committee Introduction and TERMINALFOUR (T4) recap Preparation Page layouts Questions #12;WEB BRANDING COMMITTEE what we heard #12;Some) is the new UF Web Content Management System (WCMS) chosen for the next five years. T4 allows non

Florida, University of

122

MAINTAIN YOUR HEALTH DURING A DISASTER  

E-print Network

health. Prepare for your health needs in advance by following these easy tips. Store enough food for yourMAINTAIN YOUR HEALTH DURING A DISASTER Food and Water Emergency situations can take a toll on your Commissioners Courts of Texas Cooperating Keep Your Health in Mind Avoid Illness Wash hands frequently

123

Maintaining Information Awareness in a Dynamic Environment  

E-print Network

Mechanism A Thesis Presented to The Academic Faculty by D. Scott McCrickard In Partial Ful llment 2000 Copyright c 2000 by D. Scott McCrickard #12;Maintaining Information Awareness in a Dynamic to keep a positive attitude while doing so. Special thanks to Joan Morton for constantly coming to my

McCrickard, Scott

124

Halema'uma'u Maintains Basic Geometry  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

The lava lake at Halema'uma'u has maintained the same basic geometry since February of this year. This thermal image was taken during a helicopter overflight, and shows the lava surface deep within the vent cavity. The lava surface is kidney-shaped and approximately 60 x 90 meters in size, and situa...

125

Maintaining and Repairing. CAP Job Function.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Job Function Booklet (Maintaining and Repairing) is one of the 14 components (see note) of the Career Alert Planning (CAP) program, a set of individualized materials designed to help participants find out about themselves and about the kind of work for which they are suited. In this program, participants become acquainted with occupations…

Ohio State Univ., Columbus. National Center for Research in Vocational Education.

126

Teaching and Maintaining Ethical Behavior in a Professional Organization  

PubMed Central

In addition to continuing education mandates by the Behavior Analyst Certification Board (BACB), behavior-analytic professional organizations may adopt systems that teach and maintain ethical behavior in its employees. Systems of ethical supervision and management may allow for an organization to customize training that prevents ethical misconduct by employees. These systems may also allow supervisors to identify ethical problems in their infancy, allowing the organization to mitigate concerns before they further develop. Systems of ethical management and supervision also may help to improve services and promote consumer protection. Additional benefits might include both avoiding litigation and loss of consumers and income. These systems may promote the field of Behavior Analysis as a desirable, consumer-friendly approach to solving socially significant behavior problems. PMID:23730470

Brodhead, Matthew T.; Higbee, Thomas S.

2012-01-01

127

How do we make friends and why: An investigation into the human social brain   

E-print Network

The Social Brain Hypothesis regards large social groups of primates and particularly in humans as the result of the development of cognitive skills necessary for social interactions. However, it has not yet been discovered how humans can maintain...

Brockerhoff, Maja Andrea

2008-06-27

128

Social Suicide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Argues that social forces and social pathologies figure prominently in the dynamics of suicide. Gives several examples of "social suicide," including mass suicide, organizational self-destruction, social analogues to individual suicide, and military suicide. Claims that suicide prevention requires social, economic, and cultural transformations at…

Maris, Ronald W.

1997-01-01

129

65% of online adults use social networking sites  

E-print Network

than social networking tools. Looking at usage on a typical day, 43% of online adults use social-2011 The percentage of all adult internet users who use social networking sites since 2005 Source: Pew Research Center65% of online adults use social networking sites Women maintain their foothold on SNS use and older

Klein, Ophir

130

The role of infrasounds in maintaining whale herds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For whales and dolphins a basic social unit is the herd. In several species, herds have been observed to maintain the same speed, direction, and membership overnight, and while swimming in waters of near-zero visibility-evidence that individuals can stay together using nonvisual cues. The most likely such cue is sound. If whale herds are held together with sound, yet we define herds as groups of whales seen moving together, then we are using visual criteria to judge what is an acoustic phenomenon, and our conclusions about a most basic unit of cetacean social structure, the herd, are at least incomplete, and, quite possibly, worthless. By calling herds, heards, we remind ourselves that sound controls herd size. We then consider that some whale infrasound can propagate across deep water at useful intensities (even in today's ship-noise-polluted ocean) for thousands of kilometers. The distance to which blue and fin whale sounds propagate before falling below background noise is given, and the possible advantages these whales obtain from such sounds is explored. The conclusion is that by sharing information on food finds infrasonically, fin and blue whales may have developed a way to divide up the food resources of an entire ocean.

Payne, Roger S.

2001-05-01

131

Maintaining Abstinence in College: Temptations and Tactics  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a As the previous chapter notes, the Collegiate Recovery Community (CRC) at Texas Tech University maintains an impressive relapse\\u000a rate of only 4.4% per semester, which means that more than 95% of the community members continue their successful recovery\\u000a each semester. Although one of bedrock beliefs of the Center for Study of Addiction and Recovery is that young men and women

Richard P. Wiebe; H. Harrington Cleveland; Lukas R. Dean

132

SOCIAL POLICY Predesigned Concentration Information  

E-print Network

credits or more)* PA 5261 Housing Policy 3 PA 5301 Population Methods and Issues 3 PA 5401 Poverty policy as a significant force in the ordering of social, economic, and political relations. Students pursuing this concentration focus on policy questions related to social problems, social inequalities

Levinson, David M.

133

Alertness maintaining tasks (AMTs) while driving.  

PubMed

We evaluated the effectiveness of alertness maintaining tasks (AMTs) on driver performance, subjective feelings, and psychophysiological state in monotonous simulated driving in two experiments. In the first experiment, 12 professional truck drivers participated in five sessions of simulated driving: driving only, driving with one of three AMTs (counterbalanced), and driving while listening to music. AMTs were not equally effective in maintaining alertness. The trivia AMT prevented driving performance deterioration, and increased alertness (measured by standardized HRV). The choice reaction time AMT was least demanding but also increased subjective sleepiness and reduced arousal (measured by alpha/beta ratio). The working memory AMT caused a significant decrement in driving speed, increased subjective fatigue, and was regarded by the participants as detrimental to driving. Trivia was preferred by the majority of the drivers over the other two AMTs. Experiment 2 further examined the utility of the trivia AMT. When the drivers engaged in the trivia AMT they maintained better driving performance and perceived the driving duration as shorter than the control condition. The two experiments demonstrated that AMTs can have a positive effect on alertness. The effect is localized in the sense that it does not persist beyond the period of the AMT activation. PMID:18460351

Oron-Gilad, Tal; Ronen, Adi; Shinar, David

2008-05-01

134

Interventions to Maintain Mobility: What Works?  

PubMed Central

Mobility, in broad terms, includes everything from the ability to move within your immediate environment (e.g., get out of bed) to the ability to drive across the country. Mobility is essential to maintaining independence and wellbeing, particularly for older adults. This is highlighted by the large number of interventions developed for older adults with the goal of maintaining such mobility. The current paper reviews the state of the science with respect to mobility interventions. Inclusion criteria for the review were: (1) articles must have been peer-reviewed; (2) interventions were evaluated in a randomized controlled trial (RCT); (3) studies included a mobility outcome such as lifespace, driving, or walking ability, (4) studies included a sample of healthy community-dwelling older adults (e.g., not investigations of disease conditions); and (5) studies reported enough empirical data and detail such that results could potentially be replicated. Three main types of interventions were identified: cognitive training, educational interventions, and exercise interventions. A detailed summary and evaluation of each type of intervention, and the current evidence regarding its effectiveness in maintaining mobility, are discussed. Several interventions show clear evidence of effectiveness, and thus are prime areas for translation of results to the older population. Needs and issues for future intervention research are also detailed. PMID:23083492

Ross, Lesley A.; Schmidt, Erica L.; Ball, Karlene

2012-01-01

135

SocialAnthropology Social Anthropology  

E-print Network

146 SocialAnthropology Social Anthropology MA (Single Honours Degree) Social Anthropology MA (Joint Honours Degrees) Social Anthropology and one of: Ancient History Arabic Art History Classical Studies the majority of the course deals with the first-named subject: Economics with Social Anthropology Geography

Brierley, Andrew

136

Nutritional ecology beyond the individual: a conceptual framework for integrating nutrition and social interactions.  

PubMed

Over recent years, modelling approaches from nutritional ecology (known as Nutritional Geometry) have been increasingly used to describe how animals and some other organisms select foods and eat them in appropriate amounts in order to maintain a balanced nutritional state maximising fitness. These nutritional strategies profoundly affect the physiology, behaviour and performance of individuals, which in turn impact their social interactions within groups and societies. Here, we present a conceptual framework to study the role of nutrition as a major ecological factor influencing the development and maintenance of social life. We first illustrate some of the mechanisms by which nutritional differences among individuals mediate social interactions in a broad range of species and ecological contexts. We then explain how studying individual- and collective-level nutrition in a common conceptual framework derived from Nutritional Geometry can bring new fundamental insights into the mechanisms and evolution of social interactions, using a combination of simulation models and manipulative experiments. PMID:25586099

Lihoreau, Mathieu; Buhl, Jerome; Charleston, Michael A; Sword, Gregory A; Raubenheimer, David; Simpson, Stephen J

2015-03-01

137

33 CFR 150.555 - How must cranes be maintained?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How must cranes be maintained? 150.555 Section 150.555...Miscellaneous Operations § 150.555 How must cranes be maintained? Cranes must be operated, maintained, and tested in...

2010-07-01

138

50-GHz, ultrastable, polarization-maintaining semiconductor fiber ring laser  

E-print Network

50-GHz, ultrastable, polarization-maintaining semiconductor fiber ring laser Antonios stable, all-polarization-maintaining fiber semiconductor ring laser source. It uses a semiconductor: fiber lasers; gain modulation; semiconductor optical amplifier; polarization-maintaining ring laser

Vlachos, Kyriakos G.

139

Role of training in maintaining equipment qualification  

SciTech Connect

During the last decade, US nuclear utilities have expended over half a billion dollars in establishing equipment qualification (EQ); i.e., demonstrating that all safety-related equipment can perform its function during design basis accidents and earthquakes, even if degraded by years of aging during plant operation. Focus is now on maintaining EQ-preserving the qualified configuration of installed equipment, performing special EQ maintenance (including replacement of parts, sometimes with dedicated commercial grade items), and preserving an auditable trail of EQ documentation. Because of the high turnover rate in personnel involved in EQ, utilities are examining their EQ staffing and training needs to guard against a possible gradual erosion of expertise in and attention to EQ. This paper gives a brief overview of EQ, establishes the need for comprehensive training on maintaining EQ, and presents the EQ knowledge requirements for four sectors of personnel (maintenance, engineering, QA, and management). Finally, the essential elements of training course materials to meet these needs are identified.

Sliter, G. (Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (United States)); Kasturi, S. (MOS, Melville, NY (United States))

1993-08-01

140

Social Experiments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Earlier this year, CASE formed a social media task force to explore what educational institutions are trying to achieve with social media presence and learn about social media engagements at member institutions. CASE, in partnership with mStoner and Slover Linett Strategies, in June launched a benchmarking survey on social media in advancement by…

Slover-Linett, Cheryl; Stoner, Michael

2010-01-01

141

Social psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Slowly but surely, social psychology is coming into its own as the study of the social behavior of the individual. Many writers are noting, and some are investigating, social stimulus and response, and the specific effect of a social environment upon individual reaction. In spite of the persistent speculative essays of the old school, the trend is encouragingly toward observation

Floyd H. Allport

1920-01-01

142

Maintaining good morale in old age.  

PubMed Central

Traditional aging studies have seen life's later years as a time of inevitable biological and social decline. Psychological decline might also be expected, but this is not true for most older people, according to epidemiologic studies. Thus, we must ask: Why is aging not as emotionally threatening as might be expected? Why do some older people do better than others? How should medicine address these issues? It is only possible to understand the successful emotional aging of most elders if the customary diathesis-stress model is supplemented by a developmental perspective. Expectations as well as capacities diminish with aging. This means that subjective health appears more tightly linked with morale than objective health. Some older people experience recurrence of mental disorders (for example, major depression) first present earlier in life. Others experience new disorders such as minor depression in response to biological or social losses. As geriatric medicine comes to increasingly focus on chronic disease, attention to morale is an important strategy for maximizing quality of life. Physicians will need improved skills in the detection and treatment of problems in morale if they are to provide optimum care for their older patients. PMID:9348760

Sullivan, M D

1997-01-01

143

The energy for growing and maintaining cities.  

PubMed

Herein we develop a means to differentiate between the energy required to expand and the energy required to maintain the economies of cities. A nonlinear model is tested against historical data for two cities, Hong Kong and Singapore. A robust fit is obtained for Hong Kong, with energy for maintenance close to that for growth, while Singapore, with a weaker fit, is growth dominated. The findings suggest that decreases in either of the per unit maintenance or growth demands can simultaneously cause gross domestic product (GDP) and total energy use to increase. Furthermore, increasing maintenance demands can significantly limit growth in energy demand and GDP. Thus, the low maintenance demands for Hong Kong, and especially Singapore, imply that, all other things being equal, GDP and energy use of these cities will continue to grow, though Singapore's higher energy use for growth means it will require more energy than Hong Kong. PMID:23001945

Bristow, David N; Kennedy, Christopher A

2013-02-01

144

Maintaining human productivity during Mars transit  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper addresses the special nature of the human-machine relationship during a trip to Mars. In particular, the potential for monotony and boredom during a long-duration space voyage and the effect on motivation and productivity can be important considerations to the health and welfare of the crew. For the voyage to Mars, a design may be considered that will purposefully maintain some level of workload for the crew as a preventive measure for the deterioration of productivity that comes with boredom. This paper speculates on these considerations, on the appropriate level of workload for maximum productivity, and on what might be done during the mission to alleviate the problems caused by monotony and boredom.

Statler, Irving C.; Billings, Charles E.

1989-01-01

145

Social economics and social capital  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper evaluates key developments in the social capital literature over the past decade. It then examines empirical work on the purported the link between social capital and economic performance. Although these results indicate that good governance and social cohesion make a measurable contribution to economic development, the offer little guidance for policy formulation. Early contributors to the social capital

Joe Wallis; Paul Killerby; Brian Dollery

2004-01-01

146

Work Adjustment of the Methadone-Maintained Corporate Employee  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The work adjustment of 26 methadone-maintained corporate employees was evaluated. Results indicated: (a) relative to their nonmethadone-maintained coworkers, the methadone-maintained employees had comparable job performance and superior punctuality and attendance; and (b) the methadone-maintained skilled laborers were satisfied with their…

Yankowitz, Robert; Randell, Joan

1977-01-01

147

The moderating role of attachment anxiety on social network site use intensity and social capital.  

PubMed

This study examined the moderating role of attachment anxiety on the relationship between intensity of social network site use and bridging, bonding, and maintained social capital. Data from 322 undergraduate Chinese students were collected. Hierarchical regression analyses showed positive relationships between online intensity of social network site use and the three types of social capital. Moreover, attachment anxiety moderated the effect of intensity of social network site use on social capital. Specifically, for students with lower attachment anxiety, the relationships between intensity of social network site use and bonding and bridging social capital were stronger than those with higher attachment anxiety. The result suggested that social network sites cannot improve highly anxiously attached individuals' social capital effectively; they may need more face-to-face communications. PMID:23654041

Liu, Haihua; Shi, Junqi; Liu, Yihao; Sheng, Zitong

2013-02-01

148

Problems and prospects for the social support-reactivity hypothesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social support and integration have been linked to health and longevity in many correlational studies. To explain how social\\u000a relationship might enhance health, investigators are examining the effects of social support on physiological processes implicated\\u000a in disease. Much of this research focuses on testing the social support-reactivity hypothesis, which maintains that social\\u000a support enhances health by reducing psychobiologic reactivity to

Stephen J. Lepore

1998-01-01

149

Social Phobia (Social Anxiety Disorder): Always Embarrassed  

MedlinePLUS

... of anxiety disorder called social phobia, also called social anxiety disorder. What is social phobia? Social phobia is a ... us to find out more about Social Phobia (Social Anxiety Disorder). Visit the National Library of Medicine's MedlinePlus En ...

150

Research Report Toward socially inspired social neuroscience  

E-print Network

: Social cognitive-affective neuroscience Person perception Impression formation Social psychology 1Research Report Toward socially inspired social neuroscience Alexander Todorov, Lasana T. Harris Social neuroscience, often viewed as studying the neural foundations of social cognition, has roots

Todorov, Alex

151

Followership in Ecology/Environment Social Movements.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper analyzes the failure of the ecology/environmental movement to develop into a social movement and to generate a mass following. The movement has had difficulty not only in organizing collective behavior but also in maintaining the necessary momentum to change into a full-fledged social movement. Obvious reasons are that ecologists…

Clavner, Jerry B.; Sumodi, Veronica R.

152

Parents, Peer Groups, and Other Socializing Influences.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Critically examines three propositions of Harris' group socialization theory (1995, 1998) related to parents' long-term effects on children's psychological characteristics, peer groups' influences, and the nature of dyadic relationships. Maintains that available evidence is more consistent with a model of multiple socialization agents. Proposes a…

Vandell, Deborah Lowe

2000-01-01

153

How is epigenetic information maintained through DNA replication?  

PubMed Central

DNA replication is a highly conserved process that accurately copies the genetic information from one generation to the next. The processes of chromatin disassembly and reassembly during DNA replication also have to be precisely regulated to ensure that the genetic material is compactly packaged to fit into the nucleus while also maintaining the epigenetic information that is carried by the histone proteins bound to the DNA, through cell divisions. Half of the histones that are deposited during replication are from the parental chromatin and carry the parental epigenetic information, while the other half of the histones are newly-synthesized. It has been of growing interest to understand how the parental pattern of epigenetic marks is re-established on the newly-synthesized histones, in a DNA sequence-specific manner, in order to maintain the epigenetic information through cell divisions. In this review we will discuss how histone chaperone proteins precisely coordinate the chromatin assembly process during DNA replication. We also discuss the recent evidence that histone-modifying enzymes, rather than the parental histones, are themselves epigenetic factors that remain associated with the DNA through replication to re-establish the epigenetic information on the newly-assembled chromatin. PMID:24225278

2013-01-01

154

Transposition as a mechanism for maintaining telomere length in Drosophila  

SciTech Connect

Telomeres are structures at the termini of linear chromosomes that serve to maintain the stability of those ends. Several functions have been attributed to telomeres, at least two of these are vital. The vital functions are (a) to {open_quotes}cap{close_quotes} the natural chromosome ends in order to distinguish them from broken ends and, thus, to protect them from recombination, repair, and degradation, and (b) to maintain chromosome length by periodic elongation and, thus, to counteract the inability of DNA polymerases to replicate linear chromosomes completely. While very little is known about capping, the mechanisms of telomere elongation in a number of organisms are being elucidated. Several models for elongation have been proposed. Recent evidence suggests that two of these may operate in different organisms or under different conditions. In many species elongation is accomplished by the interaction of two telomeric DNA repeats. The repeating unit is generally 6-8 basepairs (bp) long and guanine-rich on one strand. The sequence of the repeating unit is evolutionarily conserved, being very similar in ciliated protozoa, flowering plants and vertebrates. The second component is an enzyme, telomerase, that adds more copies of the repeating unit at the terminus. Telomerase resembles reverse transcriptases in structure and carries an associated RNA that is used as a template for the telomere extension.

Mason, J.M. [National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Biessmann, H. [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States)

1993-12-31

155

Boosting Social and Emotional Competence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Beland maintains that high school students will need a high level of skill in the social and emotional arena to be ready for competitive employment in the 21st century. In a 2006 survey, human resource professionals said five skills were most crucial to high school graduates' success: professionalism/work ethic; teamwork; oral communications;…

Beland, Kathy

2007-01-01

156

Social Networking: Keeping It Clean  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The need to maintain an unpolluted learning environment is no easy task for schools and districts that have incorporated social networking sites into their educational life. The staff and teachers at Blaine High School in Minnesota's Anoka-Hennepin District 11 had been considering the pros and cons of establishing a school Facebook page when the…

Waters, John K.

2011-01-01

157

Hands free data collection for aircraft maintainers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Todaypsilas high demand on our military aircraft and the corresponding lean maintenance workforce requires this lean workforce to focus their attention on repairing mission incapable aircraft, leaving little time to document their actions. When performing maintenance, technicians manage many resources, including team coordination requirements, various tools required for the job, technical order (TO) manuals, and various maintenance documentation systems. Many

Troy Grissom; Rob Done

2008-01-01

158

A Process Reengineering on Maintaining Safe Headway  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to solve the enormous differences about safe headway between the theoretical value from academic researches and the observational value from practical road conditions, in this paper, a new vehicle-following models is established to accurately simulate the vehicle-following process, which conforms to the actual situation much better, and an operable reference value could be deduced for car drivers. Combined

Xue Han; Jiang Shan

2010-01-01

159

Social Work and Applied Social Studies  

E-print Network

Social Work and Applied Social Studies Undergraduate 1 #12;www.bath.ac.uk/sps Undergraduate Social Work and Applied Social Studies What is Social Work? `The social work profession promotes social change' (International Federation of Social Workers, 2000) Social work is an exceptionally interesting, challenging

Burton, Geoffrey R.

160

Maintaining urban gas systems demands special technologies  

SciTech Connect

Brooklyn Union Gas Co. has been providing gas to 50% of the population of New York City for the last 100 years. The company has constructed an elaborate gas distribution network that includes a gas main under nearly every city street in a service territory that includes Brooklyn, Staten Island and parts of Queens. Conventional ways of pipeline construction and maintenance are inadequate in today's environment of heightened competition, increased regulations and, most importantly, demanding customer expectations of quality service. As a result, Brooklyn Union Gas must use special construction and maintenance methods in its operations, and in particular trenchless technologies. Over the past 10 years the company has paid close attention to developing a variety of trenchless techniques. Like many gas distribution companies providing service in densely populated urban areas, Brooklyn Union must operate and maintain its gas distribution network in a challenging environment of increasing governmental regulation and escalating field construction costs. Technological innovation is not a luxury, but instead a necessity to achieve corporate growth, regulatory compliance and greater customer satisfaction. Trenchless technologies offset rising pipe installation costs and provide benefits both to the customer and the company. Of special value to Brooklyn Union is the development of systems that renovate old metal pipes by lining. Such techniques are described.

Anglero, T.F. (Brooklyn Union Gas Co., NY (United States))

1994-04-01

161

Virus Movement Maintains Local Virus Population Diversity  

SciTech Connect

Viruses are the largest reservoir of genetic material on the planet, yet little is known about the population dynamics of any virus within its natural environment. Over a 2-year period, we monitored the diversity of two archaeal viruses found in hot springs within Yellowstone National Park (YNP). Both temporal phylogeny and neutral biodiversity models reveal that virus diversity in these local environments is not being maintained by mutation but rather by high rates of immigration from a globally distributed metacommunity. These results indicate that geographically isolated hot springs are readily able to exchange viruses. The importance of virus movement is supported by the detection of virus particles in air samples collected over YNP hot springs and by their detection in metacommunity sequencing projects conducted in the Sargasso Sea. Rapid rates of virus movement are not expected to be unique to these archaeal viruses but rather a common feature among virus metacommunities. The finding that virus immigration rather than mutation can dominate community structure has significant implications for understanding virus circulation and the role that viruses play in ecology and evolution by providing a reservoir of mobile genetic material.

J. Snyder; B. Wiedenheft; M. Lavin; F. Roberto; J. Spuhler; A. Ortmann; T. Douglas; M. Young

2007-11-01

162

Support activities to maintain SUMS flight readiness  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Shuttle Upper Atmosphere Mass Spectrometer (SUMS), a component experiment of the NASA Orbital Experiments Program (OEX), was flown aboard the shuttle Columbia (OV102) mounted at the forward end of the nose landing gear well with an atmospheric gas inlet system fitted to the lower fuselage (chin panel) surface. The SUMS was designed to provide atmospheric data in flow regimes inaccessible prior to the development of the Space Transportation System (STS). The experiment mission operation began about one hour prior to shuttle de-orbit entry maneuver and continued until reaching 1.6 torr (about 86 km altitude). The SUMS mass spectrometer consists of the spare unit from the Viking mission to Mars. Bendix Aerospace under contract to NASA LaRC incorporated the Viking mass spectrometer, a microprocessor based logic card, a pressurized instrument case, and the University of Texas at Dallas provided a gas inlet system into a configuration suited to interface with the shuttle Columbia. The SUMS experiment underwent static and dynamic calibration as well as vacuum maintenance before and after STS 40 shuttle flight. The SUMS flew a total of 3 times on the space shuttle Columbia. Between flights the SUMS was maintained in flight ready status. The flight data has been analyzed by the NASA LaRC Aerothermodynamics Branch. Flight data spectrum plots and reports are presented in the Appendices to the Final Technical Report for NAS1-17399.

Wright, Willie

1992-01-01

163

Arteriolar niches maintain haematopoietic stem cell quiescence  

PubMed Central

Cell cycle quiescence is a critical feature contributing to haematopoietic stem cell (HSC) maintenance. Although various candidate stromal cells have been identified as potential HSC niches, the spatial localization of quiescent HSCs in the bone marrow (BM) remains unclear. Here, using a novel approach that combines whole-mount confocal immunofluorescence imaging techniques and computational modelling to analyse significant tridimensional associations among vascular structures, stromal cells and HSCs, we show that quiescent HSCs associate specifically with small arterioles that are preferentially found in endosteal BM. These arterioles are ensheathed exclusively by rare NG2+ pericytes, distinct from sinusoid-associated LepR+ cells. Pharmacological or genetic activation of HSC cell cycle alters the distribution of HSCs from NG2+ peri-arteriolar niches to LepR+ peri-sinusoidal niches. Conditional depletion of NG2+ cells induces HSC cycling and reduces functional long-term repopulating HSCs in BM. These results thus indicate that arteriolar niches are indispensable to maintain HSC quiescence. PMID:24107994

Kunisaki, Yuya; Bruns, Ingmar; Scheiermann, Christoph; Ahmed, Jalal; Pinho, Sandra; Zhang, Dachuan; Mizoguchi, Toshihide; Wei, Qiaozhi; Lucas, Daniel; Ito, Keisuke; Mar, Jessica C.; Bergman, Aviv; Frenette, Paul S.

2013-01-01

164

Protecting America's secrets while maintaining academic freedom.  

PubMed

The terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, and the subsequent anthrax mail attacks, have had a profound impact on Americans' personal and professional lives and have sparked an active debate regarding the delicate balance between the need for national security and the pursuit of academic freedom. Although academic freedom can be defined in many ways, there are four primary tenets of freedom in an academic environment: freedom to research, freedom to publish, freedom to teach, and freedom to speak. Each of these tenets has come under attack in the wake of September 11, 2001. In this report the author further defines academic freedom and reflects upon recent events that have had a real or perceived impact on this freedom, including (1) attempts to categorize and restrict some research as "sensitive," (2) implementation of export control laws and select agent regulations, (3) limitations on the publication of research findings, (4) prohibition of certain foreign nationals from collaborating with U.S. researchers and receiving education and training in U.S. colleges and universities, and (5) restraint of faculty free speech. The author offers some suggestions as to how academia might achieve a proper balance between protecting our national security while promoting and maintaining academic freedom. PMID:15044166

Keel, Brooks A

2004-04-01

165

Maintaining dendritic cell viability in culture.  

PubMed

When mouse dendritic cells (DCs) are isolated from tissues, purified and placed in a nutritive culture they die more rapidly than would be expected from their normal turnover in vivo. This can distort culture assays of DC function. We therefore tested several approaches to prolonging DC survival in culture. Of several cytokines tested granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor was most effective at preserving the viability of conventional DCs (cDCs) but was ineffective for plasmacytoid DCs (pDCs). Surprisingly, Fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 ligand, crucial for DC development, produced only a marginal improvement in DC survival in culture, and interleukin-3, reported to prevent apoptosis of human pDCs, produced only a minor improvement in survival of mouse DCs. Genetic manipulation of cell death pathways was also tested, to avoid activation effects exerted by cytokine signalling. The isolation of DCs from mice overexpressing Bcl-2 was especially effective in maintaining pDC viability but gave a lesser improvement in cDC viability. DCs isolated from Bim(-/-)Noxa(-/-) mice also showed improved culture survival, but in this case with pDCs showing the least improvement. PMID:25081090

Vremec, David; Hansen, Jacinta; Strasser, Andreas; Acha-Orbea, Hans; Zhan, Yifan; O'Keeffe, Meredith; Shortman, Ken

2015-02-01

166

The critical power to maintain thermally stable molecular junctions.  

PubMed

With the rise of atomic-scale devices such as molecular electronics and scanning probe microscopies, energy transport processes through molecular junctions have attracted notable research interest recently. In this work, heat dissipation and transport across diamond/benzene/diamond molecular junctions are explored by performing atomistic simulations. We identify the critical power Pcr to maintain thermal stability of the junction through efficient dissipation of local heat. We also find that the molecule-probe contact features a power-dependent interfacial thermal resistance RK in the order of 10(9)?kW(-1). Moreover, both Pcr and RK display explicit dependence on atomic structures of the junction, force and temperature. For instance, Pcr can be elevated in multiple-molecule junctions, and streching the junction enhances RK by a factor of 2. The applications of these findings in molecular electronics and scanning probing measurements are discussed, providing practical guidelines in their rational design. PMID:25005801

Wang, Yanlei; Xu, Zhiping

2014-01-01

167

The critical power to maintain thermally stable molecular junctions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the rise of atomic-scale devices such as molecular electronics and scanning probe microscopies, energy transport processes through molecular junctions have attracted notable research interest recently. In this work, heat dissipation and transport across diamond/benzene/diamond molecular junctions are explored by performing atomistic simulations. We identify the critical power Pcr to maintain thermal stability of the junction through efficient dissipation of local heat. We also find that the molecule-probe contact features a power-dependent interfacial thermal resistance RK in the order of 109?kW-1. Moreover, both Pcr and RK display explicit dependence on atomic structures of the junction, force and temperature. For instance, Pcr can be elevated in multiple-molecule junctions, and streching the junction enhances RK by a factor of 2. The applications of these findings in molecular electronics and scanning probing measurements are discussed, providing practical guidelines in their rational design.

Wang, Yanlei; Xu, Zhiping

2014-07-01

168

Maintaining relational continuity with the deceased on Facebook.  

