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1

Sympathy and Social Order  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Social order is possible only if individuals forgo the narrow pursuit of self-interest for the greater good. For over a century, social scientists have argued that sympathy mitigates self-interest and recent empirical work supports this claim. Much less is known about why actors experience sympathy in the first place, particularly in fleeting…

Irwin, Kyle; McGrimmon, Tucker; Simpson, Brent

2008-01-01

2

Reproductive constraint is a developmental mechanism that maintains social harmony  

E-print Network

Reproductive constraint is a developmental mechanism that maintains social harmony in advanced ant in ants is the reproductive division of labor between queens and workers. Yet, nothing is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying reproduction in this group. We therefore compared the developmental genetic

Abouheif, Ehab

3

The social order of markets  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article I develop a proposal for the theoretical vantage point of the sociology of markets, focusing on the problem\\u000a of the social order of markets. The initial premise is that markets are highly demanding arenas of social interaction, which\\u000a can only operate if three inevitable coordination problems are resolved. I define these coordination problems as the value problem,

Jens Beckert

2009-01-01

4

MAINTAINING LIMITED-RANGE CONNECTIVITY AMONG SECOND-ORDER AGENTS  

E-print Network

. In terms of design, it is required to constrain the control input such that the resulting topology dynamics. For such networks, the connectivity maintenance problems are: (i) do there exist control inputs for each agent to maintain network connectivity, and (ii) given desired controls for each agent, can one

Savla, Ketan

5

Anticipatory processing plays a role in maintaining social anxiety  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cognitive model of social phobia by Clark and Wells (Social phobia: diagnosis, assessment and treatment) (1995) proposes that, while anticipating a social situation, individuals with social phobia engage in several biased cognitive processes which enhance anticipatory anxiety. Prior to giving a speech, high and low socially anxious individuals (N=40 per group) were instructed to either engage in anticipatory processing

Stephanos P. H. Vassilopoulos

2005-01-01

6

Maintaining autonomy despite multimorbidity: self-efficacy and the two faces of social support  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multimorbidity—the co-occurrence of multiple illnesses—is a frequent condition in older adults and poses serious threats to\\u000a autonomy. In order to identify resources for autonomy despite multimorbidity, our longitudinal study tested main and interaction\\u000a effects of personal and social resources (self-efficacy and social support) on maintaining autonomy. Three hundred and nine\\u000a individuals (aged 65–85 years) with multiple illnesses completed measures of self-efficacy

Lisa M. WarnerJochen; Jochen P. Ziegelmann; Benjamin Schüz; Susanne Wurm; Clemens Tesch-Römer; Ralf Schwarzer

2011-01-01

7

Capturing Order in Social Interactions Alessandro Vinciarelli  

E-print Network

1 Capturing Order in Social Interactions Alessandro Vinciarelli Following Aristotle, "Man behaviors of their users. In concise terms, computers need to become socially intelligent [6]. Such an ambitious plan of filling the social intelligence gap between humans and machines starts from a fundamental

8

Maintaining Ties on Social Media Sites: The Competing Effects of Balance, Exchange, and Betweenness  

E-print Network

for using social media data to begin isolating the effects of three distinct social forces on relationshipMaintaining Ties on Social Media Sites: The Competing Effects of Balance, Exchange, and Betweenness@cs.cornell.edu Abstract When users interact with one another on social media sites, the volume and frequency

Kleinberg, Jon

9

Investigating a Judgemental Rank-Ordering Method for Maintaining Standards in UK Examinations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A new judgemental method of equating raw scores on two tests, based on rank-ordering scripts from both tests, has been developed by Bramley. The rank-ordering method has potential application as a judgemental standard-maintaining mechanism, because given a mark on one test (e.g. the A grade boundary mark), the equivalent mark (i.e. at the same…

Black, Beth; Bramley, Tom

2008-01-01

10

School Libraries and the Social Order  

Microsoft Academic Search

THE VERY NATURE of the social order in this country may be shaped in large measure by the character of the li- braries or by the lack of libraries in schools. The salvation or destruc- tion of our society may hinge on what people do about communica- tions. Never before has society, the good society, required of its indi- viduals

FRANCES HENNE

11

Institutional Order, Interaction Order and Social Order: Administering Welfare, Disciplining the Poor1  

E-print Network

address as a president of the American Sociological Association, Erving Goffman returns to the relation: Interaction order; Social structures; Institutions; People-processing encounters; Welfare; Erving Goffman. 1, Erving Goffman returns to what he calls "the interaction order," and to its relation with social

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

12

Socially Assistive Robotic Music Therapist for Maintaining Attention of Older Adults with Cognitive Impairments  

E-print Network

Socially Assistive Robotic Music Therapist for Maintaining Attention of Older Adults with Cognitive a hypothesis-testing preliminary study that aims to develop affordable customized socially assistive robotics few researches have been done in the area of therapeutic robots for individuals suffering from

Mataric, Maja J.

13

5 Maintaining Social Tranquility: Internal and External Loci of Aggression Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

What accounts for peaceful societies? In Chapter 2, Bruce Knauft accounted for peaceful behavior in terms of the adaptive advantages conferred by sociability and cooperation; in Chapter 3, Robert Dentan examined the historical experiences of encIaved societies and refugee bands. Here, Douglas Fry takes another perspective. In Maintaining Social Tranquility he argues that early experiences may create barriers to the

Douglas P. Fry

14

Bechstein's bats maintain individual social links despite a complete reorganisation of their colony structure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several social mammals, including elephants and some primates, whales and bats, live in multilevel societies that form temporary subgroups. Despite these fission-fusion dynamics, group members often maintain long-term bonds. However, it is unclear whether such individual links and the resulting stable social subunits continue to exist after a complete reorganisation of a society, e.g. following a population crash. Here, we employed a weighted network analysis on 7,109 individual roosting records collected over 4 years in a wild Bechstein's bat colony. We show that, in response to a strong population decline, the colony's two stable social subunits fused into a non-modular social network. Nevertheless, in the first year after the crash, long-term bonds were still detectable, suggesting that the bats remembered previous individual relationships. Our findings are important for understanding the flexibility of animal societies in the face of dramatic changes and for the conservation of social mammals with declining populations.

Baigger, A.; Perony, N.; Reuter, M.; Leinert, V.; Melber, M.; Grünberger, S.; Fleischmann, D.; Kerth, G.

2013-09-01

15

Social Welfare Orderings for Different Subgroup Utility Scales  

E-print Network

Social Welfare Orderings for Different Subgroup Utility Scales Anna B. Khmelnitskaya SPb Institute-mail: anna@math.huji.ac.il, anna@AK3141.spb.edu) Abstract. This paper characterizes social welfare orderings subgroups scales, every corre- sponding social ordering is fully determined by the opinions of only one

Al Hanbali, Ahmad

16

Department of Humanities, Social Sciences and Social Justice Education, OISE, UT Order of Canada Award  

E-print Network

Department of Humanities, Social Sciences and Social Justice Education, OISE, UT Order of Canada to the Department of Humanities, Social Sciences and Social Justice Education at OISE. Congratulations on this well

Sokolowski, Marla

17

Religious attendance increases survival by improving and maintaining good health behaviors, mental health, and social relationships  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several recent prospective analyses involving community-based populations have demonstrated a protective effect on survival\\u000a for frequent attendance at religious services. How such involvement increases survival are unclear. To test the hypothesis\\u000a that religious attendance might serve to improve and maintain good health behaviors, mental health, and social relationships,\\u000a changes and consistencies in these variables were studied between 1965 and 1994

William J. Strawbridge; Sarah J. Shema; Richard D. Cohen; George A. Kaplan

2001-01-01

18

Creating and Maintaining Relationships in Social Peer-to-Peer Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Peer-to-Peer (P2P) systems are a good alternative to conventional client-server systems for distribution of content. Many different approaches exist towards the design of P2P networks, which should take into account scalability, efficiency, availability and integrity. The approach discussed in this thesis creates a network based on social relations between users, called a social P2P overlay network. In order to

S. D. Koolen

19

Bechstein's bats maintain individual social links despite a complete reorganisation of their colony structure.  

PubMed

Several social mammals, including elephants and some primates, whales and bats, live in multilevel societies that form temporary subgroups. Despite these fission-fusion dynamics, group members often maintain long-term bonds. However, it is unclear whether such individual links and the resulting stable social subunits continue to exist after a complete reorganisation of a society, e.g. following a population crash. Here, we employed a weighted network analysis on 7,109 individual roosting records collected over 4 years in a wild Bechstein's bat colony. We show that, in response to a strong population decline, the colony's two stable social subunits fused into a non-modular social network. Nevertheless, in the first year after the crash, long-term bonds were still detectable, suggesting that the bats remembered previous individual relationships. Our findings are important for understanding the flexibility of animal societies in the face of dramatic changes and for the conservation of social mammals with declining populations. PMID:23949307

Baigger, A; Perony, N; Reuter, M; Leinert, V; Melber, M; Grünberger, S; Fleischmann, D; Kerth, G

2013-09-01

20

The Social Foundations of the Bureaucratic Order  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article views the bureaucratic form of organization as both an agent and an expression of key modern social innovations that are most clearly manifested in the non-inclusive terms by which individuals are involved in organizations. Modern human involvement in organiza- tions epitomizes and institutionally embeds the crucial yet often over- looked cultural orientation of modernity whereby humans undertake action

Jannis Kallinikos

2004-01-01

21

Energy policy in a changing social order  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, the background of energy management and use relative to public policymaking is reviewed. Many of the more-prominent social cross currents, such as: consumerism, resistance to nuclear power, tax rebellion, etc., are identified and described. Conventional and alternate energy policy options are analyzed. 41 refs.

Schaller, D.A.

1981-01-01

22

Social Studies and the Social Order: Telling Stories of Resistance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The social studies profession has always been at its weakest in dealing with the analysis of racism and class (Ladson-Billings, 2003; Marshall, 2001), and the new technocratic atmosphere and discourse generated by No Child Left Behind (NCLB) will serve to make such analysis completely absent, despite the rhetoric of the National Council of the…

McKnight, Douglas; Chandler, Prentice

2009-01-01

23

Policing diversity in the digital ageMaintaining order in virtual communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Members of `terrestrial' communities are migrating in ever-increasing numbers to a new `Third Space' that manifests outside traditional geographical physical boundaries. This online space consists of purely social relations where interaction and community are performed at-a-distance. The diversifying populations of these virtual villages, towns and cities now constitute very real communities. Online non-gaming spaces such as Ebay, Active Worlds and

David S. Wall; Matthew Williams

2007-01-01

24

Polarization-maintaining distributed fiber-optic sensor: software elimination of second-order (ghost) coupling points  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A distributed polarization-maintaining sensor is theoretically analyzed when the applied perturbations are large enough to generate second-order effects. A software algorithm has been developed that identifies the real perturbation points and returns the magnitude of the perturbations distributed along the fiber.

Gauthier, R. C.

1995-04-01

25

Violence & social order beyond the state: Somalia & Angola  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the activities of non-state actors in war in Somalia and Angola. Arguing that prolonged wars are characterised by the emergence of social orders of violence beyond the state, our analytical focus is on how actors establish and sustain these orders. A core influence is the insight from research on war economies that war is not equal to

Jutta Bakonyi; Kirsti Stuvøy

2005-01-01

26

Gender and the Social Order in Early Modern England.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The place of the family and the relationship between gender and social order in England between 1560 and 1725 are examined. The fear of disorder so prevalent in England in the late 16th and early 17th centuries was caused by the doubling of the population and extremely poor economic conditions. In the attempt to enforce order, the analogy between…

Amussen, Susan Dwyer

27

Guidelines for Maintaining a Professional Compass in the Era of Social Networking  

PubMed Central

Objectives The use of social networking (SN) sites such as Facebook and Twitter has skyrocketed over the past 5 years, with over 400 million current users. What was once isolated to high schools or college campuses has become increasingly ubiquitous in everyday life and across a multitude of industries. Medical centers and residency programs are not immune to this invasion. These sites present opportunities for the rapid dissemination of information from status updates to tweets to medical support groups and even clinical communication between patients and providers. While powerful, this technology also opens the door for misuse and policies for use will be necessary. We strive to begin a discourse in the surgical community regarding maintaining professionalism while using SN sites. Results The use of SN sites among surgical housestaff and faculty has not previously been addressed. To that end, we sought to ascertain the use of the SN site Facebook at our residency program. Of 88 residents and 127 faculty, 56 (64%) and 28 (22%) respectively have pages on Facebook. Of these, 50% are publicly accessible. Thirty-one percent of the publicly accessible pages had work –related comments posted, and of these comments, 14% referenced specific patient situations or were related to patient care. Conclusions Given the widespread use of SN sites in our surgical community and in society as a whole, every effort should be made to guard against professional truancy. We offer a set a guidelines consistent with the ACGME and ACS professionalism mandates regarding usage of these sites. By acknowledging this need and following these guidelines, surgeons will continue to define and uphold ethical boundaries and thus demonstrate a commitment to patient privacy and the highest levels of professionalism. PMID:21156295

Landman, Matthew P.; Shelton, Julia; Kauffmann, Rondi M.; Dattilo, Jeffery B.

2014-01-01

28

SocialWiki: Bring Order to Wiki Systems with Social Context  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a A huge amount of administrative effort is required for large wiki systems to produce and maintain high quality pages with\\u000a existing naive access control policies. This paper introduces SocialWiki, a prototype wiki system which leverages the power\\u000a of social networks to automatically manage reputation and trust for wiki users based on the content they contribute and the\\u000a ratings they receive.

Haifeng Zhao; Shaozhi Ye; Prantik Bhattacharyya; Jeff Rowe; Ken Gribble; Shyhtsun Felix Wu

2010-01-01

29

Social Order and Adaptability in Animal and Human Cultures as Analogues for Agent Communities: Toward a Policy-Based Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we discuss some of the ways social order is maintained in animal and human realms, with the goal of enriching our thinking about mechanisms that might be employed in developing similar means of ordering communities of agents. We present examples from our current work in human- agent teamwork, and we speculate about some new directions this kind

Paul J. Feltovich; Jeffrey M. Bradshaw; Renia Jeffers; Niranjan Suri; Andrzej Uszok

2003-01-01

30

How to Maintain Creativity in Social Studies: Challenges for the Professional Organization.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Social studies educators must marshal all creative resources to meet the global, national, and personal challenges that face them as members of the major social studies professional organization, the National Council for the Social Studies (NCSS). Based on a continuation of current policies and lifestyles, dramatic global changes such as…

Hahn, Carole L.

31

Guns, crime and social order in the West Indies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines guns, crime and social order in the West Indies. Set in the context of the region's colonial history, contemporary geopolitics and the growing availability of small arms, the article analyses the extent and nature of gun homicide and related phenomena in various locations across the English-speaking Caribbean. It explores some explanations for the disturbing growth in violent

Biko Agozino; Ben Bowling; Elizabeth Ward; Godfrey St Bernard

2009-01-01

32

Managing Stress and Maintaining Well-Being: Social Support, Problem-Focused Coping, and Avoidant Coping  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study tested a model that links stress, social support, problem-focused coping, and well-being. First, it looks at how high support significantly moderated the association between stress and well-being. Next, the students' problem-focused coping was seen as mediating this moderated association. Finally, a 3-way interaction of stress, social

Chao, Ruth Chu-Lien

2011-01-01

33

Streetwise sales and the social order of city streets.  

PubMed

This paper analyses how a Big Issue vendor approached passers-by and how they responded, how recognizable courses of social and economic activity were interactionally produced from initiation through to some conclusion. The paper recovers how the vendor's work was contextually embedded in the urban landscape, how it was constrained by, and actively shaped, the social order of the street. Drawing on video-audio recordings the paper contributes to a growing body of ethnographic and ethnomethodological research which has emphasized the embodied, contingent and interactional character of economic activity. By examining such materials, the paper is well positioned to describe how the vendor found his market on the street, social interventions that propelled passers-by into buying behaviour. The paper sheds light on now familiar encounters which occur millions of times each week in the UK and beyond. PMID:18782155

Llewellyn, Nick; Burrow, Robin

2008-09-01

34

High-order social interactions in groups of mice  

PubMed Central

Social behavior in mammals is often studied in pairs under artificial conditions, yet groups may rely on more complicated social structures. Here, we use a novel system for tracking multiple animals in a rich environment to characterize the nature of group behavior and interactions, and show strongly correlated group behavior in mice. We have found that the minimal models that rely only on individual traits and pairwise correlations between animals are not enough to capture group behavior, but that models that include third-order interactions give a very accurate description of the group. These models allow us to infer social interaction maps for individual groups. Using this approach, we show that environmental complexity during adolescence affects the collective group behavior of adult mice, in particular altering the role of high-order structure. Our results provide new experimental and mathematical frameworks for studying group behavior and social interactions. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.00759.001 PMID:24015357

Shemesh, Yair; Sztainberg, Yehezkel; Forkosh, Oren; Shlapobersky, Tamar; Chen, Alon; Schneidman, Elad

2013-01-01

35

EXC-5 Controls Intracellular Trafficking in Order to Maintain the Apical Structure of the C. elegans Excretory Canal  

E-print Network

The goal of this work is to understand how cells form and maintain tubular shapes. The protein EXC-5 is necessary for a small tubular structure in Caenorhabditis elegans to maintain its shape. C. elegans is a small, easily ...

Mattingly, Brendan Christopher

2011-04-26

36

[The social status of women. For a new world order].  

PubMed

Curiosity about the place of women in development and solidarity with women's organizations in different economies prompt consideration of the individual and collective possibilities for women in public life and of the social status of women. Recent histories of Third World countries as reported in UN conferences held in Tunisia, Portugal, and New Delhi in 1982-83 and Western experience are the basis for identification of constraints in the development of women's movements and alternatives for participation of women in a new world order. Women have always contributed to the life and economic development of their countries, often in activities not recognized as economic, but they are excluded from processes of institutionalization and their presence is very rare at the highest levels of the social hierarchy. Women organized themselves and participated in the liberation movements of India, Malaysia, Libya, and Egypt, but were later relegated to their customary low status. Among the structural and ideological factors impeding access of women to political power and a true social status are cultural nationalism and religious ideology. Socialization is 1 of the processes by which members of a society acquire a common fund of knowledge, but norms produced by the dominant ideology, in this case male, pose a problem to dominated groups concerning the nature of their particularity. Such groups can strive for integration at the price of risking loss of identity, or they can contest the rules, situating themselves at the margin of the "laws" or rules. The essential question concerns the possibility of women rethinking the process and contents of socialization. A new system is required of perceptions, evaluations, and actions founded on new human values. In this perspective the women's movement would contribute to the realization of a new world order. Theories of equality, to comprehend reality in its entirety, must include equality while developing the concept of differences. A theory or an ethic of difference developed by feminists would lead individuals to recover their rights. PMID:12340318

Gauffenic, A

1985-01-01

37

Using Videoconferencing to Establish and Maintain a Social Presence in Online Learning Environments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Successful operation of videoconferencing technology for interactive learning demands preparation and scheduling. Well-organized strategies for interaction assist faculty in meeting individual student needs and developing the "social presence" necessary to facilitate quality online learning. Organizations can be proactive by offering this…

Moody, Robert A.; Wieland, Regi L.

2010-01-01

38

Maintaining Long-Distance Friendships: Communication Practices for Seeking and Providing Social Support across Geographic Divides  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

People seek and provide support through their personal social network, especially when they must cope with stress, deal with an emergency, or need help. Coping with a new culture or new environment is a stressful situation that sojourner students must face. Support through friendship plays an important role in facing such new situations. Focusing…

Lobburi, Patipan

2012-01-01

39

Social dominance and breeding activity in Spanish ibex (Capra pyrenaica) maintained in captivity.  

PubMed

The relationship between ovulatory activity and social dominance was determined in 10 Spanish ibex females by recording their plasma progesterone and plasma cortisol levels. In a second experiment, the influence of dominance status on the establishment of pregnancy after introduction to males during late anoestrous (late October) was evaluated in another nine females. Dominance hierarchies were established in both groups by noting agonistic interactions between the individual females. Six high-ranking females of the 10 ibexes without male contact showed ovulatory activity with 1-3 progesterone cycles. The first progesterone cycle appeared in December (18 December +/- 4 days). Dominance status correlated with age (R = 0.86, P < 0.01), bodyweight (R = 0.96, P < 0.001) and the number of progesterone cycles (R = 0.82, P < 0.01). Cortisol differences were associated with differences in reproductive function rather than social status per se. Introduction to males during late anoestrous brought forward the initiation of ovulatory activity (14 November +/- 5 days) and resulted in three pregnancies in females with higher dominance ranks. The results suggest that social interactions are important in the control of ovulatory activity in the Spanish ibex. PMID:17394791

Santiago-Moreno, J; Gómez-Brunet, A; Toledano-Díaz, A; Pulido-Pastor, A; López-Sebastián, A

2007-01-01

40

Maintaining a social-emotional intervention and its benefits for institutionalized children.  

PubMed

This article reports the maintenance of one of the largest interventions conducted in St. Petersburg (Russian Federation) orphanages for children birth to 4 years using regular caregiving staff. One orphanage received training plus structural changes, another training only, and a third business as usual. The intervention produced substantial differences between these institutions on the Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment (HOME) Inventory and on the Battelle Developmental Inventory scores for children. These institutional differences in HOME scores (N = 298) and Battelle scores for children (N = 357) departing the institutions for families in St. Petersburg and the United States were maintained for at least 6 years after the intervention project. This result may be associated with certain features of the intervention and activities conducted during the follow-up interval. PMID:23551051

McCall, Robert B; Groark, Christina J; Fish, Larry; Muhamedrahimov, Rifkat J; Palmov, Oleg I; Nikiforova, Natalia V

2013-01-01

41

Maintaining a Social-Emotional Intervention and its Benefits for Institutionalized Children  

PubMed Central

This paper reports the maintenance of one of the largest interventions conducted in St. Petersburg (Russian Federation) orphanages for children birth to 4 years using regular caregiving staff. One orphanage received training plus structural changes, another training only, and a third business as usual. The intervention produced substantial differences between these institutions on the HOME Inventory and on the Battelle Developmental Inventory scores for children. These institutional differences in HOME scores (N=298) and Battelle scores for children (N=357) departing the institutions for families in St. Petersburg and the USA were maintained for at least six years after the intervention project, result may be associated with to certain features of the intervention and activities during the follow-up interval. PMID:23551051

McCall, Robert B.; Groark, Christina J.; Fish, Larry; Muhamedrahimov, Rifkat J.; Palmov, Oleg I.; Nikiforova, Natalia V.

2013-01-01

42

Initiating and maintaining resistance training in older adults: a social cognitive theory-based approach  

PubMed Central

Numerous research studies performed in “lab-gyms” with supervised training have demonstrated that simple, brief (20–30 min) resistance training protocols performed 2–3/week following the American College of Sports Medicine’s guidelines positively affect risk factors associated with heart disease, cancers, diabetes, sarcopenia and other disabilities. For more than a decade, resistance training has been recommended for adults, particularly older adults, as a prime preventive intervention, and increasing the prevalence of resistance training is an objective of Healthy People 2010. However, the prevalence rate for resistance training is only estimated at 10–15% for older adults, despite the leisure time of older adults and access to facilities in developed countries. The reasons that the prevalence rate remains low include public health policy not emphasising resistance training, misinformation, and the lack of theoretically driven approaches demonstrating effective transfer and maintenance of training to minimally supervised settings once initial, generally successful, supervised training is completed. Social cognitive theory (SCT) has been applied to physical activity and aerobic training with some success, but there are aspects of resistance training that are unique including its intensity, progression, precision, and time and place specificity. Social cognitive theory, particularly with a focus on self-regulation and response expectancy and affect within an ecological context, can be directly applied to these unique aspects of resistance training for long-term maintenance. PMID:18628361

Winett, R A; Williams, D M; Davy, B M

2009-01-01

43

SocialWiki: Bring Order to Wiki Systems with Social Context  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A huge amount of administrative effort is required for large wiki systems to produce and maintain high quality pages with existing naive access control policies. This paper introduces SocialWiki, a prototype wiki system which leverages the power of social networks to automatically manage reputation and trust for wiki users based on the content they contribute and the ratings they receive. SocialWiki also utilizes interests to facilitate collaborative editing. Although a wiki page is visible to everyone, it can only be edited by a group of users who share similar interests and have a certain level of trust with each other. The editing privilege is circulated among these users to prevent/reduce vandalisms and spams, and to encourage user participation by adding social context to the revision process of a wiki page. By presenting the design and implementation of this proof-of-concept system, we show that social context can be used to build an efficient, self-adaptive and robust collaborative editing system.

Zhao, Haifeng; Ye, Shaozhi; Bhattacharyya, Prantik; Rowe, Jeff; Gribble, Ken; Wu, S. Felix

44

Maintaining limited-range connectivity among second-order agents Giuseppe Notarstefano Ketan Savla Francesco Bullo Ali Jadbabaie  

E-print Network

. Finally, we design a distributed "flow-control" algorithm to compute optimal connectivity- maintaining among the members of the group. In terms of design, it is required to constrain the control Giuseppe there exist control inputs for each agent to maintain network connectivity, and (ii) given desired controls

Savla, Ketan

45

Chemistry/BMB Computer Acceptable Use Policy In order to maintain a secure and supportable computing environment for the faculty, staff, and students of  

E-print Network

Chemistry/BMB Computer Acceptable Use Policy In order to maintain a secure and supportable computing environment for the faculty, staff, and students of Chemistry, Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, we have established the following policies regarding acceptable computer use for all members

Auerbach, Scott M.

46

Domestic Use of the Armed Forces to Maintain Law and Order--posse comitatus Pitfalls at the Inauguration of the 44th President  

Microsoft Academic Search

The U.S. Constitution and federal and state laws provide many circumstances where regular active duty and state militia military forces can be legitimately used to maintain law and order. There are certain restrictions on the use of certain forces domestically, the most well known of which are contained in the often misunderstood Posse Comitatus Act, which prohibits the use of

Garri Benjamin Hendell

2011-01-01

47

Dare Public School Administrators Build a New Social Order?: Social Justice and the Possibly Perilous Politics of Educational Leadership  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This paper aims to discuss how public school administrators with a social justice perspective have an obligation to permeate society beyond their schools and how they might address the perilous politics associated with advocating social change. Using George Counts' landmark 1932 speech, Dare the School Build a New Social Order? as the…

Lugg, Catherine A.; Shoho, Alan R.

2006-01-01

48

A comparison of drug-seeking behavior maintained by d -amphetamine, l -deprenyl (selegiline), and d -deprenyl under a second-order schedule in squirrel monkeys  

Microsoft Academic Search

l-Deprenyl (selegiline) is used in the treatment of Parkinson’s disease and has been proposed as an aid for cigarette smoking\\u000a cessation and a treatment for psychostimulant abuse. l-Deprenyl is metabolized in the body to l-methamphetamine and l-amphetamine, suggesting that it may have abuse potential. The current study assessed whether l-deprenyl or its isomer would maintain drug-seeking behavior on a second-order

Sevil Yasar; József Gaál; Leigh V. Panlilio; Zuzana Justinova; Szecsö V. Molnár; Godfrey H. Redhi; Charles W. Schindler

2006-01-01

49

Polarization mode dispersion emulation using polarization maintaining fibers: Fixed root-mean-square differential group delay but varying second-order polarization mode dispersion  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report on a polarization mode dispersion (PMD) emulator with a fixed root-mean-square differential group delay (RMS-DGD) but varying second-order PMD (SO-PMD) using only a combination of polarization maintaining fibers and a polarization controller. The SO-PMD control mechanism is not completely in real time. Besides controlling the mean PMD values of the emulator, simultaneous adjustments in the maximum and minimum

Vitalis Musara; Lorinda Wu; Gaoboelwe Pelaelo; Andrew W. R. Leitch

2009-01-01

50

Modelling Primate Social Order: Ultimate and Proximate Explanations  

E-print Network

. Bryson Artificial models of natural Intelligence, University of Bath,United Kingdom H.Lehmann@bath.ac.uk, J.J.Bryson@bath.ac.uk Abstract. For many species of primates, arguably including humans, social be]. Egalitarian societies, in contrast, have less well-defined hierarchies with only the top few most-dominant in

Bryson, Joanna J.

51

Divining the Social Order: Class, Gender, and Magazine Astrology Columns  

Microsoft Academic Search

This content analysis compares the astrological advice offered in magazines targeted at working- and middle-class women. Readers' social class was a far better predictor than readers' zodiac sign of the nature of astrological advice offered. Working-class horoscopes were less likely than middle-class horoscopes to advise readers to travel and spend money. Working-class horoscopes were less likely than middle-class horoscopes to

William Evans

1996-01-01

52

Third Wave criminologyGuns, crime and social order  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence-based policy-making implies greater clarity in the relationship between science, politics and crime control. This is especially the case with a highly polarizing topic like gun-crime. Specifically, the enrolment of social science by pressure groups, political parties and other political actors raises questions about the possibility and desirability of a scientifically detached appraisal of the problem. One resolution is to

Adam Edwards; James Sheptycki

2009-01-01

53

Leadership for Social Justice: Preparing 21st Century School Leaders for a New Social Order  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

At the dawn of the 21st century, there has been an increased focus on social justice and educational leadership (Bogotch, Beachum, Blount, Brooks & English, 2008; Marshall & Oliva, 2006; Shoho, Merchang & Lugg, 2005). This paper explores and extends themes in contemporary educational research on leadership preparation in terms of social justice…

Jean-Marie, Gaetane; Normore, Anthony H.; Brooks, Jeffrey S.

2009-01-01

54

Cooperative-Competitive Social Orientation: Interactions of Birth Order with Sex and Economic Class.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Assesses the potential for birth order by age, sex, and income-interaction effects in the area of cooperative/competitive social orientation in a sample of 105 children. Results revealed birth order by sex and birth order by income-interaction effects. Implications are discussed. (Author/RH)

Knight, George P.

1982-01-01

55

An Investigation of Higher-Order Thinking Skills in Smaller Learning Community Social Studies Classrooms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the extent to which higher-order thinking skills are promoted in social studies classes in high schools that are implementing smaller learning communities (SLCs). Data collection in this mixed-methods study included classroom observations and in-depth interviews. Findings indicated that higher-order thinking was rarely…

Fischer, Christopher; Bol, Linda; Pribesh, Shana

2011-01-01

56

Looking for the “right” amount to eat at the restaurant: Social influence effects when ordering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two studies are presented showing that the social facilitation of eating has its roots in the phase of ordering food, both in an ecologically valid context (a real restaurant) and in a simulated context (a mock scenario). In both studies people ordered a number of dishes as a function of their co-eater group size. We contend that this is due

Nicoletta Cavazza; Anna Rita Graziani; Margherita Guidetti

2011-01-01

57

Predicting the Physical Activity Intention–Behavior Profiles of Adopters and Maintainers Using Three Social Cognition Models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Most of the population have positive intentions to engage in physical activity (PA) but fail to act; thus, the need to understand\\u000a successful translation of intention into behavior is warranted in order to focus intervention efforts.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Purpose  The objective of the study is to examine constructs of the transtheoretical model, theory of planned behavior, and protection\\u000a motivation theory as predictors of

Ryan E. Rhodes; Ronald C. Plotnikoff; Kerry S. Courneya

2008-01-01

58

The Right to a Just and Peaceful Social and International Order.  

PubMed

Article 28 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights calls for the establishment of a "social and international order" in which the rights guaranteed by the UDHR "can be fully realized." The social and international order that will be needed for this purpose must be a just and peaceful one. Justice requires equitable economic development and equitable distribution of its benefits; development policies that avoid destruction of the environment; and international respect for the rule of law. Peace requires economic and social justice; abolition of weapons of mass destruction; sharply restricted transfer and use of conventional weapons; and vastly expanded support of nonviolent conflict resolution by the United Nations and other relevant institutions. Health workers, as influential members of civil society, have an important role to play in these efforts. PMID:10343297

Sidel

1998-01-01

59

"Standing Porter at the Door of Thought": The Social Order of the Christian Science Church.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This examination of the social order of the Church of Christ, Scientist, provides a valuable learning opportunity for leaders of any organizational entity--or for any student of organizational communication/behavior. The study addresses labor, trust, power, and legitimization of activity within the church. It raises the issue of whether Christian…

Swanson, Douglas J.

60

Adaptation to low body temperature influences pulmonary surfactant composition thereby increasing fluidity while maintaining appropriately ordered membrane structure and surface activity.  

PubMed

The interfacial surface tension of the lung is regulated by phospholipid-rich pulmonary surfactant films. Small changes in temperature affect surfactant structure and function in vitro. We compared the compositional, thermodynamic and functional properties of surfactant from hibernating and summer-active 13-lined ground squirrels (Ictidomys tridecemlineatus) with porcine surfactant to understand structure-function relationships in surfactant membranes and films. Hibernating squirrels had more surfactant large aggregates with more fluid monounsaturated molecular species than summer-active animals. The latter had more unsaturated species than porcine surfactant. Cold-adapted surfactant membranes displayed gel-to-fluid transitions at lower phase transition temperatures with reduced enthalpy. Both hibernating and summer-active squirrel surfactants exhibited lower enthalpy than porcine surfactant. LAURDAN fluorescence and DPH anisotropy revealed that surfactant bilayers from both groups of squirrels possessed similar ordered phase characteristics at low temperatures. While ground squirrel surfactants functioned well during dynamic cycling at 3, 25, and 37 degrees C, porcine surfactant demonstrated poorer activity at 3 degrees C but was superior at 37 degrees C. Consequently the surfactant composition of ground squirrels confers a greater thermal flexibility relative to homeothermic mammals, while retaining tight lipid packing at low body temperatures. This may represent the most critical feature contributing to sustained stability of the respiratory interface at low lung volumes. Thus, while less effective than porcine surfactant at 37 degrees C, summer-active surfactant functions adequately at both 37 degrees C and 3 degrees C allowing these animals to enter hibernation. Here further compositional alterations occur which improve function at low temperatures by maintaining adequate stability at low lung volumes and when temperature increases during arousal from hibernation. PMID:22387458

Suri, Lakshmi N M; McCaig, Lynda; Picardi, Maria V; Ospina, Olga L; Veldhuizen, Ruud A W; Staples, James F; Possmayer, Fred; Yao, Li-Juan; Perez-Gil, Jesus; Orgeig, Sandra

2012-07-01

61

SOCIAL SECURITY NUMBERS In order to be eligible for a Social Security Number (SSN) you will need to present evidence of work authorization  

E-print Network

to present evidence of work authorization to an official at a local Social Security Administration (SSASOCIAL SECURITY NUMBERS In order to be eligible for a Social Security Number (SSN) you will need to apply for a Social Security Number on line or via an agency. You must have a personal interview

Heller, Eric

62

Teaching Strategies Used to Maintain Classroom Order  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With the ever evolving environment of the classroom setting the role of the teacher is constantly being challenged and the responsibilities remain the same. Teachers are required to create a safe learning environment for student learning. Although this is an overwhelming responsibility it is not impossible. This study explored teachers'…

Roman, Daniel

2007-01-01

63

Analysis of Social Variables when an Initial Functional Analysis Indicates Automatic Reinforcement as the Maintaining Variable for Self-Injurious Behavior  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Self-injurious behavior (SIB) that occurs at high rates across all conditions of a functional analysis can suggest automatic or multiple functions. In the current study, we conducted a functional analysis for 1 individual with SIB. Results indicated that SIB was, at least in part, maintained by automatic reinforcement. Further analyses using…

Kuhn, Stephanie A. Contrucci; Triggs, Mandy

2009-01-01

64

Social Norms, Higher-Order Beliefs and the Emperor's New Clothes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of social sanctions against behaviour which contradicts a set of informal rules is often an important element in the functioning of informal institutions in traditional societies. In the social sciences, sanctioning behaviour has often been explained in terms of the internalisation of norms that prescribe the sanctions (e.g. Parsons 1951) or the threat of new sanctions against those

Zaki Wahhaj

2012-01-01

65

Is the cell phone undermining the social order?: Understanding mobile technology from a sociological perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hans Geser considers the potentially subversive and regressive impact of mobile telephony--reconnecting the individual with a smaller, tighter social world, one which is perhaps solipsistic in its concentration on small individual social networks, oblivious to the larger institutional society surrounding it. Geser argues that the mobile phone achieves this both as an empowering technology, putting communi- cative power into the

Hans Geser

2006-01-01

66

Moral standards: underpinning or (re)constructing social order? The case of fraud in a French collective transportation service.  