PubMed

Scholars have noted that communication helps maintain relational continuity despite physical absence; yet, the specific role of communication in continuing a relationship with the deceased has not been analyzed. In this study, messages directed to the deceased on Facebook memorial group walls were examined to explore how grieving individuals utilize Facebook memorial groups in order to make sense of the death of a loved one and reconnect with the deceased. Using a grounded theory approach, message topics and apparent grief-related functions served by messages were identified and characterized. Initial observation revealed that grieving individuals wrote to the deceased as if the deceased could read the messages, which is a unique type of communication. The communication written to the deceased individuals appeared to serve two functions for those writing the messages: (1) Sensemaking; and (2) Continuing Bonds, or upholding relational continuity, with the deceased. PMID:23057245

DeGroot, Jocelyn M

2012-01-01

169

Counterbalancing for Serial Order Carryover Effects in Experimental Condition Orders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reactions of neural, psychological, and social systems are rarely, if ever, independent of previous inputs and states. The potential for serial order carryover effects from one condition to the next in a sequence of experimental trials makes counterbalancing of condition order an essential part of experimental design. Here, a method is proposed…

Brooks, Joseph L.

2012-01-01

170

Soil Orders  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Developed by the US Department of Agriculture's Soil Survey Division (SSD), here is a high resolution poster with brief descriptions of the soil orders. Photos of soil profiles accompany descriptions of each order. The soil orders include: Alfisols, Andisols, Aridisols, Entisols, Gelisols, Histosols, Inceptisols, Mollisols, Oxisols, Spodusols, Ultisols, and Vertisols.

171

Order Up  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Change orders. The words can turn the stomachs of administrators. Horror stories about change orders create fear and distrust among school officials, designers and builders. Can change orders be avoided? If car manufacturers can produce millions of intricately designed vehicles, why can't the same quality control be achieved on a construction…

Gibeault, Michael

2005-01-01

172

Polarization maintaining fiber interferometer based on superimposed Mach-Zehnder and Sagnac interferences and its application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel polarization maintaining fiber interferometer based on superimposed Mach-Zehnder and Sagnac interferences is presented. Higher order cladding modes are effectively excited to construct a Mach-Zehnder interference with the low order linear polarized modes in the Sagnac interferometer when fusing the single mode fiber and polarization maintaining fiber with a peanut structure. We also demonstrate its strain and temperature tunability. The Mach-Zehnder resonance peak is strain insensitive while the Sagnac resonance dip is highly sensitive to strain, and the Mach-Zehnder resonance peak exhibits an opposite thermal response compared to the Sagnac resonance dip. This can be applied for dual parameter measurement with high resolutions.

Dong, Bo

2013-03-01

173

Social Learning in Social Networks  

E-print Network

This paper analyzes a model of social learning in a social network. Agents decide whether or not to adopt a new technology with unknown payoffs based on their prior beliefs and the experiences of their neighbors in the ...

Lamberson, PJ

174

Predicting Group Stability in Online Social Networks Akshay Patil  

E-print Network

the level of member diversity and social activities are critical in maintaining the stability of groups. We Social Networks, Group Stability, Online Communities 1. INTRODUCTION Understanding community structuresPredicting Group Stability in Online Social Networks Akshay Patil Stony Brook University Stony

Gao, Jie

175

Perceptions of Human Services Students about Social Change Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Human services educators and scholars maintain that they are teaching social change theory and skills that will allow students to engage in large-scale social change. A review of the literature, from a critical theory perspective, offered little evidence that social change is being taught in human services programs. In this collective case study,…

Herzberg, Judith T.

2010-01-01

176

Curricular Issues in Social Studies: An Historical Perspective.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper retraces the early development of the social studies curricular pattern of the 1920s and the subsequent division between social studies advocates, represented by the National Council for the Social Studies, and history-centered supporters, represented largely by the American Historical Association. The document maintains that the…

Saxe, David Warren

177

Health and Social Care Is Health and Social Care right for me?  

E-print Network

Health and Social Care Is Health and Social Care right for me? Are you are interested in caring for a specialised degree in medicine, nursing or social work? If yes, then Health and Social Care could be the subject for you. You will need good time management skills as well as a passion for care in order to get

Harman, Neal.A.

178

Cozza, Haskins, and Lerner | keeping tHe promise: maintaining tHe HeaLtH of miLitary and Veteran famiLies and CHiLdren 1 Keeping the Promise: Maintaining the Health of  

E-print Network

the family, impairing the healthy functioning of parents and children alike. As a nation, we owe and that these parental problems are in turn associated with elevated rates of similar social-emotional problems famiLies and CHiLdren 1 Keeping the Promise: Maintaining the Health of Military and Veteran Families

Rowley, Clarence W.

179

The key actors maintaining elders in functional autonomy in Bobo-Dioulasso (Burkina Faso)  

PubMed Central

Background Globally, a significant increase in functional disability among the elderly is expected in the near future. It is therefore vital to begin considering how Sub-Saharan Africa countries can best start building or strengthening the care and support system for that target population. Study objectives are: 1) identify the key actors of the social system who maintain elders in functional autonomy at home in Bobo-Dioulasso (Burkina Faso) and 2) to describe the functional status of older people living at home. Methods We conducted a longitudinal descriptive study among the elderly aged 60 and above (351). Their functional status was evaluated using the Functional Autonomy Measurement System (SMAF). Data analysis was done using the statistical software package STATA (SE11). Results In Bobo-Dioulasso, 68% of seniors have good functional capacity or a slight incapacity and 32% have moderate to severe incapacities. Older people die before (3%) or during (14%) moderate to severe disabilities. This would mean that the quality of medical and/or social care is not good for maintaining functional autonomy of older people with moderate to severe disabilities. Two main groups of people contribute to maintain elders in functional autonomy: the elderly themselves and their family. Community, private or public structures for maintaining elders in functional autonomy are non-existent. The social system for maintaining elders in functional autonomy is incomplete and failing. In case of functional handicap at home, the elders die. But stakeholders are not conscious of this situation; they believe that this system is good for maintaining elders in functional autonomy. Conclusion It is likely that the absence of formal care and support structure likely shortens the lifespan of severely disabled older people. Stakeholders have not yet looked at this possibility. The stakeholders should seriously think about: 1) how to establish the third level of actors who can fulfill the needs to maintain elders in functional autonomy that are not satisfied by others (family members or the older individuals themselves), and 2) how to reinforce the role of each actor and the collaboration between the different groups of people of this system. PMID:24997509

2014-01-01

180

Social Indicators and Social Reporting  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the several research traditions which combine to form the social indicators movement. All the traditions share concern for measurement, analysis, and reporting of aspects of social conditions to a general audience. Journal available from: American Academy of Political and Social Science, 3937 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania…

Parke, Robert; Seidman, David

1978-01-01

181

40 CFR 63.5190 - What records must I maintain?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Surface Coating of Metal Coil Reporting and Recordkeeping § 63.5190 What records must I maintain? (a) You must maintain the records...

2010-07-01

182

34 CFR 364.35 - What records must be maintained?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-07-01 2010-07-01 true What records must be maintained? 364.35 ...INDEPENDENT LIVING PROGRAM: GENERAL PROVISIONS What Are the State Plan Requirements? § 364.35 What records must be maintained? In...

2011-07-01

183

Maintaining connectivity in a mobile ad hoc network  

E-print Network

This thesis focuses on the problem of maintaining graphics. connectivity in a mobile ad hoc network. Mobile ad hoc networks are without a fixed topology and are dynamically changing. This makes the problem of maintaining connectivity among all nodes...

Reuben, Ron S.

1998-01-01

184

27 CFR 555.125 - Records maintained by permittees.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Records maintained by permittees. 555.125 Section...JUSTICE EXPLOSIVES COMMERCE IN EXPLOSIVES Records and Reports § 555.125 Records maintained by permittees. (a) Records...

2010-04-01

185

Presidential Orders Executive Order 31  

E-print Network

1 Presidential Orders Executive Order 31 Non-discrimination and Affirmative Action 1. Non. As permitted by applicable law, the University will take affirmative action to ensure equality of opportunity

Yetisgen-Yildiz, Meliha

186

SNIF: social networking in fur  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present SNIF: Social Networking in Fur, a system that allows pet owners to interact through their pets' social networks. SNIF comprises inexpensive hardware that can be unobtrusively and transparently affixed to pet collars and paraphernalia in order to augment pet-to-pet, pet-to-owner, and owner-to-owner interactions. SNIF devices aggregate pertinent environmental, social, and individual information that can be broadcast or addressed

Jonathan Gips; Noah Fields; Philip Liang; Arnaud Pilpré

2005-01-01

187

The application of software maintainability models in industrial software systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of software maintainability has become one of the most important aspects of past, present, and future software systems. Tools and models that can measure software maintainability will play an increasingly important role in the software industry. This article reviews two early attempts at software maintainability assessment and describes five recently developed models. Two of these are then applied

Don M. Coleman; Bruce Lowther; Paul W. Oman

1995-01-01

188

UBC Social, Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report Social Sustainability 2  

E-print Network

UBC Social, Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report Social Sustainability 2, one closely tied to conservation. Sustainable development has been famously defined by the Brundtland The Oxford English Dictionary defines `Sustainable' as, "able to be upheld or defended; able to be maintained

189

Stigmatised Choices: Social Class, Social Exclusion and Secondary School Markets in the Inner City  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The transition to secondary school is rarely conceptualised as an important influence in maintaining and contributing to wider processes of social exclusion in the inner city. This article argues that the seeds of social exclusion are sown in under-resourced, struggling inner-city schooling, and their germination is found in class practices,…

Reay, Diane; Lucey, Helen

2004-01-01

190

Teachers, social class and underachievement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Addressing the ‘the social class attainment gap’ in education has become a government priority in England. Despite multiple initiatives, however, little has effectively addressed the underachievement of working?class pupils within the classroom. In order to develop clearer understandings of working?class underachievement at this level, this small research study focused on local social processes by exploring how secondary school teachers identified

Máiréad Dunne; Louise Gazeley

2008-01-01

191

Social isolation  

PubMed Central

Social species, by definition, form organizations that extend beyond the individual. These structures evolved hand in hand with behavioral, neural, hormonal, cellular, and genetic mechanisms to support them because the consequent social behaviors helped these organisms survive, reproduce, and care for offspring sufficiently long that they too reproduced. Social isolation represents a lens through which to investigate these behavioral, neural, hormonal, cellular, and genetic mechanisms. Evidence from human and nonhuman animal studies indicates that isolation heightens sensitivity to social threats (predator evasion) and motivates the renewal of social connections. The effects of perceived isolation in humans share much in common with the effects of experimental manipulations of isolation in nonhuman social species: increased tonic sympathetic tonus and HPA activation, and decreased inflammatory control, immunity, sleep salubrity, and expression of genes regulating glucocorticoid responses. Together, these effects contribute to higher rates of morbidity and mortality in older adults. PMID:21651565

Cacioppo, John T.; Hawkley, Louise C.; Norman, Greg J.; Berntson, Gary G.

2011-01-01

192

Order Nidovirales  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This chapter, entitled "Order Nidovirales", is for inclusion in the Ninth Report of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV), to be published as both a single volume text and online. The chapter details the taxonomy of members of the Nidovirus order, including family Arteriviridae o...

193

Ordering Game  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive game gives students practice in ordering sets of whole numbers, integers, fractions, decimals, and the sizes of circles. Students re-order a group of numbers or objects in a line from least to greatest by dragging them. The activity is timed and points are awarded.

2011-01-01

194

Social Ferment and School Finance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the nature of contemporary society in terms of gross or general changes observed during the past twenty years in order to consider possible breakthroughs of school finance as products of social ferment. (Author/AN)

Hack, Walter G.

1972-01-01

195

Social Smoking  

PubMed Central

Background Social smoking is increasingly prevalent and poses a challenge to traditional cessation practices. Tobacco companies conducted extensive research on social smokers long before health authorities did and marketed products to promote this smoking behavior. Purpose Research is described and mechanisms identified that are used to promote social smoking to help improve cessation strategies in this growing group. Evidence acquisition Searches from 2006 to 2008 of previously secret tobacco industry documents using keywords social smoker, light smoker, casual smoker, youth smoker, and occasional smoker, followed by snowball searching. Data analysis was conducted in 2008. Evidence synthesis Tobacco industry research identified characteristics of social smokers that include: (1) denial of personal nicotine addiction; (2) self-categorization as a nonsmoker; (3) propensity for decreased tobacco use in response to smoke-free laws; (4) variations in age, education, ethnicity, and socioeconomic backgrounds; and (5) a perceived immunity to personal health effects of tobacco but fear of consequences to others. Tobacco companies developed marketing strategies aimed at social smokers, including “non–habit forming” cigarettes. Conclusions Previously considered a transient behavior, social smoking is also a stable consumption pattern. Focused clinical questions to detect social smoking are needed and may include, “Have you smoked any cigarettes or used any tobacco products in the past month?” as opposed to “Are you a smoker?” Clinicians should recognize that social smokers might be motivated to quit after education on the dangers of secondhand smoke rather than on personal health risks or with pharmacotherapy. PMID:19589449

Schane, Rebecca E.; Glantz, Stanton A.; Ling, Pamela M.

2009-01-01

196

Social Media and Physicians’ Online Identity Crisis  

PubMed Central

Physicians are increasingly counted among Face-book’s 1 billion users and Twitter’s 500 million members. Beyond these social media platforms, other innovative social media tools are being used in medical practice, including for online consultation,1 in the conduct of clinical research,2 and in medical school curricula.3 Social media content is brief, characterized as “many-to-many” communication, and able to spread rapidly across the Internet beyond a person’s control. These and other features of social media create new dimensions to traditional ethical issues, particularly around maintaining appropriate boundaries between physicians and patients. PMID:23942675

DeCamp, Matthew; Koenig, Thomas W.; Chisolm, Margaret S.

2014-01-01

197

of Social Work and Social Policy  

E-print Network

School of Social Work and Social Policy School M.Sc. in Disability Studies #12;The M and benefit from the input of the different academic centres involved in the M.Sc. including: Social Work Dublin) School of Social Work and Social Policy School of Social Work and Social Policy #12;Two options

O'Mahony, Donal E.

198

Functional Analysis of Inappropriate Social Interactions in Students with Asperger's Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We analyzed the inappropriate social interactions of 3 students with Asperger's syndrome whose behavior was maintained by social positive reinforcement. We tested whether inappropriate social behavior was sensitive to social positive reinforcement contingencies and whether such contingencies could be reversed to increase the probability of…

Roantree, Christina F.; Kennedy, Craig H.

2012-01-01

199

An Examination of Characteristics Related to the Social Skills of Youths with Visual Impairments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

From an early age, children with visual impairments can be at a disadvantage for developing social skills. Since vision plays a role in the early development of social behaviors and of social cognition, the lack of visual cues could lead to difficulties in initiating and maintaining social interactions. The study presented here investigated…

Zebehazy, Kim T.; Smith, Thomas J.

2011-01-01

200

The Art of Designing Socially Intelligent Agents: Science, Fiction, and the Human in the Loop  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper socially intelligent agents (SIA) are understood as agents whichdo not only from an observer point of view behave socially but which are ableto recognize and identify other agents and establish and maintain relationshipsto other agents. The process of building socially intelligent agents is influencedby what the human as the designer considers `social\\

Kerstin Dautenhahn

1998-01-01

201

Dynamic Planning For Agents in Games using Social Norms and Emotions  

E-print Network

Dynamic Planning For Agents in Games using Social Norms and Emotions Palli R Thrainsson, Arnkell. In realistic social game environments, agents need to exhibit a certain level of social awareness to maintain that imbues game agents with socially reactive behavior based on a continuous steering framework and a model

Vilhjálmsson, Hannes Högni

202

Energy and Order in Biological Systems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson explains how energy is used to keep the structure of an organism maintained. Otherwise, systems naturally progress from order to disorder according to the second law of thermodynamics. Key terms are hyperlinked to provide more detailed explanations.

2012-06-19

203

From Court Order to Community Commitment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes how after the lifting of years of court-ordered desegregation, the citizens of Wilmington, Delaware, voted not to return to neighborhood schools, choosing instead to maintain the school district's socioeconomic and racial diversity. (PKP)

Doorey, Nancy; Harter, Bruce

2003-01-01

204

Social Studies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains the following papers on social studies instruction and technology: (1) "Waking the Sleeping Giant: Social Studies Teacher Educators Collaborate To Integrate Technology into Methods' Courses" (Cheryl Mason, Marsha Alibrandi, Michael Berson, Kara Dawson, Rich Diem, Tony Dralle, David Hicks, Tim Keiper, and John Lee); (2)…

White, Cam, Ed.

205

Social Blushing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reviews theory and research regarding the physiology, situational and dispositional antecedents, behavioral concomitants, and interpersonal consequences of social blushing and offers a new theoretical account of blushing. This model posits that people blush when they experience undesired social attention. Puzzling questions involving blushing in solitude, the phenomenology of blushing, types of blushing, and blushing in dark-skinned people are

Mark R. Leary; Thomas W. Britt; William D. Cutlip; Janice L. Templeton

1992-01-01

206

Relative Efficacy of Human Social Interaction and Food as Reinforcers for Domestic Dogs and Hand-Reared Wolves  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite the intimate relationship dogs share with humans in Western society, we know relatively little about the variables that produce and maintain dog social behavior towards humans. One possibility is that human social interaction is itself a reinforcer for dog behavior. As an initial assessment of the variables that might maintain dog social

Feuerbacher, Erica; Wynne, Clive D. L.

2012-01-01

207

Group Modeling in Social Learning Environments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students' collaboration while learning could provide better learning environments. Collaboration assumes social interactions which occur in student groups. Social theories emphasize positive influence of such interactions on learning. In order to create an appropriate learning environment that enables social interactions, it is important to…

Stankov, Slavomir; Glavinic, Vlado; Krpan, Divna

2012-01-01

208

Spring 2014 Social Wellness: HLT 3300  

E-print Network

Spring 2014 Social Wellness: HLT 3300 Tuesday & Thursday 8:30-10:00 Location: CRWC 1038A on issues of social health and wellness. In order to be most beneficial, it will require the participation of you and your classmates. The course is intended as an academic exploration of social health

Azevedo, Ricardo

209

Extracting Regular Behaviors from Social Media Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social media network analysis has become very popular in recent years. How do real networks evolve over time? What are the normal evolving behaviors in a social media network? In order to extract behaviors occurring regularly to reveal the microscopic evolving properties in social networks, the evolving process of networks is modeled as stochastic states transition, and the evolving behaviors

Leiming Yan; Jinwei Wang

2011-01-01

210

Social Indicators  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The House of Commons Library Research Papers are published for the benefit of Parliament members, but this one should be of interest to both researchers and general readers wanting to learn more about contemporary British social issues. Social Indicators is the first paper in a new series that will be published three times a year. The 71-page paper includes a wide range of topic pages that present social statistics on a variety of issues, from the prison population to defense expenses to agricultural outputs. Each Social Indicator paper will also offer feature articles that give a closer look at specific subjects (in this instance,, election turnout and adult literacy) and an article on statistical sources for a particular issue (in this paper, social security statistics). The last few pages are devoted to a list of important, recent governmental statistical publications.

Bolton, Paul.

2001-01-01

211

Issues and Methods for Assessing COTS Reliability, Maintainability, and Availability  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Many vendors produce products that are not domain specific (e.g., network server) and have limited functionality (e.g., mobile phone). In contrast, many customers of COTS develop systems that am domain specific (e.g., target tracking system) and have great variability in functionality (e.g., corporate information system). This discussion takes the viewpoint of how the customer can ensure the quality of COTS components. In evaluating the benefits and costs of using COTS, we must consider the environment in which COTS will operate. Thus we must distinguish between using a non-mission critical application like a spreadsheet program to produce a budget and a mission critical application like military strategic and tactical operations. Whereas customers will tolerate an occasional bug in the former, zero tolerance is the rule in the latter. We emphasize the latter because this is the arena where there are major unresolved problems in the application of COTS. Furthermore, COTS components may be embedded in the larger customer system. We refer to these as embedded systems. These components must be reliable, maintainable, and available, and must be with the larger system in order for the customer to benefit from the advertised advantages of lower development and maintenance costs. Interestingly, when the claims of COTS advantages are closely examined, one finds that to a great extent these COTS components consist of hardware and office products, not mission critical software [1]. Obviously, COTS components are different from custom components with respect to one or more of the following attributes: source, development paradigm, safety, reliability, maintainability, availability, security, and other attributes. However, the important question is whether they should be treated differently when deciding to deploy them for operational use; we suggest the answer is no. We use reliability as an example to justify our answer. In order to demonstrate its reliability, a COTS component must pass the same reliability evaluations as the custom components, otherwise the COTS components will be the weakest link in the chain of components and will be the determinant of software system reliability. The challenge is that there will be less information available for evaluating COTS components than for custom components but this does not mean we should despair and do nothing. Actually, there is a lot we can do even in the absence of documentation on COTS components because the customer will have information about how COTS components are to be used in the larger system. To illustrate our approach, we will consider the reliability, maintainability, and availability (RMA) of COTS components as used in larger systems. Finally, COTS suppliers might consider increasing visibility into their products to assist customers in determining the components' fitness for use in a particular application. We offer ideas of information that would be useful to customers, and what vendors might do to provide it.

Schneidewind, Norman F.; Nikora, Allen P.

1998-01-01

212

Interindividual variability in social insects - proximate causes and ultimate consequences.  

PubMed

Individuals within social groups often show consistent differences in behaviour across time and context. Such interindividual differences and the evolutionary challenge they present have recently generated considerable interest. Social insects provide some of the most familiar and spectacular examples of social groups with large interindividual differences. Investigating these within-group differences has a long research tradition, and behavioural variability among the workers of a colony is increasingly regarded as fundamental for a key feature of social insects: division of labour. The goal of this review is to illustrate what we know about both the proximate mechanisms underlying behavioural variability among the workers of a colony and its ultimate consequences; and to highlight the many open questions in this research field. We begin by reviewing the literature on mechanisms that potentially introduce, maintain, and adjust the behavioural differentiation among workers. We highlight the fact that so far, most studies have focused on behavioural variability based on genetic variability, provided by e.g. multiple mating of the queen, while other mechanisms that may be responsible for the behavioural differentiation among workers have been largely neglected. These include maturational, nutritional and environmental influences. We further discuss how feedback provided by the social environment and learning and experience of adult workers provides potent and little-explored sources of differentiation. In a second part, we address what is known about the potential benefits and costs of increased behavioural variability within the workers of a colony. We argue that all studies documenting a benefit of variability so far have done so by manipulating genetic variability, and that a direct test of the effect of behavioural variability on colony productivity has yet to be provided. We emphasize that the costs associated with interindividual variability have been largely overlooked, and that a better knowledge of the cost/benefit balance of behavioural variability is crucial for our understanding of the evolution of the mechanisms underlying the social organization of insect societies. We conclude by highlighting what we believe to be promising but little-explored avenues for future research on how within-colony variability has evolved and is maintained. We emphasize the need for comparative studies and point out that, so far, most studies on interindividual variability have focused on variability in individual response thresholds, while the significance of variability in other parameters of individual response, such as probability and intensity of the response, has been largely overlooked. We propose that these parameters have important consequences for the colony response. Much more research is needed to understand if and how interindividual variability is modulated in order to benefit division of labour, homeostasis and ultimately colony fitness in social insects. PMID:24341677

Jeanson, Raphaël; Weidenmüller, Anja

2014-08-01

213

Description of a haptic system for virtual maintainability in aeronautics  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a haptic system for maintainability simulation in aeronautics, called REVIMA (Virtual Reality for Maintainability). In this project a software-hardware tool is designed and built to realistically simulate assembly-disassembly operations. It also helps to perform accessibility, interference and maintainability analysis by using virtual reality techniques without physical mock-ups. The system gives the user a reliable and realistic response.

J. Savall; Diego Borro; Jorge J. Gil; L. Matey

2002-01-01

214

Roles of Extension Officers to Promote Social Capital in Japanese Agricultural Communities  

PubMed Central

Social capital has been found to be correlated with community welfare, but it is not easy to build and maintain it. The purpose of the current study is to investigate the role of professional coordinators of social relationships to create and maintain social capital in a community. We focused on extension officers in Japanese agricultural communities, who help farmers in both technical and social matters. A large nation-wide survey of extension officers as well as two supplementary surveys were conducted. We found that (1) social capital-related activities (e.g., assistance for building organizations among farmers) were particularly effective for solving problems; (2) social capital (trust relationships) among community residents increased their life quality; (3) social capital in local communities was correlated with extension officers' own communication skills and harmonious relationships among their colleagues. In sum, social capital in local communities is maintained by coordinators with professional social skills. PMID:24642575

Takemura, Kosuke; Uchida, Yukiko; Yoshikawa, Sakiko

2014-01-01

215

15 CFR 286.9 - Maintaining recognized status.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...and Foreign Trade NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ACCREDITATION AND ASSESSMENT PROGRAMS NATIONAL VOLUNTARY CONFORMITY ASSESSMENT SYSTEM EVALUATION (NVCASE) PROGRAM § 286.9 Maintaining...

2010-01-01

216

Maintaining Transnational Social Fields: The Role of Visits to Bangladesh for British Bangladeshi Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

The visit is a key experience in the socialisation of British Bangladeshi children. It is an emotional and sensory rollercoaster for children which challenges and confirms their sense of who they are. For, while they enjoy some aspects of the visit, they find others deeply unsettling. Visits to Sylhet in Bangladesh give children a lasting lesson in both Sylheti beliefs

Benjamin Zeitlyn

2012-01-01

217

EVALUATION OF THE RATE OF PROBLEM BEHAVIOR MAINTAINED BY DIFFERENT REINFORCERS ACROSS PREFERENCE ASSESSMENTS  

PubMed Central

The rates of problem behavior maintained by different reinforcers were evaluated across 3 preference assessment formats (i.e., paired stimulus, multiple-stimulus without replacement, and free operant). The experimenter administered each assessment format 5 times in a random order for 7 children with developmental disabilities whose problem behavior was maintained by attention, tangible items, or escape. Results demonstrated different effects related to the occurrence of problem behavior, suggesting an interaction between function of problem behavior and assessment format. Implications for practitioners are discussed with respect to assessing preferences of individuals with developmental disabilities who exhibit problem behavior. PMID:22219533

Kang, Soyeon; O'Reilly, Mark F; Fragale, Christina L; Aguilar, Jeannie M; Rispoli, Mandy; Lang, Russell

2011-01-01

218

Social Phobia (SocialAnxiety  

E-print Network

-anxiety medications and antidepressants.Anti-anxiety medications are powerful and there are different types. Many types begin working right away, but they generally should not be taken for long periods. Antidepressants at work or school? If so, you may have a type of anxiety disorder called social phobia, also called social

Bandettini, Peter A.

219

Social transgressions, social perspectives, and social emotionality  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports two studies on the interrelations involving social transgressions, the perspectives from which the actor who commits such a transgression is evaluated, and the extent and quality of the emotionality experienced by the actor. The first experiment examined subjects' perceptions of vignettes depicting transgressions that were either low or relatively high in apparent intent. The phrasing of the

A. S. R. Manstead; G. R. Semin

1981-01-01

220

Social perception and social skill in schizophrenia.  

PubMed

The relationship of social perception to social skill in schizophrenia was investigated. Twenty-six outpatients completed three social perception tasks (i.e. facial affect recognition, social cue recognition, and self-ratings of social skill) and participated in two role-plays. Correlational analyses revealed that the self-ratings of social skill had the most consistent relationship with social skill among the social perception measures, even after controlling for symptomatology and subject demographics. Other measures of social perception (i.e. social cue recognition) had weaker relationships with social skills. Implications for future research and psychosocial interventions are discussed. PMID:9796943

Ihnen, G H; Penn, D L; Corrigan, P W; Martin, J

1998-09-21

221

Social Science Information Gateway  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Located within the Institute for Learning and Research Technology at the University of Bristol, the Social Science Information Gateway (SOSIG) is an online database of high quality Internet resources that primarily deal with the vast array of social science fields and subfields. Visitors can perform a simple search, or browse through the subject headings offered on the homepage. Each one of these discrete sites has been catalogued and annotated, making it easier to find specific resources quickly. Within each field or subfield, the editors of SOSIG have also listed some of their top choices. One particularly fine feature of the site is the "Grapevine", which offers a place for people in the social sciences to find out (and publicize) information about career opportunities and upcoming events. Visitors can also post their vitas in order to facilitate such opportunities. Finally, it is worth noting that the coverage of events and the like here is particularly strong for the United Kingdom and continental Europe.

222

Electrophysiological Measures of Maintaining Representations in Visual Working Memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Visual working memory (WM) is a limited capacity system which maintains information about objects in the immediate visual environment. Recent neurophysiological and neuroimaging studies have identified sustained memory-item specific activity during the retention period of WM tasks, and this activity may be a physiological substrate of maintaining representations in WM. In the present study, we present an electrophysiological measure of

Andrew W. McCollough; Maro G. Machizawa; Edward K. Vogel

2007-01-01

223

Cantilever springs maintain tension in thermally expanded wires  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two deflected cantilever springs strung with wire provide force displacement compensation to maintain tension in the wires as they undergo thermal expansion. This method of maintaining tension in thermally expanded wires is used in electric space heaters and residential heat exchangers.

Terselic, R. A.

1965-01-01

224

Maintainability measurements on industrial source code maintenance activities  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is clear that the burden of software maintenance increases proportionately with our inventory of software systems. Our inventory is increasing because we now recognize existing code as reusable assets rather than liabilities. With this recognition comes an understanding of the importance of evaluating code quality and maintainability. We show how maintainability metrics can be used to gauge the effect

T. Troy Pearse; Paul W. Oman

1995-01-01

225

Challenges to situated morality: Maintaining respectability in a sexual rendezvous  

Microsoft Academic Search

A clandestine motel operation is described, concentrating upon the staff and patrons as they attempt to maintain respectability within a context of situated morality that is shifting, challenging previously negotiated realities. The staff members tend toward a refulgent respectability, using vocabularies of denial to maintain respectability. Patrons, categorized as regular customers, special customers, careful people and problem people, may seek

J. Robert Lilly; Richard A. Ball

1980-01-01

226

25 CFR 11.447 - Maintaining a public nuisance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Maintaining a public nuisance. 11.447 Section 11.447 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN...CODE Criminal Offenses § 11.447 Maintaining a public nuisance. A person who permits his or her property to fall into...