E-print Network

, the conclusion opens up the reflection to the "meso" scale of social order and suggests an organizational study, as a fundamental individual right. On the other hand, public transportation systems face strong difficulties number of activities that care more or less about fraud: marketing, communication, tickets and fare

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

67

Collective Weibull behavior of social atoms: Application of the rank-ordering statistics to historical extreme events  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analogous to crustal earthquakes in natural fault systems, we here consider the dynasty collapses as extreme events in human society. Duration data of ancient Chinese and Egyptian dynasties provides a good chance of exploring the collective behavior of the so-called social atoms. By means of the rank-ordering statistics, we demonstrate that the duration data of those ancient dynasties could be

Chien-Chih Chen; Chih-Yuan Tseng; Luciano Telesca; Sung-Ching Chi; Li-Chung Sun

2012-01-01

68

The impact of a nonsocial attachment object on increasing episodes of positive social interaction among peers to form and maintain friendships in the primary classroom  

Microsoft Academic Search

School-aged youngsters who are not accepted by their peers in early grades will be less able to develop normal interpersonal relations as they grow up. Peer rejection, harrassment, and hostility negatively affect a youngster's self-esteem and severely inhibit a child's ability to learn appropriate social skill responses.^ Evidence suggests that the early attachment between caregiver and infant can affect her\\/his

Christine Marie Zakalata

1997-01-01

69

Poverty, Inequality and the Future of Social Policy: Western States in the New World Order.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book analyzes forces fraying the social fabric of many countries, and the reasons why some Western countries have been more successful than others in addressing these trends. Part 1, "Poverty, Income Inequality, and Labor Market Insecurity: A Comparative Perspective," includes (1) "Markets and States: Poverty Trends and Transfer System…

McFate, Katherine, Ed.; Lawson, Roger, Ed.; Wilson, William Julius, Ed.

70

Power and the Social Order: Sex Role Stereotyping in Children's Television  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study is to offer an assessment of the common themes in feminist, Lacanian psychoanalytic and deconstructionist theory. It will then discuss the degree to which these three discourses allow us to grasp the implications of the political socialization which occurs through television programming directed primarily at children. There are points of\\u000acommonality and discordance between these

Christine Burke

1988-01-01

71

There Is No Naked Eye: Higher-Order Social Concepts Clothe Visual Perception  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vision researchers have investigated many sources of information that assist perception. Although basic visual properties of stimuli can alter interpretation, the following 5 studies contend that complex, social information significantly influences visual perception. Study 1 employed a scrambled sentence priming procedure used to activate concepts without participants' awareness. Studies 2, 4, and 5 used less contrived priming techniques that required

Emily Balcetis

72

Maintaining a Healthy Weight  

MedlinePLUS

... and drink Other ways to maintian a healthy weight? Limit portion size to control calorie intake. Add ... Go4Life Maintaining a Healthy Weight Maintaining a healthy weight is important for overall health and well-being. ...

73

The Role Pupils Play in the Social Construction of Classroom Order  

Microsoft Academic Search

The work that pupils do to collaboratively construct the particular order of their classrooms is examined, the transcripts of a video?tape of the pupils in their classroom, both before and after class begins, are analysed to show how the pupils cue in to the order that their new teacher desires and to show the work the pupils do to assist

Bronwyn Davies

1983-01-01

74

Preserving the simple life: Social change and boundary maintenance among the Old Order Mennonites  

Microsoft Academic Search

In contrast to the fast-paced changes and lifestyle that are endemic to modern, secular society, the Old Order Mennonites live a simple, religious life and aim to keep it that way by mediating change. How they are actively able to preserve their culture is the focus of this dissertation. The Old Order Mennonite community of Waterloo Region in southwestern Ontario,

Steven William Kleinknecht

2010-01-01

75

Sport and Physical Education and the New World Order: Dare We Be Agents of Social Change?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This lecture explores the content and context of the discourse of “a new world order” because this discourse has become part of the public discourse. Meanings about the new world order are part of a “contested terrain,” and as such they are part of a larger component of political, economic, and cultural conflicts, the outcomes of which are not preordained

George H. Sage

1993-01-01

76

Collective Weibull behavior of social atoms: Application of the rank-ordering statistics to historical extreme events  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Analogous to crustal earthquakes in natural fault systems, we here consider the dynasty collapses as extreme events in human society. Duration data of ancient Chinese and Egyptian dynasties provides a good chance of exploring the collective behavior of the so-called social atoms. By means of the rank-ordering statistics, we demonstrate that the duration data of those ancient dynasties could be described with good accuracy by the Weibull distribution. It is thus amazing that the distribution of time to failure of human society, i.e. the disorder of a historical dynasty, follows the widely accepted Weibull process as natural material fails.

Chen, Chien-Chih; Tseng, Chih-Yuan; Telesca, Luciano; Chi, Sung-Ching; Sun, Li-Chung

2012-02-01

77

Investment in higher order central processing regions is not constrained by brain size in social insects.  

PubMed

The extent to which size constrains the evolution of brain organization and the genesis of complex behaviour is a central, unanswered question in evolutionary neuroscience. Advanced cognition has long been linked to the expansion of specific brain compartments, such as the neocortex in vertebrates and the mushroom bodies in insects. Scaling constraints that limit the size of these brain regions in small animals may therefore be particularly significant to behavioural evolution. Recent findings from studies of paper wasps suggest miniaturization constrains the size of central sensory processing brain centres (mushroom body calyces) in favour of peripheral, sensory input centres (antennal and optic lobes). We tested the generality of this hypothesis in diverse eusocial hymenopteran species (ants, bees and wasps) exhibiting striking variation in body size and thus brain size. Combining multiple neuroanatomical datasets from these three taxa, we found no universal size constraint on brain organization within or among species. In fact, small-bodied ants with miniscule brains had mushroom body calyces proportionally as large as or larger than those of wasps and bees with brains orders of magnitude larger. Our comparative analyses suggest that brain organization in ants is shaped more by natural selection imposed by visual demands than intrinsic design limitations. PMID:24741016

Muscedere, Mario L; Gronenberg, Wulfila; Moreau, Corrie S; Traniello, James F A

2014-06-01

78

in Conte, R., Andrighetto, G., & Campenn, M. (Eds.). (2013). Minding norms: Mechanisms and dynamics of social order in agent societies. ix-x. New York, NY  

E-print Network

and dynamics of social order in agent societies. ix-x. New York, NY: Oxford University Press. Frank E Our behavior is influenced all the time by social norms, what is expected (iForeword in Conte, R., Andrighetto, G., & Campennì, M. (Eds.). (2013). Minding norms: Mechanisms

Ritter, Frank

79

Maintaining Plant Genebanks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson explores the benefits and problems of maintaining plant genebanks globally. Students can plan a genebank or agricultural cryopreservation business venture, write a biography about a famous botanist, present views at a genebank symposium for developing nations and more!

Brian R. Shmaefsky (Kingwood College;)

2003-06-02

80

Maintaining Bermudagrass Lawns  

E-print Network

System Maintaining Bermudagrass L a w ns L-5339 8/06 Bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon [L.]) is a popular turfgrass for lawns, golf courses, athletic fields and general utility areas. Found in Australia, Africa, India, South America... System Maintaining Bermudagrass L a w ns L-5339 8/06 Bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon [L.]) is a popular turfgrass for lawns, golf courses, athletic fields and general utility areas. Found in Australia, Africa, India, South America...

Chalmers, David; McAfee, James; Havlak, Roger

2006-08-08

81

Manufacturing Technology Support (MATES) II Task Order 0006: Air Force Technology and Industrial Base Research and Analysis. Subtask Order 0004: Study on Supply Chains and Social Media.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The supply chain social media study was conducted from 28 March 2013 - 11 October 2013. The objective of this study was to: (1) More efficiently identify, evaluate, source, and qualify suppliers to better handle demand surges and supply chain disruptions ...

C. Peters, M. Schaefer

2013-01-01

82

Software Maintainability Index Revisited  

SciTech Connect

For many years now, software practitioners have been collecting metrics from source code in an effort to better understand the software they are developing or changing. Maintainability Index (MI) is a composite metric that incorporates a number of traditional source code metrics into a single number that indicates relative maintainability. As originally proposed by Oman and Hagemeister, the MI is comprised of weighted Halstead metrics (effort or volume), McCabe's Cyclomatic Complexity, lines of code (LOC), and number of comments [1, 2]. Two equations were presented: one that considered comments and one that did not.

Welker, Kurt Dean

2001-08-01

83

Establishing and Maintaining Long-Term Human-Computer Relationships  

E-print Network

AND ROSALIND W. PICARD1 Boston University School of Medicine and MIT Media Laboratory, maintaining, and evaluating such relationships, based on research in social psychology, sociolinguistics, communication and other social sciences. Contexts in which relationships are particularly important

84

Diversity & Community: Maintaining Allegiances.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The quest for diversity must overcome the resistance of traditional White, male faculty to redefining the mission and curriculum of the liberal arts college. Change will be difficult, but it must occur if liberal arts colleges are to survive and maintain a central and relevant place in multicultural America. (MSE)

Pena, Devon G.

1990-01-01

85

Integration: Maintaining the Momentum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This address asserts that the profession of school administrator cannot reach full maturity unless it recognizes, one and for all, that separate schools are as unsound educationally as they are legally and morally; unless it decreases the deliberation and increases the speed which it brings leadership to America's major unresolved social,…

Carle, Wayne M.

86

Adolescents and headaches: maintaining control.  

PubMed

Migraine headaches, much like a chronic illness, are reported to negatively affect adolescents physically, mentally, and socially, further disturbing this already turbulent time of development. Prior migraine research is limited in adolescents, and no qualitative studies have examined the lived experience of adolescents with migraines. This interpretive phenomenological study explored the experience of living with migraines in six adolescents ranging in age from 12 to 17 years. After coding data and grouping into clusters, three themes emerged: 1) maintaining control by either pressing on and enduring the burden, or by disengaging and isolating self; 2) mind overload; and 3) unsettling manifestations. Adolescents approach migraine episodes by either continuing with their life as "normal," or by removing themselves physically and/or emotionally. By understanding the potentially unique physical and psychological disruptions that adolescents with migraines experience, nurses can offer education, provide nonpharmacologic interventions, and conduct further research that will improve health outcomes. PMID:23540101

Helvig, Ashley W; Minick, Ptlene

2013-01-01

87

LSUHSC School of Allied Health Professions Social Media Policy  

E-print Network

LSUHSC School of Allied Health Professions Social Media Policy SUMMARY STATEMENT OF SOCIAL MEDIA POLICY LSUHSC School of Allied Health Professions maintains a presence on social media in order children and youth with disabilities. CONTENT OF POSTS LSUHSC School of Allied Health Professions posts

88

Exploring the Construction of Social Class in Educational Discourse: The Rational Order of the Nation State versus Global Uncertainties  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article aims to create intellectual space in which issues of social inequality and education can be analyzed and discussed in relation to the multifaceted and multi-levelled complexities of the modern world. It is divided into three sections. Section One locates the concept of social class in the context of the modern nation state during the…

Rassool, Naz

2004-01-01

89

Exploring the construction of social class in educational discourse: the rational order of the nation state versus global uncertainties  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article aims to create intellectual space in which issues of social inequality and education can be analyzed and discussed in relation to the multifaceted and multi-levelled complexities of the modern world. It is divided into three sections. Section One locates the concept of social class in the context of the modern nation state during the period after the Second

Naz Rassool

2004-01-01

90

Neural correlates of the empathic perceptual processing of realistic social interaction scenarios displayed from a first-order perspective.  

PubMed

The neural processing of impulsive behavior is a central topic in various clinical and non-clinical contexts. To investigate neural and behavioral correlates of the empathic processing of complex social scenarios, especially considering ecological validity of the experimental procedure, we developed and investigated a video stimulus inventory. It includes realistic neutral, social-positive, and reactive-aggressive action scenarios. Short video-clips showing these social scenarios from a first-person perspective triggering different emotional states were presented to a non-clinical sample of 20 young adult male participants during fMRI measurements. Both affective interaction conditions (social-positive and reactive-aggressive) were contrasted against a neutral baseline condition and against each other. Behavioral evaluation data largely confirmed the validity of the emotion-inducing stimulus material. Reactive-aggressive and social-positive interaction scenarios produced widely overlapping fMRI activation patterns in hetero-modal association cortices, but also in subcortical regions, such as the peri-aqueductal gray. Reactive-aggressive compared to social-positive scenarios yielded a more anterior distribution of activations in pre-motor and inferior frontal brain regions associated to motor-preparation and inhibitory control processing as well as in the insula associated to pain- and/or aversion-processing. We argue that there are both principally common neural networks recruited for the processing of reactive-aggressive and social-positive scenarios, but also exclusive network parts in particular involved depending on individual socialization. PMID:24814646

Fehr, T; Achtziger, A; Roth, G; Strüber, D

2014-10-01

91

48 CFR 1306.202 - Establishing or maintaining alternative sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Exclusion of Sources 1306.202 Establishing or maintaining alternative sources. The authority to exclude a source from a contract action in order to establish or maintain an alternate source is set forth in CAM...

2010-10-01

92

48 CFR 1306.202 - Establishing or maintaining alternative sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Exclusion of Sources 1306.202 Establishing or maintaining alternative sources. The authority to exclude a source from a contract action in order to establish or maintain an alternate source is set forth in CAM...

2013-10-01

93

19 CFR 143.6 - Failure to maintain performance standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Failure to maintain performance standards. ABI participants must adhere to the performance...requirements and operational standards of the ABI system and maintain a high level of quality...statements, in order to participate in ABI. (a) Probational status. A...

2010-04-01

94

Maintaining the unmethylated state  

PubMed Central

Background A remarkable correspondence exists between the cytogenetic locations of the known fragile sites and frequently reported sites of hypermethylation. The best-known features of fragile sites are sequence motifs that are prone to the spontaneous formation of a non-B DNA structure. These facts, coupled with the known enzymological specificities of DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1), the ATP-dependent and actin-dependent helicases, and the ten-eleven translocation (TET) dioxygenases, suggest that these enzymes are involved in an epigenetic cycle that maintains the unmethylated state at these sites by resolving non-B structure, preventing both the sequestration of DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) and hypermethylation in normal cells. Presentation of the hypothesis The innate tendency of DNA sequences present at fragile sites to form non-B DNA structures results in de novo methylation of DNA at these sites that is held in check in normal cells by the action of ATP-dependent and actin-dependent helicases coupled with the action of TET dioxygenases. This constitutes a previously unrecognized epigenetic repair cycle in which spontaneously forming non-B DNA structures formed at fragile sites are methylated by DNMTs as they are removed by the action of ATP-dependent and actin-dependent helicases, with the resulting nascent methylation rendered non-transmissible by TET dioxygenases. Testing the hypothesis A strong prediction of the hypothesis is that knockdown of ATP-dependent and actin-dependent helicases will result in enhanced bisulfite sensitivity and hypermethylation at non-B structures in multiple fragile sites coupled with global hypomethylation. Implications of the hypothesis A key implication of the hypothesis is that helicases, like the lymphoid-specific helicase and alpha thalassemia/mental retardation syndrome X-linked helicase, passively promote accurate maintenance of DNA methylation by preventing the sequestration of DNMTs at sites of unrepaired non-B DNA structure. When helicase action is blocked due to mutation or downregulation of the respective genes, DNMTs stall at unrepaired non-B structures in fragile sites after methylating them and are unable to methylate other sites in the genome, resulting in hypermethylation at non-B DNA-forming sites, along with hypomethylation elsewhere. PMID:24079333

2013-01-01

95

Establishing and maintaining long-term human-computer relationships  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research investigates the meaning of “human-computer relationship” and presents techniques for constructing, maintaining, and evaluating such relationships, based on research in social psychology, sociolinguistics, communication and other social sciences. Contexts in which relationships are particularly important are described, together with specific benefits (like trust) and task outcomes (like improved learning) known to be associated with relationship quality. We especially

Timothy W. Bickmore; Rosalind W. Picard

2005-01-01

96

"Confinement of the Higher Orders": The Social Role of Private Lunatic Asylums in Ireland, c. 1820-60  

PubMed Central

The period 1820–60 marked an era of transition and diversity in Ireland that rapidly transformed the face of Irish society. Inextricably linked with these processes was the expansion of Ireland's private asylum system. This system diverged from its British counterpart both in the socioeconomic cohort it served and in the role it played within the mental health-care system as a whole. The implementation of the 1842 Private Asylums (Ireland) Act, the first legislative measure geared exclusively toward the system, highlighted the growing importance of private care in Ireland as well as providing for the licensing and regulation of these institutions for the first time. To date, historians of Irish medicine have focused almost exclusively on the pauper insane. This article aims to shift this emphasis toward other categories of the Irish insane through exploration of the Irish private asylum system, its growth throughout the period, and the social profile of private patients. I shall also interrogate the trade in lunacy model through exploration of financial considerations, discharge and recovery rates, and conditions of care and argue that while Irish private institutions were a lucrative business venture, the quality of care upheld was apparently high. Finally, I shall argue that Irish private asylums catered primarily for the upper classes and briefly explore alternative provisional measures for other non-pauper sectors of society. PMID:21355010

Mauger, Alice

2012-01-01

97

Maintaining Subsurface Drip Irrigation Systems  

E-print Network

A subsurface drip irrigation system should last more than 20 years if properly maintained. Important maintenance procedures include cleaning the filters, flushing the lines, adding chlorine and injecting acids. Details of these procedures...

Enciso, Juan; Porter, Dana; Bordovsky, Jim; Fipps, Guy

2004-09-07

98

Can social workers and police be partners when dealing with bikie-gang related domestic violence and sexual assault?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Welfare and criminal justice systems manifest different goals, cultures, values and working methods. In Australia, the welfare sector has a culture of empowerment and concern for victims’ rights, within which social workers focus on social justice and social change. In contrast, the criminal justice sector (police) is patriarchal and para-military in structure, focusing on enforcing and maintaining community order and

Lesley Cooper; Julia Anaf; Margaret Bowden

2008-01-01

99

Issues in Purchasing and Maintaining Intrinsic Standards  

SciTech Connect

Intrinsic standards are widely used in the metrology community because they realize the best level uncertainty for many metrology parameters. For some intrinsic standards, recommended practices have been developed to assist metrologists in the selection of equipment and the development of appropriate procedures in order to realize the intrinsic standard. As with the addition of any new standard, the metrology laboratory should consider the pros and cons relative to their needs before purchasing the standard so that the laboratory obtains the maximum benefit from setting up and maintaining these standards. While the specific issues that need to be addressed depend upon the specific intrinsic standard and the level of realization, general issues that should be considered include ensuring that the intrinsic standard is compatible with the laboratory environment, that the standard is compatible with the current and future workload, and whether additional support standards will be required in order to properly maintain the intrinsic standard. When intrinsic standards are used to realize the best level of uncertainty for a specific metrology parameter, they usually require critical and important maintenance activities. These activities can including training of staff in the system operation, as well as safety procedures; performing periodic characterization measurements to ensure proper system operation; carrying out periodic intercomparisons with similar intrinsic standards so that proper operation is demonstrated; and maintaining control or trend charts of system performance. This paper has summarized many of these important issues and therefore should be beneficial to any laboratory that is considering the purchase of an intrinsic standard.

PETTIT,RICHARD B.; JAEGER,KLAUS; EHRLICH,CHARLES D.

2000-09-12

100

Radiation Propulsion For Maintaining Orbits  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Brief report proposes radiative propulsion systems for maintaining precise orbits of spacecraft. Radiation from electrical heaters directed outward by paraboloidal reflectors to produce small forces to oppose uncontrolled drag and solar-radiative forces perturbing orbits. Minimizes or eliminates need to fire rocket thrusters to correct orbits.

Richter, Robert

1995-01-01

101

Maintaining Digital Clocks In Step  

Microsoft Academic Search

We design a stabilizing system of simultaneously triggered clocks: if the clock values ever differ, then the system is guaranteed to converge to a state where all clock values are identical, and are subsequently maintained to be identical. Our design of an N-clock system uses N registers of 2 log N bits each and is guaranteed to converge to identical

Anish Arora; Shlomi Dolev; Mohamed G. Gouda

1991-01-01

102

Maintaining Discipline in Classroom Instruction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document focuses on classroom discipline and how the teacher can maintain an environment that will optimize appropriate learning. Part 1 defines classroom discipline. Part 2 discusses classroom misbehavior and describes a number of classroom management techniques. Part 3 offers suggestions for control techniques. Part 4 discusses techniques…

Gnagey, William J.

103

Maintaining Sustainability for Green Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The promise of sustainably designed school facilities is that they will operate more efficiently and last longer than buildings constructed in more traditional ways. But that promise comes with a big if. The payoff is delivered only if the facility managers operate and maintain the buildings in ways that adhere to sustainable strategies called for…

Kennedy, Mike

2011-01-01

104

Indonesian drilling maintains steady pace  

SciTech Connect

Offshore drilling activity in Indonesia increased nominally the first quarter of 1985 to an average 29 rigs. Barring any further problems with oil prices and markets, operators are expected to maintain essentially the current general level of appraisal/development work for the rest of this year. There are still a number of prospective regions to be explored in Southeast Asia. Regional developments are described for the South China Sea area, the Java Sea, South Sumatra, Kalimantan, Irian Jaya and the Malacca Strait.

Not Available

1985-05-01

105

Maintaining technical excellence requires a national plan  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To meet the challenge of technical excellence, AIA established a rocket propulsion committee to develop the National Rocket Propulsion Strategic Plan. Developing such a plan required a broad spectrum of experience and disciplines. The Strategic Plan team needed the participation of industry, government, and academia. The plan provides, if followed, a means for the U.S. to maintain technical excellence and world leadership in rocket propulsion. To implement the National Rocket Propulsion Strategic Plan is to invest in the social, economic, and technological futures of America. The plan lays the basis for upgrading existing propulsion systems and a firm base for future full scale development, production, and operation of rocket propulsion systems for space, defense, and commercial applications.

Davidson, T. F.

1991-01-01

106

Publicly Private and Privately Public: Social Networking on YouTube  

Microsoft Academic Search

YouTube is a public video-sharing website where people can experience varying degrees of engagement with videos, ranging from casual viewing to sharing videos in order to maintain social relationships. Based on a one-year ethnographic project, this article analyzes how YouTube participants developed and maintained social networks by manipulating physical and interpretive access to their videos. The analysis reveals how circulating

Patricia G. Lange

2007-01-01

107

Signals in Social Supernets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social network sites (SNSs) provide a new way to organize and navigate an egocentric social network. Are they a fad, briefly popular but ultimately useless? Or are they the harbingers of a new and more powerful social world, where the ability to maintain an immense network - a social \\

Judith Donath

2007-01-01

108

Explicit feedback maintains implicit knowledge.  

PubMed

The role of feedback was investigated with respect to conscious and unconscious knowledge acquired during artificial grammar learning (AGL). After incidental learning of training sequences, participants classified further sequences in terms of grammaticality and reported their decision strategy with or without explicit veridical feedback. Sequences that disobeyed the learning structure conformed to an alternative structure. Feedback led to an increase in the amount of reported conscious knowledge of structure (derived rules and recollections) but did not increase its accuracy. Conversely, feedback maintained the accuracy of unconscious knowledge of structure (intuition or familiarity-based responses) which otherwise degraded. Results support a dual-process account of AGL. They suggest that implicit learning of the to-be-rejected structure at test contaminates familiarity-based classifications whereas feedback allows competing familiarity signals to be contextualised, which is incompatible with theories that consider familiarity context-insensitive. PMID:23770696

Mealor, Andy D; Dienes, Zoltan

2013-09-01

109

Cognitive Styles and the Social Order. Final Report, Part II. O.E.O. Study B00-5135, "Thought, Race, and Opportunity."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report presents data developed for testing the theory that there are social processes which result in differing cognitive styles for subdominant and dominant social groups. The results of surveys of black and white persons in an urban area, of white rural farmers, and Hopi Indians are presented. The research attempts to integrate data and…

TenHouten, Warren D.

110

Key Role of Social Work in Effective Communication and Conflict Resolution Process: Medical Orders for Life-Sustaining Treatment (MOLST) Program in New York and Shared Medical Decision Making at the End of Life  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, the authors review the development of the Medical Orders for Life-Sustaining Treatment (MOLST) Program and recent landmark legislation in New York State in the context of advance care planning and shared medical decision making at the end of life. Social workers are central health care professionals in working with patients, families, practitioners, health care agents, and surrogates

Patricia A. Bomba; Mary Beth Morrissey; David C. Leven

2011-01-01

111

PAID INTERNSHIP -Junior Marketing & Social Media Coordinator JACOB is offering up a paid internship as Junior Marketing & Social Media Coordinator.  

E-print Network

PAID INTERNSHIP - Junior Marketing & Social Media Coordinator JACOB is offering up a paid internship as Junior Marketing & Social Media Coordinator. The Junior Marketing & Social Media Coordinator and maintaining social media & marketing initiatives. The candidate is passionate about social media

112

Social Skills Interventions  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The term “social skills” encompasses an array of learned behaviors that share the common goal of maintaining or increasing\\u000a reinforcement within a social context. Deficits in social skills can occur at any developmental period and are not likely\\u000a to improve spontaneously because impaired social skills impede interactions with other people. In turn, unsatisfying or disruptive\\u000a interactions exacerbate social skill deficits

Ashley J. Smith; Judith A. Jordan; Mary Fran Flood; David J. Hansen

113

Building and Maintaining Successful Relationships between  

E-print Network

Building and Maintaining Successful Relationships between Reservation and University Programs Vogt Building and maintaining successful relationships between Indian reservations and University activity (Demmert 2001). When young people were no longer learning from tribal elders and other adults

Blanchette, Robert A.

114

Topic-based social network analysis for virtual communities of interests in the Dark Web  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study of extremist groups and their interaction is a crucial task in order to maintain homeland security and peace. Tools such as social networks analysis and text mining have contributed to the understanding of this kind of groups in order to develop counter-terrorism applications. This work addresses the topic-based community key members extraction problem, for which our method combines

Gaston L'Huillier; Sebastián A. Ríos; Hector Alvarez; Felipe Aguilera

2010-01-01

115

Choosing to Sever or Maintain Association Induces Biased Impression Formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Impression formation should be biased in individuals who decide to maintain or sever association because they desire to form impressions that support their decision. Because such individuals also should wish to appear objective, decision-supporting information should be irrelevant to obvious reasons for the decision (e.g., a target's social stigma). Accepting the veracity of the target's stereotype-irrelevant attributes supports the decision

Janet B. Ruscher; Elizabeth Yost Hammer

1996-01-01

116

Topic-based social network analysis for virtual communities of interests in the dark web  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study of extremist groups and their interaction is a crucial task in order to maintain homeland security and peace. Tools such as social networks analysis and text mining have contributed to their understanding in order to develop counter-terrorism applications. This work addresses the topic-based community key-members extraction problem, for which our method combines both text mining and social network

Gaston L'Huillier; Hector Alvarez; Sebastián A. Ríos; Felipe Aguilera

2011-01-01

117

Earth stewardship: a strategy for social–ecological transformation to reverse planetary degradation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A century ago, stewards were responsible for managing estates or for keeping order at public events. Today, the Earth is one\\u000a global estate, and improved stewardship is vital for maintaining social order and for preserving life on Earth. In this paper,\\u000a we describe Earth Stewardship, a social–ecological framework for sustaining life in a rapidly changing world. The paper defines\\u000a the

F. Stuart Chapin; Steward T. A. Pickett; Mary E. Power; Robert B. Jackson; David M. Carter; Clifford Duke

2011-01-01

118

An Historical Analysis of the Educational Ideas of George S. Counts and the Role of the School in the Modern Social Order.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The ideas of the populist George S. Counts on education's role in fostering democratic economic change are relevant to a consideration of modern problems and the prospects for American socialism (defined here as community and worker control of economic production). Counts, writing in the 1920s and 1930s, felt strongly that capitalism no longer…

Romanish, Bruce A.

119

We Call It "Our Language": A Children's Swahili Pidgin Transforms Social and Symbolic Order on a Remote Hillside in Up-Country Kenya  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study describes a rare Swahili pidgin created by two five-year-old boys, one American and one African. The discussion examines the linguistic and social factors affecting the "origins, maintenance, change and loss" (Hymes 1971) of their language and the place it created for their friendship. This place, constructed by and through language,…

Gilmore, Perry

2011-01-01

120

An Evaluation of Strategies to Maintain Mands at Practical Levels  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In order to teach individuals with developmental disabilities to request stimuli they are motivated to obtain (mand), it is often necessary to initially deliver the item requested immediately and frequently. This may result in an undesirably high rate of mands that is impractical to maintain. The purpose of the current investigation was to extend…

Sidener, Tina M.; Shabani, Daniel B.; Carr, James E.; Roland, Jonathan P.

2006-01-01

121

Space Maintainers in Dentistry: Past to Present  

PubMed Central

Early orthodontic interventions are often initiated in the developing dentition to promote favourable developmental changes. Interceptive orthodontic can eliminate or reduce the severity of a developing malocclusion, the complexity of orthodontic treatment, overall treatment time and cost. The safest way to prevent future malocclusions from tooth loss is to place a space maintainer that is effective and durable. An appropriate use of space maintainer is advocated to hold the space until the eruption of permanent teeth. This case report describes the various changing trends in use of space maintainers: conventional band and loop, prefabricated band with custom made loop and glass fibre reinforced composite resins as space maintainers. PMID:24298544

Setia, Vikas; Pandit, Inder Kumar; Srivastava, Nikhil; Gugnani, Neeraj; Sekhon, Harveen Kaur

2013-01-01

122

Designing for Maintainability and System Availability  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The final goal for a delivered system (whether a car, aircraft, avionics box or computer) should be its availability to operate and perform its intended function over its expected design life. Hence, in designing a system, we cannot think in terms of delivering the system and just walking away. The system supplier needs to provide support throughout the operating life of the product. Here, supportability requires an effective combination of reliability, maintainability, logistics and operations engineering (as well as safety engineering) to have a system that is available for its intended use throughout its designated mission lifetime. Maintainability is a key driving element in the effective support and upkeep of the system as well as providing the ability to modify and upgrade the system throughout its lifetime. This paper then, will concentrate on maintainability and its integration into the system engineering and design process. The topics to be covered include elements of maintainability, the total cost of ownership, how system availability, maintenance and logistics costs and spare parts cost effect the overall program costs. System analysis and maintainability will show how maintainability fits into the overall systems approach to project development. Maintainability processes and documents will focus on how maintainability is to be performed and what documents are typically generated for a large scale program. Maintainability analysis shows how trade-offs can be performed for various alternative components. The conclusions summarize the paper and are followed by specific problems for hands-on training.

Lalli, Vincent R.; Packard, Michael H.

1997-01-01

123

The effects of social exchange between two groups of lactating primiparous heifers on milk production, dominance order, behavior and adrenocortical response  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of social disturbance, by management practice, on behavior and performance of lactating heifers in a dairy herd were investigated. Two groups of 51 primiparous heifers in mid-lactation were used. Nearly half of the heifers in each group, including the three highest-ranking (Dm), three middle-ranking (Md) and three lowest-ranking (Sb) animals, were selected by angular dominance value (ADV) and

Nobumi Hasegawa; Aya Nishiwaki; Kazuo Sugawara; Iwao Ito

1997-01-01

124

Three orders, three women  

Microsoft Academic Search

A truism of the Middle Ages of Western Europe was that society was naturally divided into three ordo, interdependent orders: those who pray, those who fight (and thus rule), and those who toil. Even as some people worried over changing gradations within the orders, few questioned that a three?part social structure was necessary for stability and in accordance with God's

Jane Eblen Keller

1999-01-01

125

The Affective Regulation of Social Interaction*  

PubMed Central

The recent publication of David Heise’s Expressive Order (2007) provides an occasion for discussing some of the key ideas in Affect Control Theory. The theory proposes that a few dimensions of affective meaning provide a common basis for interrelating personal identities and social actions. It holds that during interpersonal interactions, social behavior is continually regulated to maintain an affective tone compatible with whatever social roles or identities define the situation. We outline the intellectual history of the proposed dimensions and of the idea that each social action invites an action from the other that has a particular location along these dimensions. We also relate these ideas to the Affect-as-Information hypothesis, an approach that often guides research in psychology on the role of affect in regulating judgment and thought. PMID:18461152

Clore, Gerald L.; Pappas, Jesse

2008-01-01

126

Metrics for assessing a software system's maintainability  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is noted that the factors of software that determine or influence maintainability can be organized into a hierarchical structure of measurable attributes. For each of these attributes the authors show a metric definition consistent with the published definitions of the software characteristic being measured. The result is a tree structure of maintainability metrics which can be used for purposes

Paul Oman; Jack Hagemeister

1992-01-01

127

Constructing and testing software maintainability assessment models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Software metrics are used to quantitatively characterize the essential features of software. The paper investigates the use of metrics in assessing software maintainability by presenting and comparing seven software maintainability assessment models. Eight software systems were used for initial construction and calibrating the automated assessment models, and an additional six software systems were used for testing the results. A comparison

Fang Zhuo; Bruce Lowther; Paul Oman; Jack Hagemeister

1993-01-01

128

Health Enhancing Behavior Maintaining a Healthy Diet  

E-print Network

day Unhealthy eating contributes to 300,000+ deaths per year Dietary change is critical for those Will reducing calories increase the life span? Animal studies support this hypothesis. #12;Maintaining a Healthy;Maintaining a Healthy Diet: Resistance to Modifying Diet Stress has a direct effect on eating Especially true

Meagher, Mary

129

Encapsulation method for maintaining biodecontamination activity  

DOEpatents

A method for maintaining the viability and subsequent activity of microorganisms utilized in a variety of environments to promote biodecontamination of surfaces. One application involves the decontamination of concrete surfaces. Encapsulation of microbial influenced degradation (MID) microorganisms has shown that MID activity is effectively maintained under passive conditions, that is, without manual addition of moisture or nutrients, for an extended period of time.

Rogers, Robert D. (Idaho Falls, ID); Hamilton, Melinda A. (Idaho Falls, ID); Nelson, Lee O. (Idaho Falls, ID); Benson, Jennifer (Cockermouth, GB); Green, Martin J. (Wooton, GB); Milner, Timothy N. (Centerville, VA)

2002-01-01

130

social media social media  

E-print Network

social media #12;#12;#12;#12;social media: what it is what it does ethics & effectiveness #12;a social media marketing agency #12;social media: what it is #12;#12;SOCIAL MEDIA micro- blog social networks podcasts internet forums photo/ video Sharing blogs/ vlogs mobile apps social book- marks wikis

Lin, Xiaodong

131

Equilateral pentagon polarization maintaining photonic crystal fibre with low nonlinearity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new pentagon polarization maintaining photonic crystal fibre with low nonlinearity is introduced. The full vector finite element method was used to investigate the distribution and the effective area of modal field, the nonlinear properties, the effective indices of two orthogonal polarization modes and the birefringence of the new PM-PCF effectively. It is found that the birefringence of the new polarization maintaining photonic crystal fibre can easily achieve the order of 10-4, and it can obtain higher birefringence, larger effectively mode-field area and lower nonlinearity than traditional hexagonal polarization maintaining photonic crystal fibre with the same hole pitch, same hole diameter, and same ring number. It is important for sensing and communication applications, especially has potential application for fibre optical gyroscope.

Yang, Han-Rui; Li, Xu-You; Hong, Wei; Hao, Jin-Hui

2012-02-01

132

7 CFR 1430.508 - Maintaining records.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS DAIRY PRODUCTS Dairy Market Loss Assistance Program § 1430.508 Maintaining records. Dairy operations making application for benefits under this program...

2012-01-01

133

7 CFR 1430.508 - Maintaining records.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS DAIRY PRODUCTS Dairy Market Loss Assistance Program § 1430.508 Maintaining records. Dairy operations making application for benefits under this program...

2010-01-01

134

7 CFR 1430.508 - Maintaining records.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS DAIRY PRODUCTS Dairy Market Loss Assistance Program § 1430.508 Maintaining records. Dairy operations making application for benefits under this program...

2011-01-01

135

7 CFR 1430.508 - Maintaining records.  

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS DAIRY PRODUCTS Dairy Market Loss Assistance Program § 1430.508 Maintaining records. Dairy operations making application for benefits under this program...

2014-01-01

136

Space Maintainers for Premature Tooth Loss  

MedlinePLUS

... space maintainer. For example, children with a congenital disease called ectodermal dysplasia often are missing multiple primary teeth. There are no permanent teeth to replace them. A child with this ...

137

Agent Program Planning Information Maintain No Gain  

E-print Network

no more than two pounds during the holiday season. Motivation for participants to maintain their weight weekly exercise and fruit and vegetable consumption. Using with Community-Based Groups, Support Groups

138

Keys to Maintaining a Good Banking Relationship.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suggests strategies for finding an appropriate bank for a day care center, maintaining a good relationship with a bank once one has been selected, and obtaining and repaying a day care center loan. (SKC)

Stephens, Keith

1988-01-01

139

Maintaining Financial Stability in a Global Economy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City has made available the papers presented at the "Maintaining Financial Stability in a Global Economy" symposium. The aim of the symposium is to explore "options for public authorities in adapting policies to keep financial systems safe and efficient, and to discuss response mechanisms to financial crises." The papers presented here look at the causes of financial instability, why policymakers should be concerned about financial instability, lessons from recent financial crises, and policies for maintaining financial stability.

1997-01-01

140

Maintaining competency for float nursing staff.  

PubMed

Orienting staff to multiple areas is challenging, as is maintaining multiple competencies, which might be used infrequently. Creating a strategy to regularly assess needed competencies to maintain a highly skilled pool of nurses, prepared to float to multiple areas, is critical to supporting flexible staffing. A plan for how to achieve this complex analysis is described and can be translated to other complex environments. PMID:25036084

Overman, Kimberly; Hauver, Jeni; McKay, Jennifer; Aucoin, Julia

2014-01-01

141

carrires sociales animation sociale  

E-print Network

carrières sociales option animation sociale et socio-culturelle SCIENCES, HUMAINES ET SOCIALES 46 02 sec_iutfc@univ-fcomte.fr dut carrières sociales option animation sociale et socio'études à l'Université de Franche-Comté Licences professionnelles -- Intervention sociale, spécialité

Jeanjean, Louis

142

How Social Networks, Digital Media and Digital Marketing Can Be Applied to the Promotion of Goods and Services in Business Companies in Order to Increase Sales  

Microsoft Academic Search

New technologies are highly important nowadays, not only in the complex world of business but also in the day-to-day life of modern societies. Major advances in communications have minimized the cost of making business transactions, and also the time required to do so. Accordingly, a model will be described that explains how new technologies affect different business-related aspects. In order

Pablo Ferreiros Bennett

143

Maintainability program requirements for space systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This document is established to provide common general requirements for all NASA programs to: design maintainability into all systems where maintenance is a factor in system operation and mission success; and ensure that maintainability characteristics are developed through the systems engineering process. These requirements are not new. Design for ease of maintenance and minimization of repair time have always been fundamental requirements of the systems engineering process. However, new or reusable orbital manned and in-flight maintainable unmanned space systems demand special emphasis on maintainability, and this document has been prepared to meet that need. Maintainability requirements on many NASA programs differ in phasing and task emphasis from requirements promulgated by other Government agencies. This difference is due to the research and development nature of NASA programs where quantities produced are generally small; therefore, the depth of logistics support typical of many programs is generally not warranted. The cost of excessive maintenance is very high due to the logistics problems associated with the space environment. The ability to provide timely maintenance often involves safety considerations for manned space flight applications. This document represents a basic set of requirements that will achieve a design for maintenance. These requirements are directed primarily at manned and unmanned orbital space systems. To be effective, maintainability requirements should be tailored to meet specific NASA program and project needs and constraints. NASA activities shall invoke the requirements of this document consistent with program planning in procurements or on inhouse development efforts.

1987-01-01

144

Addressing Social Issues.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Maintains that advertising can help people become more aware of social responsibilities. Describes a successful nationwide newspaper advertising competition for college students in which ads address social issues such as literacy, drugs, teen suicide, and teen pregnancy. Notes how the ads have helped grassroots programs throughout the United…

Schoebel, Susan

1991-01-01

145

Social Work Experience and Development in China  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents the experience and limitations of government-run social work and the nonprofessional nature of social work, and suggests that the rapid development of social work and its professionalization are the inevitable results of the reform in the system. The author maintains that under market socialism, social work requires the…

Sibin, Wang

2013-01-01

146

Revised April 2013 Marketing/Social Media Internship  

E-print Network

Revised April 2013 Marketing/Social Media Internship Job Title: Marketing/Social Media Internship and sports programs/events; social marketing/social media; print and digital flyer design; social norming & Facilities Maintain social media networks Develop/revise social norming messages/campaigns Create

Hemmers, Oliver

147

Leveraging social context for searching social media  

E-print Network

The ability to utilize and benefit from today’s explosion of social media sites depends on providing tools that allow users to productively participate. In order to participate, users must be able to find resources (both people and information) that they find valuable. Here, we argue that in order to do this effectively, we should make use of a user’s “social context”. A user’s social context includes both their personal social context (their friends and the communities to which they belong) and their community social context (their role and identity in different communities).

Marc Smith; Lise Getoor; Vladimir Barash; Hady W. Lauw

2008-01-01

148

Automated Methods to Maintain Aircraft Separation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The air traffic control system in the United States has a great track-record for safety. As more aircraft enter the system at a given time, the situation becomes more complex though. Researchers at NASA are attempting to leverage advances in many fields including optimization, data mining, and numerical modeling of systems to improve the air-transportation system maintaining safety while increasing throughput and reducing delays. This talk will give a brief overview of the research at NASA towards modernizing the air-transportation system. It will then focus on the specific area of automation tools for maintaining physical separation between aircraft known as Separation Assurance.

Lauderdale, Todd

2011-01-01

149

Order, topology and preference  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Some standard order-related and topological notions, facts, and methods are brought to bear on central topics in the theory of preference and the theory of optimization. Consequences of connectivity are considered, especially from the viewpoint of normally preordered spaces. Examples are given showing how the theory of preference, or utility theory, can be applied to social analysis.

Sertel, M. R.

1971-01-01

150

Order Up  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Change orders. The words can turn the stomachs of administrators. Horror stories about change orders create fear and distrust among school officials, designers and builders. Can change orders be avoided? If car manufacturers can produce millions of intricately designed vehicles, why can't the same quality control be achieved on a construction…

Gibeault, Michael

2005-01-01

151

Maintaining Information Awareness in a Dynamic Environment  

E-print Network

Mechanism A Thesis Presented to The Academic Faculty by D. Scott McCrickard In Partial Ful llment 2000 Copyright c 2000 by D. Scott McCrickard #12;Maintaining Information Awareness in a Dynamic to keep a positive attitude while doing so. Special thanks to Joan Morton for constantly coming to my

McCrickard, Scott

152

Reliability and maintainability seminar: summary of proceedings  

SciTech Connect

The following are described briefly: Overview of the Federal Reliability and Maintainability Program Plan, Summary of Proceedngs, Overview of Southern Solar Energy Center Programs, and Solar Domestic Hot Water Design Guidelines Handbook. Also included are the Seminar Agenda and the list of Seminar Attendees. (MHR)

Beek, C.R.

1981-04-01

153

Can punishment maintain sex? Daniel J. Rankin  

E-print Network

male harassment punish asexual females? Male behaviour can have both negative and positive effectsCan punishment maintain sex? Daniel J. Rankin D. J. Rankin (daniel.rankin@esh.unibe.ch), Div. Here I discuss this idea, and further ask whether punishment of asexual females by sexual females could

Rankin, Daniel

154

Improving Avionics Fiber Optic Network Reliability & Maintainability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Work is ongoing at NAVAIR to understand how avionics fiber optic BIT technology can help reduce military aviation platform fiber optic network life cycle and total ownership cost. Operational availability enhancements via comprehensive supportability programs combined with keen attentiveness to reliability and maintainability metrics are driving the avionics fiber optic BIT value proposition. Avionics fiber optic BIT technology is expected

Mark W. Beranek; Anthony R. Avak

2007-01-01

155

Stoichiometric analysis of self-maintaining metabolisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an extension of stoichiometric analysis in systems where the catalytic compounds (enzymes) are also intermediates of the metabolic network (dual property), so they are produced and degraded by the reaction network itself. To take this property into account, we introduce the definition of enzyme-maintaining mode, a set of reactions that produces its own catalyst and can operate

Francisco Montero; Juan Carlos Nuño; Enrique Meléndez-Hevia; Felix Olasagasti; Sara Vázquez; Federico Morán

2008-01-01

156

How Clones are Maintained: An Empirical Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Despite the conventional wisdom,concerning,the risks related to the use of source code cloning as a software de- velopment strategy, several studies appeared in literature indicated that this is not true. In most cases clones are prop- erly maintained and, when this does not happen, is because cloned code evolves independently. Stemming from previous works, this paper combines clone detection

Lerina Aversano; Luigi Cerulo; Massimiliano Di Penta

2007-01-01

157

Maintaining Academic Integrity in Online Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

Online education has come under a great deal of scrutiny over the issue of academic integrity. It is assumed that cheating and plagiarism are a greater problem online than in a traditional class. In reality, maintaining academic integrity is equally a challenge in both delivery modes. However, by the very nature of online education, a case can be made that

Michael Heberling

158

Maintaining Effective Classroom Control in Vocational Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This handbook is designed to assist vocational teachers in maintaining effective classroom and laboratory control. Following an introduction to the topic, the importance of effective control and teacher attitude are overviewed. The third section offers definitions of discipline and "in loco parentis", a perspective on discipline, and reasons for…

Bowen, Blannie E., Ed.; McCracken, J. David

159

WEB Maintainers Meetup Web Branding Committee  

E-print Network

WEB Maintainers Meetup UF/IFAS DEPARTMENT #12; Web Branding Committee Introduction and TERMINALFOUR (T4) recap Preparation Page layouts Questions #12;WEB BRANDING COMMITTEE what we heard #12;Some) is the new UF Web Content Management System (WCMS) chosen for the next five years. T4 allows non

Florida, University of

160

Study of eliminating fire dampers to maintain process confinement  

SciTech Connect

Fire dampers are required by NFPA 90A to maintain the integrity of fire areas. However, several fire dampers in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Vitrification Building at the Savannah River site are proposed to be eliminated in order to maintain the integrity of the process confinement system. In accordance with NFPA (1989), the closing operation of each fire damper should be tested biannually. Fire damper testing must consider the situation where there is a damper hangup in tripping or resetting taking several minutes or more. A fire will also close these dampers. Bechtel performed a fire damper simulation study of the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) system with a computer model. The study showed that 39 of 103 fire dampers, closed one at a time, causes ventilation system backflow, which upsets the integrity of the process confinement system. Elimination of the fire dampers will prevent a backflow upset.

Davis, P.L. (Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)); Walling, R.C.; Patel, J.B.; Strunk, A.J.

1991-01-01

161

Climbing Social Media in Medicine's Hierarchy of Needs.  

PubMed

The social media and medicine landscape is evolving rapidly. Early research, social media policies, and educational efforts focused on risk avoidance, while more current efforts have encouraged reflection and explored opportunities. This trajectory has affirmed physicians' professional commitment to maintaining public trust in the face of new challenges in the digital age. In this Commentary, the authors propose viewing physicians' social media use as a hierarchy of needs, similar to Maslow's psychological theory which posits that more basic levels of needs must be met before higher, aspirational levels can be fully attained. The three levels in the social media in medicine's hierarchy of needs are Security, Reflection, and Discovery. Critical to this model is respecting the essential need for Security in order to move towards Reflection and into Discovery. The social media in medicine hierarchy of needs pyramid rests on a foundation of Public Trust. How physicians as a profession have responded to past-and continue to respond to present and future-social media challenges to professionalism reveals what matters most: maintaining public trust and honoring the physicians' contract with society. A victory for online professionalism would be providing trainees with the tools and guidance needed to ascend to Discovery, while ensuring that their basic social media needs are first met. To do this, physician educators need to continue increasing trainees' awareness through designing relevant curricula, encouraging reflection, and providing positive role modeling and effective mentorship. PMID:25076202

Chretien, Katherine C; Kind, Terry

2014-10-01

162

Page 1 of 3 Revised 06/11/07 Southeast Regional Best Management Practices for Maintaining  

E-print Network

. 9. One European drone source colony should be maintained for every 10 colonies in order to reduce supercedure queens mating with AHB drones. A drone source is defined as a colony specifically maintained with 3 to 5 frames of 90% drone comb. #12;Page 2 of 3 Revised 06/11/07 10. To prevent potential

Delaplane, Keith S.

163

Maintain cache consistency of mobile database using dynamical periodical broadcast strategy  

Microsoft Academic Search

In mobile database, in order to reduce the contention of limited network bandwidth by mobile computers and improve availability of local data, frequently, and used data are cached locally. How to effectively maintain cache consistency is a hot research topic. In this paper, we propose strategies to maintain cache data consistency, which are, based on updating frequency of data items,

Xiong-Kai Shao; Yan-Sheng Lu

2003-01-01

164

Deriving Production Rules for Constraint Maintainance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract. Traditionally, integrity constraints in database systems,are,maintained,either,by,rolling,back,any,transac- tion,that,produces,an,inconsistent,state,or,by,disallowing or modifying,operations,that,may,produce,an,inconsistent state. An alternative,approach,is to provide,automatic,“re- pair” of inconsistent,states,using,production,rules. For each constraint, a production rule is used to detect constraint violation,and,to initiate,database,operations,that,restore consistency. We describe,an,SQL-based language,for defining,integrity constraints,and,a framewcrk,for translating,these,constraints into constraint-maintaining,production,rules. Some parts of the,translation,are automatic,while,other,parts,require,user intervention.,Based,on the semantics,of our set-oriented,pro- duction rules language and under certain assumptions, we prove,that,at

Stefano Ceri; Jennifer Widom

1990-01-01

165

Training Worksheet Job Aid Maintained by Corporate Education, Development & Training (CEDT)  

E-print Network

Training Worksheet Job Aid Maintained by Corporate Education, Development & Training (CEDT) Purchase Order A. General Awareness Sandia-Specific Training -- Initial and Refresher Training Program/ Hazards Title Course Number Annual Counterintelligence Training Members of the Workforce who process

166

Maintaining MultiModality through Mixture Tracking  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years particle filters have become a tremen- dously popular tool to perform tracking for non-linear and\\/or non-Gaussian models. This is due to their simplic- ity, generality and success over a wide range of challeng- ing applications. Particle filters, and Monte Carlo methods in general, are however poor at consistently maintaining the multi-modality of the target distributions that may

Jaco Vermaak; Arnaud Doucet; Patrick Pérez

2003-01-01

167

Social Media Guidelines Social media is a type of online media that expedites conversation as opposed to traditional  

E-print Network

Social Media Guidelines Social media is a type of online media that expedites conversation constituents apply online as in the real world. Because social media channels are fairly new to many employees will be maintained by Public Relations and will list all official social media sites maintained by the University

Asaithambi, Asai

168

Social Policy Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A conceptual model for teaching and practicing social policy is presented, that distinguishes between social policy practice at macro- and micro-levels in order to sort out functional tasks, skills, and the consequent knowledge base. Suggestions are made regarding organizing social policy practice content in both the class and the field.…

Yelaja, Shankar A.

1975-01-01

169

Identifying Crucial Parameter Correlations Maintaining Bursting Activity  

PubMed Central

Recent experimental and computational studies suggest that linearly correlated sets of parameters (intrinsic and synaptic properties of neurons) allow central pattern-generating networks to produce and maintain their rhythmic activity regardless of changing internal and external conditions. To determine the role of correlated conductances in the robust maintenance of functional bursting activity, we used our existing database of half-center oscillator (HCO) model instances of the leech heartbeat CPG. From the database, we identified functional activity groups of burster (isolated neuron) and half-center oscillator model instances and realistic subgroups of each that showed burst characteristics (principally period and spike frequency) similar to the animal. To find linear correlations among the conductance parameters maintaining functional leech bursting activity, we applied Principal Component Analysis (PCA) to each of these four groups. PCA identified a set of three maximal conductances (leak current, Leak; a persistent K current, K2; and of a persistent Na+ current, P) that correlate linearly for the two groups of burster instances but not for the HCO groups. Visualizations of HCO instances in a reduced space suggested that there might be non-linear relationships between these parameters for these instances. Experimental studies have shown that period is a key attribute influenced by modulatory inputs and temperature variations in heart interneurons. Thus, we explored the sensitivity of period to changes in maximal conductances of Leak, K2, and P, and we found that for our realistic bursters the effect of these parameters on period could not be assessed because when varied individually bursting activity was not maintained. PMID:24945358

Doloc-Mihu, Anca; Calabrese, Ronald L.

2014-01-01

170

Practical circular-polarization-maintaining optical fiber.  

PubMed

The author describes a new idea for making circular-polarization-maintaining optical fiber with an existing fabrication technique. The method simply requires one to spin at a constant rate a special preform consisting of only one off-axis stress-applying element in addition to the on-axis core. Measurements taken with such a fiber specimen verify the existence of circular eigenmodes, the ease of joining or splicing two fiber segments, the tolerance to macrobending with a small radius, etc. Good agreement exists between the experimental data and the theoretical analysis. Prospective applications are discussed. PMID:18259569

Huang, H C

1997-09-20

171

SocialAnthropology Social Anthropology  

E-print Network

156 SocialAnthropology Social Anthropology Degree options MA (Single Honours Degree) Social Anthropology MA (Joint Honours Degrees) Social Anthropology and one of: Ancient History Arabic Art History Anthropology Geography with Social Anthropology Social Anthropology with Geography Entrance Requirements (see

Brierley, Andrew

172

The Performance of Grant Maintained Schools in England: An Experiment in Autonomy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines recruitment and examination performance of 327 British grant-maintained schools from 1991 to 1996, compared to 108 local education authority schools. The GM schools' apparently higher performance may be attributed to having fewer socially disadvantaged students and reducing this proportion over time. Implications are discussed. Contains…

Levacic, Rosalind; Hardman, Jason

1999-01-01

173

Maintaining the Viability and Safety of the Methadone Maintenance Treatment Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this article is to describe a methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) program and address how such programs can maintain their viability in the community as well as the safety of the clinic environment for patients and staff. The complex nature of the MMT patient is described including social, legal and psychiatric issues. Diversion (selling of methadone) is discussed

Kathy T. Breslin; Sandra Malone

2006-01-01

174

Methadone anonymous: A 12?step program for methadone maintained heroin addicts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methadone Anonymous (MA) is a new 12?step fellowship developed for methadone maintained heroin addicts. A total of 53 MA members completed a survey assessing factors related to methadone maintenance treatment program (MMTP) entry, drug use, MA participation, beliefs concerning effectiveness of MMTP and MA, and level of social cohesiveness. Length of time in MA was associated with a decreased use

Stephen M. Gilman; Marc Galanter; Helen Dermatis

2001-01-01

175

Harassment and Bullying The University is committed to maintaining a working,  

E-print Network

Harassment and Bullying The University is committed to maintaining a working, learning and social including Bullying The University expects all members of the university community to treat each other is that the actions or comments are viewed as demeaning and unacceptable to the recipient. #12;What is Bullying

Paxton, Anthony T.

176

Harassment and Bullying The University is committed to maintaining a working,  

E-print Network

Harassment and Bullying The University is committed to maintaining a working, learning and social, students, and visitors to the University #12;University's code of Practice on Harassment including Bullying or comments are viewed as demeaning and unacceptable to the recipient. #12;What is Bullying? Bullying may

Paxton, Anthony T.

177

Maintaining lies: The multiple-audience problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an examination of lying in social context, undergraduates were videotaped while describing teachers. Each student described a teacher truthfully to one peer, described the teacher deceptively to a second peer, and was then required to describe the teacher to both peers as the latter sat side-by-side. Three experiments examined the psychology of this multiple-audience predicament. Results of an initial

Charles F. Bond; B. Jason Thomas; René M. Paulson

2004-01-01

178

The role of infrasounds in maintaining whale herds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For whales and dolphins a basic social unit is the herd. In several species, herds have been observed to maintain the same speed, direction, and membership overnight, and while swimming in waters of near-zero visibility-evidence that individuals can stay together using nonvisual cues. The most likely such cue is sound. If whale herds are held together with sound, yet we define herds as groups of whales seen moving together, then we are using visual criteria to judge what is an acoustic phenomenon, and our conclusions about a most basic unit of cetacean social structure, the herd, are at least incomplete, and, quite possibly, worthless. By calling herds, heards, we remind ourselves that sound controls herd size. We then consider that some whale infrasound can propagate across deep water at useful intensities (even in today's ship-noise-polluted ocean) for thousands of kilometers. The distance to which blue and fin whale sounds propagate before falling below background noise is given, and the possible advantages these whales obtain from such sounds is explored. The conclusion is that by sharing information on food finds infrasonically, fin and blue whales may have developed a way to divide up the food resources of an entire ocean.

Payne, Roger S.

2001-05-01

179

Examining self-protection measures guarding Adult Protective Services social workers against compassion fatigue.  

PubMed

Little research has focused on the risk factors, effects, and experiences of compassion fatigue among gerontological social workers. This qualitative study explores the experiences and perspectives of nine Adult Protective Services (APS) social workers in relation to compassion fatigue. Results show that the APS social workers combined personal characteristics and professional factors to develop boundary-setting mechanisms that protected them from experiencing the deleterious symptoms and effects of compassion fatigue. Implications center around the elements needed to implement boundaries in order to maintain a separation between the work and home environment. Suggestions for future research are provided. PMID:22203624

Bourassa, Dara

2012-06-01

180

To Grow, Nurture, and Maintain: Soil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The importance and difficulties encountered in a sustainable urban farm can be witnessed at the Stanford Earth Systems Educational Garden, in the growth, maintenance, and nurturing of the soil. Techniques and chemicals developed in the mid to late 1900's have infiltrated the traditional farming techniques that allowed humans to continuously farm for hundreds of years. The sudden spur of interest in sustainability has lead many, including Stanford Earth Systems, to reincorporate traditional methods in conjunction with modern technology. To override the damage made by chemicals and industrial farming, we had to recognize that healthy crops originated from healthy soil; thus we began investigating how to nourish soil. We began to research the ideal composition and structure of soil and methods to create and maintain fertile soil. Secondly, we prioritized the importance of nurturing plants and fed the plants with a plethora of natural fertilizers. We also created a compost pile so that the soil could rehabilitate and refill with nutrients with help provided by bacteria. Lastly, we had to maintain the soil to keep the soil viable for future crops. To do this, we had to acknowledge the chemical composition of the soil and plant cover crops to ensure that the nutrients are replenished. Our experiences enabled us to understand the time and effort required to manage suitable crops, animals, and structures for an urban farm.

Joshi, I.; Lam, K.; Hennelly, L. O.; Archie, J. P.

2012-12-01

181

47 CFR 1.20004 - Maintaining secure and accurate records.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Maintaining secure and accurate records. 1.20004...Enforcement Act § 1.20004 Maintaining secure and accurate records. (a) A telecommunications carrier shall maintain a secure and accurate record of each...

2010-10-01

182

33 CFR 150.555 - How must cranes be maintained?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false How must cranes be maintained? 150.555 Section 150.555...Miscellaneous Operations § 150.555 How must cranes be maintained? Cranes must be operated, maintained, and tested in...

2011-07-01

183

33 CFR 150.555 - How must cranes be maintained?  

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false How must cranes be maintained? 150.555 Section 150.555...Miscellaneous Operations § 150.555 How must cranes be maintained? Cranes must be operated, maintained, and tested in...

2014-07-01

184

33 CFR 150.555 - How must cranes be maintained?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false How must cranes be maintained? 150.555 Section 150.555...Miscellaneous Operations § 150.555 How must cranes be maintained? Cranes must be operated, maintained, and tested in...

2012-07-01

185

33 CFR 150.555 - How must cranes be maintained?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How must cranes be maintained? 150.555 Section 150.555...Miscellaneous Operations § 150.555 How must cranes be maintained? Cranes must be operated, maintained, and tested in...

2010-07-01

186

33 CFR 150.555 - How must cranes be maintained?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false How must cranes be maintained? 150.555 Section 150.555...Miscellaneous Operations § 150.555 How must cranes be maintained? Cranes must be operated, maintained, and tested in...

2013-07-01

187

4 CFR 200.14 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Responsibility for maintaining...Accounts RECOVERY ACCOUNTABILITY AND TRANSPARENCY...1974 § 200.14 Responsibility for maintaining adequate...The Board has the responsibility for maintaining...including maintenance of accountability records showing...

2010-01-01

188

Public Choice and Socialism  

Microsoft Academic Search

The idea of constructing a rational economic order through state control dominated 20th century public policy. The theory\\u000a of socialism swept the intellectual world by grabbing the higher moral ground, and in the policy realm, socialism exerted\\u000a its influence by creating political revolutions in Russia, China, and throughout the underdeveloped world. Less obvious, but\\u000a no less important, was socialism’s influence

Peter J. Boettke; Peter T. Leeson

189

Social Phobia (SocialAnxiety  

E-print Network

Social Phobia (SocialAnxiety Disorder): Always Embarrassed Are you afraid of being judged by others at work or school? If so, you may have a type of anxiety disorder called social phobia, also called socialS national institutes of Health #12;Social Phobia (SocialAnxiety Disorder) What is social phobia? Social

Bandettini, Peter A.

190

Counterbalancing for Serial Order Carryover Effects in Experimental Condition Orders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reactions of neural, psychological, and social systems are rarely, if ever, independent of previous inputs and states. The potential for serial order carryover effects from one condition to the next in a sequence of experimental trials makes counterbalancing of condition order an essential part of experimental design. Here, a method is proposed…

Brooks, Joseph L.

2012-01-01

191

[Social pain].  

PubMed

This chapter focuses on what social pain is and how it should be managed. In order to understand social pain in a cancer patient, it is necessary to recognize the change in the patient's daily life after the diagnosis of cancer. Because the degree of suffering and the relationships with family members and the people he or she worked with differ from patient to patient, it is important to note that the context of social pain is different in each patient. Five points shown below are essential in managing social pain. 1. Economical suffering may be alleviated by utilization of the social security system while taking into account each patient's standard of living. 2. Burdens on family members should be lessened, such as by not having them stay at the patient's bedside every day and letting them go home occasionally. 3. The normal patterns of communication, support, and conflict in the family should be identified, and the extent to which they have been disrupted by the illness should be assessed. 4. It is important to understand the ethnic, cultural, and religious background of the patient and the potential impact of their influence on the individual and the illness. 5. Practical or emotional unfinished business that the patient has needs to be identified, and efforts should be made to support fulfillment. PMID:21950034

Shimoyama, Naohito; Shimoyama, Megumi

2011-09-01

192

Domain specificity in social interactions, social thought, and social development.  

PubMed

J. E. Grusec and M. Davidov (this issue) have taken good steps in formulating a domain-specific view of parent-child interactions. This commentary supports the introduction of domain specificity to analyses of parenting. Their formulation is an advance over formulations that characterized parental practices globally. This commentary calls for inclusion of definitions of the classification system of domain-specific interactions and criteria for each domain. It is also maintained that Grusec and Davidov's domains of social interaction imply that processes of development are involved, along with socialization; that bidirectionality in parent-child relations needs to be extended to include mutual influences and the construction of domains of social thought; and that conflicts and opposition within families coexist with compliance and social harmony. PMID:20573100

Turiel, Elliot

2010-01-01

193

Maintaining human productivity during Mars transit  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper addresses the special nature of the human-machine relationship during a trip to Mars. In particular, the potential for monotony and boredom during a long-duration space voyage and the effect on motivation and productivity can be important considerations to the health and welfare of the crew. For the voyage to Mars, a design may be considered that will purposefully maintain some level of workload for the crew as a preventive measure for the deterioration of productivity that comes with boredom. This paper speculates on these considerations, on the appropriate level of workload for maximum productivity, and on what might be done during the mission to alleviate the problems caused by monotony and boredom.

Statler, Irving C.; Billings, Charles E.

1989-01-01

194

Reliability, Availability, and Maintainability Expert System (RAMES)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A RAM modeling, analysis, and decision support system-the Reliability, Availability, and Maintainability (RAM) Expert System (RAMES)-has been developed to assist a weapon system program manager (SPM) in weapon system RAM performance analysis, master planning of RAM performance enhancements, assessment of RAM enhancement payoffs, and evaluation of mission capability, wartime operational rates, fix rates, and stock level support. These capabilities extend to five levels of indenture within the weapon system from shop replaceable units and line replaceable units to assemblies, subsystems, and systems, and to three levels of maintenance (organizational, intermediate, and depot). RAMES uses standard US Air Force maintenance data systems and compensates for certain anomalies in those systems. Wartime or extreme environment conditions can be factored into the models. In addition, RAMES is designed for integration with life cycle cost analysis and weapon system effectiveness evaluation models for a total weapon system performance analysis capability.

Hansen, Willard A.; Edson, Bruce N.; Larter, Patrick C.

195

Maintaining robust connectivity in heterogeneous robotic networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we are interested in exploiting the heterogeneity of a robotic network made of ground and aerial agents to sense multiple targets in a cluttered environment. Maintaining wireless communication on this type of networks is fundamentally important specially for cooperative purposes. The proposed heterogeneous network consists of ground sensors, e.g., OctoRoACHes, and aerial routers, e.g., quadrotors. Adaptive potential field methods are used to coordinate the ground mobile sensors. Moreover, a reward function for the aerial mobile wireless routers is formulated to guarantee communication coverage among the ground sensors and a fixed base station. A sub-optimal controller is proposed based on an approximate control policy iteration technique. Simulation results of a case study are presented to illustrate the proposed methodology.

Cruz, P.; Fierro, R.; Lu, W.; Ferrari, S.

2013-05-01

196

Maintaining Apical Dominance in the Fern Gametophyte  

PubMed Central

A kinetic model is developed for cell differentiation in the fern gametophyte to test hypotheses on the role of spatially patterned plasmodesmata networks in development. Of particular interest is the establishment and maintenance of apical cell type in a single cell, with concurrent suppression of this character in all other cells (apical dominance). Steps towards understanding apical cell localization in geometrically simple gametophytes may shed light on the establishment and maintenance of apical meristems in higher plants. The model, based on the plasmodesmata maps of Tilney and colleagues and involving kinetics for a requisite minimum of two morphogens, successfully produces the apical/non?apical cell differentiation patterns of normal development, and redifferentiation due to cell isolation, in six stages from 0–30 d of development. Our results indicate that increasing apical cell plasmodesmata number, as development progresses, is not required for effective transport across apical cell walls in maintaining apical dominance. PMID:12096801

HOLLOWAY, DAVID M.; LANTIN, MARIA

2002-01-01

197

Maintaining order under the rule of law: occupational templates and the police use of force  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study develops a theoretical argument that research on police use offorce should begin to examine the phenomenon in terms of police occupational templates above and beyond the traditional escalation of force paradigm. Investigating police use of force through the lenses of occupational templates (e.g., the symbolic assailant and the asshole) may provide insight into the goals of police

Robert J. Kane; Shea W. Cronin

2011-01-01

198

School Of Social Work School Of Social Work  

E-print Network

School Of Social Work School Of Social Work Carrie Jefferson Smith, Director, 315-443-5562 Sims-443-5562. The undergraduate professional social work program offers a bachelor of science degree. The goals of this program, in order of priority, are as follows: 1. To prepare undergraduate social work students for competent entry

McConnell, Terry

199

Social Networks, Social Media, Social Change  

E-print Network

CHAPTER XX Social Networks, Social Media, Social Change Jürgen Pfeffer, Kathleen M. Carley Carnegie Mellon University Pittsburgh, USA jpfeffer@cs.cmu.edu, kathleen.carley@cs.cmu.edu ABSTRACT Social Media. In particular, the Arab Spring 2011 has been heralded as a social media based social transformation

Sadeh, Norman M.

200

Child and Nonviolent Social Change  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the nature of the child and the impact of socialization experiences on his capacity to act nonviolently in a changing social order. Presents a socialization model that draws on different disciplinary frameworks and research areas (animal and human ethnology, social learning theories, altruism studies, and reviews of protest movements).…

Boulding, Elise

1974-01-01

201

SOCIAL SCIENCE University College Dublin  

E-print Network

SOCIAL SCIENCE University College Dublin www.ucd.ie/acshs Social Work path Environmental Policy path Development Studies path Human & Organisational path Rights, Justice & Society path Crime & Social Order path Social Media path DN550 #12;*Psychology is not available as a Joint Major subject in Stage 2

202

Communicating contentious geoscience issues and maintaining impartiality  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Shale Gas exploration in the UK has been major and often controversial news in the British media over the last 2 years. The British Geological Survey (BGS) has been an integral part of this story as the UK Governments independent and impartial advisor on geosciences. BGS has been involved in writing policy on fracking and induced earthquakes as well as researching potential quantities of shale gas in the UK and also researching natural methane levels in groundwater before large scale fracking activities begin. Shale Gas in the UK, as in the US and Europe has caused much controversy and as a result has many pro and anti fracking campaigns. The challenge for BGS has been to deliver front line science, whilst maintaining complete impartiality on the subject. The BGS communications team developed a strategy over this period to ensure that our message was clear and strong. This involved working closely with the scientists involved to formulate key messages that could delivered through controlled statements on the BGS webpages, press releases, at press conferences as well as on broadcast and print media. Our scientists were media trained during this time to ensure that they stayed en message and wouldn't be caught by the press or opponents of fracking into making statements that could have been used to either scare up the position or give the antagonist room to cast doubt on our impartiality. This strategy proved highly successful and BGS managed to communicate the facts, remain impartial whilst avoiding attempts to undermine the potential for Shale gas exploitation in the UK. The success of this communication strategy was due to the cooperation of the scientists, a clear strategy from the communications team and the unequivocal support of the senior executive at BGS. This abstract will conclude how the BGS has developed its communication strategy to be more streamlined and open. BGS must allow it's scientists to talk to the media about the science that they do. Much of the research that we do is paid for by the British taxpayer and it's our obligation to make sure we communicate what we're doing and why we're doing it to the public in a transparent and easy to understand way whilst ensuring that we maintain our reputation for being a trusted, independent and impartial source of expert advice.

Nice, S. E.; Mitchell, C.

2013-12-01

203

Social appearance anxiety, perfectionism, and fear of negative evaluation: distinct or shared risk factors for social anxiety and eating disorders?  

PubMed

Social anxiety and eating disorders are highly comorbid. Social appearance anxiety (i.e., fear of negative evaluation of one's appearance), general fear of negative evaluation, and perfectionism have each been proposed as risk factors for both social anxiety disorder and the eating disorders. However, no research to date has examined all three factors simultaneously. Using structural equation modeling in two diverse samples (N=236; N=136) we tested a model in which each of these risk factors were uniquely associated with social anxiety and eating disorder symptoms. We found support for social appearance anxiety as a shared risk factor between social anxiety and eating disorder symptoms, whereas fear of negative evaluation was a risk factor only for social anxiety symptoms. Despite significant zero-order relationships, two facets of perfectionism (high standards and maladaptive perfectionism) did not emerge as a risk factor for either disorder when all constructs were considered. These results were maintained when gender, body mass index, trait negative affect, and depression were included in the model. It is possible that treating negative appearance evaluation fears may reduce both eating disorder and social anxiety symptoms. PMID:23583741

Levinson, Cheri A; Rodebaugh, Thomas L; White, Emily K; Menatti, Andrew R; Weeks, Justin W; Iacovino, Juliette M; Warren, Cortney S

2013-08-01

204

Developing and maintaining reflection in clinical journals  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a pressing need in today's world for nurses who are willing and able to transform health care. Teaching strategies that foster reflection are in order. The use of dialogue journals has been widely reported in the nursing literature as an effective strategy for assisting students to reflect about learning experiences in the clinical area. Despite the promise that

Barbara L. Paterson

1995-01-01

205

What's your personal social media strategy?  