2010-04-01

227

25 CFR 11.447 - Maintaining a public nuisance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Maintaining a public nuisance. 11.447 Section 11.447 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN...CODE Criminal Offenses § 11.447 Maintaining a public nuisance. A person who permits his or her property to fall into...

2011-04-01

228

Polarization maintaining large mode area photonic crystal fiber  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report on a polarization maintaining large mode area photonic crystal fiber. Unlike, previous work on polarization maintaining photonic crystal fibers, birefringence is introduced using stress applying parts. This has allowed us to realize fibers, which are both single mode at any wavelength and have a practically constant birefringence for any wavelength. The fibers presented in this work have mode

Jacob R. Folkenberg; M. D. Nielsen; N. A. Mortensen; C. Jakobsen; H. R. Simonsen

2004-01-01

229

Social Pollution  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Social pollution provides the matrix for the pollution of the physical environment. This stems from man's present inability to function synergistically. To find new freedoms in purposeful evolution, we will have to start cleansing our Mind. (Author/SD)

Esser, Aristide Henri

1971-01-01

230

Social Phobia  

MedlinePLUS

... improve their skills still further. Back Continue Selective Mutism Some kids and teens are so extremely shy ... form of social phobia is sometimes called selective mutism . People with selective mutism can talk. They have ...

231

Social Work 0 -1 Social Work Today  

E-print Network

School of Social Work #12;Contents 0 - 1 Social Work Today 2 - 3 The World of Social Work 4 - 11 standards that govern their social work practice. Typical service users include: G Children and families people with health and social care needs. Social work is difficult and challenging: it demands maturity

Jones, Graeme A.

232

Social Psychology Network  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

With over 11,000 links contained within its pages, the Social Psychology Network site is arguably the largest social psychology database on the Internet. Maintained by Professor Scout Plous of Wesleyan University, the site has been generously supported by the National Science Foundation. Visitors will appreciate the very clean layout of the siteâ??s homepage, as they are presented with a search engine, along with a number of electronic forums, and a listing of related topics. To delve into the siteâ??s contents, visitors may wish to select from any one of the areas on the left-hand side of the homepage, which include listings of doctoral programs in social psychology and teaching resources. There are numerous other options for interested parties, and they lead to such offerings as rankings of doctoral programs in the field and distance learning options in the field. Finally, visitors can also view many of the siteâ??s documents in a number of languages, including Spanish, French, Italian, and German.

Plous, Scott

233

Spontaneous order: Michael Polanyi and Friedrich Hayek  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper compares Hayek and Polanyi on spontaneous social order. Although Hayek is widely believed to have first both coined the name and explicated the idea of ‘spontaneous order’, it is in fact Michael Polanyi who did so. Numerous differences emerge between the two thinkers. The characterisation of spontaneous order in Hayek, for example, involves different types of freedom to

Struan Jacobs

2000-01-01

234

Safety, reliability, maintainability and quality provisions for the Space Shuttle program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This publication establishes common safety, reliability, maintainability and quality provisions for the Space Shuttle Program. NASA Centers shall use this publication both as the basis for negotiating safety, reliability, maintainability and quality requirements with Shuttle Program contractors and as the guideline for conduct of program safety, reliability, maintainability and quality activities at the Centers. Centers shall assure that applicable provisions of the publication are imposed in lower tier contracts. Centers shall give due regard to other Space Shuttle Program planning in order to provide an integrated total Space Shuttle Program activity. In the implementation of safety, reliability, maintainability and quality activities, consideration shall be given to hardware complexity, supplier experience, state of hardware development, unit cost, and hardware use. The approach and methods for contractor implementation shall be described in the contractors safety, reliability, maintainability and quality plans. This publication incorporates provisions of NASA documents: NHB 1700.1 'NASA Safety Manual, Vol. 1'; NHB 5300.4(IA), 'Reliability Program Provisions for Aeronautical and Space System Contractors'; and NHB 5300.4(1B), 'Quality Program Provisions for Aeronautical and Space System Contractors'. It has been tailored from the above documents based on experience in other programs. It is intended that this publication be reviewed and revised, as appropriate, to reflect new experience and to assure continuing viability.

1990-01-01

235

Social learning in cooperative dilemmas.  

PubMed

Helping is a cornerstone of social organization and commonplace in human societies. A major challenge for the evolutionary sciences is to explain how cooperation is maintained in large populations with high levels of migration, conditions under which cooperators can be exploited by selfish individuals. Cultural group selection models posit that such large-scale cooperation evolves via selection acting on populations among which behavioural variation is maintained by the cultural transmission of cooperative norms. These models assume that individuals acquire cooperative strategies via social learning. This assumption remains empirically untested. Here, I test this by investigating whether individuals employ conformist or payoff-biased learning in public goods games conducted in 14 villages of a forager-horticulturist society, the Pahari Korwa of India. Individuals did not show a clear tendency to conform or to be payoff-biased and are highly variable in their use of social learning. This variation is partly explained by both individual and village characteristics. The tendency to conform decreases and to be payoff-biased increases as the value of the modal contribution increases. These findings suggest that the use of social learning in cooperative dilemmas is contingent on individuals' circumstances and environments, and question the existence of stably transmitted cultural norms of cooperation. PMID:24870041

Lamba, Shakti

2014-07-22

236

"Thousands Waiting at Our Gates": Moral Character, Legitimacy and Social Justice in Irish Elite Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines how Irish elite schools negotiate change and maintain their legitimacy in times of economic turmoil and rising social inequality. The paper argues that they have not bowed before the demands of democratisation or economic globalisation. Instead they continue to maintain a high level of social closure and control diversity…

Courtois, Aline

2015-01-01

237

Order Phasmatodea  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Carl Moxey of Northeastern University has created this work-in-progress Web site to provide "a comprehensive archive of information on the systematics and morphology of the insects belonging to the Order Phasmatodea." Carefully designed and easy to navigate, this Web site allows users to browse a collapsible classification tree, locate information by genera or species, view descriptions of phasmatid morphology, and more. Even though only a few translations available so far, some links provided for described genera and species lead to a related German Web site. Moxey encourages users to contribute illustrations and literature citations not already included in the site.

Moxey, Carl F.

238

Profit Maximization over Social Networks  

E-print Network

Influence maximization is the problem of finding a set of influential users in a social network such that the expected spread of influence under a certain propagation model is maximized. Much of the previous work has neglected the important distinction between social influence and actual product adoption. However, as recognized in the management science literature, an individual who gets influenced by social acquaintances may not necessarily adopt a product (or technology), due, e.g., to monetary concerns. In this work, we distinguish between influence and adoption by explicitly modeling the states of being influenced and of adopting a product. We extend the classical Linear Threshold (LT) model to incorporate prices and valuations, and factor them into users' decision-making process of adopting a product. We show that the expected profit function under our proposed model maintains submodularity under certain conditions, but no longer exhibits monotonicity, unlike the expected influence spread function. To ma...

Lu, Wei

2012-01-01

239

The social skill difficulties of young adults with physical disabilities.  

PubMed

Adolescence is generally considered to be a time of increased social activity and the rapid expansion of a teenager's social circle. By contrast, a young person with a physical disability is likely to lack social independence, become socially isolated and experience difficulties in maintaining social relationships. The present study indicates that while both able-bodied and physically disabled young people experience difficulties in social situations, those with physical disabilities experience difficulties that are more severe in nature. Overall, 75% of the disabled group and 70% of the comparison group experienced difficulties in social situations. However, 37% of the disabled group experienced difficulties that were severe in nature compared to only 3% of the comparison group. Whilst these problems are of sufficient magnitude to warrant intervention, programmes of social skills training for people with physical disabilities are not yet generally available. It is recommended that training programmes in social skills should be made available to teenagers with physical disabilities. PMID:2971469

Thomas, A P; Bax, M C; Smyth, D P

1988-01-01

240

VIRTUAL SOCIAL NETWORKS AND THEIR UTILIZATION FOR PROMOTION  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article deals with current knowledge of social media with the focus on social networks. Social media offer great opportunities for businesses. However, in order to use these new business channels in the most effective way, businesses need relevant information. The main purpose of this article is to evaluate the state of utilization of social networks by businesses as well

Robert Stefko; Peter Dorcak; Frantisek Pollak

2011-01-01

241

Affinity driven social networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work we present a model for evolving networks, where the driven force is related to the social affinity between individuals of a population. In the model, a set of individuals initially arranged on a regular ordered network and thus linked with their closest neighbors are allowed to rearrange their connections according to a dynamics closely related to that of the stable marriage problem. We show that the behavior of some topological properties of the resulting networks follows a non trivial pattern.

Ruyú, B.; Kuperman, M. N.

2007-04-01

242

21 CFR 1305.27 - Preservation of electronic orders.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...supplier must retain each original order filled and the linked records for two years. (c) If electronic order records are maintained on a central server, the records must be readily retrievable at the registered...

2012-04-01

243

21 CFR 1305.27 - Preservation of electronic orders.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...supplier must retain each original order filled and the linked records for two years. (c) If electronic order records are maintained on a central server, the records must be readily retrievable at the registered...

2010-04-01

244

21 CFR 1305.27 - Preservation of electronic orders.  

...supplier must retain each original order filled and the linked records for two years. (c) If electronic order records are maintained on a central server, the records must be readily retrievable at the registered...

2014-04-01

245

21 CFR 1305.27 - Preservation of electronic orders.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...supplier must retain each original order filled and the linked records for two years. (c) If electronic order records are maintained on a central server, the records must be readily retrievable at the registered...

2013-04-01

246

21 CFR 1305.27 - Preservation of electronic orders.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...supplier must retain each original order filled and the linked records for two years. (c) If electronic order records are maintained on a central server, the records must be readily retrievable at the registered...

2011-04-01

247

On New Characterizations of Social Influence in Social Networks Makan Fardad, Fu Lin, Xi Zhang, and Mihailo R. Jovanovic  

E-print Network

are used to optimally choose a desired number of agents in a social network to serve as social leaders to resource constraints, in order to improve the influence of designated agents or social leaders. We show of our proposed characterizations of social influence in identifying the most influential agents

Fardad, Makan

248

A 0.63 micrometers polarization maintaining optical fiber cable  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polarization maintaining single mode optical fiber cable was developed with negligible small loss increase and high crosstalk for optical interferometric measuring system of JT-60 (Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute TOKAMAK-60). Optical interferometric measuring system is required for high precise non-contact measurement of distance or vibration. Polarization maintaining optical fiber enabled to measure them in extremely high electromagnetic field of JT-60. Developed cable is flame-resistant non-metallic type complex 16 fiber cable for 0.6 micron use, that has 8 polarization maintaining optical fibers (stress applying, called PANDA fiber) and 8 single mode optical fibers. This paper shows the experimental result and the possibility of manufacturing polarization maintaining single mode optical fiber cable for 0.63 micron use.

Yoshida, H.; Kikuchi, Y.; Tamaki, Y.

1986-11-01

249

Allocating SMART Reliability and Maintainability Goals to NASA Ground Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper will describe the methodology used to allocate Reliability and Maintainability (R&M) goals to Ground Systems Development and Operations (GSDO) subsystems currently being designed or upgraded.

Gillespie, Amanda; Monaghan, Mark

2013-01-01

250

48 CFR 2406.202 - Establishing or maintaining alternative sources.  

...Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Full and Open Competition After Exclusion of Sources 2406.202 Establishing or maintaining...

2014-10-01

251

ELECTRIC HOLDING FURNACE IN THE MALLEABLE FOUNDRY MAINTAINS CONSTANT TEMPERATURES ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

ELECTRIC HOLDING FURNACE IN THE MALLEABLE FOUNDRY MAINTAINS CONSTANT TEMPERATURES FOR IRON PRIOR TO FILLING MOBILE LADLES. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, Malleable Foundry, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

252

Software Maintainability Improvement: Integrating Standards and Models William C. Chu,  

E-print Network

Software Maintainability Improvement: Integrating Standards and Models William C. Chu, Dpt Science and Engineering, Southeast University, China National Key Laboratory of Software Engineering, Wuhan University, China Abstract Software standards are highly recommended because they promise faster

Chung, Yeh-Ching

253

9 CFR 439.20 - Criteria for maintaining accreditation.  

...under this Program. (3) Maintain in a secure electronic format or in a standards book, which is...of facilities and records, both hard copy and electronic, during normal business hours, and to copy any records pertaining...

2014-01-01

254

9 CFR 439.20 - Criteria for maintaining accreditation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...under this Program. (3) Maintain in a secure electronic format or in a standards book, which is...of facilities and records, both hard copy and electronic, during normal business hours, and to copy any records pertaining...

2012-01-01

255

9 CFR 439.20 - Criteria for maintaining accreditation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...under this Program. (3) Maintain in a secure electronic format or in a standards book, which is...of facilities and records, both hard copy and electronic, during normal business hours, and to copy any records pertaining...

2013-01-01

256

9 CFR 439.20 - Criteria for maintaining accreditation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...under this Program. (3) Maintain in a secure electronic format or in a standards book, which is...of facilities and records, both hard copy and electronic, during normal business hours, and to copy any records pertaining...

2011-01-01

257

OI Issues: Maintaining Health during the Adult Years  

MedlinePLUS

... Size | S S M M L L Bone Basics Osteoporosis Osteogenesis Imperfecta Paget?s Disease of Bone Related Topics News Glossary ... or is not supported by your browser. Home Osteogenesis Imperfecta Osteogenesis Imperfecta Basics OI Issues: Maintaining Health During ...

258

36 CFR 1222.34 - How must agencies maintain records?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Section 1222.34 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION RECORDS MANAGEMENT CREATION AND MAINTENANCE OF FEDERAL RECORDS Agency Recordkeeping Requirements § 1222.34 How must agencies maintain...

2013-07-01

259

36 CFR 1222.34 - How must agencies maintain records?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Section 1222.34 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION RECORDS MANAGEMENT CREATION AND MAINTENANCE OF FEDERAL RECORDS Agency Recordkeeping Requirements § 1222.34 How must agencies maintain...

2012-07-01

260

36 CFR 1222.34 - How must agencies maintain records?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Section 1222.34 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION RECORDS MANAGEMENT CREATION AND MAINTENANCE OF FEDERAL RECORDS Agency Recordkeeping Requirements § 1222.34 How must agencies maintain...

2011-07-01

261

36 CFR 1222.34 - How must agencies maintain records?  

...Section 1222.34 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION RECORDS MANAGEMENT CREATION AND MAINTENANCE OF FEDERAL RECORDS Agency Recordkeeping Requirements § 1222.34 How must agencies maintain...

2014-07-01

262

48 CFR 6.202 - Establishing or maintaining alternative sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...defense in establishing or maintaining an essential engineering, research, or development capability to be provided by an...other nonprofit institution or a federally funded research and development center; (4) Ensure the...

2011-10-01

263

48 CFR 6.202 - Establishing or maintaining alternative sources.  

...defense in establishing or maintaining an essential engineering, research, or development capability to be provided by an...other nonprofit institution or a federally funded research and development center; (4) Ensure the...

2014-10-01

264

48 CFR 6.202 - Establishing or maintaining alternative sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...defense in establishing or maintaining an essential engineering, research, or development capability to be provided by an...other nonprofit institution or a federally funded research and development center; (4) Ensure the...

2013-10-01

265

48 CFR 6.202 - Establishing or maintaining alternative sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...defense in establishing or maintaining an essential engineering, research, or development capability to be provided by an...other nonprofit institution or a federally funded research and development center; (4) Ensure the...

2010-10-01

266

48 CFR 6.202 - Establishing or maintaining alternative sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...defense in establishing or maintaining an essential engineering, research, or development capability to be provided by an...other nonprofit institution or a federally funded research and development center; (4) Ensure the...

2012-10-01

267

Build, Own, Operate and Maintain (BOOM) Boiler Systems  

E-print Network

Build, Own, Operate and Maintain (BOOM) Boiler Systems Tom Henry, Annstrong Service, Inc. Overview: The article addresses the growing trend in outsourcing boiler equipment, installation, operation, maintenance and ownership by large...

Henry, T.

268

Maintaining Cooperation in Noisy Environments Tsz-Chiu Au  

E-print Network

Maintaining Cooperation in Noisy Environments Tsz-Chiu Au Department of Computer Science University of Maryland College Park, Maryland, 20742 chiu@cs.umd.edu Dana Nau Department of Computer Science University

Au, Tsz-Chiu

269

Maintaining Space Temperature and Humidity in the Digital Switch Environment  

E-print Network

16TH ANNUAL INDUSTRIAL ENERGY TECHNOLOGY CONFERENCE 1994 ESL-PA-94/04-05 REPRINTED WITH PERMISSION MAINTAINING SPACE TEMPERATURE AND HUMIDITY IN THE DIGITAL SWITCH ENVIRONMENT Namir F. Saman, Ph.D., P.E. Visiting Assistant Professor Energy Systems...MAINTAINING SPACE TEMPERATURE AND HUMIDITY IN THE DIGITAL SWITCH ENVIRONMENT Namir F. Saman, Ph.D., P.E. Visiting Assistant Professor Energy Systems laboratory College Station, Texas ABSTRACT A methodology for a psychrometric analysis...

Saman, N. F.; Johnson, H.

270

Polarization maintaining large mode area photonic crystal fiber  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report on a polarization maintaining large mode area photonic crystal\\u000afiber. Unlike, previous work on polarization maintaining photonic crystal\\u000afibers, birefringence is introduced using stress applying parts. This has\\u000aallowed us to realize fibers, which are both single mode at any wavelength and\\u000ahave a practically constant birefringence for any wavelength. The fibers\\u000apresented in this work have mode

Jacob R. Folkenberg; M. D. Nielsen; N. A. Mortensen; C. Jakobsen; H. R. Simonsen

2004-01-01

271

A Social Constructivist Approach to Computer-Mediated Instruction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a computer-mediated teaching system called computer-aided personalized system of instruction (CAPSI) that incorporates a social constructivist approach, maintaining that learning occurs primarily through a socially interactive process. Discusses use of CAPSI in an undergraduate course at the University of Manitoba that showed students…

Pear, Joseph J.; Crone-Todd, Darlene E.

2002-01-01

272

TRANSCENDING SOCIAL SKILLS ORIENTED INSTRUCTION WITHIN INTEGRATED CLASSROOMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence supporting the need for renewed and reconfigured emphases for social skills and\\/or competence across the USA and within the curricular and instructional programs of integrated schools and classrooms worldwide is convincing. Teacher perceptions of how best to maintain academic performance standards while addressing social skills\\/competence as an integral focus in the educational program calls for creative curriculum and teaching

Carmen J. Iannaccone Ed. D

1998-01-01

273

Tools for Monitoring Social Media: A Marketing Research Project  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Knowledge of how to effectively monitor social media is an increasingly valued marketing research skill. This study tests an approach for adding social media content to an undergraduate marketing research class team project. The revised project maintains the expected objectives and parameters of a traditional research project, while integrating…

Veeck, Ann; Hoger, Beth

2014-01-01

274

Social Darwinism, Scientific Racism, and the Metaphysics of Race.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Maintains that science is often used as a justification to propose, project, and enact racist social policies. The philosophy of Social Darwinism is reviewed, and its assumptions about race and human abilities is discussed. The consequences of scientific racism for dominant groups are analyzed. (GR)

Dennis, Rutledge M.

1995-01-01

275

Social Work and Applied Social Studies  

E-print Network

Social Work and Applied Social Studies Undergraduate #12;Undergraduate Social and Policy Sciences 2, social policy, international development and social work. Many of our staff are at the forefront, in 2011 we were awarded the Queen's Anniversary Prize for our work on poverty and vulnerable people

Burton, Geoffrey R.

276

College of Social Work SW Social Work  

E-print Network

College of Social Work SW Social Work KEY: # = new course * = course changed = course dropped) Introduction to social welfare concepts and philosophies. Examination of the profession of social work and its will be studied. Required of social work majors and recommended it be taken the first year. SW 222 DEVELOPMENT

MacAdam, Keith

277

Peace Studies and the Social Studies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Numerous reasons can be given for the low quality of teaching in the social studies. Teachers may be improperly certified, or they may teach to maintain employment rather than to do a good job. To teach peace studies courses requires the cream of the crop in terms of quality instruction. Teachers should be well above the minimum requirements for…

Ediger, Marlow

278

National PTA Gets Connected with Social Media  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

People are busy, we all know that. Getting their attention is harder and harder all the time. That's especially true for member organizations and advocacy groups. The National PTA is both and has adapted some social media practices to reach out and maintain contact with more than 5 million volunteers in 25,000 local units. James Martinez, senior…

Phillips, Derek

2011-01-01

279

A Tale of Two Threats: Social Anxiety and Attention to Social Threat as a Function of Social Exclusion and Non-Exclusion Threats.  

PubMed

To attain and maintain social acceptance, people may attend to cues of possible social rejection or exclusion. Attention to such cues can be influenced by social anxiety. Two competing theories address social anxiety and attention: hypervigilance to versus avoidance of negative social cues. We propose a synthesis of these models such that, in the absence of social exclusion, socially anxious people may be hypervigilant to negative social cues. However, after experiencing social exclusion, they may avoid negative cues in favor of cues signaling social acceptance. Eyetracking was used to examine attention to negative, happy, and neutral faces after social exclusion threat or a non-exclusion threat (N = 27, 69.2% female). Fear of negative evaluation, a core component of social anxiety, was assessed using the Brief Fear of Negative Evaluation (BFNE) scale (Leary 1983). Among individuals with high BFNE, non-exclusion threat elicited greater attention toward negative faces than did social exclusion threat. However, social exclusion threat relative to non-exclusion threat was related to greater attention to positive faces among those with high BFNE. These effects were not observed among those with low BFNE. Thus, data provide preliminary support for a synthesized model. PMID:20877581

Buckner, Julia D; Dewall, C Nathan; Schmidt, Norman B; Maner, Jon K

2010-10-01

280

Social Engineering hits Social Commerce  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Looking at social commerce, a bunch of bewildering phenomena attracts the attention of social psychologists. The way customers participate today shows attitudes and ethical behavior which cannot be explained from the inherent conditions of Web 2.0 environments alone. Fraud often succeeds, when you do not expect it, and honesty can be found under circumstances that do not support honesty at all. The current situation seems to result from customers assigning experience and ethics from real world business to virtual business environments. But there are indications that this situation may change. Social commerce could suffer as soon as customers would use its inherent weaknesses to their own advantage. The following article outlines first approaches to research into this topic.

Degenhardt, Werner; Wiele, Johannes

281

Socials Studies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Eric Sheninger, the principal at New Milford High School in Bergen County, NJ, is well-known in ed tech circles as an evangelist for the use of web 2.0 tools in K-12 education. New Milford has made collaboration a pillar of its educational platform, and Sheninger believes that social media helps students learn how to collaborate. In fact, he…

Raths, David

2013-01-01

282

Social Studies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The product of a Special Studies Institute, this teacher developed resource guide for the emotionally handicapped (K-6) presents social study concepts and activities relative to education in the urban out-of-doors. Focus is on the study of man (past, present, and future) interacting with his environment. Listed below are activity examples: (1)…

Bieber, Edward

283

Schoolhouse Socialism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Public schools are part and parcel of socialism. This system of economics does not function well. Not in the Soviet Union, and not in any industry in the United States, certainly including education. The present paper attempts to show that education is no exception to this general rule. (Contains 6 notes.)

Rome, Gregory; Block, Walter

2006-01-01

284

Social anxiety in Cornelia de Lange syndrome.  

PubMed

In this study we assessed the behavioral presentation of social anxiety in Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS) using a contrast group of Cri du Chat syndrome (CdCS). Behaviors indicative of social anxiety were recorded in twelve children with CdLS (mean age = 11.00; SD = 5.15) and twelve children with CdCS (8.20; SD = 2.86) during social interaction. Lag sequential analysis revealed that participants with CdLS were significantly more likely to evidence behavior indicative of anxiety in close temporal proximity to the point at which they maintained eye contact or spoke. Individuals with CdLS demonstrate a heightened probability of anxiety related behavior during social interaction but only at the point at which social demand is high. PMID:19330433

Richards, Caroline; Moss, Jo; O'Farrell, Laura; Kaur, Gurmeash; Oliver, Chris

2009-08-01

285

Economic Analysis of Social Common Capital  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Social common capital provides members of society with those services and institutional arrangements that are crucial in maintaining human and cultural life. The term æsocial common capital' is comprised of three categories: natural capital, social infrastructure, and institutional capital. Natural capital consists of all natural environment and natural resources including the earth's atmosphere. Social infrastructure consists of roads, bridges, public transportation systems, electricity, and other public utilities. Institutional capital includes hospitals, educational institutions, judicial and police systems, public administrative services, financial and monetary institutions, and cultural capital. This book attempts to modify and extend the theoretical premises of orthodox economic theory to make them broad enough to analyze the economic implications of social common capital. It further aims to find the institutional arrangements and policy measures that will bring about the optimal state of affairs.

Uzawa, Hirofumi

2005-06-01

286

Processing power limits social group size: computational evidence for the cognitive costs of sociality  

PubMed Central

Sociality is primarily a coordination problem. However, the social (or communication) complexity hypothesis suggests that the kinds of information that can be acquired and processed may limit the size and/or complexity of social groups that a species can maintain. We use an agent-based model to test the hypothesis that the complexity of information processed influences the computational demands involved. We show that successive increases in the kinds of information processed allow organisms to break through the glass ceilings that otherwise limit the size of social groups: larger groups can only be achieved at the cost of more sophisticated kinds of information processing that are disadvantageous when optimal group size is small. These results simultaneously support both the social brain and the social complexity hypotheses. PMID:23804623

Dávid-Barrett, T.; Dunbar, R. I. M.

2013-01-01

287

Social cognition.  

PubMed

Social cognition concerns the various psychological processes that enable individuals to take advantage of being part of a social group. Of major importance to social cognition are the various social signals that enable us to learn about the world. Such signals include facial expressions, such as fear and disgust, which warn us of danger, and eye gaze direction, which indicate where interesting things can be found. Such signals are particularly important in infant development. Social referencing, for example, refers to the phenomenon in which infants refer to their mothers' facial expressions to determine whether or not to approach a novel object. We can learn a great deal simply by observing others. Much of this signalling seems to happen automatically and unconsciously on the part of both the sender and the receiver. We can learn to fear a stimulus by observing the response of another, in the absence of awareness of that stimulus. By contrast, learning by instruction, rather than observation, does seem to depend upon awareness of the stimulus, since such learning does not generalize to situations where the stimulus is presented subliminally. Learning by instruction depends upon a meta-cognitive process through which both the sender and the receiver recognize that signals are intended to be signals. An example would be the 'ostensive' signals that indicate that what follows are intentional communications. Infants learn more from signals that they recognize to be instructive. I speculate that it is this ability to recognize and learn from instructions rather than mere observation which permitted that advanced ability to benefit from cultural learning that seems to be unique to the human race. PMID:18292063

Frith, Chris D

2008-06-12

288

Role of the hippocampus and orbitofrontal cortex during the disambiguation of social cues in working memory.  

PubMed

Human social interactions are complex behaviors requiring the concerted effort of multiple neural systems to track and monitor the individuals around us. Cognitively, adjusting our behavior on the basis of changing social cues such as facial expressions relies on working memory and the ability to disambiguate, or separate, the representations of overlapping stimuli resulting from viewing the same individual with different facial expressions. We conducted an fMRI experiment examining the brain regions contributing to the encoding, maintenance, and retrieval of overlapping identity information during working memory using a delayed match-to-sample task. In the overlapping condition, two faces from the same individual with different facial expressions were presented at sample. In the nonoverlapping condition, the two sample faces were from two different individuals with different expressions. fMRI activity was assessed by contrasting the overlapping and nonoverlapping conditions at sample, delay, and test. The lateral orbitofrontal cortex showed increased fMRI signal in the overlapping condition in all three phases of the delayed match-to-sample task and increased functional connectivity with the hippocampus when encoding overlapping stimuli. The hippocampus showed increased fMRI signal at test. These data suggest that lateral orbitofrontal cortex helps encode and maintain representations of overlapping stimuli in working memory, whereas the orbitofrontal cortex and hippocampus contribute to the successful retrieval of overlapping stimuli. We suggest that the lateral orbitofrontal cortex and hippocampus play a role in encoding, maintaining, and retrieving social cues, especially when multiple interactions with an individual need to be disambiguated in a rapidly changing social context in order to make appropriate social responses. PMID:23640112

Ross, Robert S; LoPresti, Matthew L; Schon, Karin; Stern, Chantal E

2013-12-01

289

A case study of reliability and maintainability of the F-16 APG-66 fire control radar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the development and test phase of weapon system acquisition, program management and design emphasis must be directed to producing a system that achieves reliability and maintainability in the field. Investigated were these development and test efforts and test efforts and the demonstrated operational performance of a major weapon subsystem in the form of a case study analysis of the F-16 fire control radar. Comparisons of predicted, test-demonstrated and operational APG-66 reliability and maintainability parameters constitute the significant portion of the analyses. In addition, the reliability and maintainability programs and selected performance indicators of the APG-66 and APQ-120 are compared in order to examine the results of differing test-program acquisition policies. This thesis effort determined that the APG-66 has not yet attained a constant failure rate indicative of an equipment's useful life. The research also determined that increased efforts in the test function of an acquisition produces significant benefits in operational results. A summary analysis of the entire program found the predictions based upon the critical design review and intermediate level maintainability demonstration to be somewhat optimistic.

Demarchi, D.