PubMed

Social media are changing the way we do business and how leaders are perceived, from the shop floor to the CEO suite. But whereas the best businesses are creating comprehensive strategies in thi area, research suggests that few corporate Leaders have a social media presence--say, a Facebook or Linked in of page--and that those do don't use it strategically. Today's leaders must embrace social media for three reasons, First, they provide a low-cost, highly accessible platform on which to build your personal brand, communicating who you are both within and outside your company. Second, they allow you to engage rapidly and simultaneously with peers, employees, customers, and the broader public--in order to leverage relationships, show commitment to a cause, and demonstrate a capacity for reflection. Third, they give you an opportunity to learn from instant information and unvarnished feedback. To formulate your personal social media strategy, it helps to clarify your goals (personal, professional, or both), desired audience (private or public), and resources (can you justify using your company's?). You must also consider the risks of maintaining a large number of connections and of sharing content online. Active participation in social media can be a powerful tool--the difference between leading effectively and ineffectively, and between advancing and faltering in the pursuit of your goals. PMID:21049685

Dutta, Soumitra

2010-11-01

206

An Introduction to Social Policy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created and maintained by Paul Spicker, a professor of politics specializing in social policy, this Website presents a detailed, yet schematic view of the main themes, concepts, and controversies surrounding issues of the welfare state and social services. The site offers sections on social policy, welfare and society, social need, the welfare state, social services, the politics of welfare, British social policy, social services in the UK, and social policy on the Web (a collection of annotated links). Using a hypertext, bulleted format, the author manages to convey significant amounts of information about complex ideas in a relatively brief span without oversimplifying. An excellent resource for economics and sociology students working on social policy topics.

Spicker, Paul.

2007-03-16

207

Anatomizing the Ocean's role in maintaining the pacific decadal variability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The role of ocean dynamics in maintaining the Pacific Decadal Variability (PDV) was investigated based on simulation results from the Parallel Ocean Program (POP) ocean general circulation model developed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). A long-term control simulation of the LANL-POP model forced by a reconstructed coupled wind stress field over the period 1949-2001 showed that the ocean model not only simulates a reasonable climatology, but also produces a climate variability pattern very similar to observed PDV. In the Equatorial Pacific (EP) region, the decadal warming is confined in the thin surface layer. Beneath the surface, a strong compensating cooling, accompanied by a basin-wide-scale overturning circulation in opposition to the mean flow, occurs in the thermocline layer. In the North Pacific (NP) region, the decadal variability nonetheless exhibits a relatively monotonous pattern, characterized by the dominance of anomalous cooling and eastward flows. A term balance analysis of the perturbation heat budget equation was conducted to highlight the ocean's role in maintaining the PDV-like variability over the EP and NP regions. The analyses showed that strong oceanic adjustment must occur in the equatorial thermocline in association with the anomalous overturning circulation in order to maintain the PDV-like variability, including a flattening of the equatorial thermocline slpoe and an enhancement of the upper ocean's stratification (stability), as the climate shifts from a colder regime toward a warmer one. On the other hand, the oceanic response in the extratropical region seems to be confined to the surface layer, without much participation from the subsurface oceanic dynamics.

Yu, Jia-Yuh; Chang, Cheng-Wei

2014-05-01

208

Maintaining the public's trust in immunization.  

PubMed

Dr. Louis W. Sullivan, President of the Morehouse School of Medicine in Georgia and former Secretary of the US Department of Health and Human Services, currently co-chairs the newly-created Vaccine Initiative sponsored by the Infectious Diseases Society of America and the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society to foster a positive and informed public dialogue on immunization. Considerable progress has been made through vaccination in preventing and controlling infectious diseases, rendering vaccine-preventable diseases to an all-time low level in the US and in many other areas of the world. There remains, however, a long way to go before all vaccine-preventable diseases will be eliminated. Efforts are needed to break down the barriers which prevent access to immunization, including maintaining and strengthening the public's trust in vaccines and immunization programs. Reports in the lay press which question the safety of routine immunization simply scare parents with unsupported accounts of the dangers of vaccines and impede the overall immunization effort. Efforts need to be improved to communicate what is known about the value of vaccines to both individuals and communities. PMID:12348925

Sullivan, L W

1998-12-01

209

Virus Movement Maintains Local Virus Population Diversity  

SciTech Connect

Viruses are the largest reservoir of genetic material on the planet, yet little is known about the population dynamics of any virus within its natural environment. Over a 2-year period, we monitored the diversity of two archaeal viruses found in hot springs within Yellowstone National Park (YNP). Both temporal phylogeny and neutral biodiversity models reveal that virus diversity in these local environments is not being maintained by mutation but rather by high rates of immigration from a globally distributed metacommunity. These results indicate that geographically isolated hot springs are readily able to exchange viruses. The importance of virus movement is supported by the detection of virus particles in air samples collected over YNP hot springs and by their detection in metacommunity sequencing projects conducted in the Sargasso Sea. Rapid rates of virus movement are not expected to be unique to these archaeal viruses but rather a common feature among virus metacommunities. The finding that virus immigration rather than mutation can dominate community structure has significant implications for understanding virus circulation and the role that viruses play in ecology and evolution by providing a reservoir of mobile genetic material.

J. Snyder; B. Wiedenheft; M. Lavin; F. Roberto; J. Spuhler; A. Ortmann; T. Douglas; M. Young

2007-11-01

210

Protecting America's secrets while maintaining academic freedom.  

PubMed

The terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, and the subsequent anthrax mail attacks, have had a profound impact on Americans' personal and professional lives and have sparked an active debate regarding the delicate balance between the need for national security and the pursuit of academic freedom. Although academic freedom can be defined in many ways, there are four primary tenets of freedom in an academic environment: freedom to research, freedom to publish, freedom to teach, and freedom to speak. Each of these tenets has come under attack in the wake of September 11, 2001. In this report the author further defines academic freedom and reflects upon recent events that have had a real or perceived impact on this freedom, including (1) attempts to categorize and restrict some research as "sensitive," (2) implementation of export control laws and select agent regulations, (3) limitations on the publication of research findings, (4) prohibition of certain foreign nationals from collaborating with U.S. researchers and receiving education and training in U.S. colleges and universities, and (5) restraint of faculty free speech. The author offers some suggestions as to how academia might achieve a proper balance between protecting our national security while promoting and maintaining academic freedom. PMID:15044166

Keel, Brooks A

2004-04-01

211

Virus movement maintains local virus population diversity.  

PubMed

Viruses are the largest reservoir of genetic material on the planet, yet little is known about the population dynamics of any virus within its natural environment. Over a 2-year period, we monitored the diversity of two archaeal viruses found in hot springs within Yellowstone National Park (YNP). Both temporal phylogeny and neutral biodiversity models reveal that virus diversity in these local environments is not being maintained by mutation but rather by high rates of immigration from a globally distributed metacommunity. These results indicate that geographically isolated hot springs are readily able to exchange viruses. The importance of virus movement is supported by the detection of virus particles in air samples collected over YNP hot springs and by their detection in metacommunity sequencing projects conducted in the Sargasso Sea. Rapid rates of virus movement are not expected to be unique to these archaeal viruses but rather a common feature among virus metacommunities. The finding that virus immigration rather than mutation can dominate community structure has significant implications for understanding virus circulation and the role that viruses play in ecology and evolution by providing a reservoir of mobile genetic material. PMID:18025457

Snyder, Jamie C; Wiedenheft, Blake; Lavin, Matthew; Roberto, Francisco F; Spuhler, Josh; Ortmann, Alice C; Douglas, Trevor; Young, Mark

2007-11-27

212

Romanticism, community and social services  

Microsoft Academic Search

A society engages in policy romanticism when it maintains a tenacious attachment to distorted assertions about reality that are institutionalized in both the public and private sectors. The invocation of community to commend a sublime subjectivity that pre-empts questioning is realized in the concept of social capital. Community and social capital are both romantic notions buttressing American public policies that

William M. Epstein

2010-01-01

213

Mental Models in Social Interaction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, the authors introduce a new way to analyze cognitive change during social interactions, based on the mental model theory of reasoning. From this approach, cognitive performance can be improved for solving problems that require multiple models when participants in a social interaction group maintain qualitatively different models of…

Fernandez-Berrocal, Pablo; Santamaria, Carlos

2006-01-01

214

Transformative Pedagogy for Social Capital  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper explores ways in which pedagogy for an elaborated form of transformative learning can be a useful catalyst for the development of social capital in community and workplace groups and networks. I begin with an example and then explore ideas of learning challenges embedded in building and maintaining social capital. I consider the…

Willis, Peter

2007-01-01

215

Order Phasmatodea  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Carl Moxey of Northeastern University has created this work-in-progress Web site to provide "a comprehensive archive of information on the systematics and morphology of the insects belonging to the Order Phasmatodea." Carefully designed and easy to navigate, this Web site allows users to browse a collapsible classification tree, locate information by genera or species, view descriptions of phasmatid morphology, and more. Even though only a few translations available so far, some links provided for described genera and species lead to a related German Web site. Moxey encourages users to contribute illustrations and literature citations not already included in the site.

Moxey, Carl F.

2002-01-01

216

Teaching Students to Become Effective in Policy Practice: Integrating Social Capital into Social Work Education and Practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social workers must integrate social capital more fully into social work policy practice. In order to do so, social work educators must recognize the complexities of social capital and must provide opportunities for students to learn about the utility of social capital within policy and practice realms. Since its inception, professional social work has used elements of social capital in

Robin L. Ersing; Diane N. Loeffler

2008-01-01

217

The human brain maintains contradictory and redundant auditory sensory predictions.  

PubMed

Computational and experimental research has revealed that auditory sensory predictions are derived from regularities of the current environment by using internal generative models. However, so far, what has not been addressed is how the auditory system handles situations giving rise to redundant or even contradictory predictions derived from different sources of information. To this end, we measured error signals in the event-related brain potentials (ERPs) in response to violations of auditory predictions. Sounds could be predicted on the basis of overall probability, i.e., one sound was presented frequently and another sound rarely. Furthermore, each sound was predicted by an informative visual cue. Participants' task was to use the cue and to discriminate the two sounds as fast as possible. Violations of the probability based prediction (i.e., a rare sound) as well as violations of the visual-auditory prediction (i.e., an incongruent sound) elicited error signals in the ERPs (Mismatch Negativity [MMN] and Incongruency Response [IR]). Particular error signals were observed even in case the overall probability and the visual symbol predicted different sounds. That is, the auditory system concurrently maintains and tests contradictory predictions. Moreover, if the same sound was predicted, we observed an additive error signal (scalp potential and primary current density) equaling the sum of the specific error signals. Thus, the auditory system maintains and tolerates functionally independently represented redundant and contradictory predictions. We argue that the auditory system exploits all currently active regularities in order to optimally prepare for future events. PMID:23308266

Pieszek, Marika; Widmann, Andreas; Gruber, Thomas; Schröger, Erich

2013-01-01

218

The Human Brain Maintains Contradictory and Redundant Auditory Sensory Predictions  

PubMed Central

Computational and experimental research has revealed that auditory sensory predictions are derived from regularities of the current environment by using internal generative models. However, so far, what has not been addressed is how the auditory system handles situations giving rise to redundant or even contradictory predictions derived from different sources of information. To this end, we measured error signals in the event-related brain potentials (ERPs) in response to violations of auditory predictions. Sounds could be predicted on the basis of overall probability, i.e., one sound was presented frequently and another sound rarely. Furthermore, each sound was predicted by an informative visual cue. Participants’ task was to use the cue and to discriminate the two sounds as fast as possible. Violations of the probability based prediction (i.e., a rare sound) as well as violations of the visual-auditory prediction (i.e., an incongruent sound) elicited error signals in the ERPs (Mismatch Negativity [MMN] and Incongruency Response [IR]). Particular error signals were observed even in case the overall probability and the visual symbol predicted different sounds. That is, the auditory system concurrently maintains and tests contradictory predictions. Moreover, if the same sound was predicted, we observed an additive error signal (scalp potential and primary current density) equaling the sum of the specific error signals. Thus, the auditory system maintains and tolerates functionally independently represented redundant and contradictory predictions. We argue that the auditory system exploits all currently active regularities in order to optimally prepare for future events. PMID:23308266

Pieszek, Marika; Widmann, Andreas; Gruber, Thomas; Schroger, Erich

2013-01-01

219

Transposition as a mechanism for maintaining telomere length in Drosophila  

SciTech Connect

Telomeres are structures at the termini of linear chromosomes that serve to maintain the stability of those ends. Several functions have been attributed to telomeres, at least two of these are vital. The vital functions are (a) to {open_quotes}cap{close_quotes} the natural chromosome ends in order to distinguish them from broken ends and, thus, to protect them from recombination, repair, and degradation, and (b) to maintain chromosome length by periodic elongation and, thus, to counteract the inability of DNA polymerases to replicate linear chromosomes completely. While very little is known about capping, the mechanisms of telomere elongation in a number of organisms are being elucidated. Several models for elongation have been proposed. Recent evidence suggests that two of these may operate in different organisms or under different conditions. In many species elongation is accomplished by the interaction of two telomeric DNA repeats. The repeating unit is generally 6-8 basepairs (bp) long and guanine-rich on one strand. The sequence of the repeating unit is evolutionarily conserved, being very similar in ciliated protozoa, flowering plants and vertebrates. The second component is an enzyme, telomerase, that adds more copies of the repeating unit at the terminus. Telomerase resembles reverse transcriptases in structure and carries an associated RNA that is used as a template for the telomere extension.

Mason, J.M. [National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Biessmann, H. [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States)

1993-12-31

220

Position statement. Part two: Maintaining immune health.  

PubMed

The physical training undertaken by athletes is one of a set of lifestyle or behavioural factors that can influence immune function, health and ultimately exercise performance. Others factors including potential exposure to pathogens, health status, lifestyle behaviours, sleep and recovery, nutrition and psychosocial issues, need to be considered alongside the physical demands of an athlete's training programme. The general consensus on managing training to maintain immune health is to start with a programme of low to moderate volume and intensity; employ a gradual and periodised increase in training volumes and loads; add variety to limit training monotony and stress; avoid excessively heavy training loads that could lead to exhaustion, illness or injury; include non-specific cross-training to offset staleness; ensure sufficient rest and recovery; and instigate a testing programme for identifying signs of performance deterioration and manifestations of physical stress. Inter-individual variability in immunocompetence, recovery, exercise capacity, non-training stress factors, and stress tolerance likely explains the different vulnerability of athletes to illness. Most athletes should be able to train with high loads provided their programme includes strategies devised to control the overall strain and stress. Athletes, coaches and medical personnel should be alert to periods of increased risk of illness (e.g. intensive training weeks, the taper period prior to competition, and during competition) and pay particular attention to recovery and nutritional strategies. Although exercising in environmental extremes (heat, cold, altitude) may increase the stress response to acute exercise and elevate the extent of leukocyte trafficking it does not appear to have marked effects on immune function other than a depression of cell-mediated immunity when training at altitude. The available evidence does not support the contention that athletes training and competing in cold (or hot) conditions experience a greater reduction in immune function compared with thermoneutral conditions. Nevertheless, it remains unknown if athletes who regularly train and compete in cold conditions report more frequent, severe or longer-lasting infections. Research should identify whether the airway inflammation associated with breathing large volumes of cold dry air or polluted air impairs airway defences and whether athletes (and their physicians) wrongly interpret the sore throat symptoms that accompany exercising in cold or polluted air as an infection. Elite athletes can benefit from immunonutritional support to bolster immunity during periods of physiological stress. Ensuring adequate energy, carbohydrate and protein intake and avoiding deficiencies of micronutrients are key to maintaining immune health. Evidence is accumulating that some nutritional supplements including flavonoids such as quercetin and Lactobacillus probiotics can augment some aspects of immune function and reduce illness rates in exercise-stressed athletes. Limited data are non-supportive or mixed for use of N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, beta-glucans, bovine colostrums, ginseng, echinacea or megadoses of vitamin C by athletes. Relatively short periods of total sleep deprivation in humans (up to 3 consecutive nights without sleep) do not influence the risk of infection, and the reported increase in natural killer cell activity with this duration of total sleep deprivation would seem to rule out the possibility of an "open-window" for respiratory infections. Very little is known about the effects of more prolonged sleep disruption and repeated sleep disturbances on immune function and infection incidence, although recent studies have highlighted the importance of sleep quantity (total duration of sleep per night) and quality (number of awakenings per night) to protect against the common cold in healthy adults. Short- or long-term exercise can activate different components of a physiological stress response. Prolonged intense exercise may induce negative health conseque

Walsh, Neil P; Gleeson, Michael; Pyne, David B; Nieman, David C; Dhabhar, Firdaus S; Shephard, Roy J; Oliver, Samuel J; Bermon, Stéphane; Kajeniene, Alma

2011-01-01

221

Maintaining relational continuity with the deceased on Facebook.  

PubMed

Scholars have noted that communication helps maintain relational continuity despite physical absence; yet, the specific role of communication in continuing a relationship with the deceased has not been analyzed. In this study, messages directed to the deceased on Facebook memorial group walls were examined to explore how grieving individuals utilize Facebook memorial groups in order to make sense of the death of a loved one and reconnect with the deceased. Using a grounded theory approach, message topics and apparent grief-related functions served by messages were identified and characterized. Initial observation revealed that grieving individuals wrote to the deceased as if the deceased could read the messages, which is a unique type of communication. The communication written to the deceased individuals appeared to serve two functions for those writing the messages: (1) Sensemaking; and (2) Continuing Bonds, or upholding relational continuity, with the deceased. PMID:23057245

DeGroot, Jocelyn M

2012-01-01

222

The critical power to maintain thermally stable molecular junctions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the rise of atomic-scale devices such as molecular electronics and scanning probe microscopies, energy transport processes through molecular junctions have attracted notable research interest recently. In this work, heat dissipation and transport across diamond/benzene/diamond molecular junctions are explored by performing atomistic simulations. We identify the critical power Pcr to maintain thermal stability of the junction through efficient dissipation of local heat. We also find that the molecule-probe contact features a power-dependent interfacial thermal resistance RK in the order of 109?kW-1. Moreover, both Pcr and RK display explicit dependence on atomic structures of the junction, force and temperature. For instance, Pcr can be elevated in multiple-molecule junctions, and streching the junction enhances RK by a factor of 2. The applications of these findings in molecular electronics and scanning probing measurements are discussed, providing practical guidelines in their rational design.

Wang, Yanlei; Xu, Zhiping

2014-07-01

223

Measuring the impact of Social Forestry interventions  

E-print Network

with care co-ordinator Total Sf36 Score 58 Physical Health 71 Mental Health 36 Social Functioning 25 #12Measuring the impact of Social Forestry interventions Katie Eastaugh Small Woods #12;How Social Functioning Readiness for Training or Employment #12;Goal Maintaining emotional and mental well

224

Transmediated Magic: Sociality in Wizard Rock  

Microsoft Academic Search

As people adopt and adapt new technologies, it is increasingly important to understand the ways in which people create and maintain social relationships through new media. Popular, and sometimes academic, discourses tend to speak of the transformative power the Internet has had over the ways we socialize. An emerging form of sociality in which interaction takes place across several types

Jennifer Terrell

2011-01-01

225

Social Rank, Stress, Fitness, and Life Expectancy in Wild Rabbits  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wild rabbits of the two sexes have separate linear rank orders, which are established and maintained by intensive fights. The social rank of individuals strongly influence their fitness: males and females that gain a high social rank, at least at the outset of their second breeding season, have a much higher lifetime fitness than subordinate individuals. This is because of two separate factors: a much higher fecundity and annual reproductive success and a 50% longer reproductive life span. These results are in contrast to the view in evolutionary biology that current reproduction can be increased only at the expense of future survival and/or fecundity. These concepts entail higher physiological costs in high-ranking mammals, which is not supported by our data: In wild rabbits the physiological costs of social positions are caused predominantly by differential psychosocial stress responses that are much lower in high-ranking than in low-ranking individuals.

von Holst, Dietrich; Hutzelmeyer, Hans; Kaetzke, Paul; Khaschei, Martin; Schönheiter, Ronald

226

Measuring and assessing maintainability at the end of high level design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Software architecture appears to be one of the main factors affecting software maintainability. Therefore, in order to be able to predict and assess maintainability early in the development process we need to be able to measure the high-level design characteristics that affect the change process. To this end, we propose a measurement approach, which is based on precise assumptions derived from the change process, which is based on Object-Oriented Design principles and is partially language independent. We define metrics for cohesion, coupling, and visibility in order to capture the difficulty of isolating, understanding, designing and validating changes.

Briand, Lionel C.; Morasca, Sandro; Basili, Victor R.

1993-01-01

227

29 CFR 1204.1 - Making and maintaining contracts.  

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Making and maintaining contracts. 1204.1 Section 1204.1 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) NATIONAL MEDIATION BOARD LABOR CONTRACTS § 1204.1 Making and maintaining...

2014-07-01

228

29 CFR 1204.1 - Making and maintaining contracts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Making and maintaining contracts. 1204.1 Section 1204.1 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) NATIONAL MEDIATION BOARD LABOR CONTRACTS § 1204.1 Making and maintaining...

2012-07-01

229

29 CFR 1204.1 - Making and maintaining contracts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Making and maintaining contracts. 1204.1 Section 1204.1 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) NATIONAL MEDIATION BOARD LABOR CONTRACTS § 1204.1 Making and maintaining...

2011-07-01

230

29 CFR 1204.1 - Making and maintaining contracts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Making and maintaining contracts. 1204.1 Section 1204.1 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) NATIONAL MEDIATION BOARD LABOR CONTRACTS § 1204.1 Making and maintaining...

2010-07-01

231

29 CFR 1204.1 - Making and maintaining contracts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Making and maintaining contracts. 1204.1 Section 1204.1 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) NATIONAL MEDIATION BOARD LABOR CONTRACTS § 1204.1 Making and maintaining...

2013-07-01

232

48 CFR 906.202 - Establishing or maintaining alternative sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Establishing or maintaining alternative sources. 906.202 Section...System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY COMPETITION ACQUISITION...After Exclusion of Sources 906.202 Establishing or maintaining alternative sources....

2010-10-01

233

48 CFR 906.202 - Establishing or maintaining alternative sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Establishing or maintaining alternative sources. 906.202 Section...System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY COMPETITION ACQUISITION...After Exclusion of Sources 906.202 Establishing or maintaining alternative sources....

2011-10-01

234

48 CFR 906.202 - Establishing or maintaining alternative sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Establishing or maintaining alternative sources. 906.202 Section...System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY COMPETITION ACQUISITION...After Exclusion of Sources 906.202 Establishing or maintaining alternative sources....

2012-10-01

235

What is social about social perception research?  

PubMed Central

A growing consensus in social cognitive neuroscience holds that large portions of the primate visual brain are dedicated to the processing of social information, i.e., to those aspects of stimuli that are usually encountered in social interactions such as others' facial expressions, actions, and symbols. Yet, studies of social perception have mostly employed simple pictorial representations of conspecifics. These stimuli are social only in the restricted sense that they physically resemble objects with which the observer would typically interact. In an equally important sense, however, these stimuli might be regarded as “non-social”: the observer knows that they are viewing pictures and might therefore not attribute current mental states to the stimuli or might do so in a qualitatively different way than in a real social interaction. Recent studies have demonstrated the importance of such higher-order conceptualization of the stimulus for social perceptual processing. Here, we assess the similarity between the various types of stimuli used in the laboratory and object classes encountered in real social interactions. We distinguish two different levels at which experimental stimuli can match social stimuli as encountered in everyday social settings: (1) the extent to which a stimulus' physical properties resemble those typically encountered in social interactions and (2) the higher-level conceptualization of the stimulus as indicating another person's mental states. We illustrate the significance of this distinction for social perception research and report new empirical evidence further highlighting the importance of mental state attribution for perceptual processing. Finally, we discuss the potential of this approach to inform studies of clinical conditions such as autism. PMID:23355814

Teufel, Christoph; von dem Hagen, Elisabeth; Plaisted-Grant, Kate C.; Edmonds, James J.; Ayorinde, John O.; Fletcher, Paul C.; Davis, Greg

2012-01-01

236

The application of software maintainability models in industrial software systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of software maintainability has become one of the most important aspects of past, present, and future software systems. Tools and models that can measure software maintainability will play an increasingly important role in the software industry. This article reviews two early attempts at software maintainability assessment and describes five recently developed models. Two of these are then applied

Don M. Coleman; Bruce Lowther; Paul W. Oman

1995-01-01

237

Social Maladjustment: An Interpretation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The exclusionary term, "social maladjustment," the definition in Public Law 94-142 (the Education for All Handicapped Children Act) of serious emotional disturbance, has been an enigma for special education. This paper attempts to limit the interpretation of social maladjustment in order to counter effects of such decisions as "Honig vs. Doe" in…

Center, David B.

238

Comparative content analysis of social identity cues within a white supremacist discussion board and a social activist discussion board  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social Identity Theory (Tajfel & Turner, 1984) suggests individuals strive to achieve or maintain a positive social identity. During face-to-face encounters our observations of other interactants influence our perceptions of the interaction. In computer-mediated contexts, these \\

Scott L Crabill

2007-01-01

239

Ethical reasoning and online social media.  

PubMed

Undergraduate nursing students are frequent users of social media sites; however, the ethical or professional implications surrounding the use of online social networking sites are ambiguous and understudied. Faculty guidance is needed if students are to gain the necessary skills and values to appropriately use social media while maintaining professional accountability. The authors discuss the outcomes of a study that assessed their students' sensitivity to posting clinical information on social media sites. PMID:23086065

Englund, Heather; Chappy, Sharon; Jambunathan, Jaya; Gohdes, Erick

2012-01-01

240

Constructivism and Revitalizing Social Studies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The United Arab Emirates (UAE) is developing its Social Studies curriculum and pedagogy for public schools. Practically speaking, teaching Social Studies in the UAE is still based on the traditional way of teaching; route memorization is the means of acquiring knowledge. In order to enhance Social Studies constructivist teaching-learning, there is…

Blaik-Hourani, Rida

2011-01-01

241

Historical spaces of social psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

An extensive analysis of all social psychology textbooks included a history chapter published in French between 1947 and 2001, provides a rich corpus for the study of the history of social psychology. Drawing upon this corpus, in this article we study the historical spaces of social psychology in order to show how the discipline was located in geographical, urban, institutional

Nikos Kalampalikis; Sylvain Delouvée; Jean-Pierre Pétard

2006-01-01

242

Issues and Methods for Assessing COTS Reliability, Maintainability, and Availability  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Many vendors produce products that are not domain specific (e.g., network server) and have limited functionality (e.g., mobile phone). In contrast, many customers of COTS develop systems that am domain specific (e.g., target tracking system) and have great variability in functionality (e.g., corporate information system). This discussion takes the viewpoint of how the customer can ensure the quality of COTS components. In evaluating the benefits and costs of using COTS, we must consider the environment in which COTS will operate. Thus we must distinguish between using a non-mission critical application like a spreadsheet program to produce a budget and a mission critical application like military strategic and tactical operations. Whereas customers will tolerate an occasional bug in the former, zero tolerance is the rule in the latter. We emphasize the latter because this is the arena where there are major unresolved problems in the application of COTS. Furthermore, COTS components may be embedded in the larger customer system. We refer to these as embedded systems. These components must be reliable, maintainable, and available, and must be with the larger system in order for the customer to benefit from the advertised advantages of lower development and maintenance costs. Interestingly, when the claims of COTS advantages are closely examined, one finds that to a great extent these COTS components consist of hardware and office products, not mission critical software [1]. Obviously, COTS components are different from custom components with respect to one or more of the following attributes: source, development paradigm, safety, reliability, maintainability, availability, security, and other attributes. However, the important question is whether they should be treated differently when deciding to deploy them for operational use; we suggest the answer is no. We use reliability as an example to justify our answer. In order to demonstrate its reliability, a COTS component must pass the same reliability evaluations as the custom components, otherwise the COTS components will be the weakest link in the chain of components and will be the determinant of software system reliability. The challenge is that there will be less information available for evaluating COTS components than for custom components but this does not mean we should despair and do nothing. Actually, there is a lot we can do even in the absence of documentation on COTS components because the customer will have information about how COTS components are to be used in the larger system. To illustrate our approach, we will consider the reliability, maintainability, and availability (RMA) of COTS components as used in larger systems. Finally, COTS suppliers might consider increasing visibility into their products to assist customers in determining the components' fitness for use in a particular application. We offer ideas of information that would be useful to customers, and what vendors might do to provide it.

Schneidewind, Norman F.; Nikora, Allen P.

1998-01-01

243

The Social Climbing Game  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The structure of societies depends, to some extent, on the incentives of the individuals they are composed of. We study a stylized model of this interplay, that suggests that the more individuals aim at climbing the social hierarchy, the more society's hierarchy gets strong. Such a dependence is sharp, in the sense that a persistent hierarchical order emerges abruptly when the preference for social status gets larger than a threshold. This phase transition has its origin in the fact that the presence of a well defined hierarchy allows agents to climb it, thus reinforcing it, whereas in a "disordered" society it is harder for agents to find out whom they should connect to in order to become more central. Interestingly, a social order emerges when agents strive harder to climb society and it results in a state of reduced social mobility, as a consequence of ergodicity breaking, where climbing is more difficult.

Bardoscia, Marco; De Luca, Giancarlo; Livan, Giacomo; Marsili, Matteo; Tessone, Claudio J.

2013-05-01

244

Dynamic intimate contact social networks and epidemic interventions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sexually transmitted diseases and infections are, by definition, transferred among intimate social settings. Although the circumstances under which these social settings are established and maintained may vary, the common prerequisite remains an intimate level of social atmosphere. For this reason, the development of sexually transmitted disease mathematical and computational models must utilise dynamic and evolving social network simulation. This paper

Courtney D. Corley; Armin R. Mikler; Diane J. Cook; Karan P. Singh

2008-01-01

245

Strategies to maintain health in the Third World.  

PubMed

International cooperation with Third World countries aims at reducing the high morbidity and mortality of the population to a tolerable level. The main health problems are caused by poverty. Thus, the range of diseases in tropical countries can be explained more readily by the socio-economic situation than solely by the climate. Health services, in Africa in particular, have had to reduce drastically their budgets in the last ten years and now have only approximately 1/1000th of the funds usually available in industrialised countries. High population growth reduces the resources available per head, increases infection potential and worsens living conditions. Control strategies must take account of these circumstances in order to achieve the required sustained effect within the framework of primary health care. The example of the control of several infectious diseases, such as schistosomiasis, pneumonia, malaria and AIDS, is used to show that control programmes can be effective but, in the current conditions, can hardly be maintained without outside support. In the future, diseases caused by environmental problems and new life styles as a result of industrialization, urbanization and slum growth will move dramatically into the foreground. PMID:1796244

Korte, R; Rehle, T; Merkle, A

1991-12-01

246

SocialAnthropology Social Anthropology  

E-print Network

146 SocialAnthropology Social Anthropology MA (Single Honours Degree) Social Anthropology MA (Joint Honours Degrees) Social Anthropology and one of: Ancient History Arabic Art History Classical Studies the majority of the course deals with the first-named subject: Economics with Social Anthropology Geography

Brierley, Andrew

247

Description of a haptic system for virtual maintainability in aeronautics  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a haptic system for maintainability simulation in aeronautics, called REVIMA (Virtual Reality for Maintainability). In this project a software-hardware tool is designed and built to realistically simulate assembly-disassembly operations. It also helps to perform accessibility, interference and maintainability analysis by using virtual reality techniques without physical mock-ups. The system gives the user a reliable and realistic response.

J. Savall; Diego Borro; Jorge J. Gil; L. Matey

2002-01-01

248

Social stratification and the healthcare safety net  

E-print Network

Health Centers (FQHCs) are a critical source of primary carehealth centers may be critical to maintain access to primaryhealth centers, and broaden the policy debate to social reforms that might be requisite in building a more effective primary

Ko, Michelle

2012-01-01

249

Order and chaos : articulating support, housing transformation  

E-print Network

This thesis presents an exploration on the theme of order and chaos, as a formal and social phenomenon, particularly as it relates to housing. The work stems from an attraction to the messy vitality we find in certain ...

Boehm, William Hollister

1990-01-01

250

Maintaining Program Understanding -- Issues, Tools, and Future Directions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The understanding of a program is a key aspect of software development. The understanding is a prerequisite for the initial develop- ment eorts. This paper is concerned with the challenge of maintaining the program understanding with the purpose of supporting later phases in the program life time. One approach to maintaining program understanding is to document de- cision and rationales

Thomas Vestdam; Kurt Nørmark

2004-01-01

251

Maintaining Institutional Integrity. New Directions for Community Colleges, Number 52.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This collection of articles addresses ways in which community colleges can maintain institutional integrity while at the same time adapting the colleges' mission to a changing environment. The following articles are included: (1) "The Search for Mission and Integrity: A Retrospective View," by Jennings L. Wagoner, Jr.; (2) "Maintaining Open Access…

Puyear, Donald E., Ed.; Vaughan, George B., Ed.

1985-01-01

252

Maintainability measurements on industrial source code maintenance activities  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is clear that the burden of software maintenance increases proportionately with our inventory of software systems. Our inventory is increasing because we now recognize existing code as reusable assets rather than liabilities. With this recognition comes an understanding of the importance of evaluating code quality and maintainability. We show how maintainability metrics can be used to gauge the effect

T. Troy Pearse; Paul W. Oman

1995-01-01

253

Sense of Virtual Community-Maintaining the Experience of Belonging  

Microsoft Academic Search

E-commerce strategists advise companies to create virtual communities for their customers. But what is involved in establishing and maintaining virtual communities? This paper addresses two questions: Does a sense of community similar to that sometimes observed in physical communities also occur in virtual settings? And how is a sense of virtual community maintained? These questions are examined in an intensive

Anita L. Blanchard; M. Lynne Markus

2002-01-01

254

29 CFR 794.144 - Records to be maintained.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Records to be maintained. 794.144 Section 794.144...Section 7(b)(3) of the Act Records to Be Kept by Employers § 794.144 Records to be maintained. (a) Form of records. No...

2010-07-01

255

Seasonal resource oscillations maintain diversity in bacterial microcosms  

E-print Network

Seasonal resource oscillations maintain diversity in bacterial microcosms Christine C. Spencer, 1: Seasonal variation in availability of resources maintains co-existence between different ecological types and then switch to acetate consumption, thus creating a fluctuating environment with two different `seasons'. We

Doebeli, Michael

256

Women maintaining physical activity at midlife: contextual complexities.  

PubMed

Health benefits associated with being active are well recognised and yet for many, particularly women at midlife, how this activity is maintained is both complex and poorly understood. This paper describes a qualitative feminist study in which 10 midlife women participated in two semi-structured interviews to explore factors influencing their ability to maintain physical activity over time. A thematic analysis uncovered participants' beliefs and behaviours regarding their experience of, and strategies used to maintain, regular activity. Four core themes emerged; 'exercise is part of me, part of my life', 'the importance of being fit and healthy', 'exercise interweaves and changes with life situations', and 'constraints and conflicts'. Encompassed within these four was a desire for life long good health and physical fitness. Maintaining regular physical activity was intrinsically connected to family, relationships and work. Findings from this study indicate how important it is for nurses to consider contextual realities when encouraging and supporting midlife women to maintain physical activity. PMID:16764159

Yarwood, Judy; Carryer, Jenny; Gagan, Mary Jo

2005-11-01

257

Social Distress  

MedlinePLUS

PATIENT / FAMILY TEACHING SHEET Social Distress What is social distress? Social distress is a change in a person’s social life (roles, ... to let the patient become secluded. Other HPNA Teaching Sheets on are available at www.HPNA.org. ...