1981-09-01

290

Neural integrity is maintained by dystrophin in C. elegans  

PubMed Central

The dystrophin protein complex (DPC), composed of dystrophin and associated proteins, is essential for maintaining muscle membrane integrity. The link between mutations in dystrophin and the devastating muscle failure of Duchenne’s muscular dystrophy (DMD) has been well established. Less well appreciated are the accompanying cognitive impairment and neuropsychiatric disorders also presented in many DMD patients, which suggest a wider role for dystrophin in membrane–cytoskeleton function. This study provides genetic evidence of a novel role for DYS-1/dystrophin in maintaining neural organization in Caenorhabditis elegans. This neuronal function is distinct from the established role of DYS-1/dystrophin in maintaining muscle integrity and regulating locomotion. SAX-7, an L1 cell adhesion molecule (CAM) homologue, and STN-2/?-syntrophin also function to maintain neural integrity in C. elegans. This study provides biochemical data that show that SAX-7 associates with DYS-1 in an STN-2/?-syntrophin–dependent manner. These results reveal a recruitment of L1CAMs to the DPC to ensure neural integrity is maintained. PMID:21242290

Zhou, Shan

2011-01-01

291

SocialAnthropology Social Anthropology  

E-print Network

Anthropology MA (Joint Honours Degrees) Social Anthropology and one of: Ancient History Arabic Art HistoryW Greek W Available With Integrated Year Abroad ­ see Modern Languages. T Timetable clash exists on the anthropology of the arts. Most recently, the Centre for Pacific Studies has been awarded major funding

Brierley, Andrew

292

Social Lift or Social Exclusion?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Transmitting the achievements of civilization and the values of culture to younger generations is the task of today's higher education as the agent of socialization, the accumulation of human capital, and the formation of the middle class. All of these vital functions of higher education can be accomplished provided that efforts are made to ensure…

Aleshina, M. V.; Pleve, I. R.

2010-01-01

293

Sibling-Implemented Intervention for Improving Social Interaction Skills of Young Children who Have Difficulties with Socialization  

E-print Network

The purpose of this study is to assess the potential of siblings as an important intervention agent by systematically teaching them appropriate social skills and strategies in order to improve the social interaction skills ...

Kim, Taeyoung

2010-10-27

294

Connectibles : tangible social networking  

E-print Network

This thesis presents "Connectibles," an instantiation of a tangible social network, a new type of social network application rooted in physical objects and real world social behavior. This research is inspired by social ...

Kalanithi, Jeevan James

2007-01-01

295

Attaining and maintaining criticality in a neuronal network model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a cellular automaton model for neuronal networks that combines short-term synaptic plasticity with long-term metaplasticity. We investigate how these two mechanisms contribute to attaining and maintaining operation at the critical point. We find that short-term plasticity, represented in the model by synaptic depression and synaptic recovery, is sufficient to allow the system to attain the critical state, if the level of plasticity is properly chosen. However, it is not sufficient to maintain the criticality if the system is perturbed. But the long time scale change in the short-term plasticity, a change in the way synaptic efficacy is modified, allows the system to recover from perturbation. Working together, these two time scales of plasticity could help the system to attain and maintain criticality, leading to a self-organized critical state.

Peng, Jiayi; Beggs, John M.

2013-04-01

296

Rescripting Early Memories Linked to Negative Images in Social Phobia: A Pilot Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Negative self-images are a maintaining factor in social phobia. A retrospective study (Hackmann, A., Clark, D.M., McManus, F. (2000). Recurrent images and early memories in social phobia. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 38, 601-610) suggested that the images may be linked to early memories of unpleasant social experiences. This preliminary study…

Wild, Jennifer; Hackmann, Ann; Clark, David M.

2008-01-01

297

The Ontogenesis of Social Dominance: A Strategy-Based Evolutionary Perspective.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reintroduces the ethological concept of social dominance, and interprets it from a strategy-based perspective. Maintains that, by adopting this approach to social dominance and explicitly incorporating developmental processes and uniquely human capacities, human social-dominance patterns appear to be more similar to primate patterns than commonly…

Hawley, Patricia H.

1999-01-01

298

The Social Work Portfolio: Planning, Assessing and Documenting Lifelong Learning in a Dynamic Profession.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book is designed to help social work students prepare a social work portfolio to be used as a learning guide, and following graduation, as a tool to maintain their social work licenses or other pertinent professional credentials. There are independent and collaborative group learning exercises as well as portfolio preparation exercises…

Cournoyer, Barry R.; Stanley, Mary J.

299

Social Watch  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Founded in 1995, Social Watch was first established to provide a global platform for non-governmental organizations to monitor and promote the effective implementation of the commitments made by national governments during the United Nations World Summit on Social Development. Since that time, the group's work has continued in the areas of monitoring poverty eradication and gender equality and users with interests in these areas will appreciate both the organization's annual report (available from the homepage) and its country-by-country reports. One very well-developed interactive graphic feature is the development indicator section of the site. Here, visitors can view representations of such indicators as female adult literacy, deforestation, and fertility across the globe, along with discrete data from each country. Additionally, many of the materials offered here are available in Spanish as well.

300

Social Geography  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The open-access journal "Social Geography" is primarily concerned with "the interrelation of society, practice and space and its implications for every day-life, social and environmental policy or economic practice." The journal was started in 2005, and visitors with an interest in human geography or sociology will appreciate their offerings. Users can start by reading through the "General Information" section, then looking over their submission guidelines. After that, visitors will want to click on over to the "Online Library SG" area, where they can read final papers and also search all of the submitted papers by title and author. Additionally, visitors can sign up to receive email alerts and RSS feeds.

301

Socializing Cognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The traditional way to study thinking in humans is to investigate cognitive processes in single individuals. The positions\\u000a laid out in this chapter, by contrast, regard social interaction as the default context within which cognition occurs. The\\u000a chapter introduces and discusses the theoretical background as well as relevant empirical findings of three approaches that\\u000a aim at exploring how cognition emerges

Anne Böckler; Günther Knoblich; Natalie Sebanz

2010-01-01

302

The role of moisture in the nest thermoregulation of social wasps  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Paper nests of social wasps are intriguing constructions for both, biologists and engineers. We demonstrate that moisture and latent heat significantly influence the thermal performance of the nest construction. Two colonies of the hornet Vespa crabro were investigated in order to clarify the relation of the temperature and the moisture regime inside the nest. Next to fairly stable nest temperatures the hornets maintain a high relative humidity inside the nest. We found that in consequence a partial vapor-pressure gradient between nest and ambient drives a constant vapor flux through the envelope. The vapor flux is limited by the diffusion resistance of the envelope. The driving force of vapor flux is heat, which is consumed through evaporation inside the nest. The colony has to compensate this loss with metabolic heat production in order to maintain a stable nest temperature. However, humidity fluctuations inside the nest induce circadian adsorption and desorption cycles, which stabilize the nest temperature and thus contribute significantly to temperature homeostasis. Our study demonstrates that both mechanisms influence nest thermoregulation and need to be considered to understand the thermodynamic behavior of nests of wasps and social insects in general.

Klingner, R.; Richter, K.; Schmolz, E.; Keller, B.

2005-09-01

303

Charged Probes, Bourdon Tubes Maintain Cryogenic Liquid Level  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The problem: To design a system that automatically maintains the fluid level in a liquid nitrogen cold trap. It is frequently necessary to operate a vacuum system using one or more cold traps for a prolonged period with the cold trap liquid level maintained between set limits. Electronic devices have been subject to failure due to the effect on components of cryogenic temperatures. The solution: An automatic liquid nitrogen dispensing system that uses gas filled probes, driving Bourdon tube gauges equipped with microswitches that, through a relay, control a solenoid valve in the liquid nitrogen storage line.

Krejsa, Mylo J.

1966-01-01

304

The Effects of Presentation Order in Multitrial Free Recall.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The experiment tested the effects of presentation word orders in a multitrial free-recall task. Three types of presentation were used: (1) randomized; (2) constant order; and (3) maintained order (maintenance of subjects order of recall on the subsequent presentation). In addition, the effects of number of recalls per presentation (1 or 3) were…

Maitland, Anthony J.

305

The ultra-social animal  

PubMed Central

In evolutionary perspective, what is most remarkable about human sociality is its many and diverse forms of cooperation. Here, I provide an overview of some recent research, mostly from our laboratory, comparing human children with their nearest living relatives, the great apes, in various tests of collaboration, prosocial behavior, conformity, and group-mindedness (e.g., following and enforcing social norms). This is done in the context of a hypothetical evolutionary scenario comprising two ordered steps: a first step in which early humans began collaborating with others in unique ways in their everyday foraging and a second step in which modern humans began forming cultural groups. Humans' unique forms of sociality help to explain their unique forms of cognition and morality. © 2014. The Authors. European Journal of Social Psychology published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25641998

Tomasello, Michael

2014-01-01

306

Maintaining Sensor Networks Perpetually Via Wireless Recharging Mobile Vehicles  

E-print Network

Maintaining Sensor Networks Perpetually Via Wireless Recharging Mobile Vehicles Weifa Liang resonant coupling is a promising technology for wireless sensor networks as it can provide a controllable mobile vehicles to charge sensors in a sensor network so that none of the sensors runs out of its energy

Liang, Weifa

307

Optimal meter placement for maintaining observability during single branch outages  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a method for designing measurement systems, that will not only make the systems observable, but also will maintain observability against loss of network branches. A linear programming based solution is proposed for choosing a measurement configuration that will make the system fully observable. Subsequently, a systematic method of appending a minimum number of additional measurements to ensure

Ali Abur; Fernando H. Magnago

1999-01-01

308

A Systematic Approach to Creating and Maintaining Software Documentation  

E-print Network

UVA A Systematic Approach to Creating and Maintaining Software Documentation Allison L. Powell SOURCE CODE INTERFACE BROWSING INTERFACE STATUS FUTURE PLANS WHY SOFTWARE DOCUMENTATION AS AN APPLICATION sets of documents but aren't geared specifically to software documentation. . Standards ­ Exist

French, James C.

309

A Systematic Approach to Creating and Maintaining Software Documentation  

E-print Network

UVA A Systematic Approach to Creating and Maintaining Software Documentation Allison L. Powell CODE INTERFACE BROWSING INTERFACE STATUS FUTURE PLANS WHY SOFTWARE DOCUMENTATION AS AN APPLICATION AREA but aren't geared specifically to software documentation. · Standards - Exist, but are often ambiguous

French, James C.

310

Smoke Considerations for Using Fire in Maintaining Healthy Forest Ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fire is the single most important ecological disturbance process throughout the interior Pacific Northwest (Mutch and others 1993; Agee 1994). It is also a natural process that helps maintain a diverse ecological landscape. Fire suppression and timber harvesting have drastically altered this process during the past 50 to 90 years. Natural resource specialists generally agree that the forests of the

Roger D. Ottmar; Mark D. Schaaf; Ernesto Alvarado

311

?1Adrenergic Receptors Maintain Fetal Heart Rate and Survival  

Microsoft Academic Search

?-Adrenergic receptor (?AR) activation has been shown to maintain heart rate during hypoxia and to rescue the fetus from the fetal lethality that occurs in the absence of norepinephrine. This study examines whether the same subtype of ?AR is responsible for survival and heart rate regulation. It also investigates which ?ARs are located on the early fetal heart and whether

Rashmi Chandra; Andrea L. Portbury; Alisa Ray; Margie Ream; Marybeth Groelle; Dona M. Chikaraishi

2006-01-01

312

Once Attained, Can Quality Child Care Be Maintained?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research Findings: This study was designed to assess whether investments in child care quality were maintained 3 years after public funding for these centers was significantly reduced. An earlier evaluation documented significant improvements in classroom environments, teachers' sensitivity, and teachers' child-centered beliefs following a…

Roach, Mary A.; Kim, YaeBin; Riley, David A.

2006-01-01

313

Banded vs Bonded Space Maintainers: Finding Better Way Out  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Objectives: Of this in vivo study was to evaluate various space maintainers in terms of survival rate, gingival health and presence of caries. Design: A total of 60 extraction sites in the age group of 4 to 9 years were divided into four groups and different space maintainers were placed in them viz (conventional band and loop, prefabricated band with custom made loop, Ribbond, Super splint). Results: Prefabricated bands with custom made loop showed maximum success rates (84.6%), while super splint (33.33%) was found to be least successful. In terms of gingival health, prefabricated band with custom made loop reported minimum cases with poor gingival health (27.2%), while maximum cases with poor gingival health (50%) were reported with Super splint. None of the space maintainers developed caries at the end of 9 months. How to cite this article: Setia v, Pandit IK, Srivastava N, Gugnani N, Gupta M. Banded vs Bonded Space Maintainers: Finding Better Way Out. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2014;7(2):97-104. PMID:25356008

Kumar Pandit, Inder; Srivastava, Nikhil; Gugnani, Neeraj; Gupta, Monika

2014-01-01

314

Method of maintaining activity of hydrogen-sensing platinum electrode  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Three-electrode hydrogen sensor containing a platinum electrode maintained in a highly catalytic state, operates with a minimal response time and maximal sensitivity to the hydrogen gas being sensed. Electronic control and readout circuitry reactivates the working electrode of the sensor to a state of maximal catalytic activity.

Harman, J. N., III

1968-01-01

315

Carbon Dioxide Addition to Microbial Fuel Cell Cathodes Maintains  

E-print Network

Carbon Dioxide Addition to Microbial Fuel Cell Cathodes Maintains Sustainable Catholyte p losses and, therefore, power losses. Here, we report that adding carbon dioxide (CO2) gas to the cathodeH imbalances in contrast to the CO2/carbonate buffered catholyte system by Torres,Lee,andRittmann[Environ. Sci

Angenent, Lars T.

316

Identifying Transformer Incipient Events for Maintaining Distribution System Reliability  

E-print Network

Identifying Transformer Incipient Events for Maintaining Distribution System Reliability Karen L events in single-phase distribution transformers. This analysis will aid in the development of an automatic detection method for internal incipient faults in the transformers. The detection method can

317

TECHNIQUE FOR SCREENING AND MAINTAINING SMALLER GENOMIC LIBRARIES  

EPA Science Inventory

A technique for screening and simultaneously maintaining individual clones of the gene library for long-term storage is described. his method is particularly useful for identification and cloning of genes from cosmid-based genomic libraries of prokaryotes that constitute a smalle...

318

Rehabilitation Associate Training for Employed Staff. Maintaining Behavior (RA-8).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This learning module, which is intended for use in in-service training for vocational rehabilitation counselors, outlines strategies for maintaining appropriate client behaviors and facilitating their generalization to other environments. The information presented is relevant for existing behaviors as well as for behavior to be taught, increased,…

Jensen, Mary; Trace, Michael W.

319

Photocopy of photograph (digital image maintained in LBNL Photo Lab ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Photocopy of photograph (digital image maintained in LBNL Photo Lab Collection, XBD200503-00117-176). March 2005. CENTRAL COLUMN SUPPORT TO ROOF SHOWING CRANES CENTER SUPPORT TRACK, BEVATRON - University of California Radiation Laboratory, Bevatron, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, Alameda County, CA

320

Biodiversity and Ecosystem Functioning: Maintaining Natural Life Support Processes  

E-print Network

Biodiversity and Ecosystem Functioning: Maintaining Natural Life Support Processes Publishedbythe. ONeill, Harold A. Mooney, Osvaldo E. Sala, Amy J. Symstad, and David Tilman Biodiversity and Ecosystem biodiversity of the earth can therefore alter ecological functions and life support services that are vital

Minnesota, University of

321

Categorization of Common Coupling and Its Application to the Maintainability  

E-print Network

Categorization of Common Coupling and Its Application to the Maintainability of the Linux Kernel Computer Society Abstract--Data coupling between modules, especially common coupling, has long been categorization of common coupling based on definitions and uses between kernel and nonkernel modules and applies

Offutt, Jeff

322

GENETIC ENGINEERING PRODUCER FACT SHEET 2 Methods to Maintain Genetic  

E-print Network

GENETIC ENGINEERING PRODUCER FACT SHEET 2 Methods to Maintain Genetic Purity of Seed Stocks KENT J yield. Seeds carry the genetic traits incorporated by years of breeding and selection to create quality. The genetic purity of seeds (i.e., the percentage of contamination by seeds or genetic material

Bradford, Kent

323

Guide to Operating and Maintaining EnergySmart Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The guide allows users to adapt and implement suggested O&M (operating and maintaining) strategies to address specific energy efficiency goals. It recognizes and expands on existing tools and resources that are widely used throughout the high-performance school industry. The guide is organized into the following sections: (1) Chapter 1:…

US Department of Energy, 2010

2010-01-01

324

Impact of Agile Software Development Model on Software Maintainability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Software maintenance and support costs account for up to 60% of the overall software life cycle cost and often burdens tightly budgeted information technology (IT) organizations. Agile software development approach delivers business value early, but implications on software maintainability are still unknown. The purpose of this quantitative study…

Gawali, Ajay R.

2012-01-01

325

Maintaining and Restoring Riparian Areas in Grazed Ecosystems  

E-print Network

5/4/2011 1 Maintaining and Restoring Riparian Areas in Grazed Ecosystems Ken Tate ­ UC Davis coastal to Sierra riparian systems ­ there is significant effort to restore riparian areas in grazed watersheds I can be good! We can prescribe grazing to support riparian restoration objectives I Promise

Tate, Kenneth

326

Cancer Cell Survival of Cancer Cells Is Maintained  

E-print Network

,* and Mien-Chie Hung2,* 1Department of Cancer Biology 2Department of Molecular and Cellular OncologyCancer Cell Article Survival of Cancer Cells Is Maintained by EGFR Independent of Its Kinase The University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, 1515 Holcombe Boulevard, Houston, TX 77030, USA 3Present

South Bohemia, University of

327

Modelling processes that generate and maintain coral community diversity  

E-print Network

-1- Modelling processes that generate and maintain coral community diversity R. van Woesik-settlement mortality, metapopulations, metacommunities. Running head: Coral community diversity Abstract This study and how human impacts are affecting coral community dynamics and ultimately diversity. The paper includes

van Woesik, Robert

328

Self-maintained coherent oscillations in dense neutrino gases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present analytical solutions to the nonlinear equations describing the behavior of a gas of neutrinos with two flavors. Self-maintained coherent flavor oscillations are shown to occur when the gas density exceeds a critical value determined by the neutrino masses and the mean neutrino energy in the gas. Similar oscillations may have occurred in the early Universe.

Kostelecký, V. Alan; Samuel, Stuart

1995-07-01

329

37. VIEW OF SIX GAP ROTARY RECTIFIER FOR MAINTAINING CORONA ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

37. VIEW OF SIX GAP ROTARY RECTIFIER FOR MAINTAINING CORONA DISCHARGE IN THE COTTRELL ELECTROSTATIC GENERATORS. THE SYSTEM WAS CAPABLE OF PROVIDING 88,000 VOLTS TO THE ELECTRODES WITHIN THE PRECIPITATOR CHAMBER THE UNIT WAS LOCATED TO THE REAR OF BOILER 904 IN AN ENCLOSED ROOM. - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Cos Cob Power Plant, Sound Shore Drive, Greenwich, Fairfield County, CT

330

Genetic and somatic effects in animals maintained on tritiated water  

SciTech Connect

The possible genetic (dominant lethal mutations (DLM) and cytogenetic changes in the regenerating liver) and somatic (hematopoietic stem cell changes, growth and nonspecific life time shortening) effects in mice maintained on tritiated water (HTO) over two generations was investigated. Results to date are summarized. (ACR)

Carsten, A.L.; Brooks, A.; Commerford, S.L.; Cronkite, E.P.

1981-01-01

331

Generation of dynamic Brillouin grating in polarization maintaining fiber  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report an experimental demonstration and characterization of dynamic Brillouin gratings (DBGs) in a 5m long polarization-maintaining fiber (PMF) using heterodyne detection. The dependence of DBG reflectivity on the Brillouin gain and on the pumps and the probe powers is studied and reported.

Sengupta, Dipankar; Santagiustina, Marco; Chiarello, Fabrizio; Palmieri, Luca

2014-09-01

332

Small mammal herbivory: Feedbacks that help maintain desertified ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

We tested the hypothesis that herbivores contribute to feedbacks maintaining arid ecosystems in a degraded state. We studied small mammal herbivory on a subshrub, broom snakeweed (Gutierrezia sarothrae), and perennial grasses at three sites: (1) ungrazed black grama (Bouteloua eriopoda) grassland; (2) grassland degraded by intense short-duration grazing; and (3) mesquite (Prosopis glandulosa) coppice dunes. Snakeweed was browsed by herbivores

G. A. Roth; W. G. Whitford; Y. Steinberger

2009-01-01

333

Small mammal herbivory: Feedbacks that help maintain desertified ecosystems  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We tested the hypothesis that herbivores contribute to feedbacks maintaining arid ecosystems in a degraded state. We studied small mammal herbivory on a subshrub, broom snakeweed (Gutierrezia sarothrae), and perennial grasses at three sites: (1) ungrazed black grama (Bouteloua eriopoda) grassland; (...

334

Interaction of historical and nonhistorical disturbances maintains native plant communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Historical disturbance regimes are often considered a critical element in maintaining native plant communities. However, the response of plant communities to disturbance may be fundamentally altered as a consequence of invasive plants, climate change, or prior disturbances. The appropriateness of historical disturbance patterns under modern conditions and the interactions among disturbances are issues that ecologists must address to protect and

K. W. Davies; T. J. Svejcar; J. D. Bates

2009-01-01

335

Establishing and Maintaining Long-Term Human-Computer Relationships  

E-print Network

Establishing and Maintaining Long-Term Human- Computer Relationships TIMOTHY W. BICKMORE ________________________________________________________________________ This research investigates the meaning of `human-computer relationship' and presents techniques for constructing and methods; Voice I/O. I.2.1 [Artificial Intelligence] Applications and Expert Systems ­ Medicine and science

336

Fully Dynamic Algorithms for Maintaining Shortest Paths Trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose fully dynamic algorithms for maintaining the distances and the shortest paths from a single source in either a directed or an undirected graph with positive real edge weights, handling insertions, deletions, and weight updates of edges. The algorithms require linear space and optimal query time. The cost of the update operations depends on the class of the considered

Daniele Frigioni; Alberto Marchetti-spaccamela; Umberto Nanni

2000-01-01

337

Records Management is maintaining a record throughout its lifecycle.  

E-print Network

Records Management is maintaining a record throughout its lifecycle. CREATION Record is either (8324) . NEED MORE INFORMATION? RECORDS LIFE CYCLE An Employee Guide for Managing University Records Records Management at UNCG General Counsel Office of the General Counsel 336-334-3067 http://www. uncg

Saidak, Filip

338

Social Indicators: The EU and Social Inclusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social indicators are an important tool for evaluating a country's level of social development and for assessing the impact of policy. Such indicators are already in use in investigating poverty and social exclusion in several European countries and have begun to play a significant role in advancing the social dimension of the European Union as a whole. The purpose of

Tony Atkinson; Bea Cantillon; Eric Marlier; Brian Nolan

2002-01-01

339

Social work BA (Hons) in Social Work  

E-print Network

Social work Essentials Course BA (Hons) in Social Work (3 years full time. Part-time route, in which we would expect explicit reference to social work You are invited to contact the admissions tutor their basic IT competence and their personal suitability to enter the social work profession in line

Sussex, University of

340

Emotional intelligence, personality, social networks, and social perception   

E-print Network

to the emotions of others. In order to test this, a social perception inspection time task was carried out in which participants were required to identify if a face was happy, sad, or angry. The faces used were both Caucasian and Far-East Asian, the hypothesis...

DeBusk, Kendra Portia Adrienne Howard

341

Fertilization test performance using Arbacia punctulata maintained in static culture  

SciTech Connect

The sea urchin fertilization test using the Atlantic urchin, Arbacia punctulata, is widely utilized in evaluating toxicity of receiving waters and effluents as part of the NPDES program. While this species is easily maintained in uncontaminated, flow-through seawater systems, laboratories without access to flowing seawater either obtain new urchins for each test or maintain populations in static cultures. This study was conducted to assess test success and reproducibility of fertilization tests conducted using urchins maintained in separate-sex, static, temperature-controlled aquaria containing filtered natural seawater. Test performance was evaluated by periodically conducting the standard sea urchin fertilization test (EPA 600/4-87-028) using a common reference toxicant, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) Thirteen tests were conducted between September 1993 and May 1994 using one population of urchins, and five tests were conducted between June and December 1994 with a second population of urchins. Test success was 100% (control fertilization > 50%) with a control fertilization mean of 96.4% (S.D. = 3.3). There were no differences between mean EC{sub 50} values calculated for each set of tests (p < 0.05). The running mean value for toxicity was 7.1 mg/L (S.D. = 1.26) for 18 tests, with a CV of 17.7%, comparing favorably with values generated using urchins maintained in flowing seawater. The running mean value for toxicity in these tests was 2.4 mg/L (S.D. = 0.9) for 18 tests conducted between November 1987 and July 1989 (ASTM STP 1124). Data from all urchin tests were used to construct a control chart defining normal ranges for SDS toxicity. This study demonstrated that fertile, adult sea urchins can produce consistent toxicity responses with low variability while being maintained in static, temperature regulated culture facilities.

Serbst, J.R. [Environmental Protection Agency, Narragansett, RI (United States). Environmental Research Lab.; Wright, L.; Sheehan, C.V.; Fitzpatrick, K. [Science Applications International Corp., Narragansett, RI (United States)

1995-12-31

342

Social skill deficits in socially anxious subjects.  

PubMed

Research into the aetiology of social phobia can contribute to the prevention and treatment of socially anxious people. Based on the theory of social skills deficits, we reviewed several studies that examined the adequacy of social behaviour through behavioural experiments with the purpose of evaluating the existence of lack of social skills in socially anxious people compared with the general population. In addition to electronic searches for papers published since 1970, using Medline, Scielo and Lilacs, references from articles were identified. In general, the results indicate that socially anxious people perform poorly in spontaneous social interactions than control participants, are classified by observers as less assertive, friendly and shy but present only discrete differences in structured situations. Social skills deficit seems to be more easily identified when children and adolescents are observed, since they probably still have not developed coping strategies. Differences between social phobics appear to be found on the more global measures of performance rather than specific skills measures. PMID:18663667

Levitan, Michelle N; Nardi, Antonio E

2009-01-01

343

Preschoolers' Social Skills Steer Life Success  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children begin forming social and emotional intelligence at birth. They need the support of a caring adult at first, and then later interactions with peers, in order to encounter the experiences that will guide their brain development in the social and emotional domains. With the help and input of others, children begin to understand, express, and…

Willis, Clarissa A.; Schiller, Pam

2011-01-01

344

Social Capital: Its Constructs and Survey Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports on experiences and methods of adapting a valid adult social capital assessment to youth audiences in order to measure social capital and sense of place. The authors outline the process of adapting, revising, prepiloting, piloting, and administering a youth survey exploring young people's sense of community, involvement in…

Enfield, Richard P.; Nathaniel, Keith C.

2013-01-01

345

Implicit Social Scaling from an Institutional Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The methodological question concerns constructing a cardinal social index, in order to assess performances of social agents, taking into account implicit political judgments. Based on the formal structure of a Choquet's expected utility, index construction demands quantification of levels of a meaningful ordinal indicator of overall performance.…

D'Epifanio, Giulio

2009-01-01

346

Evolutionary Theories in Social Sciences  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

With the stated mission of serving "as the premier information site for scholars interested in evolutionary thought in the social sciences," this site offers materials relating to a broad interdisciplinary field that includes sociobiology, management, evolutionary biology, business history, anthropology, and even mathematics and engineering, among others. The site includes an extensive, discipline-indexed bibliography, book reviews (with authorial replies), abstracts of working papers, a discussion list, conference and symposium news, a listing of researchers with contact information, a listing of links to relevant print and e-journals, and PhD syllabi, including links to course texts from the Kellogg School of Management and the European Doctoral Training Programme on the Economics of Technological and Institutional Change. Note: authors may be contacted through the site for copies of working papers (there is no mention of a fee for these copies). The site is maintained by two social scientists from Northwestern University, Johann Peter Murmann and Joe Fleischhacker.

347

Happiness is assortative in online social networks.  

PubMed

Online social networking communities may exhibit highly complex and adaptive collective behaviors. Since emotions play such an important role in human decision making, how online networks modulate human collective mood states has become a matter of considerable interest. In spite of the increasing societal importance of online social networks, it is unknown whether assortative mixing of psychological states takes place in situations where social ties are mediated solely by online networking services in the absence of physical contact. Here, we show that the general happiness, or subjective well-being (SWB), of Twitter users, as measured from a 6-month record of their individual tweets, is indeed assortative across the Twitter social network. Our results imply that online social networks may be equally subject to the social mechanisms that cause assortative mixing in real social networks and that such assortative mixing takes place at the level of SWB. Given the increasing prevalence of online social networks, their propensity to connect users with similar levels of SWB may be an important factor in how positive and negative sentiments are maintained and spread through human society. Future research may focus on how event-specific mood states can propagate and influence user behavior in "real life." PMID:21554117

Bollen, Johan; Gonçalves, Bruno; Ruan, Guangchen; Mao, Huina

2011-01-01

348

The Social Perceptual Salience Effect  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Affective processes appraise the salience of external stimuli preparing the agent for action. So far, the relationship between stimuli, affect, and action has been mainly studied in highly controlled laboratory conditions. In order to find the generalization of this relationship to social interaction, we assess the influence of the salience of…

Inderbitzin, Martin P.; Betella, Alberto; Lanata, Antonio; Scilingo, Enzo P.; Bernardet, Ulysses; Verschure, Paul F. M. J.

2013-01-01

349

Family Structure and Social Influence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Regardless of family form, there is a universal belief that one's family is the most powerful agent of socialization. A sample of 38 junior high school students from single parent and nuclear families completed a questionnaire in order to examine the relative effects of peer influence and family influence in single parent and nuclear families.…

Olson, Dawn R.

350

76 FR 620 - Notice of Receipt of Application for a Presidential Permit To Operate and Maintain Pipeline...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Receipt of Application for a Presidential Permit To Operate and Maintain Pipeline...Alberta, Canada T2P 2H8, for a Presidential permit, pursuant to Executive Order...Procedures for Issuance of a Presidential Permit Where There Has Been a...

2011-01-05

351

Sex chromosome linkage of mate preference and color signal maintains assortative mating between interbreeding finch morphs.  

PubMed

Assortative mating is a key aspect in the speciation process because it is important for both initial divergence and maintenance of distinct species. However, it remains a challenge to explain how assortative mating evolves when diverging populations are undergoing gene flow (e.g., during hybridization). Here I experimentally test how assortative mating is maintained with frequent gene flow between diverged head-color morphs of the Gouldian finch (Erythrura gouldiae). Contrary to the predominant view on the development of sexual preferences in birds, cross-fostered offspring did not imprint on the phenotype of their conspecific (red or black morphs) or heterospecific (Bengalese finch) foster parents. Instead, the mating preferences of F(1) and F(2) intermorph-hybrids are consistent with inheritance on the Z chromosomes, which are also the location for genes controlling color expression and the genes causing low fitness of intermorph-hybrids. Genetic associations between color signal and preference loci on the sex chromosomes may prevent recombination from breaking down these associations when the morphs interbreed, helping to maintain assortative mating in the face of gene flow. Although sex linkage of reproductively isolating traits is theoretically expected to promote speciation, social and ecological constraints may enforce frequent interbreeding between the morphs, thus preventing complete reproductive isolation. PMID:19922444

Pryke, Sarah R

2010-05-01

352

Two pathways ensuring social harmony.  