258

Toward a Social History of the Secondary Modern Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Maintains that surprisingly little attention has been given to secondary modern schools by historians. Maintains that a new approach is needed to examine the impact of social differentiation in English and Welsh schools. Asserts that a more current history of secondary schools will provide new insights into British social history. (CFR)

McCulloch, Gary; Sobell, Liz

1994-01-01

259

FUNCTIONAL ANALYSIS AND TREATMENT OF ARRANGING AND ORDERING BY INDIVIDUALS WITH AN AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDER  

PubMed Central

Of the diagnostic features of autism, relatively little research has been devoted to restricted and repetitive behavior, particularly topographically complex forms of restricted and repetitive behavior such as rigidity in routines or compulsive-like behavior (e.g., arranging objects in patterns or rows). Like vocal or motor stereotypy, topographically complex forms of restricted and repetitive behavior may be associated with negative outcomes such as interference with skill acquisition, negative social consequences, and severe problem behavior associated with interruption of restricted and repetitive behavior. In the present study, we extended functional analysis methodology to the assessment and treatment of arranging and ordering for 3 individuals with an autism spectrum disorder. For all 3 participants, arranging and ordering was found to be maintained by automatic reinforcement, and treatments based on function reduced arranging and ordering. PMID:22403446

Rodriguez, Nicole M; Thompson, Rachel H; Schlichenmeyer, Kevin; Stocco, Corey S

2012-01-01

260

Maintaining a Social-Emotional Intervention and Its Benefits for Institutionalized Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports the maintenance of one of the largest interventions conducted in St. Petersburg (Russian Federation) orphanages for children birth to 4 years using regular caregiving staff. One orphanage received training plus structural changes, another training only, and a third business as usual. The intervention produced substantial…

McCall, Robert B.; Groark, Christina J.; Fish, Larry; Muhamedrahimov, Rifkat J.; Palmov, Oleg I.; Nikiforova, Natalia V.

2013-01-01

261

The leading eight: Social norms that can maintain cooperation by indirect reciprocity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The theory of indirect reciprocation explains the evolution of cooperation among unrelated individuals, engaging in one-shot interaction. Using reputation, a player acquires information on who are worth cooperating and who are not. In a previous paper, we formalized the reputation dynamics, a rule to assign a binary reputation (good or bad) to each player when his action, his current reputation,

Hisashi Ohtsuki; Yoh Iwasa

2006-01-01

262

Social support and the likelihood of maintaining and improving levels of physical activity: the  

E-print Network

and Public Health, University College London, London, UK 5 Institute of Work, Health and Organisations-demographics, self-rated health, long-standing illnesses, physical functioning and common mental disorders. Results Department of Health Behaviors and Health Education, School of Public Health, University of Michigan, Ann

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

263

The Maintained Discharge of Rat Retinal Ganglion Cells  

PubMed Central

Action potentials were recorded from rat retinal ganglion cell fibers in the presence of a uniform field and the maintained discharge pattern was characterized. Spike trains recorded under ketamine/xylazine anesthesia were generally stationary, while those recorded under urethane anesthesia often showed slow, undriven, quasi-periodic fluctuations in firing rate. In light of these non-stationarities, interspike interval distributions and power spectral densities are reported for data collected primarily under ketamine/xylazine. The majority of cells had multi-modal interval distributions, with the first peak in the range of 25.0–38.5ms and the subsequent peaks occurring at integer multiples of the first peak. Cells with unimodal distributions were fit well by a gamma distribution function. Interval and spike count statistics showed that ON cells tended to fire faster than OFF cells and that cells with higher rates fired in a more regular manner, with the coefficient of variation covering a wide range of values across all cells (0.43–0.97). Both ON and OFF cells show serial correlations between adjacent interspike intervals, while ON cells also showed 2nd order correlations. Cells with multi-modal interval distribution showed a strong peak at high frequencies in the power spectra in the range of 28.9–41.4Hz. Oscillations were present under both anesthetic conditions and persisted in the dark at a slightly lower frequency, implying that the oscillations are generated independent of any light stimulus but can be modulated by light level. The oscillation frequency varied slightly between cells of the same type and in the same eye, suggesting that multiple oscillatory generating mechanisms exist within the retina. Cells with high frequency oscillations were described well by an integrate-and-fire model with the input consisting of Gaussian noise plus a sinusoid where the phase was jittered randomly to account for the bandwidth present in the oscillations. PMID:18634718

Freeman, Daniel K.; Heine, Walter F.; Passaglia, Christopher L.

2009-01-01

264

Social economics and social capital  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper evaluates key developments in the social capital literature over the past decade. It then examines empirical work on the purported the link between social capital and economic performance. Although these results indicate that good governance and social cohesion make a measurable contribution to economic development, the offer little guidance for policy formulation. Early contributors to the social capital

Joe Wallis; Paul Killerby; Brian Dollery

2004-01-01

265

Role Sequencing: Does Order Matter for Mental Health?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Role sequencing refers to the ordering of social roles. According to the normative order hypothesis, adults who follow a certain sequencing of their social roles will be better adjusted than their peers who follow other life course patterns. The normative order is defined as first entering the paid labor force, getting married, and later having…

Jackson, Pamela Braboy

2004-01-01

266

Safety, reliability, maintainability and quality provisions for the Space Shuttle program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This publication establishes common safety, reliability, maintainability and quality provisions for the Space Shuttle Program. NASA Centers shall use this publication both as the basis for negotiating safety, reliability, maintainability and quality requirements with Shuttle Program contractors and as the guideline for conduct of program safety, reliability, maintainability and quality activities at the Centers. Centers shall assure that applicable provisions of the publication are imposed in lower tier contracts. Centers shall give due regard to other Space Shuttle Program planning in order to provide an integrated total Space Shuttle Program activity. In the implementation of safety, reliability, maintainability and quality activities, consideration shall be given to hardware complexity, supplier experience, state of hardware development, unit cost, and hardware use. The approach and methods for contractor implementation shall be described in the contractors safety, reliability, maintainability and quality plans. This publication incorporates provisions of NASA documents: NHB 1700.1 'NASA Safety Manual, Vol. 1'; NHB 5300.4(IA), 'Reliability Program Provisions for Aeronautical and Space System Contractors'; and NHB 5300.4(1B), 'Quality Program Provisions for Aeronautical and Space System Contractors'. It has been tailored from the above documents based on experience in other programs. It is intended that this publication be reviewed and revised, as appropriate, to reflect new experience and to assure continuing viability.

1990-01-01

267

MACHINE LEARNING : The Necessity of Order (is order in order ?)  

E-print Network

- 1 - MACHINE LEARNING : The Necessity of Order (is order in order ?) A. Cornuéjols Laboratoire de to facilitate learning. Yet, when machine learners exhibited sequencing effects, showing that some data sampling is intended to present ideas and directions of research that are currently studied in the machine learning

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

268

Social influence: compliance and conformity.  

PubMed

This review covers recent developments in the social influence literature, focusing primarily on compliance and conformity research published between 1997 and 2002. The principles and processes underlying a target's susceptibility to outside influences are considered in light of three goals fundamental to rewarding human functioning. Specifically, targets are motivated to form accurate perceptions of reality and react accordingly, to develop and preserve meaningful social relationships, and to maintain a favorable self-concept. Consistent with the current movement in compliance and conformity research, this review emphasizes the ways in which these goals interact with external forces to engender social influence processes that are subtle, indirect, and outside of awareness. PMID:14744228

Cialdini, Robert B; Goldstein, Noah J

2004-01-01

269

Social Networking: Keeping It Clean  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The need to maintain an unpolluted learning environment is no easy task for schools and districts that have incorporated social networking sites into their educational life. The staff and teachers at Blaine High School in Minnesota's Anoka-Hennepin District 11 had been considering the pros and cons of establishing a school Facebook page when the…

Waters, John K.

2011-01-01

270

Social Justice and Political Orthodoxy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since 2003, the Teachers College of Columbia University has maintained a policy of evaluating students based on their "commitment to social justice." Before last summer, Columbia could blame the National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education, the main accrediting body for schools of education, for those evaluation criteria. The council…

Lukianoff, Greg

2007-01-01

271

Boosting Social and Emotional Competence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Beland maintains that high school students will need a high level of skill in the social and emotional arena to be ready for competitive employment in the 21st century. In a 2006 survey, human resource professionals said five skills were most crucial to high school graduates' success: professionalism/work ethic; teamwork; oral communications;…

Beland, Kathy

2007-01-01

272

Methadone Anonymous: A 12-Step Program for Methadone Maintained Heroin Addicts.  

PubMed

Methadone Anonymous (MA) is a new 12-step fellowship developed for methadone maintained heroin addicts. A total of 53 MA members completed a survey assessing factors related to methadone maintenance treatment program (MMTP) entry, drug use, MA participation, beliefs concerning effectiveness of MMTP and MA, and level of social cohesiveness. Length of time in MA was associated with a decreased use of alcohol, cocaine, and marijuana. Clients rated components of MA to be significantly more helpful to recovery than MMTP treatment components. Affiliation to five MA members known best by the respondents was significantly greater than affiliation to non-MA members. Length of time in MA was positively associated with MA affiliation. Social affiliation and endorsement of 12-step principles were positively correlated. These findings suggest that MA participation has benefits not available in professionally driven MMTP, and should be further studied. PMID:12466684

Gilman, Stephen M.; Galanter, Marc; Dermatis, Helen

2001-12-01

273

Mobile Social Services via Virtual Individual Servers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mobile social services enable increasingly popular forms of social interaction among mobile-device users, such as finding out w hen people of interest are nearby. However, today's services ra ise im- portant privacy concerns because they concentrate location infor- mation for many users under a single administrative domain. We present a privacy-preserving framework for these services in which each person maintains

Amre Shakimov; Harold Lim; Landon P. Cox; Ramón Cáceres

274

Followership in Ecology/Environment Social Movements.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper analyzes the failure of the ecology/environmental movement to develop into a social movement and to generate a mass following. The movement has had difficulty not only in organizing collective behavior but also in maintaining the necessary momentum to change into a full-fledged social movement. Obvious reasons are that ecologists…

Clavner, Jerry B.; Sumodi, Veronica R.

275

Public Relations ITIC maintains good working relationships with national and  

E-print Network

Public Relations ITIC maintains good working relationships with national and and international organizations participating in the International Tsunami Warning System, Good public relations are also lectures, audio-visual aids, seminars, posters, photographic displays, television and radio coverage

276

OI Issues: Maintaining Health during the Adult Years  

MedlinePLUS

... your browser. Home Osteogenesis Imperfecta Osteogenesis Imperfecta Basics OI Issues: Maintaining Health During the Adult Years Publication available in: PDF (228 KB) Related Resources Osteogenesis Imperfecta Fast Facts Osteogenesis Imperfecta Overview Type 1 OI ...

277

77 FR 44503 - Maintaining Access to Emergency Liquidity  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...institution to fund its business-as-usual operations...instrumental in maintaining the continuity of vital credit...must conduct advance planning and periodic testing...management policy, or a business continuity policy. The CFP...

2012-07-30

278

40 CFR 63.2998 - What records must I maintain?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Wet-Formed Fiberglass Mat Production Notifications, Reports, and Records § 63.2998 What records must I maintain? You must...

2012-07-01

279

40 CFR 63.2998 - What records must I maintain?  

...POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Wet-Formed Fiberglass Mat Production Notifications, Reports, and Records § 63.2998 What records must I maintain? You must...

2014-07-01

280

40 CFR 63.2998 - What records must I maintain?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Wet-Formed Fiberglass Mat Production Notifications, Reports, and Records § 63.2998 What records must I maintain? You must...

2013-07-01

281

40 CFR 63.2998 - What records must I maintain?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Wet-Formed Fiberglass Mat Production Notifications, Reports, and Records § 63.2998 What records must I maintain? You must...

2011-07-01

282

40 CFR 63.2998 - What records must I maintain?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Wet-Formed Fiberglass Mat Production Notifications, Reports, and Records § 63.2998 What records must I maintain? You must...

2010-07-01

283

Software Maintainability Improvement: Integrating Standards and Models William C. Chu,  

E-print Network

Software Maintainability Improvement: Integrating Standards and Models William C. Chu, Dpt Science and Engineering, Southeast University, China National Key Laboratory of Software Engineering, Wuhan University, China Abstract Software standards are highly recommended because they promise faster

Chung, Yeh-Ching

284

Increasing Maintainability of a Wastewater-Recovery Unit  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Modified system leaks less and easier to disassemble for maintenance. Redesign of wastewater-recovery system separates water from urine: improved operation and system easier to maintain. Details of redesign, chiefly affected hollow-fiber-membrane evaporator, described in report.

Dehner, G. F.; Brose, H. F.

1987-01-01

285

Most Women Who Maintain Families Receive Poor Labor Market Returns.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Most women who maintain families have a strong commitment to the labor force but have lower average educational attainment and earnings, bringing them closer to poverty with each additional child. (JOW)

Johnson, Beverly L.; Waldman, Elizabeth

1983-01-01

286

Strategies for Buying and Maintaining Audio Visual Equipment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents guidelines for purchasing and maintaining audiovisual equipment most often used in the classroom. Highlights include selecting a vendor; purchasing associations; preventive maintenance; optical equipment, including overhead projectors, slide projectors, movie projectors, and filmstrip projectors; and electromagnetic equipment, including…

Kalmbach, John A.; Kruzel, Richard D.

1989-01-01

287

49 CFR 1310.2 - Requirement to maintain tariffs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...charitable purposes without charge, carriers subject to the Board's...effect under this section. The carrier may not charge or receive...upon request, by mail or other delivery service. (c) A carrier that maintains a tariff...

2010-10-01

288

Biodiversity and Ecosystem Functioning: Maintaining Natural Life Support Processes  

E-print Network

Biodiversity and Ecosystem Functioning: Maintaining Natural Life Support Processes Publishedbythe. ONeill, Harold A. Mooney, Osvaldo E. Sala, Amy J. Symstad, and David Tilman Biodiversity and Ecosystem plant productivity, soil fertility, water quality, atmospheric chemistry, and many other local

Minnesota, University of

289

2 CFR 182.40 - How is the guidance maintained?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...40 Section 182.40 Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET GOVERNMENTWIDE GUIDANCE FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS... § 182.40 How is the guidance maintained? The OMB publishes proposed changes to the guidance in the Federal...

2010-01-01

290

Operating and Maintaining a 465MW Cogeneration Plant  

E-print Network

, and maintain max mum plant energy efficiency, the following features were incorporated in the initial design: 1. extraction-induction-condensing steam turbine 2. modulating inlet guide vanes on the gas turbines 3. supplementary firing on two boilers 4..., and maintain max mum plant energy efficiency, the following features were incorporated in the initial design: 1. extraction-induction-condensing steam turbine 2. modulating inlet guide vanes on the gas turbines 3. supplementary firing on two boilers 4...

Theisen, R. E.

291

Background for Community-Level Work on Social Competency in Adolescence: Reviewing the Literature on Contributing Factors.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Because social competency is an important element for adolescents' healthy development, a central question is what can be done to help adolescents achieve and maintain social competency. This report details antecedents of two key aspects of social competency: quality social relationships and good social skills. For each social relationship and…

Hair, Elizabeth C.; Jager, Justin; Garrett, Sarah

292

Maintaining dental records: Are we ready for forensic needs?  

PubMed Central

Context: Dental remains are usually the last to get destroyed among body parts after death. They may be useful for personal identification in cases of mass disasters and decomposed unidentified bodies. Dental records may help in the identification of suspects in criminal investigations and in medicolegal cases. Maintenance of dental records is legally mandatory in most of the European and American countries. Unfortunately, the law is not very clear in India, and the awareness is very poor. Aims: To assess the awareness regarding the dental record maintenance among dentists in Rajasthan, to deduce the quality of average dental records kept by them and to evaluate the potential use of their maintained records, in any of forensic or medicolegal cases. Settings and Design: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 100 dental practitioners of different cities in Rajasthan, India. Materials and Methods: Data were collected through a structured questionnaire, which was responded by the study population in the course of a telephonic interview. The questionnaire addressed on the mode of maintaining dental records in their regular practice. Statistical Analysis Used: The data so gathered were subjected for descriptive analysis. Results: As for knowledge or awareness about maintaining dental records, surprisingly a very low percentile (about 38%) of surveyed dentists maintained records. Sixty-two percent of the dentists were maintaining no records at all. Conclusion: Nonmaintenance or poor quality of records maintained indicates that the dentists in Rajasthan are not prepared for any kind of forensic and medicolegal need if it arises. PMID:22408320

Astekar, Madhusudan; Saawarn, Swati; Ramesh, Gayathri; Saawarn, Nisheeth

2011-01-01

293

Problems and prospects for the social support-reactivity hypothesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social support and integration have been linked to health and longevity in many correlational studies. To explain how social\\u000a relationship might enhance health, investigators are examining the effects of social support on physiological processes implicated\\u000a in disease. Much of this research focuses on testing the social support-reactivity hypothesis, which maintains that social\\u000a support enhances health by reducing psychobiologic reactivity to

Stephen J. Lepore

1998-01-01

294

Computer Support for Social Awareness in Flexible Work  

Microsoft Academic Search

How do we conceptualize social awareness, and what support is needed to develop and maintain social awareness in flexible\\u000a work settings? The paper begins by arguing the relevance of designing for social awareness in flexible work. It points out\\u000a how social awareness is suspended in the field of tension that exists between the ephemerality and continuity of social encounters,\\u000a exploring

Susanne Bødker; Ellen Christiansen

2006-01-01

295

Social Support and Resilience to Stress  

PubMed Central

Numerous studies indicate social support is essential for maintaining physical and psychological health. The harmful consequences of poor social support and the protective effects of good social support in mental illness have been well documented. Social support may moderate genetic and environmental vulnerabilities and confer resilience to stress, possibly via its effects on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) system, the noradrenergic system, and central oxytocin pathways. There is a substantial need for additional research and development of specific interventions aiming to increase social support for psychiatrically ill and at-risk populations. PMID:20806028

Johnson, Douglas C.; Dimoulas, Eleni; Morgan, C.A.; Charney, Dennis; Southwick, Steven

2007-01-01

296

High outcrossing rates maintain male and hermaphrodite individuals in populations of the flowering plant Datisca glomerata  

Microsoft Academic Search

MODELS for the maintenance of androdioecy (the presence of male and hermaphrodite individuals in a breeding population) in plants predict that males must have a fertility at least double the male fertility of hermaphrodites in order to be maintained by selection1-3. An even greater advantage is required in partially self-fertilizing populations1-3 as the gain in fitness through increased pollen production

Peter Fritsch; Loren H. Rieseberg

1992-01-01

297

social Media;  

E-print Network

Social media allows individual to interact with one another and build relationships. When companies join the social channels, consumers can interact with them and they can communicate with consumers directly. Social media revolution, it is more than obvious that social media like Facebook, Twitter, Orkut, MySpace, Skype etc., are used extensively for the purpose of communication. One of the most important advantages of the use of social media is the online sharing of knowledge and information among the different groups of people. It is practically impossible to design a marketing strategy without considering social networks. Social media has become really important in today s marketing mix in general and in promoting the new product and existing on in particular. The paper carries out empirical research to understand the effectiveness of social media as a marketing tool.

S. Divya; Bulomine Regi

298

Social Explorer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Social Explorer provides quick and easy access to current and historical census data and demographic information. The easy-to-use web interface lets users create maps and reports to illustrate, analyze, and understand demography and social change.

Explorer, Social

299

Social Welfare  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although it is commonly agreed that social welfare ideas and philosophies emanate from many faith traditions, the complex\\u000a link between religion and social welfare merits careful examination. Prowelfare values only set the overall social expectations;\\u000a they do not create formal social welfare programs. Helping the needy can range from a one-time help for a known neighbor to\\u000a the establishment of

Ram A. Cnaan; Charlene C. McGrew

300

Research Summary Woodland-related Social Enterprises  

E-print Network

`best value' in only economic terms. o In order to access some funding streams, avoid tax and protect, build community capacity, facilitate social inclusion and generate social capital. These ideas fit

301

On managing social data for enabling socially-aware applications and services  

Microsoft Academic Search

Applications and services that take advantage of social data usually infer social relationships using information produced only within their own context. We propose to combine social information from multiple sources into a directed and weighted social multigraph in order to enable novel socially-aware applications and services. We present GeoS, our early prototype of a geo-social data management service which implements

Paul Anderson; Nicolas Kourtellis; Joshua Finnis; Adriana Iamnitchi

2010-01-01

302

Social Work and Applied Social Studies  

E-print Network

Social Work and Applied Social Studies Undergraduate 1 #12;www.bath.ac.uk/sps Undergraduate Social Work and Applied Social Studies What is Social Work? `The social work profession promotes social change' (International Federation of Social Workers, 2000) Social work is an exceptionally interesting, challenging

Burton, Geoffrey R.

303

Knowledge and Social Learning for Sustainable Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Building on the on-going discussion about topical knowledge, social learning and sustainable development, this article discusses\\u000a the problem horizon of non-sustainable development in order to highlight the necessity of social learning processes and to\\u000a discuss the relevant conceptual approaches to social learning. It is argued that in order to meet the challenges of global\\u000a environmental changes, social learning based on

Bernd Siebenhüner; Harald Heinrichs

304

Social Learning in Social Networks  

E-print Network

This paper analyzes a model of social learning in a social network. Agents decide whether or not to adopt a new technology with unknown payoffs based on their prior beliefs and the experiences of their neighbors in the ...

Lamberson, Peter John

305

Variable Order and Distributed Order Fractional Operators  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Many physical processes appear to exhibit fractional order behavior that may vary with time or space. The continuum of order in the fractional calculus allows the order of the fractional operator to be considered as a variable. This paper develops the concept of variable and distributed order fractional operators. Definitions based on the Riemann-Liouville definitions are introduced and behavior of the operators is studied. Several time domain definitions that assign different arguments to the order q in the Riemann-Liouville definition are introduced. For each of these definitions various characteristics are determined. These include: time invariance of the operator, operator initialization, physical realization, linearity, operational transforms. and memory characteristics of the defining kernels. A measure (m2) for memory retentiveness of the order history is introduced. A generalized linear argument for the order q allows the concept of "tailored" variable order fractional operators whose a, memory may be chosen for a particular application. Memory retentiveness (m2) and order dynamic behavior are investigated and applications are shown. The concept of distributed order operators where the order of the time based operator depends on an additional independent (spatial) variable is also forwarded. Several definitions and their Laplace transforms are developed, analysis methods with these operators are demonstrated, and examples shown. Finally operators of multivariable and distributed order are defined in their various applications are outlined.

Lorenzo, Carl F.; Hartley, Tom T.

2002-01-01

306

Social norms or social preferences?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some behavioral economists argue that the honoring of social norms can be adequately modeled as the optimization of social\\u000a utility functions in which the welfare of others appears as an explicit argument. This paper suggests that the large experimental\\u000a claims made for social utility functions are premature at best, and that social norms are better studied as equilibrium selection\\u000a devices

Ken Binmore

2010-01-01

307

The neural circuitry of expertise: perceptual learning and social cognition  

PubMed Central

Amongst the most significant questions we are confronted with today include the integration of the brain's micro-circuitry, our ability to build the complex social networks that underpin society and how our society impacts on our ecological environment. In trying to unravel these issues one place to begin is at the level of the individual: to consider how we accumulate information about our environment, how this information leads to decisions and how our individual decisions in turn create our social environment. While this is an enormous task, we may already have at hand many of the tools we need. This article is intended to review some of the recent results in neuro-cognitive research and show how they can be extended to two very specific and interrelated types of expertise: perceptual expertise and social cognition. These two cognitive skills span a vast range of our genetic heritage. Perceptual expertise developed very early in our evolutionary history and is a highly developed part of all mammals' cognitive ability. On the other hand social cognition is most highly developed in humans in that we are able to maintain larger and more stable long term social connections with more behaviorally diverse individuals than any other species. To illustrate these ideas I will discuss board games as a toy model of social interactions as they include many of the relevant concepts: perceptual learning, decision-making, long term planning and understanding the mental states of other people. Using techniques that have been developed in mathematical psychology, I show that we can represent some of the key features of expertise using stochastic differential equations (SDEs). Such models demonstrate how an expert's long exposure to a particular context influences the information they accumulate in order to make a decision.These processes are not confined to board games, we are all experts in our daily lives through long exposure to the many regularities of daily tasks and social contexts. PMID:24381550

Harre, Michael

2013-01-01

308

Social Indicators and Social Reporting  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the several research traditions which combine to form the social indicators movement. All the traditions share concern for measurement, analysis, and reporting of aspects of social conditions to a general audience. Journal available from: American Academy of Political and Social Science, 3937 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania…

Parke, Robert; Seidman, David

1978-01-01

309

SANTA CRUZ: DIVISION OF SOCIAL SCIENCES OFFICE OF THE DEAN  

E-print Network

SANTA CRUZ: DIVISION OF SOCIAL SCIENCES OFFICE OF THE DEAN UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA- (Letterhead for Interdepartmental Use) August 15, 2011 FACULTY Division of Social Sciences RE: Announcing a New Enhanced Emeriti Program Dear Social Sciences Faculty: As part of our efforts to maintain the quality of teaching

California at Santa Cruz, University of

310

Using Social Work Theory for the Facilitation of Friendships  

Microsoft Academic Search

Positive friendships are essential to human development and resilience. In spite of the importance of friendships, few social work models have been developed to help clients establish or maintain friendships. This article explores how clinical theories of social work, and their associated practice interventions, can guide social workers in helping their clients improve their friendship relationships.

Rich Furman; Kathryn Collins; Michelle D. Garner; Karen Lee Montanaro; Gwen Weber

2009-01-01

311

Perceptions of Human Services Students about Social Change Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Human services educators and scholars maintain that they are teaching social change theory and skills that will allow students to engage in large-scale social change. A review of the literature, from a critical theory perspective, offered little evidence that social change is being taught in human services programs. In this collective case study,…

Herzberg, Judith T.

2010-01-01

312

Predicting Group Stability in Online Social Networks Akshay Patil  

E-print Network

Predicting Group Stability in Online Social Networks Akshay Patil Stony Brook University Stony.Liu@parc.com Jie Gao Stony Brook University Stony Brook, NY jgao@cs.stonybrook.edu ABSTRACT Social groups often the level of member diversity and social activities are critical in maintaining the stability of groups. We

Gao, Jie

313

Experimental field studies of Asian ape social systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Asian apes, orangutans and gibbons, possess unusual social systems among anthropoid primates. Social groups of gibbons consist of mated adult pairs and their offspring; mature orangutans are primarily solitary. Recent experimental field research has begun to yield insights into the behavioral mechanisms employed by these animals to maintain their characteristic patterns of social dispersion. While spatial separation between female

John C. Mitani

1990-01-01

314

Ghetto Social Structure: A Survey of Black Bostonians.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report on ghetto social structure, surveying a sample of 120 black women from Boston, is an examination of the extent to which black urbanites maintain personal ties within the ghetto area. Nine chapters listed as follows constitute the document: social organization in the black ghetto; Boston-the city and the sample, primary social ties,…

Feagin, Joe R.

315

Epithelial bridges maintain tissue integrity during collective cell migration.  

PubMed

The ability of skin to act as a barrier is primarily determined by the efficiency of skin cells to maintain and restore its continuity and integrity. In fact, during wound healing keratinocytes migrate collectively to maintain their cohesion despite heterogeneities in the extracellular matrix. Here, we show that monolayers of human keratinocytes migrating along functionalized micropatterned surfaces comprising alternating strips of extracellular matrix (fibronectin) and non-adherent polymer form suspended multicellular bridges over the non-adherent areas. The bridges are held together by intercellular adhesion and are subjected to considerable tension, as indicated by the presence of prominent actin bundles. We also show that a model based on force propagation through an elastic material reproduces the main features of bridge maintenance and tension distribution. Our findings suggest that multicellular bridges maintain tissue integrity during wound healing when cell-substrate interactions are weak and may prove helpful in the design of artificial scaffolds for skin regeneration. PMID:24292420

Vedula, Sri Ram Krishna; Hirata, Hiroaki; Nai, Mui Hoon; Brugués, Agustí; Toyama, Yusuke; Trepat, Xavier; Lim, Chwee Teck; Ladoux, Benoit

2014-01-01

316

New requirements for hospitals to maintain tax-exempt status.  

PubMed

Tax-exempt hospitals are now facing more legislative requirements to maintain tax-exempt status. This article outlines each of these requirements imposed by the Patient Protection Act of 2010. Health care administrators, executives, and consultants must be aware of these new laws to ensure each facility is capable of maintaining tax-exempt status. Despite the issuance of new requirements, a conclusive definition of charity does not exist. Therefore, the debate surrounding charity care and the justification for tax-exempt status will continue. PMID:22515041

Smith, Pamela C; Noe, Kelly

2012-01-01

317

Maintainability design criteria for packaging of spacecraft replaceable electronic equipment.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Maintainability must be designed into long-duration spacecraft and equipment to provide the required high probability of mission success with the least cost and weight. The ability to perform repairs quickly and easily in a space environment can be achieved by imposing specific maintainability design criteria on spacecraft equipment design and installation. A study was funded to investigate and define design criteria for electronic equipment that would permit rapid removal and replacement in a space environment. The results of the study are discussed together with subsequent simulated zero-g demonstration tests of a mockup with new concepts for packaging.

Kappler, J. R.; Folsom, A. B.

1972-01-01

318

2009-2010 Social Justice Guide A Law Student's Guide to Finding Social Justice Opportunities  

E-print Network

2009-2010 Social Justice Guide A Law Student's Guide to Finding Social Justice Opportunities Access where ATJI connects Legal Writing faculty with social justice legal organizations in order to assign like Social Justice Mondays and Lawyering in a Diverse World; and (4) Law students' leadership capacity

Carter, John

319

Health and Social Care Is Health and Social Care right for me?  

E-print Network

Health and Social Care Is Health and Social Care right for me? Are you are interested in caring for a specialised degree in medicine, nursing or social work? If yes, then Health and Social Care could be the subject for you. You will need good time management skills as well as a passion for care in order to get

Harman, Neal.A.

320

When social bots attack: Modeling susceptibility of users in online social networks  

E-print Network

them - is important in order to protect the effectiveness and utility of social media. In this paper of the nature of such attacks or the susceptibility of users, the potential of social media as an instrument elections [9]. Recently a new breed of computer programs so-called social media robots (short social bots

Hammerton, James

321

Intentioned Network Convergence: How Social Media is Redefining, Reorganizing, and Revitalizing Social Movements in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

This analysis seeks to understand the power of social media to create sustainable social movements. The 1999 World Trade Organization protests in Seattle were one of the first internet-supported acts of protest and illustrate the power of the Internet and social media to bring together diverse coalitions of actors and maintain decentralized power structures. Next, the analysis studies the non-profit

Jesse Janice Klekamp

2012-01-01

322

Fuzzy Multiple Heuristic Ordering for Course Timetabling  

E-print Network

Fuzzy Multiple Heuristic Ordering for Course Timetabling Hishammuddin Asmuni, Edmund K. Burke the feasibility of the timetable is maintained throughout the process. Unscheduling and reschedul- ing events of course timetabling problems and the re- sults show that this approach can produce good quality solutions

Aickelin, Uwe

323

Social networks and vaccination decisions  

Microsoft Academic Search

We combine information on social networks with medical records and survey data in order to examine how friends affect one’s decision to get vaccinated against the flu. The random assignment of undergraduates to residential halls at a large private university allows us to estimate how peer effects influence health beliefs and vaccination choices. Our results indicate that social exposure to

Neel Rao; Markus M. Möbius; Tanya Rosenblat

2007-01-01

324

Finding social roles in Wikipedia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates some of the social roles people play in the online community of Wikipedia. We start from qualitative comments posted on community oriented pages, wiki project memberships, and user talk pages in order to identify a sample of editors who represent four key roles: substantive experts, technical editors, vandal fighters, and social networkers. Patterns in edit histories and

Howard T. Welser; Dan Cosley; Gueorgi Kossinets; Austin Lin; Fedor Dokshin; Geri Gay; Marc A. Smith

2011-01-01

325

Social Learning and Primate Reintroduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research on social learning may be of use in the conservation of primates, especially great apes, through (a) promoting their public image, (b) identifying specific adaptations, and (c) devising reintroduction training programs. We surveyed all the instigated social learning studies in primates published since 1950 in order to assess their usefulness to devise reintroduction training programs. We identified 99 publications

D. M. Custance; A. Whiten; T. Fredman

2002-01-01

326

A comparative analysis of the effects of social skill training and teacher-directed contingencies on social behavior of preschool children with disabilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the effects of an analog social skill training program and a teacher-directed contingency strategy on promoting social responding among four preschool children with mild disabilities and their peers. The social skill training program consisted of five lessons targeting the skill areas: Initiating, responding, and maintaining social interactions. The teacher directed contingency consisted of prompting target children when

Timothy J. Lewis

1994-01-01

327

Records Management is maintaining a record throughout its lifecycle.  

E-print Network

longer than the disposition time? You are required to keep records for their minimum retention times ARCHIVES DESTROY The retention schedule will tell you how long the record is required to be maintained RETENTION SCHEDULES There are two types of approved records retention schedules for use by UNCG faculty

Saidak, Filip

328

Maintaining Transitive Closure of Graphs in SQL Guozhu Dong  

E-print Network

recursive queries such as the transitive closure. In a real database system, one can overcome this problem by storing a graph together with its transitive closure and maintaining the latter whenever updates, 23] in these languages. However, in a real database system, one can try to overcome this problem

Wong, Limsoon

329

GENETIC ENGINEERING PRODUCER FACT SHEET 2 Methods to Maintain Genetic  

E-print Network

GENETIC ENGINEERING PRODUCER FACT SHEET 2 Methods to Maintain Genetic Purity of Seed Stocks KENT J yield. Seeds carry the genetic traits incorporated by years of breeding and selection to create quality. The genetic purity of seeds (i.e., the percentage of contamination by seeds or genetic material

Bradford, Kent

330

7 CFR 3560.625 - Maintaining the physical asset.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

7 ? Agriculture ? 15 ? 2010-01-01 ? 2010-01-01 ? false ? Maintaining the physical asset. ? 3560.625 ? Section 3560.625 ? Agriculture ? Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ? RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ? DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS ?...

2010-01-01

331

Authoring and Maintaining of Educational Applications on the Web.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper discusses problems concerning the design of educational applications in general, as well as specific problems connected with educational applications meant to be published on the Web. A new approach to the authoring and maintaining of Web-based educational applications is proposed which is based on the concept of hypermedia composites.…

Helic, Denis; Maurer, Hermann; Scherbakov, Nick

332

ECOLOGICAL RESTORATION OF FIRE-MAINTAINED OAK WOODLANDS IN MASSACHUSETTS  

E-print Network

ECOLOGICAL RESTORATION OF FIRE-MAINTAINED OAK WOODLANDS IN MASSACHUSETTS A Thesis Presented by BRIAN HOLT HAWTHORNE Submitted to the Graduate School of the University of Massachusetts Amherst WOODLANDS IN MASSACHUSETTS A Thesis Presented by BRIAN HOLT HAWTHORNE Approved as to style and content by

Schweik, Charles M.

333

End of living: maintaining a lifeworld during terminal illness  

Microsoft Academic Search

The narrative responses of 32 people with AIDS or cancer with survival prognoses of 6 months to a year to monthly interview questions about their daily lives were analysed with a team-based qualitative methodology. Two groups emerged: (a) a Maintained Lifeworld Group characterised by one or more of the following: continued engagement with family, friends, and community; the ability to

Judith Wrubel; Michael Acree; Steffanie Goodman; Susan Folkman

2009-01-01

334

Using Metadata to Maintain Link Integrity for Linked Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Linking Open Data (LOD) initiative has motivated numerous institutions to publish their data on the Web and to interlink them with those of other data sources. The structure makes it easier for both the users and the web applications to share the decentralized linked data. Since the data over the web changes frequently, maintaining link integrity to keep data

Fangfang Liu; Xiaojing Li

2011-01-01

335

Maintaining Information about Persistent Replicated Objects in a Distributed System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents a general model for persistent replicated object management and identifies what meta information about objects needs to be maintained by a naming and binding service to ensure that objects named by application programs are bound to only those object replicas which are in a mutually consistent state. These ideas are developed within the framework of a distributed

Mark C. Little; Daniel L. Mccue; Santosh K. Shrivastava

1993-01-01

336

Passive solar system for maintaining and rearing marine organisms  

SciTech Connect

A solar-heated facility for maintaining and rearing marine organisms is described. Water from a shallow tidal bay is moved by a tide-regulated pumping system into settling tanks for removal of suspended silt and clay, from which the water drains by gravity flow to circular rearing tanks.

Yuschak, P.; Richards, F.M.

1987-04-01

337

Greatwall maintains mitosis through regulation of PP2A  

E-print Network

1 Greatwall maintains mitosis through regulation of PP2A Suzanne Vigneron, Estelle Brioudes, Andrew dephosphorylation in mitosis Key Words: Greatwall, cyclin B-Cdc2, PP2A, mitosis, Universités Montpellier 2 et 1 but also by the regulation of PP2A by GW. KEYWORDS: Cyclin B-Cdc2/Greatwall/Mitosis/PP2A INTRODUCTION Entry

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

338

ORIGINAL PAPER Maintaining the genetic health of putative Barbary lions  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL PAPER Maintaining the genetic health of putative Barbary lions in captivity: an analysis of Moroccan Royal Lions Simon Black & Nobuyuki Yamaguchi & Adrian Harland & Jim Groombridge Received: 4 March-Verlag 2009 Abstract The last representatives of the Barbary lion (Panthera leo leo), once numerous in North

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

339

Applying Patterns to Develop Extensible and Maintainable ORB Middleware  

Microsoft Academic Search

Distributed object computing forms the basis for next- generation application middleware. At the heart of distributed object computing are Object Request Brokers (ORBs), which automate many tedious and error-prone distributed program- ming tasks. Like many other distributed applications, con- ventional ORBs use statically configured software designs, which are hard to maintain, port, and optimize. Likewise, conventional ORBs cannot be extended

Douglas C. Schmidt; Chris Cleeland

1998-01-01

340

DRAFT Applying Patterns to Develop Extensible and Maintainable ORB Middleware  

Microsoft Academic Search

Distributed object computing forms the basis for next- generation application middleware. At the heart of distributed object computing are Object Request Brokers (ORBs), which automate many tedious and error-prone distributed program- ming tasks. Like many other distributed applications, con- ventional ORBs use statically configured software designs, which are hard to maintain, port, and optimize. Likewise, conventional ORBs cannot be extended

Douglas C. Schmidt; Chris Cleeland

341

Reliability and maintainability: a common ground for cooperation [aircraft  

Microsoft Academic Search

Except for flight critical systems and safety, the commercial aircraft manufacturers and the airlines have not placed much emphasis on reliability and maintainability. When they did include reliability, it was mainly in the form of redundant systems rather than more robust and reliable parts. With a worldwide economic slowdown and a declining defense budget, both the commercial airline industry and

T. J. Howard; J. P. Laverdure

1994-01-01

342

Maintaining Authenticated Communication in the Presence of Break-Ins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: We study the problem of maintaining authenticated communication over untrusted communicationchannels, in a scenario where the communicating parties may be occasionally andrepeatedly broken into for transient periods of time. Once a party is broken into, its cryptographickeys are exposed and perhaps modified. Yet, we want parties whose security is thuscompromised to regain their ability to communicate in an authenticated

Ran Canetti; Shai Halevi; Amir Herzberg

2000-01-01

343

Photocopy of photograph (digital image maintained in LBNL Photo Lab ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Photocopy of photograph (digital image maintained in LBNL Photo Lab Collection, XBD200503-00117-176). March 2005. CENTRAL COLUMN SUPPORT TO ROOF SHOWING CRANES CENTER SUPPORT TRACK, BEVATRON - University of California Radiation Laboratory, Bevatron, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, Alameda County, CA

344

Accounting is the tracking, auditing and maintaining of financial records.  

E-print Network

ACCOUNTING Accounting is the tracking, auditing and maintaining of financial records. OPTION Many graduates choose to take the CPA exam to pursue a career as a professional accountant, but there are career opportunities in other areas such as audit, tax and financial planning. Many accounting students stay at MSU

Maxwell, Bruce D.

345

And Top Ten Tips for Maintaining Immigration Fitness  

E-print Network

And Top Ten Tips for Maintaining Immigration Fitness Lisa Baker Jones Work Visa Options for U.C. Davis Students & Scholars #12;U.S. Immigration Law Basics Understand the difference between Non-Immigrant Visas (NIV) and Immigrant Visas (IV) · Intent: temporary or permanent, strict non-immigrant, dual intent

California at Davis, University of

346

Once Attained, Can Quality Child Care Be Maintained?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research Findings: This study was designed to assess whether investments in child care quality were maintained 3 years after public funding for these centers was significantly reduced. An earlier evaluation documented significant improvements in classroom environments, teachers' sensitivity, and teachers' child-centered beliefs following a…

Roach, Mary A.; Kim, YaeBin; Riley, David A.

2006-01-01

347

Keeping Ourselves Well: Strategies for Promoting and Maintaining Counselor Wellness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes challenges to wellness that counselors face when working with clients. Autobiographical reflections are used to illustrate the personal nature of some of these challenges and how this affects counselor effectiveness and wellness. Additionally, assessment measures and theoretical models for promoting and maintaining wellness…

Cummins, Paige N.; Massey, Linda; Jones, Anita

2007-01-01

348

Implementing and Maintaining an Effective Early Childhood Comprehensive Technology System.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Early Childhood Comprehensive Technology System (ECCTS) was a 3-year collaborative project designed to implement and maintain a comprehensive technology system through on-going training, follow-up and technical support for teachers, team-based technology assessment for children with moderate to severe disabilities, technology integration into…

Hutinger, Patricia L.; Johanson, Joyce

2000-01-01

349

How does Context Affect the Distribution of Software Maintainability Metrics?  

E-print Network

, for various purposes, and by teams with diverse organizational cultures, we believe that context factors of SourceForge. We calculate 39 metrics commonly used to assess software maintainability for each software (LOC) which was used in the mid 60's to assess the productivity of programmers [1]. Since then, a large

Zou, Ying

350

Maintaining Confidentiality with Minors: Dilemmas of School Counselors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examined the attitudes of 195 school counselors in Israel regarding (a) the decision to maintain or breach confidentiality in a variety of ethical dilemmas, and (b) the reasons given for justifying their decisions. Eighteen ethical dilemmas in three domains were presented to respondents in a questionnaire. School counselors were most…

Lazovsky, Rivka

2008-01-01

351

Aim for a Healthy Weight Maintaining a Healthy  

E-print Network

several diseases and conditions. Maintaining a healthy weight has many other benefits, including feeling.MyPyramid.gov.) A healthy eating plan: Emphasizes fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and fat-free or low- fat milk and milk, cholesterol, and sodium (salt). Examples of these foods include fat-free and low-fat milk products; lean meats

Bandettini, Peter A.

352

Studies on the Role of Adhesive Proteins in Maintaining Pregnancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is well known that maternal fibrinogen (Fg) and factor X III are essential for maintaining early pregnancy. We studied their role by analysis of clinical reports and immunohistochemical investigation. Methods: (1) We analyzed the pregnancy cases of congenital afibrinogenemia and congenital factor X III deficiency. (2) Immunohistochemical staining of Fg, subunit A of factor X III (X IIIA) and

Toshihiko Asahina; Takao Kobayashi; Yoshichika Okada; Mariko Itoh; Miwa Yamashita; Yutaka Inamoto; Toshihiko Terao

1998-01-01

353

Motivational Influences on Performance maintained by Food Reinforcement  

PubMed Central

In Study 1, we examined the independent effects of reinforcer consumption during sessions and meal consumption prior to sessions on performance maintained by food reinforcement. Nine individuals with developmental disabilities participated. On alternate days, a preferred edible item was delivered during (a) seven sessions conducted before lunch (repeated-reinforcement condition) versus (b) one session each conducted before and after lunch (pre- and postmeal conditions). Results for 7 of 9 participants showed decreased response rates across sessions in the repeated-reinforcement condition; results for 3 of 9 participants showed decreased rates during postmeal relative to premeal conditions. Two participants who did not show a decrement in responding during either comparison participated in Study 2, in which reinforcer consumption during sessions, combined with meal consumption prior to sessions, also had no effect on their performance. In Study 3, we determined whether (a) choice of reinforcers, (b) increased break time between sessions, (c) varied reinforcers, or (d) intermittent reinforcement schedules mitigated the satiation effects observed for the 7 participants in Study 1. Presession choice of reinforcers resulted in maintained performance for 2 of 6 participants exposed to this condition. Varied reinforcement resulted in maintained performance for only 1 of 5 participants exposed to this condition. Neither the increased break between sessions nor the intermittent reinforcement schedule was effective in maintaining performance for the participants who were exposed to these conditions. PMID:16270842

2005-01-01

354

Metronidazole induces gametocytogenesis in gregarine associations maintained in vitro.  

PubMed

Gametocytogenesis was induced in mature associations of Protomagalhaensia wolfi and Protomagalhaensia blaberae maintained in vitro by inclusion of metronidazole in the culture medium. The response was neither strictly dosage dependent nor uniform across gregarine species. We hypothesize that metronidazole induces gregarine gametocytogenesis by disrupting PUF2 proteins responsible for the translational control of sexual development and gametocytogenesis in apicomplexans. PMID:22263562

Trout, Kate; Clopton, Richard E

2012-06-01

355

Maintaining Healthy Behaviors Following Weight Loss: A Grounded Theory Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explored the process of how women maintained their healthy behaviors after a weight management program using a grounded theory approach. We conducted 2 focus groups and 23 interviews with a purposeful sample of African American and Caucasian women aged 30 and older who lost greater than 5% of their body weight during a weight management…

Zunker, Christie; Cox, Tiffany L.; Ard, Jamy D.; Ivankova, Nataliya V.; Rutt, Candace D.; Baskin, Monica L.

2011-01-01

356

Motivational Influences on Performance Maintained by Food Reinforcement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In Study 1, we examined the independent effects of reinforcer consumption during sessions and meal consumption prior to sessions on performance maintained by food reinforcement. Nine individuals with developmental disabilities participated. On alternate days, a preferred edible item was delivered during (a) seven sessions conducted before lunch…

North, Stephen T.; Iwata, Brian A.

2005-01-01

357

Banded vs Bonded Space Maintainers: Finding Better Way Out  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Objectives: Of this in vivo study was to evaluate various space maintainers in terms of survival rate, gingival health and presence of caries. Design: A total of 60 extraction sites in the age group of 4 to 9 years were divided into four groups and different space maintainers were placed in them viz (conventional band and loop, prefabricated band with custom made loop, Ribbond, Super splint). Results: Prefabricated bands with custom made loop showed maximum success rates (84.6%), while super splint (33.33%) was found to be least successful. In terms of gingival health, prefabricated band with custom made loop reported minimum cases with poor gingival health (27.2%), while maximum cases with poor gingival health (50%) were reported with Super splint. None of the space maintainers developed caries at the end of 9 months. How to cite this article: Setia v, Pandit IK, Srivastava N, Gugnani N, Gupta M. Banded vs Bonded Space Maintainers: Finding Better Way Out. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2014;7(2):97-104.

Kumar Pandit, Inder; Srivastava, Nikhil; Gugnani, Neeraj; Gupta, Monika

2014-01-01

358

?1Adrenergic Receptors Maintain Fetal Heart Rate and Survival  

Microsoft Academic Search

?-Adrenergic receptor (?AR) activation has been shown to maintain heart rate during hypoxia and to rescue the fetus from the fetal lethality that occurs in the absence of norepinephrine. This study examines whether the same subtype of ?AR is responsible for survival and heart rate regulation. It also investigates which ?ARs are located on the early fetal heart and whether

Rashmi Chandra; Andrea L. Portbury; Alisa Ray; Margie Ream; Marybeth Groelle; Dona M. Chikaraishi

2006-01-01

359

Human Sclera Maintains Common Characteristics with Cartilage throughout Evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThe sclera maintains and protects the eye ball, which receives visual inputs. Although the sclera does not contribute significantly to visual perception, scleral diseases such as refractory scleritis, scleral perforation and pathological myopia are considered incurable or difficult to cure. The aim of this study is to identify characteristics of the human sclera as one of the connective tissues derived

Yuko Seko; Noriyuki Azuma; Yoriko Takahashi; Hatsune Makino; Toshiyuki Morito; Takeshi Muneta; Kenji Matsumoto; Hirohisa Saito; Ichiro Sekiya; Akihiro Umezawa; Che John Connon

2008-01-01

360

Maintaining the Fertility of Rice Soils : A Chemical Study.  

E-print Network

TEXAS AGRICULTURAL BAPERIMENT STATIONS. 8 BULLETIN NO. 82. Chemical Xection,-January, 1906. * MAINTAINING THE FERTILITY OF RICE SOILS; A CHEMICAL . STUDY. BY (3. S. FRAPS, PH. D., Acting Chemi,st. POSTOFFICE .-' COLLEGE STATION, BRAZOS... ...................................................... Total loss or gain by'rice soils 17 ........................... ............... Composition of the irrigation waters .% 18 ......................... ...................... Chemical composition of rice soils ..! i.?. 19...

Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach)

1906-01-01

361

Interaction of historical and nonhistorical disturbances maintains native plant communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Historical disturbance regimes are often considered a critical element in maintaining native plant communities. However, the response of plant communities to disturbance may be fundamentally altered as a consequence of invasive plants, climate change, or prior disturbances. The appropriateness of historical disturbance patterns under modern conditions and the interactions among disturbances are issues that ecologists must address to protect and

K. W. Davies; T. J. Svejcar; J. D. Bates

2009-01-01

362

Social isolation.  

PubMed

Social species, by definition, form organizations that extend beyond the individual. These structures evolved hand in hand with behavioral, neural, hormonal, cellular, and genetic mechanisms to support them because the consequent social behaviors helped these organisms survive, reproduce, and care for offspring sufficiently long that they too reproduced. Social isolation represents a lens through which to investigate these behavioral, neural, hormonal, cellular, and genetic mechanisms. Evidence from human and nonhuman animal studies indicates that isolation heightens sensitivity to social threats (predator evasion) and motivates the renewal of social connections. The effects of perceived isolation in humans share much in common with the effects of experimental manipulations of isolation in nonhuman social species: increased tonic sympathetic tonus and HPA activation; and decreased inflammatory control, immunity, sleep salubrity, and expression of genes regulating glucocorticoid responses. Together, these effects contribute to higher rates of morbidity and mortality in older adults. PMID:21651565

Cacioppo, John T; Hawkley, Louise C; Norman, Greg J; Berntson, Gary G

2011-08-01

363

Social isolation  

PubMed Central

Social species, by definition, form organizations that extend beyond the individual. These structures evolved hand in hand with behavioral, neural, hormonal, cellular, and genetic mechanisms to support them because the consequent social behaviors helped these organisms survive, reproduce, and care for offspring sufficiently long that they too reproduced. Social isolation represents a lens through which to investigate these behavioral, neural, hormonal, cellular, and genetic mechanisms. Evidence from human and nonhuman animal studies indicates that isolation heightens sensitivity to social threats (predator evasion) and motivates the renewal of social connections. The effects of perceived isolation in humans share much in common with the effects of experimental manipulations of isolation in nonhuman social species: increased tonic sympathetic tonus and HPA activation, and decreased inflammatory control, immunity, sleep salubrity, and expression of genes regulating glucocorticoid responses. Together, these effects contribute to higher rates of morbidity and mortality in older adults. PMID:21651565

Cacioppo, John T.; Hawkley, Louise C.; Norman, Greg J.; Berntson, Gary G.

2011-01-01

364

76 FR 38046 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement (DFARS); Assignment of Order Codes (DFARS Case...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Regulation Supplement (DFARS); Assignment of Order Codes (DFARS Case 2011-D004) AGENCY: Defense Acquisition...as the office responsible for maintaining order code assignments. The order code procedures are moved from the DFARS to its...

2011-06-29

365

A comparative study of social network analysis tools  

E-print Network

1 A comparative study of social network analysis tools David Combe1 , Christine Largeron1, Elod need for social network mining and social network analysis (SNA) methods and tools in order to provide of these tools which implement algorithms dedicated to social network analysis. Keywords: Social Network Analysis

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

366

Uncovering Social Spammers: Social Honeypots + Machine Learning  

E-print Network

honeypots in MySpace and Twitter. We find that the deployed social honeypots identify social spammers social features ­ from Web-based social net- works (e.g., Facebook, MySpace) to online social media sites

Caverlee, James

367

20 CFR 422.104 - Who can be assigned a social security number.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION...you to have a social security number in order...Federally-funded benefit to which you...you to have a social security number in order...public assistance benefits to which...

2010-04-01

368

Reliability and Maintainability Constrains for the Design, Production and Operation of Astronomical Equipment for the Antarctica  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The installation and operation of an ELT and the associated astronomical instruments requires considering the reliability aspects (the ability to work satisfactorily for a specified time under given environmental conditions) and the maintenance/maintainability aspects from the beginning of an ELT/instrument project. In particular, for equipment working in the extreme antarctic environment the reliability and maintainability characteristics are the main factors influencing, i)the availability of the equipment for the scientific research activities, and ii) the annual and the long term operation costs (Life Cycle Costs, LCC). These characteristics have to be designed and built into the equipment. The presentation describes the general strategy to be followed, the main activities to be done, and the decisions to be taken during the individual project phases from the identification of the user needs to the installation, commissioning and operation in order to guarantee high equipment availability and optimized maintenance effort and costs.

Ansorge, W.

369

Perspectives: Technology as Content in Social Studies Curricula for Young Learners.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Maintains that elementary social studies teachers who wish to engage students in the social studies must see educational technology as both instructional tools and as content. Concludes that technological literacy will become as important as science or civic literacy. (ACM)

Gooler, Dennis D., Ed.

1995-01-01

370

Structure-Preserving Model Order Reduction of RCL Circuit Equations  

E-print Network

Structure-Preserving Model Order Reduction of RCL Circuit Equations Roland W. Freund Department circuit. In this paper, we describe the problem of structure-preserving model order reduction of general-order model to maintain the passivity properties of the orig- inal circuit. In [23, 24, 4], it is shown

Freund, Roland W.

371

Rules and Requirements of the University Medical School Hannover in order to maintain standards of good scientific practise  

E-print Network

/coworkers - cooperation and responsibility of performance in research groups - scientific publications 3.) Violation is responsible for his own behaviour in the context of his/her scientific work. Every leader of a research group and for the overall compliance with the rules. Therefore, an animated communication is needed within a research group

Manstein, Dietmar J.

372

[A technique for total laparoscopic hysterectomy with vaginal morcellation on large uteri in order to maintain minimal invasion].  

PubMed

The advancement and increasing popularity of laparoscopic hysterectomy and the patient's foremost cosmetic concern has made the need for performing laparoscopic hysterectomy in a less morbile and time-consuming manner, we present a technique for large uteri using only three 5 mm entry ports, with tissue morcellation and removal vaginally using the Koh colpo-pneumo occluder. PMID:23405507

Nevarez Bernal, Roberto Armando; Chaya Hajj, Miguel; Velázquez Magaña, Mauricio; Vilchis Nava, Pablo; Buen-Abad, Eduardo Ibarrola

2012-12-01

373

Social Media and Physicians' Online Identity Crisis  

PubMed Central

Physicians are increasingly counted among Face-book’s 1 billion users and Twitter’s 500 million members. Beyond these social media platforms, other innovative social media tools are being used in medical practice, including for online consultation,1 in the conduct of clinical research,2 and in medical school curricula.3 Social media content is brief, characterized as “many-to-many” communication, and able to spread rapidly across the Internet beyond a person’s control. These and other features of social media create new dimensions to traditional ethical issues, particularly around maintaining appropriate boundaries between physicians and patients. PMID:23942675

DeCamp, Matthew; Koenig, Thomas W.; Chisolm, Margaret S.

2014-01-01

374

Social Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

A society is characterized by the common attitudes and behavior of its members. Such behavior reflects purposive decision making by individuals, given the environment they live in. Thus, as technology changes, so might social norms. There were big changes in social norms during the 20th century, especially in sexual mores. In 1900 only six percent of unwed females engaged in

Jeremy Greenwood; Nezih Guner

2008-01-01

375

Social Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Society is characterized by the common attitudes and behaviour of its members. Such behaviour reflects purposive decision making by individuals, given the environment they live in. Thus, as technology changes, so might social norms. There were big changes in social norms during the 20th Century, especially in sexual mores. In 1900 only six percent of unwed females engaged in premarital

Jeremy Greenwoodyand Nezih Gunerz; Nezih Guner

1964-01-01

376

Social Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Society is characterized by the common attitudes and behaviour of its members. Such behaviour reflects purposive decision making by individuals, given the environment they live in. Thus, as technology changes, so might social norms. There were big changes in social norms during the 20th Century, especially in sexual mores. In 1900 only six percent of unwed females engaged in premarital

Jeremy Greenwood; Nezih Guner

2007-01-01

377

Social Revolution  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

MySpace and Facebook may have been pioneers in the world of social software, but nowadays, colleges and universities across the country are embracing better and more targeted forms of technology, to enable their campus users to interact. Today, the world of social software includes traditional venues and formats: (1) blogs; (2) wikis; and (3)…

Villano, Matt

2007-01-01

378

An intervention to help older adults maintain independence safely.  

PubMed

Older adults who live alone are at risk for problems (e.g., falling, sudden illness). To maintain themselves safely at home they may benefit from planning to prevent problems. The purpose of this study was to evaluate an intervention designed to train family members or friends as to how to help older adults who were living alone make plans to maintain independence safely in their homes and to make behavioral and household changes to enhance safety. Support network members of 19 older adults randomly assigned to the intervention group were taught to use multiple segment vignettes to assist the older adults in creating plans for living safely. Older adults in the control group (n = 21) were asked to engage in an unstructured discussion about home safety with their network members. Older adults in the intervention group developed safer plans and made more household and behavioral changes than did control group adults. PMID:23329628

Ganong, Lawrence H; Coleman, Marilyn; Benson, Jacquelyn J; Snyder-Rivas, Linley A; Stowe, James D; Porter, Eileen J

2013-05-01

379

Getting and maintaining attention in talk to young children.  

PubMed

When two people talk about an object, they depend on joint attention, a prerequisite for setting up common ground in a conversational exchange. In this study, we analyze this process for parent and child, with data from 40 dyads, to show how adults initiate joint attention in talking to young children (mean ages 1;6 and 3;0). Adults first get their children's attention with a summons (e.g. Ready?, See this?), but cease using such forms once children give evidence of attending. Children signal their attention by looking at the target object, evidence used by the adults. Only at that point do adults begin to talk about the object. From then on, they use language and gesture to offer information about and maintain attention on the target. The techniques adults rely on are interactive: they establish joint attention and maintain it throughout the exchange. PMID:18062359

Estigarribia, Bruno; Clark, Eve V

2007-11-01

380

Balanced cortical microcircuitry for maintaining information in working memory  

PubMed Central

Persistent neural activity in the absence of a stimulus has been identified as a neural correlate of working memory, but how such activity is maintained by neocortical circuits remains unknown. Here we show that the inhibitory and excitatory microcircuitry of neocortical memory-storing regions is sufficient to implement a corrective feedback mechanism that enables persistent activity to be maintained stably for prolonged durations. When recurrent excitatory and inhibitory inputs to memory neurons are balanced in strength, but offset in time, drifts in activity trigger a corrective signal that counteracts memory decay. Circuits containing this mechanism temporally integrate their inputs, generate the irregular neural firing observed during persistent activity, and are robust against common perturbations that severely disrupt previous models of short-term memory storage. This work reveals a mechanism for the accumulation and storage of memories in neocortical circuits based upon principles of corrective negative feedback widely used in engineering applications. PMID:23955560

Lim, Sukbin; Goldman, Mark S.

2013-01-01

381

Using GPS and VLBI technology to maintain 14 digit synchronization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To facilitate the navigation of spacecraft to the outer planets, Jupiter and beyond, the JPL-NASA Deep Space Network (DSN) has implemented three ensembles of atomic clocks at widely separated locations. These clocks must be maintained, synchronized, to with a few parts in 10 to the 13th power of each other and, the entire group must be maintained, to a lesser degree, in synchronism with Coordinated Universal Time (UTC)NBS/USNO. Over the last 1 1/2 years the DSN has been using Global Positioning Satellites (GPS) and Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) technology to perform these critical Frequency and Time (F&T) synchronization tasks. A year of F&T synchronization data collected from the intercomparison of 3 sets of cesium and hydrogen maser driven clock ensembles through the use of GPS and VLBI techniques are covered. Also covered, are some of the problems met and limitations of these two techniques at their present level of technology.

Ward, S. C.

1984-01-01

382

Compact, maintainable 80-KeV neutral beam module  

DOEpatents

A compact, maintainable 80-keV arc chamber, extractor module for a neutral beam system immersed in a vacuum of <10.sup.-2 Torr, incorporating a nested 60-keV gradient shield located midway between the high voltage ion source and surrounding grounded frame. The shield reduces breakdown or arcing path length without increasing the voltage gradient, tends to keep electric fields normal to conducting surfaces rather than skewed and reduces the peak electric field around irregularities on the 80-keV electrodes. The arc chamber or ion source is mounted separately from the extractor or ion accelerator to reduce misalignment of the accelerator and to permit separate maintenance to be performed on these systems. The separate mounting of the ion source provides for maintaining same without removing the ion accelerator.

Fink, Joel H. (Livermore, CA); Molvik, Arthur W. (Livermore, CA)

1980-01-01

383

Discrete event simulation to improve aircraft availability and maintainability  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a study of maintenance operations at the Daytona Beach, Florida campus of Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University. Embry-Riddle is well-known for its large flight training programs. The Flight Training Department also maintains the school's aircraft on-site at the Daytona Beach campus. There, overall system availability at the operational level has been a chronic problem. The number of aircraft grounded

Massoud Bazargan; R. N. McGrath

2003-01-01

384

Onsite Wastewater Treatment Systems: Understanding and Maintaining your Septic System  

E-print Network

Understanding and maintaining your septic system L-5491 9-08 Figure 1: Components of an on-site wastewater treatment system. Onsite wastewater treatment systems Well 1. Wastewater source 2. Collection and storage 3. Pretreatment Groundwater 4.... Final treatment and dispersal P roper operation and maintenance of your wastewater treatment system is critical for its performance. Taking proper care of your system also: components; and final treatment and dispersal components. Wastewater source...

Lesikar, Bruce J.; Mechell, Justin; Alexander, Rachel

2008-10-23

385

PKMf Maintains Spatial, Instrumental, and Classically Conditioned Long-Term  

Microsoft Academic Search

How long-term memories are stored is a fundamental question in neuroscience. The first molecular mechanism for long-term memory storage in the brain was recently identified as the persistent action of protein kinase Mzeta (PKMf), an autonomously active atypical protein kinase C (PKC) isoform critical for the maintenance of long-term potentiation (LTP). PKMf maintains aversively conditioned associations, but what general form

Eugenia L. Friedman; Jana Kenney; Stephen M. Taubenfeld; Joshua M. Zimmerman; John Hanna; Cristina Alberini; Ann E. Kelley; Stephen Maren; Jerry W. Rudy; Jerry C. P. Yin; Todd C. Sacktor; Andre A. Fenton

386

The effects of buprenorphine in buprenorphine-maintained volunteers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Buprenorphine is a mu opioid partial agonist currently used as an analgesic, and being developed for the treatment of opioid\\u000a dependence. The purpose of this study was to determine the abuse liability of parenteral buprenorphine in volunteers maintained\\u000a on daily sublingual (SL) buprenorphine (8?mg). In a residential laboratory, eight volunteers underwent pharmacologic challenges\\u000a two times per week. Medication challenges were

Eric C. Strain; Sharon L. Walsh; Kenzie L. Preston; Ira A. Liebson; George E. Bigelow

1997-01-01

387

A CBD Application Integration Framework for High Productivity and Maintainability  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Under a rapidly evolving e-business environment with frequent employee turnover and limited resources, a large volume of web-based\\u000a software development projects require the CBD method for highly reusability and flexibility. This paper presents the architecture\\u000a of our CBD application integration framework that has been used for developing large-scale e-business applications to achieve\\u000a high development productivity and maintainability. This framework is

Yonghwan Lee; Eunmi Choi; Dugki Min

2005-01-01

388

Maintaining Engagement in Long-term Interventions with Relational Agents  

PubMed Central

We discuss issues in designing virtual humans for applications which require long-term voluntary use, and the problem of maintaining engagement with users over time. Concepts and theories related to engagement from a variety of disciplines are reviewed. We describe a platform for conducting studies into long-term interactions between humans and virtual agents, and present the results of two longitudinal randomized controlled experiments in which the effect of manipulations of agent behavior on user engagement was assessed. PMID:21318052

Bickmore, Timothy; Schulman, Daniel; Yin, Langxuan

2011-01-01

389

The Social Insects Web: Antbase  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site (last mentioned in the September 17, 1997 Scout Report for Science & Engineering) is maintained by Donat Agosti, a research scientist at the American Museum of Natural History. Since its last review, much has changed, including an updated Integrated Taxonomic Information System; access to a full-text database of primary systematics publications; and a link to FORMIS 2001, a composite of several ant literature databases. Continually updated, the Social Insect Web (SIWeb) Working Space includes links that have not yet been integrated into the site, but may prove useful to those studying ants and other social insects.

Agosti, Donat.

1969-12-31

390

Reinforcement contingencies maintaining collateral responding under a DRL schedule1  

PubMed Central

Two-key conjunctive schedules were studied with one key (food key) under a differential-reinforcement-of-low-rate 20-sec schedule, while the consequences of responding on another key (collateral key) were varied. When food depended not only upon a food-key interresponse time in excess of 20 sec, but also upon the occurrence of one or more collateral-key responses during the food-key interresponse time, the rate of collateral-key responding was low and food-key interresponse times rarely exceeded 20 sec. When collateral-key responses could produce a discriminative stimulus correlated with the availability of food under the DRL schedule, the discriminative stimulus functioned as a conditioned reinforcer to maintain higher rates of collateral-key responding, and the spacing of food-key responses increased. If the occurrence of the discriminative stimulus was independent of collateral-key responses, the rate of collateral-key responding was again low, but the spacing of food-key responses was still controlled by the discriminative stimulus. Both the conditioned reinforcer and the explicit reinforcement contingency could maintain collateral-key responding, but the adventitious correlation between collateral-key responses and the delivery of food could not maintain very much collateral-key responding. The pattern of responding on the food-key was determined to a much greater extent by the correlation between the discriminative stimulus and the delivery of food than by the pattern of responding on the collateral key. PMID:16811365

McMillan, D. E.

1969-01-01

391

Insulin transcriptionally regulates argininosuccinate synthase to maintain vascular endothelial function  

PubMed Central

Diminished vascular endothelial cell nitric oxide (NO) production is a major factor in the complex pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus. In this report, we demonstrate that insulin not only maintains endothelial NO production through regulation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), but also via the regulation of argininosuccinate synthase (AS), which is the rate-limiting step of the citrulline-NO cycle. Using serum starved, cultured vascular endothelial cells, we show that insulin up-regulates AS and eNOS transcription to support NO production. Moreover, we show that insulin enhances NO production in response to physiological cues such as bradykinin. To translate these results to an in vivo model, we show that AS transcription is diminished in coronary endothelial cells isolated from rats with streptozotocin (STZ) -induced diabetes. Importantly, we demonstrate restoration of AS and eNOS transcription by insulin treatment in STZ-diabetic rats, and show that this restoration was accompanied by improved endothelial function as measured by endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation. Overall, this report demonstrates, both in cell culture and whole animal studies, that insulin maintains vascular function, in part, through the maintenance of AS transcription, thus ensuring an adequate supply of arginine to maintain vascular endothelial response to physiological cues. PMID:22452988

Haines, Ricci J; Corbin, Karen D; Pendleton, Laura C; Meininger, Cynthia J; Eichler, Duane C

2014-01-01

392

Social Work and Applied Social Studies  

E-print Network

Social Work and Applied Social Studies Undergraduate #12;Undergraduate Social and Policy Sciences 2, social policy, international development and social work. Many of our staff are at the forefront Guide 2015, for example, social work at Bath is ranked 1st, sociology 2nd, social policy 3rd. Bath

Burton, Geoffrey R.

393

of Social Work and Social Policy  

E-print Network

School of Social Work and Social Policy School M.Sc. in Disability Studies #12;The M and benefit from the input of the different academic centres involved in the M.Sc. including: Social Work Dublin) School of Social Work and Social Policy School of Social Work and Social Policy #12;Two options

O'Mahony, Donal E.

394

Interindividual variability in social insects - proximate causes and ultimate consequences.  

PubMed

Individuals within social groups often show consistent differences in behaviour across time and context. Such interindividual differences and the evolutionary challenge they present have recently generated considerable interest. Social insects provide some of the most familiar and spectacular examples of social groups with large interindividual differences. Investigating these within-group differences has a long research tradition, and behavioural variability among the workers of a colony is increasingly regarded as fundamental for a key feature of social insects: division of labour. The goal of this review is to illustrate what we know about both the proximate mechanisms underlying behavioural variability among the workers of a colony and its ultimate consequences; and to highlight the many open questions in this research field. We begin by reviewing the literature on mechanisms that potentially introduce, maintain, and adjust the behavioural differentiation among workers. We highlight the fact that so far, most studies have focused on behavioural variability based on genetic variability, provided by e.g. multiple mating of the queen, while other mechanisms that may be responsible for the behavioural differentiation among workers have been largely neglected. These include maturational, nutritional and environmental influences. We further discuss how feedback provided by the social environment and learning and experience of adult workers provides potent and little-explored sources of differentiation. In a second part, we address what is known about the potential benefits and costs of increased behavioural variability within the workers of a colony. We argue that all studies documenting a benefit of variability so far have done so by manipulating genetic variability, and that a direct test of the effect of behavioural variability on colony productivity has yet to be provided. We emphasize that the costs associated with interindividual variability have been largely overlooked, and that a better knowledge of the cost/benefit balance of behavioural variability is crucial for our understanding of the evolution of the mechanisms underlying the social organization of insect societies. We conclude by highlighting what we believe to be promising but little-explored avenues for future research on how within-colony variability has evolved and is maintained. We emphasize the need for comparative studies and point out that, so far, most studies on interindividual variability have focused on variability in individual response thresholds, while the significance of variability in other parameters of individual response, such as probability and intensity of the response, has been largely overlooked. We propose that these parameters have important consequences for the colony response. Much more research is needed to understand if and how interindividual variability is modulated in order to benefit division of labour, homeostasis and ultimately colony fitness in social insects. PMID:24341677

Jeanson, Raphaël; Weidenmüller, Anja

2014-08-01

395

Navigation Patterns from and to Social Media  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the rapid rise of social media content, the question how people navigate to and from social media becomes im- portant in order to understand what new tools and approach- es are most beneficial to allow users to discover and interact with this social media data. In this study we analyze session log data to describe navigation patterns involving these

Michael Gamon; Arnd Christian König

2009-01-01

396

Group Modeling in Social Learning Environments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students' collaboration while learning could provide better learning environments. Collaboration assumes social interactions which occur in student groups. Social theories emphasize positive influence of such interactions on learning. In order to create an appropriate learning environment that enables social interactions, it is important to…

Stankov, Slavomir; Glavinic, Vlado; Krpan, Divna

2012-01-01

397

The Neural Signature of Social Norm Compliance  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY All known human societies establish social order by punishing violators of social norms. However, little is known about how the brain processes the punishment threat associated with norm violations. We use fMRI to study the neural circuitry behind social norm compliance by comparing a treatment in which norm viola- tions can be punished with a control treatment in which

Manfred Spitzer; Urs Fischbacher; Bärbel Herrnberger; Georg Grön; Ernst Fehr

2007-01-01

398

Facebook: Maintaining Ethical Practice in the Cyberspace Age  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current technology provides counseling center clinicians regular and immediate access to the students they work with via social networking. Focusing on Facebook in particular, this article discusses the opportunities and challenges this access creates and specifically explores how utilization of ethical, clinical, and cultural lenses might affect decisions about Facebook use, with particular emphasis on consideration of appropriate ethical principles

Ian Birky; Wanda Collins

2011-01-01

399

Facebook: Maintaining Ethical Practice in the Cyberspace Age  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Current technology provides counseling center clinicians regular and immediate access to the students they work with via social networking. Focusing on Facebook in particular, this article discusses the opportunities and challenges this access creates and specifically explores how utilization of ethical, clinical, and cultural lenses might affect…

Birky, Ian; Collins, Wanda

2011-01-01

400

Functional Analysis of Inappropriate Social Interactions in Students with Asperger's Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We analyzed the inappropriate social interactions of 3 students with Asperger's syndrome whose behavior was maintained by social positive reinforcement. We tested whether inappropriate social behavior was sensitive to social positive reinforcement contingencies and whether such contingencies could be reversed to increase the probability of…

Roantree, Christina F.; Kennedy, Craig H.