PubMed

Reproductive division of labour is a characteristic trait of social insects. The dominant reproductive individual, often the queen, uses chemical communication and/or behaviour to maintain her social status. Queens of many social insects communicate their fertility status via cuticle-bound substances. As these substances usually possess a low volatility, their range in queen-worker communication is potentially limited. Here, we investigate the range and impact of behavioural and chemical queen signals on workers of the ant Temnothorax longispinosus. We compared the behaviour and ovary development of workers subjected to three different treatments: workers with direct chemical and physical contact to the queen, those solely under the influence of volatile queen substances and those entirely separated from the queen. In addition to short-ranged queen signals preventing ovary development in workers, we discovered a novel secondary pathway influencing worker behaviour. Workers with no physical contact to the queen, but exposed to volatile substances, started to develop their ovaries, but did not change their behaviour compared to workers in direct contact to the queen. In contrast, workers in queen-separated groups showed both increased ovary development and aggressive dominance interactions. We conclude that T. longispinosus queens influence worker ovary development and behaviour via two independent signals, both ensuring social harmony within the colony. PMID:22806253

Konrad, Matthias; Pamminger, Tobias; Foitzik, Susanne

2012-08-01

353

Two pathways ensuring social harmony  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reproductive division of labour is a characteristic trait of social insects. The dominant reproductive individual, often the queen, uses chemical communication and/or behaviour to maintain her social status. Queens of many social insects communicate their fertility status via cuticle-bound substances. As these substances usually possess a low volatility, their range in queen-worker communication is potentially limited. Here, we investigate the range and impact of behavioural and chemical queen signals on workers of the ant Temnothorax longispinosus. We compared the behaviour and ovary development of workers subjected to three different treatments: workers with direct chemical and physical contact to the queen, those solely under the influence of volatile queen substances and those entirely separated from the queen. In addition to short-ranged queen signals preventing ovary development in workers, we discovered a novel secondary pathway influencing worker behaviour. Workers with no physical contact to the queen, but exposed to volatile substances, started to develop their ovaries, but did not change their behaviour compared to workers in direct contact to the queen. In contrast, workers in queen-separated groups showed both increased ovary development and aggressive dominance interactions. We conclude that T. longispinosus queens influence worker ovary development and behaviour via two independent signals, both ensuring social harmony within the colony.

Konrad, Matthias; Pamminger, Tobias; Foitzik, Susanne

2012-08-01

354

Maintaining the Balance: A Self-Help Guide for Students  

E-print Network

balancing act. It is easy to get weighed down with the pressures of academics, social life, and choosing-medicating. Unfortunately; when you come down or sober up, the problems are still there. · Eating disorders, like anorexia. If you have an eating disorder you might be trying to "stuff" your feelings by eating, or "control

Kane, Andrew S.

355

Facebook: Maintaining Ethical Practice in the Cyberspace Age  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Current technology provides counseling center clinicians regular and immediate access to the students they work with via social networking. Focusing on Facebook in particular, this article discusses the opportunities and challenges this access creates and specifically explores how utilization of ethical, clinical, and cultural lenses might affect…

Birky, Ian; Collins, Wanda

2011-01-01

356

Compact, maintainable 80-KeV neutral beam module  

DOEpatents

A compact, maintainable 80-keV arc chamber, extractor module for a neutral beam system immersed in a vacuum of <10.sup.-2 Torr, incorporating a nested 60-keV gradient shield located midway between the high voltage ion source and surrounding grounded frame. The shield reduces breakdown or arcing path length without increasing the voltage gradient, tends to keep electric fields normal to conducting surfaces rather than skewed and reduces the peak electric field around irregularities on the 80-keV electrodes. The arc chamber or ion source is mounted separately from the extractor or ion accelerator to reduce misalignment of the accelerator and to permit separate maintenance to be performed on these systems. The separate mounting of the ion source provides for maintaining same without removing the ion accelerator.

Fink, Joel H. (Livermore, CA); Molvik, Arthur W. (Livermore, CA)

1980-01-01

357

Adaptation maintains population homeostasis in primary visual cortex.  

PubMed

Sensory systems exhibit mechanisms of neural adaptation, which adjust neuronal activity on the basis of recent stimulus history. In primary visual cortex (V1) in particular, adaptation controls the responsiveness of individual neurons and shifts their visual selectivity. What benefits does adaptation confer on a neuronal population? We measured adaptation in the responses of populations of cat V1 neurons to stimulus ensembles with markedly different statistics of stimulus orientation. We found that adaptation served two homeostatic goals. First, it maintained equality in the time-averaged responses across the population. Second, it maintained independence in selectivity across the population. Adaptation scaled and distorted population activity according to a simple multiplicative rule that depended on neuronal orientation preference and on stimulus orientation. We conclude that adaptation in V1 acts as a mechanism of homeostasis, enforcing a tendency toward equality and independence in neural activity across the population. PMID:23603708

Benucci, Andrea; Saleem, Aman B; Carandini, Matteo

2013-06-01

358

Adaptation maintains population homeostasis in primary visual cortex  

PubMed Central

Sensory systems exhibit mechanisms of neural adaptation, which adjust neuronal activity based on recent stimulus history. In primary visual cortex (V1), in particular, adaptation controls the responsiveness of individual neurons and shifts their visual selectivity. What benefits does adaptation confer to a neuronal population? We measured adaptation in the responses of populations of cat V1 neurons to stimulus ensembles with markedly different statistics of stimulus orientation. We found that adaptation serves two homeostatic goals. First, it maintains equality in the time-averaged responses across the population. Second, it maintains independence in selectivity across the population. Adaptation scales and distorts population activity according to a simple multiplicative rule that depends on neuronal orientation preference and on stimulus orientation. We conclude that adaptation in V1 acts as a mechanism of homeostasis, enforcing a tendency towards equality and independence in neural activity across the population. PMID:23603708

Benucci, Andrea; Saleem, Aman B.; Carandini, Matteo

2013-01-01

359

Balanced cortical microcircuitry for maintaining information in working memory  

PubMed Central

Persistent neural activity in the absence of a stimulus has been identified as a neural correlate of working memory, but how such activity is maintained by neocortical circuits remains unknown. Here we show that the inhibitory and excitatory microcircuitry of neocortical memory-storing regions is sufficient to implement a corrective feedback mechanism that enables persistent activity to be maintained stably for prolonged durations. When recurrent excitatory and inhibitory inputs to memory neurons are balanced in strength, but offset in time, drifts in activity trigger a corrective signal that counteracts memory decay. Circuits containing this mechanism temporally integrate their inputs, generate the irregular neural firing observed during persistent activity, and are robust against common perturbations that severely disrupt previous models of short-term memory storage. This work reveals a mechanism for the accumulation and storage of memories in neocortical circuits based upon principles of corrective negative feedback widely used in engineering applications. PMID:23955560

Lim, Sukbin; Goldman, Mark S.

2013-01-01

360

Strategies for maintaining fitness and performance during Ramadan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Muslim athlete, whether living in a Muslim majority country or in a non-Muslim country, face unique challenges to faithfully follow one of the pillars of their faith – Ramadan – while attempting to maintain their participation in sports training and competition. There are conflicting reports on the effects of Ramadan on fitness and physical performance in general and in football in particular. In

Donald T. Kirkendall; Anis Chaouachi; Abdul Rashid Aziz; Karim Chamari

2012-01-01

361

Correlations among Fertility Components Can Maintain Mixed Mating in Plants  

E-print Network

limited evolutionary options for adjusting the selfing rate is captured well by Holsinger and Thomson (1994, p. 810) in their study of Erythronium grandiflorum (Liliaceae): “Outcrossing may be maintained in E. gran- diflorum not because pollen discounting...:1235–1244. Holsinger, K. E., and J. D. Thomson. 1994. Pollen discounting in Erythronium grandiflorum: mass-action estimates from pollen transfer dynamics. American Naturalist 144:799–812. Holsinger, K. E., M. W. Feldman, and F. B. Christiansen. 1984. The evolution...

Johnston, Mark O.; Porcher, Emmanuelle; Cheptou, Pierre-Olivier; Eckert, Christopher G.; Elle, Elizabeth; Geber, Monica A.; Kalisz, Susan; Kelly, John K.; Moeller, David A.; Vallejo-Mar?´ n, Mario; Alice A. Winn, Alice A.

2009-01-01

362

PKMf Maintains Spatial, Instrumental, and Classically Conditioned Long-Term  

Microsoft Academic Search

How long-term memories are stored is a fundamental question in neuroscience. The first molecular mechanism for long-term memory storage in the brain was recently identified as the persistent action of protein kinase Mzeta (PKMf), an autonomously active atypical protein kinase C (PKC) isoform critical for the maintenance of long-term potentiation (LTP). PKMf maintains aversively conditioned associations, but what general form

Eugenia L. Friedman; Jana Kenney; Stephen M. Taubenfeld; Joshua M. Zimmerman; John Hanna; Cristina Alberini; Ann E. Kelley; Stephen Maren; Jerry W. Rudy; Jerry C. P. Yin; Todd C. Sacktor; Andre A. Fenton

363

Ballast system for maintaining constant pressure in a glove box  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A ballast system for a glove box including a fixed platform on which is mounted an inflatable bag on top of which resides a cover and a weight. The variable gas volume of the inflatable bag communicates with that of the glove box via a valved tube. The weight and gas volume are selected to maintain a relatively constant pressure in the glove box despite variations in the glove box volume while avoiding the use of complicated valving apparatus.

Shlichta, Paul J. (Inventor)

1990-01-01

364

Ballast system for maintaining constant pressure in a glove box  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A ballast system is disclosed for a glove box including a fixed platform on which is mounted an inflatable bag on top of which resides a cover and a weight. The variable gas volume of the inflatable bag communicates with that of the glove box via a valved tube. The weight and the gas volume are selected to maintain a relatively constant pressure in the glove box despite variations in the glove box volume while avoiding the use of complicated valving apparatus.

Shlichta, Paul J. (inventor)

1989-01-01

365

Memory T cells maintain protracted protection against malaria.  

PubMed

Immunologic memory is one of the cardinal features of antigen-specific immune responses, and the persistence of memory cells contributes to prophylactic immunizations against infectious agents. Adequately maintained memory T and B cell pools assure a fast, effective and specific response against re-infections. However, many aspects of immunologic memory are still poorly understood, particularly immunologic memory inducible by parasites, for example, Plasmodium spp., the causative agents of malaria. For example, memory responses to Plasmodium antigens amongst residents of malaria endemic areas appear to be either inadequately developed or maintained, because persons who survive episodes of childhood malaria remain vulnerable to intermittent malaria infections. By contrast, multiple exposures of humans and laboratory rodents to radiation-attenuated Plasmodium sporozoites (?-spz) induce sterile and long-lasting protection against experimental sporozoite challenge. Multifactorial immune mechanisms maintain this protracted and sterile protection. While the presence of memory CD4 T cell subsets has been associated with lasting protection in humans exposed to multiple bites from Anopheles mosquitoes infected with attenuated Plasmodium falciparum, memory CD8 T cells maintain protection induced with Plasmodium yoelii and Plasmodium berghei ?-spz in murine models. In this review, we discuss our observations that show memory CD8 T cells specific for antigens expressed by P. berghei liver stage parasites as an indispensable component for the maintenance of protracted protective immunity against experimental malaria infection; moreover, the provision of an Ag-depot assures a quick recall of memory T cells as IFN-?-producing effector CD8 T cells and IL-4- producing CD4 T cells that collaborate with B cells for an effective antibody response. PMID:24709142

Krzych, Urszula; Zarling, Stasya; Pichugin, Alexander

2014-10-01

366

Social Development and its Relevance to Australian Social Work  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents Midgley's theory on social development to an Australian social work audience. It explores the concept and theory of social development, examines the relationship between social work and social development, and discusses the relevance of social development to social work in Australia. The paper suggests that although social work and social development may share similar broad goals, their

Mel Gray; Penny Crofts

2008-01-01

367

Method and apparatus for maintaining thermal control in plasma conditions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An apparatus and method are disclosed for determining the effects of exposure of oxygen plasma on a thin film polymer whose bulk is maintained at a predetermined temperature. The apparatus includes a chamber having a specimen therein. A plasma environment is provided in the chamber. A closure member is provided for sealing the chamber after the specimen is introduced into the chamber. The closure member also serves as a support for the test apparatus which includes a cooling coil. A platform having the test specimen thereon is supported on the cooling coil to be cooled by coolant flowing through the cooling coils. A thermoelectric module is supported on the platform to assist in maintaining a low test temperature for the test samples. The temperature of the sample is monitored by a thermocouple probe which is in contact with the sample. Any change in bulk sample temperature caused by the thermocouple probe is quickly adjusted to maintain the initial bulk temperature by the thermoelectric module.

Whitaker, Ann F. (inventor)

1989-01-01

368

Lactobacillus GG in inducing and maintaining remission of Crohn's disease  

PubMed Central

Background Experimental studies have shown that luminal antigens are involved in chronic intestinal inflammatory disorders such as Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. Alteration of the intestinal microflora by antibiotic or probiotic therapy may induce and maintain remission. The aim of this randomized, placebo-controlled trial was to determine the effect of oral Lactobacillus GG (L. GG) to induce or maintain medically induced remission. Methods Eleven patients with moderate to active Crohn's disease were enrolled in this trial to receive either L. GG (2 × 109 CFU/day) or placebo for six months. All patients were started on a tapering steroid regime and received antibiotics for the week before the probiotic/placebo medication was initiated. The primary end point was sustained remission, defined as freedom from relapse at the 6 months follow-up visit. Relapse was defined as an increase in CDAI of >100 points. Results 5/11 patients finished the study, with 2 patients in each group in sustained remission. The median time to relapse was 16 ± 4 weeks in the L. GG group and 12 ± 4.3 weeks in the placebo group (p = 0.5). Conclusion In this study we could not demonstrate a benefit of L. GG in inducing or maintaining medically induced remission in CD. PMID:15113451

Schultz, Michael; Timmer, Antje; Herfarth, Hans H; Sartor, R Balfour; Vanderhoof, Jon A; Rath, Heiko C

2004-01-01

369

Social skill and aging: principles and problems.  

PubMed

Over the last two decades it has become increasingly recognized that concepts of skill, formulated originally for sensory-motor tasks such as industrial operations, can be applied to interaction between people. The need for social skills in the interactions between old people, their contemporaries, and younger people with whom they have contact, are explored, and suggestions are made for training social skills in order to improve human relations with and between the elderly. It is also argued that present ideas, favoring opportunities for older people to live in communities with those of like mind, can lessen the need for social skills by reducing the social demands of institutional living. PMID:6671800

Welford, A T

1983-01-01

370

Ottawa, Canada Social Work  

E-print Network

Ottawa, Canada Social Work carleton.ca Bachelorof #12;do you like working with people? are you concerned about social problems and committed to social justice? are you action-oriented and interested in politics and policy? if so, you should consider social work as your program of choice. The study of social

371

Social Withdrawal in Childhood  

Microsoft Academic Search

Socially withdrawn children frequently refrain from social activities in the presence of peers. The lack of social interaction in childhood may result from a variety of causes, including social fear and anxiety or a preference for solitude. From early childhood through to adolescence, socially withdrawn children are concurrently and predictively at risk for a wide range of negative adjustment outcomes,

Kenneth H. Rubin; Robert J. Coplan; Julie C. Bowker

2009-01-01

372

Teaching Human Poses Interactively to a Social Robot  

PubMed Central

The main activity of social robots is to interact with people. In order to do that, the robot must be able to understand what the user is saying or doing. Typically, this capability consists of pre-programmed behaviors or is acquired through controlled learning processes, which are executed before the social interaction begins. This paper presents a software architecture that enables a robot to learn poses in a similar way as people do. That is, hearing its teacher's explanations and acquiring new knowledge in real time. The architecture leans on two main components: an RGB-D (Red-, Green-, Blue- Depth) -based visual system, which gathers the user examples, and an Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR) system, which processes the speech describing those examples. The robot is able to naturally learn the poses the teacher is showing to it by maintaining a natural interaction with the teacher. We evaluate our system with 24 users who teach the robot a predetermined set of poses. The experimental results show that, with a few training examples, the system reaches high accuracy and robustness. This method shows how to combine data from the visual and auditory systems for the acquisition of new knowledge in a natural manner. Such a natural way of training enables robots to learn from users, even if they are not experts in robotics. PMID:24048336

Gonzalez-Pacheco, Victor; Malfaz, Maria; Fernandez, Fernando; Salichs, Miguel A.

2013-01-01

373

Social theory and social class.  

PubMed

Concepts of class developed with the emergence of industrial society in the nineteenth century. For an understanding of current divisions, theories must reflect the advances of capitalism and the global economy that characterize the late twentieth century. In industrialized societies, reductions in the industrial workforce and the growth of finance, investment and real-estate industries worldwide have produced a new, largely female, service workforce. Large sectors of industry have departed in search of cheaper labour in poorer countries, which also have a rising number of women workers. In those areas, as a result, a new industrial workforce has emerged. Concomitantly, accumulation of land in less developed agricultural regions for production for the world market has led to an increase in mobile agricultural labour and a shift of landless labourers to the cities of less developed countries. In addition, both upward and downward mobility have occurred for individuals and groups in specific populations, as well as for particular diseases in developed and less developed countries. All these processes have precipitated fundamental changes in class, gender and family relationships and transformed the living conditions of populations in both developed and less developed societies. These changes have major implications for the patterns of health and disease in the world today. Objective measures of social change may be difficult to construct and use in epidemiological cancer research. Since questions of class and shifting social relations are directly implicated in the patterns of disease, they must be assessed in future research as accurately as possible. PMID:9353662

Susser, I

1997-01-01

374

Social Networks are Encoded in Language  

E-print Network

Knowledge regarding social information is thought to be derived from many different sources, such as interviews and formal relationships. Social networks can likewise be generated from such external information. Recent work has demonstrated that statistical linguistic data can explain findings thought to be explained by external factors alone, such as perceptual relations. The current study explored whether language implicitly comprises information that allows for extracting social networks, by testing the hypothesis that individuals who are socially related together are linguistically talked about together, as well as the hypothesis that individuals who are socially related more are talked about more. In the first analysis using first-order cooccurrences of names of characters in the Harry Potter novels we found that an MDS solution correlated with the actual social network of characters as rated by humans. In a second study using higher-order co-occurrences, a latent semantic analysis (LSA) space was trained on all seven Harry Potter novels. LSA cosine values for all character pairs were obtained, marking their semantic similarity. Again, an MDS analysis comparing the LSA data with the actual social relationships yielded a significant bidimensional regression. These results demonstrate that linguistic information indeed encodes social relationship information and show that implicit information within language can generate social networks.

Sterling Hutchinson; Vivek Datla; Max M. Louwerse

375

Aggressive and Prosocial Behaviors: The Social Success of Bistrategic Preadolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the social functioning of bistrategic youths (i.e., those who employ both aggressive and prosocial behavior) in order to further understand their social competence in peer social networks. Within our sample of 318 fifth-grade participants recruited from an urban school district in the northeastern US, bistrategic preadolescents…

Wurster, Tabitha; Xie, Hongling

2014-01-01

376

Nurses and social media.  

PubMed

Nurses' use of social media and other electronic communications has increased significantly with growing numbers of social media opportunities, platforms and applications including blogs, social networking sites, video sites and online chat rooms and forums. PMID:24690934

Farrelly, Rory

377

Effects of a Social Communication Intervention for Promoting Social Competence through Play in Young Children with Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Early interventions with the goal of altering the trajectory of social skill acquisition are needed in order to establish social competence in young children with developmental disabilities. This study used a unique play-based intervention (the Early Childhood Storybook Intervention) to teach social skills to young children with developmental…

Jamison, Kristen Roorbach

2010-01-01

378

43 CFR 3275.16 - What standards apply to installing and maintaining meters?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...standards apply to installing and maintaining meters? 3275.16 Section 3275.16 Public...standards apply to installing and maintaining meters? (a) You must install and maintain all meters that we require, either according to...

2012-10-01

379

43 CFR 3275.16 - What standards apply to installing and maintaining meters?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...standards apply to installing and maintaining meters? 3275.16 Section 3275.16 Public...standards apply to installing and maintaining meters? (a) You must install and maintain all meters that we require, either according to...

2013-10-01

380

25 CFR 900.53 - What kind of records shall the property management system maintain?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false What kind of records shall the property management system maintain? ...53 What kind of records shall the property management system maintain? The property management system shall maintain records that accurately...

2010-04-01

381

76 FR 51041 - Hemoglobin Standards and Maintaining Adequate Iron Stores in Blood Donors; Public Workshop  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Hemoglobin Standards and Maintaining Adequate Iron Stores in Blood Donors; Public Workshop...Hemoglobin Standards and Maintaining Adequate Iron Stores in Blood Donors.'' The purpose...potential measures to maintain adequate iron stores in blood donors. The public...

2011-08-17

382

31 CFR 358.16 - Are BECCS and CUBES accounts maintained separately from the STRIPS program?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Are BECCS and CUBES accounts maintained separately from the...BEARER COUPONS § 358.16 Are BECCS and CUBES accounts maintained separately from the STRIPS program? BECCS and CUBES accounts are maintained separately...

2011-07-01

383

31 CFR 358.16 - Are BECCS and CUBES accounts maintained separately from the STRIPS program?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Are BECCS and CUBES accounts maintained separately from the...BEARER COUPONS § 358.16 Are BECCS and CUBES accounts maintained separately from the STRIPS program? BECCS and CUBES accounts are maintained separately...

2013-07-01

384

31 CFR 358.16 - Are BECCS and CUBES accounts maintained separately from the STRIPS program?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Are BECCS and CUBES accounts maintained separately from the...BEARER COUPONS § 358.16 Are BECCS and CUBES accounts maintained separately from the STRIPS program? BECCS and CUBES accounts are maintained separately...

2010-07-01

385

31 CFR 358.16 - Are BECCS and CUBES accounts maintained separately from the STRIPS program?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Are BECCS and CUBES accounts maintained separately from the...BEARER COUPONS § 358.16 Are BECCS and CUBES accounts maintained separately from the STRIPS program? BECCS and CUBES accounts are maintained separately...

2012-07-01

386

31 CFR 358.16 - Are BECCS and CUBES accounts maintained separately from the STRIPS program?  

...2014-07-01 false Are BECCS and CUBES accounts maintained separately from the...BEARER COUPONS § 358.16 Are BECCS and CUBES accounts maintained separately from the STRIPS program? BECCS and CUBES accounts are maintained separately...

2014-07-01

387

25 CFR 900.53 - What kind of records shall the property management system maintain?  

...false What kind of records shall the property management system maintain? ...53 What kind of records shall the property management system maintain? The property management system shall maintain records that accurately...

2014-04-01

388

25 CFR 900.53 - What kind of records shall the property management system maintain?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false What kind of records shall the property management system maintain? ...53 What kind of records shall the property management system maintain? The property management system shall maintain records that accurately...

2013-04-01

389

25 CFR 900.53 - What kind of records shall the property management system maintain?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false What kind of records shall the property management system maintain? ...53 What kind of records shall the property management system maintain? The property management system shall maintain records that accurately...

2011-04-01

390

25 CFR 900.53 - What kind of records shall the property management system maintain?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false What kind of records shall the property management system maintain? ...53 What kind of records shall the property management system maintain? The property management system shall maintain records that accurately...

2012-04-01

391

Global social skill ratings: measures of social behavior or physical attractiveness?  

PubMed

Calvert reviewed the literature on social skills and physical attractiveness and concluded that many ratings of social skill may be confounded by the physical attractiveness of the target individual, possibly due to a general perception that physical attractiveness and social competence are positively correlated. In order to examine the influence of physical attractiveness on social skill ratings, Ss made global ratings of social skill and attractiveness for a confederate whose appearance and behavior had been altered to appear attractive or unattractive and socially skilled or unskilled in an assertiveness and heterosocial vignette. The results indicated that the same skilled behavior was viewed as more competent when performed by an attractive person compared to an unattractive person. Attractiveness had no influence on ratings of generally incompetent behavior. Thus, it appears that physical attractiveness does not compensate for poor interpersonal skills, but a skilled, attractive individual may be judged to have particularly good skills. Implications for the assessment of social skills are discussed. PMID:8192645

Hope, D A; Mindell, J A

1994-05-01

392

MACHINE LEARNING : The Necessity of Order (is order in order ?)  

E-print Network

- 1 - MACHINE LEARNING : The Necessity of Order (is order in order ?) A. Cornuéjols Laboratoire de to facilitate learning. Yet, when machine learners exhibited sequencing effects, showing that some data sampling is intended to present ideas and directions of research that are currently studied in the machine learning

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

393

Swallow Preservation Exercises during Chemoradiation Therapy Maintains Swallow Function  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate a swallow preservation protocol (SPP) in which patients received swallow therapy before, during, and after radiation treatment and its efficacy in maintaining swallowing function in head and neck cancer patients. Design Case series with chart review. Setting Tertiary care academic medical center. Subjects and Methods Eighty-five patients who received radiation (RT) or chemoradiation (CRT) participated in the SPP from 2007 to 2012. Subjects were divided into 2 groups: compliant and noncompliant with SPP. At each SPP visit, the diet of each patient was recorded as regular (chewable), puree, liquid, or gastrostomy tube (G-tube) dependent, along with their compliance with the swallow exercises. Patients were stratified by age, gender, tumor stage, type of treatment, radiation dose, diet change, dysguesia, odynophagia, pain, and stenosis. Statistical analysis was performed comparing the 2 compliance groups in regards to swallowing-related outcomes at 1 month after completion of therapy. Results Fifty-seven patients were compliant and 28 were non-compliant with SPP during treatment. The compliant group had a higher percentage of patients tolerating a regular diet (54.4% vs 21.4%, P = .008), a lower G-tube dependence (22.8% vs 53.6%, P = .008), and a higher rate of maintaining or improving their diet (54.4% vs 25.0%, P = .025) compared to noncompliant patients. Conclusion A swallow preservation protocol appears to help maintain or improve swallow function in head and neck cancer patients undergoing RT or CRT. Patients who are able to comply with swallow exercises are less likely to worsen their diet, receive a G-tube, or develop stenosis. PMID:23981953

Duarte, Victor M.; Chhetri, Dinesh K.; Liu, Yuan F.; Erman, Andrew A.; Wang, Marilene B.

2015-01-01

394

Rats maintain a binocular field centered on the horizon.  

PubMed

In this letter, we attempt to correct a potentially serious misperception arising from the paper "Rats maintain an overhead binocular field at the expense of constant fusion". While the authors repeatedly emphasize that the animal's binocular field is overhead, the authors' own data show that the truth is quite different, even orthogonal: the binocular field is in fact centered dead-ahead in front of the animal, tapering to a sliver both above and below the animal.  We predict that this paper will be widely cited for something that it does not demonstrate, a concern that is borne out by the paper's earliest citation. PMID:24358866

Meister, Markus; Cox, David

2013-01-01

395

Oscillatory nonohomic current drive for maintaining a plasma current  

DOEpatents

Apparatus and methods are described for maintaining a plasma current with an oscillatory nonohmic current drive. Each cycle of operation has a generation period in which current driving energy is applied to the plasma, and a relaxation period in which current driving energy is removed. Plasma parameters, such as plasma temperature or plasma average ionic charge state, are modified during the generation period so as to oscillate plasma resistivity in synchronism with the application of current driving energy. The invention improves overall current drive efficiencies.

Fisch, N.J.

1984-01-01

396

Reliability, Availability and Maintainability Considerations for Gas Turbine Cogeneration Systems  

E-print Network

is an inherent characteristic of .system design and is the probability that the system will operate in a satisfactory manner for a specified period when used under stated conditions and is often expressed in terms of Mean Time Between Failure (MTBF... GE~ 0.4'" HRSC UNIT 12.J" HRSG "CCESS. 10.5" ST UNIT' .8'1 5T "CCE5S 6.4~ - Figure 4. Combined Cycle Experience. Ref [4] DESIGN REVIEW CHECKLISTS FOR R & M Design reviews must be conducted keeping Reli ability and Maintainability in mind...

Meher-Homji, C. B.; Focke, A. B.

1984-01-01

397

Abuse liability of flunitrazepam among methadone-maintained patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abuse liability and acute subjective and psychomotor effects of flunitrazepam were assessed in ten methadone-maintained males\\u000a with history of benzodiazepine and alcohol use, who voluntarily participated in a double-blind, controlled, cross-over, randomized\\u000a clinical trial. There were six experimental sessions in which a single oral dose of flunitrazepam 1, 2, and 4?mg; triazolam\\u000a 0.5 and 0.75?mg; and placebo was given. Evaluations

Magí Farré; María-Teresa Terán; Pere N. Roset; Marta Mas; Marta Torrens; J. Camí

1998-01-01

398

Socialization of Social Anxiety in Adolescent Crowds  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, we looked at whether social anxiety is socialized, or influenced by peers' social anxiety, more in some peer crowds than others. Adolescents in crowds with eye-catching appearances such as Goths and Punks (here termed "Radical"), were compared with three comparison groups. Using data from 796 adolescents (353 girls and 443 boys; M…

Van Zalk, Nejra; Van Zalk, Maarten Herman Walter; Kerr, Margaret

2011-01-01

399

Socialism in High School Social Studies Textbooks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article concerns textbook analysis regarding the presentation of socialism in four leading high school social studies books, one in each of the following subjects: United States history, world history, United States government, and economics. Findings indicate that students relying on these texts to gain understanding of socialism and…

Neumann, Richard

2012-01-01

400

Procesos sociales y desarrollo sostenible: un ámbito de aplicación para el análisis de redes sociales complejas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this work is to highlight the potentialities of applying tools, concepts and methodologies that are commonly used in the study of complex networks (Science of the Networks) to analyze certain social aspects of Sustainable Development (paying special attention to those ones related to social organization). In order to reach this goal, a three-step procedure has been followed:

Sergi Lozano Pérez

1970-01-01

401

Informal Learning in Social Networks: A Study of the Orkut Social Network  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes an analytical study which characterises the virtual communities of the Orkut social network, focusing in particular on education, training and technology, in order to understand whether this and other social websites allow the development of informal learning. This empirical study, which is descriptive and exploratory, began…

Lisboa, Eliana Santana; Coutinho, Clara Pereira

2011-01-01

402

Community in a Hurry: Social Contracts and Social Covenants in Short-Term ESL Courses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Like many adult ESL instructors, the author has felt firsthand the challenges of creating community in short-term courses. Through his experience, he has noticed that in order to successfully build community in short-term ESL courses, teachers need to lay a foundation for social contracts and social covenants from the first day of the course and…

Martinsen, Rob A.