2012-01-01

401

The Ties That Bond: Re-Examining the Relationship between Facebook Use and Bonding Social Capital  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research has established a positive relationship between measures of Facebook use and perceptions of social capital. Like other social network sites, Facebook is especially well-positioned to enhance users’ bridging social capital because it lowers coordination costs associated with maintaining a large, potentially diverse network of Friends. The relationship between Facebook use and perceived bonding social capital, however, is not as

Jessica Vitak; Nicole B. Ellison; Charles Steinfield

2011-01-01

402

An Examination of Characteristics Related to the Social Skills of Youths with Visual Impairments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

From an early age, children with visual impairments can be at a disadvantage for developing social skills. Since vision plays a role in the early development of social behaviors and of social cognition, the lack of visual cues could lead to difficulties in initiating and maintaining social interactions. The study presented here investigated…

Zebehazy, Kim T.; Smith, Thomas J.

2011-01-01

403

Social Norms and Social Assets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social norms are often posited as an explanation of differences in the economic behavior and performance of societies that are difficult to explain by differences in endowments and technology. The successful integration of social norms into economic models requires an understanding of the basis of the differences in preferences that lead to different behaviors. I explore the difference between deep

Andrew Postlewaite

2011-01-01

404

Social mix policies in Paris: discourses, policies and social effects.  

PubMed

Since the 1980s, the issue of social mix has become a public policy category in France. Enshrined in legislation, yet remaining controversial, it represents a major premise on which housing policies have been reconfigured. The concept of social mix is essentially based on who lives where, but it is also evoked in the context of urban renewal schemes for social housing estates, as well as in relation to new-build developments. A study of the bases of social mix policies conducted in Paris since 2001 in the context of the embourgeoisement of the capital shows the fundamental role of social housing stock. The City Council has become involved in policy decisions about both the location and the allocation of social housing. Particular attention has been paid to the middle classes in the name of the principle of ‘balancing the population’. In order to measure the effects of the policy, this article relies on an analysis of two City of Paris schemes that have the stated intent of creating social mix. One of these schemes consists of redeveloping a working-class neighbourhood, Goutte d'Or, while the other involves the new acquisition of social housing in various more affluent neighbourhoods in the capital. This comparative study of the population shows that, whether in a neighbourhood poised for gentrification or in a more affluent neighbourhood, this policy has major effects on forms of local social cohesion, setting in motion individual trajectories and reshaping social and/or ethnic identities. PMID:21542203

Bacqué, Marie-Hélène; Fijalkow, Yankel; Launay, Lydie; Vermeersch, Stéphanie

2011-01-01

405

Cultural Aspects in Social Anxiety and Social Anxiety Disorder  

PubMed Central

To examine cultural aspects in social anxiety and social anxiety disorder (SAD), we reviewed the literature on the prevalence rates, expressions, and treatments of social anxiety/SAD as they relate to culture, race, and ethnicity. We further reviewed factors that contribute to the differences in social anxiety/SAD between different cultures, including individualism/collectivism, perception of social norms, self-construal, gender roles, and gender role identification. Our review suggests that the prevalence and expression of social anxiety/SAD depends on the particular culture. Asian cultures typically show the lowest rates, whereas Russian and US samples show the highest rates, of SAD. Taijin kyofusho is discussed as a possible culture-specific expression of social anxiety, although the empirical evidence concerning the validity of this syndrome has been mixed. It is concluded that the individual's social concerns need to be examined in the context of the person's cultural, racial, and ethnic background in order to adequately assess the degree and expression of social anxiety and social anxiety disorder. This has direct relevance for the upcoming DSM-V. PMID:21132847

Hofmann, Stefan G.; Asnaani, Anu; Hinton, Devon E.

2010-01-01

406

Whereto, the Social Studies: Social Studies or the Social Sciences.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper defines, inquires into the relationships, and analyzes the terms social sciences and social studies. Too often social studies are a simplified instructional adaptation from the social sciences in which curricular decisions are made on the basis of dictates of the social science disciplines and of college prerequisites. A social studies…

Shaver, James P.

407

Social Psychology (Program Description)  

NSF Publications Database

... and Cognitive Sciences Social Psychology Description The Social Psychology Program at NSF ... emotion, social comparison and social influence, and the psychophysiological and neurophysiological ...

408

Sex chromosome linkage of mate preference and color signal maintains assortative mating between interbreeding finch morphs.  

PubMed

Assortative mating is a key aspect in the speciation process because it is important for both initial divergence and maintenance of distinct species. However, it remains a challenge to explain how assortative mating evolves when diverging populations are undergoing gene flow (e.g., during hybridization). Here I experimentally test how assortative mating is maintained with frequent gene flow between diverged head-color morphs of the Gouldian finch (Erythrura gouldiae). Contrary to the predominant view on the development of sexual preferences in birds, cross-fostered offspring did not imprint on the phenotype of their conspecific (red or black morphs) or heterospecific (Bengalese finch) foster parents. Instead, the mating preferences of F(1) and F(2) intermorph-hybrids are consistent with inheritance on the Z chromosomes, which are also the location for genes controlling color expression and the genes causing low fitness of intermorph-hybrids. Genetic associations between color signal and preference loci on the sex chromosomes may prevent recombination from breaking down these associations when the morphs interbreed, helping to maintain assortative mating in the face of gene flow. Although sex linkage of reproductively isolating traits is theoretically expected to promote speciation, social and ecological constraints may enforce frequent interbreeding between the morphs, thus preventing complete reproductive isolation. PMID:19922444

Pryke, Sarah R

2010-05-01

409

Epigenetic control of vasopressin expression is maintained by steroid hormones in the adult male rat brain.  

PubMed

Although some DNA methylation patterns are altered by steroid hormone exposure in the developing brain, less is known about how changes in steroid hormone levels influence DNA methylation patterns in the adult brain. Steroid hormones act in the adult brain to regulate gene expression. Specifically, the expression of the socially relevant peptide vasopressin (AVP) within the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST) of adult brain is dependent upon testosterone exposure. Castration dramatically reduces and testosterone replacement restores AVP expression within the BST. As decreases in mRNA expression are associated with increases in DNA promoter methylation, we explored the hypothesis that AVP expression in the adult brain is maintained through sustained epigenetic modifications of the AVP gene promoter. We find that castration of adult male rats resulted in decreased AVP mRNA expression and increased methylation of specific CpG sites within the AVP promoter in the BST. Similarly, castration significantly increased estrogen receptor ? (ER?) mRNA expression and decreased ER? promoter methylation within the BST. These changes were prevented by testosterone replacement. This suggests that the DNA promoter methylation status of some steroid responsive genes in the adult brain is actively maintained by the presence of circulating steroid hormones. The maintenance of methylated or demethylated states of some genes in the adult brain by the presence of steroid hormones may play a role in the homeostatic regulation of behaviorally relevant systems. PMID:21368111

Auger, Catherine J; Coss, Dylan; Auger, Anthony P; Forbes-Lorman, Robin M

2011-03-01

410

HALO (Highly Addictive, sociaLly Optimized) Software Engineering  

E-print Network

HALO (Highly Addictive, sociaLly Optimized) Software Engineering Swapneel Sheth, Jonathan BellVille on Facebook and the Apple App Store have over 80 million users [3]. Even though these games still maintain

Kaiser, Gail E.

411

Viewpoint. How Should We Assess Children's Social Competence?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Argues against the use of standardized tests in assessing children's social competence and maintains that the observation of certain categories of children's behavior may provide the basis for an alternative method of assessment. Nine criteria for assessment are suggested. (CM)

Hilliard, Asa G., III

1978-01-01

412

Social Phobia  

MedlinePLUS

... for help. Missing a chance to share their talents and learn new skills. Social phobia might prevent ... auditioning for the school play, being in the talent show, trying out for a team, or joining ...

413

Social Pollution  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Social pollution provides the matrix for the pollution of the physical environment. This stems from man's present inability to function synergistically. To find new freedoms in purposeful evolution, we will have to start cleansing our Mind. (Author/SD)

Esser, Aristide Henri

1971-01-01

414

Diets, equipment, and techniques for maintaining crawfish in the laboratory  

USGS Publications Warehouse

One commercial and 4 laboratory prepared extruded, water-stable diets were fed 3 times a week in 1-g portions to juvenile male and female White River crawfish, Procambarus acutus acutus (Girard), for 10 weeks. The. binding material in the laboratory preparation was alginate (Kelgin), whereas that in the commercial preparation was starch. No statistically significant weight differences developed between the groups of crawfish at the end of the 10-week period; all 5 diets were found satisfactory for feeding and maintaining P. acutus acutus in the laboratory, and all test crawfish survived throughout the experimental period. Weight gains were highest in a diet containing 50.5% protein; intermediate in those fed a diet with 46.0% protein; and lowest in those fed diets with 31.7 or 36.3% protein. Crawfish fed the commercial preparation of one of the 46.0% protein diets showed a slightly but not significantly higher weight gain than those fed the laboratory preparation of the diet. In an evaluation of the water stability of 5 commercially prepared animal chow diets and the commercial extruded diet, 2 of the commercial diets disintegrated after one hour exposure in water and the other 3 became bloated after one hour and remained on the surface throughout the 24-hour test. The commercial extruded diet maintained its water stability for the full 24 hours. The commercial preparation of the 46.0% protein diet was successfully used under laboratory conditions for feeding and maintaining the following crawfishes: Cambarellus shufeldtii (Faxon), Cambarus acuminatus Faxon, Orconectes limosus (Rafinesque), O. virilis (Hagen), Procambarus clarkii (Girard), and P. spiculifer (Le conte). In longevity experiments Cambarus diogenes diogenes Girard and Procambarus hinei (Ortmann) now have survived for 8 months on this diet in the laboratory.

Tarshis, I.B.

1978-01-01

415

Social Psychology Network  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

With over 11,000 links contained within its pages, the Social Psychology Network site is arguably the largest social psychology database on the Internet. Maintained by Professor Scout Plous of Wesleyan University, the site has been generously supported by the National Science Foundation. Visitors will appreciate the very clean layout of the siteâÂÂs homepage, as they are presented with a search engine, along with a number of electronic forums, and a listing of related topics. To delve into the siteâÂÂs contents, visitors may wish to select from any one of the areas on the left-hand side of the homepage, which include listings of doctoral programs in social psychology and teaching resources. There are numerous other options for interested parties, and they lead to such offerings as rankings of doctoral programs in the field and distance learning options in the field. Finally, visitors can also view many of the siteâÂÂs documents in a number of languages, including Spanish, French, Italian, and German.

Plous, Scott

1996-01-01

416

Social Networking  

Microsoft Academic Search

The major social networking tools like MySpace and Facebook give people an online identity-and an online space to call their own. Other social networking tools are more nuanced than sharing whole personalities like on MySpace. Tools like Library Thing, Flickr, and del. icio.us that focus on connecting people through certain media and interests offer specialized value to users. This paper

Melissa L. Rethlefsen

2007-01-01

417

Oscillatory nonhmic current drive for maintaining a plasma current  

DOEpatents

Apparatus and method of the invention maintain a plasma current with an oscillatory nonohmic current drive. Each cycle of operation has a generation period in which current driving energy is applied to the plasma, and a relaxation period in which current driving energy is removed. Plasma parameters, such as plasma temperature or plasma average ionic charge state, are modified during the generation period so as to oscillate plasma resistivity in synchronism with the application of current driving energy. The invention improves overall current drive efficiencies.

Fisch, Nathaniel J. (Princeton, NJ)

1986-01-01

418

Oscillatory nonohomic current drive for maintaining a plasma current  

DOEpatents

Apparatus and methods are described for maintaining a plasma current with an oscillatory nonohmic current drive. Each cycle of operation has a generation period in which current driving energy is applied to the plasma, and a relaxation period in which current driving energy is removed. Plasma parameters, such as plasma temperature or plasma average ionic charge state, are modified during the generation period so as to oscillate plasma resistivity in synchronism with the application of current driving energy. The invention improves overall current drive efficiencies.

Fisch, N.J.

1984-01-01

419

Using parents to maintain improved dental flossing skills in children.  

PubMed Central

An experimenter-administered intervention involving prompts, self-monitoring, permanent product collection, rewards for plaque reduction, and corrective feedback was used to improve the flossing skills of four 7- to 11-year-old children. Parents were subsequently trained in the reward and feedback procedures to facilitate maintenance. In a multiple baseline across subjects design, all four subjects showed improvement in plaque between teeth during experimenter-administered intervention. Three subjects maintained low plaque levels during the 3- to 4-month parent-administered rewards and feedback follow-up condition. Improved plaque levels on nontargeted tooth surfaces also were observed. Pediatric dentistry applications are discussed. PMID:3771418

Dahlquist, L M; Gil, K M

1986-01-01

420

A fail-safe mechanism for maintaining self-tolerance  

PubMed Central

Using cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) responses to the class I histocompatibility antigen Qa1 and to the minor histocompatibility antigen H-Y, we show that the immune system maintains a peripheral screening process that is able to tolerize a wide variety of potentially autoimmune CTL. The critical factor is the presence or absence of specific T helper cells. If T help is available, CTL precursors that recognize antigen are activated. In the absence of help, they are tolerized. Thus, T helper cells are guardians of peripheral tolerance in CTL. PMID:1386876

1992-01-01

421

Distributed measurement of birefringence dispersion in polarization-maintaining fibers.  

PubMed

A new method to measure the birefringence dispersion in high-birefringence polarization-maintaining fibers is presented using white-light interferometry. By analyzing broadening of low-coherence interferograms obtained in a scanning Michelson interferometer, the birefringence dispersion and its variation along different fiber sections are acquired with high sensitivity and accuracy. Birefringence dispersions of two PANDA fibers at their operation wavelength are measured to be 0.011 ps/(km nm) and 0.018 ps/(km nm), respectively. Distributed measurement capability of the method is also verified experimentally. PMID:17099733

Tang, Feng; Wang, Xiang-Zhao; Zhang, Yimo; Jing, Wencai

2006-12-01

422

Space Tools for Servicing, Repairing, and Maintaining Spacecraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Just like mechanics and technicians on Earth, astronauts use a variety of manual and portable power tools in space to repair, service, and maintain spacecraft, like the Space Shuttle and the International Space Station (ISS), and other satellites, like the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). Space tools are divided into two main operating categories: Intravehicular Activity (IVA) tools and Extravehicular Activity (EVA) tools. N A tools are used by astronauts inside the pressurized habitable compartments of a spacecraft for routine maintenance, repair, and unexpected tasks. EVA tools are used by space-suited astronauts outside of their pressurized spacecraft in the vacuum of space.

Trevino, Robert C.

2002-01-01

423

The perceived relative worth of reaching and maintaining goal weight  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To examine the perceived relative worth of reaching and maintaining a self-selected goal weight, for obese and non-obese individuals.DESIGN: Cross-sectional study.SUBJECTS: Twenty-five obese treatment-seekers (age 41.0 y, BMI 42.5) and a community sample of 31 obese (age 40.8 y, BMI 32.2) and 64 non-obese participants (age 32.4 y, BMI 23.4).MEASUREMENT: An 18-item forced-choice questionnaire evaluating what participants would hypothetically

P M O’Neil; CF Smith; GD Foster; DA Anderson

2000-01-01

424

Economy, Culture, Public Policy, and the Urban Underclass. A Discussion of Research on Processes and Mechanisms That Create, Maintain, or Overcome Urban Poverty.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research is examining the processes by which persistent and concentrated urban poverty is created, maintained, prevented, or overcome. This paper reports on discussion and suggestions generated in a planning meeting of the Social Science Research Council's Committee for Research on the Urban Underclass held on September 21-23, 1988. Issues…

Pearson, Robert W.

1989-01-01

425

Anarchism and the Problem of Order  

E-print Network

rules of ele­ mentary social behavior are those upon which order is based. of the five formal propositions offered by Homans, the first four come directly from operant pyschology (Hingers and Willer, 1979; Miley, 1981 ).1 The final proposition has to do...

Hartung, Beth

1983-04-01

426

Old Order Amish Philosophy of Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Old Order Amish in the societal arena provides a philosophy of education which is unique and worthy of study.They tend to have a minimal of problems when making comparisons with other sub cultures in society. Drug abuse, pregnancy among unwed mothers, crime, alcoholism, thievery, and other forms of anti-social behavior appear to be at a very…

Ediger, Marlow

2005-01-01

427

Social anhedonia and work and social functioning in the acute and recovered phases of eating disorders.  

PubMed

Interpersonal difficulties are proposed to maintain eating disorders (EDs). This study explored whether social anhedonia (SA) was an additional social emotional maintenance factor which might also explain work/social problems in EDs. Additionally, the study explored SA and work and social adjustment in recovered participants. Women with anorexia nervosa (AN; n=105), bulimia nervosa (BN; n=46), recovered from AN (RAN; n=30) and non-ED controls (n=136) completed the Work and Social Adjustment Scale (WSAS) and the Revised Social Anhedonia Scale. ED participants reported greater SA and WSAS scores than non-ED controls; the RAN group reported an intermediate profile. AN participants had poorer work/social adjustment than BN participants. SA was associated with longer illness duration. SA, current severity (BMI) and lifetime severity (lowest adult BMI) significantly predicted work/social difficulties. Recovered participants scoring in the clinical range for SA experienced significantly greater work/social difficulties than recovered participants scoring outside the clinical range for SA. EDs are associated with clinical levels of SA and poor work/social functioning which reduce in recovery. SA may maintain the interpersonal functioning difficulties. PMID:24755042

Harrison, Amy; Mountford, Victoria A; Tchanturia, Kate

2014-08-15

428

Understanding Invitational Travel Orders  

MedlinePLUS

... out how!. Apply Now Home » Deployment Understanding Invitational Travel Orders Invitational Travel Orders (ITOs) are issued when doctors determine that ... ITOs, you're eligible to receive money for travel, lodging, and daily food expenses. This daily expense ...

429

First-order inflation  

SciTech Connect

In the original proposal, inflation occurred in the process of a strongly first-order phase transition. This model was soon demonstrated to be fatally flawed. Subsequent models for inflation involved phase transitions that were second-order, or perhaps weakly first-order; some even involved no phase transition at all. Recently the possibility of inflation during a strongly first-order phase transition has been revived. In this talk I will discuss some models for first-order inflation, and emphasize unique signatures that result in inflation is realized in a first-order transition. Before discussing first-order inflation, I will briefly review some of the history of inflation to demonstrate how first-order inflation differs from other models. 58 refs., 3 figs.

Kolb, E.W. (Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (USA) Chicago Univ., IL (USA). Enrico Fermi Inst.)

1990-09-01

430

ASDC Order Tools  

... ASDC Web Ordering Tools Java Tool Help HTML Tool Help These tools allow users to search our data holdings ... The ordering tool is available in both Java and HTML versions. Reverb Search Tool Reverb Tutorial ...

2012-04-17

431

Order of Operations Quiz  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity allows the user to practice order of operations with addition/subtraction, multiplication/division, exponents, and parentheses. Order of Operations Quiz is one of the Interactivate assessment quizzes.

432

Maintaining Aura's Orbit Requirements Under New Maneuver Operations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Earth Observing System (EOS) Afternoon Constellation consists of five member missions (GCOM-W1, Aqua, CALIPSO, CloudSat, and Aura), each of which maintain a frozen, sun-synchronous orbit with a 16-day repeating ground track that follows the Worldwide Reference System-2 (WRS-2). Under nominal science operations for Aura, the propulsion system is oriented such that the resultant thrust vector is aligned 13.493 degrees away from the velocity vector along the yaw axis. When performing orbit maintenance maneuvers, the spacecraft performs a yaw slew to align the thrust vector in the appropriate direction. A new Drag Make Up (DMU) maneuver operations scheme has been implemented for Aura alleviating the need for the 13.493 degree yaw slew. The focus of this investigation is to assess the impact that no-slew DMU maneuver operations will have on Auras Mean Local Time (MLT) which drives the required along track separation between Aura and the constellation members, as well as Auras frozen orbit properties, eccentricity and argument of perigee. Seven maneuver strategies were analyzed to determine the best operational approach. A mirror pole strategy, with maneuvers alternating at the North and South poles, was implemented operationally to minimize impact to the MLT. Additional analysis determined that the mirror pole strategy could be further modified to include frozen orbit maneuvers and thus maintain both MLT and the frozen orbit properties under no-slew operations

Johnson, Megan; Petersen, Jeremy D.

2014-01-01

433

Maintaining Stimulant Waveforms in Large Volume Microfluidic Cell Chambers  

PubMed Central

Stimulation of cells with temporal waveforms can be used to observe the frequency-dependent nature of cellular responses. The ability to produce and maintain the temporal waveforms in spite of the broadening processes that occur as the wave travels through the microfluidic system is critical for observing dynamic behaviors. Broadening of waves in microfluidic channels has been examined, but the effect that large-volume cell chambers have on the waves has not. In this report, a sinusoidal glucose wave delivered to a 1 mm diameter cell chamber using various microfluidic channel structures was simulated by finite element analysis with the goal of minimizing the broadening of the waveform in the chamber and maximizing the homogeneity of the concentration in the chamber at any given time. Simulation results indicated that increasing the flow rate was the most effective means to achieve these goals, but at a given volumetric flow rate, geometries that deliver the waveform to multiple regions in the chamber while maintaining a high linear velocity produced sufficient results. A 4-inlet geometry with a 220 ?m channel width gave the best result in the simulation and was used to deliver glucose waveforms to a population of pancreatic islets of Langerhans. The result was a stronger and more robust synchronization of the islet population as compared to when a non-optimized chamber was used. This general strategy will be useful in other microfluidic systems examining the frequency-dependence nature of cellular behavior. PMID:24244207

Zhang, Xinyu; Dhumpa, Raghuram; Roper, Michael G.

2013-01-01

434

Acquiring and maintaining a normal oral microbiome: current perspective  

PubMed Central

The oral microbiota survives daily physical and chemical perturbations from the intake of food and personal hygiene measures, resulting in a long-term stable microbiome. Biological properties that confer stability in the microbiome are important for the prevention of dysbiosis—a microbial shift toward a disease, e.g., periodontitis or caries. Although processes that underlie oral diseases have been studied extensively, processes involved in maintaining of a normal, healthy microbiome are poorly understood. In this review we present our hypothesis on how a healthy oral microbiome is acquired and maintained. We introduce our view on the prenatal development of tolerance for the normal oral microbiome: we propose that development of fetal tolerance toward the microbiome of the mother during pregnancy is the major factor for a successful acquisition of a normal microbiome. We describe the processes that influence the establishment of such microbiome, followed by our perspective on the process of sustaining a healthy oral microbiome. We divide microbiome-maintenance factors into host-derived and microbe-derived, while focusing on the host. Finally, we highlight the need and directions for future research. PMID:25019064

Zaura, Egija; Nicu, Elena A.; Krom, Bastiaan P.; Keijser, Bart J. F.

2014-01-01

435

Local Neutral Networks Help Maintain Inaccurately Replicating Ribozymes  

PubMed Central

The error threshold of replication limits the selectively maintainable genome size against recurrent deleterious mutations for most fitness landscapes. In the context of RNA replication a distinction between the genotypic and the phenotypic error threshold has been made; where the latter concerns the maintenance of secondary structure rather than sequence. RNA secondary structure is treated as a proxy for function. The phenotypic error threshold allows higher per digit mutation rates than its genotypic counterpart, and is known to increase with the frequency of neutral mutations in sequence space. Here we show that the degree of neutrality, i.e. the frequency of nearest-neighbour (one-step) neutral mutants is a remarkably accurate proxy for the overall frequency of such mutants in an experimentally verifiable formula for the phenotypic error threshold; this we achieve by the full numerical solution for the concentration of all sequences in mutation-selection balance up to length 16. We reinforce our previous result that currently known ribozymes could be selectively maintained by the accuracy known from the best available polymerase ribozymes. Furthermore, we show that in silico stabilizing selection can increase the mutational robustness of ribozymes due to the fact that they were produced by artificial directional selection in the first place. Our finding offers a better understanding of the error threshold and provides further insight into the plausibility of an ancient RNA world. PMID:25299454

Szilagyi, Andras; Kun, Adam; Szathmary, Eors

2014-01-01

436

Extinction of responding maintained by timeout from avoidance.  

PubMed Central

The resistance to extinction of lever pressing maintained by timeout from avoidance was examined. Rats were trained under a concurrent schedule in which responses on one lever postponed shock on a free-operant avoidance (Sidman) schedule (response-shock interval = 30 s) and responses on another lever produced 2 min of signaled timeout from avoidance on a variable-ratio 15 schedule. Following extended training (106 to 363 2-hr sessions), two experiments were conducted. In Experiment 1 two different methods of extinction were compared. In one session, all shocks were omitted, and there was some weakening of avoidance but little change in timeout responding. In another session, responding on the timeout lever was ineffective, and under these conditions timeout responding showed rapid extinction. The within-session patterns produced by extinction manipulations were different than the effects of drugs such as morphine, which also reduces timeout responding. In Experiment 2 shock was omitted for many consecutive sessions. Response rates on the avoidance lever declined relatively rapidly, with noticeable reductions within 5 to 10 sessions. Extinction of the timeout lever response was much slower than extinction of avoidance in all 4 rats, and 2 rats continued responding at baseline levels for more than 20 extinction sessions. These results show that lever pressing maintained by negative reinforcement can be highly resistant to extinction. The persistence of responding on the timeout lever after avoidance extinction is not readily explained by current theories. PMID:10028691

Galizio, M

1999-01-01

437

Viability of fungal cultures maintained at -70 degrees C.  

PubMed Central

One thousand four hundred forty-seven clinical and environmental isolates of molds, yeasts, aerobic actinomycetes, and algae belonging to 164 genera (382 taxa) maintained on potato dextrose agar at -70 degrees C for periods ranging from 6 months to 13 years were subcultured and then incubated at 25 degrees C to determine their viabilities. Thirty-three isolates, Alternaria alternata (n = 1), Apophysomyces elegans (n = 1), Bipolaris spicifera (n = 1), Blastomyces dermatitidis (n = 4), Cokeromyces recurvatus (n = 1), Coremiella cubispora (n = 1), Cryptococcus ater (n = 1), Curvularia sp. (n = 1), Exserohilum monoceras (n = 1), Exserohilum pedicillatum (n = 1), Exserohilum rostratum (n = 1), Filobasidium floriforme (n = 1), Madurella mycetomatis (n = 1), Oedocephalum spp. (n = 2), Penicillium marneffei (n = 1), Pseudomicrodochium spp. (n = 4), Saksenaea vasiformis (n = 1), Sporothrix sp. (n = 1), and Mycelia Sterilia (n = 8), did not grow after repeated attempts at subculturing. Neither time in storage nor taxonomic classification was associated with a lack of viability. Storage at low temperature for either short or long periods of time is an excellent method for maintaining most medically important fungi. PMID:1572955

Pasarell, L; McGinnis, M R

1992-01-01

438

Viability of fungal cultures maintained at -70 degrees C.  

PubMed

One thousand four hundred forty-seven clinical and environmental isolates of molds, yeasts, aerobic actinomycetes, and algae belonging to 164 genera (382 taxa) maintained on potato dextrose agar at -70 degrees C for periods ranging from 6 months to 13 years were subcultured and then incubated at 25 degrees C to determine their viabilities. Thirty-three isolates, Alternaria alternata (n = 1), Apophysomyces elegans (n = 1), Bipolaris spicifera (n = 1), Blastomyces dermatitidis (n = 4), Cokeromyces recurvatus (n = 1), Coremiella cubispora (n = 1), Cryptococcus ater (n = 1), Curvularia sp. (n = 1), Exserohilum monoceras (n = 1), Exserohilum pedicillatum (n = 1), Exserohilum rostratum (n = 1), Filobasidium floriforme (n = 1), Madurella mycetomatis (n = 1), Oedocephalum spp. (n = 2), Penicillium marneffei (n = 1), Pseudomicrodochium spp. (n = 4), Saksenaea vasiformis (n = 1), Sporothrix sp. (n = 1), and Mycelia Sterilia (n = 8), did not grow after repeated attempts at subculturing. Neither time in storage nor taxonomic classification was associated with a lack of viability. Storage at low temperature for either short or long periods of time is an excellent method for maintaining most medically important fungi. PMID:1572955

Pasarell, L; McGinnis, M R

1992-04-01

439

Microtubules contribute to maintain nucleus shape in epithelial cell monolayer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

INTRODUCTION: Tissue strains can result in significant nuclear deformations and may regulate gene expression. However, the precise role of the cytoskeleton in regulating nuclear mechanics remains poorly understood. Here, we investigate the nuclear deformability of Madin-Darky canine kidney cells (MDCK) under various stretching conditions to clarify the role of the microtubules and actin network on the mechanical behavior of the nucleus. METHODS: A custom-built cell-stretching device allowing for real time imaging of MDCK nuclei was used. Cells were seeded on a silicone membrane coated with rat-tail collagen I. A nuclear stain, Hoechst-33342, was used to image nuclei during stretching. We exposed cells to a compressive and non-compressive stretching strain field of 25%. Nocodazole and cytochalasin-D were used to depolymerize the microtubules and actin network. RESULTS: Nuclei in control cells stretched more along their minor axis than major axis with a deformation of 5% and 2% respectively. This anisotropy vanished completely in microtubule-deprived cells and these cells showed a very high nuclear deformability along the minor axis when exposed to a compressive stretching strain field. CONCLUSIONS: The microtubules drive the anisotropic deformability of MDCK nuclei in a monolayer and maintain nuclear shape when exposed to compressive strain. Such intrinsic mechanical behavior indicates that microtubules are essential to maintain nuclear shape and may prevent down regulation of gene expression.

Tremblay, Dominique; Andrzejewski, Lukasz; Pelling, Andrew

2013-03-01

440

Greatwall maintains mitosis through regulation of PP2A  

PubMed Central

Greatwall (GW) is a new kinase that has an important function in the activation and the maintenance of cyclin B–Cdc2 activity. Although the mechanism by which it induces this effect is unknown, it has been suggested that GW could maintain cyclin B–Cdc2 activity by regulating its activation loop. Using Xenopus egg extracts, we show that GW depletion promotes mitotic exit, even in the presence of a high cyclin B–Cdc2 activity by inducing dephosphorylation of mitotic substrates. These results indicate that GW does not maintain the mitotic state by regulating the cyclin B–Cdc2 activation loop but by regulating a phosphatase. This phosphatase is PP2A; we show that (1) PP2A binds GW, (2) the inhibition or the specific depletion of this phosphatase from mitotic extracts rescues the phenotype induced by GW inactivation and (3) the PP2A-dependent dephosphorylation of cyclin B–Cdc2 substrates is increased in GW-depleted Xenopus egg extracts. These results suggest that mitotic entry and maintenance is not only mediated by the activation of cyclin B–Cdc2 but also by the regulation of PP2A by GW. PMID:19680222

Vigneron, Suzanne; Brioudes, Estelle; Burgess, Andrew; Labbé, Jean-Claude; Lorca, Thierry; Castro, Anna

2009-01-01

441

Greatwall maintains mitosis through regulation of PP2A.  

PubMed

Greatwall (GW) is a new kinase that has an important function in the activation and the maintenance of cyclin B-Cdc2 activity. Although the mechanism by which it induces this effect is unknown, it has been suggested that GW could maintain cyclin B-Cdc2 activity by regulating its activation loop. Using Xenopus egg extracts, we show that GW depletion promotes mitotic exit, even in the presence of a high cyclin B-Cdc2 activity by inducing dephosphorylation of mitotic substrates. These results indicate that GW does not maintain the mitotic state by regulating the cyclin B-Cdc2 activation loop but by regulating a phosphatase. This phosphatase is PP2A; we show that (1) PP2A binds GW, (2) the inhibition or the specific depletion of this phosphatase from mitotic extracts rescues the phenotype induced by GW inactivation and (3) the PP2A-dependent dephosphorylation of cyclin B-Cdc2 substrates is increased in GW-depleted Xenopus egg extracts. These results suggest that mitotic entry and maintenance is not only mediated by the activation of cyclin B-Cdc2 but also by the regulation of PP2A by GW. PMID:19680222

Vigneron, Suzanne; Brioudes, Estelle; Burgess, Andrew; Labbé, Jean-Claude; Lorca, Thierry; Castro, Anna

2009-09-16

442

Polymerase Epsilon Is Required To Maintain Replicative Senescence?†  

PubMed Central

Replicative senescence is a permanent cell cycle arrest in response to extensive telomere shortening. To understand the mechanisms behind a permanent arrest, we screened for factors affecting replicative senescence in budding yeast lacking telomere elongation pathways. Intriguingly, we found that DNA polymerase epsilon (Pol ?) acts synergistically with Exo1 nuclease to maintain replicative senescence. In contrast, the Pol ?-associated checkpoint and replication protein Mrc1 facilitates escape from senescence. To understand this paradox, in which DNA-synthesizing factors cooperate with DNA-degrading factors to maintain arrest, whereas a checkpoint protein opposes arrest, we analyzed the dynamics of double- and single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) at chromosome ends during senescence. We found evidence for cycles of DNA resection, followed by resynthesis. We propose that resection of the shortest telomere, activating a Rad24Rad17-dependent checkpoint pathway, alternates in time with an Mrc1-regulated Pol ? resynthesis of a short, double-stranded chromosome end, which in turn activates a Rad953BP1-dependent checkpoint pathway. Therefore, instead of one type of DNA damage, different types (ssDNA and a double-strand break-like structure) alternate in a “vicious circle,” each activating a different checkpoint sensor. Every time resection and resynthesis switches, a fresh signal initiates, thus preventing checkpoint adaptation and ensuring the permanent character of senescence. PMID:21321081

Deshpande, Abhyuday M.; Ivanova, Iglika G.; Raykov, Vasil; Xue, Yuan; Maringele, Laura

2011-01-01

443

?-Actin and fascin-2 cooperate to maintain stereocilia length.  

PubMed

Stereocilia are actin-based protrusions on auditory sensory hair cells that are deflected by sound waves to initiate the conversion of mechanical energy to neuronal signals. Stereocilia maintenance is essential because auditory hair cells are not renewed in mammals. This process requires both ?-actin and ?-actin as knock-out mice lacking either isoform develop distinct stereocilia pathology during aging. In addition, stereocilia integrity may hinge on immobilizing actin, which outside of a small region at stereocilia tips turns over with a very slow, months-long half-life. Here, we establish that ?-actin and the actin crosslinking protein fascin-2 cooperate to maintain stereocilia length and auditory function. We observed that mice expressing mutant fascin-2 (p.R109H) or mice lacking ?-actin share a common phenotype including progressive, high-frequency hearing loss together with shortening of a defined subset of stereocilia in the hair cell bundle. Fascin-2 binds ?-actin and ?-actin filaments with similar affinity in vitro and fascin-2 does not depend on ?-actin for localization in vivo. Nevertheless, double-mutant mice lacking ?-actin and expressing fascin-2 p.R109H have a more severe phenotype suggesting that each protein has a different function in a common stereocilia maintenance pathway. Because the fascin-2 p.R109H mutant binds but fails to efficiently crosslink actin filaments, we propose that fascin-2 crosslinks function to slow actin depolymerization at stereocilia tips to maintain stereocilia length. PMID:23658152

Perrin, Benjamin J; Strandjord, Dana M; Narayanan, Praveena; Henderson, Davin M; Johnson, Kenneth R; Ervasti, James M

2013-05-01

444

Sister chromosome pairing maintains heterozygosity in parthenogenetic lizards.  