2009-01-01

403

Lesser Snow Geese and Ross's Geese form mixed flocks during winter but differ in family maintenance and social status  

Microsoft Academic Search

Smaller species are less likely to maintain families (or other forms of social groups) than larger species and are more likely to be displaced in competition with larger species. We observed mixed-species flocks of geese in southwest Louisiana and compared frequencies of social groups and success in social encounters of Lesser Snow Geese (Chen caerulescens caerulescens; hereafter Snow Geese) with

Jón Einar Jónsson; Alan D. Afton

2008-01-01

404

Microtubules contribute to maintain nucleus shape in epithelial cell monolayer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

INTRODUCTION: Tissue strains can result in significant nuclear deformations and may regulate gene expression. However, the precise role of the cytoskeleton in regulating nuclear mechanics remains poorly understood. Here, we investigate the nuclear deformability of Madin-Darky canine kidney cells (MDCK) under various stretching conditions to clarify the role of the microtubules and actin network on the mechanical behavior of the nucleus. METHODS: A custom-built cell-stretching device allowing for real time imaging of MDCK nuclei was used. Cells were seeded on a silicone membrane coated with rat-tail collagen I. A nuclear stain, Hoechst-33342, was used to image nuclei during stretching. We exposed cells to a compressive and non-compressive stretching strain field of 25%. Nocodazole and cytochalasin-D were used to depolymerize the microtubules and actin network. RESULTS: Nuclei in control cells stretched more along their minor axis than major axis with a deformation of 5% and 2% respectively. This anisotropy vanished completely in microtubule-deprived cells and these cells showed a very high nuclear deformability along the minor axis when exposed to a compressive stretching strain field. CONCLUSIONS: The microtubules drive the anisotropic deformability of MDCK nuclei in a monolayer and maintain nuclear shape when exposed to compressive strain. Such intrinsic mechanical behavior indicates that microtubules are essential to maintain nuclear shape and may prevent down regulation of gene expression.

Tremblay, Dominique; Andrzejewski, Lukasz; Pelling, Andrew

2013-03-01

405

Local Neutral Networks Help Maintain Inaccurately Replicating Ribozymes  

PubMed Central

The error threshold of replication limits the selectively maintainable genome size against recurrent deleterious mutations for most fitness landscapes. In the context of RNA replication a distinction between the genotypic and the phenotypic error threshold has been made; where the latter concerns the maintenance of secondary structure rather than sequence. RNA secondary structure is treated as a proxy for function. The phenotypic error threshold allows higher per digit mutation rates than its genotypic counterpart, and is known to increase with the frequency of neutral mutations in sequence space. Here we show that the degree of neutrality, i.e. the frequency of nearest-neighbour (one-step) neutral mutants is a remarkably accurate proxy for the overall frequency of such mutants in an experimentally verifiable formula for the phenotypic error threshold; this we achieve by the full numerical solution for the concentration of all sequences in mutation-selection balance up to length 16. We reinforce our previous result that currently known ribozymes could be selectively maintained by the accuracy known from the best available polymerase ribozymes. Furthermore, we show that in silico stabilizing selection can increase the mutational robustness of ribozymes due to the fact that they were produced by artificial directional selection in the first place. Our finding offers a better understanding of the error threshold and provides further insight into the plausibility of an ancient RNA world. PMID:25299454

Szilágyi, András; Kun, Ádám; Szathmáry, Eörs

2014-01-01

406

Maintaining Stimulant Waveforms in Large Volume Microfluidic Cell Chambers  

PubMed Central

Stimulation of cells with temporal waveforms can be used to observe the frequency-dependent nature of cellular responses. The ability to produce and maintain the temporal waveforms in spite of the broadening processes that occur as the wave travels through the microfluidic system is critical for observing dynamic behaviors. Broadening of waves in microfluidic channels has been examined, but the effect that large-volume cell chambers have on the waves has not. In this report, a sinusoidal glucose wave delivered to a 1 mm diameter cell chamber using various microfluidic channel structures was simulated by finite element analysis with the goal of minimizing the broadening of the waveform in the chamber and maximizing the homogeneity of the concentration in the chamber at any given time. Simulation results indicated that increasing the flow rate was the most effective means to achieve these goals, but at a given volumetric flow rate, geometries that deliver the waveform to multiple regions in the chamber while maintaining a high linear velocity produced sufficient results. A 4-inlet geometry with a 220 ?m channel width gave the best result in the simulation and was used to deliver glucose waveforms to a population of pancreatic islets of Langerhans. The result was a stronger and more robust synchronization of the islet population as compared to when a non-optimized chamber was used. This general strategy will be useful in other microfluidic systems examining the frequency-dependence nature of cellular behavior. PMID:24244207

Zhang, Xinyu; Dhumpa, Raghuram; Roper, Michael G.

2013-01-01

407

Symbiotic crabs maintain coral health by clearing sediments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stony corals are the foundation of coral reef ecosystems and form associations with other reef species. Many of these associations may be ecologically important and play a role in maintaining the health and diversity of reef systems, rendering it critical to understand the influence of symbiotic organisms in mediating responses to perturbation. This study demonstrates the importance of an association with trapeziid crabs in reducing adverse effects of sediments deposited on corals. In a field experiment, mortality rates of two species of branching corals were significantly lowered by the presence of crabs. All outplanted corals with crabs survived whereas 45-80% of corals without crabs died within a month. For surviving corals that lacked crabs, growth was slower and tissue bleaching and sediment load were higher. Laboratory experiments revealed that corals with crabs shed substantially more of the sediments deposited on coral surfaces, but also that crabs were most effective at removing grain sizes that were most damaging to coral tissues. The mechanism underlying this symbiotic relationship has not been recognized previously, and its role in maintaining coral health is likely to become even more critical as reefs worldwide experience increasing sedimentation.

Stewart, Hannah L.; Holbrook, Sally J.; Schmitt, Russell J.; Brooks, Andrew J.

2006-11-01

408

Bbof1 is required to maintain cilia orientation  

PubMed Central

Multiciliate cells (MCCs) are highly specialized epithelial cells that employ hundreds of motile cilia to produce a vigorous directed flow in a variety of organ systems. The production of this flow requires the establishment of planar cell polarity (PCP) whereby MCCs align hundreds of beating cilia along a common planar axis. The planar axis of cilia in MCCs is known to be established via the PCP pathway and hydrodynamic cues, but the downstream steps required for cilia orientation remain poorly defined. Here, we describe a new component of cilia orientation, based on the phenotypic analysis of an uncharacterized coiled-coil protein, called bbof1. We show that the expression of bbof1 is induced during the early phases of MCC differentiation by the master regulator foxj1. MCC differentiation and ciliogenesis occurs normally in embryos where bbof1 activity is reduced, but cilia orientation is severely disrupted. We show that cilia in bbof1 mutants can still respond to patterning and hydrodynamic cues, but lack the ability to maintain their precise orientation. Misexpression of bbof1 promotes cilia alignment, even in the absence of flow or in embryos where microtubules and actin filaments are disrupted. Bbof1 appears to mediate cilia alignment by localizing to a polar structure adjacent to the basal body. Together, these results suggest that bbof1 is a basal body component required in MCCs to align and maintain cilia orientation in response to flow. PMID:23900544

Chien, Yuan-Hung; Werner, Michael E.; Stubbs, Jennifer; Joens, Matt S.; Li, Julie; Chien, Shu; Fitzpatrick, James A. J.; Mitchell, Brian J.; Kintner, Chris

2013-01-01

409

Promoting longevity by maintaining metabolic and proliferative homeostasis.  

PubMed

Aging is characterized by a widespread loss of homeostasis in biological systems. An important part of this decline is caused by age-related deregulation of regulatory processes that coordinate cellular responses to changing environmental conditions, maintaining cell and tissue function. Studies in genetically accessible model organisms have made significant progress in elucidating the function of such regulatory processes and the consequences of their deregulation for tissue function and longevity. Here, we review such studies, focusing on the characterization of processes that maintain metabolic and proliferative homeostasis in the fruitfly Drosophila melanogaster. The primary regulatory axis addressed in these studies is the interaction between signaling pathways that govern the response to oxidative stress, and signaling pathways that regulate cellular metabolism and growth. The interaction between these pathways has important consequences for animal physiology, and its deregulation in the aging organism is a major cause for increased mortality. Importantly, protocols to tune such interactions genetically to improve homeostasis and extend lifespan have been established by work in flies. This includes modulation of signaling pathway activity in specific tissues, including adipose tissue and insulin-producing tissues, as well as in specific cell types, such as stem cells of the fly intestine. PMID:24353210

Wang, Lifen; Karpac, Jason; Jasper, Heinrich

2014-01-01

410

System for maintaining sediment suspensions during larval fish studies  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A new system was developed for maintaining suspensions of inorganic solids during laboratory studies on early life stages of fish. Microfine bentonite was successfully held in suspension in specially constructed units during a 21-d fishless test, a 28-d experiment with juvenile green sunfish (lepomis cyanellus), and four shorter experiments (5-9 d) with four species of larval fishes, white sucker (catostomus commersoni), northern pike (esox lucius), channel catfish (ictalurus punctatus), and walleye (stizostedion vitreum). Each experiment on larval fish was conducted until the yolk-sac had been absorbed. Concentrations of bentonite ranged from 0 to 728 mg/l. Each unit consisted of a holding chamber set in a stainless steel bowl and two submersible pumps that recirculated the suspension. Turbidity readings remained nearly constant throughout each experiment. Because the turbidity of suspensions was well correlated with bentonite concentration (r2 = 0.989) And easy to measure, turbidity was used as an indicator of concentration. The system is inexpensive, easy to assemble, and does not require a diluter system to maintain constant concentrations of suspended material.

Chilton, E.W., II

1991-01-01

411

Acquiring and maintaining a normal oral microbiome: current perspective  

PubMed Central

The oral microbiota survives daily physical and chemical perturbations from the intake of food and personal hygiene measures, resulting in a long-term stable microbiome. Biological properties that confer stability in the microbiome are important for the prevention of dysbiosis—a microbial shift toward a disease, e.g., periodontitis or caries. Although processes that underlie oral diseases have been studied extensively, processes involved in maintaining of a normal, healthy microbiome are poorly understood. In this review we present our hypothesis on how a healthy oral microbiome is acquired and maintained. We introduce our view on the prenatal development of tolerance for the normal oral microbiome: we propose that development of fetal tolerance toward the microbiome of the mother during pregnancy is the major factor for a successful acquisition of a normal microbiome. We describe the processes that influence the establishment of such microbiome, followed by our perspective on the process of sustaining a healthy oral microbiome. We divide microbiome-maintenance factors into host-derived and microbe-derived, while focusing on the host. Finally, we highlight the need and directions for future research. PMID:25019064

Zaura, Egija; Nicu, Elena A.; Krom, Bastiaan P.; Keijser, Bart J. F.

2014-01-01

412

Maintaining Sibling Relationships for Children in Foster and Adoptive Placements  

PubMed Central

To better understand the nature of sibling relationships among children in foster or adoptive placement and the challenges and processes involved in maintaining these relationships, we conducted an exploratory analysis of data collected from semi-structured interviews with caregivers of 14 foster and adopted children in San Diego County. We identified three patterns of placement histories and living situations which appeared to impact the degree of contact maintained with siblings: (1) children who had never lived together and were not currently placed together; (2) children who at some point lived with or were placed together with their siblings, but were now separated from them; and (3) children who had lived with their siblings all their life and were placed together with at least some of their siblings at the time of the interview. Children’s current living situations and placement histories, caregivers’ experiences and perceptions of feasibility and desirability of sibling contact, and the sibling relationship itself are primary determinants in the development and maintenance of contact between siblings. Implications for child welfare policy and practice are discussed. PMID:19122749

James, Sigrid; Monn, Amy R.; Palinkas, Lawrence A.; Leslie, Laurel K.

2008-01-01

413

Promoting longevity by maintaining metabolic and proliferative homeostasis  

PubMed Central

Aging is characterized by a widespread loss of homeostasis in biological systems. An important part of this decline is caused by age-related deregulation of regulatory processes that coordinate cellular responses to changing environmental conditions, maintaining cell and tissue function. Studies in genetically accessible model organisms have made significant progress in elucidating the function of such regulatory processes and the consequences of their deregulation for tissue function and longevity. Here, we review such studies, focusing on the characterization of processes that maintain metabolic and proliferative homeostasis in the fruitfly Drosophila melanogaster. The primary regulatory axis addressed in these studies is the interaction between signaling pathways that govern the response to oxidative stress, and signaling pathways that regulate cellular metabolism and growth. The interaction between these pathways has important consequences for animal physiology, and its deregulation in the aging organism is a major cause for increased mortality. Importantly, protocols to tune such interactions genetically to improve homeostasis and extend lifespan have been established by work in flies. This includes modulation of signaling pathway activity in specific tissues, including adipose tissue and insulin-producing tissues, as well as in specific cell types, such as stem cells of the fly intestine. PMID:24353210

Wang, Lifen; Karpac, Jason; Jasper, Heinrich

2014-01-01

414

Maintaining Aura's Orbit Requirements Under New Maneuver Operations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Earth Observing System (EOS) Afternoon Constellation consists of five member missions (GCOM-W1, Aqua, CALIPSO, CloudSat, and Aura), each of which maintain a frozen, sun-synchronous orbit with a 16-day repeating ground track that follows the Worldwide Reference System-2 (WRS-2). Under nominal science operations for Aura, the propulsion system is oriented such that the resultant thrust vector is aligned 13.493 degrees away from the velocity vector along the yaw axis. When performing orbit maintenance maneuvers, the spacecraft performs a yaw slew to align the thrust vector in the appropriate direction. A new Drag Make Up (DMU) maneuver operations scheme has been implemented for Aura alleviating the need for the 13.493 degree yaw slew. The focus of this investigation is to assess the impact that no-slew DMU maneuver operations will have on Auras Mean Local Time (MLT) which drives the required along track separation between Aura and the constellation members, as well as Auras frozen orbit properties, eccentricity and argument of perigee. Seven maneuver strategies were analyzed to determine the best operational approach. A mirror pole strategy, with maneuvers alternating at the North and South poles, was implemented operationally to minimize impact to the MLT. Additional analysis determined that the mirror pole strategy could be further modified to include frozen orbit maneuvers and thus maintain both MLT and the frozen orbit properties under no-slew operations

Johnson, Megan; Petersen, Jeremy D.

2014-01-01

415

[Viability of Malassezia pachydermatis strains maintained in various storage mediums].  

PubMed

The maintenance of Malassezia pachydermatis in fungal collections is very important for retrospective and prospective studies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the behavior of Malassezia pachydermatis in different storage methods. After the identification process, M. pachydermatis strains were stored for six and nine months, in saline and saline plus mineral oil at 28 degrees C, as well as in Dixon's agar, Dixon's agar plus glycerol and Dixon's agar plus dimethyl-sulfoxide (DMSO), at -20 degrees C. Dixon's agar and Dixon's agar plus glycerol were the most adequate methods (p < 0.05) for the maintenance of Malassezia pachydermatis viability, after six and nine months of storage. All the methods used were capable of maintaining the urease activity at six months of storage, but only Dixon's agar and Dixon's agar plus glycerol were statistically adequate at nine months (p < 0.05). Thus, to assure Malassezia pachydermatis recovery and to maintain its characteristics, Dixon's agar or Dixon's agar plus glycerol should be used. PMID:15330062

Girão, Marília Dutra; do Prado, Marilena Ribeiro; Brilhante, Raimunda Sâmia Nogueira; Cordeiro, Rossana Aguiar; Monteiro, André Jalles; Sidrim, José Júlio Costa; Rocha, Marcos Fábio Gadelha

2004-01-01

416

Maintaining antioxidant potential of fresh fruits and vegetables after harvest.  

PubMed

The consumption of fruits and vegetables has increased in the past few years, not only because of their attractive sensorial properties, but also for their nutritional and health benefits. Antioxidants are compounds found in fresh fruits and vegetables, and evidence of their role in the prevention of degenerative diseases is continuously emerging. However, the antioxidants in some fruits and vegetables can be lost during handling after harvest, even during minimal processing and storage. In this sense, postharvest treatments are needed to preserve the quality and antioxidant potential of fresh produce. Postharvest treatments and technologic strategies (including ultraviolet light, controlled and modified atmospheres, heat treatments, and application of natural compounds, such as edible coatings, active packaging, microencapsulation, and nanoemulsion) have shown positive and promising results to maintain fruit and vegetable antioxidant potential. The purpose of this review is to analyze and propose the application of postharvest strategies to maintain, or even improve, the antioxidant status of fruits and vegetables, thus offering options to maximize health benefits to consumers. PMID:24915343

Villa-Rodriguez, Jose A; Palafox-Carlos, H; Yahia, Elhadi M; Ayala-Zavala, J Fernando; Gonzalez-Aguilar, Gustavo A

2015-01-01

417

Preferential adhesion maintains separation of ommatidia in the Drosophila eye.  

PubMed

In the Drosophila eye, neighboring ommatidia are separated by inter-ommatidial cells (IOCs). How this ommatidial spacing emerges during eye development is not clear. Here we demonstrate that four adhesion molecules of the Irre cell recognition module (IRM) family play a redundant role in maintaining separation of ommatidia. The four IRM proteins are divided into two groups: Kirre and Rst are expressed in IOCs, and Hbs and Sns in primary pigment cells (1 degrees s). Kirre binds Hbs and Sns in vivo and in vitro. Reducing activity of either Rst or Kirre alone had minimal effects on ommatidial spacing, but reducing both together led to direct ommatidium:ommatidium contact. A similar phenotype was also observed when reducing both Hbs and Sns. Consistent with the role of these factors in sorting ommatidia, mis-expression of Hbs plus Sns within a single IOC led to complete separation of the cell from neighboring ommatidia. Our results indicate mutual preferential adhesion between ommatidia and IOCs mediated by four IRM proteins is both necessary and sufficient to maintain separation of ommatidia. PMID:20599904

Bao, Sujin; Fischbach, Karl-Friedrich; Corbin, Victoria; Cagan, Ross L

2010-08-15

418

Viability of fungal cultures maintained at -70 degrees C.  

PubMed Central

One thousand four hundred forty-seven clinical and environmental isolates of molds, yeasts, aerobic actinomycetes, and algae belonging to 164 genera (382 taxa) maintained on potato dextrose agar at -70 degrees C for periods ranging from 6 months to 13 years were subcultured and then incubated at 25 degrees C to determine their viabilities. Thirty-three isolates, Alternaria alternata (n = 1), Apophysomyces elegans (n = 1), Bipolaris spicifera (n = 1), Blastomyces dermatitidis (n = 4), Cokeromyces recurvatus (n = 1), Coremiella cubispora (n = 1), Cryptococcus ater (n = 1), Curvularia sp. (n = 1), Exserohilum monoceras (n = 1), Exserohilum pedicillatum (n = 1), Exserohilum rostratum (n = 1), Filobasidium floriforme (n = 1), Madurella mycetomatis (n = 1), Oedocephalum spp. (n = 2), Penicillium marneffei (n = 1), Pseudomicrodochium spp. (n = 4), Saksenaea vasiformis (n = 1), Sporothrix sp. (n = 1), and Mycelia Sterilia (n = 8), did not grow after repeated attempts at subculturing. Neither time in storage nor taxonomic classification was associated with a lack of viability. Storage at low temperature for either short or long periods of time is an excellent method for maintaining most medically important fungi. PMID:1572955

Pasarell, L; McGinnis, M R

1992-01-01

419

Social cognition on the Internet: testing constraints on social network size.  

PubMed

The social brain hypothesis (an explanation for the evolution of brain size in primates) predicts that humans typically cannot maintain more than 150 relationships at any one time. The constraint is partly cognitive (ultimately determined by some aspect of brain volume) and partly one of time. Friendships (but not necessarily kin relationships) are maintained by investing time in them, and failure to do so results in an inexorable deterioration in the quality of a relationship. The Internet, and in particular the rise of social networking sites (SNSs), raises the possibility that digital media might allow us to circumvent some or all of these constraints. This allows us to test the importance of these constraints in limiting human sociality. Although the recency of SNSs means that there have been relatively few studies, those that are available suggest that, in general, the ability to broadcast to many individuals at once, and the possibilities this provides in terms of continuously updating our understanding of network members' behaviour and thoughts, do not allow larger networks to be maintained. This may be because only relatively weak quality relationships can be maintained without face-to-face interaction. PMID:22734062

Dunbar, R I M

2012-08-01

420

Social cognition on the Internet: testing constraints on social network size  

PubMed Central

The social brain hypothesis (an explanation for the evolution of brain size in primates) predicts that humans typically cannot maintain more than 150 relationships at any one time. The constraint is partly cognitive (ultimately determined by some aspect of brain volume) and partly one of time. Friendships (but not necessarily kin relationships) are maintained by investing time in them, and failure to do so results in an inexorable deterioration in the quality of a relationship. The Internet, and in particular the rise of social networking sites (SNSs), raises the possibility that digital media might allow us to circumvent some or all of these constraints. This allows us to test the importance of these constraints in limiting human sociality. Although the recency of SNSs means that there have been relatively few studies, those that are available suggest that, in general, the ability to broadcast to many individuals at once, and the possibilities this provides in terms of continuously updating our understanding of network members’ behaviour and thoughts, do not allow larger networks to be maintained. This may be because only relatively weak quality relationships can be maintained without face-to-face interaction. PMID:22734062

Dunbar, R. I. M.

2012-01-01

421

Changing eye of the beholder : Perceived changes in social support following a move into residential care.   

E-print Network

Background: Increasing numbers of older people are requiring residential care and there are high levels of depression in such settings. Existing literature suggests that social support can help maintain psychological ...

Everatt, Anna

2010-11-26

422

Social Impact Assessment: A Critical Tool in Land-Development Planning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A social impact assessment (SIA) should accompany plans for land development in developing nations. An SIA team should maintain an ongoing relationship with the community and attempt to implement recommendations. (KC)

De'Ath, Colin

1982-01-01

423

Convergent genetic architecture underlies social organization in ants.  

PubMed

Complex adaptive polymorphisms are common in nature, but what mechanisms maintain the underlying favorable allelic combinations? The convergent evolution of polymorphic social organization in two independent ant species provides a great opportunity to investigate how genomes evolved under parallel selection. Here, we demonstrate that a large, nonrecombining "social chromosome" is associated with social organization in the Alpine silver ant, Formica selysi. This social chromosome shares architectural characteristics with that of the fire ant Solenopsis invicta, but the two show no detectable similarity in gene content. The discovery of convergence at two levels--the phenotype and the genetic architecture associated with alternative social forms--points at general genetic mechanisms underlying transitions in social organization. More broadly, our findings are consistent with recent theoretical studies suggesting that suppression of recombination plays a key role in facilitating coordinated shifts in coadapted traits. PMID:25455032

Purcell, Jessica; Brelsford, Alan; Wurm, Yannick; Perrin, Nicolas; Chapuisat, Michel

2014-11-17

424

Structured self-management education maintained over two years in insufficiently controlled type 2 diabetes patients: the ERMIES randomised trial in Reunion Island  

PubMed Central

Background Self-management education programs can reduce the complications and mortality in type 2 diabetes. The need to structure these programs for outpatient and community care with a vision for long-term maintenance has been recognised. In Reunion Island, an area affected by epidemiological and nutritional transition, diabetes affects 18% of the adult population over 30 years, with major social disparities, poor glycaemic control and frequent cardiovascular complications. Methods/Design ERMIES is a randomised controlled trial designed to test the efficacy of a long-term (2 years) structured group self management educational intervention in improving blood glucose in non-recent, insufficiently controlled diabetes. After an initial structured educational cycle carried out blind for the intervention arm, patients will be randomised in two parallel group arms of 120 subjects: structured on-going group with educational intervention maintained over two years, versus only initial education. Education sessions are organised through a regional diabetes management network, and performed by trained registered nurses at close quarters. The educational approach is theoretically based (socio-constructivism, social contextualisation, empowerment, action planning) and reproducible, thanks to curricula and handouts for educators and learners. The subjects will be recruited from five hospital outpatient settings all over Reunion Island. The main eligibility criteria include: age ?18 years, type 2 diabetes treated for more than one year, HbA1c???7.5% for ?3 months, without any severe evolving complication (ischaemic or proliferative retinopathy, severe renal insufficiency, coronaropathy or evolving foot lesion), and absence of any major physical or cognitive handicap. The primary outcome measure is HbA1c evolution between inclusion and 2 years. The secondary outcome measures include anthropometric indicators, blood pressure, lipids, antidiabetic medications, level of physical activity, food ingestion, quality of life, social support, anxiety, depression levels and self-efficacy. An associated nested qualitative study will be conducted with 30 to 40 subjects in order to analyse the learning and adaptation processes during the education cycles, and throughout the study. Conclusions This research will help to address the necessary but difficult issue of structuring therapeutic education in type 2 diabetes based on: efficacy and potential interest of organising on-going empowerment group–sessions, at close quarters, over the long term, in a heterogeneous socioeconomic environment. Trial registration ID_RCB number: 2011-A00046-35 Clinicaltrials.gov number: NCT01425866 PMID:22856504

2012-01-01

425

Solving the viscous hydrodynamics order by order  

E-print Network

In this paper, we propose a method of solving the viscous hydrodynamics order by order in a derivative expansion. In such method, the zero order solution is just the one of the ideal hydrodynamics. All the other higher order corrections satisfy the same first-order partial differential equations but with different inhomogeneous terms. We therefore argue that our method could be easily extended to any orders. The problem of causality and stability will be released if the gradient expansion is guaranteed. This method might be of great help to both theoretical and numerical calculations of relativistic hydrodynamics.

Jian-Hua Gao; Shi Pu

2014-09-02

426

Negotiating authenticity: a negotiated order study of Valley View Summer Camp  

E-print Network

The negotiated order framework has frequently been raphics. used to examine the social order of organizations such as hospitals and police departments. It is proposed that negotiation is necessary in order for work to take place because...

Free, Rebecca J

1999-01-01

427

A Novel ITSM-Based Implementation Method to Maintain Software Assets in Order to Sustain Organizational Activities  

Microsoft Academic Search

One major problem is to record software assets and update them in the organizations. Information technology service management (ITSM) usually refers to ISO\\/IEC 20000 standard that the configuration management (CM) process known as hart of it. configuration management database (CMDB) is part of the CM that records and updates changes and retrieve the services. This paper focus on propose a

Mohammad Sharifi; Masarat Ayat; Suhaimi Ibrahim; Shamsul Sahibuddin

2009-01-01

428

Measuring social support in patients with advanced medical illnesses: An analysis of the Duke-UNC Functional Social Support Questionnaire.  

PubMed

Objective: To date, no measure of social support has been developed specifically for either palliative care or oncology settings. The present study examined the psychometric properties of the Duke-University of North Carolina Functional Social Support Questionnaire (DUFSS) in order to (1) assess the adequacy of the scale in the context of severe medical illness and (2) evaluate whether a brief subset of items might generate roughly comparable utility. Method: The 14-item DUFSS was administered to 1,362 individuals with advanced cancer or AIDS. Classical test theory (CTT) and item response theory (IRT) analyses were utilized to develop an abbreviated version of the DUFSS that maintained adequate reliability and validity and might increase the feasibility of its administration in a palliative care setting. The reliability and concurrent validity of the DUFSS-5 were evaluated in a separate validation sample of patients with advanced cancer. Results: Analyses generated a five-item version of the DUFSS (the DUFSS-5) that collapsed response levels into only three options, instead of five. Correlations between the DUFSS-5 and measures of depression, quality of life, and desire for hastened death, as well as regression models testing the main-effect and buffering models of social support, provided support for the utility of the DUFSS-5. Significance of results: Both the DUFSS and the abbreviated DUFSS-5 appear to have adequate reliability and validity in this setting. Moreover, the DUFSS-5 represents a potentially important option for healthcare researchers, particularly for those working in palliative care settings where issues of patient burden are paramount. Such analyses are critical for advancing the development and refinement of psychosocial measures, but have often been neglected. PMID:25201170

Saracino, Rebecca; Kolva, Elissa; Rosenfeld, Barry; Breitbart, William

2014-09-01

429

Social enhancement can create adaptive, arbitrary and maladaptive cultural traditions  

PubMed Central

Many animals are known to learn socially, i.e. they are able to acquire new behaviours by using information from other individuals. Researchers distinguish between a number of different social-learning mechanisms such as imitation and social enhancement. Social enhancement is a simple form of social learning that is among the most widespread in animals. However, unlike imitation, it is debated whether social enhancement can create cultural traditions. Based on a recent study on capuchin monkeys, we developed an agent-based model to test the hypotheses that (i) social enhancement can create and maintain stable traditions and (ii) social enhancement can create cultural conformity. Our results supported both hypotheses. A key factor that led to the creation of cultural conformity and traditions was the repeated interaction of individual reinforcement and social enhancement learning. This result emphasizes that the emergence of cultural conformity does not necessarily require cognitively complex mechanisms such as ‘copying the majority’ or group norms. In addition, we observed that social enhancement can create learning dynamics similar to a ‘copy when uncertain’ learning strategy. Results from additional analyses also point to situations that should favour the evolution of learning mechanisms more sophisticated than social enhancement. PMID:20547762

Franz, Mathias; Matthews, Luke J.

2010-01-01

430

What Affects Social Attention? Social Presence, Eye Contact and Autistic Traits  

PubMed Central

Social understanding is facilitated by effectively attending to other people and the subtle social cues they generate. In order to more fully appreciate the nature of social attention and what drives people to attend to social aspects of the world, one must investigate the factors that influence social attention. This is especially important when attempting to create models of disordered social attention, e.g. a model of social attention in autism. Here we analysed participants' viewing behaviour during one-to-one social interactions with an experimenter. Interactions were conducted either live or via video (social presence manipulation). The participant was asked and then required to answer questions. Experimenter eye-contact was either direct or averted. Additionally, the influence of participant self-reported autistic traits was also investigated. We found that regardless of whether the interaction was conducted live or via a video, participants frequently looked at the experimenter's face, and they did this more often when being asked a question than when answering. Critical differences in social attention between the live and video interactions were also observed. Modifications of experimenter eye contact influenced participants' eye movements in the live interaction only; and increased autistic traits were associated with less looking at the experimenter for video interactions only. We conclude that analysing patterns of eye-movements in response to strictly controlled video stimuli and natural real-world stimuli furthers the field's understanding of the factors that influence social attention. PMID:23326407

Freeth, Megan; Foulsham, Tom; Kingstone, Alan

2013-01-01

431

Patterns of social preference across different social contexts in golden lion tamarins (Leontopithecus rosalia).  

PubMed

We investigated the role of mutual and circumstantial factors in maintaining exclusive social relationships in a New World primate. Four breeding pairs of golden lion tamarins (Leontopithecus rosalia rosalia) were allowed to interact with their mate or an unfamiliar, opposite-sex adult in each of 4 different social contexts: in view of the mate, out of the mate's view, with only the mate present, and with only the unfamiliar animal present. Males and females were in proximity to, approached, and sniffed their mates significantly more often than they did unfamiliar tamarins. These behaviors suggest a preference for the familiar mate. However, when mates were absent, tamarins demonstrated significantly higher levels of approach and sniffs toward unfamiliar animals. These patterns of behavior indicate that circumstantial factors, such as social context, may regulate social interactions between paired tamarins and unfamiliar, opposite-sex conspecifics. PMID:2114250

Inglett, B J; French, J A; Dethlefs, T M

1990-06-01

432

Social Insect Networks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Social insect colonies have many of the properties of adaptive networks. The simple rules governing how local interactions among individuals translate into group behaviors are found across social groups, giving social insects the potential to have a profound impact on our understanding of the interplay between network dynamics and social evolution.

Jennifer Fewell (Arizona State University; School of Life Sciences)

2003-09-26

433

Stress Amplifies Memory for Social Hierarchy  

PubMed Central

Individuals differ in their social status and societies in the extent of social status differences among their members. There is great interest in understanding the key factors that contribute to the establishment of social dominance structures. Given that stress can affect behavior and cognition, we hypothesized that, given equal opportunities to become either dominant or submissive, stress experienced by one of the individuals during their first encounter would determine the long-term establishment of a social hierarchy by acting as a two-stage rocket: (1) by influencing the rank achieved after a social encounter and (2) by facilitating and/or promoting a long-term memory for the specific hierarchy. Using a novel model for the assessment of long-term dominance hierarchies in rats, we present here the first evidence supporting such hypothesis. In control conditions, the social rank established through a first interaction and food competition test between two male rats is not maintained when animals are confronted 1 week later. However, if one of the rats is stressed just before their first encounter, the dominance hierarchy developed on day 1 is still clearly observed 1 week later, with the stressed animal becoming submissive (i.e., looser in competition tests) in both social interactions. Our findings also allow us to propose that stress potentiates a hierarchy-linked recognition memory between “specific” individuals through mechanisms that involve de novo protein synthesis. These results implicate stress among the key mechanisms contributing to create social imbalance and highlight memory mechanisms as key mediators of stress-induced long-term establishment of social rank. PMID:18982127

Cordero, María Isabel; Sandi, Carmen

2007-01-01

434

The permeability of rat palatal mucosa maintained in organ culture.  

PubMed Central

The intercellular permeability barrier of neonatal rat palatal mucosa maintained in organ culture for periods up to 24 days was studied ultrastructurally using the tracers horseradish peroxidase and lanthanum nitrate. At all time intervals examined the limit of penetration of the tracers corresponded to the level at which the membrane-coating granules were being discharged. However, in the cultured mucosa, extrusion of granules occurred closer to the granular cell-keratin junction after 6 and 12 days in vitro than at other time intervals. This probably is a reflexion of the higher rate of tissue turnover at these times. It is concluded that a permeability barrier comparable with that described in vivo is produced by the epithelium during maintenance inorgan culture and is further evidence of the functional integrity of the tissue in vitro. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:422477

Hill, M W; Squier, C A

1979-01-01

435

The ultrastructure of rat palatal mucosa maintained in organ culture.  

PubMed Central

Palatal mucosa from neonatal rats was examined by electron microscopy after maintenance in a chemically defined medium in organ culture for periods up to 24 days. Throughout the culture period there was little overall change in the explants. Apart from limited disturbances of the basal lamina complex early in the culture period, and the presence of occasional degenerating keratinocytes after 18 days in vitro, the epithelium displayed an ultrastructure comparable with that at the time of explantation. The connective tissue showed greater changes, but despite considerable cell death a viable cell population apparently capable of both phagocytosis and synthesis of extracellular material was maintained. It is concluded that this organ culture system is a valid model for experimental investigations into the behaviour of oral mucosa. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 PMID:744746

Hill, M W

1978-01-01

436

Distinct interactions select and maintain a specific cell fate  

PubMed Central

The ability to specify and maintain discrete cell fates is essential for development. However, the dynamics underlying selection and stability of distinct cell types remains poorly understood. Here, we provide a quantitative single-cell analysis of commitment dynamics during the mating-mitosis switch in budding yeast. Commitment to division corresponds precisely to activating the G1 cyclin positive feedback loop in competition with the cyclin inhibitor Far1. Cyclin-dependent phosphorylation and inhibition of the mating pathway scaffold Ste5 is required to ensure exclusive expression of the mitotic transcriptional program after cell cycle commitment. Failure to commit exclusively results in coexpression of both cell cycle and pheromone-induced genes, and a morphologically-mixed inviable cell fate. Thus, specification and maintenance of a cellular state are performed by distinct interactions, which is likely a consequence of disparate reaction rates and may be a general feature of the interlinked regulatory networks responsible for selecting cell fates. PMID:21855793

Don?i?, Andreas; Falleur-Fettig, Melody; Skotheim, Jan M.

2011-01-01

437

Culturing and Maintaining Clostridium difficile in an Anaerobic Environment  

PubMed Central

Clostridium difficile is a Gram-positive, anaerobic, sporogenic bacterium that is primarily responsible for antibiotic associated diarrhea (AAD) and is a significant nosocomial pathogen. C. difficile is notoriously difficult to isolate and cultivate and is extremely sensitive to even low levels of oxygen in the environment. Here, methods for isolating C. difficile from fecal samples and subsequently culturing C. difficile for preparation of glycerol stocks for long-term storage are presented. Techniques for preparing and enumerating spore stocks in the laboratory for a variety of downstream applications including microscopy and animal studies are also described. These techniques necessitate an anaerobic chamber, which maintains a consistent anaerobic environment to ensure proper conditions for optimal C. difficile growth. We provide protocols for transferring materials in and out of the chamber without causing significant oxygen contamination along with suggestions for regular maintenance required to sustain the appropriate anaerobic environment for efficient and consistent C. difficile cultivation. PMID:24084491

Edwards, Adrianne N.; Suarez, Jose M.; McBride, Shonna M.

2014-01-01

438

Pyrolysis of wood to biochar: increasing yield while maintaining microporosity.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to determine if biochar yield could be increased by the deposition of volatile pyrolysis species within the bed during production, without negatively influencing the microporosity and adsorption properties. Aspen (Populus tremuloides) wood chips were loaded into three vertically stacked zones within a reactor and heated in nitrogen to temperatures between 420 and 650°C (i.e., pyrolyzed). The yield did increase from the zone at the reactor inlet to the subsequent zones as volatile species deposited and carbonized, and importantly, the carbonized deposits had a similar microporous structure and organic vapor uptake (1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane) to that of the primary biochar. Based on these results, bio-oil from previous runs at 600°C was recycled to the bed, which further increased the yield while maintaining the desirable adsorption properties of the biochar. PMID:24365739

Veksha, Andrei; McLaughlin, Hugh; Layzell, David B; Hill, Josephine M

2014-02-01

439

Warm Eocene Conditions Maintained by Methanogenesis in Arctic Soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The strikingly large carbon isotope separation (? 13Ccc - ? 13Com = 30.5 ‰ ) between fossilized wood and pedogenic carbonate intertwined in an unusually well-preservedMetasequoia bole of Eocene age from Axel Heiberg Island indicated an Arctic paleoenvironment in which 23% of soil-respired CO2 was enzymatically reduced to methane, prior to the precipitation of pedogenic carbonate. Using conservative estimates of biomass and litter paleoproduction forMetasequoia fossil forests, I calculated an annual methane release of 341 x 1012 gCH4/yr for the forested Arctic during the Eocene. This value is ~3x total modern natural methane emissions from soils, and would have drastically interfered with re-radiation of heat from the Earth's surface, and maintained the relatively mild Arctic temperatures evidenced by the fauna and flora of the Eocene.

Jahren, H.

2002-05-01

440

Advantageous diversity maintained by balancing selection in humans.  

PubMed

Most human polymorphisms are neutral or slightly deleterious, but some genetic variation is advantageous and maintained in populations by balancing selection. Considered a rarity and overlooked for years, balanced polymorphisms have recently received renewed attention with several lines of evidence showing their relevance in human evolution. From theoretical work on its role in adaptation to empirical studies that identify its targets, recent developments have showed that balancing selection is more prevalent than previously thought. Here we review these developments and discuss their implications in our understanding of the influence of balancing selection in human evolution. We also review existing evidence on the biological functions that benefit most from advantageous diversity, and the functional consequences of these variants. Overall, we argue that balancing selection must be considered an important selective force in human evolution. PMID:25173959

Key, Felix M; Teixeira, João C; de Filippo, Cesare; Andrés, Aida M

2014-12-01

441

Maintaining consistency between planning hierarchies: Techniques and applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In many planning and scheduling environments, it is desirable to be able to view and manipulate plans at different levels of abstraction, allowing the users the option of viewing and manipulating either a very detailed representation of the plan or a high-level more abstract version of the plan. Generating a detailed plan from a more abstract plan requires domain-specific planning/scheduling knowledge; the reverse process of generating a high-level plan from a detailed plan Reverse Plan Maintenance, or RPM) requires having the system remember the actions it took based on its domain-specific knowledge and its reasons for taking those actions. This reverse plan maintenance process is described as implemented in a specific planning and scheduling tool, The Mission Operations Planning Assistant (MOPA), as well as the applications of RPM to other planning and scheduling problems; emphasizing the knowledge that is needed to maintain the correspondence between the different hierarchical planning levels.

Zoch, David R.

1987-01-01

442

Maintaining the Brain: Insight into Human Neurodegeneration From Drosophila Mutants  

PubMed Central

The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster has brought significant advances to research in neurodegenerative disease, notably in the identification of genes that are required to maintain the structural integrity of the brain, defined by recessive mutations that cause adult-onset neurodegeneration. Here, we survey these genes in the fly and classify them according to five key cell biological processes. Over half of these genes have counterparts in mouse or human that are also associated with neurodegeneration. Fly genetics continues to be instrumental in the analysis of degenerative disease, with notable recent advances in our understanding of several inherited disorders, as well as Parkinson’s Disease and the central role of mitochondria in neuronal maintenance. PMID:19434080

Lessing, Derek; Bonini, Nancy M.

2009-01-01

443

Elimination of Unfit Cells Maintains Tissue Health and Prolongs Lifespan  

PubMed Central

Summary Viable yet damaged cells can accumulate during development and aging. Although eliminating those cells may benefit organ function, identification of this less fit cell population remains challenging. Previously, we identified a molecular mechanism, based on “fitness fingerprints” displayed on cell membranes, which allows direct fitness comparison among cells in Drosophila. Here, we study the physiological consequences of efficient cell selection for the whole organism. We find that fitness-based cell culling is naturally used to maintain tissue health, delay aging, and extend lifespan in Drosophila. We identify a gene, azot, which ensures the elimination of less fit cells. Lack of azot increases morphological malformations and susceptibility to random mutations and accelerates tissue degeneration. On the contrary, improving the efficiency of cell selection is beneficial for tissue health and extends lifespan. PMID:25601460

Merino, Marisa M.; Rhiner, Christa; Lopez-Gay, Jesus M.; Buechel, David; Hauert, Barbara; Moreno, Eduardo

2015-01-01

444

Elimination of unfit cells maintains tissue health and prolongs lifespan.  

PubMed

Viable yet damaged cells can accumulate during development and aging. Although eliminating those cells may benefit organ function, identification of this less fit cell population remains challenging. Previously, we identified a molecular mechanism, based on "fitness fingerprints" displayed on cell membranes, which allows direct fitness comparison among cells in Drosophila. Here, we study the physiological consequences of efficient cell selection for the whole organism. We find that fitness-based cell culling is naturally used to maintain tissue health, delay aging, and extend lifespan in Drosophila. We identify a gene, azot, which ensures the elimination of less fit cells. Lack of azot increases morphological malformations and susceptibility to random mutations and accelerates tissue degeneration. On the contrary, improving the efficiency of cell selection is beneficial for tissue health and extends lifespan. PMID:25601460

Merino, Marisa M; Rhiner, Christa; Lopez-Gay, Jesus M; Buechel, David; Hauert, Barbara; Moreno, Eduardo

2015-01-29

445

Rfx6 Maintains the Functional Identity of Adult Pancreatic ? Cells.  

PubMed

Increasing evidence suggests that loss of ? cell characteristics may cause insulin secretory deficiency in diabetes, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we show that Rfx6, whose mutation leads to neonatal diabetes in humans, is essential to maintain key features of functionally mature ? cells in mice. Rfx6 loss in adult ? cells leads to glucose intolerance, impaired ? cell glucose sensing, and defective insulin secretion. This is associated with reduced expression of core components of the insulin secretion pathway, including glucokinase, the Abcc8/SUR1 subunit of KATP channels and voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels, which are direct targets of Rfx6. Moreover, Rfx6 contributes to the silencing of the vast majority of "disallowed" genes, a group usually specifically repressed in adult ? cells, and thus to the maintenance of ? cell maturity. These findings raise the possibility that changes in Rfx6 expression or activity may contribute to ? cell failure in humans. PMID:25497096

Piccand, Julie; Strasser, Perrine; Hodson, David J; Meunier, Aline; Ye, Tao; Keime, Céline; Birling, Marie-Christine; Rutter, Guy A; Gradwohl, Gérard

2014-12-24

446

Maintaining A User Community For The Montage Image Mosaic Toolkit  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of the Montage image mosaic toolkit was funded by NASA between 2002 and 2005. Even though the code has been unfunded for eight years, the user community of astronomers and computer scientists has continued to grow, primarily because the code is portable across Unix platforms, highly scalable, and easy to incorporate into user environments and pipelines. The code is publicly available through a clickwrap license at Caltech, but the license does not permit the user to modify and redistribute the software. This presentation outlines successful strategies for maintaining and upgrading Montage in the face of the licensing restrictions and absence of continuing funding, and outlines cases where the restrictions have limited further development.

Berriman, G. B.

2014-01-01

447

How unrealistic optimism is maintained in the face of reality  

PubMed Central

Unrealistic optimism is a pervasive human trait influencing domains ranging from personal relationships to politics and finance. How people maintain unrealistic optimism, despite frequently encountering information that challenges those biased beliefs, is unknown. Here, we provide an explanation. Specifically, we show a striking asymmetry, whereby people updated their beliefs more in response to information that was better than expected compared to information that was worse. This selectivity was mediated by a relative failure to code for errors that should reduce optimism. Distinct regions of the prefrontal cortex tracked estimation errors when those called for positive update, both in highly optimistic and low optimistic individuals. However, highly optimistic individuals exhibited reduced tracking of estimation errors that called for negative update within right inferior prefrontal gyrus. These findings show that optimism is tied to a selective update failure, and diminished neural coding, of undesirable information regarding the future. PMID:21983684

Sharot, Tali; Korn, Christoph W; Dolan, Raymond J

2011-01-01

448

Genes and Social Behavior  

PubMed Central

What specific genes and regulatory sequences contribute to the organization and functioning of brain circuits that support social behavior? How does social experience interact with information in the genome to modulate these brain circuits? Here we address these questions by highlighting progress that has been made in identifying and understanding two key “vectors of influence” that link genes, brain, and social behavior: 1) social information alters gene readout in the brain to influence behavior; and 2) genetic variation influences brain function and social behavior. We also briefly discuss how evolutionary changes in genomic elements influence social behavior and outline prospects for a systems biology of social behavior. PMID:18988841

Robinson, Gene E.; Fernald, Russell D.; Clayton, David F.

2011-01-01

449

Variable Order and Distributed Order Fractional Operators  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Many physical processes appear to exhibit fractional order behavior that may vary with time or space. The continuum of order in the fractional calculus allows the order of the fractional operator to be considered as a variable. This paper develops the concept of variable and distributed order fractional operators. Definitions based on the Riemann-Liouville definitions are introduced and behavior of the operators is studied. Several time domain definitions that assign different arguments to the order q in the Riemann-Liouville definition are introduced. For each of these definitions various characteristics are determined. These include: time invariance of the operator, operator initialization, physical realization, linearity, operational transforms. and memory characteristics of the defining kernels. A measure (m2) for memory retentiveness of the order history is introduced. A generalized linear argument for the order q allows the concept of "tailored" variable order fractional operators whose a, memory may be chosen for a particular application. Memory retentiveness (m2) and order dynamic behavior are investigated and applications are shown. The concept of distributed order operators where the order of the time based operator depends on an additional independent (spatial) variable is also forwarded. Several definitions and their Laplace transforms are developed, analysis methods with these operators are demonstrated, and examples shown. Finally operators of multivariable and distributed order are defined in their various applications are outlined.

Lorenzo, Carl F.; Hartley, Tom T.

2002-01-01

450

Complex problems require complex solutions: the utility of social quality theory for addressing the Social Determinants of Health  

PubMed Central

Background In order to improve the health of the most vulnerable groups in society, the WHO Commission on Social Determinants of Health (CSDH) called for multi-sectoral action, which requires research and policy on the multiple and inter-linking factors shaping health outcomes. Most conceptual tools available to researchers tend to focus on singular and specific social determinants of health (SDH) (e.g. social capital, empowerment, social inclusion). However, a new and innovative conceptual framework, known as social quality theory, facilitates a more complex and complete understanding of the SDH, with its focus on four domains: social cohesion, social inclusion, social empowerment and socioeconomic security, all within the same conceptual framework. This paper provides both an overview of social quality theory in addition to findings from a national survey of social quality in Australia, as a means of demonstrating the operationalisation of the theory. Methods Data were collected using a national random postal survey of 1044 respondents in September, 2009. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was conducted. Results Statistical analysis revealed that people on lower incomes (less than $45000) experience worse social quality across all of the four domains: lower socio-economic security, lower levels of membership of organisations (lower social cohesion), higher levels of discrimination and less political action (lower social inclusion) and lower social empowerment. The findings were mixed in terms of age, with people over 65 years experiencing lower socio-economic security, but having higher levels of social cohesion, experiencing lower levels of discrimination (higher social inclusion) and engaging in more political action (higher social empowerment). In terms of gender, women had higher social cohesion than men, although also experienced more discrimination (lower social inclusion). Conclusions Applying social quality theory allows researchers and policy makers to measure and respond to the multiple sources of oppression and advantage experienced by certain population groups, and to monitor the effectiveness of interventions over time. PMID:21819576

2011-01-01

451

Old Order Amish Philosophy of Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Old Order Amish in the societal arena provides a philosophy of education which is unique and worthy of study.They tend to have a minimal of problems when making comparisons with other sub cultures in society. Drug abuse, pregnancy among unwed mothers, crime, alcoholism, thievery, and other forms of anti-social behavior appear to be at a very…

Ediger, Marlow

2005-01-01

452

Tractor Mechanics. Maintaining and Servicing the Power Train, Learning Activity Packages 49-53; Maintaining and Servicing the Clutch, Learning Activity Packages 54-59; Maintaining and Servicing the Transmission and Differential, Learning Activity Packages 60-68; Maintaining and Servicing the Final Drive, Learning Activity Packages 69-77.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This series of learning activity packages focuses on four areas of tractor mechanics: (1) maintaining and servicing the power train, (2) maintaining and servicing the clutch, (3) maintaining and servicing the transmission and differential, and (4) maintaining and servicing the final drive. Each of the twenty-nine illustrated learning activity…

Clemson Univ., SC. Vocational Education Media Center.

453

Oxytocin facilitates social approach behavior in women  

PubMed Central

In challenging environments including both numerous threats and scarce resources, the survival of an organism depends on its ability to quickly escape from dangers and to seize opportunities to gain rewards. The phylogenetically ancient neurohormonal oxytocin (OXT) system has been shown to influence both approach and avoidance (AA) behavior in men, but evidence for comparable effects in women is still lacking. We thus conducted a series of pharmacological behavioral experiments in a randomized double-blind study involving 76 healthy heterosexual women treated with either OXT (24 IU) or placebo intranasally. In Experiment 1, we tested how OXT influenced the social distance subjects maintained between themselves and either a female or male experimenter. In Experiment 2, we applied a reaction time based AA task. In Experiment 3 we investigated effects on peri-personal space by measuring the lateral attentional bias in a line bisection task. We found that OXT specifically decreased the distance maintained between subjects and the male but not the female experimenter and also accelerated approach toward pleasant social stimuli in the AA task. However, OXT did not influence the size of peri-personal space, suggesting that it does not alter perception of personal space per se, but rather that a social element is necessary for OXT's effects on AA behavior to become evident. Taken together, our results point to an evolutionarily adaptive mechanism by which OXT in women selectively promotes approach behavior in positive social contexts. PMID:24904342

Preckel, Katrin; Scheele, Dirk; Kendrick, Keith M.; Maier, Wolfgang; Hurlemann, René

2014-01-01

454

Order from Noise: Toward a Social Theory of Geographic Information  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the so-called Information Age, it is surprising that the concept of information is imprecisely defined and almost taken for granted. Historic and recent geographic information science (GIScience) literature relies on two conflicting metaphors, often espoused by the same author in adjacent paragraphs. The metaphor of invariance, derived from telecommunications engineering, defines information as a thing to be transported without

Barbara S. Poore; Nicholas R. Chrisman

2006-01-01

455

Representing Excuses in Social Dependence Networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we propose a representation of excuses in the context of multiagent systems. We distinguish five classes of excuses, taking as starting point both jurisprudential and philosophical studies about this topic, and we discuss their acceptance criteria. We highlight the following classes of excuses: epistemic excuses, power-based excuses, norm-based excuses, counts as-based excuses and social-based excuses and we represent them using social dependence networks. The acceptance criteria individuate those excuses which success in maintaining the trust of the other agents, e.g. in the context of social networks, excuses based on norms seem better than counts as-based ones in achieving this aim.

Boella, Guido; Broersen, Jan; van der Torre, Leendert; Villata, Serena

456

Co-creation in social innovation: A comparative case-study on the influential factors and outcomes of co-creation.  

E-print Network

??abstract__Abstract__ In order to confront challenges related to austerity, globalization and ageing, contemporary western governments feel the urge to socially innovate. In social innovation the… (more)

W.H. Voorberg (William); V.J.J.M. Bekkers (Victor); L.G. Tummers (Lars)

2014-01-01

457

Social Science, Social Scientists, and the Social Studies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The social sciences may be viewed as policy sciences and, as such, can make significant contributions to both public policy and the social studies curriculum. Political science has made contributions in legislative reform, centralized budgeting, regulation of lobbying, and improvement of election administration. Sociology has helped make…

Davis, James E.

458

New opportunities in social media for ad-restricted alcohol products: The case of ‘Yeni Rak?’  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rapid diffusion and technological evolution experienced in the new format of the Internet, particularly social media, have forced many brands to keep pace with this ongoing process in order to engage with their customers. Social media utilize multiple Internet-based communication platforms, including, but not limited to, blogs and social networking sites. This paper aims to examine how social media

Ebru Uzuno?lu; Burcu Öksüz

2012-01-01

459

Social cognition in schizophrenia.  

PubMed

The topic of social cognition has attracted considerable interest in schizophrenia over the last several years. This construct generally refers to the detection, processing, and utilization of social information and, within the field of schizophrenia, includes several skills such as recognizing emotion, understanding the thoughts and intentions of others, and interpreting social cues. Individuals with schizophrenia show significant impairments in social cognition, and these impairments are strongly related to functional outcome. Treating social cognition yields significant improvements in real-world outcomes, including social functioning and social skill. Importantly, social cognitive abilities are linked to specific neural circuits that have been shown to be abnormal in individuals with schizophrenia. Investigations of these neural networks in patients have also demonstrated that brain activation is significantly correlated with social functioning, which suggests that abnormal activation in social cognitive networks may serve as a mechanism for social dysfunction in schizophrenia. Among the many challenges in this area is the issue of measurement. There is disagreement about which tasks best measure social cognition and many existing measures show poor psychometric properties. A recent project, called the Social Cognition Psychometric Evaluation (SCOPE) study, aims to address these problems by providing the field with a well-validated battery of social cognitive tasks that can be used in treatment outcome trials. Research is honing in on the potential mechanisms of social cognitive impairment in patients, and with improved measurement, there is promise for optimizing behavioral and pharmacologic interventions and remediation strategies. PMID:24919166

Pinkham, Amy E

2014-01-01

460

Supporting social presence through lightweight photo sharing on and off the desktop  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lightweight photo sharing, particularly via mobile devices, is fast becoming a common communication medium used for maintaining a presence in the lives of friends and family. How should such systems be designed to maximize this social presence while maintaining simplicity? An experimental photo sharing system was developed and tested that, compared to current systems, offers highly simplified, group-centric sharing, automatic

Scott Counts; Eric Fellheimer

2004-01-01

461

78 FR 46661 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; New York Stock Exchange LLC; NYSE MKT LLC; Order Instituting...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Daniel Buenza, Lecturer in Management, London School of Economics and Yuval Millo, Professor of Social Studies of Finance...commenter noted that NYSE maintained a system of formal rules and sanctions, in addition to the informal discipline that exists on...

2013-08-01

462

20 CFR 200.5 - Protection of privacy of records maintained on individuals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...such as his name, date of birth, and social security number. (3) The system...authorized by statute. (p) Disclosure of social security account numbers. Whenever...Railroad Retirement Board to disclose his social security account number he shall be...

2010-04-01

463

20 CFR 200.5 - Protection of privacy of records maintained on individuals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...such as his name, date of birth, and social security number. (3) The system...authorized by statute. (p) Disclosure of social security account numbers. Whenever...Railroad Retirement Board to disclose his social security account number he shall be...

2012-04-01

464

20 CFR 200.5 - Protection of privacy of records maintained on individuals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...such as his name, date of birth, and social security number. (3) The system...authorized by statute. (p) Disclosure of social security account numbers. Whenever...Railroad Retirement Board to disclose his social security account number he shall be...

2013-04-01

465

20 CFR 200.5 - Protection of privacy of records maintained on individuals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...such as his name, date of birth, and social security number. (3) The system...authorized by statute. (p) Disclosure of social security account numbers. Whenever...Railroad Retirement Board to disclose his social security account number he shall be...

2011-04-01

466

Analysis of shupe effect in polarization-maintaining photonic crystal fiber-optic gyroscope  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Shupe effect in a fiber optical gyroscope with polarization-maintaining photonic crystal fiber was studied. The thermal sensitivitise of the polarization-maintaining photonic crystal fiber and conventional polarization-maintaining fiber were simulated and measured. Then the Shupe error in the gyroscope was analyzed. The contrast results showed that the Shupe error of the gyroscope with the polarization-maintaining photonic crystal fiber is quantitatively comparable to that using the conventional polarization-maintaining fiber.

Song, Ningfang; Sun, Zuoming; Song, Jingming; Shu, Wang; Li, Shuai; Zhang, Chunxi

2014-05-01

467

Social Work and Social Justice: What Are We Fighting For?  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cardinal value of social work practice is social justice. Social justice ranks as the second of five values that underpin the Code of Ethics of the Australian Association of Social Workers (AASW. However, although social work's commitment to promoting social justice is laudable and, indeed, may even be a distinguishing feature of the profession, precisely what kind of social

John Solas

2008-01-01

468

Uncovering social spammers: social honeypots + machine learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Web-based social systems enable new community-based opportunities for participants to engage, share, and interact. This community value and related services like search and advertising are threatened by spammers, content polluters, and malware disseminators. In an effort to preserve community value and ensure longterm success, we propose and evaluate a honeypot-based approach for uncovering social spammers in online social systems. Two

Kyumin Lee; James Caverlee; Steve Webb

2010-01-01

469

Coordinate transformation approach to social interactions  

PubMed Central

A coordinate transformation framework for understanding how neurons compute sensorimotor behaviors has generated significant advances toward our understanding of basic brain function. This influential scaffold focuses on neuronal encoding of spatial information represented in different coordinate systems (e.g., eye-centered, hand-centered) and how multiple brain regions partake in transforming these signals in order to ultimately generate a motor output. A powerful analogy can be drawn from the coordinate transformation framework to better elucidate how the nervous system computes cognitive variables for social behavior. Of particular relevance is how the brain represents information with respect to oneself and other individuals, such as in reward outcome assignment during social exchanges, in order to influence social decisions. In this article, I outline how the coordinate transformation framework can help guide our understanding of neural computations resulting in social interactions. Implications for numerous psychiatric disorders with impaired representations of self and others are also discussed. PMID:23970850

Chang, Steve W. C.

2013-01-01

470

Thomas Hodgkin: social activist.  