PubMed

Although bisexual reproduction has proven to be highly successful, parthenogenetic all-female populations occur frequently in certain taxa, including the whiptail lizards of the genus Aspidoscelis. Allozyme analysis revealed a high degree of fixed heterozygosity in these parthenogenetic species, supporting the view that they originated from hybridization events between related sexual species. It has remained unclear how the meiotic program is altered to produce diploid eggs while maintaining heterozygosity. Here we show that meiosis commences with twice the number of chromosomes in parthenogenetic versus sexual species, a mechanism that provides the basis for generating gametes with unreduced chromosome content without fundamental deviation from the classic meiotic program. Our observation of synaptonemal complexes and chiasmata demonstrate that a typical meiotic program occurs and that heterozygosity is not maintained by bypassing recombination. Instead, fluorescent in situ hybridization probes that distinguish between homologues reveal that bivalents form between sister chromosomes, the genetically identical products of the first of two premeiotic replication cycles. Sister chromosome pairing provides a mechanism for the maintenance of heterozygosity, which is critical for offsetting the reduced fitness associated with the lack of genetic diversity in parthenogenetic species. PMID:20173738

Lutes, Aracely A; Neaves, William B; Baumann, Diana P; Wiegraebe, Winfried; Baumann, Peter

2010-03-11

445

Order of Operations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will learn order of operations. PEMDAS will become a helpful acronym for successfully mastering order of operations. Students will learn the importance of solving problems using order of operations. An acronym will be introduced that will help them remember the order of operations. Interactive guidance and practice will be available for students to access. This tutorial will include the following learning modules: 1) motivation and ...

Nieman, Mrs.

2008-10-05

446

Social Work 0 -1 Social Work Today  

E-print Network

School of Social Work #12;Contents 0 - 1 Social Work Today 2 - 3 The World of Social Work 4 - 11 standards that govern their social work practice. Typical service users include: G Children and families people with health and social care needs. Social work is difficult and challenging: it demands maturity

Jones, Graeme A.

447

Ordered transport and identification of particles  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus are provided for application of electrical field gradients to induce particle velocities to enable particle sequence and identification information to be obtained. Particle sequence is maintained by providing electroosmotic flow for an electrolytic solution in a particle transport tube. The transport tube and electrolytic solution are selected to provide an electroosmotic radius of >100 so that a plug flow profile is obtained for the electrolytic solution in the transport tube. Thus, particles are maintained in the same order in which they are introduced in the transport tube. When the particles also have known electrophoretic velocities, the field gradients introduce an electrophoretic velocity component onto the electroosmotic velocity. The time that the particles pass selected locations along the transport tube may then be detected and the electrophoretic velocity component calculated for particle identification. One particular application is the ordered transport and identification of labeled nucleotides sequentially cleaved from a strand of DNA.

Shera, E. Brooks (Los Alamos, NM)

1993-01-01

448

45 CFR 1182.15 - Institute responsibility for maintaining adequate technical, physical, and security safeguards to...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...maintaining adequate technical, physical, and security...and automatic record systems. 1182.15 Section...maintaining adequate technical, physical, and security...and automatic record systems. The Chief Information...maintaining adequate technical, physical, and...

2010-10-01

449

27 CFR 31.163 - Requirements when a wholesale dealer in liquors maintains a retail department.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Requirements when a wholesale dealer in liquors maintains a retail department. 31...Requirements when a wholesale dealer in liquors maintains a retail department. (a...and sale. When a wholesale dealer in liquors maintains a separate department on...

2013-04-01

450

27 CFR 31.163 - Requirements when a wholesale dealer in liquors maintains a retail department.  

...Requirements when a wholesale dealer in liquors maintains a retail department. 31...Requirements when a wholesale dealer in liquors maintains a retail department. (a...and sale. When a wholesale dealer in liquors maintains a separate department on...

2014-04-01

451

21 CFR 105.66 - Label statements relating to usefulness in reducing or maintaining body weight.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...usefulness in reducing or maintaining body weight. 105.66 Section 105.66...usefulness in reducing or maintaining body weight. (a) General requirements...usefulness in reducing or maintaining body weight shall bear: (1)...

2012-04-01

452

21 CFR 105.66 - Label statements relating to usefulness in reducing or maintaining body weight.  

...usefulness in reducing or maintaining body weight. 105.66 Section 105.66...usefulness in reducing or maintaining body weight. (a) General requirements...usefulness in reducing or maintaining body weight shall bear: (1)...

2014-04-01

453

21 CFR 105.66 - Label statements relating to usefulness in reducing or maintaining body weight.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...usefulness in reducing or maintaining body weight. 105.66 Section 105.66...usefulness in reducing or maintaining body weight. (a) General requirements...usefulness in reducing or maintaining body weight shall bear: (1)...

2010-04-01

454

21 CFR 105.66 - Label statements relating to usefulness in reducing or maintaining body weight.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...usefulness in reducing or maintaining body weight. 105.66 Section 105.66...usefulness in reducing or maintaining body weight. (a) General requirements...usefulness in reducing or maintaining body weight shall bear: (1)...

2013-04-01

455

21 CFR 105.66 - Label statements relating to usefulness in reducing or maintaining body weight.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...usefulness in reducing or maintaining body weight. 105.66 Section 105.66...usefulness in reducing or maintaining body weight. (a) General requirements...usefulness in reducing or maintaining body weight shall bear: (1)...

2011-04-01

456

31 CFR 358.16 - Are BECCS and CUBES accounts maintained separately from the STRIPS program?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Are BECCS and CUBES accounts maintained separately from the...BEARER COUPONS § 358.16 Are BECCS and CUBES accounts maintained separately from the STRIPS program? BECCS and CUBES accounts are maintained separately...

2013-07-01

457

31 CFR 358.16 - Are BECCS and CUBES accounts maintained separately from the STRIPS program?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Are BECCS and CUBES accounts maintained separately from the...BEARER COUPONS § 358.16 Are BECCS and CUBES accounts maintained separately from the STRIPS program? BECCS and CUBES accounts are maintained separately...

2011-07-01

458

31 CFR 358.16 - Are BECCS and CUBES accounts maintained separately from the STRIPS program?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Are BECCS and CUBES accounts maintained separately from the...BEARER COUPONS § 358.16 Are BECCS and CUBES accounts maintained separately from the STRIPS program? BECCS and CUBES accounts are maintained separately...

2012-07-01

459

31 CFR 358.16 - Are BECCS and CUBES accounts maintained separately from the STRIPS program?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Are BECCS and CUBES accounts maintained separately from the...BEARER COUPONS § 358.16 Are BECCS and CUBES accounts maintained separately from the STRIPS program? BECCS and CUBES accounts are maintained separately...

2010-07-01

460

Social learning in cooperative dilemmas.  

PubMed

Helping is a cornerstone of social organization and commonplace in human societies. A major challenge for the evolutionary sciences is to explain how cooperation is maintained in large populations with high levels of migration, conditions under which cooperators can be exploited by selfish individuals. Cultural group selection models posit that such large-scale cooperation evolves via selection acting on populations among which behavioural variation is maintained by the cultural transmission of cooperative norms. These models assume that individuals acquire cooperative strategies via social learning. This assumption remains empirically untested. Here, I test this by investigating whether individuals employ conformist or payoff-biased learning in public goods games conducted in 14 villages of a forager-horticulturist society, the Pahari Korwa of India. Individuals did not show a clear tendency to conform or to be payoff-biased and are highly variable in their use of social learning. This variation is partly explained by both individual and village characteristics. The tendency to conform decreases and to be payoff-biased increases as the value of the modal contribution increases. These findings suggest that the use of social learning in cooperative dilemmas is contingent on individuals' circumstances and environments, and question the existence of stably transmitted cultural norms of cooperation. PMID:24870041

Lamba, Shakti

2014-07-22

461

Increasing Social Interaction Using Prelinguistic Milieu Teaching with Nonverbal School-Age Children with Autism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Children with autism display marked deficits in initiating and maintaining social interaction. Intervention using play routines can create a framework for developing and maintaining social interaction between these children and their communication partners. Method: Six nonverbal 5- to 8-year-olds with autism were taught to engage in…

Franco, Jessica H.; Davis, Barbara L.; Davis, John L.

2013-01-01

462

Recommendation in Social Networks  

E-print Network

in Social Networks, Tutorial at RecSys 2013 7 Social Networks · Different types of social relationships 8 Social Networks · Explicit social network relationships provided by users · Implicit social] · The formation and evolution of social networks is affected by many effects, including ­Self-interest, ­Social

Ester, Martin

463

Enabling Community Through Social Media  

PubMed Central

Background Social network analysis provides a perspective and method for inquiring into the structures that comprise online groups and communities. Traces from interaction via social media provide the opportunity for understanding how a community is formed and maintained online. Objective The paper aims to demonstrate how social network analysis provides a vocabulary and set of techniques for examining interaction patterns via social media. Using the case of the #hcsmca online discussion forum, this paper highlights what has been and can be gained by approaching online community from a social network perspective, as well as providing an inside look at the structure of the #hcsmca community. Methods Social network analysis was used to examine structures in a 1-month sample of Twitter messages with the hashtag #hcsmca (3871 tweets, 486 unique posters), which is the tag associated with the social media–supported group Health Care Social Media Canada. Network connections were considered present if the individual was mentioned, replied to, or had a post retweeted. Results Network analyses revealed patterns of interaction that characterized the community as comprising one component, with a set of core participants prominent in the network due to their connections with others. Analysis showed the social media health content providers were the most influential group based on in-degree centrality. However, there was no preferential attachment among people in the same professional group, indicating that the formation of connections among community members was not constrained by professional status. Conclusions Network analysis and visualizations provide techniques and a vocabulary for understanding online interaction, as well as insights that can help in understanding what, and who, comprises and sustains a network, and whether community emerges from a network of online interactions. PMID:24176835

Haythornthwaite, Caroline

2013-01-01

464

Social isolation and perceived barriers to establishing social networks among Latina immigrants.  

PubMed

Research has identified numerous mechanisms through which perceived social isolation and lack of social support negatively impact health. Little research attention has been dedicated to factors that influence the development of social networks, which have the potential to decrease perceptions of social isolation and provide social support. There is mixed evidence concerning the availability of supportive social networks for Latinos in the US. This study explores trauma-exposed Latina immigrants' experiences of social isolation in the US and its perceived causes. Twenty-eight Latina immigrant women participated in an interview about traumatic experiences. Informal help seeking and the availability of friendships in the US were also queried. Frequent comparisons between experiences in their home countries and in the US shaped the emerging themes of social isolation and lack of social support. Women reported feeling lonely, isolated, closed-in, and less free in the US due to family separation and various obstacles to developing and maintaining relationships. Socioeconomic, environmental, and psychosocial barriers were offered as explanations for their limited social networks in the US. Understanding experiences of social isolation as well as barriers to forging social networks can help inform the development of social support interventions that can contribute to improved health among Latinos. PMID:24402726

Hurtado-de-Mendoza, Alejandra; Gonzales, Felisa A; Serrano, Adriana; Kaltman, Stacey

2014-03-01

465

Healthy communication is vital in building and maintaining strong  

E-print Network

. WEBINAR Keeping Your Love Alive Jun 17 -- 12 pm, 2 pm ET 9 am, 11 am PT Learn the 10 relational essentials relationship fresh, in this 60-minute webinar. In order to participate in the webinar you must pre

Yetisgen-Yildiz, Meliha

466

Challenges to antarctic science in a changing social order  

SciTech Connect

The November, 1992 report of the Commission on the Future of the NSF recommends that NSF should be guided by two goals: supporting first rate research, on the frontier of knowledge, which has been identified and defined by the best scientists; balancing resources among fields and research activities in response to expanding opportunities for science to contribute to national goals. The US Antarctic Program (USAP) has improved the ability to provide state of the art support to researchers and worked to ensure that the results of antarctic research are of the highest quality. Science highlights from 1992 are summarized in this editorial; they include the following: discovery of a fossilized deciduous forest, of global climate change interest; balloon-borne and lidar probes to examine ozone related chemistry of the stratosphere; work in the Weddell Sea changing understandings of ocean circulation and global climatic change;studies of El Nino; and unique educational opportunities for students from several discipines.

Not Available

1993-03-01

467

A British perspective on guns, crime and social order  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent years have witnessed an escalation in the number of young men involved in lethal gun-related violence in the UK. Within the last two years these have resulted in over 80 deaths. Lacking any overarching explanation some have attributed such violence to a burgeoning 'gun culture', others to the (alleged) arrival of American style gangs onto the streets of the

SIMON HALLSWORTH; DANIEL SILVERSTONE

468

Reshaping the social order: The case of gender segregation  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experimental study of gender segregation in 38 fourth- and fifth-grade classrooms was conducted. Teachers in the experimental condition were encouraged to utilize small, mixed-sex instructional groups to promote gender integration and the reduction of gender stereotypes. Students in experimental classrooms engaged in more cross-sex interactions than students in control classrooms, and boys in experimental classrooms had greater preference for

Marlaine E. Lockheed

1986-01-01

469

Guns, crime and social orderA Canadian perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Canada has undergone intensive public debate concerning firearms over the past two decades, much of which has concerned the effectiveness of gun control legislation. Since about 2005 public discourse has focused increasingly on an upsurge in gun-crime perpetrated by street-level criminals. The article examines the projection of these concerns within the Canadian mass media and through official statistics. It shows

James Sheptycki

2009-01-01

470

Pyrolysis of wood to biochar: increasing yield while maintaining microporosity.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to determine if biochar yield could be increased by the deposition of volatile pyrolysis species within the bed during production, without negatively influencing the microporosity and adsorption properties. Aspen (Populus tremuloides) wood chips were loaded into three vertically stacked zones within a reactor and heated in nitrogen to temperatures between 420 and 650°C (i.e., pyrolyzed). The yield did increase from the zone at the reactor inlet to the subsequent zones as volatile species deposited and carbonized, and importantly, the carbonized deposits had a similar microporous structure and organic vapor uptake (1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane) to that of the primary biochar. Based on these results, bio-oil from previous runs at 600°C was recycled to the bed, which further increased the yield while maintaining the desirable adsorption properties of the biochar. PMID:24365739

Veksha, Andrei; McLaughlin, Hugh; Layzell, David B; Hill, Josephine M

2014-02-01

471

Reliability and Maintainability Issues for the Next Linear Collider  

SciTech Connect

Large accelerators for high energy physics research traditionally have been designed using informal best design, engineering, and management practices to achieve acceptable levels of operational availability. However, the Next Linear Collider(NLC) project presents a particular challenge for operational availability due to the unprecedented size and complexity of the accelerator systems required to achieve the physics goals of high center-of-mass energy and high luminosity. Formal reliability and maintainability analysis, design, and implementation will be required to achieve acceptable operational availability for the high energy physics research program. This paper introduces some of the basic concepts of reliability analysis and applies them to the 2.6-cm microwave power system of the two 10-km-long, 250-GeV linacs that are currently proposed for the NLC design.

Wilson, Zane J.; Gold, Saul L.; Koontz, Ron F.; Lavine, Ted L.; /SLAC

2011-08-26

472

Polarization-maintaining picosecond oscillator based on quantum dot SESAM  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report a simple, environmentally-stable, passively mode-locked Yb-based fiber oscillator operating at 1035 nm with pulse duration of ~5 ps. Mode-locking was achieved using a saturable absorber mirror. The output of the laser exhibited a polarization extinction ratio >20 dB with the implementation a polarization maintaining fiber cavity and a polarization sensitive fiber coupler. The laser outputted near transform-limited pulses at 25-100 MHz at a pump threshold of 20-30 mW. We have tested operation of the laser using two different saturable absorber mirror structures: multiple quantum wells and quantum-dots at 1035 nm. Pulse properties and laser performance were comparable using quantum-dots and multiple quantum wells as the saturable absorber.

Crittenden, Paul; Starodumov, Andrei; Reed, Murray

2006-02-01

473

Maintaining the reproductive potential of cancer patients during cancer treatment.  

PubMed

Cancer therapies are known to alter the reproductive potential in cancer patients. Due to improved survival rates in cancer patients of reproductive age, considerations of the long-term effects of cancer therapy have become more significant. Oncofertility is a new discipline in medicine that deals with maintaining the reproductive potential of cancer patients while they are receiving gonadotoxic cancer treatment. The purpose of this review is to explore how cancer treatment impairs reproductive functioning and present the current options for preservation of fertility in women. All patients with reproductive potential should be made aware of the possible treatment-related infertility and be offered appropriate fertility preservation options before cancer treatment is instituted. The hope is that, in the future, mechanism(s) can be developed to preserve immature germ cells in the ovary, so that they can be used for fertilization in vivo or in vitro. PMID:24389259

Harp, Djana; Chowdhury, Indrajit; Garcia-Barrio, Minerva; Welch, Crystal; Matthews, Roland; Thompson, Winston

2014-01-01

474

Adult birdsong is actively maintained by error correction  

PubMed Central

Humans learn to speak by a process of vocal imitation that requires the availability of auditory feedback. Similarly, young birds rely on auditory feedback when learning to imitate the songs of adult birds, providing one of the few examples of nonhuman vocal learning. However, whereas humans continue to use auditory feedback to correct vocal errors in adulthood, the mechanisms underlying the stability of adult birdsong are unknown. Here we show that like human speech, adult birdsong is maintained by error correction. We perturbed the pitch (fundamental frequency) of auditory feedback in adult Bengalese finches using custom-designed headphones. Birds compensated for the imposed auditory error by adjusting the pitch of song. When the perturbation was removed, pitch returned to baseline. These results show that adult birds correct vocal errors by comparing auditory feedback to a sensory target and suggest that lifelong error correction is a general principle of learned vocal behavior. PMID:19525945

Sober, Samuel J.; Brainard, Michael S.

2009-01-01

475

Culturing and Maintaining Clostridium difficile in an Anaerobic Environment  

PubMed Central

Clostridium difficile is a Gram-positive, anaerobic, sporogenic bacterium that is primarily responsible for antibiotic associated diarrhea (AAD) and is a significant nosocomial pathogen. C. difficile is notoriously difficult to isolate and cultivate and is extremely sensitive to even low levels of oxygen in the environment. Here, methods for isolating C. difficile from fecal samples and subsequently culturing C. difficile for preparation of glycerol stocks for long-term storage are presented. Techniques for preparing and enumerating spore stocks in the laboratory for a variety of downstream applications including microscopy and animal studies are also described. These techniques necessitate an anaerobic chamber, which maintains a consistent anaerobic environment to ensure proper conditions for optimal C. difficile growth. We provide protocols for transferring materials in and out of the chamber without causing significant oxygen contamination along with suggestions for regular maintenance required to sustain the appropriate anaerobic environment for efficient and consistent C. difficile cultivation. PMID:24084491

Edwards, Adrianne N.; Suarez, Jose M.; McBride, Shonna M.

2014-01-01

476

Warm Eocene Conditions Maintained by Methanogenesis in Arctic Soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The strikingly large carbon isotope separation (? 13Ccc - ? 13Com = 30.5 ‰ ) between fossilized wood and pedogenic carbonate intertwined in an unusually well-preservedMetasequoia bole of Eocene age from Axel Heiberg Island indicated an Arctic paleoenvironment in which 23% of soil-respired CO2 was enzymatically reduced to methane, prior to the precipitation of pedogenic carbonate. Using conservative estimates of biomass and litter paleoproduction forMetasequoia fossil forests, I calculated an annual methane release of 341 x 1012 gCH4/yr for the forested Arctic during the Eocene. This value is ~3x total modern natural methane emissions from soils, and would have drastically interfered with re-radiation of heat from the Earth's surface, and maintained the relatively mild Arctic temperatures evidenced by the fauna and flora of the Eocene.

Jahren, H.

2002-05-01

477

Remote Sensing and Control for Establishing and Maintaining Digital Irrigation  

E-print Network

The remotely sensed data from an unknown location is transmitted in real time through internet and gathered in a PC. The data is collected for a considerable period of time and analyzed in PC as to assess the suitability and fertility of the land for establishing an electronic plantation in that area. The analysis also helps deciding the plantation of appropriate plants in the location identified. The system performing this task with appropriate transducers installed in remote area, the methodologies involved in transmission and data gathering are reported.. The second part of the project deals with data gathering from remote site and issuing control signals to remote appliances in the site; all performed through internet. Therefore, this control scheme is a duplex system monitoring the irrigation activities by collecting data in one direction and issuing commands on the opposite direction. This scheme maintains the digital irrigation systems effectively and efficiently as to utilize the resources optimally f...

cellatoglu, Akin

2012-01-01

478

ATP8B1 is essential for maintaining normal hearing  

PubMed Central

ATP8B1 deficiency is caused by autosomal recessive mutations in ATP8B1, which encodes the putative phospatidylserine flippase ATP8B1 (formerly called FIC1). ATP8B1 deficiency is primarily characterized by cholestasis, but extrahepatic symptoms are also found. Because patients sometimes report reduced hearing capability, we investigated the role of ATP8B1 in auditory function. Here we show that ATP8B1/Atp8b1 deficiency, both in patients and in Atp8b1G308V/G308V mutant mice, causes hearing loss, associated with progressive degeneration of cochlear hair cells. Atp8b1 is specifically localized in the stereocilia of these hair cells. This indicates that the mechanosensory function and integrity of the cochlear hair cells is critically dependent on ATP8B1 activity, possibly through maintaining lipid asymmetry in the cellular membranes of stereocilia. PMID:19478059

Stapelbroek, Janneke M.; Peters, Theo A.; van Beurden, Denis H. A.; Curfs, Jo H. A. J.; Joosten, Anneke; Beynon, Andy J.; van Leeuwen, Bibian M.; van der Velden, Lieke M.; Bull, Laura; Oude Elferink, Ronald P.; van Zanten, Bert A.; Klomp, Leo W. J.; Houwen, Roderick H. J.

2009-01-01

479

Maintaining photonic quantum polarisation entanglement in nanoscale waveguides  

E-print Network

In this work, we demonstrate for the first time the maintaining of quantum polarisation entanglement in both a nanoscale dielectric tapered fibre and a plasmonic waveguide. Entangled photons are coupled into these waveguides, and quantum state tomography is used to verify that the transmitted states have fidelities of 0.958 and 0.932 with the maximally polarisation entangled state Phi^{+}, respectively. Furthermore, the Clauser, Horne, Shimony, and Holt (CHSH) inequality tests performed, resulting in values of$2.588\\pm0.141>2 and 2.495\\pm0.147>2, respectively, demonstrate the violation of the hidden variable model. Our investigations pave the way toward a quantum near-field micro/nano-scope, which can realize high spatial resolution, ultra-sensitive, fibre-integrated, and plasmon-enhanced detection, as well as bridge nanophotonics and quantum metrology.

Li, Ming; Ren, Xi-Feng; Xiong, Xiao; Cai, Yong-Jing; Guo, Guo-Ping; Tong, Li-Min; Guo, Guang-Can

2014-01-01

480

Maintaining A User Community For The Montage Image Mosaic Toolkit  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of the Montage image mosaic toolkit was funded by NASA between 2002 and 2005. Even though the code has been unfunded for eight years, the user community of astronomers and computer scientists has continued to grow, primarily because the code is portable across Unix platforms, highly scalable, and easy to incorporate into user environments and pipelines. The code is publicly available through a clickwrap license at Caltech, but the license does not permit the user to modify and redistribute the software. This presentation outlines successful strategies for maintaining and upgrading Montage in the face of the licensing restrictions and absence of continuing funding, and outlines cases where the restrictions have limited further development.

Berriman, G. B.

2014-01-01

481

Maintaining skin integrity in the aged: a systematic review.  

PubMed

Ageing is associated with structural and functional changes of the skin that result in increased vulnerability. The aim of this systematic review is to synthesize empirical evidence about the efficacy and effectiveness of basic skin care interventions for maintaining skin integrity in the aged. The databases Medline, EMBASE, CINAHL (1990-2012), Scopus, SCI (February 2013) and reference lists were searched. Inclusion criteria were primary intervention studies using skin care products in physiologically aged skin (lower age limit 50 years). Study and sample characteristics, interventions and outcomes were extracted. The methodological quality was assessed and a level of evidence was assigned. From 1535 screened articles 188 were read in full text. From these, 33 articles were included reporting results on treating dry skin conditions, and preventing incontinence-associated dermatitis and superficial ulcerations. Most studies had lower levels of evidence of 3 or 4. Skin-cleansing products containing syndets or amphoteric surfactants compared with standard soap and water washing improved skin dryness and demonstrated skin-protecting effects. Moisturizers containing humectants consistently showed statistically significant improvements in skin dryness. Skin barrier products containing occlusives reduced the occurrence of skin injuries compared with standard or no treatment. Owing to methodological limitations the current evidence base for basic skin care in the aged is weak. Using low-irritating cleansing products and humectant- or occlusive-containing moisturizers seems to be the best strategy for maintaining the skin barrier function and integrity. We know little about the effects of cleansing regimens and about the benefits of moisturizers when compared with each other. PMID:23773110

Kottner, J; Lichterfeld, A; Blume-Peytavi, U

2013-09-01

482

The G2 Checkpoint Is Maintained by Redundant Pathways  

PubMed Central

While p53 activity is critical for a DNA damage-induced G1 checkpoint, its role in the G2 checkpoint has not been compelling because cells lacking p53 retain the ability to arrest in G2 following DNA damage. Comparison between normal human foreskin fibroblasts (HFFs) and HFFs in which p53 was eliminated by transduction with human papillomavirus type 16 E6 showed that treatment with adriamycin initiated arrest in G2 with active cyclin B/CDC2 kinase, regardless of p53 status. Both E6-transduced HFFs and control (LXSN)-transduced cells maintained a prolonged arrest in G2; however cells with functional p53 extinguished cyclin B-associated kinase activity. Down regulation was mediated by p53-dependent transcriptional repression of the CDC2 and cyclin B promoters. In contrast, cells lacking p53 showed a prolonged G2 arrest despite high levels of cyclin B/CDC2 kinase activity, at least some of which translocated into the nucleus. Furthermore, the G2 checkpoint became attenuated as p53-deficient cells aged in culture. Thus, at late passage, E6-transduced HFFs entered mitosis following DNA damage, whereas the age-matched parental HFFs sustained a G2 arrest. These results indicate that normal cells have p53-independent pathways to maintain DNA damage-induced G2 arrest, which may be augmented by p53-dependent functions, and that cells lacking p53 are at greater risk of losing the pathway that protects against aneuploidy. PMID:10454534

Passalaris, Tina M.; Benanti, Jennifer A.; Gewin, Lindy; Kiyono, Tohru; Galloway, Denise A.

1999-01-01

483

Marketing Milk Under Federal Orders in Texas.  

E-print Network

SUMMARY Some Texas dairy farmers have been market- ing milk under federal orders since October 1951. In December 1959, 5,270, or 68 percent of Texas producers sold milk under the seven federal or- ders. In 1959 these producers marketed more than 1... is to maintain marketing con- ditions which will assure consumers a dependable supply of pure) and wholesome milk and which will be in the public interest. Federal orders stabilize market conditions for fluid milk and make the buying and selling of fluid...

Stelly, Randall

1960-01-01

484

Birth Order and Educational Attainment in Full Sibships  

Microsoft Academic Search

The idea that birth order influences intellectual development and social success has recently been revived, despite the accumulated evidence that birth order effects are often negligible or artifactual. In this paper, the association of birth order with educational attainment (as measured by years of schooling completed) is examined among 9,000 Wisconsin high school graduates of 1957 and among their full

Robert M Hauser; William H Sewell

1985-01-01

485

ORIGINAL PAPER Detecting Social and Non-Social Changes in Natural Scenes  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL PAPER Detecting Social and Non-Social Changes in Natural Scenes: Performance of Children Science+Business Media, LLC 2010 Abstract We probed differences in the ability to detect and interpret social cues in adults and in children and young adolescents with and without autism spectrum dis- orders

486

IEEE SIGNAL PROCESSING MAGAZINE [133] SEPTEMBER 2009 [social SCIENCES  

E-print Network

IEEE SIGNAL PROCESSING MAGAZINE [133] SEPTEMBER 2009 [social SCIENCES] Capturing Order in Social Interactions F ollowing Aristotle, "Man is by nature a social animal; an indi- vidual who is unsocial naturally are the perfect machines for social interaction: the muscles of our faces allow the expression of our subtlest

Vinciarelli, Alessandro

487

A Response to "Leadership for Social Justice:" A Transnational Dialogue  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper makes the case for preparing school leaders for social justice and a new social order. In Kenya, little has been done and documented about school leadership programs for social justice. Scholars have generally appreciated leadership preparation for social justice in terms of professional discourses especially as initiated from the…

Otunga, Ruth N.

2009-01-01

488

A focused ethnographic study of community social capital  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social capital, a relatively new public health concept, represents the intangible resources embedded in social relationships that facilitate collective action. Current interest in the concept stems from empirical studies linking social capital with health outcomes. However, in order for social capital to function as a meaningful research variable, conceptual development aimed at refining the domains, attributes, and boundaries of the

Elizabeth D Carlson

2003-01-01

489

Corporate Social Responsibility for Irresponsibility Matthew J. Kotchen*  

E-print Network

1 Corporate Social Responsibility for Irresponsibility Matthew J. Kotchen* UC Santa Barbara that companies engage in corporate social responsibility (CSR) in order to offset corporate social. #12;2 I. Introduction In an attempt to explain why companies engage in corporate social responsibility

Edwards, Paul N.

490

Teachers' Views on Teaching Current Events in Social Studies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In order to achieve its goals, the Social Studies course should convey social events, which took place within or out of the school context, into the classroom environment. Current events can be very beneficial so as to transfer the social events into classroom environment in the Social Studies courses. In this study, semi structured interview…

Deveci, Handan

2007-01-01

491

Social Structure and Family Homicides  

Microsoft Academic Search

To date, few studies have analyzed the relationship that economic deprivation and social disorganization have with disaggregated\\u000a family homicide types. This study utilized data from the FBI’s Supplementary Homicide Reports from years 2000–2007 in order\\u000a to explore the effect social structural variables have on rates of family homicides—specifically, intimate partner, filicide,\\u000a parricide, and siblicide. Cities with more than 100,000 residents

Chelsea Diem; Jesenia M. Pizarro

2010-01-01

492

[Social cohesion and regional integration: the MERCOSUR social agenda and the integrationist social policy major challenges].  

PubMed

In the consolidation of the Southern Cone Common Market (MERCOSUR), social policies are still in the embryonic stage. However, since the latter half of the 1990s there has been a speedup in the creation of institutions dedicated to such policies with the Common Market's framework. This article focuses on health policy and the broader social policy system in order to identify the reasons for the imbalance, through three movements: reconstitution of the history of the institutional construction of social policies in MERCOSUR; identification and comparison of the successive strategies for the formulation and implementation of the social integration agenda; and reflection on the current dilemmas and challenges faced by the process. According to the study, MERCOSUR operates with strategies that are difficult to mutually reconcile. On the institutional level, it follows a minimalist strategy, while on the conceptual/ discursive level it adopts a maximalist strategy for supranational unification of social policies. The fact is that it operates a minimalist social policy strategy, since it fails to bring to the field of social integration the debate and proposals on economic and social development models that could sustain the effective construction of regional social citizenship. PMID:17625644

Draibe, Sônia Miriam

2007-01-01

493

Characterizing limit order prices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A computational model of a limit order book is used to study the effect of different limit order distribution offsets. Reference prices such as same side/contra side best market prices and last traded price are considered in combination with different price offset distributions. We show that when characterizing limit order prices, varying the offset distribution only produces different behavior when the reference price is the contra side best price. Irrespective of the underlying mechanisms used in computing the limit order prices, the shape of the price graph and the behavior of the average order book profile distribution are strikingly similar in all the considered reference prices/offset distributions. This implies that existing averaging methods can cancel variabilities in limit order book shape/attributes and may be misleading.

Withanawasam, R. M.; Whigham, P. A.; Crack, Timothy Falcon

2013-11-01

494

Multiple ordering in magnetite.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results of a self-consistent band calculation of the ground-state energy and charge orderings based on a tight-binding scheme in magnetite are presented. They show that below a critical (about 2.2) value of the ratio of interatomic Coulomb energy to bandwidth the lowest energy state has no order. Between this critical value and 2.5, the preferred state is multiply ordered.

Cullen, J. R.; Callen, E. R.

1973-01-01

495

Identity and influence in social interaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Researchers studying argumentation often make the simplifying assumption that rational persuasion can be studied independently from the processes through which social identities are established and maintained. However, developments in the study of message design, particularly the groundbreaking work of Brown and Levinson (1978, 1987) on politeness, suggests that in practice the multiple functions of messages are intertwined in message structure

Barbara J. O'Keefe

1995-01-01

496

Sustaining Employment: Social Skills at Work.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual is intended for use by persons with psychiatric disabilities who are employed in the community but need to improve their social skills to maintain their employment. It is designed to be taught to mental health consumers by mental health consumers. Each session outline includes objectives; a list of materials needed; and exercises that…

Jonikas, Jessica A.; And Others

497

Service Learning, Social Justice, and Campus Health  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Healthy campuses are critical so that students can learn and actively participate in shaping and maintaining a strong educational environment. This Viewpoint describes the commonalities between service learning, social justice, campus health, and the goals of Healthy Campus 2010, which was developed from the larger Healthy People 2010 objectives…

Ottenritter, Nan W.

2004-01-01

498

Promoting healthy, meaningful aging through social involvement: building an experience corps.  

PubMed

Pathways responsible for higher-order thinking in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), or executive center of the brain, remain vulnerable throughout life-during critical early-life developmental windows, when the PFC fully matures in the early 20s, and finally from declines associated with old age. At all ages, physical activity and PFC-navigated social connections are essential components to maintaining brain health. The Experience Corps, a community-based social-engagement program, partners seniors with local schools to promote purpose-driven involvement. Participating seniors have exhibited immediate short-term gains in brain regions vulnerable to aging, such as the PFC, indicating that people with the most to lose have the most to gain from environmental enrichment. PMID:23447779

Carlson, Michelle C

2011-05-01

499

The virtual international day of the midwife: social networking for continuing professional development.  

PubMed

In order to maintain competence to practice, midwives must become lifelong learners and engage in education and CPD activities. The Virtual International Day of the Midwife event (VIDM) is a free online annual synchronous conference that uses social networking tools to bring midwives together to network, share research and practice information. This paper presents the evaluation based on the 2010 and 2011 events. Participants appreciated the opportunity to be able to network with colleagues in an international context, believed the event provided access to quality material and presenters, and valued the accessibility and availability of the event and resources. Participants suggested that the event could be improved by making the program more accessible, with sessions spread over several days, as opposed to 24 hours; providing information about appropriate netiquette and extensive advertising. Further research is required to investigate how social networking and initiatives such as the VIDM impact on practice in the long term. PMID:22765905

Stewart, Sarah; Sidebotham, Mary; Davis, Deborah

2012-09-01

500

The social perceptual salience effect.  

PubMed

Affective processes appraise the salience of external stimuli preparing the agent for action. So far, the relationship between stimuli, affect, and action has been mainly studied in highly controlled laboratory conditions. In order to find the generalization of this relationship to social interaction, we assess the influence of the salience of social stimuli on human interaction. We constructed reality ball game in a mixed reality space where pairs of people collaborated in order to compete with an opposing team. We coupled the players with team members with varying social salience by using both physical and virtual representations of remote players (i.e., avatars). We observe that, irrespective of the team composition, winners and losers display significantly different inter- and intrateam spatial behaviors. We show that subjects regulate their interpersonal distance to both virtual and physical team members in similar ways, but in proportion to the vividness of the stimulus. As an independent validation of this social salience effect, we show that this behavioral effect is also displayed in physiological correlates of arousal. In addition, we found a strong correlation between performance, physiology, and the subjective reports of the subjects. Our results show that proxemics is consistent with affective responses, confirming the existence of a social salience effect. This provides further support for the so-called law of apparent reality, and it generalizes it to the social realm, where it can be used to design more efficient social artifacts. PMID:22612058

Inderbitzin, Martin P; Betella, Alberto; Lanatá, Antonio; Scilingo, Enzo P; Bernardet, Ulysses; Verschure, Paul F M J

2013-02-01