PubMed

Thomas Hodgkin's discovery of a lymph gland disorder is merely one event in a life of unusually varied public activities in the social reform and humanitarian movements of the mid-19th century. He wrote pamphlets on medical care for the working-class poor, public health, housing, sanitation, and the relief of cold, hunger, and unemployment. Hodgkin wrote about the problems arising from urban renewal and suburban development. His contributions to geographic explorations, anthropology, ethnology, and foreign affairs are virtually unknown today. Hodgkin's opposition to slavery and the slave trade involved him in the development of settlements in Africa for freed slaves and disputes with the abolitionists in America. He fought for social justice and human rights for native populations being oppressed by British foreign policy in South Africa and New Zealand. His criticism of the exploitation of Indians by the Hudson's Bay Company's fur trade contributed to a professional conflict in the highly politicized environment of Guy's Hospital and blocked advancement of his medical career. Closer to home he advocated reform of medical education and practice and sponsored adult education programs. As a member of its Senate, he helped in establishing London University, the first nonsectarian institution of higher learning in England. He lectured to working people on the means of preserving and promoting health and advocated prepaid medical care for the working poor. Concerned about unequal distribution of medical care, he opposed medical contracts to the lowest bidder and price-determined government plans for health care. He consistently maintained that the basic problems of the poor were not medical but socioeconomic. Since charity leaves nothing behind in exchange, Hodgkin was certain that greater benefits would result if charitable money was used to provide jobs. He denounced the evils of tobacco, practices of trade unions, and barbarous prize fights. On a trip to Jerusalem with Sir Moses Montefiore in 1866, Hodgkin contracted dysentery and died. He is buried in a protestant cemetery in Jaffa. His epitaph is fitting: "Nothing human was alien to him." PMID:10760325

Rosenfeld, L

2000-04-01

471

Social Work Social work engages with individuals,  

E-print Network

societies, residential centres, homeless services, disability organizations, social planning bodies services · Schools · Substance abuse programs · Children's aid societies · Residential centres · Homeless

472

Temperature dependence of birefringence in polarization-maintaining photonic crystal fibres  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, the temperature dependence of birefringence in polarization maintaining photonic crystal fibres (PM-PCFs) is investigated theoretically and experimentally. Utilizing the structural parameters of the PM-PCF samples in the experiment, two effects leading to the birefringence variation under different temperatures are analysed, which are the thermal expansion of silica material and the refractive index variation due to the temperature variation. The actual birefringence variation of the PM-PCF is the combination of the two effects, which is in the order of 10-9 K-1 for both fibre samples. Calculation results also show that the influence of refractive index variation is the dominant contribution, which determines the tendency of the fibre birefringence variation with varying temperature. Then, the birefringence beat lengths of the two fibre samples are measured under the temperature, which varies from -40 °C to 80 °C. A traditional PANDA-type polarization maintaining fibre (PMF) is also measured in the same way for comparison. The experimental results indicate that the birefringence variation of the PM-PCF due to temperature variation is far smaller than that of the traditional PMF, which agrees with the theoretical analysis. The ultra-low temperature dependence of the birefringence in the PM-PCF has great potential applications in temperature-insensitive fibre interferometers, fibre sensors, and fibre gyroscopes.

Zhao, Hong; Chen, Meng; Li, Gang

2012-06-01

473

Differential Proteomic Analysis of Anthers between Cytoplasmic Male Sterile and Maintainer Lines in Capsicum annuum L  

PubMed Central

Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS), widely used in the production of hybrid seeds, is a maternally inherited trait resulting in a failure to produce functional pollen. In order to identify some specific proteins associated with CMS in pepper, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) was applied to proteomic analysis of anthers/buds between a CMS line (designated NA3) and its maintainer (designated NB3) in Capsicum annuum L. Thirty-three spots showed more than 1.5-fold in either CMS or its maintainer. Based on mass spectrometry, 27 spots representing 23 distinct proteins in these 33 spots were identified. Proteins down-regulated in CMS anthers/buds includes ATP synthase D chain, formate dehydrogenase, alpha-mannosidas, RuBisCO large subunit-binding protein subunit beta, chloroplast manganese stabilizing protein-II, glutathione S-transferase, adenosine kinase isoform 1T-like protein, putative DNA repair protein RAD23-4, putative caffeoyl-CoA 3-O-methyltransferase, glutamine synthetase (GS), annexin Cap32, glutelin, allene oxide cyclase, etc. In CMS anthers/buds, polyphenol oxidase, ATP synthase subunit beta, and actin are up-regulated. It was predicted that male sterility in NA3 might be related to energy metabolism turbulence, excessive ethylene synthesis, and suffocation of starch synthesis. The present study lays a foundation for future investigations of gene functions associated with pollen development and cytoplasmic male sterility, and explores the molecular mechanism of CMS in pepper. PMID:24264042

Wu, Zhiming; Cheng, Jiaowen; Qin, Cheng; Hu, Zhiqun; Yin, Caixia; Hu, Kailin

2013-01-01

474

Differential proteomic analysis of anthers between cytoplasmic male sterile and maintainer lines in Capsicum annuum L.  

PubMed

Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS), widely used in the production of hybrid seeds, is a maternally inherited trait resulting in a failure to produce functional pollen. In order to identify some specific proteins associated with CMS in pepper, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) was applied to proteomic analysis of anthers/buds between a CMS line (designated NA3) and its maintainer (designated NB3) in Capsicum annuum L. Thirty-three spots showed more than 1.5-fold in either CMS or its maintainer. Based on mass spectrometry, 27 spots representing 23 distinct proteins in these 33 spots were identified. Proteins down-regulated in CMS anthers/buds includes ATP synthase D chain, formate dehydrogenase, alpha-mannosidas, RuBisCO large subunit-binding protein subunit beta, chloroplast manganese stabilizing protein-II, glutathione S-transferase, adenosine kinase isoform 1T-like protein, putative DNA repair protein RAD23-4, putative caffeoyl-CoA 3-O-methyltransferase, glutamine synthetase (GS), annexin Cap32, glutelin, allene oxide cyclase, etc. In CMS anthers/buds, polyphenol oxidase, ATP synthase subunit beta, and actin are up-regulated. It was predicted that male sterility in NA3 might be related to energy metabolism turbulence, excessive ethylene synthesis, and suffocation of starch synthesis. The present study lays a foundation for future investigations of gene functions associated with pollen development and cytoplasmic male sterility, and explores the molecular mechanism of CMS in pepper. PMID:24264042

Wu, Zhiming; Cheng, Jiaowen; Qin, Cheng; Hu, Zhiqun; Yin, Caixia; Hu, Kailin

2013-01-01

475

Cytokine variations and mood disorders: influence of social stressors and social support  

PubMed Central

Stressful events have been implicated in the evolution of mood disorders. In addition to brain neurotransmitters and growth factors, the view has been offered that these disorders might be provoked by the activation of the inflammatory immune system as well as by de novo changes of inflammatory cytokines within the brain. The present review describes the impact of social stressors in animals and in humans on behavioral changes reminiscent of depressive states as well as on cytokine functioning. Social stressors increase pro-inflammatory cytokines in circulation as well as in brain regions that have been associated with depression, varying with the animal's social status and/or behavioral methods used to contend with social challenges. Likewise, in humans, social stressors that favor the development of depression are accompanied by elevated circulating cytokine levels and conversely, conditions that limit the cytokine elevations correlated with symptom attenuation or reversal. The implications of these findings are discussed in relation to the potentially powerful effects of social support, social identity, and connectedness in maintaining well-being and in diminishing symptoms of depression. PMID:25565946

Audet, Marie-Claude; McQuaid, Robyn J.; Merali, Zul; Anisman, Hymie

2014-01-01

476

Parental Socialization of Emotion  

PubMed Central

Recently, there has been a resurgence of research on emotion, including the socialization of emotion. In this article, a heuristic model of factors contributing to the socialization of emotion is presented. Then literature relevant to the socialization of children’s emotion and emotion-related behavior by parents is reviewed, including (a) parental reactions to children’s emotions, (b) socializers’ discussion of emotion, and (c) socializers’ expression of emotion. The relevant literature is not conclusive and most of the research is correlational. However, the existing body of data provides initial support for the view that parental socialization practices have effects on children’s emotional and social competence and that the socialization process is bidirectional. In particular, parental negative emotionality and negative reactions to children’s expression of emotion are associated with children’s negative emotionality and low social competence. In addition, possible moderators of effects such as level of emotional arousal are discussed. PMID:16865170

Cumberland, Amanda; Spinrad, Tracy L.

2006-01-01

477

'It's nice to have something to do': early-onset dementia and maintaining purposeful activity.  

PubMed

As the global focus on dementia care increases due to the demand on health, social, legal and financial services, it is imperative to further understand the experience of those living with a diagnosis of dementia. There is a particular lack of research focused on younger people (under the age of 65 years) with dementia and virtually none focuses on the experience of the family unit. The literature suggests that periods of transition place significant stressors on families living with dementia. One such transition is the transition out of perceived purposeful activity, be this employment or voluntary work. This transition was explored during the course of a qualitative repeated interview study with younger people with dementia and their families. Nine families (20 participants) took part in semi-structured research interviews that were transcribed and analyzed using a Framework approach to qualitative analysis. Meaningful Activity emerged as a major theme through this analysis. Two subthemes also emerged: (1) the traumatic cessation of work; and (2) the need for purposeful activity. These themes have significant clinical implications as maintaining a purposeful role through high-quality, age-specific dementia services may decrease the direct and indirect costs of dementia to global economies. PMID:24841949

Roach, P; Drummond, N

2014-12-01

478

INTRODUCTION The search for the mechanisms that maintain the  

E-print Network

size was the only variable with a positive effect (18% increase in the survival odds ratio). The variables with a negative effect on the survival odds ratio, in order of their effect strength in the nearest annulus, were: stem density (a 70% reduction in the survival odds ratio), conspecific density (50

Bermingham, Eldredge

479

How California Can Maintain Its Commitment to Higher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research report ordered by the California Senate analyzes problems and possible solutions to postsecondary education finance in that state. A first section explores the background to the issues and concludes that higher education should be a top priority of the state government now and in the future. A second section examines the problem of…

Adams, Gary W.

480

Evidence-Based Approaches to Social Skills Training with Children and Adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acquisition of the skills required to form and maintain successful interpersonal relationships has long been considered a crucial aspect of child development. Deficits in these skills characterize most forms of child psychopathology, including autism, attention deficit disorder, conduct problems, and social anxiety. In addition, adaptive peer relationships are particularly important to healthy social development: Having friends is associated with a

Sharon L. Foster; Julie R. Bussman

481

Implications of Online Social Network Sites on the Personal and Professional Learning of Educational Leaders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study is to explore the ways in which five educational leaders make use of online social network sites (SNSs) for their personal and professional learning. Specifically, I focus on how participants use social networking tools to create and maintain online learning communities, how they interact within these communities, and how…

Elias, Scott

2012-01-01

482

Social Skills Training in Natural Play Settings: Educating through the Physical Theory to Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Social skills are prerequisite to academic performance and success in school. Training of these skills is particularly important for students with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD) who have social deficits and struggle maintaining appropriate and accepted behavior in and outside of the classroom. Educating through the "physical" model is a…

Aljadeff-Abergel, Elian; Ayvazo, Shiri; Eldar, Eitan

2012-01-01

483

Performing Gender in the Workplace: Gender Socialization, Power, and Identity among Women Faculty Members  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Organizational cultures shape and reinforce socially appropriate roles for men and women. Drawing on a performativity framework, which assumes that gender is socially constructed through gendered "performances," this study employs interviews with and observations of six women faculty members to examine how dominant discourses define and maintain

Lester, Jaime

2008-01-01

484

The value of role models in design of social media for elderly  

E-print Network

Communications #12;Assisted Living (AAL) research initiatives investigate how ICT can help fulfil these criteria KOFOD-PETERSENb a Trondheim kommune b SINTEF ICT Abstract. An active social life is an important. Introduction Preventing social isolation and maintaining elderly's health and functional capabilities

Langseth, Helge

485

An e-commerce site for gift flower arrangements that fit kansei and social manners  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Gift flowers should be chosen to depict a message with the sender's kansei and are bound by nature of flowers and social manners, to maintain social relationship between the sender and the recipient. Few buyers, but most florists, have expert knowledge of the flowering time, scent, price, and nature of each flower, and are experts in arranging flowers

Keiko Ishihara; Ryo Nakagawa; Shigekazu Ishihara; Mitsuo Nagamachi

2008-01-01

486

Physical and Social Organization of Space in a Combined Credential Programme: Implications for Inclusion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Social geography brings a new perspective to understanding longstanding separation between general and special education in higher education. This paper uses methods from social geography to consider how the structures and processes of space function to maintain longstanding divisions between general and special education in a US teacher education…

Young, Kathryn S.

2008-01-01

487

Maintaining skeletal muscle mass: lessons learned from hibernation.  

PubMed

Muscle disuse and starvation are often associated with a catabolic response leading to a dramatic loss of skeletal muscle mass. Hibernating animals represent a unique situation where muscle mass is maintained despite prolonged periods of immobilization and lack of nutrition. We analysed the molecular pathways upregulated during hibernation in an obligate hibernator, the 13-lined ground squirrel (Ictidomys tridecemlineatus). Although Akt has an established role in skeletal muscle maintenance, we found that activated Akt was decreased in skeletal muscle of hibernating squirrels. Another serine-threonine kinase, serum- and glucocorticoid-regulated kinase 1 (SGK1), was upregulated during hibernation and contributed to protection from loss of muscle mass via downregulation of proteolysis and autophagy and via an increase in protein synthesis. We extended our observations to non-hibernating animals and demonstrated that SGK1-null mice developed muscle atrophy. These mice displayed an exaggerated response to immobilization and starvation. Furthermore, SGK1 overexpression prevented immobilization-induced muscle atrophy. Taken together, our results identify SGK1 as a novel therapeutic target to combat skeletal muscle loss in acquired and inherited forms of muscle atrophy. PMID:24443348

Ivakine, Evgueni A; Cohn, Ronald D

2014-04-01

488

Face-selective neurons maintain consistent visual responses across months  

PubMed Central

Face perception in both humans and monkeys is thought to depend on neurons clustered in discrete, specialized brain regions. Because primates are frequently called upon to recognize and remember new individuals, the neuronal representation of faces in the brain might be expected to change over time. The functional properties of neurons in behaving animals are typically assessed over time periods ranging from minutes to hours, which amounts to a snapshot compared to a lifespan of a neuron. It therefore remains unclear how neuronal properties observed on a given day predict that same neuron's activity months or years later. Here we show that the macaque inferotemporal cortex contains face-selective cells that show virtually no change in their patterns of visual responses over time periods as long as one year. Using chronically implanted microwire electrodes guided by functional MRI targeting, we obtained distinct profiles of selectivity for face and nonface stimuli that served as fingerprints for individual neurons in the anterior fundus (AF) face patch within the superior temporal sulcus. Longitudinal tracking over a series of daily recording sessions revealed that face-selective neurons maintain consistent visual response profiles across months-long time spans despite the influence of ongoing daily experience. We propose that neurons in the AF face patch are specialized for aspects of face perception that demand stability as opposed to plasticity. PMID:24799679

McMahon, David B. T.; Jones, Adam P.; Bondar, Igor V.; Leopold, David A.

2014-01-01

489

Lifelong Bilingualism Maintains Neural Efficiency for Cognitive Control in Aging  

PubMed Central

Recent behavioral data have shown that lifelong bilingualism can maintain youthful cognitive control abilities in aging. Here, we provide the first direct evidence of a neural basis for the bilingual cognitive control boost in aging. Two experiments were conducted, using a perceptual task switching paradigm, and including a total of 110 participants. In Experiment 1, older adult bilinguals showed better perceptual switching performance than their monolingual peers. In Experiment 2, younger and older adult monolinguals and bilinguals completed the same perceptual task switching experiment while fMRI was performed. Typical age-related performance reductions and fMRI activation increases were observed. However, like younger adults, bilingual older adults outperformed their monolingual peers while displaying decreased activation in left lateral frontal cortex and cingulate cortex. Critically, this attenuation of age-related over-recruitment associated with bilingualism was directly correlated with better task switching performance. In addition, the lower BOLD response in frontal regions accounted for 82% of the variance in the bilingual task switching reaction time advantage. These results suggest that lifelong bilingualism offsets age-related declines in the neural efficiency for cognitive control processes. PMID:23303919

Gold, Brian T.; Kim, Chobok; Johnson, Nathan F.; Kryscio, Richard J.; Smith, Charles D.

2013-01-01

490

A corollary discharge maintains auditory sensitivity during sound production  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Speaking and singing present the auditory system of the caller with two fundamental problems: discriminating between self-generated and external auditory signals and preventing desensitization. In humans and many other vertebrates, auditory neurons in the brain are inhibited during vocalization but little is known about the nature of the inhibition. Here we show, using intracellular recordings of auditory neurons in the singing cricket, that presynaptic inhibition of auditory afferents and postsynaptic inhibition of an identified auditory interneuron occur in phase with the song pattern. Presynaptic and postsynaptic inhibition persist in a fictively singing, isolated cricket central nervous system and are therefore the result of a corollary discharge from the singing motor network. Mimicking inhibition in the interneuron by injecting hyperpolarizing current suppresses its spiking response to a 100-dB sound pressure level (SPL) acoustic stimulus and maintains its response to subsequent, quieter stimuli. Inhibition by the corollary discharge reduces the neural response to self-generated sound and protects the cricket's auditory pathway from self-induced desensitization.

Poulet, James F. A.; Hedwig, Berthold

2002-08-01

491

Diminishing self-disclosure to maintain security in partners' care.  

PubMed

Six studies demonstrate that perceivers' desire to bond with targets motivates perceivers to misconstrue their own self-disclosure in ways that maintain perceivers' security in targets' care and commitment. Perceivers who strongly valued relationships with targets reported high levels of global self-disclosure, consistent with many findings suggesting salutary effects of disclosure. However, these same perceivers reported low self-disclosure of needs and desires in hypothetical (Study 1) and actual (Study 2) situations characterized by targets' unresponsive behavior. Similarly, in daily report (Study 3) and behavioral observation (Study 4) studies, perceivers who valued relationships with targets perceived high levels of self-disclosure when targets were responsive, but they perceived low self-disclosure when targets were unresponsive, and these perceptions seemed partly illusory. In turn, these perceptions of low self-disclosure in situations characterized by partners' unresponsive behavior predicted decreased perceptions of diagnosticity of targets' behavior (Studies 1-3) and buffered the negative affective and interpersonal effects of unresponsive behavior (Study 4). Experimental manipulations (Studies 5 and 6) demonstrated the motivational nature of perceived self-disclosure. Collectively, the results suggest that a desire to bond with targets motivates perceivers to downplay the diagnosticity of targets' unresponsive behavior through diminishing their self-disclosure, in turn preserving perceivers' trust in targets' care and commitment. PMID:23937643

Lemay, Edward P; Melville, Michael C

2014-01-01

492

Do multiple herbivores maintain chemical diversity of Scots pine monoterpenes?  

PubMed Central

A central issue in our understanding of the evolution of the diversity of plant secondary metabolites (PSMs) is whether or not compounds are functional, conferring an advantage to the plant, or non-functional. We examine the hypothesis that the diversity of monoterpene PSMs within a plant species (Scots pine Pinus sylvestris) may be explained by different compounds acting as defences against high-impact herbivores operating at different life stages. We also hypothesize that pairwise coevolution, with uncorrelated interactions, is more likely to result in greater PSM diversity, than diffuse coevolution. We tested whether up to 13 different monoterpenes in Scots pine were inhibitory to herbivory by slugs (Arion ater), bank voles (Clethrionomys glareolus), red deer (Cervus elaphus) and capercaillie (Tetrao urogallus), each of which attack trees at a different life stage. Plants containing more ?-pinene were avoided by both slugs and capercaillie, which may act as reinforcing selective agents for this dominant defensive compound. Herbivory by red deer and capercaillie were, respectively, weakly negatively associated with ?3-carene, and strongly negatively correlated with the minor compound ?-ocimene. Three of the four herbivores are probably contributory selective agents on some of the terpenes, and thus maintain some, but by no means all, of the phytochemical diversity in the species. The correlated defensive function of ?-pinene against slugs and capercaillie is consistent with diffuse coevolutionary processes. PMID:21444308

Iason, Glenn R.; O'Reilly-Wapstra, Julianne M.; Brewer, Mark J.; Summers, Ron W.; Moore, Ben D.

2011-01-01

493

Do multiple herbivores maintain chemical diversity of Scots pine monoterpenes?  

PubMed

A central issue in our understanding of the evolution of the diversity of plant secondary metabolites (PSMs) is whether or not compounds are functional, conferring an advantage to the plant, or non-functional. We examine the hypothesis that the diversity of monoterpene PSMs within a plant species (Scots pine Pinus sylvestris) may be explained by different compounds acting as defences against high-impact herbivores operating at different life stages. We also hypothesize that pairwise coevolution, with uncorrelated interactions, is more likely to result in greater PSM diversity, than diffuse coevolution. We tested whether up to 13 different monoterpenes in Scots pine were inhibitory to herbivory by slugs (Arion ater), bank voles (Clethrionomys glareolus), red deer (Cervus elaphus) and capercaillie (Tetrao urogallus), each of which attack trees at a different life stage. Plants containing more ?-pinene were avoided by both slugs and capercaillie, which may act as reinforcing selective agents for this dominant defensive compound. Herbivory by red deer and capercaillie were, respectively, weakly negatively associated with ?(3)-carene, and strongly negatively correlated with the minor compound ?-ocimene. Three of the four herbivores are probably contributory selective agents on some of the terpenes, and thus maintain some, but by no means all, of the phytochemical diversity in the species. The correlated defensive function of ?-pinene against slugs and capercaillie is consistent with diffuse coevolutionary processes. PMID:21444308

Iason, Glenn R; O'Reilly-Wapstra, Julianne M; Brewer, Mark J; Summers, Ron W; Moore, Ben D

2011-05-12

494

Mechanosensitive ATP Release Maintains Proper Mucus Hydration of Airways  

PubMed Central

The clearance of mucus from the airways protects the lungs from inhaled noxious and infectious materials. Proper hydration of the mucus layer enables efficient mucus clearance through beating of cilia on airway epithelial cells, and reduced clearance of excessively concentrated mucus occurs in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and cystic fibrosis. Key steps in the mucus transport process are airway epithelia sensing and responding to changes in mucus hydration. We reported that extracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and adenosine were important luminal auto-crine and paracrine signals that regulated the hydration of the surface of human airway epithelial cultures through their action on apical membrane purinoceptors. Mucus hydration in human airway epithelial cultures was sensed by an interaction between cilia and the overlying mucus layer: Changes in mechanical strain, proportional to mucus hydration, regulated ATP release rates, adjusting fluid secretion to optimize mucus layer hydration. This system provided a feedback mechanism by which airways maintained mucus hydration in an optimum range for cilia propulsion. Understanding how airway epithelia can sense and respond to changes in mucus properties helps us to understand how the mucus clearance system protects the airways in health and how it fails in lung diseases such as cystic fibrosis. PMID:23757023

Button, Brian; Okada, Seiko F.; Frederick, Charles Brandon; Thelin, William R.; Boucher, Richard C.

2013-01-01

495

Zolpidem increases GABA in depressed volunteers maintained on SSRIs.  

PubMed

Individuals with major depressive disorder (MDD) often use hypnotics like zolpidem (Ambien(®)) to improve sleep in addition to their selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) regimen. SSRIs act in part to restore disrupted GABAergic activity, but benzodiazepines and related drugs have been shown to lower GABA in a way that may be counter to these therapeutic effects. The present within-subject, single-blind, placebo-controlled study measured changes in GABA in the anterior cingulate (ACC) and thalamus of volunteers maintained on SSRIs for the treatment of MDD (n=14) following zolpidem (10mg) administration. In addition to neurochemical measurements obtained using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H MRS) at 4 T, a series of questionnaires were administered to assess subjective effects associated with acute zolpidem exposure. Zolpidem elevated GABA levels in both voxels of interest (P<0.05) in the depressed participants, which could imply normalization, given the lower baseline levels associated with depression. The subjective drug experience in the depressed cohort was similar to that reported previously by healthy volunteers, and no relationships existed between GABA increases and the observed behavioral effects. Aside from treating insomnia, using zolpidem in the presence of SSRIs may have some unidentified therapeutic effects for depressed individuals. PMID:25082715

Licata, Stephanie C; Jensen, J Eric; Conn, Nina A; Winer, Jeffrey P; Lukas, Scott E

2014-10-30

496

SIM2 maintains innate host defense of the small intestine.  

PubMed

The single-minded 2 (SIM2) protein is a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor regulating central nervous system (CNS) development in Drosophila. In humans, SIM2 is located within the Down syndrome critical region on chromosome 21 and may be involved in the development of mental retardation phenotype in Down syndrome. In this study, knockout of SIM2 expression in mice resulted in a gas distention phenotype in the gastrointestinal tract. We found that SIM2 is required for the expression of all cryptdins and numerous other antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) expressed in the small intestine. The mechanism underlying how SIM2 controls AMP expression involves both direct and indirect regulations. For the cryptdin genes, SIM2 regulates their expression by modulating transcription factor 7-like 2, a crucial regulator in the Wnt/?-catenin signaling pathway, while for other AMP genes, such as RegIII?, SIM2 directly activates their promoter activity. Our results establish that SIM2 is a crucial regulator in controlling expression of intestinal AMPs to maintain intestinal innate immunity against microbes. PMID:25277798

Chen, Kuan-Jung; Lizaso, Analyn; Lee, Ying-Hue

2014-12-01

497

Mitofusin 2 is required to maintain mitochondrial coenzyme Q levels.  

PubMed

Mitochondria form a dynamic network within the cell as a result of balanced fusion and fission. Despite the established role of mitofusins (MFN1 and MFN2) in mitochondrial fusion, only MFN2 has been associated with metabolic and neurodegenerative diseases, which suggests that MFN2 is needed to maintain mitochondrial energy metabolism. The molecular basis for the mitochondrial dysfunction encountered in the absence of MFN2 is not understood. Here we show that loss of MFN2 leads to impaired mitochondrial respiration and reduced ATP production, and that this defective oxidative phosphorylation process unexpectedly originates from a depletion of the mitochondrial coenzyme Q pool. Our study unravels an unexpected and novel role for MFN2 in maintenance of the terpenoid biosynthesis pathway, which is necessary for mitochondrial coenzyme Q biosynthesis. The reduced respiratory chain function in cells lacking MFN2 can be partially rescued by coenzyme Q10 supplementation, which suggests a possible therapeutic strategy for patients with diseases caused by mutations in the Mfn2 gene. PMID:25688136

Mourier, Arnaud; Motori, Elisa; Brandt, Tobias; Lagouge, Marie; Atanassov, Ilian; Galinier, Anne; Rappl, Gunter; Brodesser, Susanne; Hultenby, Kjell; Dieterich, Christoph; Larsson, Nils-Göran

2015-02-16

498

GABA-independent GABAA Receptor Openings Maintain Tonic Currents  

PubMed Central

Activation of GABAA receptors (GABAARs) produces two forms of inhibition: ‘phasic’ inhibition generated by the rapid, transient activation of synaptic GABAARs by presynaptic GABA release, and tonic inhibition generated by the persistent activation of peri- or extrasynaptic GABAARs which can detect extracellular GABA. Such tonic GABAAR-mediated currents are particularly evident in dentate granule cells in which they play a major role in regulating cell excitability. Here we show that in rat dentate granule cells in ex-vivo hippocampal slices, tonic currents are predominantly generated by GABA-independent GABAA receptor openings. This tonic GABAAR conductance is resistant to the competitive GABAAR antagonist SR95531, which at high concentrations acts as a partial agonist, but can be blocked by an open channel blocker picrotoxin. When slices are perfused with 200 nM GABA, a concentration that is comparable to cerebrospinal fluid concentrations but is twice that measured by us in the hippocampus in vivo using zero-net-flux microdialysis, negligible GABA is detected by dentate granule cells. Spontaneously opening GABAARs, therefore, maintain dentate granule cell tonic currents in the face of low extracellular GABA concentrations. PMID:23447601

Wlodarczyk, Agnieszka I.; Sylantyev, Sergiy; Herd, Murray B.; Kersanté, Flavie; Lambert, Jeremy J.; Rusakov, Dmitri A.; Linthorst, Astrid C.E.; Semyanov, Alexey; Belelli, Delia; Pavlov, Ivan; Walker, Matthew C.

2013-01-01

499

Creating and maintaining chemical artificial life by robotic symbiosis.  

PubMed

We present a robotic platform based on the open source RepRap 3D printer that can print and maintain chemical artificial life in the form of a dynamic, chemical droplet. The robot uses computer vision, a self-organizing map, and a learning program to automatically categorize the behavior of the droplet that it creates. The robot can then use this categorization to autonomously detect the current state of the droplet and respond. The robot is programmed to visually track the droplet and either inject more chemical fuel to sustain a motile state or introduce a new chemical component that results in a state change (e.g., division). Coupling inexpensive open source hardware with sensing and feedback allows for replicable real-time manipulation and monitoring of nonequilibrium systems that would be otherwise tedious, expensive, and error-prone. This system is a first step towards the practical confluence of chemical, artificial intelligence, and robotic approaches to artificial life. PMID:25514433

Hanczyc, Martin M; Parrilla, Juan M; Nicholson, Arwen; Yanev, Kliment; Stoy, Kasper

2015-01-01

500

Intermittent ischaemia maintains function after ischaemia reperfusion in steatotic livers  

PubMed Central

Background: Ischaemic preconditioning (IPC) and intermittent ischaemia (INT) reduce liver injury after ischaemia reperfusion (IR). Steatotic livers are at a higher risk of IR injury, but the protection offered by IPC and INT is not well understood. The aim of the present study was to determine the effectiveness of IPC and INT in maintaining liver function in steatotic livers. Material and methods: A model of segmental hepatic ischaemia (45 min) and reperfusion (60 min) was employed using lean and obese Zucker rats. Bile flow recovery was measured to assess dynamic liver function, hepatocyte fat content quantified and blood electrolytes, metabolites and bile calcium measured to assess liver and whole body physiology. Liver marker enzymes and light and electron microscopy were employed to assess hepatocyte injury. Results: IPC was not effective in promoting bile flow recovery after IR in either lean or steatotic livers, whereas INT promoted good bile flow recovery in steatotic as well as lean livers. However, the bile flow recovery in steatotic livers was less than that in lean livers. In steatotic livers, ischaemia led to a rapid and substantial decrease in fat content. Steatotic livers were more susceptible to IR injury than lean livers, as indicated by increased blood ALT concentrations and major histological injury. Conclusion: INT is more effective than IPC in restoring liver function in the acute phase of IR in steatotic livers. In obese patients, INT may be useful in promoting better liver function after IR after liver resection. PMID:20590895

Steenks, Mathilde; van Baal, Mark CPM; Nieuwenhuijs, Vincent B; de Bruijn, Menno T; Schiesser, Marc; Teo, Mike H; Callahan, Tom; Padbury, Rob TA; Barritt, Greg J

2010-01-01